Science.gov

Sample records for viable commercial applications

  1. Commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Togai, Masaki

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on commercial applications of fuzzy logic in Japan are presented. Topics covered include: suitable application area of fuzzy theory; characteristics of fuzzy control; fuzzy closed-loop controller; Mitsubishi heavy air conditioner; predictive fuzzy control; the Sendai subway system; automatic transmission; fuzzy logic-based command system for antilock braking system; fuzzy feed-forward controller; and fuzzy auto-tuning system.

  2. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  3. Prototype to product—developing a commercially viable neural prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligman, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The Cochlear implant or 'Bionic ear' is a device that enables people who do not get sufficient benefit from a hearing aid to communicate with the hearing world. The Cochlear implant is not an amplifier, but a device that electrically stimulates the auditory nerve in a way that crudely mimics normal hearing, thus providing a hearing percept. Many recipients are able to understand running speech without the help of lipreading. Cochlear implants have reached a stage of maturity where there are now 170 000 recipients implanted worldwide. The commercial development of these devices has occurred over the last 30 years. This development has been multidisciplinary, including audiologists, engineers, both mechanical and electrical, histologists, materials scientists, physiologists, surgeons and speech pathologists. This paper will trace the development of the device we have today, from the engineering perspective. The special challenges of designing an active device that will work in the human body for a lifetime will be outlined. These challenges include biocompatibility, extreme reliability, safety, patient fitting and surgical issues. It is emphasized that the successful development of a neural prosthesis requires the partnership of academia and industry.

  4. Commercial applications of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Spolaore, Pauline; Joannis-Cassan, Claire; Duran, Elie; Isambert, Arsène

    2006-02-01

    The first use of microalgae by humans dates back 2000 years to the Chinese, who used Nostoc to survive during famine. However, microalgal biotechnology only really began to develop in the middle of the last century. Nowadays, there are numerous commercial applications of microalgae. For example, (i) microalgae can be used to enhance the nutritional value of food and animal feed owing to their chemical composition, (ii) they play a crucial role in aquaculture and (iii) they can be incorporated into cosmetics. Moreover, they are cultivated as a source of highly valuable molecules. For example, polyunsaturated fatty acid oils are added to infant formulas and nutritional supplements and pigments are important as natural dyes. Stable isotope biochemicals help in structural determination and metabolic studies. Future research should focus on the improvement of production systems and the genetic modification of strains. Microalgal products would in that way become even more diversified and economically competitive. PMID:16569602

  5. Towards a viable hydrogen storage system for transportation application.

    SciTech Connect

    Ronnebro, Ewa; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Luo, Weifang; Gross, Karl J.; Spangler, Scott W.; Wang, James C. F.

    2004-10-01

    Hydrogen energy may provide the means to an environmentally friendly future. One of the problems related to its application for transportation is 'on-board' storage. Hydrogen storage in solids has long been recognized as one of the most practical approaches for this purpose. The H-capacity in interstitial hydrides of most metals and alloys is limited to below 2.5% by weight and this is unsatisfactory for on-board transportation applications. Magnesium hydride is an exception with hydrogen capacity of -8.2 wt.%, however, its operating temperature, above 350 C, is too high for practical use. Sodium alanate (NaAlH{sub 4}) absorbs hydrogen up to 5.6 wt.% theoretically; however, its reaction kinetics and partial reversibility do not completely meet the new target for transportation application. Recently Chen et al. [1] reported that (Li{sub 3}N+2H{sub 2} {leftrightarrow} LiNH{sub 2} + 2LiH) provides a storage material with a possible high capacity, up to 11.5 wt.%, although this material is still too stable to meet the operating pressure/temperature requirement. Here we report a new approach to destabilize lithium imide system by partial substitution of lithium by magnesium in the (LiNH{sub 2} + LiH {leftrightarrow} Li{sub 2}NH + H{sub 2}) system with a minimal capacity loss. This Mg-substituted material can reversibly absorb 5.2 wt.% hydrogen at pressure of 30 bar at 200 C. This is a very promising material for on-board hydrogen storage applications. It is interesting to observe that the starting material (2LiNH{sub 2} + MgH{sub 2}) converts to (Mg(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} + 2LiH) after a desorption/re-absorption cycle.

  6. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    PubMed

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success. PMID:26667058

  7. Commercial applications of telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natiello, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    Telemedicine Systems Corporation was established in 1976 and is a private commercial supplier of telemedicine systems. These systems are various combinations of communications and diagnostic technology, designed to allow the delivery of health care services to remote facilities. The technology and the health care services are paid for by the remote facilities, such as prisons.

  8. Can CO-tolerant Anodes be Economically Viable for PEMFC Applications with Reformates?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    He, P.; Zhang, Y.; Ye., S.; Wang, J. X.

    2014-10-05

    Several years ago, the answer to this question was negative based on the criteria for an anode with more »ability to simultaneously enhance activity and stability by using single crystalline Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts. Here, we report that the performance target with reformates was met using bilayer-thick Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts with 0.047 mg cm-2 Pt and 0.024 mg cm-2 Ru loading, supporting a positive prognosis for the economically viable use of reformates in PEMFC applications.« less

  9. Commercial Applications Multispectral Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birk, Ronald J.; Spiering, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is funding a multispectral sensor system to be used in the development of remote sensing applications. The Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) is designed to provide versatility in acquiring spectral and spatial information. The ATLAS system will be a test bed for the development of specifications for airborne and spaceborne remote sensing instrumentation for dedicated applications. This objective requires spectral coverage from the visible through thermal infrared wavelengths, variable spatial resolution from 2-25 meters; high geometric and geo-location accuracy; on-board radiometric calibration; digital recording; and optimized performance for minimized cost, size, and weight. ATLAS is scheduled to be available in 3rd quarter 1992 for acquisition of data for applications such as environmental monitoring, facilities management, geographic information systems data base development, and mineral exploration.

  10. How close we are to achieving commercially viable large-scale photobiological hydrogen production by cyanobacteria: a review of the biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  11. How Close We Are to Achieving Commercially Viable Large-Scale Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  12. The use of Flex as a viable toolkit for astronomy software applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillies, Kim; Conti, Alberto; Rogers, Anthony

    2010-07-01

    The challenges facing the developers of user interfaces for astronomy applications has never been greater. Astronomers and engineers often use well-designed commercial and web applications outside their work environment and have come to expect a similar user experience with applications developed for their work tasks. The connectivity provided by the Internet and the ability to work from anywhere can improve user productivity, but it is a challenge to provide the kind of interactivity and responsiveness needed for astronomical applications to web based projects. It is fair to say that browserbased applications have not been adequate for many kinds of workhorse astronomy applications. The Flex/Actionscript framework from Adobe has been used successfully at the Space Telescope Science Institute in a variety of situations that were not possible with other technologies. In this paper, the Flex framework and technology is briefly introduced followed by a discussion of its advantages and disadvantages and how it addresses user expectations. Three astronomy applications will be presented demonstrating the technology capabilities with useful performance data. Flex/Actionscript is not well known within the astronomy development community, and our goal is to demonstrate that it can be the right choice for many astronomy applications.

  13. Can CO-tolerant Anodes be Economically Viable for PEMFC Applications with Reformates?

    SciTech Connect

    He, P.; Zhang, Y.; Ye., S.; Wang, J. X.

    2014-10-05

    Several years ago, the answer to this question was negative based on the criteria for an anode with <0.1 mg cm-2 of platinum group metals to perform similarly without and with 50 ppm CO in hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Now, with the amount of CO impurities reduced to 10 ppm in reformates, a <1% performance loss with a 1.5% air-bleed has become a reasonable target. The CO-tolerant catalyst also needs to be dissolution resistant up to 0.93 V, viz., the potential experienced at the anode during startup and shutdown of the fuel cells. We recently demonstrated our ability to simultaneously enhance activity and stability by using single crystalline Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts. Here, we report that the performance target with reformates was met using bilayer-thick Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts with 0.047 mg cm-2 Pt and 0.024 mg cm-2 Ru loading, supporting a positive prognosis for the economically viable use of reformates in PEMFC applications.

  14. Commercial application of rainfall simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Rob J.

    2010-05-01

    Landloch Pty Ltd is a commercial consulting firm, providing advice on a range of land management issues to the mining and construction industries in Australia. As part of the company's day-to-day operations, rainfall simulation is used to assess material erodibility and to investigate a range of site attributes. (Landloch does carry out research projects, though such are not its core business.) When treated as an everyday working tool, several aspects of rainfall simulation practice are distinctively modified. Firstly, the equipment used is regularly maintained, and regularly upgraded with a primary focus on ease, safety, and efficiency of use and on reliability of function. As well, trained and experienced technical support is considered essential. Landloch's chief technician has over 10 years experience in running rainfall simulators at locations across Australia and in Africa and the Pacific. Secondly, the specific experimental conditions established for each set of rainfall simulator runs are carefully considered to ensure that they accurately represent the field conditions to which the data will be subsequently applied. Considerations here include: • wetting and drying cycles to ensure material consolidation and/or cementation if appropriate; • careful attention to water quality if dealing with clay soils or with amendments such as gypsum; • strong focus on ensuring that the erosion processes considered are those of greatest importance to the field situation of concern; and • detailed description of both material and plot properties, to increase the potential for data to be applicable to a wider range of projects and investigations. Other important company procedures include: • For each project, the scientist or engineer responsible for analysing and reporting rainfall simulator data is present during the running of all field plots, as it is essential that they be aware of any specific conditions that may have developed when the plots were subjected to rain; and • Regular calibration of all equipment. In general, typical errors when rainfall simulation is carried out by inexperienced researchers include: • Failure to accurately measure rainfall rates (the most common error); • Inappropriate initial conditions, including wetting treatments; • Use of inappropriately small plots - relating to our concern at the erosion processes considered be those of genuine field relevance; • Inappropriate rainfall kinetic energies; and • Failure to observe critical processes operating on the study plots, such as saturation excess or the presence of impeding layers at shallow depths. Landloch regularly uses erodibility data to design stable batter profiles for minesite waste dumps. Subsequent monitoring of designed dumps has confirmed that modelled erosion rates are consistent with those subsequently measured under field conditions.

  15. Thermoresponsive release of viable microfiltrated Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) for precision medicine applications.

    PubMed

    Ao, Zheng; Parasido, Erika; Rawal, Siddarth; Williams, Anthony; Schlegel, Richard; Liu, Stephen; Albanese, Chris; Cote, Richard J; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Datar, Ram H

    2015-10-27

    Stimulus responsive release of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs), with high recovery rates from their capture platform, is highly desirable for off-chip analyses. Here, we present a temperature responsive polymer coating method to achieve both release as well as culture of viable CTCs captured from patient blood samples. PMID:26426331

  16. The Value of the EWIT Computer Program in Identifying Economically Viable Retrofit Options for Existing Commercial Buildings 

    E-print Network

    Andrews, W. M.

    1984-01-01

    for evaluating retro- fit options for existing commercial buildinge. To achieve this goal two case buildings in the Denver area were analyzed by means of the EWIT program. The first building is a one story structure of 10.000 square feet in floor area while... from which to evalu- ate retro-fit options. It is rare that the initial EWIT runs will achieve this range of accuracy and therefore a process of fine tuning or "gaming" the program base file must be undertaken. This involves basically manipulating...

  17. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

  18. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  19. Commercial Application of Freeze Crystallization 

    E-print Network

    Gorgol, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    the world bcgan. The most noticeable frozen substance is, of course, water. Snow, ice cubcs, frozen lakes and streams, even iccbcrgs are all evidences of the freezing process at work. This process is also used to form crystalline compounds in industry... understand the water they obtained from ice was potable. RECENT APPLICATIONS Scientists have understood the basic mechanism of the freezing phase change for many years. ID an effort to harness the power of this phenomena, applications were researched...

  20. Carbon Nanotubes: Present and Future Commercial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Volder, Michael F. L.; Tawfick, Sameh H.; Baughman, Ray H.; Hart, A. John

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide commercial interest in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is reflected in a production capacity that presently exceeds several thousand tons per year. Currently, bulk CNT powders are incorporated in diverse commercial products ranging from rechargeable batteries, automotive parts, and sporting goods to boat hulls and water filters. Advances in CNT synthesis, purification, and chemical modification are enabling integration of CNTs in thin-film electronics and large-area coatings. Although not yet providing compelling mechanical strength or electrical or thermal conductivities for many applications, CNT yarns and sheets already have promising performance for applications including supercapacitors, actuators, and lightweight electromagnetic shields.

  1. Database tomography for commercial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostoff, Ronald N.; Eberhart, Henry J.

    1994-01-01

    Database tomography is a method for extracting themes and their relationships from text. The algorithms, employed begin with word frequency and word proximity analysis and build upon these results. When the word 'database' is used, think of medical or police records, patents, journals, or papers, etc. (any text information that can be computer stored). Database tomography features a full text, user interactive technique enabling the user to identify areas of interest, establish relationships, and map trends for a deeper understanding of an area of interest. Database tomography concepts and applications have been reported in journals and presented at conferences. One important feature of the database tomography algorithm is that it can be used on a database of any size, and will facilitate the users ability to understand the volume of content therein. While employing the process to identify research opportunities it became obvious that this promising technology has potential applications for business, science, engineering, law, and academe. Examples include evaluating marketing trends, strategies, relationships and associations. Also, the database tomography process would be a powerful component in the area of competitive intelligence, national security intelligence and patent analysis. User interests and involvement cannot be overemphasized.

  2. Wood energy-commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  3. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)

  4. ERAST: Scientific Applications and Technology Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunley, John D. (Compiler); Kellogg, Yvonne (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    This is a conference publication for an event designed to inform potential contractors and appropriate personnel in various scientific disciplines that the ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) vehicles have reached a certain level of maturity and are available to perform a variety of missions ranging from data gathering to telecommunications. There are multiple applications of the technology and a great many potential commercial and governmental markets. As high altitude platforms, the ERAST vehicles can gather data at higher resolution than satellites and can do so continuously, whereas satellites pass over a particular area only once each orbit. Formal addresses are given by Rich Christiansen, (Director of Programs, NASA Aerospace Technology Ent.), Larry Roeder, (Senior Policy Advisor, U.S. Dept. of State), and Dr. Marianne McCarthy, (DFRC Education Dept.). The Commercialization Workshop is chaired by Dale Tietz (President, New Vista International) and the Science Workshop is chaired by Steve Wegener, (Deputy Manager of NASA ERAST, NASA Ames Research Center.

  5. Civilian applications and policy implications of commercial unmanned aerial vehicles

    E-print Network

    Sprague, Kara Lynn, 1980-

    2004-01-01

    As UAV capabilities continue to improve the technology will spill out of the military sector and into commercial and civil applications. Already, UAVs have demonstrated commercial marketability in such diverse areas as ...

  6. Commercial gasifier for IGCC applications study report

    SciTech Connect

    Notestein, J.E.

    1990-06-01

    This was a scoping-level study to identify and characterize the design features of fixed-bed gasifiers appearing most important for a gasifier that was to be (1) potentially commercially attractive, and (2) specifically intended for us in integrated coal gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) applications. It also performed comparative analyses on the impact or value of these design features and on performance characteristics options of the whole IGCC system since cost, efficiency, environmental traits, and operability -- on a system basis -- are what is really important. The study also reviewed and evaluated existing gasifier designs, produced a conceptual-level gasifier design, and generated a moderately advanced system configuration that was utilized as the reference framework for the comparative analyses. In addition, technical issues and knowledge gaps were defined. 70 figs., 31 tabs.

  7. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vílchez, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Cuaresma, María; Bédmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Inés; Vega, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon. PMID:21556162

  8. Commercial applications of new photovoltaic technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, R.

    1991-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has directed and managed photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) activities for the Department of Energy for more than 13 years. The NREL budget for these activities is almost $33 million for FY 1991. With the world's increasing concern for the environment and the United States' renewed apprehension over secure and adequate energy supplies, the use of semiconducting materials for the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity - photovoltaics - is an excellent example of government-supported high technology ready for further development by U.S. companies. Some new PV technologies and their research progress, some commercial applications of PV, and NREL's technology transfer activities for helping U.S. industry in its efforts to bring new products or services to the marketplace are described.

  9. Lawn and Turf Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, M. S.

    This manual is designed for use in training commercial pesticide applicators. It gives identification and control information for common lawn and turf diseases, insects, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrate pests. It also discusses phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and application methods. (BB)

  10. NASA's Earth Observations Commercialization Applications Program: A model for government promotion of commercial space opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1995-01-01

    The role of government in promoting space commerce is a topic of discussion in every spacefaring nation. This article describes a new approach to government intervention which, based on its five-year track record, appears to have met with success. The approach, developed in NASA's Earth Observations Commercialization Application Program (EOCAP), offer several lessons for effective government sponsorship of commercial space development in general and of commercial remote sensing in particular.

  11. Seasat data applications by commercial users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    The Seasat Program was initiated as a proof-of-concept mission to evaluate the effectiveness of a study of remotely sensed oceanographic phenomena from a satellite platform. From its inception the Seasat Program has been user-oriented. The user comprised three major segments of the ocean community, including academic users, users within various government agencies, and commercial users. Commercial users represent a broad spectrum of commercial marine industries. The commercial users proposed to NASA to carry out a pilot demonstration to assess the utility of Seasat data in the private sector. The commercial users' program is considered along with case studies that utilize Seasat data, and aspects of real-time system operation. Attention is given to the potential value of an employment of synthetic aperture radar, the altimeter, the scatterometer, and the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer.

  12. NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies, that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. The RTI Team has been successful in the development of NASA/industry partnerships and commercialization of NASA technologies. RTI ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed and implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs. (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology. And (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

  13. NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is pleased to report the results of NASA contract NASW-4367, 'Operation of a Technology Applications Team'. Through a period of significant change within NASA, the RTI Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. RTI's ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed an implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs; (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology; and (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

  14. Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Towers....................................................................... 9 Dish/Engine Systems, and dish/engine. Parabolic troughs are the most commercially available technology. Linear Fresnel and power Rankine steam cycles, similar to those used for coal and nuclear plants. Steam cycle power plants require

  15. Commercial, Government and Industrial Solutions Sector CGISS 2002 Malcolm Baldrige Application Summary

    E-print Network

    Commercial, Government and Industrial Solutions Sector CGISS 2002 Malcolm Baldrige Application National Quality Award Commercial, Government and Industrial Solutions Sector #12;Commercial, Government ..................................................................................... 57 #12;Commercial, Government and Industrial Solutions Sector CGISS 2002 Malcolm Baldrige Application

  16. Commercial applications of electron beam advanced oxidation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Randy D.; Bosma, John T.

    1995-03-01

    Emerging commercial applications of electron-beam advanced oxidation technology offer a significant advancement in the treatment of waste steams. Both electron beam and X-ray (Brehmsstrahlung) advanced oxidation processes have been shown to be effective in the destruction of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Emerging commercial applications, however, far exceed in scope current applications of oxidation technologies for the destruction of simple semivolatile and volatile organic compounds in water. Emerging applications include direct treatment of contaminated soil, removal of metal ions from water and sterilization of water, sludges, and food. Application of electron beam advanced oxidation technologies are reviewed, along with electron- beam-generated X-ray (Brehmsstrahlung) advanced oxidation processes. Advantages of each technology are discussed along with advanced accelerator technologies which are applicable for commercial processing of waste streams. An overview of the U.S. companies and laboratories participating in this research area are included in this discussion.

  17. Rocket engine heat transfer and material technology for commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiltabiddle, J.; Campbell, J.

    1974-01-01

    Liquid fueled rocket engine combustion, heat transfer, and material technology have been utilized in the design and development of compact combustion and heat exchange equipment intended for application in the commercial field. An initial application of the concepts to the design of a compact steam generator to be utilized by electrical utilities for the production of peaking power is described.

  18. Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Ram; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous advances in remote sensing technology and computing power over the last few decades are now providing scientists with the opportunity to investigate, measure, and model environmental patterns and processes with increasing confidence. Such advances are being pursued by the Nebraska Remote Sensing Facility, which consists of approximately 30 faculty members and is very competitive with other institutions in the depth of the work that is accomplished. The development of this facility targeted at applications, commercialization, and education programs in the area of precision agriculture provides a unique opportunity. This critical area is within the scope of NASA goals and objectives of NASA s Applications, Technology Transfer, Commercialization, and Education Division and the Earth Science Enterprise. This innovative integration of Aerospace (Aeronautics) Technology Enterprise applications with other NASA enterprises serves as a model of cross-enterprise transfer of science with specific commercial applications.

  19. Thermal Storage Applications for Commercial/Industrial Facilities 

    E-print Network

    Knipp, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    APPLICATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL/INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES Roger 1. Knipp, PE. Dallas Power & Light Company Dallas, Texas ABSTRACT Texas Utilities Electric Company has been actively encouraging installations of thermal storage since 1981. Financial... the summer months primarily as a result of residential and commercial air conditioning and refrigeration usage. There fore, for the purpose of this discussion, the term thermal storage will refer to energy systems de signed to store energy for cooling...

  20. 77 FR 30021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and...Application to Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This is a proposed extension...Abstract: The Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) is a trade processing...

  1. 77 FR 14535 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ...Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and...Application to Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This request for comment is...Abstract: The Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) is a trade processing...

  2. Cryogenic applications of commercial electronic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Ernest D.; Benford, Dominic J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Harvey Moseley, S.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2 K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electronics include finding components that can function usefully in the cold and possess low enough power dissipation so as not to heat the systems they are designed to measure. From design, test, and integration perspectives it is useful for components to operate similarly at room and cryogenic temperatures; however this is not a necessity. Some of the circuits presented here have been used successfully in the MUSTANG [1] and in the GISMO [2] camera to build a complete digital to analog multiplexer (which will be referred to as the Cryogenic Address Driver board). Many of the circuit elements described are of a more general nature rather than specific to the Cryogenic Address Driver board, and were studied as a part of a more comprehensive approach to addressing a larger set of cryogenic electronic needs.

  3. Cryogenic Applications of Commercial Electronic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Ernest D.; Benford, Dominic J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electronics include finding components that can function usefully in the cold and possess low enough power dissipation so as not to heat the systems they are designed to measure. From design, test, and integration perspectives it is useful for components to operate similarly at room and cryogenic temperatures; however this is not a necessity. Some of the circuits presented here have been used successfully in the MUSTANG and in the GISMO camera to build a complete digital to analog multiplexer (which will be referred to as the Cryogenic Address Driver board). Many of the circuit elements described are of a more general nature rather than specific to the Cryogenic Address Driver board, and were studied as a part of a more comprehensive approach to addressing a larger set of cryogenic electronic needs.

