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1

Thermo Fisher Student Venture Fund $50K and Business Development Aid for a Commercially Viable Science Technology Applicable to  

E-print Network

for scientific proof-of-principal and market analysis. Thermo Fisher may choose further funding or licensing in participating in the Thermo Fisher Scientific SVF will be given the following guidelines for project proposalsThermo Fisher Student Venture Fund $50K and Business Development Aid for a Commercially Viable

Linsley, Braddock K.

2

Commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on commercial applications of fuzzy logic in Japan are presented. Topics covered include: suitable application area of fuzzy theory; characteristics of fuzzy control; fuzzy closed-loop controller; Mitsubishi heavy air conditioner; predictive fuzzy control; the Sendai subway system; automatic transmission; fuzzy logic-based command system for antilock braking system; fuzzy feed-forward controller; and fuzzy auto-tuning system.

Togai, Masaki

1990-01-01

3

Commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

4

Viable Commercial Ventures Involving Laser Chemistry Production: Two Medium-Scale Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Consideration of viable commercial ventures involving laser chemistry must take into account not only the cost structure of the laser production step but must also consider all other steps in the venture through to provisions of goods or services to clients. Recent work on the two-stage infrared laser isotope separation of carbon-13 and the selective wavelength synthesis of vitamin-D is reviewed. The processes, which may be viewed as surrogates for direct carbon dioxide and excimer laser driven synthetic schemes, are discussed in terms of their technical description and the business opportunity they present.

Hackett, P. A.; Willis, C.; Gauthier, M.; Alcock, A. J.

1984-05-01

5

The Value of the EWIT Computer Program in Identifying Economically Viable Retrofit Options for Existing Commercial Buildings  

E-print Network

THE VALUE OF THE EWIT COMPUTER PROGRAM IN IDENTIFYING ECONOMICALLY VIABLE RETROFIT OPTIONS FOR EXISTING COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS WEN M. ANDREWS College of Design and Planning University of Colorado at Denver Denver. Colorado ABSTRACT The Energy...

Andrews, W. M.

1984-01-01

6

Fabrication of commercially viable anodic aluminum oxide membranes by anodizing commercial aluminum cooking foils  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of most significant obstacles in practical application of inorganic membranes is their very high price, compared to cheap polymeric membranes, In the present paper, an attempt to overcome high price of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes, due to relatively high price of aluminum raw material and relatively complicate and long processing procedure involved in anodization, was made by using

Dae-Yeong Jeong; Min-Woo Kim; Nguyen Nhat Truong; Doohun Kim; Jong Uk Kim

2011-01-01

7

The GeoSAR program: Development of a commercially viable 3-D radar terrain mapping system  

SciTech Connect

GeoSAR is joint development between the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) and the California Department of Conservation (CA DOC) to determine the technical and economic viability of an airborne interferometric and foliage penetration synthetic aperture radar for mapping terrain and man made objects in geographical areas obscured by foliage, urban buildings, and other concealments. The two core technology elements of this program are Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) and Foliage Penetration Radar (FOPEN). These technologies have been developed by NASA and ARPA, principally for defense applications.

Carlisle, R.G. [Decision-Science Applications, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Davis, M. [Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA (United States)

1996-11-01

8

Commercial Applications Multispectral Sensor System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is funding a multispectral sensor system to be used in the development of remote sensing applications. The Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) is designed to provide versatility in acquiring spectral and spatial information. The ATLAS system will be a test bed for the development of specifications for airborne and spaceborne remote sensing instrumentation for dedicated applications. This objective requires spectral coverage from the visible through thermal infrared wavelengths, variable spatial resolution from 2-25 meters; high geometric and geo-location accuracy; on-board radiometric calibration; digital recording; and optimized performance for minimized cost, size, and weight. ATLAS is scheduled to be available in 3rd quarter 1992 for acquisition of data for applications such as environmental monitoring, facilities management, geographic information systems data base development, and mineral exploration.

Birk, Ronald J.; Spiering, Bruce

1993-01-01

9

The use of Flex as a viable toolkit for astronomy software applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges facing the developers of user interfaces for astronomy applications has never been greater. Astronomers and engineers often use well-designed commercial and web applications outside their work environment and have come to expect a similar user experience with applications developed for their work tasks. The connectivity provided by the Internet and the ability to work from anywhere can improve

Kim Gillies; Alberto Conti; Anthony Rogers

2010-01-01

10

Dispersal of viable row-crop seeds of commercial agriculture by farmland birds: implication for genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

To address some concerns about the expansion of genetically engineered pharmaceutical and industrial crops to outdoor plantings and potential impacts on the human food supply, we determined whether commercial agriculture seeds of maize or corn Zea mays L., barley Hordeum vulgare L., safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. and rice Oryza sativa L. are digested or pass viably through the digestive tract, or are transported externally, by captive mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos L., ring-necked pheasants Phasianus colchicus L., red-winged blackbirds Agelaius phoeniceus (L.) and rock pigeons Columba livia Gmelin (with the exception of whole maize seeds which were too large to feed to the blackbirds). These crop seeds, whether free-fed or force-fed, did not pass through the digestive tract of these bird species. The birds nonetheless did retain viable seeds in the esophagus/crop and gizzard for several hours. For example, after foraging for 6 h, mallards had retained an average of 228 +/- 112 barley seeds and pheasants 192 +/- 78 in the esophagus/crop, and their germination rates were 93 and 50%, respectively. Birds externally transported seeds away from the feeding location, but in only four instances were seeds found attached to their muddy feet or legs and in no case to feathers. Risk of such crop seeds germinating, establishing and reproducing off site after transport by a bird (externally or internally) or movement of a carcass by a predator, will depend greatly on the crop and bird species, location, environmental conditions (including soil characteristics), timing, and seed condition. PMID:19081011

Cummings, John L; Handley, Levis W; Macbryde, Bruce; Tupper, Shelagh K; Werner, Scott J; Byram, Zachary J

2008-01-01

11

Silicon bipolar transistor: a viable candidate for high speed applications at liquid nitrogen temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite its inherent speed advantage over CMOS technologies under loaded conditions, the silicon bipolar transistor historically has been dismissed as a viable candidate for digital applications in the 77 K environment. The principal reason for this is the well documented degradation in the device current gain at low temperatures. It is demonstrated in this paper that this conclusion is no longer valid with respect to state-of-the-art devices. The transistors used in this investigation have sufficient current gain at 77 K for most digital applications without intentional profile modification. Emitter coupled logic (ECL) circuits switch at < 100 ps speeds at 77 K, and reduced logic-swing operation offers the benefits of an attractive power-delay product. This paper examines the physics, design and performance issues associated with the low temperature operation of silicon bipolar transistors, and discusses the potential advantages of such devices for high speed applications in future low temperature computer systems.

Cressler, John D.

1990-12-01

12

Commercial Applications of Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

Commercial Applications of Natural Language Processing Kenneth W. Church AT&T Bell Laboratories and Lisa F. Rau \\Lambda Systems Research and Applications (SRA) Corporation 2000 15th Street North) also had to be omitted. 2 Word Processing and Desktop Publishing The commercial importance of word

Church, Kenneth W.

13

Workshop on Commercial Application of IR Spectroscopies  

E-print Network

Workshop on Commercial Application of IR Spectroscopies to Solid Wood Philip J. Harris and Clemens SPECTROSCOPIES TO SOLID WOOD PHILIP J. HARRIS AND CLEMENS M. ALTANER (EDS) WOOD TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH CENTRE WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS 2013 #12;ii PREFACE The workshop "Commercial Application of IR Spectroscopies to Solid

Hickman, Mark

14

Mycorrhizae Application of commercial arbuscular  

E-print Network

. Plants grew better in acid than in alkaline soil, and Glomus sp (iso- late LPA21) was more efficient or type of inoculum used. One inoculant tended to improve growth in alkaline soil, while another was more in acid soil than both commercial inoculants. An increased inoculant dose from 1% to 3% sometimes caused

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

15

The use of Flex as a viable toolkit for astronomy software applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenges facing the developers of user interfaces for astronomy applications has never been greater. Astronomers and engineers often use well-designed commercial and web applications outside their work environment and have come to expect a similar user experience with applications developed for their work tasks. The connectivity provided by the Internet and the ability to work from anywhere can improve user productivity, but it is a challenge to provide the kind of interactivity and responsiveness needed for astronomical applications to web based projects. It is fair to say that browserbased applications have not been adequate for many kinds of workhorse astronomy applications. The Flex/Actionscript framework from Adobe has been used successfully at the Space Telescope Science Institute in a variety of situations that were not possible with other technologies. In this paper, the Flex framework and technology is briefly introduced followed by a discussion of its advantages and disadvantages and how it addresses user expectations. Three astronomy applications will be presented demonstrating the technology capabilities with useful performance data. Flex/Actionscript is not well known within the astronomy development community, and our goal is to demonstrate that it can be the right choice for many astronomy applications.

Gillies, Kim; Conti, Alberto; Rogers, Anthony

2010-07-01

16

JPL - Small Power Systems Applications Project. [for solar thermal power plant development and commercialization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Small Power Systems Applications (SPSA) Project has been established to develop and commercialize small solar thermal power plants. The technologies of interest include all distributed and central receiver technologies which are potentially economically viable in power plant sizes of one to 10 MWe. The paper presents an overview of the SPSA Project and briefly discusses electric utility involvement in the Project.

Ferber, R. R.; Marriott, A. T.; Truscello, V.

1978-01-01

17

Properties and applications of commercial magnetorheological fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheological and magnetic properties of several commercial magnetorheological (MR) fluids are presented and discussed. These fluids are compared using appropriate figures of merit based on conventional design paradigms. Some contemporary applications of MR fluids are discussed. These applications illustrate how various material properties may be balanced to provide optimal performance.

Mark R. Jolly; Jonathan W. Bender; J. D. Carlson

1998-01-01

18

Properties and Applications of Commercial Magnetorheological Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheological and magnetic properties of several commercial magnetorheological (MR) fluids are presented and discussed. These fluids are compared using appropriate figures of merit based on conventional design paradigms. Some contemporary applications of MR fluids are discussed. These applications illustrate how various material properties may be balanced to provide optimal performance.

MARK R. JOLLY; JONATHAN W. BENDER; J. DAVID CARLSON

1999-01-01

19

Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

20

Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

1971-01-01

21

Database tomography for commercial application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Database tomography is a method for extracting themes and their relationships from text. The algorithms, employed begin with word frequency and word proximity analysis and build upon these results. When the word 'database' is used, think of medical or police records, patents, journals, or papers, etc. (any text information that can be computer stored). Database tomography features a full text, user interactive technique enabling the user to identify areas of interest, establish relationships, and map trends for a deeper understanding of an area of interest. Database tomography concepts and applications have been reported in journals and presented at conferences. One important feature of the database tomography algorithm is that it can be used on a database of any size, and will facilitate the users ability to understand the volume of content therein. While employing the process to identify research opportunities it became obvious that this promising technology has potential applications for business, science, engineering, law, and academe. Examples include evaluating marketing trends, strategies, relationships and associations. Also, the database tomography process would be a powerful component in the area of competitive intelligence, national security intelligence and patent analysis. User interests and involvement cannot be overemphasized.

Kostoff, Ronald N.; Eberhart, Henry J.

1994-01-01

22

Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)

Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

23

Civilian applications and policy implications of commercial unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

As UAV capabilities continue to improve the technology will spill out of the military sector and into commercial and civil applications. Already, UAVs have demonstrated commercial marketability in such diverse areas as ...

Sprague, Kara Lynn, 1980-

2004-01-01

24

Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications  

PubMed Central

Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon. PMID:21556162

Vílchez, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Cuaresma, María; Bédmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Inés; Vega, José M.

2011-01-01

25

Commercial applications of new photovoltaic technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has directed and managed photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) activities for the Department of Energy for more than 13 years. The NREL budget for these activities is almost $33 million for FY 1991. With the world's increasing concern for the environment and the United States' renewed apprehension over secure and adequate energy supplies, the use of semiconducting materials for the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity - photovoltaics - is an excellent example of government-supported high technology ready for further development by U.S. companies. Some new PV technologies and their research progress, some commercial applications of PV, and NREL's technology transfer activities for helping U.S. industry in its efforts to bring new products or services to the marketplace are described.

Mcconnell, R.

1991-01-01

26

Commercial gasifier for IGCC applications study report  

SciTech Connect

This was a scoping-level study to identify and characterize the design features of fixed-bed gasifiers appearing most important for a gasifier that was to be (1) potentially commercially attractive, and (2) specifically intended for us in integrated coal gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) applications. It also performed comparative analyses on the impact or value of these design features and on performance characteristics options of the whole IGCC system since cost, efficiency, environmental traits, and operability -- on a system basis -- are what is really important. The study also reviewed and evaluated existing gasifier designs, produced a conceptual-level gasifier design, and generated a moderately advanced system configuration that was utilized as the reference framework for the comparative analyses. In addition, technical issues and knowledge gaps were defined. 70 figs., 31 tabs.

Notestein, J.E.

1990-06-01

27

Lawn and Turf Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for use in training commercial pesticide applicators. It gives identification and control information for common lawn and turf diseases, insects, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrate pests. It also discusses phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and application methods. (BB)

Khan, M. S.

28

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides: A Manual for Commercial Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a certification manual for the commercial pesticide applicator's permit of the Michigan Department of Agriculture. The information presented in this manual is designed to assist prospective commercial pesticide applicators to meet certification requirements under federal guidelines. The first of the eight sections deals with…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

29

NASA's Earth Observations Commercialization Applications Program: A model for government promotion of commercial space opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of government in promoting space commerce is a topic of discussion in every spacefaring nation. This article describes a new approach to government intervention which, based on its five-year track record, appears to have met with success. The approach, developed in NASA's Earth Observations Commercialization Application Program (EOCAP), offer several lessons for effective government sponsorship of commercial space development in general and of commercial remote sensing in particular.

Macauley, Molly K.

1995-01-01

30

NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies, that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. The RTI Team has been successful in the development of NASA/industry partnerships and commercialization of NASA technologies. RTI ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed and implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs. (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology. And (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

1994-01-01

31

Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study  

E-print Network

Towers....................................................................... 9 Dish/Engine Systems, and dish/engine. Parabolic troughs are the most commercially available technology. Linear Fresnel and power Rankine steam cycles, similar to those used for coal and nuclear plants. Steam cycle power plants require

Laughlin, Robert B.

32

NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is pleased to report the results of NASA contract NASW-4367, 'Operation of a Technology Applications Team'. Through a period of significant change within NASA, the RTI Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. RTI's ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed an implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs; (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology; and (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

1994-01-01

33

Rocket engine heat transfer and material technology for commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid fueled rocket engine combustion, heat transfer, and material technology have been utilized in the design and development of compact combustion and heat exchange equipment intended for application in the commercial field. An initial application of the concepts to the design of a compact steam generator to be utilized by electrical utilities for the production of peaking power is described.

Hiltabiddle, J.; Campbell, J.

1974-01-01

34

Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides practical information needed by commercial pesticide applicators to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of various pesticides. The text and accompanying illustrations cover the seven major topics of pests, pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, using pesticides safely, application equipment,…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

35

Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tremendous advances in remote sensing technology and computing power over the last few decades are now providing scientists with the opportunity to investigate, measure, and model environmental patterns and processes with increasing confidence. Such advances are being pursued by the Nebraska Remote Sensing Facility, which consists of approximately 30 faculty members and is very competitive with other institutions in the depth of the work that is accomplished. The development of this facility targeted at applications, commercialization, and education programs in the area of precision agriculture provides a unique opportunity. This critical area is within the scope of NASA goals and objectives of NASA s Applications, Technology Transfer, Commercialization, and Education Division and the Earth Science Enterprise. This innovative integration of Aerospace (Aeronautics) Technology Enterprise applications with other NASA enterprises serves as a model of cross-enterprise transfer of science with specific commercial applications.

Narayanan, Ram; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

2002-01-01

36

Scientific and engineering applications of commercial laser devices  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the papers given at a conference on commercial lasers. Topics considered at the conference included a picosecond excimer laser, scientific applications of optical pulse compression, new developments in cw mode-locked Nd:YAG lasers, cavity dumped dye lasers, the generation of cw coherent radiation in the near UV, commercial excimer lasers, and frequency-doubled diode pumped Nd:YAG lasers.

Feinberg, R.; Holmes, L.; Levitt, M.

1986-01-01

37

Intersatellite link application to commercial communications satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental characteristics of intersatellite link (ISL) systems, and their application to domestic, regional, and global satellite communications, are described. The quantitative advantages of using ISLs to improve orbit utilization, spectrum occupancy, transmission delay (compared to multi-hop links), coverage, and connectivity, and to reduce the number of earth station antennas, are also presented. Cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits of using ISLs are identified, and the technical and systems planning aspects of ISL systems implementation are addressed.

Lee, Young S.; Atia, Ali E.; Ponchak, Denise S.

1988-01-01

38

Space Commercial Opportunities for Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity research at NASA has been an undertaking that has included both science and commercial approaches since the late 80s and early 90s. The Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community has been developed, through NASA's science grants, into a valuable base of expertise in microgravity science. This was achieved through both ground and flight scientific research. Commercial microgravity research has been primarily promoted thorough NASA sponsored Centers for Space Commercialization which develop cost sharing partnerships with industry. As an example, the Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP)at Northeastern University has been working with cost sharing industry partners in developing Zeolites and zeo-type materials as an efficient storage medium for hydrogen fuel. Greater commercial interest is emerging. The U.S. Congress has passed the Commercial Space Act of 1998 to encourage the development of a commercial space industry in the United States. The Act has provisions for the commercialization of the International Space Station (ISS). Increased efforts have been made by NASA to enable industrial ventures on-board the ISS. A Web site has been established at http://commercial/nasa/gov which includes two important special announcements. One is an open request for entrepreneurial offers related to the commercial development and use of the ISS. The second is a price structure and schedule for U.S. resources and accommodations. The purpose of the presentation is to make the Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community, which understands the importance of microgravity experimentation, aware of important aspects of ISS commercial development. It is a desire that this awareness will be translated into a recognition of Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena application opportunities coordinated through the broad contacts of this community with industry.

Gavert, R.

2000-01-01

39

Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the industrial, institutional, structural and health related pest control category. The text discusses the use and safety of applying pesticides to control invertebrate and vertebrate pests such as ants,…

Fitzwater, William D.; Renes, Robert

40

A Framework for Effective Commercial Web Application Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a framework for commercial Web application development based on prior research in hypermedia and human-computer interfaces. First, its social acceptability is investigated. Next, economic, technical, operational, and organizational viability are examined. For Web-page design, the functionality and usability of Web pages are considered.…

Lu, Ming-te; Yeung, Wing-lok

1998-01-01

41

Exposure of Commercial Pesticide Applicators to the Herbicide Alachlor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented in this paper are the results of a pilot study to estimate the alachlor inhalation (2-chloro-2?,6?-diethyl-N-[methoxymethyl] acetanilide) and skin exposures of commercial pesticide applicators, who apply a variety of herbicides and insecticides to crop land. Twenty applicators and seven hauler-mixers participated in the study. Inhalation exposures ranged from 0.32 to 6.4 µg\\/m, with a geometric mean of 1.6 µg\\/m.

Wayne T. Sanderson; Virginia Ringenburg; Raymond Biagini

1995-01-01

42

47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses...Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set...

2013-10-01

43

47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses...Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set...

2012-10-01

44

47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.  

...2014-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses...Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set...

2014-10-01

45

47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses...Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set...

2011-10-01

46

47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. 0.483 Section...Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in...

2010-10-01

47

Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications University of Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications grant was funded by NASA's Kennedy Space Center in FY 2002 to provide dedicated biotechnology and agricultural research focused on the regeneration of space flight environments with direct parallels in Earth-based applications for solving problems in the environment, advances in agricultural science, and other human support issues amenable to targeted biotechnology solutions. This grant had three project areas, each with multiple tasks. They are: 1) Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education, 2) Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications, and 3) Commercial Applications. The Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education (SABRE) Center emphasized the fundamental biology of organisms involved in space flight applications, including those involved in advanced life support environments because of their critical role in the long-term exploration of space. The SABRE Center supports research at the University of Florida and at the Space Life Sciences Laboratory (SLSL) at the Kennedy Space Center. The Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications component focused on developing and applying sensor technologies to space environments and agricultural systems. The research activities in nanosensors were coordinated with the SABRE portions of this grant and with the research sponsored by the NASA Environmental Systems Commercial Space Technology Center located in the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. Initial sensor efforts have focused on air and water quality monitoring essential to humans for living and working permanently in space, an important goal identified in NASA's strategic plan. The closed environment of a spacecraft or planetary base accentuates cause and effect relationships and environmental impacts. The limited available air and water resources emphasize the need for reuse, recycling, and system monitoring. It is essential to collect real-time information from these systems to ensure crew safety. This new class of nanosensors will be critical to monitoring the space flight environment in future NASA space systems. The Commercial Applications component of this program pursued industry partnerships to develop products for terrestrial use of NASA sponsored technologies, and in turn to stimulate growth in the biotechnology industry. For technologies demonstrating near term commercial potential, the objective is to include industry partners on or about the time of proof of concept that will not only co-invest in the technology but also take the resultant technology to the commercial market.

Phillips, Winfred; Evanich, Peggy L.

2004-01-01

48

Application of the airborne ocean color imager for commercial fishing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the investigation was to develop a commercial remote sensing system for providing near-real-time data (within one day) in support of commercial fishing operations. The Airborne Ocean Color Imager (AOCI) had been built for NASA by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc., but it needed certain improvements, data processing software, and a delivery system to make it into a commercial system for fisheries. Two products were developed to support this effort: the AOCI with its associated processing system and an information service for both commercial and recreational fisheries to be created by Spectro Scan, Inc. The investigation achieved all technical objectives: improving the AOCI, creating software for atmospheric correction and bio-optical output products, georeferencing the output products, and creating a delivery system to get those products into the hands of commercial and recreational fishermen in near-real-time. The first set of business objectives involved Daedalus Enterprises and also were achieved: they have an improved AOCI and new data processing software with a set of example data products for fisheries applications to show their customers. Daedalus' marketing activities showed the need for simplification of the product for fisheries, but they successfully marketed the current version to an Italian consortium. The second set of business objectives tasked Spectro Scan to provide an information service and they could not be achieved because Spectro Scan was unable to obtain necessary venture capital to start up operations.

Wrigley, Robert C.

1993-01-01

49

Applications of pectinases in the commercial sector: a review.  

PubMed

Pectinases are one of the upcoming enzymes of fruit and textile industries. These enzymes break down complex polysaccharides of plant tissues into simpler molecules like galacturonic acids. The role of acidic pectinases in bringing down the cloudiness and bitterness of fruit juices is well established. Recently, there has been a good number of reports on the application of alkaline pectinases in the textile industry for the retting and degumming of fiber crops, production of good quality paper, fermentation of coffee and tea, oil extractions and treatment of pectic waste water. This review discusses various types of pectinases and their applications in the commercial sector. PMID:11272008

Kashyap, D R; Vohra, P K; Chopra, S; Tewari, R

2001-05-01

50

A Hazardous Gas Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detection of explosive conditions in aerospace propulsion applications is important for safety and economic reasons. Microfabricated hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbon sensors as well as the accompanying hardware and software are being developed for a range of aerospace safety applications. The development of these sensors is being done using MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) based technology and SiC-based semiconductor technology. The hardware and software allows control and interrogation of each sensor head and reduces accompanying cabling through multiplexing. These systems are being applied on the X-33 and on an upcoming STS-95 Shuttle mission. A number of commercial applications are also being pursued. It is concluded that this MEMS-based technology has significant potential to reduce costs and increase safety in a variety of aerospace applications.

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L. - Y.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Knight, D.

1998-01-01

51

A Hazardous Gas Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detection of explosive conditions in aerospace propulsion applications is important for safety and economic reasons. Microfabricated hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbon sensors as well as the accompanying hardware and software are being, developed for a range of aerospace safety applications. The development of these sensors is being done using MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) based technology and SiC-based semiconductor technology. The hardware and software allows control and interrocation of each sensor head and reduces accompanying cabling through multiplexing. These systems are being, applied on the X-33 and on an upcoming STS-95 Shuttle mission. A number of commercial applications are also being pursued. It is concluded that this MEMS-based technology has significant potential to reduce costs and increase safety in a variety of aerospace applications.

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Knight, D.

1998-01-01

52

Robust Low-Cost Cathode for Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under funding from the NASA Commercial Technology Office, a cathode assembly was designed, developed, fabricated, and tested for use in plasma sources for ground-based materials processing applications. The cathode development activity relied on the large prior NASA investment and successful development of high-current, high-efficiency, long-life hollow cathodes for use on the International Space Station Plasma Contactor System. The hollow cathode was designed and fabricated based on known engineering criteria and manufacturing processes for compatibility with the requirements of the plasma source. The transfer of NASA GRC-developed hollow cathode technology for use as an electron emitter in the commercial plasma source is anticipated to yield a significant increase in process control, while eliminating the present issues of electron emitter lifetime and contamination.

Patterson, Michael J.

2007-01-01

53

Extended Evaluations of the Commercial Spectrometer Systems for Safeguards Applications  

SciTech Connect

Safeguards applications require the best of the spectrometer system with excellent resolution, stability, and throughput. Instruments must perform well in all situations and environments. Data communication to the computer should be convenient, fast, and reliable. The software should have all the necessary tools and be easy to use. Portable systems should be small in size, lightweight, and have a long battery life. Nine commercially available spectrometer systems are tested with five different germanium detectors. Considering the performance of the Digital Signal Processors (DSP), digital-based spectroscope y may become the way of future gamma-ray spectroscopy.

Duc T. Vo

1999-08-01

54

Review of Compact Commercial Accelerator Products and Applications.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, particle accelerators were developed initially for nuclear, then for particle physics research. From this research resulted applications of accelerators in the field of medicine and industry. These application-oriented accelerators are generally built commercially, and they often emphasize other qualities than the accelerators for research. The research applications frequently require energies or beam qualities at the limit of the existing technologies. They offer the largest flexibility in term of particles and beam properties, but are more complex, more expensive and often require large and highly qualified staff to operate and maintain them. In contrast, most applications are done with low to moderate energy protons or electrons, but often with large average beam power. The accelerators are generally specialized for a specific application, and are therefore very simple and inexpensive to operate. The author will review some applications in the field of medicine, such as the production of radio-isotopes for medical diagnostic or the production of electrons, protons or fast neutron beams for cancer therapy. In the industrial field, high power electron beam are used for sterilization and for the modification of materials. Log No. 1001

Jongen, Y.

1997-05-01

55

Potential Commercial Applications from Combustion and Fire Research in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The near-zero (microgravity) environment of orbiting spacecraft minimizes buoyant flows, greatly simplifying combustion processes and isolating important phenomena ordinarily concealed by the overwhelming gravity-driven forces and flows. Fundamental combustion understanding - the focus to date of the NASA microgravity-combustion program - has greatly benefited from analyses and experiments conducted in the microgravity environment. Because of the economic and commercial importance of combustion in practice, there is strong motivation to seek wider applications for the microgravity-combustion findings. This paper reviews selected technology developments to illustrate some emerging applications. Topics cover improved fire-safety technology in spacecraft and terrestrial systems, innovative combustor designs for aerospace and ground propulsion, applied sensors and controls for combustion processes, and self-sustaining synthesis techniques for advanced materials.

Friedman, Robert; Lyons, Valerie J.

1996-01-01

56

On-Chip Dielectrophoretic Separation and Concentration of Viable, Non-Viable and Viable but Not Culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

Although bacterial culture remains the gold standard for detection of viable bacteria in environmental specimens, the typical time requirement of twenty-four hours can delay and even jeopardize appropriate public health intervention. In addition, culture is incapable of detecting viable but not culturable (VBNC) species. Conversely, nucleic acid and antibody-based methods greatly decrease time to detection but rarely characterize viability of the bacteria detected. Through selection by membrane permeability, the method described in this work employs positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for separation and purification of viable and VBNC species from water and allows concentration of bacteria for downstream applications.

Packard, M M; Shusteff, M; Alocilja, E C

2012-04-12

57

Electrical properties of commercial sheet insulation materials for cryogenic applications  

SciTech Connect

Dielectric properties of electrical insulation materials are needed for low-temperature power applications. Performance of materials and their compatibility determine the size of the electrical insulation in power equipment. In this work we report the dielectric properties of some commercially available materials in sheet form. The selected materials are polypropylene laminated paper from Sumitomo Electric U.S.A., Inc., porous polyethylene (Tyvek\\texttrademark) from Dupont, and polyamide paper (Nomex\\texttrademark) from Dupont. The dielectric properties are characterized with an electrical impedance analyzer in the frequency domain. The impedances are recorded in a cryocooler in the temperature range from 50 to 300 K. The dielectric breakdown characteristics of the materials are measured in a liquid nitrogen bath at atmospheric pressure.

Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL

2008-01-01

58

A lightweight, high strength dexterous manipulator for commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The concept, design, and features are described of a lightweight, high strength, modular robot manipulator being developed for space and commercial applications. The manipulator has seven fully active degrees of freedom and is fully operational in 1 G. Each of the seven joints incorporates a unique drivetrain design which provides zero backlash operation, is insensitive to wear, and is single fault tolerant to motor or servo amplifier failure. Feedback sensors provide position, velocity, torque, and motor winding temperature information at each joint. This sensing system is also designed to be single fault tolerant. The manipulator consists of five modules (not including gripper). These modules join via simple quick-disconnect couplings and self-mating connectors which allow rapid assembly and/or disassembly for reconfiguration, transport, or servicing. The manipulator is a completely enclosed assembly, with no exposed components or wires. Although the initial prototype will not be space qualified, the design is well suited to meeting space requirements. The control system provides dexterous motion by controlling the endpoint location and arm pose simultaneously. Potential applications are discussed.

Marzwell, Neville I.; Schena, Bruce M.; Cohan, Steve M.

1991-01-01

59

Microfabricated Hydrogen Sensor Technology for Aerospace and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leaks on the Space Shuttle while on the Launch Pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. An effective leak monitoring system requires reliable hydrogen sensors, hardware, and software to monitor the sensors. The system should process the sensor outputs and provide real-time leak monitoring information to the operator. This paper discusses the progress in developing such a complete leak monitoring system. Advanced microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and Gencorp Aerojet (Aerojet). Changes in the hydrogen concentrations are detected using a PdAg on silicon Schottky diode structure. Sensor temperature control is achieved with a temperature sensor and heater fabricated onto the sensor chip. Results of the characterization of these sensors are presented. These sensors can detect low concentrations of hydrogen in inert environments with high sensitivity and quick response time. Aerojet is developing the hardware and software for a multipoint leak monitoring system designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Work has commenced on integrating the NASA LeRC-CWRU hydrogen sensors with the Aerojet designed monitoring system. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. Possible commercialization of the system will also be discussed.

Hunter, Gary W.; Bickford, R. L.; Jansa, E. D.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

1994-01-01

60

Microfabricated hydrogen sensor technology for aerospace and commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaks on the Space Shuttle while on the Launch Pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. An effective leak monitoring system requires reliable hydrogen sensors, hardware, and software to monitor the sensors. The system should process the sensor outputs and provide real-time leak monitoring information to the operator. This paper discusses the progress in developing such a complete leak monitoring system. Advanced microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and Gencorp Aerojet (Aerojet). Changes in the hydrogen concentrations are detected using a PdAg on silicon Schottky diode structure. Sensor temperature control is achieved with a temperature sensor and heater fabricated onto the sensor chip. Results of the characterization of these sensors are presented. These sensors can detect low concentrations of hydrogen in inert environments with high sensitivity and quick response time. Aerojet is developing the hardware and software for a multipoint leak monitoring system designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Work has commenced on integrating the NASA LeRC-CWRU hydrogen sensors with the Aerojet designed monitoring system. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. Possible commercialization of the system will also be discussed.

Hunter, Gary W.; Bickford, Randall L.; Jansa, E. D.; Makel, Darby B.; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, William T.

1994-10-01

61

Microfabricated hydrogen sensor technology for aerospace and commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaks on the Space Shuttle while on the Launch Pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. An effective leak monitoring system requires reliable hydrogen sensors, hardware, and software to monitor the sensors. The system should process the sensor outputs and provide real-time leak monitoring information to the operator. This paper discusses the progress in developing such a complete leak monitoring system. Advanced microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and Gencorp Aerojet (Aerojet). Changes in the hydrogen concentrations are detected using a PdAg on silicon Schottky diode structure. Sensor temperature control is achieved with a temperature sensor and heater fabricated onto the sensor chip. Results of the characterization of these sensors are presented. These sensors can detect low concentrations of hydrogen in inert environments with high sensitivity and quick response time. Aerojet is developing the hardware and software for a multipoint leak monitoring system designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Work has commenced on integrating the NASA LeRC-CWRU hydrogen sensors with the Aerojet designed monitoring system. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. Possible commercialization of the system will also be discussed.

Hunter, Gary W.; Bickford, R. L.; Jansa, E. D.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

1994-08-01

62

Application of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with ethidium monoazide treatment for selective quantification of viable bacteria in aquatic environment.  

PubMed

Ethidium monoazide (EMA) was used to quantify DNA selectively from viable cells with healthy membrane/cell wall system, but not from dead cells, of a target bacterium in the aquatic environment using real-time PCR. Spiking experiments to determine the EMA treatment conditions showed that EMA treatment with EMA at 10-25 microg/ml and subsequent halogen light exposure for 2 min was suitable for selective quantification of DNA from viable cells in an aquatic sample using real-time PCR coupled with EMA treatment (real-time EMA-PCR). Optimized real-time EMA-PCR was applied in combination with culture-based method and conventional real-time PCR without EMA treatment to elucidate the behavior of an Escherichia coli strain inoculated into a pond water microcosm. Quantification results obtained using real-time EMA-PCR were lower than those by conventional real-time PCR without EMA treatment and higher than those by culture-based method. The results suggest that quantification by real-time EMA-PCR seemed to represent the viable population, which would partly include viable but non-culturable state bacteria. Real-time EMA-PCR optimized here can be a useful tool for selective monitoring of the viable population of a target bacterium in the aquatic environment, and thereby contribute to assessment of potential microbial risks generated from waterborne pathogenic bacteria. PMID:18824811

Inoue, D; Tsutsui, H; Yamazaki, Y; Sei, K; Soda, S; Fujita, M; Ike, M

2008-01-01

63

48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

2012-10-01

64

48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

2011-10-01

65

48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

2013-10-01

66

48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

...2014-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

2014-10-01

67

The venture space alliance commercial application of microgravity research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Venture Space Alliance is a Canadian commercial enterprise formed to develop a successful sustainable business, providing industrial and institutional clients with cost effective timely access to space and microgravity facilities for commercial and scientific benefit. The goal is to offer users a comprehensive and reliable set of products and services from the early stages of research, where access to

Dave Whitton

1999-01-01

68

Thermal Storage Applications for Commercial/Industrial Facilities  

E-print Network

of the storage media. This is not a design-oriented presentation, but an overview of what one utility sees taking place in the commercial and industrial refrigeration market place. ll"TRODUCTION Electrical energy use in the nation's sunbelt reaches its... peak demand during the summer months primarily as a result of residential and commercial air conditioning and refrigeration usage. There fore, for the purpose of this discussion, the term thermal storage will refer to energy systems de signed...

Knipp, R. L.

69

Weaknesses of commercial data base management systems in engineering applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years many engineering organizations have come to the conclusion that a centralized data base, containing all of their design\\/manufacturing data, is the most cost effective solution to their needs. Increasing numbers of the designers of these central data bases are utilizing commercially available DBMS packages to implement their systems. There are many good reasons for using an “off

Thomas W. Sidle

1980-01-01

70

Thermoelectric power sensor for microwave applications by commercial CMOS fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes an implementation of a thermoelectric microwave power sensor fabricated through commercial CMOS process with additional maskless etching. The sensor combines micromachined coplanar waveguide and contact pads, a microwave termination which dissipates heat proportionally to input microwave power, and many aluminum-polysilicon thermocouples. The device was designed and fabricated in standard CMOS technology, including the appropriate superimposed dielectric openings

V. Milanovic; M. Gaitan; E. D. Bowen; N. H. Tea; M. E. Zaghloul

1997-01-01

71

40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...tobacco, peanuts, cotton, feed grains, soybeans and forage; vegetables; small fruits; tree fruits and nuts; as well as on grasslands and non-crop agricultural lands. (ii) Animal. This category includes commercial applicators using or...

2012-07-01

72

40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tobacco, peanuts, cotton, feed grains, soybeans and forage; vegetables; small fruits; tree fruits and nuts; as well as on grasslands and non-crop agricultural lands. (ii) Animal. This category includes commercial applicators using or...

2013-07-01

73

40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.  

...tobacco, peanuts, cotton, feed grains, soybeans and forage; vegetables; small fruits; tree fruits and nuts; as well as on grasslands and non-crop agricultural lands. (ii) Animal. This category includes commercial applicators using or...

2014-07-01

74

40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...tobacco, peanuts, cotton, feed grains, soybeans and forage; vegetables; small fruits; tree fruits and nuts; as well as on grasslands and non-crop agricultural lands. (ii) Animal. This category includes commercial applicators using or...