  4. Intersatellite link application to commercial communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young S.; Atia, Ali E.; Ponchak, Denise S.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental characteristics of intersatellite link (ISL) systems, and their application to domestic, regional, and global satellite communications, are described. The quantitative advantages of using ISLs to improve orbit utilization, spectrum occupancy, transmission delay (compared to multi-hop links), coverage, and connectivity, and to reduce the number of earth station antennas, are also presented. Cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits of using ISLs are identified, and the technical and systems planning aspects of ISL systems implementation are addressed.

  5. Space Commercial Opportunities for Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavert, R.

    2000-01-01

    Microgravity research at NASA has been an undertaking that has included both science and commercial approaches since the late 80s and early 90s. The Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community has been developed, through NASA's science grants, into a valuable base of expertise in microgravity science. This was achieved through both ground and flight scientific research. Commercial microgravity research has been primarily promoted thorough NASA sponsored Centers for Space Commercialization which develop cost sharing partnerships with industry. As an example, the Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP)at Northeastern University has been working with cost sharing industry partners in developing Zeolites and zeo-type materials as an efficient storage medium for hydrogen fuel. Greater commercial interest is emerging. The U.S. Congress has passed the Commercial Space Act of 1998 to encourage the development of a commercial space industry in the United States. The Act has provisions for the commercialization of the International Space Station (ISS). Increased efforts have been made by NASA to enable industrial ventures on-board the ISS. A Web site has been established at http://commercial/nasa/gov which includes two important special announcements. One is an open request for entrepreneurial offers related to the commercial development and use of the ISS. The second is a price structure and schedule for U.S. resources and accommodations. The purpose of the presentation is to make the Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community, which understands the importance of microgravity experimentation, aware of important aspects of ISS commercial development. It is a desire that this awareness will be translated into a recognition of Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena application opportunities coordinated through the broad contacts of this community with industry.

  6. Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further sub-divided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

  7. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Renes, Robert

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the industrial, institutional, structural and health related pest control category. The text discusses the use and safety of applying pesticides to control invertebrate and vertebrate pests such as ants,…

  8. SONOS technology for commercial and military nonvolatile memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Farrell, P.; Jacunski, M.; Williams, D.; Jakubczak, J.; Knoll, M.; Murray, J.

    Silicon Oxide Nitride Oxide Semiconductor (SONOS) technology is well suited for military and commercial nonvolatile memory applications. Excellent long term memory retention, radiation hardness, and endurance has been demonstrated with this technology. This paper summarizes our data in these areas for SONOS technology.

  9. Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters 

    E-print Network

    Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

    1987-01-01

    Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

  10. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses...Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set...

  11. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses...Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set...

  12. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses...Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set...

  13. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses...Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set...

  14. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses...Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set...

  15. Layered Thermal Insulation Systems for Industrial and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2015-01-01

    From the high performance arena of cryogenic equipment, several different layered thermal insulation systems have been developed for industrial and commercial applications. In addition to the proven areas in cold-work applications for piping and tanks, the new Layered Composite Insulation for Extreme Environments (LCX) has potential for broader industrial use as well as for commercial applications. The LCX technology provides a unique combination of thermal, mechanical, and weathering performance capability that is both cost-effective and enabling. Industry applications may include, for example, liquid nitrogen (LN2) systems for food processing, liquefied natural gas (LNG) systems for transportation or power, and chilled water cooling facilities. Example commercial applications may include commercial residential building construction, hot water piping, HVAC systems, refrigerated trucks, cold chain shipping containers, and a various consumer products. The LCX system is highly tailorable to the end-use application and can be pre-fabricated or field assembled as needed. Product forms of LCX include rigid sheets, semi-flexible sheets, cylindrical clam-shells, removable covers, or flexible strips for wrapping. With increasing system control and reliability requirements as well as demands for higher energy efficiencies, thermal insulation in harsh environments is a growing challenge. The LCX technology grew out of solving problems in the insulation of mechanically complex cryogenic systems that must operate in outdoor, humid conditions. Insulation for cold work includes equipment for everything from liquid helium to chilled water. And in the middle are systems for LNG, LN2, liquid oxygen (LO2), liquid hydrogen (LH2) that must operate in the ambient environment. Different LCX systems have been demonstrated for sub-ambient conditions but are capable of moderately high temperature applications as well.

  16. Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications University of Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Winfred; Evanich, Peggy L.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications grant was funded by NASA's Kennedy Space Center in FY 2002 to provide dedicated biotechnology and agricultural research focused on the regeneration of space flight environments with direct parallels in Earth-based applications for solving problems in the environment, advances in agricultural science, and other human support issues amenable to targeted biotechnology solutions. This grant had three project areas, each with multiple tasks. They are: 1) Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education, 2) Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications, and 3) Commercial Applications. The Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education (SABRE) Center emphasized the fundamental biology of organisms involved in space flight applications, including those involved in advanced life support environments because of their critical role in the long-term exploration of space. The SABRE Center supports research at the University of Florida and at the Space Life Sciences Laboratory (SLSL) at the Kennedy Space Center. The Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications component focused on developing and applying sensor technologies to space environments and agricultural systems. The research activities in nanosensors were coordinated with the SABRE portions of this grant and with the research sponsored by the NASA Environmental Systems Commercial Space Technology Center located in the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. Initial sensor efforts have focused on air and water quality monitoring essential to humans for living and working permanently in space, an important goal identified in NASA's strategic plan. The closed environment of a spacecraft or planetary base accentuates cause and effect relationships and environmental impacts. The limited available air and water resources emphasize the need for reuse, recycling, and system monitoring. It is essential to collect real-time information from these systems to ensure crew safety. This new class of nanosensors will be critical to monitoring the space flight environment in future NASA space systems. The Commercial Applications component of this program pursued industry partnerships to develop products for terrestrial use of NASA sponsored technologies, and in turn to stimulate growth in the biotechnology industry. For technologies demonstrating near term commercial potential, the objective is to include industry partners on or about the time of proof of concept that will not only co-invest in the technology but also take the resultant technology to the commercial market.

  17. 77 FR 14535 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP... collection requirement concerning the Application to Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This... Commercial Environment (ACE) is a trade processing system that will eventually replace the...

  18. Application of the airborne ocean color imager for commercial fishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to develop a commercial remote sensing system for providing near-real-time data (within one day) in support of commercial fishing operations. The Airborne Ocean Color Imager (AOCI) had been built for NASA by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc., but it needed certain improvements, data processing software, and a delivery system to make it into a commercial system for fisheries. Two products were developed to support this effort: the AOCI with its associated processing system and an information service for both commercial and recreational fisheries to be created by Spectro Scan, Inc. The investigation achieved all technical objectives: improving the AOCI, creating software for atmospheric correction and bio-optical output products, georeferencing the output products, and creating a delivery system to get those products into the hands of commercial and recreational fishermen in near-real-time. The first set of business objectives involved Daedalus Enterprises and also were achieved: they have an improved AOCI and new data processing software with a set of example data products for fisheries applications to show their customers. Daedalus' marketing activities showed the need for simplification of the product for fisheries, but they successfully marketed the current version to an Italian consortium. The second set of business objectives tasked Spectro Scan to provide an information service and they could not be achieved because Spectro Scan was unable to obtain necessary venture capital to start up operations.

  19. On-Chip Dielectrophoretic Separation and Concentration of Viable, Non-Viable and Viable but Not Culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, M M; Shusteff, M; Alocilja, E C

    2012-04-12

    Although bacterial culture remains the gold standard for detection of viable bacteria in environmental specimens, the typical time requirement of twenty-four hours can delay and even jeopardize appropriate public health intervention. In addition, culture is incapable of detecting viable but not culturable (VBNC) species. Conversely, nucleic acid and antibody-based methods greatly decrease time to detection but rarely characterize viability of the bacteria detected. Through selection by membrane permeability, the method described in this work employs positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for separation and purification of viable and VBNC species from water and allows concentration of bacteria for downstream applications.

  20. A Hazardous Gas Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Knight, D.

    1998-01-01

    The detection of explosive conditions in aerospace propulsion applications is important for safety and economic reasons. Microfabricated hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbon sensors as well as the accompanying hardware and software are being, developed for a range of aerospace safety applications. The development of these sensors is being done using MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) based technology and SiC-based semiconductor technology. The hardware and software allows control and interrocation of each sensor head and reduces accompanying cabling through multiplexing. These systems are being, applied on the X-33 and on an upcoming STS-95 Shuttle mission. A number of commercial applications are also being pursued. It is concluded that this MEMS-based technology has significant potential to reduce costs and increase safety in a variety of aerospace applications.

  1. A Hazardous Gas Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L. - Y.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Knight, D.

    1998-01-01

    The detection of explosive conditions in aerospace propulsion applications is important for safety and economic reasons. Microfabricated hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbon sensors as well as the accompanying hardware and software are being developed for a range of aerospace safety applications. The development of these sensors is being done using MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) based technology and SiC-based semiconductor technology. The hardware and software allows control and interrogation of each sensor head and reduces accompanying cabling through multiplexing. These systems are being applied on the X-33 and on an upcoming STS-95 Shuttle mission. A number of commercial applications are also being pursued. It is concluded that this MEMS-based technology has significant potential to reduce costs and increase safety in a variety of aerospace applications.

  2. The venture space alliance commercial application of microgravity research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitton, Dave

    1999-01-01

    The Venture Space Alliance is a Canadian commercial enterprise formed to develop a successful sustainable business, providing industrial and institutional clients with cost effective timely access to space and microgravity facilities for commercial and scientific benefit. The goal is to offer users a comprehensive and reliable set of products and services from the early stages of research, where access to short duration microgravity such as drop towers, aircraft and sub-orbital rockets is required, to more complex missions requiring free flyers, shuttle or Space Station. The service is designed to relieve the researcher from having to be concerned with the special processes associated with space flight, and to assist in the commercial application of their research through the development of business plans and investment strategy. Much of this research could lead to new and better medicines, high disease tolerant and more prolific agricultural products, new materials and alloys, and improvements in fundamental human health. This paper will describe the commercial successes derived from microgravity research, and the anticipated growth of this segment particularly with the completion of the International Space Station.

  3. Robust Low-Cost Cathode for Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Under funding from the NASA Commercial Technology Office, a cathode assembly was designed, developed, fabricated, and tested for use in plasma sources for ground-based materials processing applications. The cathode development activity relied on the large prior NASA investment and successful development of high-current, high-efficiency, long-life hollow cathodes for use on the International Space Station Plasma Contactor System. The hollow cathode was designed and fabricated based on known engineering criteria and manufacturing processes for compatibility with the requirements of the plasma source. The transfer of NASA GRC-developed hollow cathode technology for use as an electron emitter in the commercial plasma source is anticipated to yield a significant increase in process control, while eliminating the present issues of electron emitter lifetime and contamination.

  4. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3...

  5. Film forming microbial biopolymers for commercial applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Vijayendra, S V N; Shamala, T R

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms synthesize intracellular, structural and extracellular polymers also referred to as biopolymers for their function and survival. These biopolymers play specific roles as energy reserve materials, protective agents, aid in cell functioning, the establishment of symbiosis, osmotic adaptation and support the microbial genera to function, adapt, multiply and survive efficiently under changing environmental conditions. Viscosifying, gelling and film forming properties of these have been exploited for specific significant applications in food and allied industries. Intensive research activities and recent achievements in relevant and important research fields of global interest regarding film forming microbial biopolymers is the subject of this review. Microbial polymers such as pullulan, kefiran, bacterial cellulose (BC), gellan and levan are placed under the category of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and have several other functional properties including film formation, which can be used for various applications in food and allied industries. In addition to EPS, innumerable bacterial genera are found to synthesis carbon energy reserves in their cells known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), microbial polyesters, which can be extruded into films with excellent moisture and oxygen barrier properties. Blow moldable biopolymers like PHA along with polylactic acid (PLA) synthesized chemically in vitro using lactic acid (LA), which is produced by LA bacteria through fermentation, are projected as biodegradable polymers of the future for packaging applications. Designing and creating of new property based on requirements through controlled synthesis can lead to improvement in properties of existing polysaccharides and create novel biopolymers of great commercial interest and value for wider applications. Incorporation of antimicrobials such as bacteriocins or silver and copper nanoparticles can enhance the functionality of polymer films especially in food packaging applications either in the form of coatings or wrappings. Use of EPS in combinations to obtain desired properties can be evaluated to increase the application range. Controlled release of active compounds, bioactive protection and resistance to water can be investigated while developing new technologies to improve the film properties of active packaging and coatings. An holistic approach may be adopted in developing an economical and biodegradable packaging material with acceptable properties. An interdisciplinary approach with new innovations can lead to the development of new composites of these biopolymers to enhance the application range. This current review focuses on linking and consolidation of recent research activities on the production and applications of film forming microbial polymers like EPS, PHA and PLA for commercial applications. PMID:23919238

  6. Potential Commercial Applications from Combustion and Fire Research in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Lyons, Valerie J.

    1996-01-01

    The near-zero (microgravity) environment of orbiting spacecraft minimizes buoyant flows, greatly simplifying combustion processes and isolating important phenomena ordinarily concealed by the overwhelming gravity-driven forces and flows. Fundamental combustion understanding - the focus to date of the NASA microgravity-combustion program - has greatly benefited from analyses and experiments conducted in the microgravity environment. Because of the economic and commercial importance of combustion in practice, there is strong motivation to seek wider applications for the microgravity-combustion findings. This paper reviews selected technology developments to illustrate some emerging applications. Topics cover improved fire-safety technology in spacecraft and terrestrial systems, innovative combustor designs for aerospace and ground propulsion, applied sensors and controls for combustion processes, and self-sustaining synthesis techniques for advanced materials.

  7. Development of Commercial Applications of a FAPY Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, VK

    2001-08-24

    The Fe-16 at. (8.5 wt) % Al alloy, known as FAPY, has been identified as a superior material for heating element applications. However, while the 15-lb heats melted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) could be processed into wire, the large heat melted at Hoskins Manufacturing Company (Hoskins) could not be processed under commercial processing conditions. The primary objective of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to demonstrate that wire of the FAPY alloy could be produced under commercial conditions from air-induction-melted (AIM) heats. The specific aspects of this CRADA included: (1) Melting 15-lb heats by AIM or vacuum-induction melting (VIM) at ORNL. (2) Development of detailed processing steps including warm drawing and annealing temperature and time during cold-drawing steps. (3) Melting of 1400-lb heats at Hoskins by the Exo-Melt{trademark} process and their chemical analysis and microstructural characterization. (4) Development of tensile properties of sections of ingots from the large heats in the ascast, hot-worked, and hot- and cold-worked conditions. (5) Microstructural characterization of cast and wrought structures and the fractured specimens. (6) Successful demonstration of processing of AIM heats at Hoskins to heating element wire. The aspects of this CRADA listed above have demonstrated that the FAPY alloy of the desired composition can be commercially produced by AIM by the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process. Furthermore, it also demonstrated that the wire processing steps developed for 15-lb heats at ORNL can be successfully applied to the production of wire from the large AIM heats.

  8. 36 CFR 13.1142 - Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application? ...National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1142 Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1142 - Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application? ...National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1142 Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?...

  10. Integration of commercial video motion detection into USAF flightline applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, John M.; Resca, Philip J.

    1997-02-01

    A short duration evaluation of a variety of commercially available Video Motion Detection products served to demonstrate application in detecting intrusion into protected areas of a military flightline. To be effective on a military flightline requires coverage over wide areas, adaptability to thermal imagery and ease of operator use. Opportunities exist to incorporate panning cameras with video motion detection to expand the awareness of Air Force Security Police. The interest in maximizing the utilization of relatively expensive and highly capable thermal imager cameras makes this a high interest priority. In the evaluation, the available products demonstrated an ability to perform intrusion detection, but flexibility in set-up and operation were seen as areas where improvement will be welcome.

  11. Electrical properties of commercial sheet insulation materials for cryogenic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Pace, Marshall O

    2008-01-01

    Dielectric properties of electrical insulation materials are needed for low-temperature power applications. Performance of materials and their compatibility determine the size of the electrical insulation in power equipment. In this work we report the dielectric properties of some commercially available materials in sheet form. The selected materials are polypropylene laminated paper from Sumitomo Electric U.S.A., Inc., porous polyethylene (Tyvek\\texttrademark) from Dupont, and polyamide paper (Nomex\\texttrademark) from Dupont. The dielectric properties are characterized with an electrical impedance analyzer in the frequency domain. The impedances are recorded in a cryocooler in the temperature range from 50 to 300 K. The dielectric breakdown characteristics of the materials are measured in a liquid nitrogen bath at atmospheric pressure.

  12. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  13. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  14. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  15. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  16. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  17. A lightweight, high strength dexterous manipulator for commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Schena, Bruce M.; Cohan, Steve M.

    1991-01-01

    The concept, design, and features are described of a lightweight, high strength, modular robot manipulator being developed for space and commercial applications. The manipulator has seven fully active degrees of freedom and is fully operational in 1 G. Each of the seven joints incorporates a unique drivetrain design which provides zero backlash operation, is insensitive to wear, and is single fault tolerant to motor or servo amplifier failure. Feedback sensors provide position, velocity, torque, and motor winding temperature information at each joint. This sensing system is also designed to be single fault tolerant. The manipulator consists of five modules (not including gripper). These modules join via simple quick-disconnect couplings and self-mating connectors which allow rapid assembly and/or disassembly for reconfiguration, transport, or servicing. The manipulator is a completely enclosed assembly, with no exposed components or wires. Although the initial prototype will not be space qualified, the design is well suited to meeting space requirements. The control system provides dexterous motion by controlling the endpoint location and arm pose simultaneously. Potential applications are discussed.

  18. Evolutionary biology Evidence for viable,

    E-print Network

    Evolutionary biology Evidence for viable, non-clonal but fatherless Boa constrictors Warren Booth1 in a Boa constrictor, identifying multiple, viable, non- experimentally induced females for the first time of parthenogenesis in the family Boidae (Boas), and suggest that WW females may be more common within basal reptilian

  19. 48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

  20. 48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

  1. 48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

  2. 48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

  3. 48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

  4. Ornamental and Shade Tree Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, M. S.

    This is a training manual for commercial pesticide applicators. It gives information for identification and control of diseases, insects, mites, weeds, and vertebrate pests of shade and ornamental trees. Phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and pesticide application information is also given. (BB)

  5. Application of text mining for customer evaluations in commercial banking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jing; Du, Xiaojiang; Hao, Pengpeng; Wang, Yanbo J.

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays customer attrition is increasingly serious in commercial banks. To combat this problem roundly, mining customer evaluation texts is as important as mining customer structured data. In order to extract hidden information from customer evaluations, Textual Feature Selection, Classification and Association Rule Mining are necessary techniques. This paper presents all three techniques by using Chinese Word Segmentation, C5.0 and Apriori, and a set of experiments were run based on a collection of real textual data that includes 823 customer evaluations taken from a Chinese commercial bank. Results, consequent solutions, some advice for the commercial bank are given in this paper.

  6. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or...

  7. Laboratory Connections. Commercial Interfacing Packages: Part II: Software and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael H.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the titration of a weak base with a strong acid and subsequent treatment of experimental data using commercially available software. Provides a BASIC program for determining first and second derivatives of data input. Lists 6 references. (YP)

  8. Physical Properties and Durability of New Materials for Space and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambourger, Paul D.

    2003-01-01

    To develop and test new materials for use in space power systems and related space and commercial applications, to assist industry in the application of these materials, and to achieve an adequate understanding of the mechanisms by which the materials perform in their intended applications.

  9. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...tobacco, peanuts, cotton, feed grains, soybeans and forage; vegetables; small fruits; tree fruits and nuts; as well as on grasslands and non-crop agricultural lands. (ii) Animal. This category includes commercial applicators using or...

  10. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...tobacco, peanuts, cotton, feed grains, soybeans and forage; vegetables; small fruits; tree fruits and nuts; as well as on grasslands and non-crop agricultural lands. (ii) Animal. This category includes commercial applicators using or...

  11. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...tobacco, peanuts, cotton, feed grains, soybeans and forage; vegetables; small fruits; tree fruits and nuts; as well as on grasslands and non-crop agricultural lands. (ii) Animal. This category includes commercial applicators using or...

  12. Soil attributes as viable agents in red spruce mortality along the southern Appalachian highlands with applications as field and laboratory exercises for community college science courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashbrook, Craig Monday

    The southern Appalachian highlands displaying peaks above 1500m frequently support a northern boreal forest. These highland forests sustain both red spruce and Fraser fir trees, which are typically aboriginal to the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. Within the past century, these forests have declined at an unusual rate. Past studies have focused on the impacts of acid deposition and similar atmospheric pollutants. However, the scientific community found difficulty in establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between the decline and these atmospheric pollutants. This dissertation focuses on a heavily neglected and often overlooked factor, which creates restrictions in growth patterns and overall health of these boreal trees. That overlooked factor deals primarily with soil nutrients within a selected spruce-fir stand of the southern Appalachians. The research quantitatively analyzes soils for specific chemical and physical properties, with comparisons made to soils from the New England region where the spruces and firs grow indigenously. A fundamental part of understanding ecosystems is the environmental interrelationships within those ecosystems. This document organizes a series of laboratory exercises, which target community college science courses so student exploration of these interrelationships becomes an integral part of the laboratory procedures. By completing these various exercises, students become more aware of the connective character of nature as well as develop an appreciation of geography, the original environmental science. Although atmospheric pollutants should continue to be scrutinized, findings of this research document show that the natural characteristics of soils are clearly a limiting factor in the overall health and vitality of the southern boreal forests. Therefore, future research, regardless of the focus, should include soil characteristics as a viable factor in the health of these delicate forest-types.

  13. Robust commercial diffuse reflector for UV-VIS-NIR applications.

    PubMed

    Mason, John D; Cone, Michael T; Donelon, Matthew; Wigle, Jeffery C; Noojin, Gary D; Fry, Edward S

    2015-09-01

    We report the development and testing of a new commercially available diffuse reflecting material with reflectivities in the visible comparable to industry-leading products. This new diffuse reflector consists of solid quartz in which there is a dense distribution of tiny pockets of air. The multiple reflections by the quartz-air interfaces of these air pockets transforms a highly transmissive base material into a highly diffuse reflecting material. PMID:26368875

  14. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of...

  15. 40 CFR 171.6 - Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified private and commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified private and commercial applicators. 171.6 Section 171.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF...

  16. 40 CFR 171.6 - Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified private and commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified private and commercial applicators. 171.6 Section 171.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF...

  17. Recent Breakthroughs in Superconductivity Lead to Rush for Commercial Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Kim

    1987-01-01

    The excitement and intense competition surrounding the search for new applications of superconductors resembles the entrepreneurial atmosphere of the early 1970s, when faculty were launching profitable companies based on developments in biotechnology and semiconductors. (MSE)

  18. Space Environment Stability and Physical Properties of New Materials for Space Power and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambourger, Paul D.

    1997-01-01

    To test and evaluate suitability of materials for use in space power systems and related space and commercial applications, and to achieve sufficient understanding of the mechanisms by which, the materials perform in their intended applications. Materials and proposed applications included but were not limited to: Improved anodes for lithium ion batteries, highly-transparent arc-proof solar array coatings, and improved surface materials for solar dynamic concentrators and receivers. Cooperation and interchange of data with industrial companies as appropriate.

  19. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Seed Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the types of seeds that require chemical protection against pests. Methods of treatment and labeling requirements for such seeds as rye, wheat, soybeans, peas, and grass hybrids are discussed. Safety and environmental precautions…

  20. Risk and safety analysis for Florida commercial aerial application operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, John Michael

    The purpose of this study was to determine self-reported perceptions in the areas of agroterrorism, bioterrorism, chemical exposure and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight. The aerial application industry has been in existence since the 1920's with a gamut of issues ranging from pesticide drift to counterterrorism. The attacks of September 11th, 2001, caused a paradigm shift in the way the United States views security and, more importantly, the prevention of malicious activity. Through the proper implementation and dissemination of educational materials dealing with industry specific concerns, it is imperative that everyone has the proper level of resources and training to effectively manage terrorist threats. This research study was designed to interpret how aerial applicators view these topics of concern and how they perceive the current threat level of terrorism in the industry. Research results were consistent, indicating that a high number of aerial applicators in the state of Florida are concerned with these topics. As a result, modifications need to be made with respect to certain variables. The aerial application industry works day in and day out to provide a professional service that helps maintain the integrity of the food and commodities that we need to survive. They are a small percentage of the aviation community that we all owe a great deal for the vital and necessary services they provide.

  1. A Hydrogen Leak Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Makel, D. B.; Jansa, E. D.; Patterson, G.; Cova, P. J.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

    1995-01-01

    Leaks on the space shuttle while on the launch pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. Microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). These sensors have been integrated into hardware and software designed by Aerojet. This complete system allows for multipoint leak monitoring designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. This system is in operation in an automotive application which requires high sensitivity to hydrogen.

  2. Hybrid soft computing systems: Industrial and commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bonissone, P.P.; Chen, Y.T.; Goebel, K.; Khedkar, P.S.

    1999-09-01

    Soft computing (SC) is an association of computing methodologies that includes as its principal members fuzzy logic, neurocomputing, evolutionary computing and probabilistic computing. The authors present a collection of methods and tools that can be used to perform diagnostics, estimation, and control. These tools are a great match for real-world applications that are characterized by imprecise, uncertain data and incomplete domain knowledge. The authors outline the advantages of applying SC techniques and in particular the synergy derived from the use of hybrid SC systems. They illustrate some combinations of hybrid SC systems, such as fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's) tuned by neural networks (NN's) and evolutionary computing (EC), NN's tuned by EC or FLC's, and EC controlled by FLC's. The authors discuss three successful real-world examples of SC applications to industrial equipment diagnostics, freight train control, and residential property valuation.

  3. Industrial and Commercial Heat Pump Applications in the United States 

    E-print Network

    Niess, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    readily available fluorocarbon refrigerants as the heat pump working fluid, this cycle is commonly used because of its wide application opportunities. Compressed Vapors Heat Pump Compressor Heat Sink PrOCess (Condenser) Vapors Figure 3. Waste... process heating. The waste heat can corne from the condensers of refrigeration systems on air-conditioning systems for bUildings or plants, low-level process heat from annealing and heat-treating furnaces, quench tanks, electric seam welders, air...

  4. Center for commercial applications of combustion in space (CCACS); A partnership for space commercialization at the Colorado School of Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.; Kee, Bob; Linne, Mark; McKinnon, Tom; Moore, John; Parker, Terry; Readey, Dennis; Tilton, John E.; Helble, Joe

    1997-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is a NASA/Industry/University consortium at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM). The mission of the Center is to assist industry in developing commercial products by conducting combustion research which takes advantage of the unique properties of space. By conducting experiments in near-zero gravity, convection and buoyancy effects can be minimized and new fundamental design-related knowledge can be gained which can be used to improve combustion-related products and processes on earth. Companies, government laboratories and universities most actively involved in CCACS at present include ABB Combustion, ADA Technologies, Advanced Refractory Technologies, Golden Technologies, Lockheed-Martin, Southwest Sciences, Space Systems/Lora, NASA-Lewis, JPL, the Baylor Dental School and the University of Connecticut. Products and processes of interest to the Center participants include industrial process combustors; catalytic combustion; Halon replacements; ceramic powders, whiskers and fibers; metal-matrix composites; NiTi for bone replacement; diamond coatings for oil-well drill bits; zeolites; imaging sensor arrays and other instrumentation for flame and particulate diagnostics. The center also assists member companies in marketing the resulting products and processes.

  5. Developing Viable Financing Models for Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilingsfeld, F.; Schaetzler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing commercialization of space services and the impending release of government's control of space access promise to make space ventures more attractive. Still, many investors shy away from going into the space tourism market as long as they do not feel secure that their return expectations will be met. First and foremost, attracting investors from the capital markets requires qualifying financing models. Based on earlier research on the cost of capital for space tourism, this paper gives a brief run-through of commercial, technical and financial due diligence aspects. After that, a closer look is taken at different valuation techniques as well as alternative ways of streamlining financials. Experience from earlier ventures has shown that the high cost of capital represents a significant challenge. Thus, the sophistication and professionalism of business plans and financial models needs to be very high. Special emphasis is given to the optimization of the debt-to-equity ratio over time. The different roles of equity and debt over a venture's life cycle are explained. Based on the latter, guidelines for the design of an optimized loan structure are given. These are then applied to simulating the financial performance of a typical space tourism venture over time, including the calculation of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and Net Present Value (NPV). Based on a concluding sensitivity analysis, the lessons learned are presented. If applied properly, these will help to make space tourism economically viable.

  6. 48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.503 Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...

  7. 48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.503 Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...

  8. 48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

  9. 48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.503 Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...

  10. 48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

  11. 48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.503 Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...

  12. 48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.503 Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...

  13. 48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

  14. 48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.503 Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...

  15. 48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.503 Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...

  16. 48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

  17. 48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.503 Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...

  18. 48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.503 Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...

  19. 48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition...

  20. 48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.503 Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...

  1. Two new advanced forms of spectrometry for space and commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    Reagentless ultraviolet absorption spectrometry (UVAS) and Liquid Atomic Emission Spectrometry (LAES) represent new forms of spectrometry with extensive potential in both space and commercial applications. Originally developed under KSC sponsorship for monitoring nutrient solutions for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), both UVAS and LAES have extensive analytical capabilities for both organic and inorganic chemical compounds. Both forms of instrumentation involve the use of remote fiber optic probes and real-time measurements for on-line process monitoring. Commercial applications exist primarily in environmental analysis and for process control in the chemical, pulp and paper, food processing, metal plating, and water/wastewater treatment industries.

  2. 40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants...

  3. 40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants...

  4. 40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants...

  5. 40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants...

  6. 40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants...

  7. 48 CFR 212.570 - Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to.... 2533b, Requirement to buy strategic materials critical to national security from American sources,...

  8. 48 CFR 212.570 - Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to.... 2533b, Requirement to buy strategic materials critical to national security from American sources,...

  9. 48 CFR 212.570 - Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to.... 2533b, Requirement to buy strategic materials critical to national security from American sources,...

  10. 48 CFR 212.570 - Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to.... 2533b, Requirement to buy strategic materials critical to national security from American sources,...

  11. Development of Commodity Grade, Lower Cost Carbon Fiber - Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Charles David; Paulauskas, Felix L; Baker, Frederick S; Eberle, Cliff; Naskar, Amit K

    2009-01-01

    In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fiber reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fiber composites in transportation is the high cost of the fiber when compared to other candidate materials. As part of the United States Department of Energy s FreedomCAR initiative, significant research is being conducted to develop lower cost, high volume technologies for producing carbon fiber. This paper will highlight the on-going research in this area. Through Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and its partners have been working with the US Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to develop technologies that would enable the production of carbon fiber at 5-7 dollars per pound. Achievement of this cost goal would allow the introduction of carbon fiber based composites into a greater number of applications for future vehicles. The approach has necessitated the development of both alternative precursors and more efficient production methods. Alternative precursors under investigation include textile grade polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers and fibers from lignin-based feedstocks. Previously, as part of the research program, Hexcel Corporation developed the science necessary to allow textile grade PAN to be used as a precursor rather than typical carbon fiber grade precursors. Efforts are also underway to develop carbon fiber precursors from lignin-based feedstocks. ORNL and its partners are working on this effort with domestic pulp and paper producers. In terms of alternative production methods, ORNL has developed a microwave-based carbonization unit that can process pre-oxidized fiber at over 200 inches per minute. ORNL has also developed a new method of high speed oxidation and a new method for precursor stabilization. Additionally, novel methods of activating carbon fiber surfaces have been developed which allow atomic oxygen concentrations as high as 25-30% to be achieved rather than the more typical 4-8% achieved by the standard industrial ozone treatment.

  12. Commercially applicable, solution-processed organic TFT and its backplane application in electrophoretic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang Bum; Lee, Jung Eun; Na, HyungIl; Kim, Kyung Min; Yoo, Soon Sung; Yang, Myoung Su

    2015-09-01

    We report a video graphics array (VGA) electrophoretic display (EPD) that adopts commercially applicable process technologies for its solution-processed organic thin-film transistor (OTFT). For source/drain (S/D) engineering, a copper (Cu) electrode was employed instead of high-work-function materials and to obtain a low-resistance signal line on the array that is functionalized by self-assembled monolayer (SAM) treatment on the electrode surface. For gate engineering, a gate electrode with Cu was successfully formed onto the organic gate insulator (OGI) by using sputter deposition, thus providing an industrially suitable technology to replace evaporation processes even on frail organic material. Competitive device performance driving the electrophoretic display was obtained on a TFT derived from anthradithiophene that was fabricated at low temperatures of less than 140 °C and that has the stable electrical feature of ?VT of 3 V for induced bias stress with a long time span. Up until now, electrode engineering using low-cost and low-work-function materials has been too problematic for practical use of OTFT backplanes, but we have successfully applied it to produce a 6-in. electrophoretic display based on a large substrate of 370 × 470 mm2 for the backplane process. Thus, as far as mass production is concerned, the solution-processed organic transistor shows promise as a backplane unit with low-temperature processing.

  13. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Terrani, Kurt A.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew; Robb, Kevin R.; Snead, Mary A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  14. Optimizatin of sugarcane factory application of Commercial Dextranases in the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the use of commercial dextranases to break down dextran in sugar manufacture was pioneered by Australian researchers in the 1970s, applications in the U.S. sugar industry are still not optimized. This is partly because of misinformation about where to add the enzyme and which enzyme to use....

  15. 36 CFR 28.13 - Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FIRE ISLAND NATIONAL SEASHORE: ZONING STANDARDS Federal Standards and... zoning authority shall send the Superintendent a copy of all applications for variances, exceptions, special permits, and permits for commercial and industrial uses submitted to the zoning authority...

  16. 36 CFR 28.13 - Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FIRE ISLAND NATIONAL SEASHORE: ZONING STANDARDS Federal Standards and... zoning authority shall send the Superintendent a copy of all applications for variances, exceptions, special permits, and permits for commercial and industrial uses submitted to the zoning authority...

  17. 36 CFR 28.13 - Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FIRE ISLAND NATIONAL SEASHORE: ZONING STANDARDS Federal Standards and... zoning authority shall send the Superintendent a copy of all applications for variances, exceptions, special permits, and permits for commercial and industrial uses submitted to the zoning authority...

  18. 36 CFR 28.13 - Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FIRE ISLAND NATIONAL SEASHORE: ZONING STANDARDS Federal Standards and... zoning authority shall send the Superintendent a copy of all applications for variances, exceptions, special permits, and permits for commercial and industrial uses submitted to the zoning authority...

  19. 36 CFR 28.13 - Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FIRE ISLAND NATIONAL SEASHORE: ZONING STANDARDS Federal Standards and... zoning authority shall send the Superintendent a copy of all applications for variances, exceptions, special permits, and permits for commercial and industrial uses submitted to the zoning authority...

  20. Illinois Pesticide Applicator Study Guide. A Training Manual for Private and Commercial Pesticide Applicators and Operators. Special Publication 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bever, Wayne; And Others

    This study guide is designed to provide the necessary information to prepare for certification as a private or commercial pesticide applicator. In addition to providing basic information covering the various sections of the amended Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, it contains a glossary of common pesticide terms, a list of…

  1. 40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...commercial and private applicators of restricted use pesticides. 171.7 Section 171.7 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.7 Submission...

  2. A commercially viable solar wood drying kiln system

    SciTech Connect

    Vore, J.B. de; Denny, G.S.; Harper, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to create a totally passive solar wood drying kiln that would dry lumber to 9% moisture content in a reasonable amount of time. A series of modifications led to a kiln design that dried freshly-cut lumber to 8% in a 29-day period with no case hardening or cracking. Air speed, internal and external temperatures and relative humidity levels were measured at 5-minute intervals. The average temperature inside the kiln was 12% higher with relative humidity levels 19% lower than outside the kiln. It is hypothesized that the daily cycles of heating and cooling permitted the interior moisture of the wood to reach the surface through diffusion, thus lessening stress and speeding drying of the lumber.

  3. Commercial applications and scientific research requirements for thermal-infrared observations of terrestrial surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, Samuel N.; Taranik, James V.; Laporte, Daniel; Putnam, Evelyn S. (editor)

    1986-01-01

    In the spring of 1986 the EOSAT Company and NASA Headquarters organized a workshop to consider: (1) the potential value of space-acquired multiband thermal remote sensing in terrestrial research and commercial applications, and (2) the scientific and technological requirements for conducting such observations from the LANDSAT platform. The workshop defined the instrument characteristics of three types of sensors that would be needed to expand the use of thermal information for Earth observation and new commercial opportunities. The panels from two disciplines, geology and evapotranspiration/botany, along with the instrument panel, presented their recommendations to the workshop. The findings of these meetings are presented.

  4. A remote sensing applications update: Results of interviews with Earth Observations Commercialization Program (EOCAP) participants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, Sally

    1991-01-01

    Earth remote sensing is a uniquely valuable tool for large-scale resource management, a task whose importance will likely increase world-wide through the foreseeable future. NASA research and engineering have virtually created the existing U.S. system, and will continue to push the frontiers, primarily through Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, research, and data and information systems. It is the researchers' view that the near-term health of remote sensing applications also deserves attention; it seems important not to abandon the system or its clients. The researchers suggest that, like its Landsat predecessor, a successful Earth Observing System program is likely to reinforce pressure to 'manage' natural resources, and consequently, to create more pressure for Earth Observations Commercialization (EOCAP) type applications. The current applications programs, though small, are valuable because of their technical and commercial results, and also because they support a community whose contributions will increase along with our ability to observe the Earth from space.

  5. Corneal Alterations Induced by Topical Application of Commercial Latanoprost, Travoprost and Bimatoprost in Rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Zhenhao; Hu, Jiaoyue; Xie, Hui; Pan, Juxin; Liu, Zuguo

    2014-01-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) analogs, including latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost, are currently the most commonly used topical ocular hypotensive medications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the corneal alterations in rabbits following exposure to commercial solution of latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost. A total of 64 New Zealand albino rabbits were used and four groups of treatments were constituted. Commercial latanoprost, travoprost, bimatoprost or 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BAK) was applied once daily to one eye each of rabbits for 30 days. The contralateral untreated eyes used as controls. Schirmer test, tear break-up time (BUT), rose Bengal and fluorescein staining were performed on days 5, 10, 20, and 30. Central corneal changes were analyzed by in vivo confocal microscopy, and the corneal barrier function was evaluated by measurement of corneal transepithelial electrical resistance on day 5. Whole mount corneas were analyzed by using fluorescence confocal microscopy for the presence of tight-junction (ZO-1, occludin) and adherens-junction (E-cadherin, ?-catenin) proteins, actin cytoskeleton, proliferative marker Ki67 and cell apoptosis in the epithelium. Topical application of commercial PG analogs resulted in significant corneal epithelial and stromal defects while no significant changes in aqueous tear production, BUT, rose bengal and fluorescein staining scores on day 5. Commercial PG analogs induced dislocation of ZO-1 and occludin from their normal locus, disorganization of cortical actin cytoskeleton at the superficial layer, and disruption of epithelial barrier function. The eyes treated with 0.02% BAK and latanoprost exhibited significantly reduced Schirmer scores, BUT, and increased fluorescein staining scores on days 10 and 30, respectively. Topical application of commercial PG analogs can quickly impair the corneal epithelium and stroma without tear deficiency. Commercial PG analogs break down the barrier integrity of corneal epithelium, concomitant with the disruption of cell junction and actin cytoskeleton between superficial cells in the corneal epithelium in vivo. PMID:24632558

  6. Commercialization of New Carbon Fiber Materials Based on Sustainable Resources for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, Cliff; Webb, Daniel C; Albers, Tracy; Chen, Chong

    2013-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and GrafTech International have collaborated to develop and demonstrate the performance of high temperature thermal insulation prototypes made from lignin-based carbon fibers. This project will potentially lead to the first commercial application of lignin-based carbon fibers (LBCF). The goal of the commercial application is to replace expensive, Chinese-sourced isotropic pitch carbon fibers with lower cost carbon fibers made from a domestically sourced, bio-derived (renewable) feedstock. LBCF can help recapture jobs that were previously exported to China while resolving a supply chain vulnerability and reducing the production cost for GrafTech s high temperature thermal insulation. The performance of the LBCF prototypes was measured and found to be comparable to that of the current commercial product. During production of the insulation prototypes, ORNL and GrafTech demonstrated lignin compounding/pelletization, fiber production, heat treatment, and compositing at scales far surpassing those previously demonstrated in LBCF R&D or production. A plan was developed for the commercialization of LBCF thermal insulation, with key milestones including qualification of multiple scalable lignin sources in 2013, tons-scale production and field testing by customers in 2014, and product launch as soon thereafter as production capabilities can be constructed and commissioned.

  7. Trends in genetic patent applications: the commercialization of academic intellectual property

    PubMed Central

    Kers, Jannigje G; Van Burg, Elco; Stoop, Tom; Cornel, Martina C

    2014-01-01

    We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications data from the PATSTAT database from 1990 until 2009 were analyzed for time trends and regional distribution. Overall, the number of patent applications has been growing. In 2009, 152?000 patent applications were submitted under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and within the EP (European Patent) system of the European Patent Office (EPO). The number of genetic patent applications increased until a peak was reached in the year 2000, with >8000 applications, after which it declined by almost 50%. Continents show different patterns over time, with the global peak in 2000 mainly explained by the USA and Europe, while Asia shows a stable number of >1000 per year. Nine countries together account for 98.9% of the total number of genetic patent applications. In The Netherlands, 26.7% of the genetic patent applications originate from public research institutions. After the year 2000, the number of genetic patent applications dropped significantly. Academic leadership and policy as well as patent regulations seem to have an important role in the trend differences. The ongoing investment in genetic research in the past decade is not reflected by an increase of patent applications. PMID:24448546

  8. Trends in genetic patent applications: the commercialization of academic intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Kers, Jannigje G; Van Burg, Elco; Stoop, Tom; Cornel, Martina C

    2014-10-01

    We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications data from the PATSTAT database from 1990 until 2009 were analyzed for time trends and regional distribution. Overall, the number of patent applications has been growing. In 2009, 152?000 patent applications were submitted under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and within the EP (European Patent) system of the European Patent Office (EPO). The number of genetic patent applications increased until a peak was reached in the year 2000, with >8000 applications, after which it declined by almost 50%. Continents show different patterns over time, with the global peak in 2000 mainly explained by the USA and Europe, while Asia shows a stable number of >1000 per year. Nine countries together account for 98.9% of the total number of genetic patent applications. In The Netherlands, 26.7% of the genetic patent applications originate from public research institutions. After the year 2000, the number of genetic patent applications dropped significantly. Academic leadership and policy as well as patent regulations seem to have an important role in the trend differences. The ongoing investment in genetic research in the past decade is not reflected by an increase of patent applications. PMID:24448546

  9. Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Chase H.

    1995-01-01

    While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

  10. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  11. Commercial applications of the ACTS mobile terminal millimeter-wave antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Densmore, Arthur C.; Crist, Rick A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Tulintseff, Ann N.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT), which will provide voice, data, and video communications to and from a vehicle (van, truck, or car) via NASA's geostationary ACTS satellite using the K- and K(sub a)-band frequency bands. The AMT is already planned to demonstrate a variety of communications from within the mobile vehicular environment, and within this paper a summary of foreseen commercial application opportunities is given. A critical component of the AMT is its antenna system, which must establish and maintain the basic RF link with the satellite. Two versions of the antenna are under development, each incorporating different technologies and offering different commercial applications.

  12. A modified commercial scanner as an image plate for table-top optical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Casado-Rojo, S; Lorenzana, H E; Baonza, V G

    2008-12-09

    A reliable, accurate, and inexpensive optical detector for table-top applications is described here. Based on a commercial high resolution office scanner coupled to a projection on plate, it enables a large image plate surface, allowing recording of large images without systematic errors associated to coupling optics' aberrations. Several tests on distance-dependent and steady interference patterns will be presented and discussed. The extension to other types of optical measurement by substituting the projection on plate is proposed.

  13. Present and Future Applications of Digital Electronics in Nuclear Science - a Commercial Prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hui

    2011-10-01

    Digital readout electronics instrumenting radiation detectors have experienced significant advancements in the last decade or so. This on one hand can be attributed to the steady improvements in commercial digital processing components such as analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), digital-to-analog converters (DACs), field-programmable-gate-arrays (FPGAs), and digital-signal-processors (DSPs), and on the other hand can also be attributed to the increasing needs for improved time, position, and energy resolution in nuclear physics experiments, which have spurred the rapid development of commercial off-the-shelf high speed, high resolution digitizers or spectrometers. Absent from conventional analog electronics, the capability to record fast decaying pulses from radiation detectors in digital readout electronics has profoundly benefited nuclear physics researchers since they now can perform detailed pulse processing for applications such as gamma-ray tracking and decay-event selection and reconstruction. In this talk, present state-of-the-art digital readout electronics and its applications in a variety of nuclear science fields will be discussed, and future directions in hardware development for digital electronics will also be outlined, all from the prospective of a commercial manufacturer of digital electronics.