2010-07-01

75

40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...tobacco, peanuts, cotton, feed grains, soybeans and forage; vegetables; small fruits; tree fruits and nuts; as well as on grasslands and non-crop agricultural lands. (ii) Animal. This category includes commercial applicators using or...

2011-07-01

76

Physical Properties and Durability of New Materials for Space and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To develop and test new materials for use in space power systems and related space and commercial applications, to assist industry in the application of these materials, and to achieve an adequate understanding of the mechanisms by which the materials perform in their intended applications.

Hambourger, Paul D.

2003-01-01

77

Composites: A viable option  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While it sounded great to be asked to talk about composites, I found it difficult to select subject areas that would be of real interest. My choice is based on saying some things about where the maturity of the composite aircraft structures is today and what that means in terms of future criteria for application. This focus was the basis for my title selection. The other issue that will be addressed was requested by NASA and focuses on composites structures cost. This fits well with the state-of-the-art interpretations I will discuss first, since the cost issue must be viewed from both the current status and future points of view. The difficulty in presenting something in these areas is not in the subjects themselves but in trying to present a real world viewpoint to an audience of composite experts. So, with recognition of the expertise of the audience, I hope you will see something in this presentation about how to view composite aircraft structure.

Mccarty, John E.

1991-01-01

78

Adapting a commercial shear rheometer for applications in cartilage research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cartilage research typically requires a broad range of experimental characterization techniques and thus various testing setups. Here, we describe how several of those tests can be performed with a single experimental platform, i.e. a commercial shear rheometer. Although primarily designed for shear experiments, such a rheometer can be equipped with different adapters to perform indentation and creep measurements, quantify alterations in the sample thickness, and conduct friction measurements in addition to shear rheology. Beyond combining four distinct experimental methods into one setup, the modified rheometer allows for performing material characterizations over a broad range of time scales, frequencies, and normal loads.

Boettcher, K.; Grumbein, S.; Winkler, U.; Nachtsheim, J.; Lieleg, O.

2014-09-01

79

Recent Breakthroughs in Superconductivity Lead to Rush for Commercial Applicants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The excitement and intense competition surrounding the search for new applications of superconductors resembles the entrepreneurial atmosphere of the early 1970s, when faculty were launching profitable companies based on developments in biotechnology and semiconductors. (MSE)

McDonald, Kim

1987-01-01

80

"The tail wags the dog": A study of anomaly detection in commercial application performance  

E-print Network

. Most large enterprises have private data center arrangements with varying degrees of infrastructure to understand application performance and pro-actively manage their state is becoming increasingly important"The tail wags the dog": A study of anomaly detection in commercial application performance Richard

New South Wales, University of

81

Risk and safety analysis for Florida commercial aerial application operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine self-reported perceptions in the areas of agroterrorism, bioterrorism, chemical exposure and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight. The aerial application industry has been in existence since the 1920's with a gamut of issues ranging from pesticide drift to counterterrorism. The attacks of September 11th, 2001, caused a paradigm shift in the way the United States views security and, more importantly, the prevention of malicious activity. Through the proper implementation and dissemination of educational materials dealing with industry specific concerns, it is imperative that everyone has the proper level of resources and training to effectively manage terrorist threats. This research study was designed to interpret how aerial applicators view these topics of concern and how they perceive the current threat level of terrorism in the industry. Research results were consistent, indicating that a high number of aerial applicators in the state of Florida are concerned with these topics. As a result, modifications need to be made with respect to certain variables. The aerial application industry works day in and day out to provide a professional service that helps maintain the integrity of the food and commodities that we need to survive. They are a small percentage of the aviation community that we all owe a great deal for the vital and necessary services they provide.

Robbins, John Michael

82

Development of Commodity Grade, Lower Cost Carbon Fiber - Commercial Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fiber reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fiber composites in transportation is the high cost of the fiber when compared to other candidate

Charles David Warren; Felix L Paulauskas; Frederick S Baker; Cliff Eberle; Amit K Naskar

2009-01-01

83

The Scaleup of Structured Packing from Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application  

E-print Network

The Scaleup of Structured Packing From Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application O. Jeffrey'Berven and Michael A. Ulowetz Koch Engineering Company, Inc. Wichita, Kansas Structured packing is being utilized more and more... in the process industry for increased efficiency, greater capacity, and energy savings in distillation columns. Pilot plant testing of the actual chemical system using commercially available structured packing is invaluable, but years of experience in pilot...

Berven, O. J.; Ulowetz, M. A.

84

A hydrogen leak detection system for aerospace and commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leaks on the space shuttle while on the launch pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. Microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). These sensors have been integrated into hardware and software designed by Aerojet. This complete system allows for multipoint leak monitoring designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. This system is in operation in an automotive application which requires high sensitivity to hydrogen.

Hunter, Gary W.; Makel, D. B.; Jansa, E. D.; Patterson, G.; Cova, P. J.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

1995-10-01

85

A Hydrogen Leak Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leaks on the space shuttle while on the launch pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. Microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). These sensors have been integrated into hardware and software designed by Aerojet. This complete system allows for multipoint leak monitoring designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. This system is in operation in an automotive application which requires high sensitivity to hydrogen.

Hunter, Gary W.; Makel, D. B.; Jansa, E. D.; Patterson, G.; Cova, P. J.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

1995-01-01

86

Industrial and Commercial Heat Pump Applications in the United States  

E-print Network

gaining acceptance, including groundwater/geothermal water. INTRODUCTION The large-scale application of heat pumps in the United States had its beginning with the first known installation of an air-to-air heat pump in Reading, Pennsylvania, in 1932... embargo and completely revolutionizing the energy pricing and availability structure. One major effect was the development of interest in waste heat recovery and heat pumping, which could conse rve ene rgy. At the same time, solar and geothermal...

Niess, R. C.

87

Space Environment Stability and Physical Properties of New Materials for Space Power and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To test and evaluate suitability of materials for use in space power systems and related space and commercial applications, and to achieve sufficient understanding of the mechanisms by which, the materials perform in their intended applications. Materials and proposed applications included but were not limited to: Improved anodes for lithium ion batteries, highly-transparent arc-proof solar array coatings, and improved surface materials for solar dynamic concentrators and receivers. Cooperation and interchange of data with industrial companies as appropriate.

Hambourger, Paul D.

1997-01-01

88

Soil attributes as viable agents in red spruce mortality along the southern Appalachian highlands with applications as field and laboratory exercises for community college science courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Appalachian highlands displaying peaks above 1500m frequently support a northern boreal forest. These highland forests sustain both red spruce and Fraser fir trees, which are typically aboriginal to the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. Within the past century, these forests have declined at an unusual rate. Past studies have focused on the impacts of acid deposition and similar atmospheric pollutants. However, the scientific community found difficulty in establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between the decline and these atmospheric pollutants. This dissertation focuses on a heavily neglected and often overlooked factor, which creates restrictions in growth patterns and overall health of these boreal trees. That overlooked factor deals primarily with soil nutrients within a selected spruce-fir stand of the southern Appalachians. The research quantitatively analyzes soils for specific chemical and physical properties, with comparisons made to soils from the New England region where the spruces and firs grow indigenously. A fundamental part of understanding ecosystems is the environmental interrelationships within those ecosystems. This document organizes a series of laboratory exercises, which target community college science courses so student exploration of these interrelationships becomes an integral part of the laboratory procedures. By completing these various exercises, students become more aware of the connective character of nature as well as develop an appreciation of geography, the original environmental science. Although atmospheric pollutants should continue to be scrutinized, findings of this research document show that the natural characteristics of soils are clearly a limiting factor in the overall health and vitality of the southern boreal forests. Therefore, future research, regardless of the focus, should include soil characteristics as a viable factor in the health of these delicate forest-types.

Ashbrook, Craig Monday

89

Two new advanced forms of spectrometry for space and commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reagentless ultraviolet absorption spectrometry (UVAS) and Liquid Atomic Emission Spectrometry (LAES) represent new forms of spectrometry with extensive potential in both space and commercial applications. Originally developed under KSC sponsorship for monitoring nutrient solutions for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), both UVAS and LAES have extensive analytical capabilities for both organic and inorganic chemical compounds. Both forms of instrumentation involve the use of remote fiber optic probes and real-time measurements for on-line process monitoring. Commercial applications exist primarily in environmental analysis and for process control in the chemical, pulp and paper, food processing, metal plating, and water/wastewater treatment industries.

Schlager, Kenneth J.

1991-01-01

90

48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.503 Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...

2013-10-01

91

48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

...2014-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.503 Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...

2014-10-01

92

48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

...2014-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

2014-10-01

93

48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.503 Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...

2011-10-01

94

48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.503 Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...

2010-10-01

95

48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.503 Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...

2012-10-01

96

48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

2010-10-01

97

48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.503 Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...

2013-10-01

98

48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

2013-10-01

99

48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.503 Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...

2011-10-01

100

48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

...2014-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.503 Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...

2014-10-01

101

48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.503 Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...

2012-10-01

102

Development of Commodity Grade, Lower Cost Carbon Fiber - Commercial Applications  

SciTech Connect

In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fiber reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fiber composites in transportation is the high cost of the fiber when compared to other candidate materials. As part of the United States Department of Energy s FreedomCAR initiative, significant research is being conducted to develop lower cost, high volume technologies for producing carbon fiber. This paper will highlight the on-going research in this area. Through Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and its partners have been working with the US Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to develop technologies that would enable the production of carbon fiber at 5-7 dollars per pound. Achievement of this cost goal would allow the introduction of carbon fiber based composites into a greater number of applications for future vehicles. The approach has necessitated the development of both alternative precursors and more efficient production methods. Alternative precursors under investigation include textile grade polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers and fibers from lignin-based feedstocks. Previously, as part of the research program, Hexcel Corporation developed the science necessary to allow textile grade PAN to be used as a precursor rather than typical carbon fiber grade precursors. Efforts are also underway to develop carbon fiber precursors from lignin-based feedstocks. ORNL and its partners are working on this effort with domestic pulp and paper producers. In terms of alternative production methods, ORNL has developed a microwave-based carbonization unit that can process pre-oxidized fiber at over 200 inches per minute. ORNL has also developed a new method of high speed oxidation and a new method for precursor stabilization. Additionally, novel methods of activating carbon fiber surfaces have been developed which allow atomic oxygen concentrations as high as 25-30% to be achieved rather than the more typical 4-8% achieved by the standard industrial ozone treatment.

Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix L [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

2009-01-01

103

Commercial Clinical Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy  

SciTech Connect

CRADA No. 95-CR-09 among the LITCO--now Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC; a private company, Neutron Therapies Limited Liability Company, NTL formerly Ionix Corporation; and Washington State University was established in 1996 to further the development of BNCT. NTL has established a laboratory for the synthesis, under US FDA approved current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) guidelines, of key boron intermediates and final boron agents for BNCT. The company has focused initially on the development of the compound GB-10 (Na{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 10}) as the first boron agent of interest. An Investigational New Drug (IND) application for GB-10 has been filed and approved by the FDA for a Phase I human biodistribution trial in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and glioblastoma multiforme at UW under the direction of Professor Keith Stelzer, Principal Investigator (PI). These trials are funded by NTL under a contract with the UW, Department of Radiation Oncology, and the initial phases are nearing completion. Initial results show that boron-10 concentrations on the order of 100 micrograms per gram (100 ppm) can be achieved and maintained in blood with no indication of toxicity.

N /A

1999-09-03

104

40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants...

2012-07-01

105

40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants...

2011-07-01

106

40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants...

2013-07-01

107

40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants...

2010-07-01

108

40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.  

...Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants...

2014-07-01

109

Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communications. Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further subdivided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.

1987-01-01

110

Damage tolerance assessment of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Aviation Administration has sponsored a project at its Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to validate the use of bonded composite doublers on commercial aircraft. A specific application was chosen in order to provide a proof-of-concept driving force behind this test and analysis project. However, the data stemming from this study serves as a comprehensive evaluation of bonded

Dennis Roach

1998-01-01

111

Optimizatin of sugarcane factory application of Commercial Dextranases in the U.S.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although the use of commercial dextranases to break down dextran in sugar manufacture was pioneered by Australian researchers in the 1970s, applications in the U.S. sugar industry are still not optimized. This is partly because of misinformation about where to add the enzyme and which enzyme to use....

112

Application uniformity of a commercial center pivot variable rate irrigation system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the advent of commercial variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems, there is a great interest in using them to improve water use efficiency, implement deficit irrigation strategies in water limited regions and manage water applications for many other important objectives. Multiple catch can trials...

113

Illinois Pesticide Applicator Study Guide. A Training Manual for Private and Commercial Pesticide Applicators and Operators. Special Publication 39.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide is designed to provide the necessary information to prepare for certification as a private or commercial pesticide applicator. In addition to providing basic information covering the various sections of the amended Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, it contains a glossary of common pesticide terms, a list of…

Bever, Wayne; And Others

114

Commercial applications and scientific research requirements for thermal-infrared observations of terrestrial surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the spring of 1986 the EOSAT Company and NASA Headquarters organized a workshop to consider: (1) the potential value of space-acquired multiband thermal remote sensing in terrestrial research and commercial applications, and (2) the scientific and technological requirements for conducting such observations from the LANDSAT platform. The workshop defined the instrument characteristics of three types of sensors that would be needed to expand the use of thermal information for Earth observation and new commercial opportunities. The panels from two disciplines, geology and evapotranspiration/botany, along with the instrument panel, presented their recommendations to the workshop. The findings of these meetings are presented.

Goward, Samuel N.; Taranik, James V.; Laporte, Daniel; Putnam, Evelyn S. (editor)

1986-01-01

115

A remote sensing applications update: Results of interviews with Earth Observations Commercialization Program (EOCAP) participants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth remote sensing is a uniquely valuable tool for large-scale resource management, a task whose importance will likely increase world-wide through the foreseeable future. NASA research and engineering have virtually created the existing U.S. system, and will continue to push the frontiers, primarily through Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, research, and data and information systems. It is the researchers' view that the near-term health of remote sensing applications also deserves attention; it seems important not to abandon the system or its clients. The researchers suggest that, like its Landsat predecessor, a successful Earth Observing System program is likely to reinforce pressure to 'manage' natural resources, and consequently, to create more pressure for Earth Observations Commercialization (EOCAP) type applications. The current applications programs, though small, are valuable because of their technical and commercial results, and also because they support a community whose contributions will increase along with our ability to observe the Earth from space.

Mcvey, Sally

1991-01-01

116

40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...commercial and private applicators of restricted use pesticides. 171.7 Section 171.7 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.7 Submission...

2011-07-01

117

40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...commercial and private applicators of restricted use pesticides. 171.7 Section 171.7 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.7 Submission...

2010-07-01

118

Corneal alterations induced by topical application of commercial latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost in rabbit.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin (PG) analogs, including latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost, are currently the most commonly used topical ocular hypotensive medications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the corneal alterations in rabbits following exposure to commercial solution of latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost. A total of 64 New Zealand albino rabbits were used and four groups of treatments were constituted. Commercial latanoprost, travoprost, bimatoprost or 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BAK) was applied once daily to one eye each of rabbits for 30 days. The contralateral untreated eyes used as controls. Schirmer test, tear break-up time (BUT), rose Bengal and fluorescein staining were performed on days 5, 10, 20, and 30. Central corneal changes were analyzed by in vivo confocal microscopy, and the corneal barrier function was evaluated by measurement of corneal transepithelial electrical resistance on day 5. Whole mount corneas were analyzed by using fluorescence confocal microscopy for the presence of tight-junction (ZO-1, occludin) and adherens-junction (E-cadherin, ?-catenin) proteins, actin cytoskeleton, proliferative marker Ki67 and cell apoptosis in the epithelium. Topical application of commercial PG analogs resulted in significant corneal epithelial and stromal defects while no significant changes in aqueous tear production, BUT, rose bengal and fluorescein staining scores on day 5. Commercial PG analogs induced dislocation of ZO-1 and occludin from their normal locus, disorganization of cortical actin cytoskeleton at the superficial layer, and disruption of epithelial barrier function. The eyes treated with 0.02% BAK and latanoprost exhibited significantly reduced Schirmer scores, BUT, and increased fluorescein staining scores on days 10 and 30, respectively. Topical application of commercial PG analogs can quickly impair the corneal epithelium and stroma without tear deficiency. Commercial PG analogs break down the barrier integrity of corneal epithelium, concomitant with the disruption of cell junction and actin cytoskeleton between superficial cells in the corneal epithelium in vivo. PMID:24632558

Chen, Wensheng; Dong, Nuo; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Zhenhao; Hu, Jiaoyue; Xie, Hui; Pan, Juxin; Liu, Zuguo

2014-01-01

119

Development and application of an enzymatic and cell flotation treatment for the recovery of viable microbial cells from environmental matrices such as anaerobic sludge.  

PubMed

Efficient dissociation of microorganisms from their aggregate matrix is required to study the microorganisms without interaction with their native environment (e.g., biofilms, flocs, granules, etc.) and to assess their community composition through the application of molecular or microscopy techniques. To this end, we combined enzymatic treatments and a cell extraction by density gradient to efficiently recover anaerobic microorganisms from urban wastewater treatment plant sludge. The enzymes employed (amylase, cellulase, DNase, and pectinase) as a pretreatment softly disintegrated the extrapolymeric substances (EPS) interlocked with the microorganisms. The potential damaging effects of the applied procedure on bacterial and archaeal communities were assessed by studying the variations in density (using quantitative PCR), diversity (using capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism fingerprinting [CE-SSCP]), and activity (using a standard anaerobic activity test) of the extracted microorganisms. The protocol preserved the general capacity of the microbial community to produce methane under anaerobic conditions and its diversity; particularly the archaeal community was not affected in terms of either density or structure. This cell extraction procedure from the matrix materials offers interesting perspectives for metabolic, microscopic, and molecular assays of microbial communities present in complex matrices constituted by bioaggregates or biofilms. PMID:22003005

Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jérôme; Gévaudan, Gaëlle; Patureau, Dominique

2011-12-01

120

Development and Application of an Enzymatic and Cell Flotation Treatment for the Recovery of Viable Microbial Cells from Environmental Matrices Such as Anaerobic Sludge?  

PubMed Central

Efficient dissociation of microorganisms from their aggregate matrix is required to study the microorganisms without interaction with their native environment (e.g., biofilms, flocs, granules, etc.) and to assess their community composition through the application of molecular or microscopy techniques. To this end, we combined enzymatic treatments and a cell extraction by density gradient to efficiently recover anaerobic microorganisms from urban wastewater treatment plant sludge. The enzymes employed (amylase, cellulase, DNase, and pectinase) as a pretreatment softly disintegrated the extrapolymeric substances (EPS) interlocked with the microorganisms. The potential damaging effects of the applied procedure on bacterial and archaeal communities were assessed by studying the variations in density (using quantitative PCR), diversity (using capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism fingerprinting [CE-SSCP]), and activity (using a standard anaerobic activity test) of the extracted microorganisms. The protocol preserved the general capacity of the microbial community to produce methane under anaerobic conditions and its diversity; particularly the archaeal community was not affected in terms of either density or structure. This cell extraction procedure from the matrix materials offers interesting perspectives for metabolic, microscopic, and molecular assays of microbial communities present in complex matrices constituted by bioaggregates or biofilms. PMID:22003005

Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jérôme; Gévaudan, Gaëlle; Patureau, Dominique

2011-01-01

121

Commercialization of New Carbon Fiber Materials Based on Sustainable Resources for Energy Applications  

SciTech Connect

Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and GrafTech International have collaborated to develop and demonstrate the performance of high temperature thermal insulation prototypes made from lignin-based carbon fibers. This project will potentially lead to the first commercial application of lignin-based carbon fibers (LBCF). The goal of the commercial application is to replace expensive, Chinese-sourced isotropic pitch carbon fibers with lower cost carbon fibers made from a domestically sourced, bio-derived (renewable) feedstock. LBCF can help recapture jobs that were previously exported to China while resolving a supply chain vulnerability and reducing the production cost for GrafTech s high temperature thermal insulation. The performance of the LBCF prototypes was measured and found to be comparable to that of the current commercial product. During production of the insulation prototypes, ORNL and GrafTech demonstrated lignin compounding/pelletization, fiber production, heat treatment, and compositing at scales far surpassing those previously demonstrated in LBCF R&D or production. A plan was developed for the commercialization of LBCF thermal insulation, with key milestones including qualification of multiple scalable lignin sources in 2013, tons-scale production and field testing by customers in 2014, and product launch as soon thereafter as production capabilities can be constructed and commissioned.

Eberle, Cliff [ORNL; Webb, Daniel C [ORNL; Albers, Tracy [GrafTech International; Chen, Chong [GrafTech International

2013-03-01

122

Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

Kenyon, Chase H.

1995-01-01

123

Commercial applications of the ACTS mobile terminal millimeter-wave antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT), which will provide voice, data, and video communications to and from a vehicle (van, truck, or car) via NASA's geostationary ACTS satellite using the K- and K(sub a)-band frequency bands. The AMT is already planned to demonstrate a variety of communications from within the mobile vehicular environment, and within this paper a summary of foreseen commercial application opportunities is given. A critical component of the AMT is its antenna system, which must establish and maintain the basic RF link with the satellite. Two versions of the antenna are under development, each incorporating different technologies and offering different commercial applications.

Densmore, Arthur C.; Crist, Rick A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Tulintseff, Ann N.

1991-01-01

124

Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

Brunner, Robert

2014-04-01

125

Cost-Effective Gas-Fueled Cooling Systems for Commercial/Industrial Buildings and Process Applications  

E-print Network

COST-EFFECTIVE GAS-?FUELED COOLING SYSTEMS FOR COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS AND PROCESS APPLICATIONS BRUCE B. LINDSAY Gas Research Institute Chicago, Illinois WARREN A. WILLITS, II The East Ohio Gas Company Cleveland, Ohio ABSTRACT Gas...) refrigeration systems. It is estimated that 25% of these units were destined for process appli cations. The processes are varied and diverse, and include some of the following: baking, batch cooling, bottling, brewing and distilling, chemical process...

Lindsay, B. B.

126

Economic Recovery Act of 1981 and tax policies for commercial solar-energy applications  

SciTech Connect

Key tax policies relevant to commercial solar energy applications are outlined. Included are certain changes in depreciation rules and small business federal income tax percentages that were part of the recently enacted Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981. Also, the regulations for business investment and energy tax credits are explained. An example of the effects of the new depreciation schedule on a solar industrial process heat system is given.

Ball, D. E.

1981-12-01

127

Application of narrow-band television to industrial and commercial communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of narrow-band systems for use in space systems is presented. Applications of the technology to future spacecraft requirements are discussed along with narrow-band television's influence in stimulating development within the industry. The transferral of the technology into industrial and commercial communications is described. Major areas included are: (1) medicine; (2) education; (3) remote sensing for traffic control; and (5) weather observation. Applications in data processing, image enhancement, and information retrieval are provided by the combination of the TV camera and the computer.

Embrey, B. C., Jr.; Southworth, G. R.

1974-01-01

128

Current state of commercial radiation detection equipment for homeland security applications.  

SciTech Connect

With the creation of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) came the increased concern that terrorist groups would attempt to manufacture and use an improvised nuclear device or radiological dispersal device. As such, a primary mission of DHS is to protect the public against the use of these devices and to assist state and local responders in finding, locating, and identifying these types of devices and materials used to manufacture these devices. This assistance from DHS to state and local responders comes in the form of grant money to procure radiation detection equipment. In addition to this grant program, DHS has supported the development of American National Standards Institute standards for radiation detection equipment and has conducted testing of commercially available instruments. This paper identifies the types and kinds of commercially available equipment that can be used to detect and identify radiological material - for use in traditional search applications as well as primary and secondary screening of personnel, vehicles, and cargo containers. In doing so, key considerations for the conduct of operations are described as well as critical features of the instruments for specific applications. The current state of commercial instruments is described for different categories of detection equipment including personal radiation detectors, radioisotope identifiers, man-portable detection equipment, and radiation portal monitors. In addition, emerging technologies are also discussed, such as spectroscopic detectors and advanced spectroscopic portal monitors.

Klann, R. T.; Shergur, J.; Mattesich, G.; Nuclear Engineering Division; DHS

2009-10-01

129

Astaxanthin: sources, extraction, stability, biological activities and its commercial applications--a review.  

PubMed

There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-?, ?'-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications. PMID:24402174

Ambati, Ranga Rao; Phang, Siew Moi; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

2014-01-01

130

Effect of Bacteriophage Application on Campylobacter jejuni Loads in Commercial Broiler Flocks  

PubMed Central

Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent food-borne human enteritis. The major source for infection with Campylobacter spp. is broiler meat. Risk assessments consider the reduction of Campylobacter in primary production to be most beneficial for human health. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a bacteriophage application under commercial conditions which had proved to be effective in previous noncommercial studies under controlled experimental conditions. A phage cocktail for Campylobacter reduction was tested on three commercial broiler farms each with a control and an experimental group. Colonization of Campylobacter was confirmed prior to phage application in fecal samples. Subsequently, a phage cocktail was applied via drinking water in the experimental group (log10 5.8 to 7.5 PFU/bird). One day after phage application, Campylobacter counts of one experimental group were reduced under the detection limit (<50 CFU/g, P = 0.0140) in fecal samples. At slaughter, a significant reduction of >log10 3.2 CFU/g cecal content compared to the control was still detected (P = 0.0011). No significant reduction was observed in the experimental groups of the other trials. However, a significant drop in cecal Campylobacter counts occurred in a phage-contaminated control. These results suggest that maximum reduction of Campylobacter at the slaughterhouse might be achieved by phage application 1 to 4 days prior to slaughter. PMID:24077703

Kittler, Sophie; Fischer, Samuel; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Glünder, Gerhard

2013-01-01

131

Astaxanthin: Sources, Extraction, Stability, Biological Activities and Its Commercial Applications—A Review  

PubMed Central

There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3?-dihydroxy-?, ??-carotene-4,4?-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications. PMID:24402174

Ambati, Ranga Rao; Siew Moi, Phang; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

2014-01-01

132

Application study of filamentary composites in a commercial jet aircraft fuselage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of applications of filamentary composite materials to aircraft fuselage structure was performed. General design criteria were established and material studies conducted using the 727-200 forebody as the primary structural component. Three design approaches to the use of composites were investigated: uniaxial reinforcement of metal structure, uniaxial and biaxial reinforcement of metal structure, and an all-composite design. Materials application studies for all three concepts were conducted on fuselage shell panels, keel beam, floor beams, floor panels, body frames, fail-safe straps, and window frames. Cost benefit studies were conducted and developmental program costs estimated. On the basis of weight savings, cost effectiveness, developmental program costs, and potential for early application on commercial aircraft, the unaxial design is recommended for a 5-year flight service evaluation program.

Johnson, R. W.; June, R. R.

1972-01-01

133

Commercialization of NASA's High Strength Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, the commercialization of a new high strength cast aluminum alloy, invented by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, for high temperature applications will be presented. Originally developed to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low- exhaust emission, the novel NASA aluminum alloy offers dramatic improvement in tensile and fatigue strengths at elevated temperatures (450 F-750 F), which can lead to reducing part weight and cost as well as improving performance for automotive engine applications. It is an ideal low cost material for cast components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. NASA alloy also offers greater wear resistance, dimensional stability, and lower thermal expansion compared to conventional aluminum alloys, and the new alloy can be produced economically from sand, permanent mold and investment casting. Since 2001, this technology was licensed to several companies for automotive and marine internal combustion engines applications.

Lee, Jonathan A.

2003-01-01

134

Commercial and industrial applications of indium gallium arsenide near-infrared focal plane arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensors Unlimited, Inc. has developed focal pane arrays (FPAs) fabricated with indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) photodiode arrays and silicon CMOS readout integrated circuits. These devices are readily available in a wide variety of formats suitable for commercial and industrial applications. InGaAs FPAs are sensitive to the near IR, operate without cooling, and come in both 2D formats and 1D formats. 1D InGaAs FPAs are used as both spectroscopic detectors and line scan imagers. Key applications include miniature spectrometers used for wavelength control and monitoring of WDM laser sources, octane determination, the sorting o plastics during recycling, and web process control. 2D InGaAs FPAs find use in applications such as laser beam profiling, visualization of 'clear' ice on aircraft and roadways, and industrial thermal imaging.

Cohen, Marshall J.; Ettenberg, Martin H.; Lange, Michael J.; Olsen, Gregory H.

1999-07-01

135

Potential commercial application of a bi-layer bone-ligament regeneration scaffold to anterior cruciate ligament replacement  

E-print Network

A business model was created in order to explore the commercial application of a bi-layer bone-ligament scaffold to the treatment of torn anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) requiring replacement. The two main keys in producing ...

Li, Jessica C. (Jessica Ching-Yi)

2006-01-01

136

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 11: Aerial Applicators. CS-26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the calibration and application of pesticides/herbicides by aircraft. Special attention is given to the field flight patterns and safety precautions which must be considered for the pilot, ground crews and the…

DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

137

Regenerative Fuel Cell System Testbed Program for Government and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center's Electrochemical Technology Branch has led a multiagency effort to design, fabricate, and operate a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system testbed. Key objectives of this program are to evaluate, characterize, and demonstrate fully integrated RFC's for space, military, and commercial applications. The Lewis-led team is implementing the program through a unique international coalition that encompasses both Government and industry participants. Construction of the 25-kW RFC testbed at the NASA facility at Edwards Air Force Base was completed in January 1995, and the system has been operational since that time.

1996-01-01

138

A proposed acceptance process for commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software in reactor applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a process for acceptance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software products for use in reactor systems important to safety. An initial set of four criteria establishes COTS software product identification and its safety category. Based on safety category, three sets of additional criteria, graded in rigor, are applied to approve/disapprove the product. These criteria fall roughly into three areas: product assurance, verification of safety function and safety impact, and examination of usage experience of the COTS product in circumstances similar to the proposed application. A report addressing the testing of existing software is included as an appendix.

Preckshot, G.G.; Scott, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-03-01

139

Tools and Data Services from the NASA Earth Satellite Observations for Remote Sensing Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several commercial applications of remote sensing data, such as water resources management, environmental monitoring, climate prediction, agriculture, forestry, preparation for and migration of extreme weather events, require access to vast amounts of archived high quality data, software tools and services for data manipulation and information extraction. These on the other hand require gaining detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation of data reduction, combination and data product production. The time-consuming task must be undertaken before the core investigation can begin and is an especially difficult challenge when science objectives require users to deal with large multi-sensor data sets of different formats, structures, and resolutions.

Vicente, Gilberto

2005-01-01

140

Evaluations of the commercial spectrometer systems for safeguards applications using the germanium detectors  

SciTech Connect

Safeguards applications require the best spectrometer systems with excellent resolution, stability, and throughput. Instruments must perform well in all the situations and environments. Data communication to the computer should be convenient, fast, and reliable. The software should have all the necessary tools and be ease to use. Portable systems should be small in size, lightweight, and have a long battery life. Nine commercially available spectrometer systems are tested with both the planar and coaxial germanium detectors. Considering the performance of the Digital Signal Processors (DSP), digital-based spectroscopy may be the future of gamma-ray spectroscopy.

Vo, D.T.

1998-12-31

141

Safety Evaluation of Two Commercial Lithium-ion Batteries for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium-ion batteries have been used for applications on the Shuttle and Station for the past six years. A majority of the li-ion batteries flown are Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) varieties. The COTS batteries and cells were tested under nominal and abusive conditions for performance and safety characterization. Within the past six months two batteries have been certified for flight and use on the Space Station. The first one is a Hand Spring PDA battery that had a single prismatic li-ion cell and the second is an Iridium satellite phone that had a two-cell pack with prismatic li-ion cells.

Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Collins, Jacob; Cook, Joseph S.

2004-01-01

142

Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the fundamental Intersatellite Link (ISL) systems characteristics, potential applications of ISLs to domestic, regional, and global commercial satellite communications were identified, and their cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits quantified wherever possible. Implementation scenarios for the cost-effective communications satellite systems employing ISLs were developed for the first launch in 1993 to 1994 and widespread use of ISLs in the early 2000's. Critical technology requirements for both the microwave (60 GHz) and optical (0.85 micron) ISL implementations were identified, and their technology development programs, including schedule and cost estimates, were derived.

Young, S. Lee

1987-01-01

143

Evaluation and qualification of environmentally conscious manufacturing processes for commercial and military applications  

SciTech Connect

Environmental regulations are encouraging the development of new environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECNP processes. However, the quality and reliability of these processes and hardware produced must be understood prior to implementing these new technologies in factories. Furthermore, military hardware fabrication is governed by standards and specifications that frequently mandate the use of older, less environmentally friendly processes or materials, or prohibit the use of new ECM processes without advance military approvaL Sandia National Laboratories, with industrial and military partners, have developed methodologies for evaluating and qualifying new ECM processes for military and commercial applications, and have piloted these methodologies in qualifying new, low-residue soldering technologies and materials.

Anderson, D.J.; Cranwell, R.M.; Iman, R.; Van Buren, P.D.

1995-03-01

144

Fluorogenic Substrate Detection of Viable Intracellular and Extracellular Pathogenic Protozoa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viable Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes were detected by epifluorescence microscopy with fluorescein diacetate being used to mark living parasites and the nucleic acid-binding compound ethidium bromide to stain dead cells. This procedure is superior to other assays because it is faster and detects viable intracellular as well as extracellular Leishmania. Furthermore, destruction of intracellular pathogens by macrophages is more accurately determined with fluorescein diacetate than with other stains. The procedure may have applications in programs to develop drugs and vaccines against protozoa responsible for human and animal disease.

Jackson, Peter R.; Pappas, Michael G.; Hansen, Brian D.

1985-01-01

145

77 FR 17105 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Rotel North American Tours, LLC; Application for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...drivers, employed by Rotel, possessing German CDLs, to operate commercial motor vehicles...drivers, employed by Rotel and possessing German CDLs, to operate commercial motor vehicles...Hoeltl GmbH, Tittling) and possessing German CDLs, to operate commercial motor...

2012-03-23

146

A decade of experience from commercial 3D laser range sensors for ground applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For use in the development of synthetic environment models, the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) bought two laser scanners in the beginning of this millennium, one from the Austrian company Riegl and one from the Canadian Optech. This was the start for over a decade of use of commercial laser range sensors at FOI. The laser scanners have so far been used for different applications such as point cloud algorithm development (detection, classification and reconnaissance of targets), phenomenology studies, reflectance measurements and environment and ground truth measurements. This paper presents different laser scanner technologies (pulsed Time of Flight, Continues Wave (CW), Flash and distributed light) and compare advantages and limitations of the technologies. The paper also include some examples of the use of laser scanning in applications and presents methods for laser range sensors performance evaluation used and developed at FOI.

Larsson, Hâkan

2012-09-01

147

SP-100 nuclear space power systems with application to space commercialization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the Space Commercialization Community with the status and characteristics of the SP-100 space nuclear power system. The program is a joint undertaking by the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy and NASA. The goal of the program is to develop, validate, and demonstrate the technology for space nuclear power systems in the range of 10 to 1000 kWe electric for use in the future civilian and military space missions. Also discussed are mission applications which are enhanced and/or enabled by SP-100 technology and how this technology compares to that of more familiar solar power systems. The mission applications include earth orbiting platforms and lunar/Mars surface power.

Smith, John M.

1988-01-01

148

Rhinitis Associated with Pesticide Exposure among Commercial Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Rhinitis is common, but the risk factors are not well described. To investigate the association between current rhinitis and pesticide use, we used data from 2,245 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods Using logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, and growing up on a farm, we evaluated the association between current rhinitis and 34 pesticides used in the past year. Results Seventy-four percent of commercial pesticide applicators reported at least one episode of rhinitis in the past year (current rhinitis). Five pesticides used in the past year were significantly positively associated with current rhinitis: the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate and petroleum oil, the insecticide diazinon and the fungicide benomyl. The association for 2,4-D and glyphosate was limited to individuals who used both in the past year (Odds Ratio = 1.42, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.14, 1.77). Both petroleum oil and diazinon showed consistent evidence of an association with rhinitis, based on both current use and exposure-response models. We saw no evidence of confounding by common agricultural rhinitis triggers such as handling grain or hay. Conclusions Exposure to pesticides may increase the risk of rhinitis. PMID:19289390

Slager, Rebecca E.; Poole, Jill A.; LeVan, Tricia D.; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Hoppin, Jane A.

2010-01-01

149

Prospects for increased low-grade bio-fuels use in home and commercial heating applications  

E-print Network

Though we must eventually find viable alternatives for fossil fuels in large segments of the energy market, there are economically attractive fossil fuel alternatives today for niche markets. The easiest fossil fuels to ...

Pendray, John Robert

2007-01-01

150

Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation report, Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, is to validate the computational method used to perform postclosure criticality calculations. The validation process applies the criticality analysis methodology approach documented in Section 3.5 of the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report. The application systems for this validation consist of waste packages containing transport, aging, and disposal canisters (TAD) loaded with commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) of varying assembly types, initial enrichments, and burnup values that are expected from the waste stream and of varying degree of internal component degradation that may occur over the 10,000-year regulatory time period. The criticality computational tool being evaluated is the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The nuclear cross-section data distributed with MCNP 5.1.40 and used to model the various physical processes are based primarily on the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version VI (ENDF/B-VI) library. Criticality calculation bias and bias uncertainty and lower bound tolerance limit (LBTL) functions for CSNF waste packages are determined based on the guidance in ANSI/ANS 8.1-1998 (Ref. 4) and ANSI/ANS 8.17-2004 (Ref. 5), as described in Section 3.5.3 of Ref. 1. The development of this report is consistent with Test Plan for: Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality. This calculation report has been developed in support of licensing activities for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the results of the calculation may be used in the criticality evaluation for CSNF waste packages based on a conceptual TAD canister.

Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL; Goluoglu, Sedat [ORNL; Hollenbach, Daniel F [ORNL; Fox, Patricia B [ORNL

2007-10-01

151

Large Scale Application of Vibration Sensors for Fan Monitoring at Commercial Layer Hen Houses  

PubMed Central

Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable. PMID:22163544

Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A.; Heber, Albert J.; Bogan, Bill W.; Chai, Li-Long

2010-01-01

152

Commercial and industrial applications of color ink jet: a technological perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In just 5 years, color ink-jet has become the dominant technology for printing color images and graphics in the office and home markets. In commercial printing, the traditional printing processes are being influenced by new digital techniques. Color ink-jet proofing, and concepts such as computer to film/plate or digital processes are contributing to the evolution of the industry. In industrial color printing, the penetration of digital techniques is just beginning. All widely used conventional contact printing technologies involve mechanical printing forms including plates, screens or engraved cylinders. Such forms, which need to be newly created and set up for each job, increase costs. In our era of fast changing customer demands, growing needs for customization, and increasing use of digital exchange of information, the commercial and industrial printing markets represent an enormous potential for digital printing technologies. The adoption characteristics for the use of color ink-jet in these industries are discussed. Examples of color ink-jet applications in the fields of billboard printing, floor/wall covering decoration, and textile printing are described. The requirements on print quality, productivity, reliability, substrate compatibility, and color lead to the consideration of various types of ink-jet technologies. Key technical enabling factors and directions for future improvements are presented.

Dunand, Alain

1996-03-01

153

Computers for Manned Space Applications Base on Commercial Off-the-Shelf Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Similar to the consumer markets there has been an ever increasing demand in processing power, signal processing capabilities and memory space also for computers used for science data processing in space. An important driver of this development have been the payload developers for the International Space Station, requesting high-speed data acquisition and fast control loops in increasingly complex systems. Current experiments now even perform video processing and compression with their payload controllers. Nowadays the requirements for a space qualified computer are often far beyond the capabilities of, for example, the classic SPARC architecture that is found in ERC32 or LEON CPUs. An increase in performance usually demands costly and power consuming application specific solutions. Continuous developments over the last few years have now led to an alternative approach that is based on complete electronics modules manufactured for commercial and industrial customers. Computer modules used in industrial environments with a high demand for reliability under harsh environmental conditions like chemical reactors, electrical power plants or on manufacturing lines are entered into a selection procedure. Promising candidates then undergo a detailed characterisation process developed by Astrium Space Transportation. After thorough analysis and some modifications, these modules can replace fully qualified custom built electronics in specific, although not safety critical applications in manned space. This paper focuses on the benefits of COTS1 based electronics modules and the necessary analyses and modifications for their utilisation in manned space applications on the ISS. Some considerations regarding overall systems architecture will also be included. Furthermore this paper will also pinpoint issues that render such modules unsuitable for specific tasks, and justify the reasons. Finally, the conclusion of this paper will advocate the implementation of COTS based electronics for a range of applications within specifically adapted systems. The findings in this paper are extrapolated from two reference computer systems, both having been launched in 2008. One of those was a LEON-2 based computer installed onboard the Columbus Orbital Facility while the other system consisted mainly of a commercial Power-PC module that was modified for a launch mounted on the ICC pallet in the Space Shuttle's cargo bay. Both systems are currently upgraded and extended for future applications.

Vogel, T.; Gronowski, M.

2009-05-01

154

Commercial Dengue Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Point-of-Care Application: Recent Evaluations and Future Needs?  

PubMed Central

Dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome (DF/DHF/DSS) are tropical diseases that cause significant humanitarian and economic hardship. It is estimated that more than 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection and more than 100 countries have endemic dengue virus transmission. Laboratory tests are essential to provide an accurate diagnosis of dengue virus infection so that appropriate treatment and patient management may be administered. In many dengue endemic settings, laboratory diagnostic resources are limited and simple rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) provide opportunities for point-of-care diagnosis. This paper addresses current issues relating to the application of commercial dengue RDTs for the diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection, recent diagnostic evaluations, and identifies future needs. PMID:22654479

Blacksell, Stuart D.

2012-01-01

155

Prototype rigid polyimide components. [application of Apollo technology to commercial nonflammable materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activity is reported which was conducted for utilizing spin-off Apollo base technology to fabricate a variety of commercial and aerospace related parts that are nonflammable and resistant to high-temperature degradation. Manufacturing techniques and the tooling used to fabricate each of the polyimide/glass structures is discussed. A brief history, tracing the development of high-temperature polyimide resins, is presented along with a discussion of the properties of DuPont's PI 2501/glass material (later redesignated PI 4701/glass). Mechanical and flammability properties of DuPont's PI 2501/glass laminates are compared with epoxy, phenolic, and silicone high-temperature resin/glass material systems. Offgassing characteristics are also presented. A discussion is included of the current developments in polyimide materials technology and the potential civilian and government applications of polyimide materials to reduce fire hazards and increase the survivability of men and equipment.

Wykes, D. H.

1975-01-01

156

Digimarc MediaBridge: the birth of a consumer product from concept to commercial application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the issues encountered in the development and commercial deployment of a system based on digital watermarking technology. The paper provides an overview of the development of digital watermarking technology and the first applications to use the technology. It also looks at how we took the concept of digital watermarking as a communications channel within a digital environment and applied it to the physical print world to produce the Digimarc MediaBridge product. We describe the engineering tradeoffs that were made to balance competing requirements of watermark robustness, image quality, embedding process, detection speed and end user ease of use. Today, the Digimarc MediaBridge product links printed materials to auxiliary information about the content, via the Internet, to provide enhanced informational marketing, promotion, advertising and commerce opportunities.

Perry, Burt; MacIntosh, Brian; Cushman, David

2002-04-01

157

Practical application of ELISA for detection of vertical transmission of leukosis virus in commercial layer hens.  

PubMed

The efficiency of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of congenital transmission of exogenous lymphoid leukosis virus (LLV) was examined using both vaginal swabs and albumen samples obtained from two layer flocks. Approximately 100 hens were studied in each flock by the ELISA and phenotypic mixing tests. ELISA testing on vaginal swabs identified 25/27 (92.5%) hens excreting LLV in their vaginal swabs and 16/17 (94.1%) of these hens that transmitted LLV to their embryos. Application of the ELISA to albumen samples was found to be as sensitive as testing vaginal swabs for detection of infected hens but also avoided 67 "false positive" reactors detected by the ELISA on vaginal swabs. Testing of albumens by the ELISA is thus recommended for use within commercial leukosis control programmes. PMID:18766810

Ignjatovic, J; Bagust, T J

1983-10-01

158

InfraCAM (trade mark): A Hand-Held Commercial Infrared Camera Modified for Spaceborne Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1994, Inframetrics introduced the InfraCAM(TM), a high resolution hand-held thermal imager. As the world's smallest, lightest and lowest power PtSi based infrared camera, the InfraCAM is ideal for a wise range of industrial, non destructive testing, surveillance and scientific applications. In addition to numerous commercial applications, the light weight and low power consumption of the InfraCAM make it extremely valuable for adaptation to space borne applications. Consequently, the InfraCAM has been selected by NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for use as part of the DARTFire (Diffusive and Radiative Transport in Fires) space borne experiment. In this experiment, a solid fuel is ignited in a low gravity environment. The combustion period is recorded by both visible and infrared cameras. The infrared camera measures the emission from polymethyl methacrylate, (PMMA) and combustion products in six distinct narrow spectral bands. Four cameras successfully completed all qualification tests at Inframetrics and at NASA Lewis. They are presently being used for ground based testing in preparation for space flight in the fall of 1995.

Manitakos, Daniel; Jones, Jeffrey; Melikian, Simon

1996-01-01

159

Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

1996-07-01

160

Image Analysis via Soft Computing: Prototype Applications at NASA KSC and Product Commercialization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of "soft computing" which differs from "hard computing" in that it is more tolerant of imprecision, partial truth, uncertainty, and approximation and its use in image analysis. Soft computing provides flexible information processing to handle real life ambiguous situations and achieve tractability, robustness low solution cost, and a closer resemblance to human decision making. Several systems are or have been developed: Fuzzy Reasoning Edge Detection (FRED), Fuzzy Reasoning Adaptive Thresholding (FRAT), Image enhancement techniques, and visual/pattern recognition. These systems are compared with examples that show the effectiveness of each. NASA applications that are reviewed are: Real-Time (RT) Anomaly Detection, Real-Time (RT) Moving Debris Detection and the Columbia Investigation. The RT anomaly detection reviewed the case of a damaged cable for the emergency egress system. The use of these techniques is further illustrated in the Columbia investigation with the location and detection of Foam debris. There are several applications in commercial usage: image enhancement, human screening and privacy protection, visual inspection, 3D heart visualization, tumor detections and x ray image enhancement.

Dominguez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve

2011-01-01

161

Process heat in California: Applications and potential for solar energy in the industrial, agricultural and commercial sectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the results of a survey of potential applications of solar energy for supplying process heat requirements in the industrial, agricultural, and commercial sectors of California is presented. Technical, economic, and institutional characteristics of the three sectors are examined. Specific applications for solar energy are then discussed. Finally, implications for California energy policy are discussed along with recommendations for possible actions by the State of California.

Barbieri, R. H.; Bartera, R. E.; Davis, E. S.; Hlavka, G. E.; Pivirotto, D. S.; Yanow, G.

1978-01-01

162

Application of Best Industry Practices to the Design of Commercial Refrigerators  

SciTech Connect

The substantial efficiency improvements which have been realized in residential refrigerators over the last twenty years due to implementation of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act and changing consumer reactions to energy savings give an indication of the potential for improvement in the commercial sector, where few such efficiency improvements have been made to date. The purchase decision for commercial refrigerators is still focused primarily on first cost and product performance issues such as maximizing storage capacity, quick pulldown, durability, and reliability. The project applied techniques used extensively to reduce energy use in residential refrigeration to a commercial reach-in refrigerator. The results will also be applicable to other commercial refrigeration equipment, such as refrigerated vending machines, reach-in freezers, beverage merchandisers, etc. The project described in this paper was a collaboration involving the Appliance and Building Technology Sector of TIAX, the Delfield Company, and the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies. Funding was provided by DOE through Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT41000. The program plan and schedule were structured to assure successful integration of the TIAX work on development of efficient design concepts into Delfield's simultaneous development of the Vantage product line. The energy-saving design options evaluated as part of the development included brushless DC and PSC fan motors, high-efficiency compressors, variable-speed compressor technology, cabinet thermal improvement (particularly in the face frame area), increased insulation thickness, a trap for the condensate line, improved insulation, reduced-wattage antisweat heaters, non-electric antisweat heating, off-cycle defrost termination, rifled heat exchanger tubing, and system optimization (selection of heat exchangers, fans, and subcooling, superheat, and suction temperatures for efficient operation). The project started with a thorough evaluation of the baseline Delfield Model 6051 two-door reach-in refrigerator. Performance testing was done to establish a performance baseline which, to meet end-users requirements, would have to be met or exceeded by the high-efficiency refrigerator design. Energy testing was done to establish the baseline energy use. Diagnostic testing such as reverse heat leak testing and insulation conductivity testing was done to evaluate factors contributing to the cabinet load and energy use. Modeling was done to assess the energy savings potential of the energy saving design options. Discussion with vendors and cost modeling was done to assess the manufacturing cost impact of the options. Based on this work, the following group of design options was selected for incorporation in the final refrigerator design: (1) Brushless DC evaporator fans; (2) Improved face frame design; (3) Reduced antisweat heater wattage; (4) Condensate line trap; and (5) Optimized refrigeration system. There was no net cost premium associated with these design changes, leading to a high-efficiency design requiring no payback of any initial additional investment. Delfield incorporated these design options in the Vantage line design and built a first prototype, which was tested at TIAX. Additional design changes were implemented in the transition to manufacturing, based in part on results of initial prototype testing, and a pilot production unit was sent to TIAX for final testing. The energy use of the pilot production unit was 68% less than that of the baseline refrigerator when tested according to the ASHRAE 117 Energy Test Standard. The energy test results for the baseline refrigerator and the two new-design units is shown in Figure ES-1 below. The resulting energy consumption is well below Energy Star and proposed Canadian and California standards levels. Delfield has successfully transitioned the design to production and is manufacturing all configurations of the energy efficient reach-ins at a rate greater than 7,000 per year, with production quantities projec

None

2002-06-30

163

Hole filling and library optimization: application to commercially available fragment libraries.  

PubMed

Compound libraries comprise an integral component of drug discovery in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. While in-house libraries often contain millions of molecules, this number pales in comparison to the accessible space of drug-like molecules. Therefore, care must be taken when adding new compounds to an existing library in order to ensure that unexplored regions in the chemical space are filled efficiently while not needlessly increasing the library size. In this work, we present an automated method to fill holes in an existing library using compounds from an external source and apply it to commercially available fragment libraries. The method, called Canvas HF, uses distances computed from 2D chemical fingerprints and selects compounds that fill vacuous regions while not suffering from the problem of selecting only compounds at the edge of the chemical space. We show that the method is robust with respect to different databases and the number of requested compounds to retrieve. We also present an extension of the method where chemical properties can be considered simultaneously with the selection process to bias the compounds toward a desired property space without imposing hard property cutoffs. We compare the results of Canvas HF to those obtained with a standard sphere exclusion method and with random compound selection and find that Canvas HF performs favorably. Overall, the method presented here offers an efficient and effective hole-filling strategy to augment compound libraries with compounds from external sources. The method does not have any fit parameters and therefore it should be applicable in most hole-filling applications. PMID:22503740

An, Yuling; Sherman, Woody; Dixon, Steven L

2012-09-15

164

Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2E: Commercial equipment utility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examination of commercial equipment technologies revealed that the functional performance requirements of space processing equipment could generally be met by state-of-the-art design practices. Thus, an apparatus could be evolved from a standard item or derived by custom design using present technologies. About 15 percent of the equipment needed has no analogous commercial base of derivation and requires special development. This equipment is involved primarily with contactless heating and position control. The derivation of payloads using commercial equipment sources provides a broad and potentially cost-effective base upon which to draw. The derivation of payload equipment from commercial technologies poses other issues beyond that of the identifiable functional performance, but preliminary results on testing of selected equipment testing appear quite favorable. During this phase of the SPA study, several aspects of commercial equipment utility were assessed and considered. These included safety, packaging and structural, power conditioning (electrical/electronic), thermal and materials of construction.

Smith, A. G. (editor)

1974-01-01

165

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara Eladio Oca~na Ricardo Oliveros-Ramos Jorge Tam November the appli- cation of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

166

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara Eladio Oca~na Ricardo Oliveros-Ramos Jorge Tam April 21- cation of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model

167

A downstream process for production of a viable and stable Bacillus cereus aquaculture biological agent.  

PubMed

Biological products offer advantages over chemotherapeutics in aquaculture. Adoption in commercial application is lacking due to limitations in process and product development that address key end user product requirements such as cost, efficacy, shelf life and convenience. In previous studies, we have reported on the efficacy, physiological robustness and low-cost spore production of a Bacillus cereus isolate (NRRL 100132). This study examines the development of suitable spore recovery, drying, formulation and tablet production from the fermentation product. Key criteria used for such downstream process unit evaluation included spore viability, recovery, spore balance, spore re-germination, product intermediate stability, end product stability and efficacy. A process flow sheet comprising vertical tube centrifugation, fluidised bed agglomeration and tablet pressing yielded a suitable product. The formulation included corn steep liquor and glucose to enhance subsequent spore regermination. Viable spore recovery and spore balance closure across each of the process units was high (>70% and >99% respectively), with improvement in recovery possible by adoption of continuous processing at large scale. Spore regermination was 97%, whilst a product half-life in excess of 5 years was estimated based on thermal resistance curves. The process resulted in a commercially attractive product and suitable variable cost of production. PMID:19921182

Lalloo, Rajesh; Maharajh, Dheepak; Görgens, Johann; Gardiner, Neil

2010-03-01

168

Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications  

SciTech Connect

Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative technologies. As the technology gains a foothold in its target markets and demand increases, the costs will decline in response to improved manufacturing efficiencies, similar to trends seen with other technologies. Transparency Market Research forecasts suggest that the CHP-FCS market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of greater than 27 percent over the next 5 years. These production level increases, coupled with the expected low price of natural gas, indicate the economic payback period will move to less than 5 years over the course of the next 5 years. To better understand the benefits of micro-CHP-FCSs, The U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe fuel cells in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is evaluating these systems in terms of economics, operations, and their environmental impact in real-world applications. As expected, the economic analysis has indicated that the high capital cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than typically is acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, a payback period of less than 3 years may be expected as increased production brings system cost down, and CHP incentives are maintained or improved.

Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

2013-10-30

169

Pesticides associated with wheeze among commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.  

PubMed

Pesticides are potential risk factors for respiratory disease among farmers, but farmers are also exposed to other respiratory toxicants. To explore the association of pesticides with wheeze in a population without other farming exposures, the authors analyzed data from 2,255 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. Controlling for age, smoking status, asthma and atopy history, and body mass index, the authors calculated odds ratios for the relationship between wheeze and 36 individual pesticides participants had used during the year before enrollment (1993-1997). Eight of 16 herbicides were associated with wheeze in single-agent models; however, the risk was almost exclusively associated with the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl (odds ratio (OR) = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 2.10). Inclusion of chlorimuron-ethyl in models for the other herbicides virtually eliminated the associations. The odds ratios for four organophosphate insecticides (terbufos, fonofos, chlorpyrifos, and phorate) were elevated when these chemicals were modeled individually and remained elevated, though attenuated somewhat, when chlorimuron-ethyl was included. The association for dichlorvos, another organophosphate insecticide, was not attenuated by chlorimuron-ethyl (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.08, 5.66). Dose-response trends were observed for chlorimuron-ethyl, chlorpyrifos, and phorate; the strongest odds ratio was for applying chlorpyrifos on more than 40 days per year (OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.24, 4.65). These results add to the emerging literature linking organophosphate insecticides and respiratory health and suggest a role for chlorimuron-ethyl. PMID:16611668

Hoppin, Jane A; Umbach, David M; London, Stephanie J; Lynch, Charles F; Alavanja, Michael C R; Sandler, Dale P

2006-06-15

170

Application of Commercial Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Sensors for Sub-Ambient Carbon Dioxide Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration within a spacecraft or spacesuit is critically important to ensuring the safety of the crew. Carbon dioxide uniquely absorbs light at wavelengths of 3.95 micrometers and 4.26 micrometers. As a result, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy can be employed as a reliable and inexpensive method for the quantification of CO2 within the atmosphere. A multitude of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) NDIR sensors exist for CO2 quantification. The COTS sensors provide reasonable accuracy so long as the measurements are attained under conditions close to the calibration conditions of the sensor (typically 21.1 C and 1 atm). However, as pressure deviates from atmospheric to the pressures associated with a spacecraft (8.0-10.2 PSIA) or spacesuit (4.1-8.0 PSIA), the error in the measurement grows increasingly large. In addition to pressure and temperature dependencies, the infrared transmissivity through a volume of gas also depends on the composition of the gas. As the composition is not known a priori, accurate sub-ambient detection must rely on iterative sensor compensation techniques. This manuscript describes the development of recursive compensation algorithms for sub-ambient detection of CO2 with COTS NDIR sensors. In addition, the basis of the exponential loss in accuracy is developed theoretically considering thermal, Doppler, and Lorentz broadening effects which arise as a result of the temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas mixture under analysis. As a result, this manuscript provides an approach to employing COTS sensors at sub-ambient conditions and may also lend insight into designing future NDIR sensors for aerospace application.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Boerman, Craig

2011-01-01

171

Geothermal potential for commercial and industrial direct heat applications in Salida, Colorado. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Salida Geothermal Prospect (Poncha Hot Springs) was evaluated for industrial and commercial direct heat applications at Salida, Colorado, which is located approximately five miles east of Poncha Hot Springs. Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd., holds the geothermal leases on the prospect and the right-of-way for the main pipeline to Salida. The Poncha Hot Springs are located at the intersection of two major structural trends, immediately between the Upper Arkansas graben and the Sangre de Cristo uplift. Prominent east-west faulting occurs at the actual location of the hot springs. Preliminary exploration indicates that 1600 gpm of geothermal fluid as hot as 250/sup 0/F is likely to be found at around 1500 feet in depth. The prospective existing endusers were estimated to require 5.02 x 10/sup 10/ Btu per year, but the total annual amount of geothermal energy available for existing and future endusers is 28.14 x 10/sup 10/ Btu. The engineering design for the study assumed that the 1600 gpm would be fully utilized. Some users would be cascaded and the spent fluid would be cooled and discharged to nearby rivers. The economic analysis assumes that two separate businesses, the energy producer and the energy distributor, are participants in the geothermal project. The producer would be an existing limited partnership, with Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd. as one of the partners; the distributor would be a new Colorado corporation without additional income sources. Economic evaluations were performed in full for four cases: the Base Case and three alternate scenarios. Alternate 1 assumes a three-year delay in realizing full production relative to the Base Case; Alternate 2 assumes that the geothermal reservoir is of a higher quality than is assumed for the Base Case; and Alternate 3 assumes a lower quality reservoir. 11 refs., 34 figs., 40 tabs.

Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.; Galloway, M.J.; Gross, J.T.; Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

1982-10-01

172

Application of Commercial Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Sensors for Sub-Ambient Carbon Dioxide Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration within a spacecraft or spacesuit is critically important to ensuring the safety of the crew. Carbon dioxide uniquely absorbs light at wavelengths of 3.95 micrometers and 4.26 micrometers. As a result, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy can be employed as a reliable and inexpensive method for the quantification of CO2 within the atmosphere. A multitude of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) NDIR sensors exist for CO2 quantification. The COTS sensors provide reasonable accuracy as long as the measurements are attained under conditions close to the calibration conditions of the sensor (typically 21.1 C (70.0 F) and 1 atmosphere). However, as pressure deviates from atmospheric to the pressures associated with a spacecraft (8.0{10.2 pounds per square inch absolute (psia)) or spacesuit (4.1{8.0 psia), the error in the measurement grows increasingly large. In addition to pressure and temperature dependencies, the infrared transmissivity through a volume of gas also depends on the composition of the gas. As the composition is not known a priori, accurate sub-ambient detection must rely on iterative sensor compensation techniques. This manuscript describes the development of recursive compensation algorithms for sub-ambient detection of CO2 with COTS NDIR sensors. In addition, the source of the exponential loss in accuracy is developed theoretically. The basis of the loss can be explained through thermal, Doppler, and Lorentz broadening effects that arise as a result of the temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas mixture under analysis. This manuscript provides an approach to employing COTS sensors at sub-ambient conditions and may also lend insight into designing future NDIR sensors for aerospace application.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

2012-01-01

173

Damage tolerance assessment of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft applications  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Aviation Administration has sponsored a project at its Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to validate the use of bonded composite doublers on commercial aircraft. A specific application was chosen in order to provide a proof-of-concept driving force behind this test and analysis project. However, the data stemming from this study serves as a comprehensive evaluation of bonded composite doublers for general use. The associated documentation package provides guidance regarding the design, analysis, installation, damage tolerance, and nondestructive inspection of these doublers. This report describes a series of fatigue and strength tests which were conducted to study the damage tolerance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Tension-tension fatigue and ultimate strength tests attempted to grow engineered flaws in coupons with composite doublers bonded to aluminum skin. An array of design parameters, including various flaw scenarios, the effects of surface impact, and other off-design conditions, were studied. The structural tests were used to: (1) assess the potential for interply delaminations and disbonds between the aluminum and the laminate, and (2) determine the load transfer and crack mitigation capabilities of composite doublers in the presence of severe defects. A series of specimens were subjected to ultimate tension tests in order to determine strength values and failure modes. It was demonstrated that even in the presence of extensive damage in the original structure (cracks, material loss) and in spite of non-optimum installations (adhesive disbonds), the composite doubler allowed the structure to survive more than 144,000 cycles of fatigue loading. Installation flaws in the composite laminate did not propagate over 216,000 fatigue cycles. Furthermore, the added impediments of impact--severe enough to deform the parent aluminum skin--and hot-wet exposure did not effect the doubler`s performance. Since the tests were conducting using extreme combinations of flaw scenarios (sizes and collocation) and excessive fatigue load spectrums, the performance parameters were arrived at in a conservative manner.

Roach, D.

1998-08-01

174

Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7B: Termites and Other Wood Destroying Pests. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite and wood destroying pest control category. The text discusses the importance, description, biology, and control of termites, powderpost beetles, house and warf borers, carpenter ants, and…

Schmitt, John B.

175

Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8B: Mosquito Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the mimimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the mosquito control category. The text discusses the aspects of mosquito biology and control by biological, mechanical, and integrated measures. A study guide with sample and study questions is included.…

Schulze, Terry L., Ed.; Kriner, Ray R., Ed.

176

Thermoluminescent characteristics of new pre-calibrated dosimeters (TLD) in commercially available readers for selected applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the performance of newly developed pre-calibrated Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLD) with a description and performance results for two commercially available TLD readers. Introduced for use in basic research, medical diagnostics and therapy applications, the Harshaw Model 5500 Automatic TLD Reader evaluates up to 50 dosimeters (rods, chips, disks, ?-cubes) per loading; the Harshaw Model 3500 Manual TLD Reader evaluates single dosimeters and powder. Tests were conducted using the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) guidelines for TLD readers to determine system performance and compliance. Both instruments passed the compliance standards in all tests established by the IEC: detection thresholds for both instruments were less than 10?Gy, reproducibility was better than 0.7%, sensitivity to ambient light was less than 0.2 Hmax (where Hmax is the maximum detection threshold), TL residue was less than 1% of the total integral charge, stability less than 1% deviation after a 24 hour warm-up period, linearity was within specification, test light stability was under 1%, and power leakage requirements set forth by UL-544 (less than 500 ?A AC RMS leakage) was less than 42 ?A AC RMS in all cases. The characteristics of newly introduced, factory calibrated, extruded TLD-100 rods were investigated by studying the consistency of the Element Correction Coefficients (ECCs) under a variety of conditions. The ECC (< x> / xi) relates an individual dosimeter's response, xi, to the mean response, < x>, of the group. Supralinearity effects and the validity of ECCs generated at 1 cGy for use in the 50-900 cGy dose range were characterized and reported. The results for two specific applications, phantom studies with 60Co and at four Orthovoltage energies are also reported. Portability of Element Correction Coefficients from reader to reader was achieved with a relative standard deviation of less than 1.7%. The relative standard deviation of five TLDs exposed to various doses in the range of 50-900 cGy, with ECCs applied using a 1 cGy dose, yielded results under 2%. At Orthovoltage energies ranging from 100 kV p to 300 kV p, the corresponding relative standard deviations were less than 3%.

Tawil, R. A.; Pontikos, P.; Szalanczy, A.; Velbeck, K.; Bruml, W.; Rotunda, J. E.

1994-12-01

177

40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

2013-07-01

178

40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.  

...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

2014-07-01

179

40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

2011-07-01

180

40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

2012-07-01

181

40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

2010-07-01

182

Estimating commercial property prices: an application of cokriging with housing prices as ancillary information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vast majority of the recent literature on spatial hedonic analysis has been concerned with residential property values, with only very few examples of studies focused on commercial property prices. The dearth of studies can be attributed to some of the challenges faced in the analysis of commercial properties, in particular the scarcity of information compared to residential transactions. In order to address this issue, in this paper we propose the use of cokriging and housing prices as ancillary information to estimate commercial property prices. Cokriging takes into account the spatial autocorrelation structure of property prices, and the use of more abundant information on housing prices helps to improve the accuracy of property value estimates. A case study of Toledo in Spain, a city for which commercial activity stemming from tourism is one of the key elements of the economy in the city, demonstrates that substantial accuracy and precision gains can be obtained from the use of cokriging.

Montero-Lorenzo, José-María; Larraz-Iribas, Beatriz; Páez, Antonio

2009-12-01

183

Commercialization of silicon on lattice-engineered substrate for electronic applications  

E-print Network

The commercial potential of SOLES (Silicon on Lattice-Engineered Substrate) is investigated considering the competing technologies, competing market players and market demands. Monolithic integration of Si devices with ...

Liang, Yu Yan

2008-01-01

184

Assessment of a Texas Structural Pesticide Applicator Training Course Based on Performance of Participants Seeking Commercial or Non-Commercial Applicator Licenses  

E-print Network

. They found that the gross sales of the industry were approximately $1.5 billion per year. Other findings were that the education level was high, with 85% of the certified applicators receiving a high school diploma or higher. They also found that most.... He found that 23% of the schools employed at least one certified applicator. He also found that 78% of the people responsible for pest control in Texas school districts had at least a high school diploma. He then found that 77.3% of school...

Brown, Jacob 1988-

2012-08-15

185

Moving research to patient applications through commercialization: understanding and evaluating the role of intellectual property.  

PubMed

The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization, and 5) the role of intellectual property and commercialization in the advancement of healthcare. PMID:20353687

Patino, Robert M

2010-03-01

186

Management of Musty Off-Flavor in Channel Catfish from Commercial Ponds with Weekly Applications of Copper Sulfate  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effectiveness of weekly low-dose applications of copper sulfate (0.12 mg of Cu\\/L of water) for reducing the prevalence of off-flavor in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus on commercial farms. The study was conducted over 3 years in ponds (3.2–8.4 ha) on two catfish farms in western Mississippi. Farm managers applied copper sulfate (0.5 mg of copper sulfate pentahydrate\\/L

Kevin K. Schrader; Craig S. Tucker; Terrill R. Hanson; Patrick D. Gerard; Susan K. Kingsbury; Agnes M. Rimando

2005-01-01

187

Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, ?) = { f( t, ?, u)} u?U is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function ? and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

Haddad, Georges

188

Natural Transfer of Viable Microbes in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including:—radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays; dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius×density), combined with dose

Curt Mileikowsky; Francis A. Cucinotta; John W. Wilson; Brett Gladman; Gerda Horneck; Lennart Lindegren; Jay Melosh; Hans Rickman; Mauri Valtonen; J. Q. Zheng

2000-01-01

189

Petroleum Coke: A Viable Fuel for Cogeneration  

E-print Network

PETROLEUM COKE: A VIABLE FUEL FOR COGENERATION RAYMOND E. DYMOND, DIRECTOR-PETROLEUM COKE, THE PACE CONSULTANTS, INC., HOUSTON, TEXAS OVERVIEW Petroleum coke is a by-product of the coking process which upgrades (converts) low-valued residual... oils into higher-valued transportation, heating and industrial fuels. Pace forecasts that by the year 2000 petroleum coke production will increase from 36 million to 47 million short tons/year. Because the crude pool will continue to become more...

Dymond, R. E.

190

Space Commercialization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

Martin, Gary L.

2011-01-01

191

Accelerating the commercialization of university technologies for military healthcare applications: the role of the proof of concept process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The von Liebig Center for Entrepreneurism and Technology Advancement at UC San Diego (vonliebig.ucsd.edu) is focused on accelerating technology transfer and commercialization through programs and education on entrepreneurism. Technology Acceleration Projects (TAPs) that offer pre-venture grants and extensive mentoring on technology commercialization are a key component of its model which has been developed over the past ten years with the support of a grant from the von Liebig Foundation. In 2010, the von Liebig Entrepreneurism Center partnered with the U.S. Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), to develop a regional model of Technology Acceleration Program initially focused on military research to be deployed across the nation to increase awareness of military medical needs and to accelerate the commercialization of novel technologies to treat the patient. Participants to these challenges are multi-disciplinary teams of graduate students and faculty in engineering, medicine and business representing universities and research institutes in a region, selected via a competitive process, who receive commercialization assistance and funding grants to support translation of their research discoveries into products or services. To validate this model, a pilot program focused on commercialization of wireless healthcare technologies targeting campuses in Southern California has been conducted with the additional support of Qualcomm, Inc. Three projects representing three different universities in Southern California were selected out of forty five applications from ten different universities and research institutes. Over the next twelve months, these teams will conduct proof of concept studies, technology development and preliminary market research to determine the commercial feasibility of their technologies. This first regional program will help build the needed tools and processes to adapt and replicate this model across other regions in the Country.

Ochoa, Rosibel; DeLong, Hal; Kenyon, Jessica; Wilson, Eli

2011-06-01

192

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION OF PLASMA MASS SEPARATION IN THE ARCHIMEDES FILTER PLANT  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the commercial application of an innovative plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter to a pre-treatment plant that can be integrated into the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford and Savannah River Sites to significantly enhance the treatment of radioactive high-level waste. The output of the Archimedes Filter is completely compatible with existing waste immobilization processes such as vitrification and requires no new waste form to be developed. A full-geometric-scale Demonstration Filter Unit (DEMO) has been constructed and is undergoing initial testing at the Archimedes Technology Group Development Facilities in San Diego. Some of the technology and engineering development is being performed by other organizations in collaboration with Archimedes. The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing the plasma calcination technology and all of the associated systems for AFP feed preparation. Two Russian institutes are involved in the development of the ICP torch and injector system. The Remote System Group (UT-Battelle) at ORNL is developing the remote maintenance system for the filter units. Conceptual design of the Archimedes Filter Plant (AFP) is being developed concurrently with the DEMO testing program. The AFP mission is to significantly reduce the cost and accelerate the rate of vitrification of high-level waste by separating low activity waste from the sludge removed from underground storage tanks. Mass separation is accomplished by vaporizing the sludge feed and injecting it into a partially ionized, neutral plasma. In a single pass, heavy ions are deposited near the center of the filter and light mass ions are transported by the plasma to the ends of the cylindrically-shaped vacuum vessel. Responding to the DOE programs for cost reduction and cleanup acceleration, the AFP Project is planned on an expeditious schedule that executes all phases of the project with private sector funding. The initial AFP implementation is targeted for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site. Hot commissioning is scheduled for late 2007 with design throughput and availability achieved by end of 2008. It is anticipated that AFP revenues will be based on a shared cost savings model, thus providing first revenues by late 2007. Preliminary safety studies have shown that AFP process hazards are similar to or less hazardous than those in a radio-chemical pre-treatment plant for high-level waste. Conservative criticality evaluations indicate very large margins from criticality. Development of a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report will begin in mid 2003 to support licensing activities. A detailed permitting plan has been developed which, when combined with other activities, support a start of construction in 2005.

Ahlfeld, C.E.; Gilleland, J.G.; Wagoner, J.D.

2003-02-27

193

40 CFR 171.6 - Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified private and commercial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified...APPLICATORS § 171.6 Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified...to be physically present, “direct supervision” shall include verifiable...

2011-07-01

194

40 CFR 171.6 - Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified private and commercial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified...APPLICATORS § 171.6 Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified...to be physically present, “direct supervision” shall include verifiable...

2010-07-01

195

Civil tiltrotor missions and applications. Phase 2: The commercial passenger market  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commercial passenger market for the civil tiltrotor was examined in phase 2. A market responsive commercial tiltrotor was found to be technically feasible, and a significant worldwide market potential was found to exist for such an aircraft, especially for relieving congestion in urban area-to-urban area service and for providing cost effective hub airport feeder service. Potential technical obstacles of community noise, vertiport area navigation, surveillance, and control, and the pilot/aircraft interface were determined to be surmountable. Nontechnical obstacles relating to national commitment and leadership and development of ground and air infrastructure were determined to be more difficult to resolve; an innovative public/private partnership is suggested to allow coordinated development of an initial commercial tiltrotor network to relieve congestion in the crowded US Northeast corridor by the year 2000.

Thompson, P.; Neir, R.; Reber, R.; Scholes, R.; Alexander, H.; Sweet, D.; Berry, D. (editor)

1991-01-01

196

A performance analysis on the application of commercial standards for IP SATCOM modems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of satellite communications (SATCOM) in support of the deployed warfighter has increased in recent years. With this increased reliance on SATCOM, the importance for a Department of Defense (DoD) wide strategy to efficiently procure and utilize the limited set of commercial DoD space assets has been emphasized. A step in the migration towards this strategy will be the

J. Heissler; J. Marshall; R. M. Piccola; R. V. Sonalkar; Jianyu Zeng

2005-01-01

197

Bioculture System Expanding ISS Capabilities for Space Biosciences Research and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oral presentation at the ASGSR 2013 Annual Meeting. The presentation describes the NASA Bioculture System hardware design, capabilities, enabling science research capabilities, and flight concept of operations. The presentation is part of the Enabling Technologies special session and will be presented to perspective users in both academics and commercial communities.

Sato, Kevin Y.

2013-01-01

198

Application of reactors for testing neutron-induced upsets in commercial SRAMs  

SciTech Connect

Reactor neutron environments can be used to test/screen the sensitivity of unhardened commercial SRAMs to low-LET neutron-induced upset. Tests indicate both thermal/epithermal (< 1 keV) and fast neutrons can cause upsets in unhardened parts. Measured upset rates in reactor environments can be used to model the upset rate for arbitrary neutron spectra.