  14. Astaxanthin: Sources, Extraction, Stability, Biological Activities and Its Commercial Applications—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ambati, Ranga Rao; Siew Moi, Phang; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

    2014-01-01

    There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3?-dihydroxy-?, ??-carotene-4,4?-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications. PMID:24402174

  15. A spreadsheet-based microcomputer application for determining cost-effectiveness of commercial lighting retrofit opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, T.K. . Kenneth E. Johnson Environmental and Energy Center)

    1992-01-01

    Lighting accounts for 20-25% of electricity use in the United States. With estimates of 50-70% potential reductions being made by energy engineers, lighting is a promising area for cost-effective energy conservation projects in commercial buildings. With an extensive array of alternatives available to replace or modify existing lighting systems, simple but effective calculation tools are needed to help energy auditors evaluate lighting retrofits. This paper describes a spreadsheet-based microcomputer application for determining the cost-effectiveness of commercial lighting retrofits. Developed to support walk-through energy audits conducted by the Industrial Energy Advisory Service (IdEAS), the spreadsheet provides essential comparative data for evaluating the payback of alternatives. The impact of alternatives on environmental emissions is calculated to help communicate external costs and sell the project, if appropriate. The methodology and calculations are fully documented to allow the user to duplicate the spreadsheet and modify it as needed.

  16. Potential commercial application of a bi-layer bone-ligament regeneration scaffold to anterior cruciate ligament replacement

    E-print Network

    Li, Jessica C. (Jessica Ching-Yi)

    2006-01-01

    A business model was created in order to explore the commercial application of a bi-layer bone-ligament scaffold to the treatment of torn anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) requiring replacement. The two main keys in producing ...

  17. Application of commercial best practices for new technology development within the constraints of defense contract funded R&D

    E-print Network

    Davis, Monica K. (Monica Karin)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis explores the application of commercial best practices for new technology development within the constraints of the defense contract funded research and development (R&D) environment. Key elements of successful ...

  18. Application study of filamentary composites in a commercial jet aircraft fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; June, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A study of applications of filamentary composite materials to aircraft fuselage structure was performed. General design criteria were established and material studies conducted using the 727-200 forebody as the primary structural component. Three design approaches to the use of composites were investigated: uniaxial reinforcement of metal structure, uniaxial and biaxial reinforcement of metal structure, and an all-composite design. Materials application studies for all three concepts were conducted on fuselage shell panels, keel beam, floor beams, floor panels, body frames, fail-safe straps, and window frames. Cost benefit studies were conducted and developmental program costs estimated. On the basis of weight savings, cost effectiveness, developmental program costs, and potential for early application on commercial aircraft, the unaxial design is recommended for a 5-year flight service evaluation program.

  19. Commercialization of NASA's High Strength Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the commercialization of a new high strength cast aluminum alloy, invented by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, for high temperature applications will be presented. Originally developed to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low- exhaust emission, the novel NASA aluminum alloy offers dramatic improvement in tensile and fatigue strengths at elevated temperatures (450 F-750 F), which can lead to reducing part weight and cost as well as improving performance for automotive engine applications. It is an ideal low cost material for cast components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. NASA alloy also offers greater wear resistance, dimensional stability, and lower thermal expansion compared to conventional aluminum alloys, and the new alloy can be produced economically from sand, permanent mold and investment casting. Since 2001, this technology was licensed to several companies for automotive and marine internal combustion engines applications.

  20. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 11: Aerial Applicators. CS-26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the calibration and application of pesticides/herbicides by aircraft. Special attention is given to the field flight patterns and safety precautions which must be considered for the pilot, ground crews and the…

  1. Safety Evaluation of Two Commercial Lithium-ion Batteries for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Collins, Jacob; Cook, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have been used for applications on the Shuttle and Station for the past six years. A majority of the li-ion batteries flown are Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) varieties. The COTS batteries and cells were tested under nominal and abusive conditions for performance and safety characterization. Within the past six months two batteries have been certified for flight and use on the Space Station. The first one is a Hand Spring PDA battery that had a single prismatic li-ion cell and the second is an Iridium satellite phone that had a two-cell pack with prismatic li-ion cells.

  2. Tools and Data Services from the NASA Earth Satellite Observations for Remote Sensing Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, Gilberto

    2005-01-01

    Several commercial applications of remote sensing data, such as water resources management, environmental monitoring, climate prediction, agriculture, forestry, preparation for and migration of extreme weather events, require access to vast amounts of archived high quality data, software tools and services for data manipulation and information extraction. These on the other hand require gaining detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation of data reduction, combination and data product production. The time-consuming task must be undertaken before the core investigation can begin and is an especially difficult challenge when science objectives require users to deal with large multi-sensor data sets of different formats, structures, and resolutions.

  3. Evaluation and qualification of environmentally conscious manufacturing processes for commercial and military applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.J.; Cranwell, R.M.; Iman, R.; Van Buren, P.D.

    1995-03-01

    Environmental regulations are encouraging the development of new environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECNP processes. However, the quality and reliability of these processes and hardware produced must be understood prior to implementing these new technologies in factories. Furthermore, military hardware fabrication is governed by standards and specifications that frequently mandate the use of older, less environmentally friendly processes or materials, or prohibit the use of new ECM processes without advance military approvaL Sandia National Laboratories, with industrial and military partners, have developed methodologies for evaluating and qualifying new ECM processes for military and commercial applications, and have piloted these methodologies in qualifying new, low-residue soldering technologies and materials.

  4. A proposed acceptance process for commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software in reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Preckshot, G.G.; Scott, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper proposes a process for acceptance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software products for use in reactor systems important to safety. An initial set of four criteria establishes COTS software product identification and its safety category. Based on safety category, three sets of additional criteria, graded in rigor, are applied to approve/disapprove the product. These criteria fall roughly into three areas: product assurance, verification of safety function and safety impact, and examination of usage experience of the COTS product in circumstances similar to the proposed application. A report addressing the testing of existing software is included as an appendix.

  5. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the fundamental Intersatellite Link (ISL) systems characteristics, potential applications of ISLs to domestic, regional, and global commercial satellite communications were identified, and their cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits quantified wherever possible. Implementation scenarios for the cost-effective communications satellite systems employing ISLs were developed for the first launch in 1993 to 1994 and widespread use of ISLs in the early 2000's. Critical technology requirements for both the microwave (60 GHz) and optical (0.85 micron) ISL implementations were identified, and their technology development programs, including schedule and cost estimates, were derived.

  6. Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

    1996-07-01

    The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

  7. Application of transcriptomic analyses to reproductive studies in contemporary commercial sows.

    PubMed

    Foxcroft, G R; Silva, P V; Paradis, F

    2016-01-01

    Genetic selection in sows has substantially increased the total number of pigs born, but there has been an associated decrease in litter birth weight. Furthermore, irrespective of the total number of pigs born, a repeatable low litter birth weight phenotype has evolved in a subpopulation of mature sows, in which a high ovulation rate drives extremes of intrauterine crowding in early gestation and limits placental development: placental development continues to be compromised in later gestation and is associated with intrauterine growth restriction and a low litter birth weight. Furthermore, although contemporary commercial sows are increasingly resilient to the challenges of lactational catabolism in terms of the traditional measures of reproductive performance, gender-specific effects on early embryonic development of the subsequent litter are apparent and are likely linked to effects of sow catabolism on folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation. Recent transcriptomic studies that have helped elucidate some of the regulatory mechanisms mediating the evolving changes in the reproductive biology of contemporary commercial sows are summarized in the present review. However, the lack of clearly differentiated reproductive phenotypes among commercial sow populations is a problem for ongoing studies. Access to an unselected "wild-type" population with which to make comparisons, or the application of more standardized experimental approaches to mechanistic studies, may help advance the field of sow reproductive biology. PMID:26515280

  8. Electronic Money: A Viable Payment System? 

    E-print Network

    Guadamuz, Andres

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores some of the legal and practical issues related to the implementation of electronic money placed in smart cards as a viable online payment system. This is a subject of particular importance as many there ...

  9. SP-100 nuclear space power systems with application to space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the Space Commercialization Community with the status and characteristics of the SP-100 space nuclear power system. The program is a joint undertaking by the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy and NASA. The goal of the program is to develop, validate, and demonstrate the technology for space nuclear power systems in the range of 10 to 1000 kWe electric for use in the future civilian and military space missions. Also discussed are mission applications which are enhanced and/or enabled by SP-100 technology and how this technology compares to that of more familiar solar power systems. The mission applications include earth orbiting platforms and lunar/Mars surface power.

  10. Determinants of atrazine contamination in the homes of commercial pesticide applicators across time.

    PubMed

    Lozier, Matthew J; Curwin, Brian; Nishioka, Marcia G; Sanderson, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-nine commercial pesticide applicator households in eastern Iowa were enrolled to investigate in-home contamination of atrazine, the most commonly used corn herbicide in the Unites States. From each home, four vacuum dust samples were collected during atrazine application season (Visit 1) and again 6 months later during winter months (Visit 2). Samples were taken from the following locations: primary entryway for pesticide applicator, living room, master bedroom, and kitchen. The applicator completed an atrazine handling log and household questionnaire with spouse. Of the 230 dust samples, only 2 were below the level of detection, 2 ng of atrazine per gram (ng/g) of fine dust (dust particle size 5-150 ?m). Dust levels were standardized to chemical loading. During application season the entryway (2.68 ng/cm(2)) and kitchen (0.47 ng/cm(2)) had the highest geometric mean atrazine chemical loading. The entryway chemical loading during Visit 2 was the second highest aggregate (0.55 ng/cm(2)). Aggregate concentrations were significantly higher at Visit 1 compared with Visit 2 when paired by location (p?0.02). Analysis showed that job (application, mixing/loading, or both) was not associated with in-home atrazine contamination. Linear regression showed a strong positive association between atrazine handling (number of acres applied with atrazine, number of days atrazine handled, and pounds of atrazine handled) and aggregate dust chemical loading from both visits (p = 0.06, 0.03, and 0.10, respectively). Frequency of vacuuming was inversely associated with Visit 2 concentrations (p = 0.10) and showed a weaker association with Visit 1 (p = 0.30). Removing shoes outside the home was associated with lower atrazine chemical loading (p = 0.03), and applicators changing work clothes in the master bedroom had significantly increased atrazine chemical loading in master bedrooms (p = 0.01). Changes in hygiene practices for commercial pesticide applicators could significantly reduce atrazine and, likely, other pesticide contaminations in the home. PMID:22506545

  11. MOSES: a modular sensor electronics system for space science and commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Harald; Behnke, Thomas; Tschentscher, Matthias; Mottola, Stefano; Neukum, Gerhard

    1999-10-01

    The camera group of the DLR--Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration is developing imaging instruments for scientific and space applications. One example is the ROLIS imaging system of the ESA scientific space mission `Rosetta', which consists of a descent/downlooking and a close-up imager. Both are parts of the Rosetta-Lander payload and will operate in the extreme environment of a cometary nucleus. The Rosetta Lander Imaging System (ROLIS) will introduce a new concept for the sensor electronics, which is referred to as MOSES (Modula Sensor Electronics System). MOSES is a 3D miniaturized CCD- sensor-electronics which is based on single modules. Each of the modules has some flexibility and enables a simple adaptation to specific application requirements. MOSES is mainly designed for space applications where high performance and high reliability are required. This concept, however, can also be used in other science or commercial applications. This paper describes the concept of MOSES, its characteristics, performance and applications.

  12. Coordinated Fuel Cell System Programs for Government and Commercial Applications: Are We in a New Era?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, Marvin; Prokopius, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Though the fuel cell was invented in 1839, it was not until the early 1960's that the fuel cell power system was developed and used for a real application, for the NASA Space Mission Gemini. Unfortunately, fuel cell power systems did not, as a result, become in widespread use. Nevertheless, a great deal of progress has been made by both government and industry, culminating in many successful fuel cell power system demonstrations. Initially, each government agency and each private organization went its own way. Later, it became evident that coordination among programs was essential. An overview is presented of the current coordinated efforts by government and industry in fuel cells, with a sufficient historical background. The primary barriers to coordination of programs were institutional and differing application requirements. Initially, in the institutional area, it was the energy crisis and the formation of DOE which fostered close working relationships among government, manufacturers, and users. The authors discuss the fuel cell power system programs (of NASA, DOE, DOT, DOC, EPRI, GRI, industry, and universities), including missions and applications, technology advances, and demonstrations. The discussion covers the new Solar Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) program which has space, defense, and commercial terrestrial applications, and which is an excellent example of both program coordination and the Clinton Administration's dual-use application policy.

  13. Development, characterization and commercial application of palm based dihydroxystearic acid and its derivatives: an overview.

    PubMed

    Koay, Gregory F L; Chuah, Teong-Guan; Zainal-Abidin, Sumaiya; Ahmad, Salmiah; Choong, Thomas S Y

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyl fatty acids and their derivatives are of high value due to their wide range of industrial application, including cosmetic, food, personal care and pharmaceutical products. Realizing the importance of hydroxyl fatty acids, and yet due to the absence of the conventional starting raw materials, Malaysia has developed 9,10-dihydroxystearic acid (9,10-DHSA) and its derivatives from locally abundant palm based oils. The aim of this article is to provide a general description of the works that have thus far being done on palm based 9,10-DHSA: starting from its conception and production from commercial grade palm based crude oleic acid via epoxidation and hydrolysis, purification through solvent crystallization and characterization through wet and analytical chemistry, moving on to developmental works done on producing its derivatives through blending, esterification, amidation and polymerization, and completing with applications of 9,10-DHSA and its derivatives, e.g. DHSA-stearates and DHSA-estolides, in commercial products such as soaps, deodorant sticks and shampoos. This article incorporates some of the patent filed technological knowhow on 9,10-DHSA and its derivatives, and will also point out some of the shortcomings in previously published documents and provide some recommendations for future research works in mitigating these shortcomings. PMID:21502724

  14. Rhinitis Associated with Pesticide Exposure among Commercial Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Slager, Rebecca E.; Poole, Jill A.; LeVan, Tricia D.; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Rhinitis is common, but the risk factors are not well described. To investigate the association between current rhinitis and pesticide use, we used data from 2,245 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods Using logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, and growing up on a farm, we evaluated the association between current rhinitis and 34 pesticides used in the past year. Results Seventy-four percent of commercial pesticide applicators reported at least one episode of rhinitis in the past year (current rhinitis). Five pesticides used in the past year were significantly positively associated with current rhinitis: the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate and petroleum oil, the insecticide diazinon and the fungicide benomyl. The association for 2,4-D and glyphosate was limited to individuals who used both in the past year (Odds Ratio = 1.42, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.14, 1.77). Both petroleum oil and diazinon showed consistent evidence of an association with rhinitis, based on both current use and exposure-response models. We saw no evidence of confounding by common agricultural rhinitis triggers such as handling grain or hay. Conclusions Exposure to pesticides may increase the risk of rhinitis. PMID:19289390

  15. Overview of Cell-Free Protein Synthesis: Historic Landmarks, Commercial Systems, and Expanding Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Shaorong

    2014-01-01

    During early days of molecular biology, cell-free protein synthesis played an essential role in deciphering the genetic code and contributed to our understanding of translation of protein from messenger RNA. Owning to several decades of major and incremental improvements, modern cell-free systems have achieved higher protein synthesis yields at lower production costs. Commercial cell-free systems are now available from a variety of material sources, ranging from “traditional” E. coli, rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extracts to recent insect and human cell extracts to defined systems reconstituted from purified recombinant components. Though each cell-free system has certain advantages and disadvantages, the diversity of the cell-free systems allows in vitro synthesis of a wide range of proteins for a variety of downstream applications. In the post-genomic era, cell-free protein synthesis has rapidly become the preferred approach for high throughput functional and structural studies of proteins and a versatile tool for in vitro protein evolution and synthetic biology. This article provides a brief history of cell-free protein synthesis and describes key advances in modern cell-free systems, practical differences between widely used commercial cell-free systems, and applications of this important technology. PMID:25271714

  16. Prospects for increased low-grade bio-fuels use in home and commercial heating applications

    E-print Network

    Pendray, John Robert

    2007-01-01

    Though we must eventually find viable alternatives for fossil fuels in large segments of the energy market, there are economically attractive fossil fuel alternatives today for niche markets. The easiest fossil fuels to ...

  17. 40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for certification of commercial and private applicators of restricted use pesticides. 171.7 Section 171.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.7 Submission and approval of State plans for certification...

  18. Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Mueller, Don; Goluoglu, Sedat; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Fox, Patricia B

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this calculation report, Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, is to validate the computational method used to perform postclosure criticality calculations. The validation process applies the criticality analysis methodology approach documented in Section 3.5 of the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report. The application systems for this validation consist of waste packages containing transport, aging, and disposal canisters (TAD) loaded with commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) of varying assembly types, initial enrichments, and burnup values that are expected from the waste stream and of varying degree of internal component degradation that may occur over the 10,000-year regulatory time period. The criticality computational tool being evaluated is the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The nuclear cross-section data distributed with MCNP 5.1.40 and used to model the various physical processes are based primarily on the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version VI (ENDF/B-VI) library. Criticality calculation bias and bias uncertainty and lower bound tolerance limit (LBTL) functions for CSNF waste packages are determined based on the guidance in ANSI/ANS 8.1-1998 (Ref. 4) and ANSI/ANS 8.17-2004 (Ref. 5), as described in Section 3.5.3 of Ref. 1. The development of this report is consistent with Test Plan for: Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality. This calculation report has been developed in support of licensing activities for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the results of the calculation may be used in the criticality evaluation for CSNF waste packages based on a conceptual TAD canister.

  19. Advances in commercial application of gamma radiation in tropical fruits at Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabato, S. F.; Silva, J. M.; Cruz, J. N.; Broisler, P. O.; Rela, P. R.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.

    2009-07-01

    All regions of Brazil are potential areas for growing tropical fruits. As this country is already a great producer and exporter of tropical fruits, ionizing radiation has been the subject of studies in many commodities. An important project has been carried out to increase the commercial use of gamma radiation in our country. Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN)-CNEN/SP together with field producers in northeast region and partners like International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), CIC, Empresa Brasileira Pesquisa na Agricultura (EMBRAPA) joined to demonstrate this technology, its application and commercial feasibility. The objective of this study is to show advances in feasibility demonstrate the quality of the irradiated fruits in an international consignment from Brazil to Canada. In this work, Tommy Atkins mangoes harvested in northeast region of Brazil were sent to Canada. The fruits were treated in a gamma irradiation facility at doses 0.4 and 1.0 kGy. The control group was submitted to hydrothermal treatment (46 °C for 110 min). The fruits were stored at 11 °C for 10 days until the international transportation and kept at an environmental condition (22 °C) for 12 days, where their physical-chemical and sensorial properties were evaluated. The financial part of the feasibility study covers the scope of the investment, including the net working capital and production costs.

  20. Research and test facilities for development of technologies and experiments with commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    One of NASA'S agency-wide goals is the commercial development of space. To further this goal NASA is implementing a policy whereby U.S. firms are encouraged to utilize NASA facilities to develop and test concepts having commercial potential. Goddard, in keeping with this policy, will make the facilities and capabilities described in this document available to private entities at a reduced cost and on a noninterference basis with internal NASA programs. Some of these facilities include: (1) the Vibration Test Facility; (2) the Battery Test Facility; (3) the Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator Facility; (4) the High Voltage Testing Facility; (5) the Magnetic Field Component Test Facility; (6) the Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility; (7) the High Capacity Centrifuge Facility; (8) the Acoustic Test Facility; (9) the Electromagnetic Interference Test Facility; (10) the Space Simulation Test Facility; (11) the Static/Dynamic Balance Facility; (12) the High Speed Centrifuge Facility; (13) the Optical Thin Film Deposition Facility; (14) the Gold Plating Facility; (15) the Paint Formulation and Application Laboratory; (16) the Propulsion Research Laboratory; (17) the Wallops Range Facility; (18) the Optical Instrument Assembly and Test Facility; (19) the Massively Parallel Processor Facility; (20) the X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Auger Microscopy/Spectroscopy Laboratory; (21) the Parts Analysis Laboratory; (22) the Radiation Test Facility; (23) the Ainsworth Vacuum Balance Facility; (24) the Metallography Laboratory; (25) the Scanning Electron Microscope Laboratory; (26) the Organic Analysis Laboratory; (27) the Outgassing Test Facility; and (28) the Fatigue, Fracture Mechanics and Mechanical Testing Laboratory.

  1. Computers for Manned Space Applications Base on Commercial Off-the-Shelf Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, T.; Gronowski, M.

    2009-05-01

    Similar to the consumer markets there has been an ever increasing demand in processing power, signal processing capabilities and memory space also for computers used for science data processing in space. An important driver of this development have been the payload developers for the International Space Station, requesting high-speed data acquisition and fast control loops in increasingly complex systems. Current experiments now even perform video processing and compression with their payload controllers. Nowadays the requirements for a space qualified computer are often far beyond the capabilities of, for example, the classic SPARC architecture that is found in ERC32 or LEON CPUs. An increase in performance usually demands costly and power consuming application specific solutions. Continuous developments over the last few years have now led to an alternative approach that is based on complete electronics modules manufactured for commercial and industrial customers. Computer modules used in industrial environments with a high demand for reliability under harsh environmental conditions like chemical reactors, electrical power plants or on manufacturing lines are entered into a selection procedure. Promising candidates then undergo a detailed characterisation process developed by Astrium Space Transportation. After thorough analysis and some modifications, these modules can replace fully qualified custom built electronics in specific, although not safety critical applications in manned space. This paper focuses on the benefits of COTS1 based electronics modules and the necessary analyses and modifications for their utilisation in manned space applications on the ISS. Some considerations regarding overall systems architecture will also be included. Furthermore this paper will also pinpoint issues that render such modules unsuitable for specific tasks, and justify the reasons. Finally, the conclusion of this paper will advocate the implementation of COTS based electronics for a range of applications within specifically adapted systems. The findings in this paper are extrapolated from two reference computer systems, both having been launched in 2008. One of those was a LEON-2 based computer installed onboard the Columbus Orbital Facility while the other system consisted mainly of a commercial Power-PC module that was modified for a launch mounted on the ICC pallet in the Space Shuttle's cargo bay. Both systems are currently upgraded and extended for future applications.

  2. SMA actuators: a viable practical technology (Presentation Video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, Alan L.; Brown, Jeffrey; Hodgson, Darel E.

    2015-04-01

    Diverse products either based solely on or incorporating Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) have and are being made in a wide range of industries, and IP is being captured. Why then compared to SE (superelastic) Nitinol, and especially conventional technology, do so few ideas reach production? This presentation delves deeply into this topic in reaching the final assessment that SMA actuators are indeed now a viable practical technology. The presentation begins with an introduction to and description of the fundamental basis of SMA actuator technology. Examples of multiple commercially available geometric forms of SMA actuators are given and the functionalities that they provide are described. This is followed by examples of multiple commercial products incorporating such SMA actuators. Given that there are literally millions of commercial products incorporating conventional actuator technologies, indications are given as to why there are their less than 1000 that utilize SMA. Experience based challenges to the commercial use of SMA actuators are described. Besides having to compete with existing non-SMA technology which is quite mature additional challenges that are unique to SM actuators are indicated these including a wider than expected set of technical engineering problems and challenges and that a broader scope of dynamics is required.

  3. InfraCAM (trade mark): A Hand-Held Commercial Infrared Camera Modified for Spaceborne Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manitakos, Daniel; Jones, Jeffrey; Melikian, Simon

    1996-01-01

    In 1994, Inframetrics introduced the InfraCAM(TM), a high resolution hand-held thermal imager. As the world's smallest, lightest and lowest power PtSi based infrared camera, the InfraCAM is ideal for a wise range of industrial, non destructive testing, surveillance and scientific applications. In addition to numerous commercial applications, the light weight and low power consumption of the InfraCAM make it extremely valuable for adaptation to space borne applications. Consequently, the InfraCAM has been selected by NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for use as part of the DARTFire (Diffusive and Radiative Transport in Fires) space borne experiment. In this experiment, a solid fuel is ignited in a low gravity environment. The combustion period is recorded by both visible and infrared cameras. The infrared camera measures the emission from polymethyl methacrylate, (PMMA) and combustion products in six distinct narrow spectral bands. Four cameras successfully completed all qualification tests at Inframetrics and at NASA Lewis. They are presently being used for ground based testing in preparation for space flight in the fall of 1995.

  4. Prototype rigid polyimide components. [application of Apollo technology to commercial nonflammable materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wykes, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    The activity is reported which was conducted for utilizing spin-off Apollo base technology to fabricate a variety of commercial and aerospace related parts that are nonflammable and resistant to high-temperature degradation. Manufacturing techniques and the tooling used to fabricate each of the polyimide/glass structures is discussed. A brief history, tracing the development of high-temperature polyimide resins, is presented along with a discussion of the properties of DuPont's PI 2501/glass material (later redesignated PI 4701/glass). Mechanical and flammability properties of DuPont's PI 2501/glass laminates are compared with epoxy, phenolic, and silicone high-temperature resin/glass material systems. Offgassing characteristics are also presented. A discussion is included of the current developments in polyimide materials technology and the potential civilian and government applications of polyimide materials to reduce fire hazards and increase the survivability of men and equipment.

  5. Irradiation of commercial, high-Tc superconducting tape for potential fusion applications: electromagnetic transport properties

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga; Gapud, Albert A.; List III, Frederick Alyious; Leonard, Keith J; Rupich, Marty; Zhang, Yanwen; Greenwood, N T; Alexander, J A; Khan, A

    2015-01-01

    Effects of low dose irradiation on the electrical transport current properties of commercially available high-temperature superconducting, coated-conductor tapes were investigated, in view of potential applications in the irradiative environment of fusion reactors. Three different tapes, each with unique as-grown flux-pinning structures, were irradiated with Au and Ni ions at energies that provide a range of damage effects, with accumulated damage levels near that expected for conductors in a fusion reactor environment. Measurements using transport current determined the pre- and post-irradiation resistivity, critical current density, and pinning force density, yielding critical temperatures, irreversibility lines, and inferred vortex creep rates. Results show that at the irradiation damage levels tested, any detriment to as-grown pre-irradiation properties is modest; indeed in one case already-superior pinning forces are enhanced, leading to higher critical currents.

  6. Joint Custody: A Viable and Ideal Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Douglas F.; Weinstein, Jeffrey

    1977-01-01

    Defines and restructures custodial rights and remedies of parents involved in a divorce proceeding. Conveys an alternative to custodial awards as they exist today and points toward joint custody as an ideal solution and viable alternative that cries out for acceptance. (Author)

  7. 77 FR 34971 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ...Security. ACTION: Committee Management; Request...serving on the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations...Analyst, Office of Trade Relations, U.S. Customs and...INFORMATION: The Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations...to register under the Foreign Agents...

  8. Image Analysis via Soft Computing: Prototype Applications at NASA KSC and Product Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of "soft computing" which differs from "hard computing" in that it is more tolerant of imprecision, partial truth, uncertainty, and approximation and its use in image analysis. Soft computing provides flexible information processing to handle real life ambiguous situations and achieve tractability, robustness low solution cost, and a closer resemblance to human decision making. Several systems are or have been developed: Fuzzy Reasoning Edge Detection (FRED), Fuzzy Reasoning Adaptive Thresholding (FRAT), Image enhancement techniques, and visual/pattern recognition. These systems are compared with examples that show the effectiveness of each. NASA applications that are reviewed are: Real-Time (RT) Anomaly Detection, Real-Time (RT) Moving Debris Detection and the Columbia Investigation. The RT anomaly detection reviewed the case of a damaged cable for the emergency egress system. The use of these techniques is further illustrated in the Columbia investigation with the location and detection of Foam debris. There are several applications in commercial usage: image enhancement, human screening and privacy protection, visual inspection, 3D heart visualization, tumor detections and x ray image enhancement.

  9. 48 CFR 212.570 - Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially available off-the-shelf items. 212.570 Section 212.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION...

  10. Caltech/JPL Conference on Image Processing Technology, Data Sources and Software for Commercial and Scientific Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmann, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    Recent advances in image processing and new applications are presented to the user community to stimulate the development and transfer of this technology to industrial and commercial applications. The Proceedings contains 37 papers and abstracts, including many illustrations (some in color) and provides a single reference source for the user community regarding the ordering and obtaining of NASA-developed image-processing software and science data.

  11. Process heat in California: Applications and potential for solar energy in the industrial, agricultural and commercial sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Bartera, R. E.; Davis, E. S.; Hlavka, G. E.; Pivirotto, D. S.; Yanow, G.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the results of a survey of potential applications of solar energy for supplying process heat requirements in the industrial, agricultural, and commercial sectors of California is presented. Technical, economic, and institutional characteristics of the three sectors are examined. Specific applications for solar energy are then discussed. Finally, implications for California energy policy are discussed along with recommendations for possible actions by the State of California.

  12. A new method for the detection of viable cells in tissue sections using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT): an application in the assessment of tissue damage by surgical instruments.

    PubMed

    Radosevich, J A; Haines, G K; Elseth, K M; Shambaugh, G E; Maker, V K

    1993-01-01

    This report describes a new method using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) to visualize live viable tissue at the microscopic level. The visualization of the MTT stained tissue provides a metabolic assessment of tissue damage, and can be utilized as an extension of conventional hematoxylin-eosin (H & E) staining. In this report, several tissues were studied with MTT and H & E staining after incisions had been made by a variety of surgical dissecting instruments. A marked improvement in the detection of tissue damage was seen using MTT, regardless of how the damage was caused, i.e., physical, heat, or photon energy. In addition, a distinct zone of damage not noted on conventionally prepared and stained tissues is readily apparent. Thus MTT staining will have utility in both clinical and research studies, concerned with assessing the viability of tissues. PMID:7686698

  13. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, ?) = { f( t, ?, u)} u?U is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function ? and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  14. Application of Best Industry Practices to the Design of Commercial Refrigerators

    SciTech Connect

    2002-06-30

    The substantial efficiency improvements which have been realized in residential refrigerators over the last twenty years due to implementation of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act and changing consumer reactions to energy savings give an indication of the potential for improvement in the commercial sector, where few such efficiency improvements have been made to date. The purchase decision for commercial refrigerators is still focused primarily on first cost and product performance issues such as maximizing storage capacity, quick pulldown, durability, and reliability. The project applied techniques used extensively to reduce energy use in residential refrigeration to a commercial reach-in refrigerator. The results will also be applicable to other commercial refrigeration equipment, such as refrigerated vending machines, reach-in freezers, beverage merchandisers, etc. The project described in this paper was a collaboration involving the Appliance and Building Technology Sector of TIAX, the Delfield Company, and the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies. Funding was provided by DOE through Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT41000. The program plan and schedule were structured to assure successful integration of the TIAX work on development of efficient design concepts into Delfield's simultaneous development of the Vantage product line. The energy-saving design options evaluated as part of the development included brushless DC and PSC fan motors, high-efficiency compressors, variable-speed compressor technology, cabinet thermal improvement (particularly in the face frame area), increased insulation thickness, a trap for the condensate line, improved insulation, reduced-wattage antisweat heaters, non-electric antisweat heating, off-cycle defrost termination, rifled heat exchanger tubing, and system optimization (selection of heat exchangers, fans, and subcooling, superheat, and suction temperatures for efficient operation). The project started with a thorough evaluation of the baseline Delfield Model 6051 two-door reach-in refrigerator. Performance testing was done to establish a performance baseline which, to meet end-users requirements, would have to be met or exceeded by the high-efficiency refrigerator design. Energy testing was done to establish the baseline energy use. Diagnostic testing such as reverse heat leak testing and insulation conductivity testing was done to evaluate factors contributing to the cabinet load and energy use. Modeling was done to assess the energy savings potential of the energy saving design options. Discussion with vendors and cost modeling was done to assess the manufacturing cost impact of the options. Based on this work, the following group of design options was selected for incorporation in the final refrigerator design: (1) Brushless DC evaporator fans; (2) Improved face frame design; (3) Reduced antisweat heater wattage; (4) Condensate line trap; and (5) Optimized refrigeration system. There was no net cost premium associated with these design changes, leading to a high-efficiency design requiring no payback of any initial additional investment. Delfield incorporated these design options in the Vantage line design and built a first prototype, which was tested at TIAX. Additional design changes were implemented in the transition to manufacturing, based in part on results of initial prototype testing, and a pilot production unit was sent to TIAX for final testing. The energy use of the pilot production unit was 68% less than that of the baseline refrigerator when tested according to the ASHRAE 117 Energy Test Standard. The energy test results for the baseline refrigerator and the two new-design units is shown in Figure ES-1 below. The resulting energy consumption is well below Energy Star and proposed Canadian and California standards levels. Delfield has successfully transitioned the design to production and is manufacturing all configurations of the energy efficient reach-ins at a rate greater than 7,000 per year, with production quantities projec

  15. Process to Selectively Distinguish Viable from Non-Viable Bacterial Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Bernardini, Jame N.; Stam, Christina N.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of ethidium monoazide (EMA) and post-fragmentation, randomly primed DNA amplification technologies will enhance the analytical capability to discern viable from non-viable bacterial cells in spacecraft-related samples. Intercalating agents have been widely used since the inception of molecular biology to stain and visualize nucleic acids. Only recently, intercalating agents such as EMA have been exploited to selectively distinguish viable from dead bacterial cells. Intercalating dyes can only penetrate the membranes of dead cells. Once through the membrane and actually inside the cell, they intercalate DNA and, upon photolysis with visible light, produce stable DNA monoadducts. Once the DNA is crosslinked, it becomes insoluble and unable to be fragmented for post-fragmentation, randomly primed DNA library formation. Viable organisms DNA remains unaffected by the intercalating agents, allowing for amplification via post-fragmentation, randomly primed technologies. This results in the ability to carry out downstream nucleic acid-based analyses on viable microbes to the exclusion of all non-viable cells.

  16. Real time data acquisition of commercial microwave link networks for hydrometeorological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwala, C.; Keis, F.; Kunstmann, H.

    2015-11-01

    The usage of data from commercial microwave link (CML) networks for scientific purposes is becoming increasingly popular, in particular for rain rate estimation. However, data acquisition and availability is still a crucial problem and limits research possibilities. To overcome this issue, we have developed an open source data acquisition system based on the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). It is able to record transmitted- and received signal levels of a large number of CMLs simultaneously with a temporal resolution of up to one second. We operate this system at Ericsson Germany, acquiring data from 450 CMLs with minutely real time transfer to our data base. Our data acquisition system is not limited to a particular CML hardware model or manufacturer, though. We demonstrate this by running the same system for CMLs of a different manufacturer, operated by an alpine skiing resort in Germany. There, the data acquisition is running simultaneously for four CMLs with a temporal resolution of one second. We present an overview of our system, describe the details of the necessary SNMP requests and show results from its operational application.

  17. The New Anechoic Shielded Chambers Designed for Space and Commercial Applications at LIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Benjamim; Galvao, M. C.; Pereira, Clovis Solano

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the capabilities of the new anechoic shielded rooms designed for space and commercial applications as part of the Integration and Testing Laboratory (LIT, Laboratorio de Integracao e Testes) in Brazil. A new anechoic shielded room named CBA2 has been in full operation since March 2007 and a remodeled chamber CBA1 is planned to be ready by the end of 2008, replacing an old facility which was in operation for the last 18 years. The Brazilian Space Program started with very small and simple satellites and the old CBA1 chamber was conceived in 1987 to accomplish the EMI/EMC tests not requiring significant volumes. Since the very beginning this facility was also used by the private sector for other applications mainly due to the absorption of digital electronics in all kind of products. The intense use of this facility during the last years, operating three shifts a day, caused a normal degradation and imposed several limitations. Therefore, a new totally remodeled chamber was designed considering the state of the art in terms of absorbers and associated instrumentation. On the other hand the facility CBA2 was conceived, designed and implemented to test large satellites taking into account the advance of the technology in terms of RF frequencies, power level, testing methodologies and several other factors. A very interesting and unique aspect of this project was the partnership between the private sector and governmental institution. As a result, the total investment was shared between several companies and consequently a time-sharing use of the facility as well.

  18. In vitro maturation of viable islets from partially digested young pig pancreas.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Morgan; Laugenour, Kelly; Liang, Ouwen; Alexander, Michael; Foster, Clarence E; Lakey, Jonathan R T

    2014-03-01

    Isolation of islets from market-sized pigs is costly, with considerable islet losses from fragmentation occurring during isolation and tissue culture. Fetal and neonatal pigs yield insulin unresponsive islet-like cell clusters that become glucose-responsive after extended periods of time. Both issues impact clinical applicability and commercial scale-up. We have focused our efforts on a cost-effective scalable method of isolating viable insulin-responsive islets. Young Yorkshire pigs (mean age 20 days, range 4-30 days) underwent rapid pancreatectomy (<5 min) and partial digestion using low-dose collagenase, followed by in vitro culture at 37°C and 5% CO2 for up to 14 days. Islet viability was assessed using FDA/PI or Newport Green, and function was assessed using a glucose-stimulated insulin release (GSIR) assay. Islet yield was performed using enumeration of dithizone-stained aliquots. The young porcine (YP) islet yield at dissociation was 12.6 ± 2.1 × 10(3) IEQ (mean ± SEM) per organ and increased to 33.3 ± 6.4 × 10(3) IEQ after 7 days of in vitro culture. Viability was 97.3 ± 7% at dissociation and remained over 90% viable after 11 days in tissue culture (n = ns). Glucose responsiveness increased throughout maturation in culture. The stimulation index (SI) of the islets increased from 1.7 ± 2 on culture day 3 to 2.58 ± 0.5 on culture day 7. These results suggest that this method is both efficient and scalable for isolating and maturing insulin-responsive porcine islets in culture. PMID:23394130

  19. Generic requirements specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ostenso, A.; May, R.

    1996-12-01

    This is a specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for application to safety systems in nuclear power plants. The specifications are suitable for evaluating a particular PLC product line as a platform for safety-related applications, establishing a suitable qualification test program, and confirming that the manufacturer has a quality assurance program that is adequate for safety-related applications or is sufficiently complete that, with a reasonable set of compensatory actions, it can be brought into conformance. The specification includes requirements for: (1) quality assurance measures applied to the qualification activities, (2) documentation to support the qualification, and (3) documentation to provide the information needed for applying the qualified PLC platform to a specific application. The specifications are designed to encompass a broad range of safety applications; however, qualifying a particular platform for a different range of applications can be accomplished by appropriate adjustments to the requirements.

  20. Tools and Data Services From the NASA Earth Satellite Observations for Remote Sensing Commercial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, G. A.; Support Team, G.

    2005-05-01

    Several commercial applications of remote sensing data, such as water resources management, environmental monitoring, climate prediction, agriculture, forestry, and preparation for and mitigation of extreme weather events, require access to vast amounts of archived high quality data, and software tools and services for data manipulation and information extraction. Using these data requires detailed understanding of the their internal structure and physical implementation for data reduction, combination, and production. This time-consuming task must be undertaken before the core investigation can begin and is an especially difficult challenge when science objectives require users to deal with large multi-sensor data sets of different formats, structures, and resolutions. In addressing these issues, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES), Data and Information Service Center (DISC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has made great progress in facilitating science and applications research, by developing innovative tools and data services applied to the Earth sciences atmospheric and climate data. The GES/DISC/DAAC has successfully implemented and maintained a long-term climate satellite data archive and developed tools and services for a variety of atmospheric science missions, including instruments from AIRS, AVHRR, MODIS, SeaWiFS, SORCE, TOMS, TOVS, TRMM, and UARS and Aura, providing researchers with excellent opportunities to acquire accurate and continuous atmospheric measurements. Because these various missions generate an ever increasing amount of data and products as a result of more sophisticated sensors and new science algorithms, the main challenge for data centers like the GES/DISC/DAAC is to guide users through the variety of data sets and products, provide tools to visualize and reduce the volume of the data, and secure uninterrupted and reliable access to the data and related products. This presentation will describe the effort at the GES/DISC/DAAC to build a bridge between multi-sensor data and the effective scientific use of the data, with an emphasis on the heritage satellite observations and science products for climate applications. The intent is to inform users of the existence of this large collection of data and products, suggest starting points for cross-platform science projects and data mining activities, and provide data services and tools information. More information is available through the GES/DISC/DAAC site http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov.

  1. 77 FR 30021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 14535) on March 12, 2012, allowing for a... the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Commercial Environment (ACE). This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was...

  2. Natural transfer of viable microbes in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mileikowsky, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Gladman, B.; Horneck, G.; Lindegren, L.; Melosh, J.; Rickman, H.; Valtonen, M.; Zheng, J. Q.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency.

  3. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8A: General Public Health Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests such as cockroaches, lice, fleas, and mites, vertebrate pests; and plant pests such as poison ivy and ragweed. A study guide…

  4. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general and household pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests that effect health, stored products, grain, fabric, or the household; and vertebrate pests such as rats, mice, and…

  5. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7B: Termites and Other Wood Destroying Pests. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, John B.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite and wood destroying pest control category. The text discusses the importance, description, biology, and control of termites, powderpost beetles, house and warf borers, carpenter ants, and…

  6. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8B: Mosquito Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L., Ed.; Kriner, Ray R., Ed.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the mimimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the mosquito control category. The text discusses the aspects of mosquito biology and control by biological, mechanical, and integrated measures. A study guide with sample and study questions is included.…

  7. More viable parameter space for leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbrecht, Björn

    2014-09-01

    Lepton flavor asymmetries generated at the onset of the oscillations of sterile neutrinos with masses above the electroweak scale can be large enough to partly survive washout and to explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. This opens up new regions of parameter space, where leptogenesis is viable within the type-I seesaw framework. In particular, we find it possible that the sterile neutrino masses are substantially below 109 GeV, while not being degenerate. However, the required reheat temperature that is determined by the beginning of the oscillations lies some orders of magnitude above the sterile neutrino mass scale.

  8. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2E: Commercial equipment utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. G. (editor)

    1974-01-01

    Examination of commercial equipment technologies revealed that the functional performance requirements of space processing equipment could generally be met by state-of-the-art design practices. Thus, an apparatus could be evolved from a standard item or derived by custom design using present technologies. About 15 percent of the equipment needed has no analogous commercial base of derivation and requires special development. This equipment is involved primarily with contactless heating and position control. The derivation of payloads using commercial equipment sources provides a broad and potentially cost-effective base upon which to draw. The derivation of payload equipment from commercial technologies poses other issues beyond that of the identifiable functional performance, but preliminary results on testing of selected equipment testing appear quite favorable. During this phase of the SPA study, several aspects of commercial equipment utility were assessed and considered. These included safety, packaging and structural, power conditioning (electrical/electronic), thermal and materials of construction.

  9. Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

    2013-10-30

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative technologies. As the technology gains a foothold in its target markets and demand increases, the costs will decline in response to improved manufacturing efficiencies, similar to trends seen with other technologies. Transparency Market Research forecasts suggest that the CHP-FCS market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of greater than 27 percent over the next 5 years. These production level increases, coupled with the expected low price of natural gas, indicate the economic payback period will move to less than 5 years over the course of the next 5 years. To better understand the benefits of micro-CHP-FCSs, The U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe fuel cells in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is evaluating these systems in terms of economics, operations, and their environmental impact in real-world applications. As expected, the economic analysis has indicated that the high capital cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than typically is acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, a payback period of less than 3 years may be expected as increased production brings system cost down, and CHP incentives are maintained or improved.

  10. Damage tolerance assessment of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.

    1998-08-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration has sponsored a project at its Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to validate the use of bonded composite doublers on commercial aircraft. A specific application was chosen in order to provide a proof-of-concept driving force behind this test and analysis project. However, the data stemming from this study serves as a comprehensive evaluation of bonded composite doublers for general use. The associated documentation package provides guidance regarding the design, analysis, installation, damage tolerance, and nondestructive inspection of these doublers. This report describes a series of fatigue and strength tests which were conducted to study the damage tolerance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Tension-tension fatigue and ultimate strength tests attempted to grow engineered flaws in coupons with composite doublers bonded to aluminum skin. An array of design parameters, including various flaw scenarios, the effects of surface impact, and other off-design conditions, were studied. The structural tests were used to: (1) assess the potential for interply delaminations and disbonds between the aluminum and the laminate, and (2) determine the load transfer and crack mitigation capabilities of composite doublers in the presence of severe defects. A series of specimens were subjected to ultimate tension tests in order to determine strength values and failure modes. It was demonstrated that even in the presence of extensive damage in the original structure (cracks, material loss) and in spite of non-optimum installations (adhesive disbonds), the composite doubler allowed the structure to survive more than 144,000 cycles of fatigue loading. Installation flaws in the composite laminate did not propagate over 216,000 fatigue cycles. Furthermore, the added impediments of impact--severe enough to deform the parent aluminum skin--and hot-wet exposure did not effect the doubler`s performance. Since the tests were conducting using extreme combinations of flaw scenarios (sizes and collocation) and excessive fatigue load spectrums, the performance parameters were arrived at in a conservative manner.