Griffin, P.J.; Luera, T.F.; Sexton, F.W.; Cooper, P.J.; Karr, S.G.; Hash, G.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fuller, E. [Novus Technology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-08-01

199

75 FR 33661 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Rotel North American Tours, LLC; Application for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...drivers, employed by Rotel and possessing German CDLs, to operate commercial motor vehicles...in the U.S., Mexico and Canada for German and Austrian tourists. Rotel bus drivers...request to allow 22 drivers, each holding a German CDL, to operate Rotel motor coaches...

2010-06-14

200

Natural transfer of viable microbes in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency.

Mileikowsky, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Gladman, B.; Horneck, G.; Lindegren, L.; Melosh, J.; Rickman, H.; Valtonen, M.; Zheng, J. Q.

2000-01-01

201

Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

1980-09-01

202

More viable parameter space for leptogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lepton flavor asymmetries generated at the onset of the oscillations of sterile neutrinos with masses above the electroweak scale can be large enough to partly survive washout and to explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. This opens up new regions of parameter space, where leptogenesis is viable within the type-I seesaw framework. In particular, we find it possible that the sterile neutrino masses are substantially below 109 GeV, while not being degenerate. However, the required reheat temperature that is determined by the beginning of the oscillations lies some orders of magnitude above the sterile neutrino mass scale.

Garbrecht, Björn

2014-09-01

203

More Viable Parameter Space for Leptogenesis  

E-print Network

Lepton flavour asymmetries generated at the onset of the oscillations of sterile neutrinos with masses above the electroweak scale can be large enough to partly survive washout and to explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. This opens up new regions of parameter space, where Leptogenesis is viable within the type-I seesaw framework. In particular, we find it possible that the sterile neutrinos masses are substantially below 10^9 GeV, while not being degenerate. However, the required reheat temperature that is determined by the begin of the oscillations lies some orders of magnitude above the sterile neutrino mass-scale.

Bjorn Garbrecht

2014-09-25

204

Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

205

Automatic tuning of commercial PID controllers for single-loop and multiloop applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain continuous-time self-tuning algorithms are shown to be capable of generating tuning parameters for commercial proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. They are also shown to be capable of generating a feedforward signal that decouples the disturbance from the interaction from adjacent loops in a multivariable situation. The approach is verified using a standard Atari personal computer supervising Eurotherm 820 PID controllers. Two

Peter J. Gawthrop; Panos E. Nomikos

1990-01-01

206

In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot Potential Commercial and Exploration Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The key goals and objectives for an In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot are to support a safe, reliable, affordable and effective future human and robotic space exploration initiative. Previous studies have been conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to determine technical requirements and feasibility for exploration and commercial potential of an in-space cryogenic propellant depot in low-Earth-orbit (LEO), low-Lunar orbit (LLO) and/or on the lunar surface. Results indicate that in-space cryogenic propellant depots are technically feasible given continued technology development and that there is a substantial growing market that depots could support. Systems studies showed that the most expensive part of transferring payloads to geo-synchronous-orbit (GEO) is the fuel. A cryogenic propellant production and storage depot stationed in LEO could lower the cost of missions to GEO and beyond. Propellant production separates water into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis. This process requires large amounts of power which is enabled by Space Solar Power technologies. Recent analysis indicate that in the coming decades there could be a significant demand for water-based propellants from Earth, moon, or asteroid resources if in-space transfer vehicles (upper stages) transitioned to reusable systems using water based propellants. This type of strategic planning move could create a substantial commercial market for space resources development, and ultimately lead toward significant commercial infrastructure development within the Earth-Moon system.

Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; Henley, Mark W.

2006-01-01

207

The BioDyn facility on ISS: Advancing biomaterial production in microgravity for commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary goals of the BioDyn program are to foster use of the microgravity environment for commercial production of bio-materials from cells, and to develop services and processes for obtaining these materials through space processing. The scope of products includes commercial bio-molecules such as cytokines, other cell growth regulatory proteins, hormones, monoclonal antibodies and enzymes; transplantable cells or tissues which can be improved by low-G processes, or which cannot be obtained through standard processes in earth gravity; agriculture biotechnology products from plant cells; microencapsulation for diabetes treatment; and factors regulating cellular aging. To facilitate BioDyn's commercial science driven goals, hardware designed for ISS incorporates the flexibility for interchange between the different ISS facilities including the glovebox, various thermal units and centrifuges. By providing a permanent research facility, ISS is the critical space-based platform required by scientists for carrying out the long-term experiments necessary for developing bio-molecules and tissues using several cell culture modalities including suspension and anchorage-dependent cell types.

Myers, Niki; Wessling, Francis; Deuser, Mark; Anderson, C. D.; Lewis, Marian

1999-01-01

208

Viable Supersymmetry and Leptogenesis with Anomaly Mediation  

SciTech Connect

The seesaw mechanism that explains the small neutrino masses comes naturally with supersymmetric (SUSY) grand unification and leptogenesis. However, the framework suffers from the SUSY flavor and CP problems, and has a severe cosmological gravitino problem. We propose anomaly mediation as a simple solution to all these problems, which is viable once supplemented by the D-terms for U(1)_Y and U(1)_B-L. Even though the right-handed neutrino mass explicitly breaks U(1)_B-L and hence reintroduces the flavor problem, we show that it lacks the logarithmic enhancement and poses no threat to the framework. The thermal leptogenesis is then made easily consistent with the gravitino constraint.

Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi; Yanagida, Tsutomu

2005-01-13

209

[PAH Cations as Viable Carriers of DIBs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is intended to fill in the blanks in NASA's file system for our lab astro study of molecular ions of astrophysical interest. In order to give NASA what it needs for its files, I attach below the text of the section from our recent proposal to continue this work, in which we describe progress to date, including a large number of publications. Our initial studies were focused on PAH cations, which appear to be viable candidates as the carriers of the DIBs, an idea that has been supported by laboratory spectroscopy of PAH cations in inert matrices. Beginning with the simplest aromatic (benzene; C6H6) and moving progressively to larger species (naphthalene, C10OH8; pyrene, C16H10; and most recently chrysene, C18H12), we have been able to derive rate coefficients for reactions with neutral spices that are abundant in the diffuse interstellar medium.

Snow, Ted

1998-01-01

210

Application of commercially pure titanium coatings using HVOF thermal spray for machinery component restoration  

SciTech Connect

Alloy 625 has been shown to be susceptible to crevice corrosion under tight metal to nonmetal crevices in both natural and treated seawater. Under similar conditions, commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) has been shown to be immune. Therefore, coating alloy 625 sealing areas with CP Ti is a potentially effective crevice corrosion countermeasure. Specialized thermal spray techniques were developed utilizing the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process to apply coatings of CP Ti to alloy 625 substrates in atmosphere. Coating quality was similar to plasma sprayed coatings of other less reactive, metals. Crevice corrosion tests were conducted and issues relating to implementation of HVOF thermal spraying on a production basis were considered.

McCaw, R.L.; Hays, R.A.; Brenna, R.T.

1994-12-31

211

Characteristics of multi-layer coating formed on commercially pure titanium for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

An innovative multi-layer coating comprising a bioactive compound layer (consisting of hydroxyapatite and calcium titanate) with an underlying titanium oxide layer (in the form of anatase and rutile) has been developed on Grade 4 quality commercially pure titanium via a single step micro-arc oxidation process. Deposition of a multi-layer coating on titanium enhanced the bioactivity, while providing antibacterial characteristics as compared its untreated state. Furthermore, introduction of silver (4.6wt.%) into the multi-layer coating during micro-arc oxidation process imposed superior antibacterial efficiency without sacrificing the bioactivity. PMID:25579960

Teker, Dilek; Muhaffel, Faiz; Menekse, Meryem; Karaguler, Nevin Gul; Baydogan, Murat; Cimenoglu, Huseyin

2015-03-01

212

43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

2014-10-01

213

43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

2011-10-01

214

43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

2013-10-01

215

43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

2012-10-01

216

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1C: Agricultural Crop Disease Control. CS-11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. It summarizes the economically important diseases of field and forage crops such as corn, soybeans and alfalfa. Special attention is given to pesticide application methods and safety. (CS)

Nyvall, Robert F.; Ryan, Stephen O.

217

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1A: Agricultural Weed Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Weeds, their effects, and control in relation to crop production are presented. Pre- and post-emergence treatments are discussed for row crops such as corn and soybeans. Problems with herbicide application to grass pastures, small grains, and…

Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

218

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Food Processing Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Characteristics, life cycles and habits of pests such as roaches, beetles, flies, ants and rodents are discussed. Additionally, pest control measures, especially by application of aerosols, dusts, baits, fumigants or vapors, is presented. (CS)

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

219

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 5: Aquatic Pest Control. CS-17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the control of aquatic weeds in a variety of water use situations, i.e. static water, limited-flow impoundments and moving water. Also discussed are the principles of limited area application such as surface or…

Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

220

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 6: Right-of-Way Pest Control. CS-18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses important right-of-way weeds and unwanted woody plants and provides suggestions for both long- and short-term control. Attention is also given to special problems associated with application of right-of-way herbicides.…

Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephan O.

221

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the recognition of weeds and methods of their control in rights-of-way. Different types of application equipment both airborne and ground are discussed with precautions for the safe and effective use of herbicides. (CS)

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

222

On the Use of Thermoelectric (TE) Applications Based on Commercial Modules: The Case of TE Generator and TE Cooler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, thermoelectricity sees rapidly increasing usages in applications like portable refrigerators, beverage coolers, electronic component coolers etc. when used as Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC), and Thermoelectric Generators (TEG) which make use of the Seebeck effect in semiconductors for the direct conversion of heat into electrical energy and is of particular interest for systems of highest reliability or for waste heat recovery. In this work, we examine the performance of commercially available TEC and TEG. A prototype TEC-refrigerator has been designed, modeled and constructed for in-car applications. Additionally, a TEG was made, in order to measure the gained power and efficiency. Furthermore, a TEG module was tested on a small size car (Toyota Starlet, 1300 cc), in order to measure the gained power and efficiency for various engine loads. With the use of a modeling approach, we evaluated the thermal contact resistances and their influence on the final device efficiency.

Zorbas, K.; Hatzikraniotis, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Kyratsi, Th.

2010-01-01

223

Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator system. Phase I. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the design and analysis of the BDM CAPVC (Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator) system. The preliminary design, prototype test and evaluation, system analysis, and final design of a large-scale concentrating photovoltaic system are described. The application is on an attractive new office building which represents a large potential market. The photovoltaic concentrating array is a roof-mounted, single-axis linear parabolic trough, using single crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells. A total of 6720 square feet of aperture is focussed on 13,944 PV cells. The photovoltaic system operates in parallel with the local utility in an augmentary loadsharing operating mode. The array is actively cooled and the thermal energy utilized for building heat during winter months. (WHK)

Anderson, D.J.; Anderson, E.R.; Bardwell, K.M.

1980-04-01

224

Being everything to anyone: Applicability of thermoacoustic technology in the commercial refrigeration market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will compare electrodynamically driven thermoacoustic refrigeration technology to some common implementations of low-lift vapor-compression technology. A rudimentary explanation of vapor-compression refrigeration will be presented along with some of the implementation problems faced by refrigeration engineers using compressor-based systems. These problems include oil management, compressor slugging, refrigerant leaks and the environmental impact of refrigerants. Recently, the method of evaluating this environmental impact has been codified to include the direct effects of the refrigerants on global warming as well as the so-called ``indirect'' warming impact of the carbon dioxide released during the generation (at the power plant) of the electrical power consumed by the refrigeration equipment. It is issues like these that generate commercial interest in an alternative refrigeration technology. However, the requirements of a candidate technology for adoption in a mature and risk-averse commercial refrigeration industry are as hard to divine as they are to meet. Also mentioned will be the state of other alternative refrigeration technologies like free-piston Stirling, thermoelectric and magnetocaloric as well as progress using vapor compression technology with alternative refrigerants like hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide.

Poese, Matthew E.; Smith, Robert W. M.; Garrett, Steven L.

2005-09-01

225

The law applicable to the use of space for commercial activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general principles of space law that have an impact on commercial space activities are discussed. The Outer Space Treaty guaranteed the right of private enterprise in space, with jurisdiction over the participating parties residing in the country of origin. The liability for damages caused to a third party is also assigned to the country of origin. Government consent is necessary in the U.S. before a private firm is permitted to launch an object into space, with the relevant statute sections being part of the Arms Export Control Act; launches are legally treated as exports. FAA regulations define the safe area and flight conditions that must be satisfied for a private launch, although NASA, in the 1958 act which formed the agency, potentialy has the power to regulate space launch activities. The DoD must be notified of any launches in order to notify the U.S.S.R., filings must be made with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, and fees must be paid to the IRS. It is presently U.S. government policy to encourage and facilitate private sector development of commercial launch services.

Hosenball, S. N.

1983-01-01

226

Report of the Commercial Space Committee NASA Advisory Council  

E-print Network

that the NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program to develop and demonstrate commercial at a deliberate pace. The Commercial Space Committee intends to closely follow the progress of the COTS Cargo. The committee believes that the Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) program could be a viable

Waliser, Duane E.

227

The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

2008-01-01

228

77 FR 13684 - Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Daimler Trucks North America...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards: Application for Exemption; Daimler Trucks North America (Daimler) AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that Daimler Trucks North America (Daimler) has applied for two drivers of...

2012-03-07

229

75 FR 2921 - Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards: Application for Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) has applied for an exemption from the...

2010-01-19

230

75 FR 8181 - Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Standards: Application for Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo) has applied for an exemption from the...

2010-02-23

231

40 CFR 171.6 - Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified private and commercial...  

...many situations, where the certified applicator is not required to be physically present, “direct supervision” shall include verifiable instruction to the competent person, as follows: (1) Detailed guidance for applying the...

2014-07-01

232

40 CFR 171.6 - Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified private and commercial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...many situations, where the certified applicator is not required to be physically present, “direct supervision” shall include verifiable instruction to the competent person, as follows: (1) Detailed guidance for applying the...

2013-07-01

233

40 CFR 171.6 - Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified private and commercial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...many situations, where the certified applicator is not required to be physically present, “direct supervision” shall include verifiable instruction to the competent person, as follows: (1) Detailed guidance for applying the...

2012-07-01

234

Commercialization potential of compositionally graded Ge - Si??x?Gex? - Si substrates for solar applications  

E-print Network

This project considers the potential of Ge - Si??x?Gex? - Si substrates for solar applications. The use of compositionally graded substrates to achieve heterointegration across different materials platforms such as Si, Ge ...

Goh, Johnathan Jian Ming

2006-01-01

235

Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 2: Technical final report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intersatellite Link (ISL) applications can improve and expand communication satellite services in a number of ways. As the demand for orbital slots within prime regions of the geostationary arc increases, attention is being focused on ISLs as a method to utilize this resource more efficiently and circumvent saturation. Various GEO-to-GEO applications were determined that provide potential benefits over existing communication systems. A set of criteria was developed to assess the potential applications. Intersatellite link models, network system architectures, and payload configurations were developed. For each of the chosen ISL applications, ISL versus non-ISL satellite systems architectures were derived. Both microwave and optical ISL implementation approaches were evaluated for payload sizing and cost analysis. The technological availability for ISL implementations was assessed. Critical subsystems technology areas were identified, and an estamate of the schedule and cost to advance the technology to the requiered state of readiness was made.

Young, S. Lee

1987-01-01

236

Commercial potential for thermal & magnetic sensitive polymer in drug delivery applications  

E-print Network

Thermal and magnetically sensitive polymers are a new class of materials with unique properties suitable for applications in drug delivery. Specifically, these polymers can be combined with a drug reservoir to make a drug ...

Edward, Jonathan M. (Jonathan Mark)

2008-01-01

237

Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Animal. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Chapter one deals with the safety problems of pesticide use to humans, livestock and the environment. The second chapter is concerned with the types of application equipment and their utilization. Specific pests of livestock and poultry…

Pendleton, R. F., Ed.; Schmidtmann, E. T., Ed.

238

Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part I - progress in the patent landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 20 years, diffractive optics experienced a strong research interest and was in the center of many development projects in applied optics. To offer a side view for optical engineers, here, we discuss selected, business-related aspects of the current status of the transfer process to bring diffractive optics into commercial products. The contribution is divided into two parts. Here, in part I, we focus on the patent landscape of diffractive optics with a closer look on the temporal development and the distribution over main players. As an important result, currently, new strong patent activities are observed especially in the context of imaging systems. In the second part, the business volumes of selected market segments are discussed.

Brunner, Robert

2013-12-01

239

Reactor physics data -- Application of the U.S. MOX commercial experience  

SciTech Connect

As part of the support provided to the US Department of Energy`s Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff have conducted an extensive review of the worldwide commercial mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel irradiation experience, focusing on fuel performance issues. The limited US experience obtained in the 1960s and 1970s has, for the most part, been superseded by the more recent and voluminous European experience associated with MOX fuel performance. However, the foregoing generalization does not totally devalue the US experience with MOX fuels. The domestic experience base was recently reexamined by ORNL. One aspect associated with the domestic MOX fuel experience was judged to have particular relevance to the FMDP mission: neutronics and shielding-related measurements associated with MOX fuel. Additional information concerning the neutronics computer code validation is available from ORNL.

Fisher, S.E.; Difilippo, F.C.; Cowell, B.S.

1998-12-31

240

Thermographic-phosphor temperature measurements: Commercial and defense-related applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a review of a diverse set of applications of the thermographic-phosphor (TP) method for measuring temperatures remotely. The TP method is useful in hostile and/or inaccessible environments where no other known method works. It is highly accurate, nonintrusive, durable, conceptually simple, covers an unprecedented temperature range (0 K to >1200 K), can measure temperature at a single point or over an entire surface, and can make static, steady-state, or very high speed dynamic measurements. The TP method can also be used to make leadless, remotely interrogated heat-flux gauges that can nonintrusively measure spatial distributions of heat flux over arbitrarily large areas with high resolution. The applications described include measurements in gas centrifuges, motors, variable-area ejectors, rotors and stators in gas turbines, and others. The authors also briefly discuss heat-flux gauges and their applications.

Noel, B.W. [Noel (B.W.), Espanola, NM (United States); Turley, W.D. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Goleta, CA (United States); Allison, S.W. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1994-06-01

241

Study of fuel cell on-site, integrated energy systems in residential/commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three building applications were selected for a detailed study: a low rise apartment building; a retail store, and a hospital. Building design data were then specified for each application, based on the design and construction of typical, actual buildings. Finally, a computerized building loads analysis program was used to estimate hourly end use load profiles for each building. Conventional and fuel cell based energy systems were designed and simulated for each building in each location. Based on the results of a computer simulation of each energy system, levelized annual costs and annual energy consumptions were calculated for all systems.

Wakefield, R. A.; Karamchetty, S.; Rand, R. H.; Ku, W. S.; Tekumalla, V.

1980-01-01

242

Microencapsulated Fuel Technology for Commercial Light Water and Advanced Reactor Application  

SciTech Connect

The potential application of microencapsulated fuels to light water reactors (LWRs) has been explored. The specific fuel manifestation being put forward is for coated fuel particles embedded in silicon carbide or zirconium metal matrices. Detailed descriptions of these concepts are presented, along with a review of attributes, potential benefits, and issues with respect to their application in LWR environments, specifically from the standpoints of materials, neutronics, operations, and economics. Preliminary experiment and modeling results imply that with marginal redesign, significant gains in operational reliability and accident response margins could be potentially achieved by replacing conventional oxide-type LWR fuel with microencapsulated fuel forms.

Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL

2012-01-01

243

Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice  

SciTech Connect

Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

2007-07-15

244

Constitutive exposure of phosphatidylserine on viable cells  

PubMed Central

Apoptotic cells are quickly recognized and engulfed by phagocytes to prevent the release of noxious materials from dying cells. Phosphatidylserine (PS) exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells is a proposed “eat-me” signal for the phagocytes. Transmembrane protein 16F (TMEM16F), a membrane protein with eight transmembrane segments, has the Ca-dependent phospholipid scramblase activity. Here we show that when lymphoma cells were transformed with a constitutively active form of TMEM16F, they exposed a high level of PS that was comparable to that observed on apoptotic cells. The PS-exposing cells were morphologically normal and grew normally. They efficiently responded to interleukin 3 and underwent apoptosis upon treatment with Fas ligand. The viable PS-exposing cells bound to peritoneal macrophages at 4 °C, but not at 25 °C. Accordingly, these cells were not engulfed by macrophages. When apoptotic cells were injected i.v. into mice, they were phagocytosed by CD11c+CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs) in the spleen, but the PS-exposing living cells were not phagocytosed by these DCs. Furthermore, when PS-exposing lymphoma cells were transplanted s.c. into nude mice, they generated tumors as efficiently as parental lymphoma cells that did not expose PS. These results indicated that PS exposure alone is not sufficient to be recognized by macrophages as an eat-me signal. PMID:22084121

Segawa, Katsumori; Suzuki, Jun; Nagata, Shigekazu

2011-01-01

245

Decision support systems and applications in ophthalmology: literature and commercial review focused on mobile apps.  

PubMed

The growing importance that mobile devices have in daily life has also reached health care and medicine. This is making the paradigm of health care change and the concept of mHealth or mobile health more relevant, whose main essence is the apps. This new reality makes it possible for doctors who are not specialist to have easy access to all the information generated in different corners of the world, making them potential keepers of that knowledge. However, the new daily information exceeds the limits of the human intellect, making Decision Support Systems (DSS) necessary for helping doctors to diagnose diseases and also help them to decide the attitude that has to be taken towards these diagnoses. These could improve the health care in remote areas and developing countries. All of this is even more important in diseases that are more prevalent in primary care and that directly affect the people's quality of life, this is the case in ophthalmological problems where in first patient care a specialist in ophthalmology is not involved. The goal of this paper is to analyse the state of the art of DSS in Ophthalmology. Many of them focused on diseases affecting the eye's posterior pole. For achieving the main purpose of this research work, a literature review and commercial apps analysis will be done. The used databases and systems will be IEEE Xplore, Web of Science (WoS), Scopus, and PubMed. The search is limited to articles published from 2000 until now. Later, different Mobile Decision Support System (MDSS) in Ophthalmology will be analyzed in the virtual stores for Android and iOS. 37 articles were selected according their thematic (posterior pole, anterior pole, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), cloud, data mining, algorithms and structures for DSS, and other) from a total of 600 found in the above cited databases. Very few mobile apps were found in the different stores. It can be concluded that almost all existing mobile apps are focused on the eye's posterior pole. Among them, the most intended are for diagnostic of diabetic retinopathy. The primary market niche of the commercial apps is the general physicians. PMID:25472731

de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Martínez-Pérez, Borja; López-Coronado, Miguel; Díaz, Javier Rodríguez; López, Miguel Maldonado

2015-01-01

246

Mission computer replacement prototype for Special Operations Forces aircraft: an application of commercial technology to avionics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to improve the reliability and maintainability of Special Operations Forces (SOF) fixed wing aircraft avionics by developing the mission computer replacement prototype (MCRP), are described. The purpose of the MCRP is to design, build, and demonstrate a replacement mission computer that is applicable across SOF aircraft. Our goal is to develop an open architecture mission computer based on industry

H. Lowery; B. Mitchell

2000-01-01

247

Industrial-hygiene characterization of commercial applications of genetic engineering and biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Walkthrough surveys of six companies involved in research and development of recombinant DNA techniques applicable to fermentation processes (SIC-7391) were conducted. Engineering controls at the sites included general and local ventilation systems, gas filtration, waste-products control, biological safety cabinets, access barriers, and room surfaces that met National Institutes of Health guidelines for working with contaminants. Five companies regularly tested and

L. J. Elliott; G. Carson; S. Pauker; K. Wallingford

1983-01-01

248

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and…

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

249

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Vegetable Pests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in vegetable crops prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on vegetable pest control. The three sections presented describe: (1) Insect pests of vegetable crops; (2) Weed pests of vegetable crops; and (3) Causes of…

Cress, D.; And Others

250

Climbing Robots for Commercial Applications a K. Berns, C. Hillenbrand, T. Luksch  

E-print Network

in the petrochemical industry, maintenance and inspection work in the construction and nuclear industry or cleaning) wheeled-driven or chain-driven machines, (2) legged locomotion, (3) locomotion based on arms and grippers a view machines build for applications because the control of locomotion is very complex. The adhesion

Berns, Karsten

251

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 4: Seed Treatment. CS-16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the storage insects, soil insects and fungi which are the major kinds of seed pests. Chemical and nonchemical control measures and the labeling and coloring requirements for treated seed are also discussed.…

Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

252

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Control of Wood Destroying Pests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist pesticide applicators in the category of wood destroying organisms to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of the Agriculture for certification. The 10 sections included describe: (1) Subterranean termites; (2) Dampwood termites; (3) Drywood termites; (4) Powder-post beetles; (5) Old house borer; (6)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

253

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

Brunner, J.; And Others

254

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of aquatic pest control meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aquatic Pest Control Guide served as a basis for this manual. The six sections presented describe: (1) Aquatic pest control; (2)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

255

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

256

MOA2—an R&D paradigm buster enabling space propulsion by commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 60 years after the late Nobel laureate Hannes Alfvén had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfvén waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. Consequently improved since then, the name of the latest concept, relying on magneto-acoustic waves to accelerate electric conductive matter, is MOA2—Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified Accelerator. Based on computer simulations, which were undertaken to get a first estimate on the performance of the system, MOA2 is a corrosion free and highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted in operation, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable of delivering a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. First tests—that are further described in this paper—have been conducted successfully with a 400 W prototype system at an ambient pressure of 0.20 Pa, delivered 9.24 mN of thrust at 1472 s ISP, thereby underlining the feasibility of the concept. Based on these results, space propulsion is expected to be a prime application for MOA2—a claim that is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion. However, MOA2 has so far seen most of its R&D impetus from terrestrial applications, like coating, semiconductor implantation and manufacturing as well as steel cutting. Based on this observation, MOA2 resembles an R&D paradigm buster, as it is the first space propulsion system, whose R&D is driven primarily by its terrestrial applications. Different terrestrial applications exist, but the most successful scenarios so far revolve around MOA2's unique features with respect to high throughput/low target temperature coatings on sensitive materials. In combination with its intrinsic high flexibility, MOA2 is highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. This paper presents the recent developments of the MOA2 R&D activities at Q2 Technologie(s), the company in Vienna, Austria, which has been set up to further develop and test the magneto-acoustic wave technology and its applications.

Frischauf, Norbert; Hettmer, Manfred; Koudelka, Otto; Löb, Horst

2012-04-01

257

BAE Systems' 17?m LWIR camera core for civil, commercial, and military applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventeen (17) µm pixel Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Sensors based on vanadium oxide (VOx) micro-bolometers have been in full rate production at BAE Systems' Night Vision Sensors facility in Lexington, MA for the past five years.[1] We introduce here a commercial camera core product, the Airia-MTM imaging module, in a VGA format that reads out in 30 and 60Hz progressive modes. The camera core is architected to conserve power with all digital interfaces from the readout integrated circuit through video output. The architecture enables a variety of input/output interfaces including Camera Link, USB 2.0, micro-display drivers and optional RS-170 analog output supporting legacy systems. The modular board architecture of the electronics facilitates hardware upgrades allow us to capitalize on the latest high performance low power electronics developed for the mobile phones. Software and firmware is field upgradeable through a USB 2.0 port. The USB port also gives users access to up to 100 digitally stored (lossless) images.

Lee, Jeffrey; Rodriguez, Christian; Blackwell, Richard

2013-06-01

258

The application of photovoltaic roof shingles to residential and commercial buildings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent development of a shingle-type solar-cell module makes it possible to incorporate easily photovoltaic power generation into the sloping roofs of residential or commercial buildings. These modules, which use a closely packed array of nineteen 53-mm-diameter circular solar cells, are capable of producing 101 watts/sq m of module area under standard operating conditions. This module performance is achievable by the use of solar cells with an average efficiency of 13.3 percent at 1 kW/sq m air-mass-1.5 insolation and at a cell temperature of 28 C. When these modules are mounted on a sloping south-facing roof which is insulated on the rear surface, the annual energy generated at the maximum power operating point will vary from 255.6 to 137.3 kWh/sq m of module area depending on the site location, with Albuquerque, NM, and Seattle, WA, representing the highest and lowest values of the thirteen sites considered.

Shepard, N. F., Jr.; Sanchez, L. E.

1978-01-01

259

Development of Commercial RE123 Coated Conductors for Practical Applications by IBAD/PLD Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longitudinal homogeneity and REBa2Cu3Ox: RE123 thickness dependence of in-field superconducting properties for commercial RE123 coated conductors (C.C.) were measured at varied temperatures. Self-field Ic homogeneity for typical ?500-m long samples were evaluated below 2% measured by continues reel-to-reel measurement. In-field Ic distributions were not changed at temperatures from 10K to 77.3K, being estimated by Ic measurements at separated points of a 1 km long sample. Linear dependences of in-field Ic on RE123 thickness up to 5 ?m were observed at temperatures of 20K and 77.3K, in contrast with non-linear dependences observed for self-field Ic for RE123 films. The results indicate good longitudinal homogeneity and universal linearity of thickness dependence for in-field Ic at wide temperature range, which suggest simple scaling for in-field Ic of RE123 wires among different temperatures.

Iijima, Y.; Fujita, S.; Igarashi, M.; Daibo, M.; Nakamura, N.; Hanyu, S.; Kikutake, R.; Sutoh, Y.; Tobita, H.; Fuji, H.; Kakimoto, K.; Nagata, M.; Itoh, M.

260

Ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography of lipophilic compounds with application to synthetic and commercial biodiesel.  

PubMed

Ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) in combination with sub-2?m particles and either diode array ultraviolet (UV), evaporative light scattering, (ELSD), or mass spectrometric (MS) detection has been shown to be a valuable technique for the determination of acylglycerols in soybean, corn, sesame, and tobacco seed oils. Excellent resolution on an un-endcapped single C18 column (3.0mm×150mm) with a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile and carbon dioxide in as little as 10min served greatly as an improvement on first generation packed column SFC instrumentation. Unlike high resolution gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, UHPSFC/MS was determined to be a superior analytical tool for both separation and detection of mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerols as well as free glycerol itself in biodiesel without derivatization. Baseline separation of residual tri-, di-, and mono-acylglycerols alongside glycerol at 0.05% (w/w) was easily obtained employing packed column SFC. The new analytical methodology was applied to both commercial B100 biodiesel (i.e. fatty acid methyl esters) derived from vegetable oil and to an "in-house" synthetic biodiesel (i.e. fatty acid ethyl esters) derived from tobacco seed oil and ethanol both before and after purification via column chromatography on bare silica. PMID:25635951

Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Yang, J; Rainville, P; Jones, M D; Fountain, K J; Isaac, G; Taylor, L T

2015-03-01

261

Thin Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization, Critical Issues, and Applications; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

We report here on the major commercialization aspects of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies based on CIGS and CdTe (a-Si and thin-Si are also reported for completeness on the status of thin-film PV). Worldwide silicon (Si) based PV technologies continues to dominate at more than 94% of the market share, with the share of thin-film PV at less than 6%. However, the market share for thin-film PV in the United States continues to grow rapidly over the past several years and in CY 2006, they had a substantial contribution of about 44%, compared to less than 10% in CY 2003. In CY 2007, thin-film PV market share is expected to surpass that of Si technology in the United States. Worldwide estimated projections for CY 2010 are that thin-film PV production capacity will be more than 3700 MW. A 40-MW thin-film CdTe solar field is currently being installed in Saxony, Germany, and will be completed in early CY 2009. The total project cost is Euro 130 million, which equates to an installed PV system price of Euro 3.25/-watt averaged over the entire solar project. This is the lowest price for any installed PV system in the world today. Critical research, development, and technology issues for thin-film CIGS and CdTe are also elucidated in this paper.

Ullal, H. S.; von Roedern, B.

2007-09-01

262

A closed loop wireless power transmission system using a commercial RFID transceiver for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

This paper presents a standalone closed loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (MLX90121) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop fashion. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID transceivers are often used open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 1.48 mW over a range of 6 to 12 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 0.3 W to 1.21 W. The closed loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in load current. PMID:19963595

Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2009-01-01

263

Application of statistical experimental methodology to optimize reactive dye decolourization by commercial laccase.  

PubMed

Three-level Box-Behnken factorial design with three factors (pH, temperature and enzyme concentration) combined with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the dye degradation of reactive red 239 (RR239), reactive yellow 15 (RY15) and reactive blue 114 (RB114) dyes by commercial laccase. Mathematical models were developed for each dye showing the effect of each factor and their interactions on colour removal. The model predicted for RY15 that a decolourization above 90% (after 24h) could be obtained when the enzyme concentration, temperature and pH were set at 109.8U/L, 39.2 degrees C and 6.6, respectively; whilst for RB114 and RR239 the temperature and enzyme concentration did not affect the decolourization (>90%) in the considered range and optimum pH value was found at 5.5-7.0 and 7.0-7.5, respectively. These predicted values were also experimentally validated. Average final values of responses were in good agreement with calculated values, thus confirming the reliability of the models of RY15, RB114 and RR239 decolourization. PMID:18639377

Tavares, Ana P M; Cristóvão, Raquel O; Loureiro, José M; Boaventura, Rui A R; Macedo, Eugénia A

2009-03-15

264

Application of handheld and portable spectrometers for screening acrylamide content in commercial potato chips.  

PubMed

The most common methods for acrylamide analysis in foods require the use of LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. Although these methods have great analytical performance, they need intensive sample preparation, highly specialised instrumentation, and are time consuming. In this study, portable and handheld infrared spectrometers were evaluated as rapid methods for screening acrylamide in potato chips and their performances were compared to those of benchtop infrared systems. The acrylamide content of 64 commercial potato chips (169-2453?g/kg) was determined by LC-MS/MS. Spectral data were collected using mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) calibration models were developed to predict acrylamide levels. Overall, good linear correlation was found between the predicted acrylamide levels and actual measured acrylamide concentrations by LC-MS/MS (rPred>0.90 and SEP<100?g/kg). Our results indicate that portable and handheld spectrometers can be used as simple and rapid alternatives for acrylamide analysis in potato chips. PMID:25529665

Ayvaz, Huseyin; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

2015-05-01

265

Application of submarine extended operating cycle programs to the enhancement of commercial nuclear power plant operation and maintenance  

SciTech Connect

During the past 10 yr, the US Navy has extended submarine operating cycles - the period between major ship overhauls - from 4 to > 15 yr. Major programs to extend submarine operating cycles have been the submarine extended operating cycle (SEOC) and the engineered SEOC programs. Currently, the navy is incorporating lessons learned from these programs, as well as new concepts, into its newest Seawolf (SSN-21) ship class. Major elements of these programs are a disciplined machinery condition assessment (MCA) program consisting of intrusive and nonintrusive elements, the use of rotatable equipment pools, and the engineering of maintenance periodicities to establish operating cycles. Many of the concepts and elements of these programs can be applied to two objectives for enhanced operation and maintenance: the increased availability of means of improved equipment performance and reduced outage durations and the extension of plant life. The objectives of this paper are to review the US Navy SEOC programs, to draw parallels between the US Navy programs and commercial nuclear power plant programs, and to suggest potential opportunities for application to commercial nuclear power plants.

Mason, J.H.; Livingston, B.K.; Clarke, E.J.

1988-01-01

266

Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 2 - Forest Pest Control. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use as it relates to safety of humans and the environment. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of…

Sinclair, W. A., Comp.

267

Survival of “pre-viable” infants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary OBJECTIVE: We investigated temporal trend in survival of pre-viable (200–499 g) fetuses over the previous decade, and estimated future survival rates based on previous and current survival thresholds. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective cohort study on live-born pre-viable fetuses (200–499 g) in the United States comparing two period cohorts; 1985–1988 versus 1995–1999. We computed survival of pre-viable babies

Hamisu M. Salihu; Donath Emusu; Zakari Y. Aliyu; Russell S. Kirby; Greg R. Alexander

2005-01-01

268

Rapid enumeration of viable bacteria by image analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A direct viable counting method for enumerating viable bacteria was modified and made compatible with image analysis. A comparison was made between viable cell counts determined by the spread plate method and direct viable counts obtained using epifluorescence microscopy either manually or by automatic image analysis. Cultures of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were incubated at 35 degrees C in a dilute nutrient medium containing nalidixic acid. Filtered samples were stained for epifluorescence microscopy and analysed manually as well as by image analysis. Cells enlarged after incubation were considered viable. The viable cell counts determined using image analysis were higher than those obtained by either the direct manual count of viable cells or spread plate methods. The volume of sample filtered or the number of cells in the original sample did not influence the efficiency of the method. However, the optimal concentration of nalidixic acid (2.5-20 micrograms ml-1) and length of incubation (4-8 h) varied with the culture tested. The results of this study showed that under optimal conditions, the modification of the direct viable count method in combination with image analysis microscopy provided an efficient and quantitative technique for counting viable bacteria in a short time.