  11. Update on the safety and efficacy of commercial ultrasound contrast agents in cardiac applications

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Melissa J; Feinstein, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are currently used throughout the world in both clinical and research settings. The concept of contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging originated in the late 1960s, and the first commercially available agents were initially developed in the 1980s. Today's microbubbles are designed for greater utility and are used for both approved and off-label indications. In October 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) imposed additional product label warnings that included serious cardiopulmonary reactions, several new disease-state contraindications, and a mandated 30?min post-procedure monitoring period for the agents Optison and Definity. These additional warnings were prompted by reports of cardiopulmonary reactions that were temporally related but were not clearly attributable to these UCAs. Subsequent published reports over the following months established not only the safety but also the improved efficacy of clinical ultrasound applications with UCAs. The FDA consequently updated the product labeling in June 2008 and reduced contraindications, although it continued to monitor select patients. In addition, a post-marketing program was proposed to the sponsors for a series of safety studies to further assess the risk of UCAs. Then in October 2011, the FDA leadership further downgraded the warnings after hearing the results of the post-marketing data, which revealed continued safety and improved efficacy. The present review focuses on the use of UCAs in today's clinical practice, including the approved indications, a variety of off-label uses, and the most recent data, which affirms the safety and efficacy of UCAs. PMID:26693339

  12. Geothermal potential for commercial and industrial direct heat applications in Salida, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.; Galloway, M.J.; Gross, J.T.; Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

    1982-10-01

    The Salida Geothermal Prospect (Poncha Hot Springs) was evaluated for industrial and commercial direct heat applications at Salida, Colorado, which is located approximately five miles east of Poncha Hot Springs. Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd., holds the geothermal leases on the prospect and the right-of-way for the main pipeline to Salida. The Poncha Hot Springs are located at the intersection of two major structural trends, immediately between the Upper Arkansas graben and the Sangre de Cristo uplift. Prominent east-west faulting occurs at the actual location of the hot springs. Preliminary exploration indicates that 1600 gpm of geothermal fluid as hot as 250/sup 0/F is likely to be found at around 1500 feet in depth. The prospective existing endusers were estimated to require 5.02 x 10/sup 10/ Btu per year, but the total annual amount of geothermal energy available for existing and future endusers is 28.14 x 10/sup 10/ Btu. The engineering design for the study assumed that the 1600 gpm would be fully utilized. Some users would be cascaded and the spent fluid would be cooled and discharged to nearby rivers. The economic analysis assumes that two separate businesses, the energy producer and the energy distributor, are participants in the geothermal project. The producer would be an existing limited partnership, with Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd. as one of the partners; the distributor would be a new Colorado corporation without additional income sources. Economic evaluations were performed in full for four cases: the Base Case and three alternate scenarios. Alternate 1 assumes a three-year delay in realizing full production relative to the Base Case; Alternate 2 assumes that the geothermal reservoir is of a higher quality than is assumed for the Base Case; and Alternate 3 assumes a lower quality reservoir. 11 refs., 34 figs., 40 tabs.

  13. Application of Commercial Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Sensors for Sub-Ambient Carbon Dioxide Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Boerman, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration within a spacecraft or spacesuit is critically important to ensuring the safety of the crew. Carbon dioxide uniquely absorbs light at wavelengths of 3.95 micrometers and 4.26 micrometers. As a result, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy can be employed as a reliable and inexpensive method for the quantification of CO2 within the atmosphere. A multitude of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) NDIR sensors exist for CO2 quantification. The COTS sensors provide reasonable accuracy so long as the measurements are attained under conditions close to the calibration conditions of the sensor (typically 21.1 C and 1 atm). However, as pressure deviates from atmospheric to the pressures associated with a spacecraft (8.0-10.2 PSIA) or spacesuit (4.1-8.0 PSIA), the error in the measurement grows increasingly large. In addition to pressure and temperature dependencies, the infrared transmissivity through a volume of gas also depends on the composition of the gas. As the composition is not known a priori, accurate sub-ambient detection must rely on iterative sensor compensation techniques. This manuscript describes the development of recursive compensation algorithms for sub-ambient detection of CO2 with COTS NDIR sensors. In addition, the basis of the exponential loss in accuracy is developed theoretically considering thermal, Doppler, and Lorentz broadening effects which arise as a result of the temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas mixture under analysis. As a result, this manuscript provides an approach to employing COTS sensors at sub-ambient conditions and may also lend insight into designing future NDIR sensors for aerospace application.

  14. Application of Commercial Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Sensors for Sub-Ambient Carbon Dioxide Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration within a spacecraft or spacesuit is critically important to ensuring the safety of the crew. Carbon dioxide uniquely absorbs light at wavelengths of 3.95 micrometers and 4.26 micrometers. As a result, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy can be employed as a reliable and inexpensive method for the quantification of CO2 within the atmosphere. A multitude of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) NDIR sensors exist for CO2 quantification. The COTS sensors provide reasonable accuracy as long as the measurements are attained under conditions close to the calibration conditions of the sensor (typically 21.1 C (70.0 F) and 1 atmosphere). However, as pressure deviates from atmospheric to the pressures associated with a spacecraft (8.0{10.2 pounds per square inch absolute (psia)) or spacesuit (4.1{8.0 psia), the error in the measurement grows increasingly large. In addition to pressure and temperature dependencies, the infrared transmissivity through a volume of gas also depends on the composition of the gas. As the composition is not known a priori, accurate sub-ambient detection must rely on iterative sensor compensation techniques. This manuscript describes the development of recursive compensation algorithms for sub-ambient detection of CO2 with COTS NDIR sensors. In addition, the source of the exponential loss in accuracy is developed theoretically. The basis of the loss can be explained through thermal, Doppler, and Lorentz broadening effects that arise as a result of the temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas mixture under analysis. This manuscript provides an approach to employing COTS sensors at sub-ambient conditions and may also lend insight into designing future NDIR sensors for aerospace application.

  15. Trans-Aortic Counterpulsation: A Viable Alternative?

    PubMed Central

    Datt, Bharat; Hutchison, Lisa; Peniston, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Transthoracic intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) insertion has been a relatively rare and uncommon procedure. However, it is an established beneficial option in patients with severe peripheral vascular disease (PVD) accompanied with bi-lateral femoral arterial occlusion. There are several viable alternatives to trans-aortic IABP insertion, including trans-axillary or in abdominal aorta (requiring a laparotomy). Cardiac surgery has the advantage of an open sternum, facilitating effortless direct intraaortic balloon (IAB) insertion into the aorta. The IAB can be inserted either through a 9-mm graft or directly into the ascending aorta. During cardiac surgery, direct insertion into the ascending aorta with the balloon tip lying distally in the abdominal aorta is facilitated with an open sternum. The base of the balloon lies ?2 cm below the left subclavian and can be confirmed through a trans-esophageal echocardiogram (TEE). Elimination of a graft insertion saves the team from time-consuming maneuvers and additional hemorrhagic complications. In our experience, postoperative vasoplegic syndrome coupled with myocardial edema contributed to patent instability and was treated with vasopressin and transthoracic IAB insertion. The CS 100 (Datascope Corp., Mahwah, NJ) console allowed the ability to time the balloon accurately. This case report details our experience with one such patient and establishes trans-aortic counter-pulsation as a safe and viable option in patients with severe PVD, where percutaneous insertion is precluded or has failed. PMID:17672190

  16. Technology data characterizing water heating in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    Commercial-sector conservation analyses have traditionally focused on lighting and space conditioning because of their relatively-large shares of electricity and fuel consumption in commercial buildings. In this report we focus on water heating, which is one of the neglected end uses in the commercial sector. The share of the water-heating end use in commercial-sector electricity consumption is 3%, which corresponds to 0.3 quadrillion Btu (quads) of primary energy consumption. Water heating accounts for 15% of commercial-sector fuel use, which corresponds to 1.6 quads of primary energy consumption. Although smaller in absolute size than the savings associated with lighting and space conditioning, the potential cost-effective energy savings from water heaters are large enough in percentage terms to warrant closer attention. In addition, water heating is much more important in particular building types than in the commercial sector as a whole. Fuel consumption for water heating is highest in lodging establishments, hospitals, and restaurants (0.27, 0.22, and 0.19 quads, respectively); water heating`s share of fuel consumption for these building types is 35%, 18% and 32%, respectively. At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and refined a base-year data set characterizing water heating technologies in commercial buildings as well as a modeling framework. We present the data and modeling framework in this report. The present commercial floorstock is characterized in terms of water heating requirements and technology saturations. Cost-efficiency data for water heating technologies are also developed. These data are intended to support models used for forecasting energy use of water heating in the commercial sector.

  17. Single-wire or path-guidance systems and the inherent advantages versus multiwire or signal systems in commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Chase H.; Murphy, Mike

    1995-01-01

    One of the most difficult areas in the IVHS field, much effort is being spent on vehicle guidance systems. Recent developments in technology have allowed major upgrades in capabilities and performance of guidance systems originally developed for AGVs. Advances yield a robust, cost effective single wire system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. A Cyplex developed variant of a single wire system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal (human) safety reductions in speed are more than adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and its antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system have been tested at speeds up to 80 MPH. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement, such as stopping precisely on location for fully automated refueling operations. The operation of this Cyplex refined or developed system is described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use is discussed. A case for single wire systems as a primary guide is made. Single wire systems as a complement to machine vision based and other systems also are discussed.

  18. 40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

  19. 40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

  20. 40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

  1. 40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

  2. 40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

  3. Commercialization of silicon on lattice-engineered substrate for electronic applications

    E-print Network

    Liang, Yu Yan

    2008-01-01

    The commercial potential of SOLES (Silicon on Lattice-Engineered Substrate) is investigated considering the competing technologies, competing market players and market demands. Monolithic integration of Si devices with ...

  4. 75 FR 12561 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ...Office of Trade Relations, Customs and Border...INFORMATION: The Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations...replacement on the Committee. No person who...register under the Foreign Agents Registration...Page 12562

  5. The Scaleup of Structured Packing from Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application 

    E-print Network

    Berven, O. J.; Ulowetz, M. A.

    1986-01-01

    the assessment of whether a specific operati on is feasible; (2) it can generate efficiency data to verify thermodynamic models; and (3) it can provide a sound basis for the design of the full scale commercial installation. Hundreds of pilot plant tests... for increased efficiency, greater capacity, and energy savings in distillation columns. Pilot plant testing of the actual chemical system using commercially available structured packing is invaluable, but years of experience in pilot plant testing have shown...

  6. Moving Research to Patient Applications through Commercialization: Understanding and Evaluating the Role of Intellectual Property

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization, and 5) the role of intellectual property and commercialization in the advancement of healthcare. PMID:20353687

  7. Technology data characterizing refrigeration in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with COMMEND 4.0

    SciTech Connect

    Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    In the United States, energy consumption is increasing most rapidly in the commercial sector. Consequently, the commercial sector is becoming an increasingly important target for state and federal energy policies and also for utility-sponsored demand side management (DSM) programs. The rapid growth in commercial-sector energy consumption also makes it important for analysts working on energy policy and DSM issues to have access to energy end-use forecasting models that include more detailed representations of energy-using technologies in the commercial sector. These new forecasting models disaggregate energy consumption not only by fuel type, end use, and building type, but also by specific technology. The disaggregation of the refrigeration end use in terms of specific technologies, however, is complicated by several factors. First, the number of configurations of refrigeration cases and systems is quite large. Also, energy use is a complex function of the refrigeration-case properties and the refrigeration-system properties. The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Commercial End-Use Planning System (COMMEND 4.0) and the associated data development presented in this report attempt to address the above complications and create a consistent forecasting framework. Expanding end-use forecasting models so that they address individual technology options requires characterization of the present floorstock in terms of service requirements, energy technologies used, and cost-efficiency attributes of the energy technologies that consumers may choose for new buildings and retrofits. This report describes the process by which we collected refrigeration technology data. The data were generated for COMMEND 4.0 but are also generally applicable to other end-use forecasting frameworks for the commercial sector.

  8. Accelerating the commercialization of university technologies for military healthcare applications: the role of the proof of concept process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Rosibel; DeLong, Hal; Kenyon, Jessica; Wilson, Eli

    2011-06-01

    The von Liebig Center for Entrepreneurism and Technology Advancement at UC San Diego (vonliebig.ucsd.edu) is focused on accelerating technology transfer and commercialization through programs and education on entrepreneurism. Technology Acceleration Projects (TAPs) that offer pre-venture grants and extensive mentoring on technology commercialization are a key component of its model which has been developed over the past ten years with the support of a grant from the von Liebig Foundation. In 2010, the von Liebig Entrepreneurism Center partnered with the U.S. Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), to develop a regional model of Technology Acceleration Program initially focused on military research to be deployed across the nation to increase awareness of military medical needs and to accelerate the commercialization of novel technologies to treat the patient. Participants to these challenges are multi-disciplinary teams of graduate students and faculty in engineering, medicine and business representing universities and research institutes in a region, selected via a competitive process, who receive commercialization assistance and funding grants to support translation of their research discoveries into products or services. To validate this model, a pilot program focused on commercialization of wireless healthcare technologies targeting campuses in Southern California has been conducted with the additional support of Qualcomm, Inc. Three projects representing three different universities in Southern California were selected out of forty five applications from ten different universities and research institutes. Over the next twelve months, these teams will conduct proof of concept studies, technology development and preliminary market research to determine the commercial feasibility of their technologies. This first regional program will help build the needed tools and processes to adapt and replicate this model across other regions in the Country.

  9. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

  10. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

  11. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

  12. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

  13. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

  14. COMMERCIAL APPLICATION OF PLASMA MASS SEPARATION IN THE ARCHIMEDES FILTER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlfeld, C.E.; Gilleland, J.G.; Wagoner, J.D.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the commercial application of an innovative plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter to a pre-treatment plant that can be integrated into the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford and Savannah River Sites to significantly enhance the treatment of radioactive high-level waste. The output of the Archimedes Filter is completely compatible with existing waste immobilization processes such as vitrification and requires no new waste form to be developed. A full-geometric-scale Demonstration Filter Unit (DEMO) has been constructed and is undergoing initial testing at the Archimedes Technology Group Development Facilities in San Diego. Some of the technology and engineering development is being performed by other organizations in collaboration with Archimedes. The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing the plasma calcination technology and all of the associated systems for AFP feed preparation. Two Russian institutes are involved in the development of the ICP torch and injector system. The Remote System Group (UT-Battelle) at ORNL is developing the remote maintenance system for the filter units. Conceptual design of the Archimedes Filter Plant (AFP) is being developed concurrently with the DEMO testing program. The AFP mission is to significantly reduce the cost and accelerate the rate of vitrification of high-level waste by separating low activity waste from the sludge removed from underground storage tanks. Mass separation is accomplished by vaporizing the sludge feed and injecting it into a partially ionized, neutral plasma. In a single pass, heavy ions are deposited near the center of the filter and light mass ions are transported by the plasma to the ends of the cylindrically-shaped vacuum vessel. Responding to the DOE programs for cost reduction and cleanup acceleration, the AFP Project is planned on an expeditious schedule that executes all phases of the project with private sector funding. The initial AFP implementation is targeted for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site. Hot commissioning is scheduled for late 2007 with design throughput and availability achieved by end of 2008. It is anticipated that AFP revenues will be based on a shared cost savings model, thus providing first revenues by late 2007. Preliminary safety studies have shown that AFP process hazards are similar to or less hazardous than those in a radio-chemical pre-treatment plant for high-level waste. Conservative criticality evaluations indicate very large margins from criticality. Development of a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report will begin in mid 2003 to support licensing activities. A detailed permitting plan has been developed which, when combined with other activities, support a start of construction in 2005.

  15. 40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., institutional, structural and health related pest control. Applicators must demonstrate a practical knowledge of... situations encountered in this category. Because health related pest control may involve outdoor applications... this activity. (8) Public health pest control. Applicators shall demonstrate practical knowledge...

  16. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  17. Civil tiltrotor missions and applications. Phase 2: The commercial passenger market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P.; Neir, R.; Reber, R.; Scholes, R.; Alexander, H.; Sweet, D.; Berry, D. (editor)

    1991-01-01

    The commercial passenger market for the civil tiltrotor was examined in phase 2. A market responsive commercial tiltrotor was found to be technically feasible, and a significant worldwide market potential was found to exist for such an aircraft, especially for relieving congestion in urban area-to-urban area service and for providing cost effective hub airport feeder service. Potential technical obstacles of community noise, vertiport area navigation, surveillance, and control, and the pilot/aircraft interface were determined to be surmountable. Nontechnical obstacles relating to national commitment and leadership and development of ground and air infrastructure were determined to be more difficult to resolve; an innovative public/private partnership is suggested to allow coordinated development of an initial commercial tiltrotor network to relieve congestion in the crowded US Northeast corridor by the year 2000.

  18. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  19. Models for residential-and commercial-sector energy conservation analysis: Applications, limitations, and future potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, H. E.; Fuller, R. E.

    1980-09-01

    Four of the major models used by DOE for energy conservation analyses in the residential and commercial building sectors are reviewed and critically analyzed to determine how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. The most effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy conservation policy and analysis is assessed. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  20. Effects of postchill application of acidified sodium chlorite to control Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli on commercial broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Oyarzabal, Omar A; Hawk, Christopher; Bilgili, Sacit F; Warf, C Cayce; Kemp, G Kere

    2004-10-01

    Experiments were performed to assess the reduction of Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli in commercial broiler carcasses by postchill dip applications of acidified sodium chlorite. Carcass rinses were collected before the inside-outside-bird washer (IOBW), post-IOBW, postchill, and after the postchill application of acidified sodium chlorite. Prevalence and counts of Campylobacter spp. and E. coli were determined. The mean values for Campylobacter spp. and E. coli counts differed significantly at sampling sites. The IOBW reduced the bacterial counts significantly in only one experiment. The chiller reduced Campylobacter counts significantly in both experiments but failed to significantly reduce the counts of E. coli in one experiment. No major reduction in the prevalence after enrichment for Campylobacter spp. was detected post-IOBW or postchill. However, a significant reduction in Campylobacter spp. and in E. coli counts and Campylobacter spp. prevalence was seen after the postchill application of acidified sodium chlorite. These results demonstrate that the antimicrobial effect of acidified sodium chlorite applied postchill may be used to significantly reduce Campylobacter spp. and E. coli in commercial broiler carcasses. Postchill systems may eventually be used in different applications, such as mist, spray, or bath, which could be applied closer to the final stages in processing. PMID:15508645

  1. [Evaluation of commercial kits used for Chagas disease diagnosis in blood banks in Chile. II. Routine application].

    PubMed

    Lorca, M; Child, R; García, A; Silva, M; Martínez, L; Jerez, G; Toledo, I; Mezzano, D

    1994-08-01

    Aiming to study the applicability and reproducibility of four commercial kits used for the serological detection of Chagas disease (Chagatest-Inst Invest Paraguay, Ortho Chagas, Abbott Chagas (ELISA tests) and Estabilgen Hemo Chagas (indirect hemagglutination test)), a comparative serological study was performed in 256 sera samples coming from a highly endemic area, 249 samples from a low endemic area, 180 reference sera and 2264 samples coming from three blood banks. Specificity of the kits was excellent and sensitivity ranged from 60 to 100%. The indirect hemagglutination test has the lower sensitivity. Some disagreements in the results were observed in the three blood banks, probably due to an unsatisfactory reactive management. We conclude that ELISA tests should be recommended for routine detection of Chagas disease and that for this purpose, a net of laboratories under the direction of a national reference center should exist. This center should assess new commercial products, train technicians and supervise the laboratories. PMID:7761723

  2. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  3. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  4. Optimization of Amylase Application in Raw Sugar Manufacture. Part I: Characterization of Commercial Alpha-Amylases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there have been warnings by some U.S. refineries that there may be a penalty for high starch concentrations in raw sugar if starch control is not improved. Most commercial amylases used by the U.S. sugar industry to control starch have intermediate temperature stability (up to 85 de...

  5. Bioculture System Expanding ISS Capabilities for Space Biosciences Research and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Kevin Y.

    2013-01-01

    Oral presentation at the ASGSR 2013 Annual Meeting. The presentation describes the NASA Bioculture System hardware design, capabilities, enabling science research capabilities, and flight concept of operations. The presentation is part of the Enabling Technologies special session and will be presented to perspective users in both academics and commercial communities.

  6. Application of Eimeria-specific plymerase chain reaction to study coccidiosis on commercial broiler operations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the species distribution and drug sensitivity of Eimeria oocysts isolated from different types of commercial broiler operations. In the first study, litter samples were collected from two groups of broiler farms that differed by means of coccidiosis ...

  7. A Temporal Motif Mining Approach to Unsupervised Energy Disaggregation: Applications to Residential and Commercial Buildings

    E-print Network

    Ramakrishnan, Naren

    (Kim et al. 2010) and sparse coding (Kolter and Jaakkola 2012) but the increasing diversity continuing opportuni- ties for algorithm innovation. Here we propose a temporal motif mining approach (see classes of electrical loads. Background Residential vs commercial buildings. There are signifi- cant

  8. Nanomanufacturing Portfolio: Manufacturing Processes and Applications to Accelerate Commercial Use of Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Industrial Technologies Program

    2011-01-05

    This brochure describes the 31 R&D projects that AMO supports to accelerate the commercial manufacture and use of nanomaterials for enhanced energy efficiency. These cost-shared projects seek to exploit the unique properties of nanomaterials to improve the functionality of industrial processes and products.

  9. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  10. 40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...calibration. (vii) Application techniques. Factors including: ...apply various formulations of pesticides, solutions, and gases, together with a knowledge of which technique of application to use in a...discharge and placement of pesticides to proper use,...

  11. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Forest Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Common forest pests and their control are discussed. Special attention is given to the effectiveness of different application techniques and potential human and environmental hazards. (CS)

  12. The BioDyn facility on ISS: Advancing biomaterial production in microgravity for commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Niki; Wessling, Francis; Deuser, Mark; Anderson, C. D.; Lewis, Marian

    1999-01-01

    The primary goals of the BioDyn program are to foster use of the microgravity environment for commercial production of bio-materials from cells, and to develop services and processes for obtaining these materials through space processing. The scope of products includes commercial bio-molecules such as cytokines, other cell growth regulatory proteins, hormones, monoclonal antibodies and enzymes; transplantable cells or tissues which can be improved by low-G processes, or which cannot be obtained through standard processes in earth gravity; agriculture biotechnology products from plant cells; microencapsulation for diabetes treatment; and factors regulating cellular aging. To facilitate BioDyn's commercial science driven goals, hardware designed for ISS incorporates the flexibility for interchange between the different ISS facilities including the glovebox, various thermal units and centrifuges. By providing a permanent research facility, ISS is the critical space-based platform required by scientists for carrying out the long-term experiments necessary for developing bio-molecules and tissues using several cell culture modalities including suspension and anchorage-dependent cell types.

  13. Rapid enumeration of viable bacteria by image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, A.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    A direct viable counting method for enumerating viable bacteria was modified and made compatible with image analysis. A comparison was made between viable cell counts determined by the spread plate method and direct viable counts obtained using epifluorescence microscopy either manually or by automatic image analysis. Cultures of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were incubated at 35 degrees C in a dilute nutrient medium containing nalidixic acid. Filtered samples were stained for epifluorescence microscopy and analysed manually as well as by image analysis. Cells enlarged after incubation were considered viable. The viable cell counts determined using image analysis were higher than those obtained by either the direct manual count of viable cells or spread plate methods. The volume of sample filtered or the number of cells in the original sample did not influence the efficiency of the method. However, the optimal concentration of nalidixic acid (2.5-20 micrograms ml-1) and length of incubation (4-8 h) varied with the culture tested. The results of this study showed that under optimal conditions, the modification of the direct viable count method in combination with image analysis microscopy provided an efficient and quantitative technique for counting viable bacteria in a short time.

  14. Petroleum Coke: A Viable Fuel for Cogeneration 

    E-print Network

    Dymond, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    , petroleum cokes are sold as is-raw/gre.en-while in the carbon applications, an "added value" step of calcining is often necessary to increase the purity. Table 2 outlines a simple hierarchy for the world market applications for petroleum cokes. TABLE 2... PETROLEUM COKE MARKET HIERARCHY ? United States Calciner Feedstock ? European Space Healing ? Japanese and European Steel and Coke ? Japanese Solid Industrial Fuel ? European Solid Industrial Fuel ? Uruted States Solid Industrial Fuel PETROLEUM...

  15. On the Use of Thermoelectric (TE) Applications Based on Commercial Modules: The Case of TE Generator and TE Cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, K.; Hatzikraniotis, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Kyratsi, Th.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, thermoelectricity sees rapidly increasing usages in applications like portable refrigerators, beverage coolers, electronic component coolers etc. when used as Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC), and Thermoelectric Generators (TEG) which make use of the Seebeck effect in semiconductors for the direct conversion of heat into electrical energy and is of particular interest for systems of highest reliability or for waste heat recovery. In this work, we examine the performance of commercially available TEC and TEG. A prototype TEC-refrigerator has been designed, modeled and constructed for in-car applications. Additionally, a TEG was made, in order to measure the gained power and efficiency. Furthermore, a TEG module was tested on a small size car (Toyota Starlet, 1300 cc), in order to measure the gained power and efficiency for various engine loads. With the use of a modeling approach, we evaluated the thermal contact resistances and their influence on the final device efficiency.

  16. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  17. Detection of Only Viable Bacterial Spores Using a Live/Dead Indicator in Mixed Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Stam, Christina N.; Smiley, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This method uses a photoaffinity label that recognizes DNA and can be used to distinguish populations of bacterial cells from bacterial spores without the use of heat shocking during conventional culture, and live from dead bacterial spores using molecular-based methods. Biological validation of commercial sterility using traditional and alternative technologies remains challenging. Recovery of viable spores is cumbersome, as the process requires substantial incubation time, and the extended time to results limits the ability to quickly evaluate the efficacy of existing technologies. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) have shown promise for improving time to detection for a wide range of applications. Recent real-time PCR methods are particularly promising, as these methods can be made at least semi-quantitative by correspondence to a standard curve. Nonetheless, PCR-based methods are rarely used for process validation, largely because the DNA from dead bacterial cells is highly stable and hence, DNA-based amplification methods fail to discriminate between live and inactivated microorganisms. Currently, no published method has been shown to effectively distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores. This technology uses a DNA binding photoaffinity label that can be used to distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores with detection limits ranging from 109 to 102 spores/mL. An environmental sample suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead vegetative cells and bacterial endospores is treated with a photoaffinity label. This step will eliminate any vegetative cells (live or dead) and dead endospores present in the sample. To further determine the bacterial spore viability, DNA is extracted from the spores and total population is quantified by real-time PCR. The current NASA standard assay takes 72 hours for results. Part of this procedure requires a heat shock step at 80 degC for 15 minutes before the sample can be plated. Using a photoaffinity label would remove this step from the current assay as the label readily penetrates both live and dead bacterial cells. Secondly, the photoaffinity label can only penetrate dead bacterial spores, leaving behind the viable spore population. This would allow for rapid bacterial spore detection in a matter of hours compared to the several days that it takes for the NASA standard assay.

  18. Investigation and modification of a commercially available tactile sensor suited for robotic applications. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creus, Carolina

    1991-01-01

    Active (dynamic) tactile sensing was explored using a commercially available tactile array sensor. This task requires the redesign of the sensor interface and a full understanding of the old sensor hardware implementation. There were different stages to this research; the first stage involved the reverse engineering of the old tactile sensor. The second stage had to do with the exploration of the characteristics and behavior of the tactile sensor pad. The next stage dealt with the redesign of the sensor interface using the knowledge gained from the previous two stages. Finally, in the last stage, software to control the tactile sensor was developed to aid in the data acquisition process.

  19. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Food Processing Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Characteristics, life cycles and habits of pests such as roaches, beetles, flies, ants and rodents are discussed. Additionally, pest control measures, especially by application of aerosols, dusts, baits, fumigants or vapors, is presented. (CS)

  20. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1A: Agricultural Weed Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Weeds, their effects, and control in relation to crop production are presented. Pre- and post-emergence treatments are discussed for row crops such as corn and soybeans. Problems with herbicide application to grass pastures, small grains, and…

  1. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 6: Right-of-Way Pest Control. CS-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephan O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses important right-of-way weeds and unwanted woody plants and provides suggestions for both long- and short-term control. Attention is also given to special problems associated with application of right-of-way herbicides.…

  2. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the recognition of weeds and methods of their control in rights-of-way. Different types of application equipment both airborne and ground are discussed with precautions for the safe and effective use of herbicides. (CS)

  3. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 5: Aquatic Pest Control. CS-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the control of aquatic weeds in a variety of water use situations, i.e. static water, limited-flow impoundments and moving water. Also discussed are the principles of limited area application such as surface or…

  4. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1C: Agricultural Crop Disease Control. CS-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyvall, Robert F.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. It summarizes the economically important diseases of field and forage crops such as corn, soybeans and alfalfa. Special attention is given to pesticide application methods and safety. (CS)

  5. Viable capture and release of cancer cells in human whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, Il; Yoo, Hwan-il; Cho, Young-Ho; Lee, Jinseon; Kwan Kim, Hong; Kim, Jhingook

    2012-07-01

    We present viable cancer cell isolation devices utilizing the physical properties of cells. The tapered slit structure is proposed to isolate cancer cells from blood cells and collect them by reversed flow. From the experimental study using the spiked cancer cells in human whole blood, we verified the capability of the present cancer cell isolation chip in terms of capture efficiency, viability, and release rate. The viable cancer cells obtained from the present chip can be used for the further applications of cancer diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and new target drug development for cancer stem cells.

  6. Progress on an ion diode system for commercial surface treatment applications

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, M.T.; Lockner, T.R.; Johnson, D.J.

    1998-12-31

    Quantum Manufacturing Technologies (QMT) is a private company pursuing the goal of providing commercial surface treatment technologies using intense pulsed ion beams. The requirements for commercial/industrial implementation are: greater than 1 Hz continuous operation, very long lifetimes (>10,000 pulses between maintenance and >100,000 pulses between part replacement), a high level of reliability and reproducibility of the beam parameters, moderate energy densities (1--6 J/cm{sup 2}), a fairly large beam footprint (>50 cm{sup 2} at the required energy density), and no particulate debris in the beam. The first system developed at QMT for use as an industrial surface treatment facility is referred to as QM1. QM1 consists of a pulsed power modulator capable of the generation of 400 kV, 150 ns wide pulsed delivering over 2 kJ/pulse and a repetitively pulsed ion diode which efficiently converts this power into an ion beam. The system is designed to operate at a sustained rate of 5 Hz. The control systems are industrial quality with touch screen input and automated control programming. This paper will detail the results of using the QM1 system to provide surface treatment for industrial customers. The beam parameters and the expected lifetimes for both the modulator and the ion diode system will be presented.

  7. Commercial application of integrated robotic vehicle drivers and guidance systems for autonomous vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Chase H.

    1995-01-01

    While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' vehicle. This is the story of a currently deployed, commercially developed and sold, integrated autonomous automobile. This system was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. The goals of the project were to create a combination of robotic vehicle driver systems and a base traffic control system, that was capable of testing up to 20 vehicles at a time on a 1.3 mile oval test track at speeds up to 50 MPH or greater. As a fixed price commercial project, system and component costs were of paramount importance. As a result, the greater part of the design effort was not technology development, but evaluation, modification, and integration of proven, existing technology in new and often novel ways.

  8. The law applicable to the use of space for commercial activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    The general principles of space law that have an impact on commercial space activities are discussed. The Outer Space Treaty guaranteed the right of private enterprise in space, with jurisdiction over the participating parties residing in the country of origin. The liability for damages caused to a third party is also assigned to the country of origin. Government consent is necessary in the U.S. before a private firm is permitted to launch an object into space, with the relevant statute sections being part of the Arms Export Control Act; launches are legally treated as exports. FAA regulations define the safe area and flight conditions that must be satisfied for a private launch, although NASA, in the 1958 act which formed the agency, potentialy has the power to regulate space launch activities. The DoD must be notified of any launches in order to notify the U.S.S.R., filings must be made with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, and fees must be paid to the IRS. It is presently U.S. government policy to encourage and facilitate private sector development of commercial launch services.

  9. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Animal. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, R. F., Ed.; Schmidtmann, E. T., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Chapter one deals with the safety problems of pesticide use to humans, livestock and the environment. The second chapter is concerned with the types of application equipment and their utilization. Specific pests of livestock and poultry…

  10. 3D microfilter device for viable circulating tumor cell (CTC) enrichment from blood

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Henry K.; Lu, Bo; Williams, Anthony; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard J.; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2013-01-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells has emerged as a promising minimally invasive diagnostic and prognostic tool for patients with metastatic cancers. We report a novel three dimensional microfilter device that can enrich viable circulating tumor cells from blood. This device consists of two layers of parylene membrane with pores and gap precisely defined with photolithography. The positions of the pores are shifted between the top and bottom membranes. The bottom membrane supports captured cells and minimize the stress concentration on cell membrane and sustain cell viability during filtration. Viable cell capture on device was investigated with scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and immunofluorescent staining using model systems of cultured tumor cells spiked in blood or saline. The paper presents and validates this new 3D microfiltration concept for circulation tumor cell enrichment application. The device provides a highly valuable tool for assessing and characterizing viable enriched circulating tumor cells in both research and clinical settings. PMID:20978853

  11. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

  12. Commercialization potential of compositionally graded Ge - Si??x?Gex? - Si substrates for solar applications

    E-print Network

    Goh, Johnathan Jian Ming

    2006-01-01

    This project considers the potential of Ge - Si??x?Gex? - Si substrates for solar applications. The use of compositionally graded substrates to achieve heterointegration across different materials platforms such as Si, Ge ...

  13. Commercial potential for thermal & magnetic sensitive polymer in drug delivery applications

    E-print Network

    Edward, Jonathan M. (Jonathan Mark)

    2008-01-01

    Thermal and magnetically sensitive polymers are a new class of materials with unique properties suitable for applications in drug delivery. Specifically, these polymers can be combined with a drug reservoir to make a drug ...

  14. 40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...contamination of food, damage and contamination of habitat, and exposure of people and pets. Since human exposure, including babies, children, pregnant women, and elderly people, is frequently a potential problem, applicators must demonstrate...

  15. 40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...contamination of food, damage and contamination of habitat, and exposure of people and pets. Since human exposure, including babies, children, pregnant women, and elderly people, is frequently a potential problem, applicators must demonstrate...

  16. 40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.4 Standards for certification... Competence in the use and handling of pesticides shall be determined on the...

  17. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 2: Technical final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Intersatellite Link (ISL) applications can improve and expand communication satellite services in a number of ways. As the demand for orbital slots within prime regions of the geostationary arc increases, attention is being focused on ISLs as a method to utilize this resource more efficiently and circumvent saturation. Various GEO-to-GEO applications were determined that provide potential benefits over existing communication systems. A set of criteria was developed to assess the potential applications. Intersatellite link models, network system architectures, and payload configurations were developed. For each of the chosen ISL applications, ISL versus non-ISL satellite systems architectures were derived. Both microwave and optical ISL implementation approaches were evaluated for payload sizing and cost analysis. The technological availability for ISL implementations was assessed. Critical subsystems technology areas were identified, and an estamate of the schedule and cost to advance the technology to the requiered state of readiness was made.

  18. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the use of restricted use pesticides in public health programs...the use of restricted use pesticides in the control of regulated...public the proper use and techniques of application of restricted use pesticides or supervise such...

  19. DOE Commercial Building Asset Rating: An Application of Centralized Modeling Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Na; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Srivastava, Viraj; Taylor, Cody

    2012-06-26

    This paper presents a novel approach used to develop the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Asset Rating, which is intended to help building owners better understand the installed system performance and the total energy use. A simplified data collection and energy-modeling method is employed to disaggregate building energy information. Furthermore, the approach outlined will also include a mechanism for identifying energy improvement opportunities. A detailed modeling approach to formulate an Asset Rating would most likely provide the greatest flexibility and accuracy. Such an approach would, however, require a substantial amount of user investment for collecting the energy audit, data and hiring a professional to perform energy modeling and analysis. A simplified model approach requires fewer input combinations, which could reduce opportunities for error and allow an inexperienced user to quickly develop energy models. However, the accuracy of the results is often questionable. To address the above issue, the method presented in this paper separates model inputs into categories based on overall energy impact, difficulty to obtain, and variability among buildings. We outline an approach that will allow great flexibility in terms of how many and which of the different categories of variables must be found to produce an accurate energy model. The approach will allow all key variables to be inferred from some minimum set of variables while at the same time allowing a user to enter many more variables if he or she has reliable values for them. The approach outlined will also provide constant values for some variables and algorithms for finding those which are very difficult to determine in the field. The whole of this approach will reduce modeling time and expertise required while maintaining accuracy and the ability to support the variability and complexity that exist in buildings. Therefore, the goals of facilitating cost-effective investment in energy efficiency and reducing energy use in the commercial building sector are met.

  20. A viable multivariable adaptive controller with application to autonomous helicopters

    E-print Network

    Krupadanam, Ashish Samuel, 1974-

    2001-01-01

    Autonomous helicopters carry out missions in inaccessible hazardous environments. Their performance capability in speed, maneuverability and trajectory tracking must be comparable, if not superior, to manned vehicles. ...

  1. Development and assessment of a clinically viable system for breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruszauskas, Nicholas Peter

    The chances of surviving a breast cancer diagnosis as well as the effectiveness of any potential treatments increase significantly with early detection of the disease. As such, a considerable amount of research is being conducted to augment the breast cancer detection and diagnosis process. One such area of research involves the investigation and application of sophisticated computer algorithms to assist clinicians in detecting and diagnosing breast cancer on medical images (termed generally as "computer-aided diagnosis" or CAD). This study investigated a previously-developed breast ultrasound CAD system with the intent of translating it into a clinically-viable system. While past studies have demonstrated that breast ultrasound CAD may be a beneficial aid during the diagnosis of breast cancer on ultrasound, there are no investigations concerning its potential clinical translation and there are currently no commercially-available implementations of such systems. This study "bridges the gap" between the laboratory-developed system and the steps necessary for clinical implementation. A novel observer study was conducted that mimicked the clinical use of the breast ultrasound CAD system in order to assess the impact it had on the diagnostic performance of the user. Several robustness studies were also performed: the sonographic features used by the system were evaluated and the databases used for calibration and testing were characterized, the effect of the user's input was assessed by evaluating the performance of the system with variations in lesion identification and image selection, and the performance of the system on different patient populations was investigated by evaluating its performance on a database consisting solely of patients with Asian ethnicity. The analyses performed here indicate that the breast ultrasound CAD system under investigation is robust and demonstrates only minor variability when subjected to "real-world" use. All of these results are critical to the success of a CAD system in a clinical environment, and they support the execution of a prospective clinical trial of the system.

  2. Thermographic-phosphor temperature measurements: Commercial and defense-related applications

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Turley, W.D.; Allison, S.W.

    1994-06-01

    This paper is a review of a diverse set of applications of the thermographic-phosphor (TP) method for measuring temperatures remotely. The TP method is useful in hostile and/or inaccessible environments where no other known method works. It is highly accurate, nonintrusive, durable, conceptually simple, covers an unprecedented temperature range (0 K to >1200 K), can measure temperature at a single point or over an entire surface, and can make static, steady-state, or very high speed dynamic measurements. The TP method can also be used to make leadless, remotely interrogated heat-flux gauges that can nonintrusively measure spatial distributions of heat flux over arbitrarily large areas with high resolution. The applications described include measurements in gas centrifuges, motors, variable-area ejectors, rotors and stators in gas turbines, and others. The authors also briefly discuss heat-flux gauges and their applications.

  3. Study of fuel cell on-site, integrated energy systems in residential/commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, R. A.; Karamchetty, S.; Rand, R. H.; Ku, W. S.; Tekumalla, V.

    1980-01-01

    Three building applications were selected for a detailed study: a low rise apartment building; a retail store, and a hospital. Building design data were then specified for each application, based on the design and construction of typical, actual buildings. Finally, a computerized building loads analysis program was used to estimate hourly end use load profiles for each building. Conventional and fuel cell based energy systems were designed and simulated for each building in each location. Based on the results of a computer simulation of each energy system, levelized annual costs and annual energy consumptions were calculated for all systems.

  4. Application of submarine extended operating cycle programs to the enhancement of commercial nuclear power plant operation and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.H.; Livingston, B.K.; Clarke, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    During the past 10 yr, the US Navy has extended submarine operating cycles - the period between major ship overhauls - from 4 to > 15 yr. Major programs to extend submarine operating cycles have been the submarine extended operating cycle (SEOC) and the engineered SEOC programs. Currently, the navy is incorporating lessons learned from these programs, as well as new concepts, into its newest Seawolf (SSN-21) ship class. Major elements of these programs are a disciplined machinery condition assessment (MCA) program consisting of intrusive and nonintrusive elements, the use of rotatable equipment pools, and the engineering of maintenance periodicities to establish operating cycles. Many of the concepts and elements of these programs can be applied to two objectives for enhanced operation and maintenance: the increased availability of means of improved equipment performance and reduced outage durations and the extension of plant life. The objectives of this paper are to review the US Navy SEOC programs, to draw parallels between the US Navy programs and commercial nuclear power plant programs, and to suggest potential opportunities for application to commercial nuclear power plants.

  5. Characterization of a commercialized SERS-active substrate and its application to the identification of intact Bacillus endospores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Troy A.; Le, Dianna M.

    2007-06-01

    Surface-enhanced-Raman-spectroscopy (SERS) can be made an attractive approach for the identification of Raman-active compounds and biological materials (i.e., toxins, viruses, or intact bacterial cells or spores) through development of reproducible, spatially uniform SERS-active substrates. Recently, reproducible (from substrate to substrate), spatially homogeneous (over large areas) SERS-active substrates have been commercialized and are now available in the marketplace. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution, tapping-mode atomic force microscopy have been used to analyze these novel plasmonic surfaces for topographical consistency. Additionally, we have assessed, by wavelength-tunable microreflectance spectrometry, the spatial distribution of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) across a single substrate surface as well as the LSPR ?MAX variance from substrate to substrate. These analyses reveal that these surfaces are topologically uniform with small LSPR variance from substrate to substrate. Further, we have utilized these patterned surfaces to acquire SERS spectral signatures of four intact, genetically distinct Bacillus spore species cultivated under identical growth conditions. Salient spectral signature features make it possible to discriminate among these genetically distinct spores. Additionally, partial least squares, a multivariate calibration method, has been used to develop personal-computer-borne algorithms useful for classification of unknown spore samples based solely on SERS spectral signatures. To our knowledge, this is the first report detailing application of these commercially available SERS-active substrates to identification of intact Bacillus spores.

  6. Decision support systems and applications in ophthalmology: literature and commercial review focused on mobile apps.

    PubMed

    de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Martínez-Pérez, Borja; López-Coronado, Miguel; Díaz, Javier Rodríguez; López, Miguel Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    The growing importance that mobile devices have in daily life has also reached health care and medicine. This is making the paradigm of health care change and the concept of mHealth or mobile health more relevant, whose main essence is the apps. This new reality makes it possible for doctors who are not specialist to have easy access to all the information generated in different corners of the world, making them potential keepers of that knowledge. However, the new daily information exceeds the limits of the human intellect, making Decision Support Systems (DSS) necessary for helping doctors to diagnose diseases and also help them to decide the attitude that has to be taken towards these diagnoses. These could improve the health care in remote areas and developing countries. All of this is even more important in diseases that are more prevalent in primary care and that directly affect the people's quality of life, this is the case in ophthalmological problems where in first patient care a specialist in ophthalmology is not involved. The goal of this paper is to analyse the state of the art of DSS in Ophthalmology. Many of them focused on diseases affecting the eye's posterior pole. For achieving the main purpose of this research work, a literature review and commercial apps analysis will be done. The used databases and systems will be IEEE Xplore, Web of Science (WoS), Scopus, and PubMed. The search is limited to articles published from 2000 until now. Later, different Mobile Decision Support System (MDSS) in Ophthalmology will be analyzed in the virtual stores for Android and iOS. 37 articles were selected according their thematic (posterior pole, anterior pole, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), cloud, data mining, algorithms and structures for DSS, and other) from a total of 600 found in the above cited databases. Very few mobile apps were found in the different stores. It can be concluded that almost all existing mobile apps are focused on the eye's posterior pole. Among them, the most intended are for diagnostic of diabetic retinopathy. The primary market niche of the commercial apps is the general physicians. PMID:25472731

  7. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition of pests and vectors such as lice, fleas, mosquitoes, flies and rodents. There is also discussion on methods of control without pesticides or in combination with pesticide treatment. Sections of the text are devoted to…

  8. TOTAL IONIZING DOSE CHARACTERIZATION OF A COMMERCIALLY FABRICATED ASYNCHRONOUS FFT FOR SPACE APPLICATIONS*

    E-print Network

    Stevens, Ken

    Air Force, Air Force Material Command, Air Force Research Laboratory, Space Vehicles (Kirtland AFB, NM APPLICATIONS* D. Barnhart, P. Duggan, B. Suter Air Force Research Laboratory C. Brothers Air Force Institute Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) as part of a thesis effort sponsored by the Air Force Research

  9. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  10. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turfgrass Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition and control of ornamental and turfgrass pests such as leaf spot, scab, powdery mildew, galls, grubs and weeds. A section of the text is also devoted to environmental concerns to be considered when undertaking pest…

  11. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Control of Wood Destroying Pests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist pesticide applicators in the category of wood destroying organisms to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of the Agriculture for certification. The 10 sections included describe: (1) Subterranean termites; (2) Dampwood termites; (3) Drywood termites; (4) Powder-post beetles; (5) Old house borer; (6)…

  12. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and…

  13. 40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be followed in case of a pesticide accident; and (g) Proper identification, storage, transport... ultimate use of many commodities as food and feed. Practical knowledge is required concerning soil and... be used for food. Further, the applicator must know the relative hazards associated with such...