Singh, A.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

1989-01-01

269

48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...restriction specifically applies to commercial items. For the restriction that specifically applies to commercial ball or roller bearings as end items, see 225.7009-2(b) (Section 8064 of Public Law 106-259). (xix) Section 8116 of...

2010-10-01

270

48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...restriction specifically applies to commercial items. For the restriction that specifically applies to commercial ball or roller bearings as end items, see 225.7019-2(b) (Section 8064 of Public Law 106-259). (xi) Section 8116 of...

2010-10-01

271

DECREASE Final Technical Report: Development of a Commercial Ready Enzyme Application System for Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of biomass to sugars plays a central in reducing our dependence on petroleum, as it allows production of a wide range of biobased fuels and chemicals, through fermentation of those sugars. The DECREASE project delivers an effective enzyme cocktail for this conversion, enabling reduced costs for producing advanced biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol. Benefits to the public contributed by growth of the advanced biofuels industry include job creation, economic growth, and energy security. The DECREASE primary project objective was to develop a two-fold improved enzyme cocktail, relative to an advanced cocktail (CZP00005) that had been developed previously (from 2000- 2007). While the final milestone was delivery of all enzyme components as an experimental mixture, a secondary objective was to deploy an improved cocktail within 3 years following the close of the project. In February 2012, Novozymes launched Cellic CTec3, a multi-enzyme cocktail derived in part from components developed under DECREASE. The externally validated performance of CTec3 and an additional component under project benchmarking conditions indicated a 1.8-fold dose reduction in enzyme dose required for 90% conversion (based on all available glucose and xylose sources) of NREL dilute acid pretreated PCS, relative to the starting advanced enzyme cocktail. While the ability to achieve 90% conversion is impressive, targeting such high levels of biomass digestion is likely not the most cost effective strategy. Novozymes techno economic modeling showed that for NREL's dilute acid pretreated corn stover (PCS), 80% target conversion enables a lower total production cost for cellulosic ethanol than for 90% conversion, and this was also found to be the case when cost assumptions were based on the NREL 2002 Design Report. A 1.8X dose-reduction was observed for 80% conversion in the small scale (50 g) DECREASE benchmark assay for CTec3 and an additional component. An upscaled experiment (in 0.5 kg kettle reactors) was performed to compare the starting enzyme mixture CZP00005 with CTec3 alone; these results indicated a 1.9X dose- reduction for 80% conversion. The CTec3 composition does not include the best available enzyme components from the DECREASE effort. While these components are not yet available in a commercial product, experimental mixtures were assayed in a smaller scale assay using DECREASE PCS, at high solids loadings (21.5% TS). The results indicated that the newer mixtures required 2.9X-less enzyme for 90% conversion, and 3.2X-less enzyme for 80% conversion, relative to the starting enzyme cocktail. In conclusion, CTec3 delivers a 1.8-1.9X dose reduction on NREL PCS at high solids loadings, and the next generation enzyme from Novozymes will continue to show dramatically improved biochemical performance. CTec3 allows reduced costs today, and the experimental cocktails point to continued biotechnological improvements that will further drive down costs for biorefineries of tomorrow.

Teter, Sarah A

2012-04-18

272

Quantification of Viable Plesiomonas shigelloides in a Mixture of Viable and Dead Cells Using Ethidium Bromide Monoazide and Conventional PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and efficient method for quantitative detection of viable Plesiomonas shigelloides in pure culture containing a mixture of viable and heat-killed cells was developed using ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) in combination with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The addition of EMA (1 ?g\\/ml) to mixtures of viable and heat-killed cells of P. shigelloides inhibited the PCR amplification of DNA

Weimin Gu; Robert E. Levin

2007-01-01

273

Differentiation of genes extracted from non-viable versus viable micro-organisms in environmental samples using ethidium monoazide bromide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiation of DNA derived from viable or non-viable microorganisms within mixed microbial communities continues to be one of the greatest challenges in molecular studies of environmental samples. A novel method developed for microbial food pathogens is tested here on environmental samples. This technique involves the use of ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA) for the distinction of live\\/dead cells. In non-viable cells

Jola M. Pisz; John R. Lawrence; Alexis N. Schafer; Steven D. Siciliano

2007-01-01

274

Space Environment Stability and Physical Properties of New Materials for Space Power and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Useful and informative results were obtained on virtually all materials investigated. For example, the stability of ITO-based arc-proof transparent coatings was greatly improved by substitution of silicon oxide for magnesium fluoride as a dopant. Research on 'air-doped' ITO films has yielded new insight into their conduction mechanism which will help in further development of these coatings. Some air-doped films were found to be extremely pressure sensitive. This work may lead to improved, low-cost gas sensors and vacuum gauges. Work on another promising transparent arc-proof coating (titanium oxide) was initiated in collaboration with industry. Graphite oxide-like materials were synthesized and tested for possible use in high energy-density batteries and other applications. We also started a high-priority project to find the cause of unexpected environmental damage to the exterior of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) discovered on a recent Shuttle mission. Materials were characterized before and after exposure to soft x-rays and other threats in ground-based simulators.

Hambourger, Paul D.

1997-01-01

275

A viable multivariable adaptive controller with application to autonomous helicopters  

E-print Network

Autonomous helicopters carry out missions in inaccessible hazardous environments. Their performance capability in speed, maneuverability and trajectory tracking must be comparable, if not superior, to manned vehicles. ...

Krupadanam, Ashish Samuel, 1974-

2001-01-01

276

Practical application of DNA markers for high-throughput authentication of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius from commercial ginseng products  

PubMed Central

Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) are widely used medicinal plants with similar morphology but different medicinal efficacy. Roots, flowers, and processed products of Korean and American ginseng can be difficult to differentiate from each other, leading to illegal trade in which one species is sold as the other. This study was carried out to develop convenient and reliable chloroplast genome-derived DNA markers for authentication of Korean and American ginseng in commercial processed products. One codominant marker could reproducibly identify both species and intentional mixtures of the two species. We further developed a set of species-unique dominant DNA markers. Each species-specific dominant marker could detect 1% cross contamination with other species by low resolution agarose gel electrophoresis or quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Both markers were successfully applied to evaluate the original species from various processed ginseng products purchased from markets in Korea and China. We believe that high-throughput application of this marker system will eradicate illegal trade and promote confident marketing for both species to increase the value of Korean as well as American ginseng in Korea and worldwide. PMID:24748836

Jung, Juyeon; Kim, Kyung Hee; Yang, Kiwoung; Bang, Kyong-Hwan; Yang, Tae-Jin

2013-01-01

277

Practical application of DNA markers for high-throughput authentication of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius from commercial ginseng products.  

PubMed

Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) are widely used medicinal plants with similar morphology but different medicinal efficacy. Roots, flowers, and processed products of Korean and American ginseng can be difficult to differentiate from each other, leading to illegal trade in which one species is sold as the other. This study was carried out to develop convenient and reliable chloroplast genome-derived DNA markers for authentication of Korean and American ginseng in commercial processed products. One codominant marker could reproducibly identify both species and intentional mixtures of the two species. We further developed a set of species-unique dominant DNA markers. Each species-specific dominant marker could detect 1% cross contamination with other species by low resolution agarose gel electrophoresis or quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Both markers were successfully applied to evaluate the original species from various processed ginseng products purchased from markets in Korea and China. We believe that high-throughput application of this marker system will eradicate illegal trade and promote confident marketing for both species to increase the value of Korean as well as American ginseng in Korea and worldwide. PMID:24748836

Jung, Juyeon; Kim, Kyung Hee; Yang, Kiwoung; Bang, Kyong-Hwan; Yang, Tae-Jin

2014-04-01

278

Corrosion behavior of titanium boride composite coating fabricated on commercially pure titanium in Ringer's solution for bioimplant applications.  

PubMed

The boriding of commercially pure titanium was performed at 850°C, 910°C, and 1050°C for varied soaking periods (1, 3 and 5h) to enhance the surface properties desirable for bioimplant applications. The coating developed was characterized for the evolution of phases, microstructure and morphology, microhardness, and consequent corrosion behavior in the Ringer's solution. Formation of the TiB2 layer at the outermost surface followed by the TiB whiskers across the borided CpTi is unveiled. Total thickness of the composite layer on the substrates borided at 850, 910, and 1050°C for 5h was found to be 19.1, 26.4, and 18.2?m respectively which includes <3?m thick TiB2 layer. The presence of TiB2 phase was attributed to the high hardness ~2968Hv15gf of the composite coating. The anodic polarization studies in the simulated body fluid unveiled a reduction in the pitting corrosion resistance after boriding the CpTi specimens. However, this value is >0.55VSCE (electrochemical potential in in-vivo physiological environment) and hence remains within the safe region. Both the untreated and borided CpTi specimens show two passive zones associated with different passivation current densities. Among the CpTi borided at various times and temperatures, a 3h treated shows better corrosion resistance. The corrosion of borided CpTi occurred through the dissolution of TiB2. PMID:25579920

Sivakumar, Bose; Singh, Raghuvir; Pathak, Lokesh Chandra

2015-03-01

279

Do-It-Yourself: A Special Library's Approach to Creating Dynamic Web Pages Using Commercial Off-The-Shelf Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many librarians may feel that dynamic Web pages are out of their reach, financially and technically. Yet we are reminded in library and Web design literature that static home pages are a thing of the past. This paper describes how librarians at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) library developed a database-driven, dynamic intranet site using commercial off-the-shelf applications. Administrative issues include surveying a library users group for interest and needs evaluation; outlining metadata elements; and, committing resources from managing time to populate the database and training in Microsoft FrontPage and Web-to-database design. Technical issues covered include Microsoft Access database fundamentals, lessons learned in the Web-to-database process (including setting up Database Source Names (DSNs), redesigning queries to accommodate the Web interface, and understanding Access 97 query language vs. Standard Query Language (SQL)). This paper also offers tips on editing Active Server Pages (ASP) scripting to create desired results. A how-to annotated resource list closes out the paper.

Steeman, Gerald; Connell, Christopher

2000-01-01

280

Generation of Viable Cell and Biomaterial Patterns by Laser Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to fabricate and interface biological systems for next generation applications such as biosensors, protein recognition microarrays, and engineered tissues, it is imperative to have a method of accurately and rapidly depositing different active biomaterials in patterns or layered structures. Ideally, the biomaterial structures would also be compatible with many different substrates including technologically relevant platforms such as electronic circuits or various detection devices. We have developed a novel laser-based technique, termed matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation direct write (MAPLE DW), that is able to direct write patterns and three-dimensional structures of numerous biologically active species ranging from proteins and antibodies to living cells. Specifically, we have shown that MAPLE DW is capable of forming mesoscopic patterns of living prokaryotic cells (E. coli bacteria), living mammalian cells (Chinese hamster ovaries), active proteins (biotinylated bovine serum albumin, horse radish peroxidase), and antibodies specific to a variety of classes of cancer related proteins including intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins, signaling proteins, cell cycle proteins, growth factors, and growth factor receptors. In addition, patterns of viable cells and active biomolecules were deposited on different substrates including metals, semiconductors, nutrient agar, and functionalized glass slides. We will present an explanation of the laser-based transfer mechanism as well as results from our recent efforts to fabricate protein recognition microarrays and tissue-based microfluidic networks.

Ringeisen, Bradley

2001-03-01

281

Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.  

PubMed

Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure. PMID:25552560

Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C

2015-01-20

282

Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2  

SciTech Connect

As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

1992-09-01

283

ESTIMATION OF VIABLE AIRBORNE MICROBES DOWNWIND FROM A POINT SOURCE  

EPA Science Inventory

Modification of the Pasquill atmospheric diffusion equations for estimating viable microbial airborne cell concentrations downwind from a continuous point source is presented. A graphical method is given to estimate the ground level cell concentration given (1) microbial death ra...

284

Viable quantitative PCR for assessing the response of Candida albicans to antifungal treatment.  

PubMed

Propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) treatment has been used before nucleic acid detection methods, such as PCR, to distinguish between live and dead cells using membrane integrity as viability criterion. The performance of these DNA intercalating dyes was compared in many studies utilizing different microorganisms. These studies demonstrated that EMA and PMA differ in their abilities to identify nonviable cells from mixed cell populations, depending on the microorganism and the nature of the sample. Due to this heterogeneity, both dyes were used in the present study to specifically distinguish dead from live Candida albicans cells using viable quantitative PCR (qPCR). The viable qPCR was optimized, and the best results were obtained when pre-treating the cells for 10 min in the dark with 25 ?M EMA followed by continuous photoactivation for 15 min. The suitability of this technique to distinguish clotrimazole- and fluconazole-treated C. albicans cells from untreated cells was then assessed. Furthermore, the antifungal properties of two commercial essential oils (Thymus vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla) were evaluated. The viable qPCR method was determined to be a feasible technique for assessing the viability of C. albicans after drug treatment and may help to provide a rapid diagnostic and susceptibility testing method for fungal infections, especially for patients treated with antifungal therapies. PMID:23132341

Agustí, Gemma; Fittipaldi, Mariana; Morató, Jordi; Codony, Francesc

2013-01-01

285

Design and prototype of an automated system for commercially viable production using micro contact printing  

E-print Network

This dissertation is a documentation of the thought process, its justification and the implementation details that went into prototyping a fully automated system employing Micro Contact Printing, an emerging technique for ...

Chauhan, Karan

2006-01-01

286

A new commercially viable synthetic route for donepezil hydrochloride: anti-Alzheimer's drug.  

PubMed

An economical new process has been developed for the synthesis of donepezil hydrochloride (1) an anti-Alzheimer's drug. The process involves Darzen reaction of pyridine-4-carboxaldehyde and 2-bromo-5,6-dimethoxy indanone affording epoxide 5,6-dimethoxy-3-(pyridine-4-yl)spiro[indene-2,2'-oxiran]-1(3H)-one (4) as a key intermediate. The one-pot deoxygenation of 4 and hydrogenation of the aryl moiety in high yield improved the overall yield of the process. PMID:20823593

Dubey, Shailendra Kumar; Kharbanda, Manita; Dubey, Sushil Kumar; Mathela, Chandra Shekhar

2010-09-01

287

Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.  

SciTech Connect

Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing further field testing as a prelude to improved and expanded commercialization.

Enslin, Johan (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Hamaoui, Ronald (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Rustom, Khalid (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Stuby, Rick (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Kuran, Mohammad (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Mark, Evlyn (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Amarin, Ruba (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Alatrash, Hussam (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

2012-03-01

288

Viable real-time PCR in environmental samples: can all data be interpreted directly?  

PubMed

Selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes--ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA)--represent one of the most successful recent approaches to detect viable cells (as defined by an intact cell membrane) by PCR and have been effectively evaluated in different microorganisms. However, some practical limitations were found, especially in environmental samples. The aim of this work was to show that in the application of viable real-time PCR, there may be significant biases and to propose a strategy for overcoming some of these problems. We present an approach based on the combination of three real-time PCR amplifications for each sample that should provide an improved estimation of the number of viable cells. This approach could be useful especially when it is difficult to determine a priori how to optimize methods using PMA or EMA. Although further studies are required to improve viable real-time PCR methods, the concept as outlined here presents an interesting future research direction. PMID:20632000

Fittipaldi, Mariana; Codony, Francesc; Adrados, Barbara; Camper, Anne K; Morató, Jordi

2011-01-01

289

Hot Thermal Storage/Selective Energy System Reduces Electric Demand for Space Cooling As Well As Heating in Commercial Application  

E-print Network

Based on an experimental residential retrofit incorporating thermal storage, and extensive subsequent modeling, a commercial design was developed and implemented to use hot thermal storage to significantly reduce electric demand and utility energy...

Meckler, G.

1985-01-01

290

Hoechst fluorescence intensity can be used to separate viable bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells from viable non-bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is a powerful compound to study the mitotic activity of a cell. Most techniques that identify BrdU-labeled cells require conditions that kill the cells. However, the fluorescence intensity of the membrane-permeable Hoechst dyes is reduced by the incorporation of BrdU into DNA, allowing the separation of viable BrdU positive (BrdU+) cells from viable BrdU negative (BrdU-) cells. METHODS: Cultures of proliferating cells were supplemented with BrdU for 48 h and other cultures of proliferating cells were maintained without BrdU. Mixtures of viable BrdU+ and viable BrdU- cells from the two proliferating cultures were stained with Hoechst 33342. The viable BrdU+ and BrdU- cells were sorted into different fractions from a mixture of BrdU+ and BrdU- cells based on Hoechst fluorescence intensity and the ability to exclude the vital dye, propidium iodide. Subsequently, samples from the original mixture, the sorted BrdU+ cell population, and the sorted BrdU- cell population were immunostained using an anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody and evaluated using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Two mixtures consisting of approximately 55% and 69% BrdU+ cells were sorted into fractions consisting of greater than 93% BrdU+ cells and 92% BrdU- cells. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. CONCLUSIONS: Hoechst fluorescence intensity in combination with cell sorting is an effective tool to separate viable BrdU+ from viable BrdU- cells for further study. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Mozdziak, P. E.; Pulvermacher, P. M.; Schultz, E.; Schell, K.

2000-01-01

291

77 FR 65496 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...mission requirements so that a commercial venture is made viable.'' DATES: Effective...5) The long-term viability of the venture is not dependent upon a continued Government...6) Private capital is at risk in the venture. The purpose of this final rule is...

2012-10-29

292

Emerging commercial opportunities based on combined communication navigation services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cost reduction pressure on companies and increasing regulatory and legislative demand together with rapid technological progress in space-based communication and navigation are opening up new and exciting commercial opportunities. In this framework, a novel service for maritime applications is presented using a two-way messaging system and the global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The system implements an end-to-end solution for asset tracking and fleet management, positioning and tracing, messaging and security for all types of sea-going vessels. The service applies a vessel-based terminal hosting a GNSS receiver which transmits the navigation status together with messages to a Service Center with a flexible return-link capability. A hybrid space segment is considered comprising the Inmarsat constellation of geostationary communications satellites augmented by two highly inclined low earth orbit satellites for truly global services. Services will be offered to commercial enterprises such as fishing companies as well as public entities such as National Coast Guards. A detailed market analysis has been performed to assess these markets and to determine their penetration. Commercial viability has been proven for business models purely based on Inmarsat and a hybrid space segment using Inmarsat and dedicated micro-satellites. Both cases represent viable businesses in the range of MEUR 100 p.a. Although tailored to a specific market, the approach can be extended to other commercial opportunities requiring space-based communication-navigation services.

Gill, Eberhard; Fox, Brian M.; Kreisel, Joerg

2006-07-01

293

APPLICATION OF A FUNCTIONAL MATHEMATICAL QUALITY INDEX TO ASPARAGINE, FREE SUGAR AND PHENOLIC ACID CONTENT OF 20 COMMERCIAL POTATO VARIETIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In this article, we apply a functional mathematical index (FMI), introduced in a previous publication, to 20 commercial potato varieties. The index allows evaluation of nutritional, safety and processing “quality parameters” of different potato cultivars. The main goal of the index is to link the q...

294

Corrosion behaviour of commercially pure titanium shot blasted with different materials and sizes of shot particles for dental implant applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known that the osseointegration of the commercially pure titanium (c.p. Ti) dental implant is improved when the metal is shot blasted in order to increase its surface roughness. This roughness is colonised by bone, which improves implant fixation. However, shot blasting also changes the chemical composition of the implant surface because some shot particles remain adhered on

Conrado Aparicio; F. Javier Gil; Carlos Fonseca; Mario Barbosa; Josep Anton Planell

2003-01-01

295

In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activities of various commercial essential oils, oleoresin and pure compounds against food pathogens and application in ham.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the application of commercially available essential oils (EOs) and oleoresins to control bacterial pathogens for ready to eat food. In this study, sixty seven commercial EOs, oleoresins (ORs) and pure compounds were used to evaluate in vitro their antimicrobial activity against six food pathogens. These products were first screened for their antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion assay. Forty one products were then chosen for further analysis to determine their minimum inhibitory concentration against 6 different bacteria. There were 5 different products (allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamon Chinese cassia, cinnamon OR, oregano and red thyme) that showed high antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria. Further analysis examined the effect of four selected EOs on controlling the growth rate of mixed cultures of Listeria monocytogenes in ham. A reduction of the growth rate by 19 and 10% was observed when oregano and cinnamon cassia EOs were respectively added in ham at a concentration of 500 ppm. PMID:24012976

Dussault, Dominic; Vu, Khanh Dang; Lacroix, Monique

2014-01-01

296

Substrata Mechanical Stiffness Can Regulate Adhesion of Viable Bacteria  

E-print Network

Substrata Mechanical Stiffness Can Regulate Adhesion of Viable Bacteria Jenny A. Lichter,, M. Todd, 2008 The competing mechanisms that regulate adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and subsequent biofilm and hospital-acquired infections due to bacteria, there is considerable interest in better understanding

Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

297

A METHOD TO DETECT VIABLE HELICOBACTER PYLORI BACTERIA IN GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The inability to detect the presence of viable Helicobacter pylori bacteria in environmental waters has hindered the public health community in assessing the role water may playin the transmission of this pathogen. This work describes a cultural enrichment method coupled with an...

298

Cobalt-substituted Polyoxometalates as Viable WaterOxidation Catalysts.  

E-print Network

??Abstract Cobalt-substituted Polyoxometalates as Viable Water Oxidation Catalysts By Jeffrey Miles Tan The cobalt-substituted polyoxometalate K10[Co4(H2O)2(PW9O34)2]·22H2O was studied and evaluated for catalytic water oxidation activity.… (more)

Tan, Jeffrey Miles Tiu

2009-01-01

299

High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells  

DOEpatents

Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

Sasaki, Dennis T. (Mountain View, CA); Van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA); Buckie, Anne-Marie (Margate, GB)

1995-01-01

300

Ultrafiltration is a potentially viable method of removing finely dispersed  

E-print Network

hollow-fiber ultrafil- tration membranes used in this study were assembled in a shell-and-tube configuration of 68 hollow fibers with 0.043-in. (0.109 cm) inside di- ameter for a total of 1 ft2 surface areaRECYLING ABSTRACT Ultrafiltration is a potentially viable method of removing finely dispersed

Abubakr, Said

301

Lease/Purchase: A Viable Alternative for Financing Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lease-purchase finance is a viable alternative for school districts that cannot or do not want to employ traditional financing techniques. Outlines the advantages and disadvantages of lease-purchase financing compared to outright purchase; operating leasing, which is taxable; and traditional tax-exempt bond financing. (MLF)

Demers, Denise

1989-01-01

302

Characteristics of Viable and Sustainable Workers for the Year 2015.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-round Delphi study was conducted to identify the characteristics of viable and sustainable employees in northeastern Tennessee in 2015. The Delphi panel selected for the study consisted of 25 experts who represented a cross-section of the businesses and communities in the 10-county area of northeastern Tennessee served by Walters State…

Dean, Brenda Pennington; West, Russell

303

IS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

of collaborative urban freight transport systems, where the different stakeholders of urban logistics can make system (TMS), a risk management module and a multi- criteria analysis method. In this paper we focusIS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS Jesus Gonzalez

Boyer, Edmond

304

Fort Osage School District Works toward Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administrators at Fort Osage School District in Independence, Missouri, feel it is their responsibility to provide students with a guaranteed and viable curriculum. Based on Dr. Robert Marzano's model, district leaders set out to alter their curriculum so that it could be taught adequately in the time allotted for instruction. They wanted to…

Technology & Learning, 2007

2007-01-01

305

Neutron imaging of a commercial Li-ion battery during discharge: Application of monochromatic imaging and polychromatic dynamic tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial lithium-ion polymer battery of prismatic construction was imaged in 2D by monochromatic neutron radiography at wavelengths around a LiC6 spectral feature. Over the range of 3–4Å, the neutron attenuation spectra for charged and discharged batteries are distinctly different. In a real-time experiment, a battery was observed during discharge at wavelengths spanning the LiC6 spectral feature and its disappearance

Leslie G. Butler; Burkhard Schillinger; Kyungmin Ham; Tabbetha A. Dobbins; Ping Liu; John J. Vajo

2011-01-01

306

Market Research Survey of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Portable MS Systems for IAEA Safeguards Applications  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results for the market research survey of mass spectrometers that are deemed pertinent to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) needs and strategic objectives. The focus of the report is on MS instruments that represent currently available (or soon to be) commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technology and weigh less than 400 pounds. A compilation of all available MS instruments (36 COTS and 2 R&D) is presented, along with pertinent information regarding each instrument.

Hart, Garret L.; Hager, George J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

2013-02-01

307

The use of flow cytometry to accurately ascertain total and viable counts of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in chocolate.  

PubMed

The goals of this study were to evaluate the precision and accuracy of flow cytometry (FC) methodologies in the evaluation of populations of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011) in two commercial dried forms, and ascertain the challenges in enumerating them in a chocolate matrix. FC analyses of total (FCT) and viable (FCV) counts in liquid or dried cultures were almost two times more precise (reproducible) than traditional direct microscopic counts (DCM) or colony forming units (CFU). With FC, it was possible to ascertain low levels of dead cells (FCD) in fresh cultures, which is not possible with traditional CFU and DMC methodologies. There was no interference of chocolate solids on FC counts of probiotics when inoculation was above 10(7) bacteria per g. Addition of probiotics in chocolate at 40 °C resulted in a 37% loss in viable cells. Blending of the probiotic powder into chocolate was not uniform which raised a concern that the precision of viable counts could suffer. FCT data can serve to identify the correct inoculation level of a sample, and viable counts (FCV or CFU) can subsequently be better interpreted. PMID:25475282

Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

2015-04-01

308

PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the Viking missions in the mid-1970s, traditional culture-based methods have been used for microbial enumeration by various NASA programs. Viable microbes are of particular concern for spacecraft cleanliness, for forward contamination of extraterrestrial bodies (proliferation of microbes), and for crew health/safety (viable pathogenic microbes). However, a "true" estimation of viable microbial population and differentiation from their dead cells using the most sensitive molecular methods is a challenge, because of the stability of DNA from dead cells. The goal of this research is to evaluate a rapid and sensitive microbial detection concept that will selectively estimate viable microbes. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have shown promise for reducing time to detection for a wide range of applications. The proposed method is based on the use of a fluorescent DNA intercalating agent, propidium monoazide (PMA), which can only penetrate the membrane of dead cells. The PMA-quenched reaction mixtures can be screened, where only the DNA from live cells will be available for subsequent PCR reaction and microarray detection, and be identified as part of the viable microbial community. An additional advantage of the proposed rapid method is that it will detect viable microbes and differentiate from dead cells in only a few hours, as opposed to less comprehensive culture-based assays, which take days to complete. This novel combination approach is called the PMA-Microarray method. DNA intercalating agents such as PMA have previously been used to selectively distinguish between viable and dead bacterial cells. Once in the cell, the dye intercalates with the DNA and, upon photolysis under visible light, produces stable DNA adducts. DNA cross-linked in this way is unavailable for PCR. Environmental samples suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead microbial cells/spores will be treated with PMA, and then incubated in the dark. Thereafter, the sample is exposed to visible light for five minutes, so that the DNA from dead cells will be cross-linked. Following this PMA treatment step, the sample is concentrated by centrifugation and washed (to remove excessive PMA) before DNA is extracted. The 16S rRNA gene fragments will be amplified by PCR to screen the total microbial community using PhyloChip DNA microarray analysis. This approach will detect only the viable microbial community since the PMA intercalated DNA from dead cells would be unavailable for PCR amplification. The total detection time including PCR reaction for low biomass samples will be a few hours. Numerous markets may use this technology. The food industry uses spore detection to validate new alternative food processing technologies, sterility, and quality. Pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies also detect spores as a marker for sterility. This system can be used for validating sterilization processes, water treatment systems, and in various public health and homeland security applications.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

2011-01-01

309

Real-time quantification of viable bacteria in liquid medium using infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying viable bacteria in liquids is important in environmental, food processing, manufacturing, and medical applications. Since vegetative bacteria generate heat as a result of biochemical reactions associated with cellular functions, thermal sensing techniques, including infrared thermography (IRT), have been used to detect viable cells in biologic samples. We developed a novel method that extends the dynamic range and improves the sensitivity of bacterial quantification by IRT. The approach uses IRT video, thermodynamics laws, and heat transfer mechanisms to directly measure, in real-time, the amount of energy lost as heat from the surface of a liquid sample containing bacteria when the specimen cools to a lower temperature over 2 min. We show that the Energy Content ( EC) of liquid media containing as few as 120 colony-forming units (CFU) of Escherichia coli per ml was significantly higher than that of sterile media ( P < 0.0001), and that EC and viable counts were strongly positively correlated ( r = 0.986) over a range of 120 to approximately 5 × 10 8 CFU/ml. Our IRT approach is a unique non-contact method that provides real-time bacterial enumeration over a wide dynamic range without the need for sample concentration, modification, or destruction. The approach could be adapted to quantify other living cells in a liquid milieu and has the potential for automation and high throughput.

Salaimeh, Ahmad A.; Campion, Jeffrey J.; Gharaibeh, Belal Y.; Evans, Martin E.; Saito, Kozo

2011-11-01

310

Fluorescence particle detector for real-time quantification of viable organisms in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect viable organisms in air in real time is important in a number of applications. Detecting high levels of airborne organisms in hospitals can prevent post-operative infections and the spread of diseases. Monitoring levels of airborne viable organisms in pharmaceutical facilities can ensure safe production of drugs or vaccines. Monitoring airborne bacterial levels in meat processing plants can help to prevent contamination of food products. Monitoring the level of airborne organisms in bio-containment facilities can ensure that proper procedures are being followed. Finally, detecting viable organisms in real time is a key to defending against biological agent attacks. This presentation describes the development and performance of a detector, based on fluorescence particle counting technology, where an ultraviolet laser is used to count particles by light scattering and elicit fluorescence from specific biomolecules found only in living organisms. The resulting detector can specifically detect airborne particles containing living organisms from among the large majority of other particles normally present in air. Efforts to develop the core sensor technology, focusing on integrating an UV laser with a specially designed particle-counting cell will be highlighted. The hardware/software used to capture the information from the sensor, provide an alarm in the presence of an unusual biological aerosol content will also be described. Finally, results from experiments to test the performance of the detector will be presented.

Luoma, Greg; Cherrier, Pierre P.; Piccioni, Marc; Tanton, Carol; Herz, Steve; DeFreez, Richard K.; Potter, Michael; Girvin, Kenneth L.; Whitney, Ronald

2002-02-01

311

Safely Coupling Livestock and Crop Production Systems: How Rapidly Do Antibiotic Resistance Genes Dissipate in Soil following a Commercial Application of Swine or Dairy Manure?  

PubMed Central

Animal manures recycled onto crop production land carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated the fate in soil of selected genes associated with antibiotic resistance or genetic mobility in field plots cropped to vegetables and managed according to normal farming practice. Referenced to unmanured soil, fertilization with swine or dairy manure increased the relative abundance of the gene targets sul1, erm(B), str(B), int1, and IncW repA. Following manure application in the spring of 2012, gene copy number decayed exponentially, reaching background levels by the fall of 2012. In contrast, gene copy number following manure application in the fall of 2012 or spring of 2013 increased significantly in the weeks following application and then declined. In both cases, the relative abundance of gene copy numbers had not returned to background levels by the fall of 2013. Overall, these results suggest that under conditions characteristic of agriculture in a humid continental climate, a 1-year period following a commercial application of raw manure is sufficient to ensure that an additional soil burden of antibiotic resistance genes approaches background. The relative abundance of several gene targets exceeded background during the growing season following a spring application or an application done the previous fall. Results from the present study reinforce the advisability of treating manure prior to use in crop production systems. PMID:24632259

Marti, Romain; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Scott, Andrew; Sabourin, Lyne

2014-01-01

312

Rapid detection of viable bacteria by nested polymerase chain reaction via long DNA amplification after ethidium monoazide treatment.  

PubMed

In assays to determine whether viable cells of Enterobacteriaceae are present in pasteurized milk, the typical ethidium monoazide (EMA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targets a short stretch of DNA. This process often triggers false-positive results owing to the high level of dead cells of Enterobacteriaceae that had initially contaminated the sample. We have developed a novel, direct, real-time PCR that does not require DNA isolation (DQ-PCR) to detect low levels of cells of Enterobacteriaceae regardless of live and dead cells first. We confirmed that the DQ-PCR targeting a long DNA (the 16S ribosomal RNA [rRNA] gene, amplified length of 1514 bp) following EMA treatment is a promising tool to detect live bacteria of all genera owing to the complete suppression of background signal from high levels of dead bacteria in pasteurized milk. However, when identifying viable bacteria in pasteurized milk, commercial PCR primers designed for detecting long stretches of DNA are generally not available. Thus, we treated samples with EMA and then carried out an initial round of PCR of a long stretch of DNA (16S gene, 1514 bp). We then performed another round of PCR, a novel nested PCR to generate short products using commercial primers. This procedure resulted in the rapid detection of low levels of viable cells of Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:21771580

Soejima, Takashi; Schlitt-Dittrich, Frank; Yoshida, Shin-ichi

2011-11-15

313

Evidence for viable, non-clonal but fatherless Boa constrictors  

PubMed Central

Parthenogenesis in vertebrates is considered an evolutionary novelty. In snakes, all of which exhibit genetic sex determination with ZZ : ZW sex chromosomes, this rare form of asexual reproduction has failed to yield viable female WW offspring. Only through complex experimental manipulations have WW females been produced, and only in fish and amphibians. Through microsatellite DNA fingerprinting, we provide the first evidence of facultative parthenogenesis in a Boa constrictor, identifying multiple, viable, non-experimentally induced females for the first time in any vertebrate lineage. Although the elevated homozygosity of the offspring in relation to the mother suggests that the mechanism responsible may be terminal fusion automixis, no males were produced, potentially indicating maternal sex chromosome hemizygosity (WO). These findings provide the first evidence of parthenogenesis in the family Boidae (Boas), and suggest that WW females may be more common within basal reptilian lineages than previously assumed. PMID:21047849

Booth, Warren; Johnson, Daniel H.; Moore, Sharon; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L.

2011-01-01

314

Sensitive Rapid Detection Method for Viable Bacterial Cells  

PubMed Central

A rapid sensitive method for the detection of viable bacterial cells is described in which P32 as inorganic orthophosphate is used to label the cells. Factors affecting the uptake of P32 by cells as well as the sensitivity of the method have been explored with suspensions of Aerobacter aerogenes. The uptake of P32O4 is dependent on several factors. Of various incubation media tested, one composed of 0.005 m KCl, 0.002 m MgSO4 and 10 mg/ml of glucose was found to best stimulate the uptake of the tracer. Incubation time and temperature and level of isotope and of unlabeled P also affected uptake. Labeled cells were collected on a membrane filter for measurement of radioactivity. Under optimal conditions, as few as 23 viable cells per milliliter were detected in 1 hr with 95% confidence. PMID:16349705

MacLeod, Robert A.; Light, Marilyn; White, Lloyd A.; Currie, J. F.

1966-01-01

315

Method to detect only viable cells in microbial ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propidium monoazide can limit the analysis of microbial communities derived from genetic fingerprints to viable cells with\\u000a intact cell membranes. However, PMA treatment cannot completely suppress polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification when\\u000a the targeted gene is too short. PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR was designed to overcome this problem.\\u000a Four experiments were performed to determine the limitation

Jian-Fei Luo; Wei-Tie Lin; Yong Guo

2010-01-01

316

Gravitational waves in viable f(R) models  

SciTech Connect

We study gravitational waves in viable f(R) theories under a non-zero background curvature. In general, an f(R) theory contains an extra scalar degree of freedom corresponding to a massive scalar mode of gravitational wave. For viable f(R) models, since there always exits a de-Sitter point where the background curvature in vacuum is non-zero, the mass squared of the scalar mode of gravitational wave is about the de-Sitter point curvature R{sub d} ? 10{sup ?66}eV{sup 2}. We illustrate our results in two types of viable f(R) models: the exponential gravity and Starobinsky models. In both cases, the mass will be in the order of 10{sup ?33}eV when it propagates in vacuum. However, in the presence of matter density in galaxy, the scalar mode can be heavy. Explicitly, in the exponential gravity model, the mass becomes almost infinity, implying the disappearance of the scalar mode of gravitational wave, while the Starobinsky model gives the lowest mass around 10{sup ?24}eV, corresponding to the lowest frequency of 10{sup ?9} Hz, which may be detected by the current and future gravitational wave probes, such as LISA and ASTROD-GW.

Yang, Louis; Lee, Chung-Chi; Geng, Chao-Qiang, E-mail: louis.lineage@msa.hinet.net, E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: g9522545@oz.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

2011-08-01

317

Formation and Resuscitation of Viable but Nonculturable Salmonella typhi  

PubMed Central

Salmonella typhi is a pathogen that causes the human disease of typhoid fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of S. typhi. Some samples were stimulated at 4°C or ?20°C, while others were induced by different concentrations of CuSO4. Total cell counts remained constant throughout several days by acridine orange direct counting; however, plate counts declined to undetectable levels within 48 hours by plate counting at ?20°C. The direct viable counts remained fairly constant at this level by direct viable counting. Carbon and nitrogen materials slowly decreased which indicated that a large population of cells existed in the VBNC state and entered the VBNC state in response to exposure to 0.01 or 0.015?mmol/L CuSO4 for more than 14 or 12 days, respectively. Adding 3% Tween 20 or 1% catalase enabled cells to become culturable again, with resuscitation times of 48?h and 24?h, respectively. The atomic force microscope results showed that cells gradually changed in shape from short rods to coccoids, and decreased in size when they entered the VBNC state. Further animal experiments suggested that resuscitated cells might regain pathogenicity. PMID:23509799

Zeng, Bin; Zhao, Guozhong; Cao, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua

2013-01-01

318

40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...  

...proposed changes in required standards of competency. (v) Proposed changes in plans...the State. (C) The standards of competency elaborated by the State. These shall...performance testing used to determine competency of applicators. (ii) For...

2014-07-01

319

Commercialization of fuel-cells  

SciTech Connect

This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O'Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

1995-03-01

320

Laser Coating Technology; A Commercial Reality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial acceptance of laser coating technology suffered for many years due to questions about its economic viability. During this period, however, many companies, universities, and government research groups were busy developing the technology to overcome these questions. Today, laser coating technology is having a major impact as a high quality, economical method of hardfacing for wear and corrosion resistance in several key industries. This has occurred because of advances in five key areas: 1. High power laser design 2. Method of alloy deposition, and associated hardware 3. In-process feed back control system hardware/software development 4. Alloy systems 5. Marketing/sales sophistication High power lasers have improved in mode stability, power conversion efficiency, and optical flexibility (reflective vs. transmissive materials). This has enabled the process engineer to increase deposition efficiency, and maintain flexibility on the use of optics specifically designed for a user application. Improvements in the method of alloy deposition have led to developments such as the DPF system with specialized nozzles developed for specific user applications. Another effective technique includes the use of pre-fabricated cast alloy chips that are welded to the component surface on the specific area requiring protection. The development of feedback control systems that integrate process control software with hard tooling, the laser, and the alloy delivery system are greatly improving process reliability and product quality. Because of this, "in-process" quality control is becoming a viable alternative to traditional methods of quality control. Metallurgical evaluations of some of the most widely used hardfacing alloys and base materials have been investigated by numerous researchers. Analysis has confirmed that laser applied coatings are of high metallurgical quality, extremely low in dilution, and distort less due to low heat input. The technology can also be used to apply. wear/corrosion resistant alloys heretofore considered unweldable. These technological advances, coupled with application experience have proven that laser coating technology is not only a viable alternative to conventional hardface and/or spray coatings; but in many cases significantly reduces the overall manufacturing costs of a coated product. Early marketing efforts focused on direct "coating process to coating process" comparisons with competing technologies.

Blake, Andrew G.; Mangaly, A. A.; Everett, M. A.; Hammeke, A. H.

1988-10-01

321

Genetic Algorithms and the Search for Viable String Vacua  

E-print Network

Genetic Algorithms are introduced as a search method for finding string vacua with viable phenomenological properties. It is shown, by testing them against a class of Free Fermionic models, that they are orders of magnitude more efficient than a randomised search. As an example, three generation, exophobic, Pati-Salam models with a top Yukawa occur once in every 10^{10} models, and yet a Genetic Algorithm can find them after constructing only 10^5 examples. Such non-deterministic search methods may be the only means to search for Standard Model string vacua with detailed phenomenological requirements.

Steven Abel; John Rizos

2014-06-16

322

Army relevant Biological Hazards Detection with Commercial SERS substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing need and challenge for early rapid and accurate detection, identification, and quantification of chemical, biological, and energetic hazards in many fields of interest (e.g., medical, environmental, industrial, and defense applications). Increasingly to meet these challenges, researchers are turning to interdisciplinary approaches combining spectroscopy with nanoscale platforms to create technologies that offer viable and novel solutions for today's sensing needs. One technology that has gained increasing popularity to meet these needs is surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). SERS is particularly advantageous as it does not suffer from interferences from water, requires little to no sample preparation, is robust and can be used in numerous environments, is relatively insensitive to the wavelength of excitation employed and produces a narrow-band spectral signature unique to the molecular vibrations of the analyte. SERS enhancements (chemical and electromagnetic) are typically observed on metalized nanoscale roughened surfaces. For ideal SERS sensing, a commercially available uniform and reproducible nanoscale surface demonstrating high sensitivity are desirable. Additionally, if these surfaces can be modified for the selective sensing of hazard materials, an ideal sensor platform for dynamic in field measurements can be imagined. In this proceedings paper, preliminary efforts towards the characterization and application of commercially available next generation Klarite substrates will be demonstrated. Additionally, efforts toward chemical modification of these substrates, through peptide recognition elements, can be used for the targeted sensing of hazardous materials.

Farrell, Mikella E.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

2012-10-01

323

High-Voltage\\/High-Current Pulsed Power for Civil, Commercial, Research, and Military Test Applications - Part IV: Pulse Magnetic Welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. Pulse magnetic welding is rated among the best methods for welding tubular parts, and is especially suited for aluminum alloys and for pairs of different metals, but it is also a most intricate one. This paper presents research results of implosive accelerating of tubular details using pulsed magnetic field, and numeric data of real industrial application.

A. Izhar; Y. Livshiz; O. Gafri

2007-01-01

324

Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews published experimental and theoretical investigations of particle deposition from turbulent flows and considers the applicability of this body of work to the specific case of particle deposition from flows in the ducts of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Particle deposition can detrimentally affect the performance of HVAC systems and it influences the exposure of building

Mark R. Sippola; William W. Nazaroff

2002-01-01

325

Commercial Norms, Commercial Codes, and International Commercial Arbitration  

E-print Network

The article defends the incorporation of commercial norms into commercial codes, through provisions such as statute 1-205 of the Uniform Commercial Code. It finds significant reliance on trade usages in international ...

Drahozal, Christopher R.

2000-01-01

326

Neutron imaging of a commercial Li-ion battery during discharge: Application of monochromatic imaging and polychromatic dynamic tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A commercial lithium-ion polymer battery of prismatic construction was imaged in 2D by monochromatic neutron radiography at wavelengths around a LiC 6 spectral feature. Over the range of 3-4 Å, the neutron attenuation spectra for charged and discharged batteries are distinctly different. In a real-time experiment, a battery was observed during discharge at wavelengths spanning the LiC 6 spectral feature and its disappearance monitored. No evidence of "staging" was detected in this preliminary experiment. A similar battery was imaged in 3D with a new tomographic data acquisition scheme based on the Greek golden ratio; the scheme allows convenient post-processing to establish "time windows" for 3D image reconstruction. The 3D images at 5% state of charge intervals are compromised by beam hardening, but still show some asymmetric battery volume change with discharge. Finally comments on the future of neutron imaging for battery experiments, whether at continuous sources at nuclear reactors or at pulsed spallation sources, are discussed.

Butler, Leslie G.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Ham, Kyungmin; Dobbins, Tabbetha A.; Liu, Ping; Vajo, John J.

2011-09-01

327

Application of a commercially-manufactured Doppler-shift laser velocimeter to the measurement of basilar-membrane vibration*  

PubMed Central

A commercially-available laser Doppler-shift velocimeter has been coupled to a compound microscope equipped with ultra-long-working-distance objectives for the purpose of measuring basilar membrane vibrations in the chinchilla. The animal preparation is nearly identical to that used in our laboratory for similar measurements using the Mössbauer technique. The vibrometer head is mounted on the third tube of the microscope’s trinocular head and its laser beam is focused on high-refractive-index glass microbeads (10–30 µm) previously dropped, through the perilymph of Scala tympani, on the basilar membrane. For equal sampling times, overall sensitivity of the laser velocimetry system is at least one order of magnitude greater than usually attained using the Mössbauer technique. However, the most important advantage of laser velocimetry vis-à-vis the Mössbauer technique is its linearity, which permits undistorted recording of signals over a wide velocity range. Thus, for example, we have measured basilar-membrane responses to clicks whose waveforms have dynamic ranges exceeding 60 dB. PMID:1827787

Ruggero, Mario A.; Rich, Nola C.

2013-01-01

328

Application of maltodextrin as chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis for quantification of amlodipine enantiomers in commercial tablets.  

PubMed

Maltodextrin was investigated as a chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis of amlodipine (AM) enantiomers. For development of a stereoselective CE method, various effective parameters on the enantioseparation were optimized. The best results were achieved on an uncoated fused silica capillary at 20?°C using phosphate buffer (100?mM, pH?4) containing 10% w/v maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent value 4-7). The UV detector was set at 214?nm and a constant voltage of 20?kV was applied. The range of quantitation was 2.5-250?µg/mL (R(2) ?>?0.999) for both enantiomers. Intra- (n?=?5) and interday (n?=?3) relative standard deviation (RSD) values were less than 7%. The limits of quantitation and detection were 1.7?µg/mL and 0.52?µg/mL, respectively. Recoveries of R(+) and S(-) enantiomers from tablet matrix were 97.2% and 97.8%, respectively. The method was applied for the quantification of AM enantiomers in commercial tablets. Also, the enantioseparation capability of heparin was evaluated and the results showed that heparin did not have any chiral selector activity in this study. PMID:24830506

Nojavan, Saeed; Pourmoslemi, Shabnam; Behdad, Hamideh; Fakhari, Ali Reza; Mohammadi, Ali

2014-08-01

329

Models with radiative neutrino masses and viable dark matter candidates  

E-print Network

We provide a list of particle physics models at the TeV-scale that are compatible with neutrino masses and dark matter. In these models, the Standard Model particle content is extended with a small number (\\leq 4) of scalar and fermion fields transforming as singlets, doublets or triplets under SU(2), and neutrino masses are generated radiatively via 1-loop diagrams. The dark matter candidates are stabilized by a Z_2 symmetry and are in general mixtures of the neutral components of such new multiplets. We describe the particle content of each of these models and determine the conditions under which they are consistent with current data. We find a total of 35 viable models, most of which have not been previously studied in the literature. There is a great potential to test these models at the LHC not only due to the TeV-scale masses of the new fields but also because about half of the viable models contain particles with exotic electric charges, which give rise to background-free signals. Our results should serve as a first step for detailed analysis of models that can simultaneously account for dark matter and neutrino masses.

Diego Restrepo; Oscar Zapata; Carlos Yaguna

2013-08-16

330

Viable but Nonculturable Bacteria: Food Safety and Public Health Perspective  

PubMed Central

The viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state is a unique survival strategy of many bacteria in the environment in response to adverse environmental conditions. VBNC bacteria cannot be cultured on routine microbiological media, but they remain viable and retain virulence. The VBNC bacteria can be resuscitated when provided with appropriate conditions. A good number of bacteria including many human pathogens have been reported to enter the VBNC state. Though there have been disputes on the existence of VBNC in the past, extensive molecular studies have resolved most of them, and VBNC has been accepted as a distinct survival state. VBNC pathogenic bacteria are considered a threat to public health and food safety due to their nondetectability through conventional food and water testing methods. A number of disease outbreaks have been reported where VBNC bacteria have been implicated as the causative agent. Further molecular and combinatorial research is needed to tackle the threat posed by VBNC bacteria with regard to public health and food safety. PMID:24191231

Fakruddin, Md.; Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin; Andrews, Stewart

2013-01-01

331

Evaluation of low-residue soldering for military and commercial applications: A report from the Low-Residue Soldering Task Force  

SciTech Connect

The LRSTF combined the efforts of industry, military, and government to evaluate low-residue soldering processes for military and commercial applications. These processes were selected for evaluation because they provide a means for the military to support the presidential mandate while producing reliable hardware at a lower cost. This report presents the complete details and results of a testing program conducted by the LRSTF to evaluate low-residue soldering for printed wiring assemblies. A previous informal document provided details of the test plan used in this evaluation. Many of the details of that test plan are contained in this report. The test data are too massive to include in this report, however, these data are available on disk as Excel spreadsheets upon request. The main purpose of low-residue soldering is to eliminate waste streams during the manufacturing process.

Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burress, R.V. [SEHO (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

332

In vivo induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in human scalp hair follicles by topical application of a commercial coal tar preparation.  

PubMed

Five low-dose applications of a commercial coal tar preparation on a small scalp skin region resulted in an induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity in freshly isolated human hair follicles. Large but reproducible interindividual differences in AHH-inducibility could be detected. The method offers the opportunity to measure AHH-inducibility, which has been correlated to the risk of developing chemical-induced cancer, in vivo in normal epithelium, a cell-type highly relevant for chemical carcinogenesis. Smoking habits did not have any effect on AHH-activity in freshly isolated hair follicles. Therefore the method potentially permits the identification of persons with high and low genetically determined AHH-inducibility. PMID:6378361

Hukkelhoven, M W; Vromans, L W; van Pelt, F N; Keulers, R A; Vermorken, A J

1984-06-01

333

Scaling and application of commercial, feature-rich, modular mixed-signal technology platforms for large format ROICs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's modular, mixed-signal CMOS process platforms are excellent choices for manufacturing of highly integrated, large-format read out integrated circuits (ROICs). Platform features, that can be used for both cooled and un-cooled ROIC applications, can include (1) quality passives such as 4fFmum2 stacked MIM capacitors for linearity and higher density capacitance per pixel, 1kOhm high-value poly-silicon resistors, 2.8mum thick metals for

Arjun Kar-Roy; Marco Racanelli; David Howard; Glenn Miyagi; Mark Bowler; Scott Jordan; Tao Zhang; William Krieger

2010-01-01

334

Application of a colorimetric method to the determination of the protein content of commercial foods, mixed human diets and nitrogen losses in infantile diarrhoea.  

PubMed

Recently we reported on the application of a method for protein determination which measures nitrogen in Kjeldahl digests colorimetrically. This procedure has the advantage of eliminating the distillation and titration steps of the Kjeldahl method and it is ideal for nutritional studies, since many samples can be run in a single day. Accordingly, the purpose of the present report was to extend the application of this method to the determination of the protein content of commercially available foods such as dairy products, dry cereals or cereal based products and legumes and also to evaluate this method in the determination of the protein content of the mixtures of cooked foods served during lunch at the cafeteria of the Universidad Simón Bolívar, Caracas. In both cases the results of the colorimetric nitrogen agreed very well with those obtained by the macro Kjeldahl, indicating that the colorimetric method may be used in monitoring the protein content of commercial foods and in evaluating the protein offered in institutional food services. Finally, to further demonstrate the value of this method in clinical trials, we used it to monitor the daily nitrogen intake and nitrogen losses in 43 male young children with acute diarrhoea, and 15 with persistent diarrhoea fed liquid formulae, and showed that protein digestibility and retention were higher in persistent than in acute diarrhoea. The severity of acute diarrhoea affected negatively (r = -0.62) the percentage of protein absorbed, whereas the protein absorbed (r = 0.70) and retained (r = 0.55) correlated positively with protein consumption.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7712339

Cioccia, A M; Gonzalez, E; Perez, M; Mora, J A; Romer, H; Molina, E; Hevia, P

1995-02-01

335

9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.  

...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

2014-01-01

336

9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

2012-01-01

337

9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

2013-01-01

338

9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

2011-01-01

339

9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

2010-01-01

340

Onshore ballast water treatment: a viable option for major ports.  

PubMed

Ballast water treatment consists of the elimination of exotic species. Currently, the development of alternative methods for this process is directed toward treatment onboard ships. However, we present onshore treatment as a viable alternative for ballast water treatment. We investigated onshore treatment in two iron ore ports with movement capacities of 25 and 90 million tons annually (Mta) that receive 7.5 and 25 million cubic meters annually (Mm(3)) of ballast water, respectively. Discrete event simulation was used as the method of analysis, considering the processes of arrival, berthing, ship loading and capture and treatment of ballast water. We analyzed data from 71 ships operating in these ports to validate our simulation model. We were able to demonstrate that onshore treatment does not impact the cargo capacity, occupation rate or average queuing time of ships at these ports. We concluded that implementation of onshore ballast water treatment may be practicable in ports that receive high volumes of ballast water. PMID:22920715

Pereira, Newton Narciso; Brinati, Hernani Luiz

2012-11-01

341

Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

2010-12-01

342

9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

2013-01-01

343

9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

2010-01-01

344

9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.  

...2014-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

2014-01-01

345

9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

2012-01-01

346

9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

2011-01-01

347

CPred: a web server for predicting viable circular permutations in proteins  

PubMed Central

Circular permutation (CP) is a protein structural rearrangement phenomenon, through which nature allows structural homologs to have different locations of termini and thus varied activities, stabilities and functional properties. It can be applied in many fields of protein research and bioengineering. The limitation of applying CP lies in its technical complexity, high cost and uncertainty of the viability of the resulting protein variants. Not every position in a protein can be used to create a viable circular permutant, but there is still a lack of practical computational tools for evaluating the positional feasibility of CP before costly experiments are carried out. We have previously designed a comprehensive method for predicting viable CP cleavage sites in proteins. In this work, we implement that method into an efficient and user-friendly web server named CPred (CP site predictor), which is supposed to be helpful to promote fundamental researches and biotechnological applications of CP. The CPred is accessible at http://sarst.life.nthu.edu.tw/CPred. PMID:22693212

Lo, Wei-Cheng; Wang, Li-Fen; Liu, Yen-Yi; Dai, Tian; Hwang, Jenn-Kang; Lyu, Ping-Chiang

2012-01-01

348

Introduction to applications and industries for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS).  

SciTech Connect

Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) have gained acceptance as viable products for many commercial and government applications. MEMS are currently being used as displays for digital projection systems, sensors for airbag deployment systems, inkjet print head systems, and optical routers. This paper will discuss current and future MEMS applications. What are MEMS? MEMS are typically defined as microscopic devices designed, processed, and used to interact or produce changes within a local environment. A mechanical, electrical, or chemical stimulus can be used to create a mechanical, electrical, or chemical response in a local environment. These smaller, more sophisticated devices that think, act, sense, and communicate are replacing their bulk counterparts in many traditional applications.

Walraven, Jeremy Allen

2003-07-01

349

Effects of sandblasting, H2SO4/HCl etching, and phosphate primer application on bond strength of veneering resin composite to commercially pure titanium grade 4.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of surface treatments on the bond strength of a resin composite to a commercially pure titanium. The bonding surfaces of all titanium specimens were ground with 1,000-grit silicon carbide paper and then subjected to one or more of these surface treatments: sandblasting with alumina (sand), etching with 45wt% H2SO4 and 15wt% HCl (SH-etchant) at 70°C for 10 min, and/or phosphate primer (MDP-primer) application. Specimens not subjected to any surface treatment were used as controls. After resin composite veneer placement and 24-h water immersion, the shear bond strengths of the specimens in descending order were: sand/SH-etchant/MDP-primer, sand/SH-etchant/no primer, no sand/SH-etchant/MDP-primer, sand/no etch/MDP-primer, no sand/SH-etchant/no primer, sand/no etch/no primer, no sand/no etch/MDP-primer, no sand/no etch/no primer. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed that sandblasting and SH-etchant created many micro- and nanoscale cavities on the titanium surface. Results showed that a combined use of sandblasting, SH-etchant, and MDP-primer application had a cooperative effect on titanium bonding. PMID:23538756

Egoshi, Takafumi; Taira, Yohsuke; Soeno, Kohyoh; Sawase, Takashi

2013-01-01

350

Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells for pure electric bus applications: Aging mechanism identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing need to provide more realistic and accurate State of Health estimations for batteries in electric vehicles. Thus, it is necessary to research various lithium-ion cell aging processes, including cell degradation and related path dependence. This paper focuses on quantitative analyses of cell aging path dependence in a repeatable laboratory setting, considering the influence of duty cycles, depth of discharge (DOD), and the frequency and severity of the thermal cycle, as reflected in pure electric buses operated in Beijing. Incremental capacity analysis (ICA) and differential voltage analysis (DVA) are applied to infer cell degradation mechanisms and quantify the attributions to capacity fade. It was observed that the cells experienced a higher rate of aging at 80% DOD and an accelerated aging at 40 °C in the thermal cycling, as a result of possible loss of active material (LAM) in both electrodes, in addition to the loss of lithium inventory (LLI) and inhibited kinetics. The slight capacity fade from low-temperature extremes likely caused by LLI due to lithium plating, whereas the noticeable fade after the high-temperature excursion was likely caused by LAM and hindrance to kinetics. These results may lead to improved battery management in EV applications.

Ma, Zeyu; Jiang, Jiuchun; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Weige; Mi, Chunting Chris

2015-01-01

351

Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part I: Initial characterizations  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating commercial Li-ion batteries presents some unique benefits. One of them is to use cells made from established fabrication process and form factor, such as those offered by the 18650 cylindrical configuration, to provide a common platform to investigate and understand performance deficiency and aging mechanism of target chemistry. Such an approach shall afford us to derive relevant information without influence from processing or form factor variability that may skew our understanding on cell-level issues. A series of 1.9 Ah 18650 lithium ion cells developed by a commercial source using a composite positive electrode comprising (LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 + LiMn2O4) is being used as a platform for the investigation of certain key issues, particularly path-dependent aging and degradation in future plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications, under the US Department of Energy's Applied Battery Research (ABR) program. Here we report in Part I the initial characterizations of the cell performance and Part II some aspects of cell degradation in 2C cycle aging. The initial characterizations, including cell-to-cell variability, are essential for life cycle performance characterization in the second part of the report when cell-aging phenomena are discussed. Due to the composite nature of the positive electrode, the features (or signature) derived from the incremental capacity (IC) of the cell appear rather complex. In this work, the method to index the observed IC peaks is discussed. Being able to index the IC signature in details is critical for analyzing and identifying degradation mechanism later in the cycle aging study.

Matthieu Dubarry; Cyril Truchot; Mikael Cugnet; Bor Yann Liaw; Kevin Gering; Sergiy Sazhin; David Jamison; Christopher Michelbacher

2011-12-01

352

High-voltage \\/ high-current pulse power for civil, commercial, research, and military test applications - part IV: pulse magnetic welding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quest for asserting Pulse-Power as the new industrial technology continues in this paper, describing the theory, test, and practice made towards creating viable processes where conventional means or production methods are replaced by pulse-power systems, with improved comercial results.

A. Izhar; Y. Livshiz; Oren Gafri

2007-01-01

353

Characterization of Exposure to Low Levels of Viable Penicillium chrysogenum Conidia and Allergic Sensitization Induced by a Protease Allergen Extract from Viable P. chrysogenum Conidia in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous evidence by our laboratory has shown that mice inoculated with viable Penicillium chrysogenum conidia or spores at levels comparable to those found in contaminated buildings induced spore antigen-specific allergic responses. We proposed that mice exposed to low levels of viable P. chrysogenum conidia would not develop allergic symptoms. We also hypothesized that the symptoms induced by high numbers

Christopher J. Schwab; J. Danny Cooley; Trevor Brasel; Cynthia A. Jumper; Suzanne C. Graham; David C. Straus

2003-01-01

354

Collapse of the magnetization by the application of crossed magnetic fields: observations in a commercial Bi:2223/Ag tape and comparison with numerical computations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the effects of crossed magnetic fields on a commercial Bi:2223/Ag tape superconductor. The large magnetic moments which are generated in the specimen by the application or change of an external magnetic field (denoted Hz) directed perpendicularly to the plane of the tapes, hence along the c-axis of the crystallites, are considerably reduced in magnitude when subsequently a magnetic field (denoted Hy) directed along the plane of the tape, hence along the ab plane of the crystallites, is impressed and removed and made to undergo several half cycles of oscillations in the opposite direction. We find that a few cycles cause the magnetic moment to rapidly depart from the critical state major hysteresis envelope and reach asymptotically the reversible diamagnetic Meissner moment Mrev, which is aligned in the out-of-plane direction of the tape (c-axis). We observe that the application of crossed fields, first along the c-axis, then along the ab plane, effectively suppresses the bulk pinning magnetic moment, and quenches the associated persistent currents circulating in the ab plane. Our numerical computations, based on the finite element method and using an E–J power law to model the superconductor, can reproduce qualitatively the experimental data. In the numerical model, the current density flows perpendicularly to the plane within which the two components of the magnetic field vary. These investigations show that the observed decay in magnetization results from the complicated modification of current distribution due to the application of crossed magnetic fields within the sample cross section.

Celebi, S.; Sirois, F.; Lacroix, C.

2015-02-01

355

Independently tunable electronic and structural parameters in ternary Group IV semiconductors for optoelectronic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Si-Ge-Sn alloys represent an emerging class of IR semiconductors offering the potential for independent variation of band structure and lattice dimension, making them the first practical group-IV ternary system. Here we present the development and application of new and commercially viable protocols to fabricate Ge1-x-ySixSny semiconductors on Ge buffered Si (100) exhibiting tunable direct band gaps (Eo) ranging from 0.8-1.4

J. Kouvetakis; V. R. D'Costa; Y.-Y. Fang; J. Tolle; A. V. G. Chizmeshya; J. Xie; J. Menéndez

356

Challenges in Running a Commercial Web Search Engine  

E-print Network

traffic from SEs to a Viagra seller ­ Make $6 per sale · Siphon traffic from SEs to a porn site ­ Make $20% commercially viable · Much more if you include porn queries ­ Assume $0.50 made per click (from 5c to $40

Tomkins, Andrew

357

Scribable multi-walled carbon nanotube-silicon nanocomposites: a viable lithium-ion battery system.  

PubMed

A novel electrode fabrication technique involving a manual scribing action of vertically aligned silicon coated multiwall carbon nanotubes (VASCNTs) on a copper foil have been developed as a viable approach to Li-ion battery electrodes. The scribed electrodes were prepared without the use of any conductive additives and binders, and they were directly assembled in a coin cell. These 'binder-less' scribed Si-CNT electrodes exhibited a very high discharge capacity in excess of 3000 mA h g(-1) and a low first cycle irreversible loss (FIR) (19%). In addition, the electrodes also showed good cyclability with capacity retention of 76% at the end of 50 cycles corresponding to a fade rate of 0.48% loss per cycle rendering the technique attractive for suitable Li-ion applications. PMID:25628146

Epur, Rigved; Ramanathan, Madhumati; Datta, Moni K; Hong, Dae Ho; Jampani, Prashanth H; Gattu, Bharat; Kumta, Prashant N

2015-02-12

358

Towards viable cosmological models of disformal theories of gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The late-time cosmological dynamics of disformal gravity are investigated using dynamical systems methods. It is shown that in the general case there are no stable attractors that screen fifth forces locally and simultaneously describe a dark energy dominated universe. Viable scenarios have late-time properties that are independent of the disformal parameters and are identical to the equivalent conformal quintessence model. Our analysis reveals that configurations where the Jordan frame metric becomes singular are only reached in the infinite future, thus explaining the natural pathology resistance observed numerically by several previous works. The viability of models where this can happen is discussed in terms of both the cosmological dynamics and local phenomena. We identify a special parameter tuning such that there is a new fixed point that can match the presently observed dark energy density and equation of state. This model is unviable when the scalar couples to the visible sector but may provide a good candidate model for theories where only dark matter is disformally coupled.

Sakstein, Jeremy

2015-01-01

359

Sialoendoscopy: a viable treatment for I(131) induced sialoadenitis.  

PubMed

To evaluate the viability, efficacy, and safety of sialoendoscopy for the diagnosis and management of radioiodine I(131-) related sialoadenitis, we retrospectively reviewed 30 patients referred between September 2007 and July 2013 from the Thyroid Surgery Unit to the Maxillofacial Unit of the Second University of Naples Hospital with persistent sialoadenitis after treatment with I(131). After the affected gland had been isolated, the endoscope was introduced into the duct under local anaesthesia with 2% lignocaine and continuous lavage with isotonic saline, and was advanced until it reached the ductal system. We studied 24 women and 6 men, mean (SD) age 52 (??) years. In 25 patients I(131) was given for papillary (83%), in 3 for medullary (10%), and in 2 for follicular thyroid carcinoma (7%). Stenosis alone was found in 30 glands (40%), mucous plugs alone in 35 (47%), and mucous plugs, stenosis, and kinks in 10 (13%). Of the 75 glands, dilatation of the ducts was successful in 70, and we completely removed all mucous plugs and kinks. We achieved symptomatic improvement in 23 patients (77%) during a follow-up ranging from 2 weeks to 84 months. Sialoendoscopy is a viable technique for the diagnosis of obstructive salivary disease, and is a safe and effective way to treat sialoadenitis, the most common complication of treatment with I(131). PMID:24894709

De Luca, R; Vicidomini, A; Trodella, M; Tartaro, G; Colella, G

2014-09-01

360

The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon  

SciTech Connect

Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-01-01

361

Viable f(T) models are practically indistinguishable from ?CDM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the cosmological predictions of several f(T) models, with up to two parameters, at both the background and the perturbation levels. Using current cosmological observations (geometric supernovae type Ia, cosmic microwave background and baryonic acoustic oscillation and dynamical growth data) we impose constraints on the distortion parameter, which quantifies the deviation of these models from the concordance ? cosmology at the background level. In addition we constrain the growth index ? predicted in the context of these models using the latest perturbation growth data in the context of three parametrizations for ?. The evolution of the best fit effective Newton constant, which incorporates the f(T)-gravity effects, is also obtained along with the corresponding 1? error regions. We show that all the viable parameter sectors of the f(T) gravity models considered practically reduce these models to ?CDM. Thus, the degrees of freedom that open up to ?CDM in the context of f(T) gravity models are not utilized by the cosmological data leading to an overall disfavor of these models.

Nesseris, S.; Basilakos, S.; Saridakis, E. N.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

2013-11-01

362

The detection of viable vegetative cells of Bacillus sporothermodurans using propidium monoazide with semi-nested PCR.  

PubMed

Bacillus sporothermodurans produces highly heat-resistant spores that can survive ultra-high temperature (UHT) treatment in milk. Therefore, we developed a rapid, specific and sensitive semi-nested touchdown PCR assay combined with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment for the detection of viable B. sporothermodurans vegetative cells. The semi-nested touchdown PCR alone proved to be specific for B. sporothermodurans, and the achieved detection limit was 4 CFU/mL from bacterial culture and artificially contaminated UHT milk. This method combined with PMA treatment was shown to amplify DNA specifically from viable cells and presented a detection limit of 10(2) CFU/mL in UHT milk. The developed PMA-PCR assay shows applicability for the specific detection of viable cells of B. sporothermodurans from UHT milk. This method is of special significance for applications in the food industry by reducing the time required for the analysis of milk and dairy products for the presence of this microorganism. PMID:23498198

Cattani, F; Ferreira, C A S; Oliveira, S D

2013-05-01

363

Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

1995-01-01

364

Associate Program, Commercial Banking Commercial Banking  

E-print Network

Associate Program, Commercial Banking Commercial Banking Job Code 0203 ­ Level 6 CIBC is a leading Banking, Wealth Management and Wholesale Banking ­ we provide a full range of financial products Group of Companies please visit CIBC.com. Job Overview The Commercial Banking Associate Program provides

Northern British Columbia, University of

365

A study of factors related to commercial space platform services  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the past four years, the issue of the commercial development of space has come to the forefront of the U. S. national space policy. Though the Administration, Congress and NASA have all shown strong support for encouraging the private sector to become more actively involved in the commercial utilization of space, the question remains whether they must do more to foster the creation and development of a viable U. S. commercial space industry. Marketing aspects, insurance and risk loss, tax related factors, space transportation, termination liability, institutional barriers, and procurement laws and regulations are discussed.

Hosenball, S. N.

1986-01-01

366

Preservation of viable biological samples for experiments in space laboratories.  

PubMed

Standard viable preservation methods for biological samples using low temperatures have been investigated concerning their storage capabilities under higher temperature levels than usual. For a representative set of organism classes (plants, mammalian cells, arthropods and aquatic invertebrates), the minimum appropriate storage conditions have been identified by screening storage temperatures at -196 degrees, -80 degrees, -20 degrees, +4 degrees, +20 degrees/25 degrees C for periods from 2 days to 4 weeks. For storage below 0 degree C, as a typical cryopreservative, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was used. For some samples, the addition of trehalose (as cryopreservative) and the use of a nitrogen atmosphere were investigated. After storage, the material was tested for vitality. The findings demonstrated that acceptable preservation can be achieved under higher storage temperatures than are typically applied. Small, dense cultured plant cells survive for 21 d when moderately cooled (+4 degrees to -20 degrees C); addition of trehalose enhances viability at -20 degrees C. For mammalian cells, the results show that human lymphocytes can be preserved for 3 d at 25 degrees C, 7 d at 4 degrees C and 28 d at -80 degrees C. Friend leukaemia virus transformed cells can be stored for 3 d at 25 degrees C, 14 d at 4 degrees C and 28 d at -80 degrees C. Hybridoma cells can be kept 7 d at 4 degrees C and 28 d at -20 degrees C or -80 degrees C. Model arthropod systems are well preserved for 2 weeks if maintained at lower temperatures that vary depending on the species and/or stage of development; e.g., 12 degrees C for Drosophila imagoes and 4-6 degrees C for Artemia nauplii. For aquatic invertebrates such as sea urchins, embryonic and larval stages can be preserved for several weeks at +6 degrees C, whereas sperm and eggs can best be stored at + 4 degrees C for up to 5 d at maximum. These results enhance the range of feasible space experiments with biological systems. Moreover, for typical terrestrial preservation methods, considerable modification potential is identified. PMID:8987576

Anthony, P; Ausseil, J; Bechler, B; Benguría, A; Blackhall, N; Briarty, L G; Cogoli, A; Davey, M R; Garesse, R; Hager, R; Loddenkemper, R; Marchant, R; Marco, R; Marthy, H J; Perry, M; Power, J B; Schiller, P; Ugalde, C; Volkmann, D; Wardrop, J

1996-06-27

367

Direct real-time PCR with ethidium monoazide: a method for the rapid detection of viable Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to establish a rapid assay for the specific detection of viable Cronobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula (PIF). Samples were subjected to treatment multiple times with ethidium monoazide with a concentration gradient (gEMA) prior to PCR to discriminate viable from dead C. sakazakii cells. To improve the current detection limits, we developed a new buffer for direct quantitative real-time PCR (DqPCR) without DNA isolation. Using 17 PIF samples, our rapid assay was compared with the new U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) method published in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual in 2012. Although both the new FDA method and our rapid assay, which consists of DqPCR combined with gEMA (gEMA-DqPCR), produced negative results for all 17 PIF samples, 5 of the 17 PIFs were positive by DqPCR when they were not treated with EMA. Furthermore, for PIF samples artificially contaminated with viable C. sakazakii, gEMA-DqPCR successfully detected between 1 and 9 CFU of viable C. sakazakii in 300 g of PIF within 9 h, including a 6-h preincubation. Our results indicate that multiple EMA treatments are required to avoid false-positive results due to the contamination of commercial PIF with dead or injured C. sakazakii cells. Our rapid assay may also improve the sensitivity of the screening portion required by the new FDA method published in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual in 2012. PMID:22947463

Minami, Jun-Ichi; Soejima, Takashi; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

2012-09-01

368

Airborne viable, non-viable, and allergenic fungi in a rural agricultural area of India: a 2-year study at five outdoor sampling stations.  

PubMed

The information on airborne allergenic fungal flora in rural agricultural areas is largely lacking. Adequate information is not available to the bioaerosol researchers regarding the choice of single versus multiple sampling stations for the monitoring of both viable and non-viable airborne fungi. There is no long-term study estimating the ratios of viable and non-viable fungi in the air and earlier studies did not focus on the fractions of airborne allergenic fungi with respect to the total airborne fungal load. To fill these knowledge gaps, volumetric paired assessments of airborne viable and non-viable fungi were performed in five outdoor sampling stations during two consecutive years in a rural agricultural area of India. Samples were collected at 10-day intervals by the Burkard Personal Slide Sampler and the Andersen Two-Stage Viable Sampler. The data on the concentrations of total and individual fungal types from five stations and 2 different years were analyzed and compared by statistical methods. The allergenicity of the prevalent airborne viable fungi was estimated by the skin-prick tests of >100 rural allergy patients using the antigenic fungal extracts from isolates collected with the Andersen sampler. The ranges of total fungal spore concentration were 82-2365 spores per cubic meter of air (spores/m3) in the first sampling year and 156-2022 spores/m3 in the second sampling year. The concentration ranges of viable fungi were 72-1796 colony-forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m3) in the first sampling year and 155-1256 CFU/m3 in the second sampling year. No statistically significant difference was observed between the total spore data of the 2 years, however, the data between five stations showed a significant difference (P<0.0001). No statistically significant difference existed between stations and years with respect to the concentration of viable fungi. When the data of individual allergenic fungal concentrations were compared between stations and years, no statistically significant difference was observed in all cases except for Aspergillus japonicus and Rhizopus nigricans, which showed significant difference in case of stations and years, respectively. The ratios between the total fungal spores collected by the Burkard sampler and the viable fungi collected by the Andersen sampler from all sampling stations ranged between 0.29 and 7.61. The antigenic extracts of eight prevalent viable airborne fungi (A. flavus, A. japonicus, A. fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Curvularia pallescens, Fusarium roseum, and R. nigricans) demonstrated >60% positive reactions in the skin prick test. These selected allergenic fungi collectively represented 31.7-63.2% of the total airborne viable fungi in different stations. The study concluded that: (i) a rich fungal airspora existed in the rural study area, (ii) to achieve representative information on the total airborne fungal spores of an area, the monitoring in multiple sampling stations is preferable over a single sampling station; for viable fungi, however, one station can be considered, (iii) the percentage of airborne fungal viability is higher in rural agricultural areas, and (iv) approximately 52% of the viable airborne fungi in the rural study area were allergenic. PMID:15142771

Adhikari, Atin; Sen, Moon M; Gupta-Bhattacharya, Swati; Chanda, Sunirmal

2004-06-29

369

Rapid and direct quantitative detection of viable bifidobacteria in probiotic yogurt by combination of ethidium monoazide and real-time PCR using a molecular beacon approach.  

PubMed

The potential of ethidium monoazide (EMA) real-time PCR method based on molecular beacon probe for rapid detection of viable bifidobacteria present in probiotic yogurt was evaluated in this work. A real-time PCR with molecular beacon assay was developed to determine genus Bifidobacterium quantitatively in order to increase the sensitivity and specificity of assay. EMA was used to treat probiotic yogurt prior to DNA extraction and real-time PCR detection to allow detection of only viable bacteria. The primer set of Bif-F/Bif-R which is genus-specific for Bifid. was designed. The specificity of the probes ensures that no signal is generated by non-target amplicons. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a good correlation (R² = 0·9948) between the EMA real-time PCR results and the plate counting, and real-time quantitative PCR results correlated adequately with enumeration of bifidobacteria by culture for commercial probiotic yogurt. This culture-independent approach is promising for the direct and rapid detection of viable bifidobacteria in commercial probiotic yogurt, and the detection can be carried out within 4 h. The detection limit for this method is about 10? cell/ml. In conclusion, the direct quantitative EMA real-time PCR assay based on molecular beacon described in this research is a rapid and quantitative method. PMID:20822571

Meng, X C; Pang, R; Wang, C; Wang, L Q

2010-11-01

370

A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing so, a justifiable course of action (COA) can be determined based on a variety of quantitative and qualitative information available. This thesis describes and applies the ATLAS method to a notional military scenario that involves the Navy concept of Seabasing and the Marine Corps concept of Distributed Operations applied to a platoon sized element. The small force is tasked to conduct deterrence and combat operations over a seven day period. This work uses modeling and simulation to incorporate expert opinion and knowledge of military operations, dynamic reasoning methods, and certainty analysis to create a decisions support system (DSS) that can be used to provide the DM an enhanced view of the logistics environment and uses variables that impact specific measures of effectiveness. The results from applying the ATLAS method provide a better understanding and ability for the DM to conduct the logistics planning/execution more efficiently and quickly. This is accomplished by providing relevant data that can be applied to perform dynamic forecasting activities for the platoon and aids in determining the necessary support architecture to fulfill the forecasted need.

Hester, Jesse Stuart

371

Economic benefits of commercial space activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space is not only an endless frontier for exploration, but also a potentially rich arena for profitable commerce to benefit all mankind. Access to the unique environment of space provides opportunities for unprecedented kinds of research to develop new products and services. This research can lead to commercially viable enterprises, which will become permanent businesses, which will provide good jobs for workers, pay taxes to their governments, and return dividends to their investors. Seeking superior products and processes is vital if the economy is to grow and prosper. This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the economy of selected private sector space activities.

Stone, Barbara A.

372

SituationAwareness,MentalWorkload,andTrust inAutomation:Viable,EmpiricallySupported  

E-print Network

& Design Division ABSTRACT: Cognitive engineering needs viable constructs and principles to promote better of viable constructs and principles to promote better understanding of human performance in complex systems is that the constructs and/or principles are quantifiable in the form of either mathematical or computational models

Parasuraman, Raja

373

Sage: Creating a Viable Free Open Source Alternative to Magma, Maple, Mathematica,  

E-print Network

1 Sage: Creating a Viable Free Open Source Alternative to Magma, Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB 1.1 Introduction The goal of the Sage project (http://www.sagemath.org) is to create a viable free open source explain some of the motivation for starting the Sage project, in Section 1.3 we describe the basic

Stein, William

374

Personal sampler for monitoring of viable viruses; modelling of outdoor sampling conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new personal bioaerosol sampler has recently been developed and verified to be very efficient for monitoring of viable airborne bacteria, fungi and viruses. The device is capable of providing high recovery rates even for microorganisms which are rather sensitive to physical and biological stresses. However, some mathematical procedure is required for realistic calculation of an actual concentration of viable

A. I. Borodulin; B. M. Desyatkov; N. A. Lapteva; A. N. Sergeev; I. E. Agranovski

2006-01-01

375

The effect of formulation on the penetration of coated and uncoated zinc oxide nanoparticles into the viable epidermis of human skin in vivo.  

PubMed

The use of nanoparticulate zinc oxide (ZnO-NP) in sunscreens and other cosmetic products has raised public health concerns. The two key issues are the extent of exposure to ZnO-NP and the likely hazard after the application of ZnO-NP in sunscreen and cosmetic products to humans in vivo. Our aims were to assess exposure by the extent of ZnO-NP penetration into the viable epidermis and hazard by changes in the viable epidermal redox state for a number of topical products. Of particular interest is the role of the particle coating, formulation used, and the presence of any enhancers. Multiphoton tomography with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (MPT-FLIM) was used to simultaneously observe ZnO-NP penetration and potential metabolic changes within the viable epidermis of human volunteers after topical application of various ZnO-NP products. Coated and uncoated ZnO-NP remained in the superficial layers of the SC and in the skin furrows. We observed limited penetration of coated ZnO-NP dispersed in a water-in-oil emulsion formulation, which was predominantly localized adjacent to the skin furrow. However, the presence of ZnO-NP in the viable epidermis did not alter the metabolic state or morphology of the cells. In summary, our data suggest that some limited penetration of coated and uncoated ZnO-NP may occur into viable stratum granulosum epidermis adjacent to furrows, but that the extent is not sufficient to affect the redox state of those viable cells. PMID:23454052

Leite-Silva, Vânia R; Le Lamer, Marina; Sanchez, Washington Y; Liu, David C; Sanchez, Washington H; Morrow, Isabel; Martin, Darren; Silva, Heron D T; Prow, Tarl W; Grice, Jeffrey E; Roberts, Michael S

2013-06-01

376

150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated to determine the physical compatibility of integrating multiple technologies and then the impact on the design, both improvements and degradations, must be determined. These technologies are assessed deterministically. Again, Response Surface Equations (RSEs) are developed to allow for a full factorial evaluation of the combinations of the technologies. The best combination of technologies is selected and then the design space is again reevaluated for feasibility and viability.

Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

2002-01-01

377

Commercial researcher perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Protein crystallography--a research tool used to study the structure of the complex building blocks of living systems--has a lot to gain from space-based research. In order to know how a protein works in the human body, researchers must understand its molecular structure. Researchers have identified 150,000 different proteins in the body, but they now know the structure of less than a third of them. The only viable technique for analyzing the structure of these proteins is x-ray diffraction of the proteins in their crystal form. The better the quality of a protein crystal, the more useful it is to researchers who are trying to delineate its structure. The microgravity environment of space allows protein crystals to grow nearly undisturbed by convection and other gravity-driven forces that cause flaws to form in them on the ground. In space, lack of convection enables protein crystals to grow more slowly than they do on Earth, and the slower a protein crystal grows, the fewer flaws it will have. Protein crystal growth experiments have already flown on 14 Space Shuttle missions. This year's USML-1 Spacelab mission included protein crystal growth experiments conducted for commercial researchers. The results of protein crystal experiments flown thus far have been larger crystals with more uniform morphologies. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (A NASA-cosponsored CCDS) currently builds flight hardware to meet researchers' needs and handles sample loading and retrieval for flight experiments. Protein crystallography enables 'rational drug design': the development of drugs that bind only with the target protein and, hence, do not cause side effects. For example, pharmaceutical companies presently are interested in developing drugs that can inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a protein that plays a role in auto-immune diseases. To continue these kinds of investigations, researchers need a constant supply of protein crystals that are as free of flaws as possible. Space Station Freedom will provide the kind of research environment that will enable the production of such supplies. In addition, Freedom will provide the kind of long-duration facility required by protein crystal researchers: 40 percent of proteins require more than two weeks to crystallize.

Delucas, Larry

1992-01-01

378

Commercial launch systems: A risky investment?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A myriad of evolutionary paths connect the current state of government-dominated space launch operations to true commercial access to space. Every potential path requires the investment of private capital sufficient to fund the commercial venture with a perceived risk/return ratio acceptable to the investors. What is the private sector willing to invest? Does government participation reduce financial risk? How viable is a commercial launch system without government participation and support? We examine the interplay between various forms of government participation in commercial launch system development, alternative launch system designs, life cycle cost estimates, and typical industry risk aversion levels. The boundaries of this n-dimensional envelope are examined with an ECON-developed business financial model which provides for the parametric assessment and interaction of SSTO design variables (including various operational scenarios with financial variables including debt/equity assumptions, and commercial enterprise burden rates on various functions. We overlay this structure with observations from previous ECON research which characterize financial risk aversion levels for selected industrial sectors in terms of acceptable initial lump-sum investments, cumulative investments, probability of failure, payback periods, and ROI. The financial model allows the construction of parametric tradeoffs based on ranges of variables which can be said to actually encompass the ``true'' cost of operations and determine what level of ``true'' costs can be tolerated by private capitalization.

Dupnick, Edwin; Skratt, John

1996-03-01

379

Commercial Zone Melting Ingots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bismuth telluride-based compounds have been extensively utilized for commercial application. However, thermoelectric materials must suffer numerous mechanical vibrations and thermal stresses while in service, making it equally important to discuss the mechanical properties, especially at high temperature. In this study, the compressive and bending strengths of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 commercial zone melting (ZM) ingots were investigated at 25, 100, and 200 °C, respectively. Due to the obvious anisotropy of materials prepared by ZM method, the effect of anisotropy on the strengths was also explored. Two-parameter Weibull distribution was employed to fit a series of values acquired by a universal testing machine. And digital speckle photography was applied to record the strain field evolution, providing visual observation of surface strain. The compressive and bending strengths along ZM direction were approximately three times as large as those perpendicular to the ZM direction independent of the temperature, indicating a weak van der Waals bond along the c axis.

Zheng, Yun; Xie, Hongyao; Shu, Shengcheng; Yan, Yonggao; Li, Han; Tang, Xinfeng

2014-06-01

380

Relationship of total viable and culturable cells in epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae.  

PubMed

The direct viable count method, used to detect viable but nonculturable bacteria in aquatic systems, was modified to examine epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae. Viable-population sizes determined from the number of cells that elongated when incubated with yeast extract and nalidixic acid were compared with those determined by the conventional plate count method. The plate count method accurately determined the number of viable cells in epiphytic P. syringae populations in a state of active growth under conditions of high relative humidity. The plate count method also accurately determined the number of viable cells in P. syringae inoculum, or a growing P. syringae population, subject to desiccation stress under conditions of low relative humidity. In epiphytic populations of P. syringae older than 80 h, however, the plate count underestimated the viable-population size by about two- to fourfold, suggesting that up to 75% of the P. syringae population was nonculturable. These nonculturable cells may have entered a starvation-survival state, induced by low nutrient availability in the phyllosphere environment. Epiphytic P. syringae populations undergoing rapid size changes due to growth and death under fluctuating environmental conditions in the field should be accurately enumerated by the plate count method. However, the possible underestimation of viable-population size under some circumstances should be considered in epidemiological studies of phytopathogenic bacteria and when genetically engineered microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystems are monitored. PMID:1476434

Wilson, M; Lindow, S E

1992-12-01

381

Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

2000-01-01

382

Selective quantification of viable Escherichia coli bacteria in biosolids by quantitative PCR with propidium monoazide modification.  

PubMed

Quantitative differentiation of live cells in biosolids samples, without the use of culturing-based approaches, is highly critical from a public health risk perspective, as recent studies have shown significant regrowth and reactivation of indicator organisms. Persistence of DNA in the environment after cell death in the range of days to weeks limits the application of DNA-based approaches as a measure of live cell density. Using selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) is one of the alternative approaches to detecting and quantifying viable cells by quantitative PCR. These compounds have the ability to penetrate only into dead cells with compromised membrane integrity and intercalate with DNA via their photoinducible azide groups and in turn inhibit DNA amplification during PCRs. PMA has been successfully used in different studies and microorganisms, but it has not been evaluated sufficiently for complex environmental samples such as biosolids. In this study, experiments were performed with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the model organism and the uidA gene as the target sequence using real-time PCR via the absolute quantification method. Experiments with the known quantities of live and dead cell mixtures showed that PMA treatment inhibits PCR amplification from dead cells with over 99% efficiency. The results also indicated that PMA-modified quantitative PCR could be successfully applied to biosolids when the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration is at or below 2,000 mg·liter(-1). PMID:21602375

Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Duran, Metin

2011-07-01

383

Selective Quantification of Viable Escherichia coli Bacteria in Biosolids by Quantitative PCR with Propidium Monoazide Modification ?  

PubMed Central

Quantitative differentiation of live cells in biosolids samples, without the use of culturing-based approaches, is highly critical from a public health risk perspective, as recent studies have shown significant regrowth and reactivation of indicator organisms. Persistence of DNA in the environment after cell death in the range of days to weeks limits the application of DNA-based approaches as a measure of live cell density. Using selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) is one of the alternative approaches to detecting and quantifying viable cells by quantitative PCR. These compounds have the ability to penetrate only into dead cells with compromised membrane integrity and intercalate with DNA via their photoinducible azide groups and in turn inhibit DNA amplification during PCRs. PMA has been successfully used in different studies and microorganisms, but it has not been evaluated sufficiently for complex environmental samples such as biosolids. In this study, experiments were performed with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the model organism and the uidA gene as the target sequence using real-time PCR via the absolute quantification method. Experiments with the known quantities of live and dead cell mixtures showed that PMA treatment inhibits PCR amplification from dead cells with over 99% efficiency. The results also indicated that PMA-modified quantitative PCR could be successfully applied to biosolids when the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration is at or below 2,000 mg·liter?1. PMID:21602375

Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Duran, Metin

2011-01-01

384

Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

Not Available

1994-04-29

385

Dosimetric verification and clinical evaluation of a new commercially available Monte Carlo-based dose algorithm for application in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern cancer treatment techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), have greatly increased the demand for more accurate treatment planning (structure definition, dose calculation, etc) and dose delivery. The ability to use fast and accurate Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculations within a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) in the clinical setting is now becoming

Margarida Fragoso; Ning Wen; Sanath Kumar; Dezhi Liu; Samuel Ryu; Benjamin Movsas; Ajlouni Munther; Indrin J. Chetty

2010-01-01

386

A rapid and simple determination of protoberberine alkaloids in cortex phellodendri by 1H NMR and its application for quality control of commercial traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huangbai (cortex Phellodendri, the dried bark of Phellodendron amurense or Phellodendron chinense) is one of the important traditional Chinese medicines. Protoberberine alkaloids were reported to contribute to the biological activity of this species. A highly specific and sensitive method using 1H NMR has been developed for the quantitative determination of protoberberine alkaloids in Phellodendron species and their commercial traditional Chinese

Chia-Ying Li; Hsin-Jung Lu; Chung-Hua Lin; Tian-Shung Wu

2006-01-01

387

Dehydrating performance of commercial LTA zeolite membranes and application to fuel grade bio-ethanol production by hybrid distillation\\/vapor permeation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of commercial NaA zeolite membranes (Bussan Nanotech Research Institute Inc., Japan) was investigated for dehydration viability by vapor permeation (VP) to apply them to production of fuel grade ethanol. We carried out mainly two sub-projects: (1) the VP experiments with a large unit to determine the dehydration performance for elemental membranes and (2) the field test to produce

Kiminori Sato; Katsuhiko Aoki; Kazunori Sugimoto; Kou Izumi; Soushi Inoue; Junji Saito; Shiro Ikeda; Takashi Nakane

2008-01-01

388

A methodology for combining multiple commercial data sources to improve measurement of the food and alcohol environment: applications of geographical information systems.  

PubMed

Commercial data sources have been increasingly used to measure and locate community resources. We describe a methodology for combining and comparing the differences in commercial data of the food and alcohol environment. We used commercial data from two commercial databases (InfoUSA and Dun&Bradstreet) for 2003 and 2009 to obtain information on food and alcohol establishments and developed a matching process using computer algorithms and manual review by applying ArcGIS to geocode addresses, standard industrial classification and North American industry classification taxonomy for type of establishment and establishment name. We constructed population and area-based density measures (e.g. grocery stores) and assessed differences across data sources and used ArcGIS to map the densities. The matching process resulted in 8,705 and 7,078 unique establishments for 2003 and 2009, respectively. There were more establishments captured in the combined dataset than relying on one data source alone, and the additional establishments captured ranged from 1,255 to 2,752 in 2009. The correlations for the density measures between the two data sources was highest for alcohol outlets (r = 0.75 and 0.79 for per capita and area, respectively) and lowest for grocery stores/supermarkets (r = 0.32 for both). This process for applying geographical information systems to combine multiple commercial data sources and develop measures of the food and alcohol environment captured more establishments than relying on one data source alone. This replicable methodology was found to be useful for understanding the food and alcohol environment when local or public data are limited. PMID:25545927

Mendez, Dara D; Duell, Jessica; Reiser, Sarah; Martin, Deborah; Gradeck, Robert; Fabio, Anthony

2014-11-01

389

All-printed smart structures: a viable option?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last two decades have seen evolution of smart materials and structures technologies from theoretical concepts to physical realization in many engineering fields. These include smart sensors and actuators, active damping and vibration control, biomimetics, and structural health monitoring. Recently, additive manufacturing technologies such as 3D printing and printed electronics have received attention as methods to produce 3D objects or electronic components for prototyping or distributed manufacturing purposes. In this paper, the viability of manufacturing all-printed smart structures, with embedded sensors and actuators, will be investigated. To this end, the current 3D printing and printed electronics technologies will be reviewed first. Then, the plausibility of combining these two different additive manufacturing technologies to create all-printed smart structures will be discussed. Potential applications for this type of all-printed smart structures include most of the traditional smart structures where sensors and actuators are embedded or bonded to the structures to measure structural response and cause desired static and dynamic changes in the structure.

O'Donnell, John; Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Yoon, Hwan-Sik; Washington, Gregory

2014-03-01

390

Telestroke a viable option to improve stroke care in India.  

PubMed

In India, stroke care services are not well developed. There is a need to explore alternative options to tackle the rising burden of stroke. Telemedicine has been used by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to meet the needs of remote hospitals in India. The telemedicine network implemented by ISRO in 2001 presently stretches to around 100 hospitals all over the country, with 78 remote/rural/district health centers connected to 22 specialty hospitals in major cities, thus providing treatment to more than 25?000 patients, which includes stroke patients. Telemedicine is currently used in India for diagnosing stroke patients, subtyping stroke as ischemic or hemorrhagic, and treating accordingly. However, a dedicated telestroke system for providing acute stroke care is needed. Keeping in mind India's flourishing technology sector and leading communication networks, the hub-and-spoke model could work out really well in the upcoming years. Until then, simpler alternatives like smartphones, online data transfer, and new mobile applications like WhatsApp could be used. Telestroke facilities could increase the pool of patients eligible for thrombolysis. But this primary aim of telestroke can be achieved in India only if thrombolysis and imaging techniques are made available at all levels of health care. PMID:25042038

Srivastava, Padma V; Sudhan, Paulin; Khurana, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Rohit; Kaul, Subash; Sylaja, P N; Moonis, Majaz; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai

2014-10-01

391

Diet-induced hypermethylation at agouti viable yellow is not inherited transgenerationally through the female  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of nonmutagenic environmental exposures can sometimes be transmitted for several generations, suggesting transgenerational inheritance of induced epigenetic variation. Methyl donor supplementation of female mice during pregnancy induces CpG hypermethylation at the agouti viable yellow (A...

392

Solar System Constraints on a Cosmologically Viable $f(R)$ Theory  

E-print Network

Recently, a model $f(R)$ theory is proposed \\cite{recent} which is cosmologically viable and distinguishable from $\\Lambda$CDM. We use chameleon mechanism to investigate viability of the model in terms of Solar System experiments.

Yousef Bisabr

2009-07-22

393

Diclofenac metabolic profile following in vitro percutaneous absorption through viable human skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The extent of metabolism of diclofenac sodium in excised viable human skin was investigated using combination HPLC and radioactivity\\u000a assay. In an earlier diffusion experiment using anin vitro flow-through diffusion system, radiolabelled diclofenac sodium in either lotion (PennsaidPR) or aqueous solution was applied to viable human skin, either as single dose or multiple dose (8 times over 2 days). In

H. TANOJOI; R. C. Wester; J. Z. Shainhouse; H. I. Maibach

1999-01-01

394

Assessment of Bioaerosol Sampling Techniques for Viable Legionella pneumophila by Ethidium Monoazide Quantitative PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legionella pneumophila causes severe pneumonia and Pontiac fever in humans. Rapid and sensitive bioaerosol monitoring techniques for viable L. pneumophila are unavailable. Coupled with a newly developed viable assay called ethidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (EMA-qPCR), this study applies EMA-qPCR to aerobiology for the first time to evaluate the effects of the method of sampling (all-glass impinger (AGI-30), BioSampler, and

Ching-Wen Chang; Fang-Chen Chou

2011-01-01

395

Delayed uptake and washout of contrast in non-viable infarcted myocardium shown with dynamic computed tomography  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of ischemic but potentially viable myocardium plays an important role in the planning of coronary revascularization. Until now SPECT, PET, and MRI have been used to identify viable myocardium. Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to diagnose coronary atherosclerosis. Objective To evaluate the feasibility of CT enhancement as a viability marker by investigating myocardial contrast distribution over time in pigs with experimentally induced antero-septal myocardial infarctions. Methods Twelve pigs were subjected to 60 min of balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending artery, followed by removal of the balloon and reperfusion. Four pigs died due to refractory ventricular fibrillation. After 6 weeks, dynamic cardiac CT was performed assessing both wall motion and contrast attenuation. Measurements of attenuation values in Hounsfield units (HU) in the infarct zone and the normal lateral wall were performed at 20 s, and 1, 3, 5, 8 and 12 min after contrast injection. Results We found highly significant differences in attenuation values between the two zones at all-time points except t =1 min (ANOVA P=0.85). The normal myocardium showed higher uptake- and washout-rates of contrast than the infarct zone (84±15 vs. 58±8 at 20 s, P=0.0001 and 27±12 vs. 81±13 at 12 min, P=0.0001). Specifically, the ratio between early (20 s) and late (12 min) uptake is a valid marker of viable myocardium. In all animals this ration was above one in the normal zone and below one in the infarct zone. Conclusions Delayed infarct related uptake and washout of contrast shows promise for future clinical application of CT in a combined assessment of coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial viability. PMID:25414821

Laugesen, Sofie; Agger, Peter; Hønge, Jesper; Smerup, Morten; Udholm, Nichlas; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Bøttcher, Morten

2014-01-01

396

Recovery of Viable Bacteria from Probiotic Products that Target Oral Health  

PubMed Central

Probiotic therapy has predominantly been directed toward promoting and maintaining intestinal health. In recent years, however, probiotic regimens that target oral health have appeared on the market. These regimens are often delivered in the form of lozenges. Despite the oral health claims made by the manufacturers of these products, there is little independent evidence in the literature to support such claims. In theory, probiotic organisms can be beneficial by several different means including direct inhibition of pathogens and boosting of the host immune response, with the underlying assumption that these mechanisms require a critical number of viable organisms. In this study, five brands of probiotics marketed for oral health were tested for the recovery of viable bacteria. For only one brand could viable bacteria be recovered within one log of the manufacturer’s stated starting amount of bacteria. Nearly a billion viable bacteria could be recovered from a lozenge of this brand. The other brands claimed similar starting amounts of bacteria at the time of manufacture but at least a three-log drop off was observed in the amount of viable bacteria recovered from those products. Refrigeration of the probiotics significantly improved the recovery for one brand, but recoveries for all but one brand remained below the recommended daily dosage for probiotic regimens. It is concluded that probiotic brands differ significantly in the quantities of bacteria that remain viable with most failing to meet recommended dosage targets. PMID:24015157

Banas, Jeffrey A.; Popp, Eric T.

2013-01-01

397

THE IDEA IS TO USEMODIS IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE CURRENT LIMITED LANDSAT CAPABILITY, COMMERCIAL SATELLITES, ANDUNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV), IN A MULTI-STAGE APPROACH TO MEET EPA INFORMATION NEEDS.REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW: EPA CAPABILITIES, PRIORITY AGENCY APPLICATIONS, SENSOR/AIRCRAFT CAPABILITIES, COST CONSIDERATIONS, SPECTRAL AND SPATIAL RESOLUTIONS, AND TEMPORAL CONSIDERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA remote sensing capabilities include applied research for priority applications and technology support for operational assistance to clients across the Agency. The idea is to use MODIS in conjunction with the current limited Landsat capability, commercial satellites, and Unma...

398

Development and commercialization of high Tc SQUID  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high Tc SQUID has been developed and is going to be commercialized soon. It features low cost operation with liquid nitrogen coolant and easy operation. Therefore the high Tc SQUID becomes more useful for us than a low Tc SQUID operating with liquid helium. The high Tc SQUID was firstly commercialized by Conductus in California. This was a very pioneer work. Four companies in the US, five companies in Europe and Sumitomo Electric in Japan are now selling it commercially. These commercial SQUIDs are small equipments used for application research in laboratories. Applications are medical diagnosis, nondestructive testing, biomagnetic analysis, geological survey and so on. The high Tc SQUID is a frontier of superconductor electronics. Active research in the development of high Tc SQUID is being conducted worldwide and its commercialization is expected soon.

Itozaki, Hideo

2001-09-01

399

Commercial and home-made nitrogen modified titanias. A short reflection about the advantageous/disadvantageous properties of nitrogen doping in the frame of their applicability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As visible light driven photocatalysis became more and more intensively studied, the first commercial products showed up on the market. Simultaneously controversial results appeared in the literature generating an intensive debate regarding the advantages and draw-backs of nitrogen doping of titania. Hence, the present work focuses on two commercially available and four sol-gel made nitrogen modified titania powders regarding their structure and activity. It is demonstrated that the interstitial nitrogen entities “leak out” from the catalysts if the material is irradiated with UV light, while substitutional nitrogen remains stable. However, the latter one was proven to be less important in the photocatalytic point of view. These observations were also valid in the case of sol-gel made nitrogen modified titanias. Furthermore, the results obtained after applying different spectroscopic methods (IR, XPS and DRS) shown that the yellow color of the titanias, does not necessary mean that a successful doping is achieved.

Pap, Zs.; Mogyorósi, K.; Veréb, G.; Dombi, A.; Hernádi, K.; Danciu, V.; Baia, L.

2014-09-01

400

Applicability of stable C and N isotope analysis in inferring the geographical origin and authentication of commercial fish (Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock).  

PubMed

Globalisation of seafood and aquaculture products and their convenient marketing worldwide, increases the possibility for the distribution of mislabelled products; thereby, underlining the need to identify their origin. Stable isotope analysis is a promising approach to identify the authenticity and traceability of seafood and aquaculture products. In this investigation, we measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (?(13)C and ?(15)N) of three commercial fish, viz. Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock, originating from various countries. Apart from the species-dependent variation in the isotopic values, marked differences in the ?(13)C and ?(15)N ratios were also observed with respect to the country of origin. This suggests that C and N isotopic signatures could be reliable tools to identify and trace the origin of commercial fish. PMID:25442587

Kim, Heejoong; Suresh Kumar, K; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

2015-04-01

401

46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.  

...Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. 105.05-1 Section 105...COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The...

2014-10-01

402

46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. 105.05-1 Section 105...COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The...

2013-10-01

403

46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. 105.05-1 Section 105...COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The...

2011-10-01

404

46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. 105.05-1 Section 105...COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The...

2012-10-01

405

46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. 105.05-1 Section 105...COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The...

2010-10-01

406

Specific detection of viable Listeria monocytogenes in Spanish wastewater treatment plants by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization and PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria monocytogenes detection in wastewater can be difficult because of the large amount of background microbiota and the presence of viable but non-culturable forms in this environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate a Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) assay combined with Direct Viable Count (DVC) method for detecting viable L. monocytogenes in wastewater samples, as an alternative

Yolanda Moreno; Lorena Ballesteros; Jorge García-Hernández; Paula Santiago; Ana González; M. Antonia Ferrús

2011-01-01

407

Use of Ethidium Monoazide and PCR in Combination for Quantification of Viable and Dead Cells in Complex Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distinction between viable and dead cells is a major issue in many aspects of biological research. The current technologies for determining viable versus dead cells cannot readily be used for quantitative differ- entiation of specific cells in mixed populations. This is a serious limitation. We have solved this problem by developing a new concept with the viable\\/dead stain ethidium

Knut Rudi; Birgitte Moen; S. M. Dromtorp; Askild L. Holck

2005-01-01

408

The resistance of viable permafrost algae to simulated environmental stresses: implications for astrobiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

54 strains of viable green algae and 26 strains of viable cyanobacteria were recovered from 128 and 56 samples collected from Siberian and Antarctic permafrost, respectively, with ages from modern to a few million years old. Although species of unicellular green algae belonged to Chlorococcales were subdominant inside permafrost, green algae Pedinomonas sp. were observed in Antarctic permafrost. Filamentous cyanobacteria of Oscillatoriales, Nostocales were just found in Siberian permafrost. Algal biomass in the permanently frozen sediments, expressed as concentration of chlorophyll a, was 0.06-0.46 [mu]g g[minus sign]1. The number of viable algal cells varied between <102 and 9-103 cfu g[minus sign]1, but the number of viable bacterial cells was usually higher from 102 to 9.2-105 cfu g[minus sign]1. Frozen but viable permafrost algae have preserved their morphological characteristics and photosynthetic apparatus in the dark permafrost. In the laboratory, they restored their photosynthetic activity, growth and development in favourable conditions at positive temperatures and with the availability of water and light. The discovery of ancient viable algae within permafrost reflects their ability to tolerate long-term freezing. In this study, the tolerance of algae and cyanobacteria to freezing, thawing and freezing-drying stresses was evaluated by short-term (days to months) low-temperature experiments. Results indicate that viable permafrost microorganisms demonstrate resistance to such stresses. Apart from their ecological importance, the bacterial and algal species found in permafrost have become the focus for novel biotechnology, as well as being considered proxies for possible life forms on cryogenic extraterrestrial bodies.

Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Spirina, E. V.; Shatilovich, A. V.; Erokhina, L. G.; Vorobyova, E. A.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

2003-07-01

409

Re-engineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Along with the Red and Blue Teams commissioned by the NASA Administrator in 1992, NASA's Associate Administrator for Space Communications commissioned a Blue Team to review the Office of Space Communications (Code O) Core Program and determine how the program could be conducted faster, better, and cheaper. Since there was no corresponding Red Team for the Code O Blue Team, the Blue Team assumed a Red Team independent attitude and challenged the status quo, including current work processes, functional distinctions, interfaces, and information flow, as well as traditional management and system development practices. The Blue Team's unconstrained, non-parochial, and imaginative look at NASA's space communications program produced a simplified representation of the space communications infrastructure that transcends organizational and functional boundaries, in addition to existing systems and facilities. Further, the Blue Team adapted the 'faster, better, cheaper' charter to be relevant to the multi-mission, continuous nature of the space communications program and to serve as a gauge for improving customer services concurrent with achieving more efficient operations and infrastructure life cycle economies. This simplified representation, together with the adapted metrics, offers a future view and process model for reengineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment. Code O remains firm in its commitment to improve productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency. In October 1992, the Associate Administrator reconstituted the Blue Team as the Code O Success Team (COST) to serve as a catalyst for change. In this paper, the COST presents the chronicle and significance of the simplified representation and adapted metrics, and their application during the FY 1993-1994 activities.

Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Kelly, Angelita C.; Lightfoot, Patricia C.; Bell, Holland T.; Cureton-Snead, Izeller E.; Hurd, William J.; Scales, Charles H.

1994-01-01

410

Aerospace century XXI: Space sciences, applications, and commercial developments; Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual AAS International Conference, Boulder, CO, Oct. 26-29, 1986  

SciTech Connect

Papers are presented on rocket UV observations of Comet Halley, a space system for microgravity research, transitioning from Spacelab to Space Station science, and assemblers and future space hardware. Also considered are spatial and temporal scales of atmospheric disturbances, Doppler radar for prediction and warning, data management for the Columbus program, communications satellites of the future, and commercial launch vehicles. Other topics include space geodesy and earthquake predictions, inverted cellular radio satellite systems, material processing in space, and potential for earth observations from the manned Space Station.

Morgenthaler, G.W.; Koster, J.N.

1987-01-01

411

PMA-Linked Fluorescence for Rapid Detection of Viable Bacterial Endospores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The most common approach for assessing the abundance of viable bacterial endospores is the culture-based plating method. However, culture-based approaches are heavily biased and oftentimes incompatible with upstream sample processing strategies, which make viable cells/spores uncultivable. This shortcoming highlights the need for rapid molecular diagnostic tools to assess more accurately the abundance of viable spacecraft-associated microbiota, perhaps most importantly bacterial endospores. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has received a great deal of attention due to its ability to differentiate live, viable bacterial cells from dead ones. PMA gains access to the DNA of dead cells through compromised membranes. Once inside the cell, it intercalates and eventually covalently bonds with the double-helix structures upon photoactivation with visible light. The covalently bound DNA is significantly altered, and unavailable to downstream molecular-based manipulations and analyses. Microbiological samples can be treated with appropriate concentrations of PMA and exposed to visible light prior to undergoing total genomic DNA extraction, resulting in an extract comprised solely of DNA arising from viable cells. This ability to extract DNA selectively from living cells is extremely powerful, and bears great relevance to many microbiological arenas.

LaDuc, Myron T.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Mohapatra, Bidyut

2012-01-01

412

75 FR 38821 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application-Alternative Inspection Services (SENTRI...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inspection Services (SENTRI Application and FAST Commercial Driver Application) AGENCY...SENTRI Application (CBP Form 823S) and the FAST Commercial Driver Application (CBP Form...including the SENTRI Application and the FAST Commercial Driver Application. OMB...

2010-07-06

413

75 FR 58417 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application-Alternative Inspection Services (SENTRI...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inspection Services (SENTRI Application and FAST Commercial Driver Application) AGENCY...SENTRI Application (CBP Form 823S) and the FAST Commercial Driver Application (CBP Form...including the SENTRI application and the FAST Commercial Driver Application. OMB...

2010-09-24

414

Design and Development of a 100 MVA HTS Generator for Commercial Entry  

SciTech Connect

In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: (1) identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator; (2) develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology; (3) perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE's proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept; and (4) design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables. The design for the HTS generator was based on GE's warm iron rotor concept in which a cold HTS coil is wound around a warm magnetic iron pole. This approach for rotating HTS electrical machinery provides the efficiency benefits of the HTS technology while addressing the two most important considerations for power generators in utility applications: cost and reliability. The warm iron rotor concept uses the least amount of expensive HTS wire compared to competing concepts and builds on the very high reliability of conventional iron core stators and armature windings.

None

2007-06-07

415

Preparation for commercial demonstration of biomass-to-ethanol conversion technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program was to complete the development of a commercially viable process to produce fuel ethanol from renewable cellulosic biomass. The program focused on pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation technologies where Amoco has a unique proprietary position. Assured access to low-cost feedstock is a cornerstone of attractive economics for cellulose to ethanol conversion in the 1990s. Most of Amoco`s efforts in converting cellulosic feedstocks to ethanol before 1994 focused on using paper from municipal solid waste as the feed. However, while many municipalities and MSW haulers expressed interest in Amoco`s technology, none were willing to commit funding to process development. In May, 1994 several large agricultural products companies showed interest in Amoco`s technology, particularly for application to corn fiber. Amoco`s initial work with corn fiber was encouraging. The project work plan was designed to provide sufficient data on corn fiber conversion to convince a major agriculture products company to participate in the construction of a commercial demonstration facility.

NONE

1997-07-01

416

Combining ethidium monoazide treatment with real-time PCR selectively quantifies viable Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis cells.  

PubMed

Detection of the lethal amphibian fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis relies on PCR-based techniques. Although highly accurate and sensitive, these methods fail to distinguish between viable and dead cells. In this study a novel approach combining the DNA intercalating dye ethidium monoazide (EMA) and real-time PCR is presented that allows quantification of viable B. dendrobatidis cells without the need for culturing. The developed method is able to suppress real-time PCR signals of heat-killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores by 99.9 % and is able to discriminate viable from heat-killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores in mixed samples. Furthermore, the novel approach was applied to assess the antifungal activity of the veterinary antiseptic F10(®) Antiseptic Solution. This disinfectant killed B. dendrobatidis zoospores effectively within 1 min at concentrations as low as 1:6400. PMID:23452953

Blooi, Mark; Martel, An; Vercammen, Francis; Pasmans, Frank

2013-02-01

417

Lighting in Commercial Buildings  

EIA Publications

Lighting is a major consumer of electricity in commercial buildings and a target for energy savings through use of energy-efficient light sources along with other advanced lighting technologies. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) collects information on types of lighting equipment, the amount of floorspace that is lit, and the percentage of floorspace lit by each type. In addition, CBECS data are used to model end-use consumption, including energy consumed for lighting in commercial buildings.

2009-01-01

418

Lunar Commercialization Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation describes the goals and rules of the workshop on Lunar Commercialization. The goal of the workshop is to explore the viability of using public-private partnerships to open the new space frontier. The bulk of the workshop was a team competition to create a innovative business plan for the commercialization of the moon. The public private partnership concept is reviewed, and the open architecture as an infrastructure for potential external cooperation. Some possible lunar commercialization elements are reviewed.

Martin, Gary L.

2008-01-01

419

Comparison of ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide for the selective detection of viable Legionella cells.  

PubMed

Ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) have been utilized for selective PCR amplification of DNA from viable bacterial cells. In this study, we compared the abilities of EMA and PMA, together with real-time PCR, to specifically distinguish dead Legionella cells from viable cells. Several experiments showed that PMA or EMA treatment could specifically prevent the PCR amplification of DNA from dead Legionella cells in water samples. However, a 4-fold higher concentration of PMA than EMA was required to achieve this effect. EMA may therefore be more useful for practical environmental investigations of Legionella. PMID:20332575

Chang, Bin; Taguri, Toshitsugu; Sugiyama, Kanji; Amemura-Maekawa, Junko; Kura, Fumiaki; Watanabe, Haruo

2010-03-01

420

Comparative analysis and limitations of ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide treatments for the differentiation of viable and nonviable campylobacter cells.  

PubMed

The lack of differentiation between viable and nonviable bacterial cells limits the implementation of PCR-based methods for routine diagnostic approaches. Recently, the combination of a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and ethidium monoazide (EMA) or propidium monoazide (PMA) pretreatment has been described to circumvent this disadvantage. In regard to the suitability of this approach for Campylobacter spp., conflicting results have been reported. Thus, we compared the suitabilities of EMA and PMA in various concentrations for a Campylobacter viability qPCR method. The presence of either intercalating dye, EMA or PMA, leads to concentration-dependent shifts toward higher threshold cycle (CT) values, especially after EMA treatment. However, regression analysis resulted in high correlation coefficient (R(2)) values of 0.99 (EMA) and 0.98 (PMA) between Campylobacter counts determined by qPCR and culture-based enumeration. EMA (10 ?g/ml) and PMA (51.10 ?g/ml) removed DNA selectively from nonviable cells in mixed samples at viable/nonviable ratios of up to 1:1,000. The optimized EMA protocol was successfully applied to 16 Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli field isolates from poultry and indicated the applicability for field isolates as well. EMA-qPCR and culture-based enumeration of Campylobacter spiked chicken leg quarters resulted in comparable bacterial cell counts. The correlation coefficient between the two analytical methods was 0.95. Nevertheless, larger amounts of nonviable cells (>10(4)) resulted in an incomplete qPCR signal reduction, representing a serious methodological limitation, but double staining with EMA considerably improved the signal inhibition. Hence, the proposed Campylobacter viability EMA-qPCR provides a promising rapid method for diagnostic applications, but further research is needed to circumvent the limitation. PMID:24487529

Seinige, Diana; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter; Kehrenberg, Corinna

2014-04-01

421

COMMERCIAL SPACE ACCOMPLISHMENTS Commercial Cargo Space Accomplishments  

E-print Network

to the International Space Station (ISS), bringing this important work back to the United States where it belongs requirements for transporting NASA's crew to the International Space Station. Unfunded Space Act Agreements by the extension of International Space Station operations to 2020, enabling expanded commercial and research

Waliser, Duane E.

422

The road to commercialization in Africa: lessons from developing the sickle-cell drug Niprisan  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Developing novel drugs from traditional medicinal knowledge can serve as a means to improve public health. Yet countries in sub-Saharan Africa face barriers in translating traditional medicinal knowledge into commercially viable health products. Barriers in moving along the road towards making a new drug available include insufficient manufacturing capacity; knowledge sharing between scientists and medical healers; regulatory hurdles; quality

Kumar Perampaladas; Hassan Masum; Andrew Kapoor; Ronak Shah; Abdallah S Daar; Peter A Singer

2010-01-01

423

Keywords: Commercial Orbit Transportation Services, Space Act Agreements, Partnership Engagement, Partnership Effec-  

E-print Network

rocket provided a temporary solution, the agency decided to turn to the private market to develop viable and Commercial Crew Development programs, which helped lead to the rise of companies such as SpaceX. Since for the agency to continue its mission of space exploration, and new policies HYL ULLKLK [V LUZ\\YL [OH[ [OLZL WHY

Acton, Scott

424

A novel approach for using dielectric spectroscopy to predict viable cell volume (VCV) in early process development.  

PubMed

Online monitoring of viable cell volume (VCV) is essential to the development, monitoring, and control of bioprocesses. The commercial availability of steam-sterilizable dielectricspectroscopy probes has enabled successful adoption of this technology as a key noninvasive method to measure VCV for cell-culture processes. Technological challenges still exist, however. For some cell lines, the technique’s accuracy in predicting the VCV from probepermittivity measurements declines as the viability of the cell culture decreases. To investigate the cause of this decrease in accuracy, divergences in predicted vs. actual VCV measurements were directly related to the shape of dielectric frequency scans collected during a cell culture. The changes in the shape of the beta dispersion, which are associated with changes in cell state, are quantified by applying a novel “area ratio” (AR) metric to frequency-scanning data from the dielectric-spectroscopy probes. The AR metric is then used to relate the shape of the beta dispersion to single-frequency permittivity measurements to accurately predict the offline VCV throughout an entire fed-batch run, regardless of cell state. This work demonstrates the possible feasibility of quantifying the shape of the beta dispersion, determined from frequency-scanning data, for enhanced measurement of VCV in mammalian cell cultures by applying a novel shape-characterization technique. In addition, this work demonstrates the utility of using changes in the shape of the beta dispersion to quantify cell health. PMID:24851255

Downey, Brandon J; Graham, Lisa J; Breit, Jeffrey F; Glutting, Nathaniel K

2014-01-01

425

Algae Biodiesel: Commercialization  

E-print Network

Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Center conservation and biomonitoring · Algae biodiesel is largest CEHMM project #12;Project Overview: The Missing replace petroleum #12;Project Overview: Local Resources for Algae Biodiesel Project Overview: Local

Tullos, Desiree

426

Commercial Real Estate Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the commercial real estate market, which is perceived to be relatively inefficient, investors have comparative advantages; hence there are significant costs to diversification. This paper presents for the first time a series of market (or quasi-market) returns for a large data base. This data base is believed to be the most complete commercial real estate data base yet constructed.

Mike Miles; Tom McCue

1984-01-01

427

Commercialism@Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Center for the Analysis of Commercialism in Schools found that the number of press citations from 1990 to 2000 discussing seven types of commercializing activities (program sponsorship, exclusive agreements, incentive programs, appropriation of space, sponsored educational materials, electronic marketing, privatization, and fund raising)…

Molnar, Alex; Morales, Jennifer

2000-01-01

428

OPTIMAL VIABLE PATH SEARCH FOR A CHEESE RIPENING PROCESS USING A MULTI-OBJECTIVE EA  

E-print Network

OPTIMAL VIABLE PATH SEARCH FOR A CHEESE RIPENING PROCESS USING A MULTI-OBJECTIVE EA Salma Mesmoudi-food process modeling, cheese ripening. Abstract: Viability theory is a very attractive theoretical approach address here is a real size problem from dairy industry, the modeling of a Camembert cheese ripening

Boyer, Edmond

429

Food Tourism as a Viable Market Segment: It's All How You Cook the Numbers!  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines whether food is a special interest or mainstream tourism product. Much of the research on special interest tourism examines the activity in isolation of the broader suite of products available in the destination mix. Such a myopic approach may produce impressive looking numbers, but may not define viable market segments. Instead, based on their research findings, the

Bob McKercher; Fevzi Okumus; Bendegul Okumus

2008-01-01

430

ESTIMATION OF DOWNWIND VIABLE AIRBORNE MICROBES FROM A WET COOLING TOWER - INCLUDING SETTLING  

EPA Science Inventory

In recent years, reuse of municipal waste water as the coolant in drift-producing cooling towers at electrical generating plants has become increasingly common. A hueristic model is presented that can be used to estimate the concentrations of viable airborne microbes in the drift...

431

Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis of Starved and Viable but Nonculturable Vibrio vulnificus Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrio vulnificus is an estuarine bacterium capable of causing a rapidly fatal infection in humans. Because of the low nutrient levels and temperature fluctuations found in the organism's natural habitat, the starvation state and viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state are of particular interest. A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR protocol was developed previously for the detection of V. vulnificus

JENNIFER M. WARNER; JAMES D. OLIVER

1998-01-01

432

Determination of viable Salmonellae from potable and source water through PMA assisted qPCR.  

PubMed

Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.1×10(4)-2.6×10(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management. PMID:23623706

Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi

2013-07-01

433

Quorum-regulated biofilms enhance the development of conditionally viable, environmental Vibrio cholerae  

E-print Network

that is controlled by cell density. V. cholerae strains carrying mutations in genes required for quorum sensing suggest that a temporary loss of quorum sensing due to dilution of extracel- lular autoinducers confers viable environmental cells (CVEC) | quorum sensing | transmissibility of cholera Bacterial gene

Mekalanos, John

434

Finding viable seed URLs for web corpora: a scouting approach and comparative study of available sources  

E-print Network

Finding viable seed URLs for web corpora: a scouting approach and comparative study of available rely heavily on URLs ob- tained from search engines. Recently, the corresponding querying process are needed. My scouting approach using open-source software leads to a URL di- rectory enriched with metadata

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

435

Kobe University Law Department Workshop Is Japan a Viable Hard Power in the Academe?  

E-print Network

Kobe University Law Department Workshop Is Japan a Viable Hard Power in the Academe? Following up of Japanese Studies in North America, it became quite evident that the state of Japanese studies was in midst majorities of new generation of scholars of East Asia were now shifting their academic focus towards China

Banbara, Mutsunori

436

COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NON-VIABLE BIOLOGICAL PM  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a preliminary research effort to develop a methodology for the measurement of non-viable biologically based particulate matter (PM), analyzing for mold, dust mite, and ragweed antigens and endotoxins. Using a comparison of analytical methods, the research obj...

437

Agouti signaling protein stimulates cell division in "viable yellow" (A vy/a) mouse liver  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Enhanced linear growth, hyperplasia, and tumorigenesis are well-known characteristics of "viable yellow" agouti Avy/- mice (1); however, the functional basis for this aspect of the phenotype is unknown. In the present study, we ascertained whether agouti signaling protein (ASIP) levels in Avy/a or a...

438

Determination of viable wine yeast using DNA binding dyes and quantitative PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection and quantification of wine yeast can be misleading due to under or overestimation of these microorganisms. Underestimation may be caused by variable growing rates of different microorganisms in culture media or the presence of viable but non-cultivable microorganisms. Overestimation may be caused by the lack of discrimination between live and dead microorganisms if quantitative PCR is used to

Braulio Esteve-Zarzoso; José M. Guillamón; Albert Mas

2010-01-01

439

Separable Bilayer Microfiltration Device for Viable Label-free Enrichment of Circulating Tumour Cells.  

PubMed

The analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in cancer patients could provide important information for therapeutic management. Enrichment of viable CTCs could permit performance of functional analyses on CTCs to broaden understanding of metastatic disease. However, this has not been widely accomplished. Addressing this challenge, we present a separable bilayer (SB) microfilter for viable size-based CTC capture. Unlike other single-layer CTC microfilters, the precise gap between the two layers and the architecture of pore alignment result in drastic reduction in mechanical stress on CTCs, capturing them viably. Using multiple cancer cell lines spiked in healthy donor blood, the SB microfilter demonstrated high capture efficiency (78-83%), high retention of cell viability (71-74%), high tumour cell enrichment against leukocytes (1.7-2 × 10(3)), and widespread ability to establish cultures post-capture (100% of cell lines tested). In a metastatic mouse model, SB microfilters successfully enriched viable mouse CTCs from 0.4-0.6?mL whole mouse blood samples and established in vitro cultures for further genetic and functional analysis. Our preliminary studies reflect the efficacy of the SB microfilter device to efficiently and reliably enrich viable CTCs in animal model studies, constituting an exciting technology for new insights in cancer research. PMID:25487434

Zhou, Ming-Da; Hao, Sijie; Williams, Anthony J; Harouaka, Ramdane A; Schrand, Brett; Rawal, Siddarth; Ao, Zheng; Brennaman, Randall; Gilboa, Eli; Lu, Bo; Wang, Shuwen; Zhu, Jiyue; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard; Tai, Yu-Chong; Zheng, Si-Yang

2014-01-01

440

Research Paper A Viable Microbial Community in a Subglacial Volcanic Crater Lake, Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a viable microbial community in a subglacial lake within the Grímsvötn vol- canic caldera, Iceland. We used a hot water drill to penetrate the 300-m ice shelf and retrieved lake water and volcanic tephra sediments. We also acquired samples of borehole water be- fore and after penetration to the lake, overlying glacial ice and snow, and water from

ERIC GAIDOS; BRIAN LANOIL; THORSTEINN THORSTEINSSON; ANDREW GRAHAM; MARK SKIDMORE; SUK-KYUN HAN; TERRI RUST; BRIAN POPP

441

Search for Viable Thermoelectric Materials Anthony Frachioni, Bruce White, Binghamton University  

E-print Network

Search for Viable Thermoelectric Materials Anthony Frachioni, Bruce White, Binghamton University of merit, ZT, characterizes the efficiency and viability of a material as a thermoelectric device: ZT = S2 vibrations Thermoelectrics: What they do and how they work m m m m k k k 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0.00001 0

Suzuki, Masatsugu

442

ROTATIONAL DRAG FORCE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO DARK MATTER Max I. Fomitchev  

E-print Network

ROTATIONAL DRAG FORCE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO DARK MATTER Max I. Fomitchev Submitted May 16th not require dark matter but rather relies on classical Newtonian dynamics and an overlooked effect of quantum: dark matter ­ galaxies: spiral ­ galaxies: kinematics and dynamics 1. INTRODUCTION Directly applied

Giles, C. Lee

443

Modeling the Lag Time of Listeria monocytogenes from Viable Count Enumeration and Optical Density Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following two factors significantly influence estimates of the maximum specific growth rate (max) and the lag-phase duration (): (i) the technique used to monitor bacterial growth and (ii) the model fitted to estimate parameters. In this study, nine strains of Listeria monocytogenes were monitored simultaneously by optical density (OD) analysis and by viable count enumeration (VCE) analysis. Four usual

F. Baty; J. P. Flandrois; M. L. Delignette-Muller

2002-01-01

444

Time-dependent changes in viable numbers and activities of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in subsurface samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vadose and saturated zone sediment cores from depths to 212 m were obtained from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in south-central Washington by cable tool drilling, and volcanic ashfall tuff samples were obtained from tunnels 400 m beneath the surface of Rainier Mesa at DOE's Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. Numbers of viable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria

J. K. Fredrickson; S. W. Li; F. J. Brockman; D. L. Haldeman; P. S. Amy; D. L. Balkwill

1995-01-01

445

Separable Bilayer Microfiltration Device for Viable Label-free Enrichment of Circulating Tumour Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in cancer patients could provide important information for therapeutic management. Enrichment of viable CTCs could permit performance of functional analyses on CTCs to broaden understanding of metastatic disease. However, this has not been widely accomplished. Addressing this challenge, we present a separable bilayer (SB) microfilter for viable size-based CTC capture. Unlike other single-layer CTC microfilters, the precise gap between the two layers and the architecture of pore alignment result in drastic reduction in mechanical stress on CTCs, capturing them viably. Using multiple cancer cell lines spiked in healthy donor blood, the SB microfilter demonstrated high capture efficiency (78-83%), high retention of cell viability (71-74%), high tumour cell enrichment against leukocytes (1.7-2 × 103), and widespread ability to establish cultures post-capture (100% of cell lines tested). In a metastatic mouse model, SB microfilters successfully enriched viable mouse CTCs from 0.4-0.6 mL whole mouse blood samples and established in vitro cultures for further genetic and functional analysis. Our preliminary studies reflect the efficacy of the SB microfilter device to efficiently and reliably enrich viable CTCs in animal model studies, constituting an exciting technology for new insights in cancer research.

Zhou, Ming-Da; Hao, Sijie; Williams, Anthony J.; Harouaka, Ramdane A.; Schrand, Brett; Rawal, Siddarth; Ao, Zheng; Brennaman, Randall; Gilboa, Eli; Lu, Bo; Wang, Shuwen; Zhu, Jiyue; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard; Tai, Yu-Chong; Zheng, Si-Yang

2014-12-01

446

Toward a zero-carbon energy policy in Europe: defining a viable solution  

SciTech Connect

The present pace of carbon emission is not sustainable. Human societies need to react and to change. A rational responsive policy to deliver the required carbon emission reduction can be delineated if the key objective parameters are identified and addressed. This article attempts to lay the groundwork for a viable carbon energy policy for Europe. (author)

Jones, Christopher; Glachant, Jean-Michel

2010-04-15

447

TECHNICAL PAPER Viable cell handling with high aspect ratio polymer chopstick  

E-print Network

to demonstrate manipulation of cells in aqueous media. The develop- ment of microfluidic technology using on a nano precision manipulator Karthik S. Colinjivadi Ã? Jeong-Bong Lee Ã? Rockford Draper Received: 16 July This paper presents the development of an optimized contact technique for viable cell manipulation utilizing

Lee, Jeong-Bong

448

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1D: Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control and Supplement. CS-12 and CS-12a.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The major weed and insect pests of fruits and vegetables are pictured and discussed. Suggested methods for control by utilizing herbicides and pesticides are presented with attention given to safety considerations for both humans and the…

Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

449

Assessing and comparing the total antioxidant capacity of commercial beverages: application to beers, wines, waters and soft drinks using TRAP, TEAC and FRAP methods.  

PubMed

This work measures and tries to compare the Antioxidant Capacity (AC) of 50 commercial beverages of different kinds: 6 wines, 12 beers, 18 soft drinks and 14 flavoured waters. Because there is no reference procedure established for this purpose, three different optical methods were used to analyse these samples: Total Radical trapping Antioxidant Parameter (TRAP), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Parameter (FRAP). These methods differ on the chemical background and nature of redox system. The TRAP method involves the transfer of hydrogen atoms while TEAC and FRAP involves electron transfer reactions. The AC was also assessed against three antioxidants of reference, Ascorbic acid (AA), Gallic acid (GA) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl- 2-carboxylic acid (Trolox). The results obtained were analyzed statistically. Anova one-way tests were applied to all results and suggested that methods and standards exhibited significant statistical differences. The possible effect of sample features in the AC, such as gas, flavours, food colouring, sweeteners, acidity regulators, preservatives, stabilizers, vitamins, juice percentage, alcohol percentage, antioxidants and the colour was also investigated. The AC levels seemed to change with brand, kind of antioxidants added, and kind of flavour, depending on the sample. In general, higher ACs were obtained for FRAP as method, and beer for kind of sample, and the standard expressing the smaller AC values was GA. PMID:22931382

Queirós, Raquel B; Tafulo, Paula A R; Sales, M Goreti F

2013-01-01

450

Application of excitation-emission fluorescence matrices and UV/Vis absorption to monitoring the photocatalytic degradation of commercial humic acid.  

PubMed

This study reports the use of excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and UV/Vis spectroscopy to monitor the changes in the composition and reactivity of Aldrich humic acids (Aldrich HA) as a model compound for natural organic matter (NOM) during photocatalytic degradation. Degussa P-25 titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and a solar UV-light simulator (a batch reactor) were used. The photocatalysis shifted the fluorescence maxima of EEMs of Aldrich HA toward shorter wavelengths, which implied that the photocatalytic degradation of commercial Aldrich HA caused the breakdown of high molecular weight components and the formation of lower molecular weight fractions. In addition, the fluorescence intensity of fulvic- and humic-like Aldrich HA presented a strong correlation with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), specific UV absorbance (SUVA) parameters, trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), and organically bound halogens absorbable on activated carbon formation potential (AOXFP). Fluorescence spectroscopy was shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring of the photocatalytic degradation of HA. PMID:23178828

Valencia, Sergio; Marín, Juan M; Restrepo, Gloria; Frimmel, Fritz H

2013-01-01

451

Controlled viable release of selectively captured label-free cells in microchannels†  

PubMed Central

Selective capture of cells from bodily fluids in microchannels has broadly transformed medicine enabling circulating tumor cell isolation, rapid CD4+ cell counting for HIV monitoring, and diagnosis of infectious diseases. Although cell capture methods have been demonstrated in microfluidic systems, the release of captured cells remains a significant challenge. Viable retrieval of captured label-free cells in microchannels will enable a new era in biological sciences by allowing cultivation and post-processing. The significant challenge in release comes from the fact that the cells adhere strongly to the microchannel surface, especially when immuno-based immobilization methods are used. Even though fluid shear and enzymes have been used to detach captured cells in microchannels, these methods are known to harm cells and affect cellular characteristics. This paper describes a new technology to release the selectively captured label-free cells in microchannels without the use of fluid shear or enzymes. We have successfully released the captured CD4+ cells (3.6% of the mononuclear blood cells) from blood in microfluidic channels with high specificity (89% ± 8%), viability (94% ± 4%), and release efficiency (59% ± 4%). We have further validated our system by specifically capturing and controllably releasing the CD34+ stem cells from whole blood, which were quantified to be 19 cells per million blood cells in the blood samples used in this study. Our results also indicated that both CD4+ and CD34+ cells released from the microchannels were healthy and amenable for in vitro culture. Manual flow based microfluidic method utilizes inexpensive, easy to fabricate microchannels allowing selective label-free cell capture and release in less than 10 minutes, which can also be used at the point-of-care. The presented technology can be used to isolate and purify a broad spectrum of cells from mixed populations offering widespread applications in applied biological sciences, such as tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, rare cell and stem cell isolation, proteomic/genomic research, and clonal/population analyses. PMID:22002065

Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Anand, Tarini; Tas, Huseyin; Elkan, David; Akay, Altug; Keles, Hasan Onur; Demirci, Utkan

2013-01-01

452

Application of the central composite design in optimization of laser transformation hardening parameters of commercially pure titanium using Nd:YAG laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the application of response surface methodology (RSM) and central composite design for modeling, optimization,\\u000a and an analysis of the influences of dominant laser-processing parameters namely: laser power (LP), scanning speed (SS), and\\u000a focused position (FP) on heat input (HI) and hardened bead geometries such as hardened bead width (HBW), hardened depth (HD),\\u000a angle of entry of hardened

Duradundi Sawant Badkar; Krishna Shankar Pandey; G. Buvanashekaran

453

Commercial Biomedical Experiments Payload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments to seek solutions for a range of biomedical issues are at the heart of several investigations that will be hosted by the Commercial Instrumentation Technology Associates (ITA), Inc. The biomedical experiments CIBX-2 payload is unique, encompassing more than 20 separate experiments including cancer research, commercial experiments, and student hands-on experiments from 10 schools as part of ITA's ongoing University Among the stars program. Here, Astronaut Story Musgrave activates the CMIX-5 (Commercial MDA ITA experiment) payload in the Space Shuttle mid deck during the STS-80 mission in 1996 which is similar to CIBX-2. The experiments are sponsored by NASA's Space Product Development Program (SPD).

2003-01-01

454

“Limits of Control” – Crucial Parameters for a Reliable Quantification of Viable Campylobacter by Real-Time PCR  

PubMed Central

The unsuitability of the “CFU” parameter and the usefulness of cultivation-independent quantification of Campylobacter on chicken products, reflecting the actual risk for infection, is increasingly becoming obvious. Recently, real-time PCR methods in combination with the use of DNA intercalators, which block DNA amplification from dead bacteria, have seen wide application. However, much confusion exists in the correct interpretation of such assays. Campylobacter is confronted by oxidative and cold stress outside the intestine. Hence, damage caused by oxidative stress probably represents the most frequent natural death of Campylobacter on food products. Treatment of Campylobacter with peroxide led to complete loss of CFU and to significant entry of any tested DNA intercalator, indicating disruption of membrane integrity. When we transiently altered the metabolic state of Campylobacter by abolishing the proton-motive force or by inhibiting active efflux, CFU was constant but enhanced entry of ethidium bromide (EtBr) was observed. Consistently, ethidium monoazide (EMA) also entered viable Campylobacter, in particular when nutrients for bacterial energization were lacking (in PBS) or when the cells were less metabolically active (in stationary phase). In contrast, propidium iodide (PI) and propidium monoazide (PMA) were excluded from viable bacterial cells, irrespective of their metabolic state. As expected for a diffusion-limited process, the extent of signal reduction from dead cells depended on the temperature, incubation time and concentration of the dyes during staining, prior to crosslinking. Consistently, free protein and/or DNA present in varying amounts in the heterogeneous matrix lowered the concentration of the DNA dyes at the bacterial membrane and led to considerable variation of the residual signal from dead cells. In conclusion, we propose an improved approach, taking into account principles of method variability and recommend the implementation of process sample controls for reliable quantification of intact and potentially infectious units (IPIU) of Campylobacter by real-time PCR. PMID:24505398

Krüger, Nora-Johanna; Buhler, Christiane; Iwobi, Azuka N.; Huber, Ingrid; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Appel, Bernd; Stingl, Kerstin

2014-01-01

455

"Limits of control"--crucial parameters for a reliable quantification of viable campylobacter by real-time PCR.  

PubMed

The unsuitability of the "CFU" parameter and the usefulness of cultivation-independent quantification of Campylobacter on chicken products, reflecting the actual risk for infection, is increasingly becoming obvious. Recently, real-time PCR methods in combination with the use of DNA intercalators, which block DNA amplification from dead bacteria, have seen wide application. However, much confusion exists in the correct interpretation of such assays. Campylobacter is confronted by oxidative and cold stress outside the intestine. Hence, damage caused by oxidative stress probably represents the most frequent natural death of Campylobacter on food products. Treatment of Campylobacter with peroxide led to complete loss of CFU and to significant entry of any tested DNA intercalator, indicating disruption of membrane integrity. When we transiently altered the metabolic state of Campylobacter by abolishing the proton-motive force or by inhibiting active efflux, CFU was constant but enhanced entry of ethidium bromide (EtBr) was observed. Consistently, ethidium monoazide (EMA) also entered viable Campylobacter, in particular when nutrients for bacterial energization were lacking (in PBS) or when the cells were less metabolically active (in stationary phase). In contrast, propidium iodide (PI) and propidium monoazide (PMA) were excluded from viable bacterial cells, irrespective of their metabolic state. As expected for a diffusion-limited process, the extent of signal reduction from dead cells depended on the temperature, incubation time and concentration of the dyes during staining, prior to crosslinking. Consistently, free protein and/or DNA present in varying amounts in the heterogeneous matrix lowered the concentration of the DNA dyes at the bacterial membrane and led to considerable variation of the residual signal from dead cells. In conclusion, we propose an improved approach, taking into account principles of method variability and recommend the implementation of process sample controls for reliable quantification of intact and potentially infectious units (IPIU) of Campylobacter by real-time PCR. PMID:24505398

Krüger, Nora-Johanna; Buhler, Christiane; Iwobi, Azuka N; Huber, Ingrid; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Appel, Bernd; Stingl, Kerstin

2014-01-01

456

Polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) is planning to implement a conservation acquisition program in new and existing commercial buildings. In anticipation of that program, Bonneville is examining the potential environmental effects of conservation measures in commercial buildings. An important conservation measure is the installation of new energy-efficient lighting fixtures. Some of the old lighting fixtures that these new lights will be replacing were manufactured before 1978, when polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were still used in the capacitors of the lighting ballasts. This report focuses on a summary of information about PCBs in fluorescent light fixtures manufactured before 1978. A key issue associated with these PCBs is the potential effect of lamp change-outs on ballast failure. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) speculates that installing energy-efficient lamps in old, PCB-laden ballasts may contribute to ballast failure and PCB leaks, which is addressed in Section 3 of this report. Section 2 discusses applicable standards and regulations; Section 4 describes PCB concentrations in commercial buildings. Sections 5 and 6 discuss cleanup practices and disposal options. 4 tabs.

Baechler, M.C.; Foley, L.O.; Jarnagin, R.E.

1990-09-01

457

Hardness variability in commercial technologies  

SciTech Connect

The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E{sup 2}PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E{sup 2}PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E{sup 2}PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer`s List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies.

Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-01

458

NASA's commercial research plans and opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the primary goals of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) commercial space development plan is to encourage the development of space-based products and markets, along with the infrastructure and transportation that will support those products and markets. A three phased program has been instituted to carry out this program. The first phase utilizes government grants through the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) for space-related, industry driven research; the development of a technology data base; and the development of commercial space transportation and infrastructure. The second phase includes the development of these technologies by industry for new commercial markets, and features unique industry/government collaborations such as Joint Endeavor Agreements. The final phase will feature technical applications actually brought to the marketplace. The government's role will be to support industry required infrastructure to encourage start-up markets and industries through follow-on development agreements such as the Space Systems Development Agreement. The Office of Commercial Programs has an aggressive flight program underway on the Space Shuttle, suborbital rockets, orbital expendable launch vehicles, and the Commercial Middeck Accommodation Module with SPACEHAB Inc. The Office of Commercial Program's has been allocated 35 percent of the U.S. share of the Space Station Freedom resources for 1997 utilization. A utilization plan has been developed with the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space and has identified eleven materials processing and biotechnology payloads occupying 5 double racks in the pressurized module as well as two payloads external to the module in materials exposure and environment monitoring. The Office of Commercial Programs will rely on the Space Station Freedom to provide the long duration laboratory component for space-based commercial research.

Arnold, Ray J.

1992-01-01

459

COMMERCIALIZATION OF BIOCONTROL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Successful commercialization of biocontrol products requires the marriage of science and industry. From a science perspective, some of the issues to be addressed include knowledge of efficacy under various environmental conditions, inoculum density relationships, formulation, and when, where and ho...

460

Comparing Commercial WWW Browsers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four commercial World Wide Web browsers are evaluated for features such as handling of WWW protocols and different URLs: FTP, Telnet, Gopher and WAIS, and e-mail and news; bookmark capabilities; navigation features; file management; and security support. (JKP)

Notess, Greg R.

1995-01-01

461

NASA commercial programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

1990-01-01

462

Commercial Actors Stage Strike  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On May 1, 2000, 75,000 members of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists staged a walk-out in protest of advertisers's proposed changes to the ways in which actors get paid for work in commercials. According to the current pay scheme, principle on-screen actors appearing in network commercials earn $479 in base pay as well as a residual payment ranging from $47 to $123. Over a standard thirteen-week run, actors earn an average of $13,000 per commercial. However, actors in cable commercials make a flat fee of $479 to $1,014 for the same thirteen-week run. SAG and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists are demanding a fourteen percent pay raise for both types of commercials. However, the advertisers would like to pay the actors only $2,575 for an unlimited thirteen-week network run. While this amount may seem like a lot of money, the average income for members of the SAG members is only $7000 a year, reflecting the possibility that actors may only appear in one or two commercials a year. This is the first major strike in the entertainment industry since 1988.

Missner, Emily D.

463

ERC commercialization activities  

SciTech Connect

The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MR power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full- sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, and (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MR Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

Maru, H.C.

1995-12-01

464

Development of a rapid phage-based method for the detection of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in blood within 48 h?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to rapidly detect viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in clinical blood samples. MAP cells spiked into commercially available blood were recovered using optimised peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMMS) and detected using a phage-based method, and the identity of the cells detected confirmed using nested-PCR amplification of MAP signature sequences (IS900). The limit of detection was determined to be 10 MAP cells per ml of blood and was used to detect MAP present in clinical bovine blood samples. Using the PMMS-phage method there was no difference when detecting MAP from whole blood or from isolated buffy coat. MAP was detected in animals that were milk-ELISA positive (15 animals) by PMMS-phage and no MAP was detected in blood samples from an accredited Johne's disease free herd (5 animals). In a set of samples from one herd (10 animals) that came from animals with variable milk ELISA status, the PMMS-phage results agreed with the positive milk-ELISA results in all but one case. These results show that the PMMS-phage method can detect MAP present in naturally infected blood. Total assay time is 48 h and, unlike PCR-based detection tests, only viable cells are detected. A rapid method for detecting MAP in blood could further the understanding of disseminated infection in animals with Johne's disease. PMID:23811207

Swift, Benjamin M.C.; Denton, Emily J.; Mahendran, Sophie A.; Huxley, Jonathan N.; Rees, Catherine E.D.

2013-01-01

465

The Commercial Energy Consumer: About Whom Are We Speaking?  

SciTech Connect

Who are commercial sector customers, and how do they make decisions about energy consumption and energy efficiency investment? The energy policy field has not done a thorough job of describing energy consumption in the commercial sector. First, the discussion of the commercial sector itself is dominated by discussion of large businesses/buildings. Second, discussion of this portion of the commercial sectors consumption behavior is driven primarily by theory, with very little field data collected on the way commercial sector decision-makers describe their own options, choices, and reasons for taking action. These limitations artificially constrain energy policy options. This paper reviews the extant literature on commercial sector energy consumption behavior and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, it argues that the primary energy policy model of commercial sector energy consumption is a top-down model that uses macro-level investment data to make conclusions about commercial behavior. Missing from the discussion is a model of consumption behavior that builds up to a theoretical framework informed by the micro-level data provided by commercial decision-makers themselves. Such a bottom-up model could enhance the effectiveness of commercial sector energy policy. In particular, translation of some behavioral models from the residential sector to the commercial sector may offer new opportunities for policies to change commercial energy consumption behavior. Utility bill consumption feedback is considered as one example of a policy option that may be applicable to both the residential and small commercial sector.

Payne, Christopher

2006-05-12

466

Isolation of viable Neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (Canis lupus).  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. In an attempt to isolate viable N. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from Minnesota were bioassayed in mice. Viable N. caninum (NcWolfMn1, NcWolfMn2) was isolated from the brains of two wolves by bioassays in interferon gamma gene knockout mice. DNA obtained from culture-derived N. caninum tachyzoites of the two isolates were analyzed by N. caninum-specific Nc5 polymerase chain reaction and confirmed diagnosis. This is the first report of isolation of N. caninum from tissues of any wild canid host. PMID:24522164

Dubey, J P; Jenkins, M C; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Verma, S K; Kwok, O C H; Fetterer, R; Butler, E; Carstensen, M

2014-03-17

467

On the feasibility of treating to a 1.5 cm PTV with a commercial single-entry hybrid applicator in APBI breast brachytherapy  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate and determine whether 30 patients previously treated with the SAVI™ device could have been treated to a PTV_EVAL created with a 1.5 cm expansion. This determination was based upon dosimetric parameters derived from current recommendations and dose-response data. Material and methods Thirty patients were retrospectively planned with PTV_EVALs generated with a 1.5 cm expansion (PTV_EVAL_1.5). Plans were evaluated based on PTV_EVAL_1.5 coverage (V90, V95, V100), skin and rib maximum doses (0.1 cc maximum dose as a percentage of prescription dose), as well as V150 and V200 for the PTV_EVAL_1.5. The treatment planning goal was to deliver ?90% of the prescribed dose to ?90% of the PTV_EVAL_1.5. Skin and rib maximum doses were to be ?125% of the prescription dose and preferably ?100% of the prescription dose. V150 and V200 were not allowed to exceed 52.5 cc and 21 cc, respectively. Plans not meeting the above criteria were recomputed with a 1.25 cm expanded PTV_EVAL and re-evaluated. Results Based on the above dose constraints, 30% (9/30) of the patients evaluated could have been treated with a 1.5 cm PTV_EVAL. The breakdown of cases successfully achieving the above dose constraints by applicator was: 0/4 (0%) 6-1, 6/15 (40%) 8-1, and 3/11 (27%) 10-1. For these PTV_EVAL_1.5 plans, median V90% was 90.3%, whereas the maximum skin and rib doses were all less than 115.2% and 117.6%, respectively. The median V150 and V200 volumes were 39.2 cc and 19.3, respectively. The treated PTV_EVAL_1.5 was greater in volume than the PTV_EVAL by 41.7 cc, and 60 cc for the 8-1, and 10-1 applicators, respectively. All remaining plans (17) successfully met the above dose constraints to be treated with a 1.25 cm PTV_EVAL (PTV_EVAL_1.25). For the PTV_EVAL_1.25 plans, V90% was 93.7%, and the maximum skin and rib doses were all less than 109.2% and 102.5%, respectively. The median V150 and V200 volumes were 41.2 cc and 19.3, respectively. The treated PTV_EVAL_1.25 was greater in volume than the PTV_EVAL by 16 cc, 24.9 cc, and 33.5 cc for the 6-1, 8-1 and 10-1 applicators, respectively. Conclusions It is dosimetrically possible to treat beyond the currently advised 1.0 cm expanded PTV_EVAL. Most patients should be able to be treated with a 1.25 cm PTV_EVAL and a select group with a 1.5 cm PTV_EVAL. Applicator size appears to determine the ability to expand to a 1.5 cm PTV_EVAL, as smaller devices were not as propitious in this regard. Further studies may identify additional patient groups that would benefit from this approach. PMID:23346137

Nelson, Christopher L.; Kirsner, Steven M.; Kisling, Kelly D.; Ballo, Matthew T.; Bloom, Elizabeth S.

2012-01-01

468