  14. 75 FR 2921 - Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Volvo Trucks North America (Volvo)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-19

    ... for a Swedish CDL driver permitting operation of CMVs in the U.S. (74 FR 333). Request for Comments In... DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19476... to the application, including the conducting of any safety analyses. The Agency must also provide...

  15. Teaching Farmers and Commercial Pesticide Applicators about Invasive Species in Pesticide Training Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gary J.; Herzfeld, Dean; Haugen-Brown, Tana

    2015-01-01

    Farmers and agricultural professionals who are aware of species likely to invade agricultural landscapes can be active participants in efforts to detect invasive species. To reach this audience we created a short invasive species program and added it to the existing and required pesticide applicator recertification workshops. We highlighted four…

  16. 14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... debt (explain); (iii) Additional working capital (explain); (iv) Operating losses other than... (explain); (iv) Working capital reduction (explain); (v) Operations (profits) (explain); (vi) Depreciation... be employed in a management position described in §§ 119.65 and 119.69, as applicable. (iii) The...

  17. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 4: Seed Treatment. CS-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the storage insects, soil insects and fungi which are the major kinds of seed pests. Chemical and nonchemical control measures and the labeling and coloring requirements for treated seed are also discussed.…

  18. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of aquatic pest control meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aquatic Pest Control Guide served as a basis for this manual. The six sections presented describe: (1) Aquatic pest control; (2)…

  19. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, J.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

  20. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

  1. 77 FR 34971 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... two-year term, the Committee will consider issues relating to enhanced border and cargo supply chain... Protection; Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Committee Management; Request for Applicants for...: Traderelations@dhs.gov . Fax: 202-325-4290. Mail: Ms. Wanda Tate, Management & Program Analyst, Office of...

  2. 77 FR 17105 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Rotel North American Tours, LLC; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Register on January 31, 2012 (77 FR 4881), and June 14, 2010 (75 FR 33661), announcing that Rotel North... on January 31, 2012 (77 FR 4881), the following correction is made: On page 4881, in the third column... application for renewal of exemption published on June 14, 2010 (FR 75 33661), the following correction...

  3. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Field Crop Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdmann, M. H.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators to meet the requirements for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on field crop pest control. The five sections presented describe: (1) Field crop pests; (2) Using pesticides in field crops; (3) Weed pests of field crops; (4)…

  4. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1B: Agricultural Insect Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This guide provides basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the control of economic insect pests on field and forage crops, especially corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Full color photographs of the more destructive pests are provided to aid in identification of problems. Precautions and…

  5. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Regulatory Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesecher, Robert

    This manual is designed to assist regulatory pest control applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The guide discusses: (1) Factors influencing introduction and spread of pests and their population dynamics; (2) Methods and techniques used to suppress, control, or eradicate pests of…

  6. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 3: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. CS-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cott, A. E.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section serves as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of common problems on some of the more common ornamental plants. Recommended control measures are suggested. The second section provides color photographs of common lawn…

  7. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 10: Demonstration and Research. CS-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is directed to individuals working in demonstration and research pest control who evaluate, provide and disseminate information on pest control procedures. Guidelines for designing and conducting a research experiment in…

  8. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 8: Public Health Pest Control. CS-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses those pests which are agents in transmitting disease, cause injury or discomfort, and bite or sting. Control methods for each of these categories are provided. (CS)

  9. Applicability of commercial CFD tools for assessment of heavy vehicle aerodynamic characteristics.

    SciTech Connect

    Pointer, W. D.; Sofu, T.; Chang, J.; Weber, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-12-01

    In preliminary validation studies, computational predictions from the commercial CFD codes Star-CD were compared with detailed velocity, pressure and force balance data from experiments completed in the 7 ft. by 10 ft. wind tunnel at NASA Ames using a Generic Conventional Model (GCM) that is representative of typical current-generation tractor-trailer geometries. Lessons learned from this validation study were then applied to the prediction of aerodynamic drag impacts associated with various changes to the GCM geometry, including the addition of trailer based drag reduction devices and modifications to the radiator and hood configuration. Add-on device studies have focused on ogive boat tails, with initial results indicating that a seven percent reduction in drag coefficient is easily achievable. Radiator and hood reconfiguration studies have focused on changing only the size of the radiator and angle of the hood components without changes to radii of curvature between the radiator grill and hood components. Initial results indicate that such changes lead to only modest changes in drag coefficient.

  10. Evaluating the Performance and Economics of Transpired Solar Collectors for Commercial Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Deru, M.; Slayzak, S.; Norton, P.; Barker, G.; McClendon, J,

    2008-07-01

    Using transpired solar collectors to preheat ventilation air has recently become recognized as an economic alternative for integrating renewable energy into commercial buildings in heating climates. The collectors have relatively low installed costs and operate on simple principles. Theory and performance testing have shown that solar collection efficiency can exceed 70% of incident solar. However, implementation and current absorber designs have adversely affected the efficiency and associated economics from this initial analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has actively studied this technology and monitored performance at several installations. A calibrated model that uses typical meteorological weather data to determine absorber plate efficiency resulted from this work. With this model, an economic analysis across heating climates was done to show the effects of collector size, tilt, azimuth, and absorptivity. The analysis relates the internal rate of return of a system based on the cost of the installed absorber area. In general, colder and higher latitude climates return a higher rate of return because the heating season extends into months with good solar resource.

  11. BAE Systems' 17?m LWIR camera core for civil, commercial, and military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeffrey; Rodriguez, Christian; Blackwell, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Seventeen (17) µm pixel Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Sensors based on vanadium oxide (VOx) micro-bolometers have been in full rate production at BAE Systems' Night Vision Sensors facility in Lexington, MA for the past five years.[1] We introduce here a commercial camera core product, the Airia-MTM imaging module, in a VGA format that reads out in 30 and 60Hz progressive modes. The camera core is architected to conserve power with all digital interfaces from the readout integrated circuit through video output. The architecture enables a variety of input/output interfaces including Camera Link, USB 2.0, micro-display drivers and optional RS-170 analog output supporting legacy systems. The modular board architecture of the electronics facilitates hardware upgrades allow us to capitalize on the latest high performance low power electronics developed for the mobile phones. Software and firmware is field upgradeable through a USB 2.0 port. The USB port also gives users access to up to 100 digitally stored (lossless) images.

  12. Ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography of lipophilic compounds with application to synthetic and commercial biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Yang, J; Rainville, P; Jones, M D; Fountain, K J; Isaac, G; Taylor, L T

    2015-03-01

    Ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) in combination with sub-2?m particles and either diode array ultraviolet (UV), evaporative light scattering, (ELSD), or mass spectrometric (MS) detection has been shown to be a valuable technique for the determination of acylglycerols in soybean, corn, sesame, and tobacco seed oils. Excellent resolution on an un-endcapped single C18 column (3.0mm×150mm) with a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile and carbon dioxide in as little as 10min served greatly as an improvement on first generation packed column SFC instrumentation. Unlike high resolution gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, UHPSFC/MS was determined to be a superior analytical tool for both separation and detection of mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerols as well as free glycerol itself in biodiesel without derivatization. Baseline separation of residual tri-, di-, and mono-acylglycerols alongside glycerol at 0.05% (w/w) was easily obtained employing packed column SFC. The new analytical methodology was applied to both commercial B100 biodiesel (i.e. fatty acid methyl esters) derived from vegetable oil and to an "in-house" synthetic biodiesel (i.e. fatty acid ethyl esters) derived from tobacco seed oil and ethanol both before and after purification via column chromatography on bare silica. PMID:25635951

  13. The application of photovoltaic roof shingles to residential and commercial buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.; Sanchez, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    The recent development of a shingle-type solar-cell module makes it possible to incorporate easily photovoltaic power generation into the sloping roofs of residential or commercial buildings. These modules, which use a closely packed array of nineteen 53-mm-diameter circular solar cells, are capable of producing 101 watts/sq m of module area under standard operating conditions. This module performance is achievable by the use of solar cells with an average efficiency of 13.3 percent at 1 kW/sq m air-mass-1.5 insolation and at a cell temperature of 28 C. When these modules are mounted on a sloping south-facing roof which is insulated on the rear surface, the annual energy generated at the maximum power operating point will vary from 255.6 to 137.3 kWh/sq m of module area depending on the site location, with Albuquerque, NM, and Seattle, WA, representing the highest and lowest values of the thirteen sites considered.

  14. Thin Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization, Critical Issues, and Applications; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H. S.; von Roedern, B.

    2007-09-01

    We report here on the major commercialization aspects of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies based on CIGS and CdTe (a-Si and thin-Si are also reported for completeness on the status of thin-film PV). Worldwide silicon (Si) based PV technologies continues to dominate at more than 94% of the market share, with the share of thin-film PV at less than 6%. However, the market share for thin-film PV in the United States continues to grow rapidly over the past several years and in CY 2006, they had a substantial contribution of about 44%, compared to less than 10% in CY 2003. In CY 2007, thin-film PV market share is expected to surpass that of Si technology in the United States. Worldwide estimated projections for CY 2010 are that thin-film PV production capacity will be more than 3700 MW. A 40-MW thin-film CdTe solar field is currently being installed in Saxony, Germany, and will be completed in early CY 2009. The total project cost is Euro 130 million, which equates to an installed PV system price of Euro 3.25/-watt averaged over the entire solar project. This is the lowest price for any installed PV system in the world today. Critical research, development, and technology issues for thin-film CIGS and CdTe are also elucidated in this paper.

  15. Application of commercial sensor manufacturing methods for NOx/NH3 mixed potential sensors for emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, Eric L; Mukundan, Rangachary; Nelson, Mark A; Sekhar, Praveen; Williamson, Todd; Garzon, Fernando H

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to develop a low cost on-board Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x})/Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) sensor that can not only be used for emissions control but has the potential to improve efficiency through better monitoring of the combustion process and feedback control in both vehicle and stationary systems. Over the past decade, Los AJamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a unique class of electrochemical gas sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen and nitrogen oxides. These sensors are based on the mixed-potential phenomenon and are a modification of the existing automotive lambda (oxygen) sensor and have the potential to meet the stringent sensitivity, selectivity and stability requirements of an on-board emissions/engine control sensor system. The current state of the art LANL technology is based on the stabilization of the electrochemical interfaces and relies on an externally heated, hand-made, tape cast device. We are now poised to apply our patented sensing principles in a mass production sensor platform that is more suitable for real world engine-out testing such as on dynamometers for vehicle applications and for exhaust-out testing in heavy boilers/SCR systems in power plants. In this present work, our goal is to advance towards commercialization of this technology by packaging the unique LANL sensor design in a standard automotive sensor-type platform. This work is being performed with the help of a leading US technical ceramics firm, utilizing commercial manufacturing techniques. Initial tape cast platforms with screen printed metal oxide and Pt sensor electrodes have shown promising results but also clearly show the need for us to optimize the electrode and electrolyte compositions/morphologies and interfaces of these devices in order to demonstrate a sensitive, selective, and stable NO{sub x} sensor. Our previous methods and routes to preparing stable and reproducible mixed potential sensors - in bulk, tape cast, and thin film variants - need to be adapted as a necessary adjunct to address materials challenges resulting from the implementation of commercial manufacturing methods. We also modified the electrodes to demonstrate a NH{sub 3} sensor that can be used in conjunction with the NO{sub x} sensor for feedback control of emissions systems. Once desirable properties are achieved, we will work closely with potential customers in order to dynamometer and boiler test these devices. Ultimately, this will accurately gauge the level of readiness of mixed potential sensor technology for commercialization and eventual use of this important electrochemical technology.

  16. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 2 - Forest Pest Control. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, W. A., Comp.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use as it relates to safety of humans and the environment. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of…

  17. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Plant. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, J. E., Ed.; Pendleton, R. F., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use, particularly those associated with safety. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of insects…

  18. SP-100 nuclear space power systems with application to space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the SP-100 space nuclear power system program is compared to that of more familiar solar-power systems. The SP-100 program develops, validates, and demonstrates the technology for space nuclear power systems in the range of 10 to 1000 kilowatts electric for use in future military and civilian space missions. Mission applications, including earth orbiting platforms and lunar/Mars surface power, are enhanced or made possible by SP-100 technology. Attention is given to the SP-100 reference flight system design, the SP-100 nuclear reactor and nuclear-reactor shield, the platform-mounted, tethered, and free-flying reactors, and installation, operation, and disposal options, as well as lunar-Mars surface applications. The SP-100 is presented as one of the nuclear energy sources needed for long-life, compact, lightweight, continuous high power independent of solar orientation, specific orbits, or missions.

  19. Generation of Viable Cell and Biomaterial Patterns by Laser Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringeisen, Bradley

    2001-03-01

    In order to fabricate and interface biological systems for next generation applications such as biosensors, protein recognition microarrays, and engineered tissues, it is imperative to have a method of accurately and rapidly depositing different active biomaterials in patterns or layered structures. Ideally, the biomaterial structures would also be compatible with many different substrates including technologically relevant platforms such as electronic circuits or various detection devices. We have developed a novel laser-based technique, termed matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation direct write (MAPLE DW), that is able to direct write patterns and three-dimensional structures of numerous biologically active species ranging from proteins and antibodies to living cells. Specifically, we have shown that MAPLE DW is capable of forming mesoscopic patterns of living prokaryotic cells (E. coli bacteria), living mammalian cells (Chinese hamster ovaries), active proteins (biotinylated bovine serum albumin, horse radish peroxidase), and antibodies specific to a variety of classes of cancer related proteins including intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins, signaling proteins, cell cycle proteins, growth factors, and growth factor receptors. In addition, patterns of viable cells and active biomolecules were deposited on different substrates including metals, semiconductors, nutrient agar, and functionalized glass slides. We will present an explanation of the laser-based transfer mechanism as well as results from our recent efforts to fabricate protein recognition microarrays and tissue-based microfluidic networks.

  20. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G.; Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  1. Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C

    2015-01-20

    Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure. PMID:25552560

  2. Effects of outgassing of loader chamber walls on hydriding of thin films for commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Provo, James L.

    2014-07-01

    An important aspect of understanding industrial processing is to know the characteristics of the materials used in such processes. A study was performed to determine the effects of hydriding chamber material on the degree of hydriding for the commercial production of thin film hydride targets for various research universities, commercial companies, and government national laboratories. The goal was to increase the degree of hydriding of various thin film hydrides and to study the vacuum environment during air-exposure hydriding. For this purpose, dynamic residual gas analysis during deuterium gas hydride processing was utilized with erbium thin films, employing a special set-up for direct dynamic hydride gas sampling during processing at elevated temperature and full loading gas pressure. Complete process data for (1) a copper–(1.83?wt.?%)beryllium wet hydrogen fired passivated (600?°C–1?h) externally heated pipe hydriding chamber are reported. Dynamic residual gas analysis comparisons during hydriding are presented for hydriding chambers made from (2) alumina (99.8 wt.?%), (3) copper (with an interior aluminum coating ?10 k Å thick, and (4) for a stainless-steel air-fired passivated (900?°C–1?h) chamber. Dynamic data with deuterium gas in the chamber at the hydriding temperature (450?°C) showed the presence and growth of water vapor (D{sub 2}O) and related mixed ion species(H{sub 2}O{sup +}, HDO{sup +}, D{sub 2}O{sup +}, and OD{sup +}) from hydrogen isotope exchange reactions during the 1?h process time. Peaks at mass-to-charge ratios (i.e., m/e) of 12(C{sup +}), 16(CD{sub 2}{sup +}), 17(CHD{sub 2}{sup +}), and 18(CD{sub 3}{sup +}, OD{sup +}) increased for approximately the first half hour of a 1?h hydriding process and then approach steady state. Mass-to-charge peaks at 19(HDO{sup +}) and 20(D{sub 2}O{sup +}) continue to increase throughout the process cycle. Using the m/e?=?20 (D{sub 2}O{sup +}) peak intensity from chamber (1)–Cu(1.83 wt.?%)Be as a standard, the peak intensity from chamber (4)—stainless-steel (air-fired) was 7.1× higher, indicating that the surface of stainless-steel had a larger concentration of reactive oxygen and/or water than hydrogen. The (D{sub 2}O{sup +}) peak intensity from chamber (3)—Cu (interior Al coating) was 1.55× larger and chamber (2)—alumina(99.8%) was 1.33× higher than Cu(1.83 wt.?%)Be. Thus copper–(1.83 wt.?%)beryllium was the best hydriding chamber material studied followed closely by the alumina (99.8 wt.?%) chamber. Gas take-up by Er occluder targets processed in Cu(1.83?wt.?%)Be hydriding chambers (i.e., gas/metal atomic ratios) correlate with the dynamic RGA data.

  3. A new RF package suitable for aeronautical commercial and DSCS satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Robert J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Higher levels of integration through the use of GaAs and silicon MMIC devices, a die-cast housing, and the reduction of the number of subassemblies has enabled a large reduction of the size and weight of the electronics package for commercial and military satellite communications. This paper presents an electronics architecture and hardware that utilizes many new integrated circuits and design techniques, and allows flexibility for future satellite frequency changes and expansion. Key features of the radio are extended C-band, InSat, Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS), and Ku-band coverage options; 70 (or 140) MHz transponder bandwidth or L-band block bandwidth IFs; integrated RS-232 control through local handheld terminal or remote computer; remote control of crystal reference oscillator for aging and temperature compensation; integrated 2 or 5 watt solid-state power amplifiers (SSPA); optional integrated solid-state booster amplifiers to 40 watts; optional external amplifiers to 100 watts; integral beacon tracking with second integrated downcoverter for antenna positioning; radio, including low-noise block converter (LNB) and SSPA, weighs 8.5 kg and measures 32 x 23 x 16.5 cm; environmentally ruggedized for -40 to +60 C; O-ring sealed for waterproofing; passive (convection) cooling; and simple cabling and installation, with a single cable between radio and LNB, and two cables between radio and IF interface. The small size and light weight of the radio make it ideal for mounting on stabilized antenna platforms (gyroscopic or servo). Several input power options (110 or 220 VAC; +48, +12, or -24 VDC) facilitate operation on multiple platforms.

  4. Optimal Breed Choices for Commercial Cow-Calf Prodution in the Texas Panhandle: An Application of Bio-Economic Modelling to Breed Evaluations. 

    E-print Network

    Melton, Bryan E.; Colette, W. Arden; Smith, Kenneth J.

    1993-01-01

    Optimal Breed Choices for Commercial Cow-Calf Production in the Texas Panhandle: 8-1716 November. 1993 LIR~AQy FEB 24 1994 Tbv'\\\\:) A&IVI UNI VI:H~ i TY An Application of Bio-Economic Modelling to Breed Evaluations (Blank Page in ?O...~BDlletiRJ ? .;.. .? ' , . t ? .". .,. , ', t ? , ,': t :" ", B-1716 LIBRARY FEB 24 1994 TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY Optimal Breed Choices for Commercial Cow-Calf Production in the Texas Panhandle: An Application of Bio-Economic Modelling to Breed Evaluations~ Bryan E. Meltonb, W. Arden Colettec, and Kenneth J...

  5. 36 CFR 13.1142 - Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1142 Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1142 - Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1142 Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime...

  7. 36 CFR 13.1142 - Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1142 Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime...

  8. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    US DOE mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 181,000 cubic meters (about 2,000 waste streams). Treatability studies may be used as part of DOE`s mixed waste management program. Commercial treatability study suppliers have been identified that either have current capability in their own facilities or have access to licensed facilities. Numerous federal and state regulations, as well as DOE Order 5820.2A, impact the performance of treatability studies. Generators, transporters, and treatability study facilities are subject to regulation. From a mixed- waste standpoint, a key requirement is that the treatability study facility must have an NRC or state license that allows it to possess radioactive materials. From a RCRA perspective, the facility must support treatability study activities with the applicable plans, reports, and documentation. If PCBs are present in the waste, TSCA will also be an issue. CERCLA requirements may apply, and both DOE and NRC regulations will impact the transportation of DOE mixed waste to an off-site treatment facility. DOE waste managers will need to be cognizant of all applicable regulations as mixed-waste treatability study programs are initiated.

  9. DECREASE Final Technical Report: Development of a Commercial Ready Enzyme Application System for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Teter, Sarah A

    2012-04-18

    Conversion of biomass to sugars plays a central in reducing our dependence on petroleum, as it allows production of a wide range of biobased fuels and chemicals, through fermentation of those sugars. The DECREASE project delivers an effective enzyme cocktail for this conversion, enabling reduced costs for producing advanced biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol. Benefits to the public contributed by growth of the advanced biofuels industry include job creation, economic growth, and energy security. The DECREASE primary project objective was to develop a two-fold improved enzyme cocktail, relative to an advanced cocktail (CZP00005) that had been developed previously (from 2000- 2007). While the final milestone was delivery of all enzyme components as an experimental mixture, a secondary objective was to deploy an improved cocktail within 3 years following the close of the project. In February 2012, Novozymes launched Cellic CTec3, a multi-enzyme cocktail derived in part from components developed under DECREASE. The externally validated performance of CTec3 and an additional component under project benchmarking conditions indicated a 1.8-fold dose reduction in enzyme dose required for 90% conversion (based on all available glucose and xylose sources) of NREL dilute acid pretreated PCS, relative to the starting advanced enzyme cocktail. While the ability to achieve 90% conversion is impressive, targeting such high levels of biomass digestion is likely not the most cost effective strategy. Novozymes techno economic modeling showed that for NREL's dilute acid pretreated corn stover (PCS), 80% target conversion enables a lower total production cost for cellulosic ethanol than for 90% conversion, and this was also found to be the case when cost assumptions were based on the NREL 2002 Design Report. A 1.8X dose-reduction was observed for 80% conversion in the small scale (50 g) DECREASE benchmark assay for CTec3 and an additional component. An upscaled experiment (in 0.5 kg kettle reactors) was performed to compare the starting enzyme mixture CZP00005 with CTec3 alone; these results indicated a 1.9X dose- reduction for 80% conversion. The CTec3 composition does not include the best available enzyme components from the DECREASE effort. While these components are not yet available in a commercial product, experimental mixtures were assayed in a smaller scale assay using DECREASE PCS, at high solids loadings (21.5% TS). The results indicated that the newer mixtures required 2.9X-less enzyme for 90% conversion, and 3.2X-less enzyme for 80% conversion, relative to the starting enzyme cocktail. In conclusion, CTec3 delivers a 1.8-1.9X dose reduction on NREL PCS at high solids loadings, and the next generation enzyme from Novozymes will continue to show dramatically improved biochemical performance. CTec3 allows reduced costs today, and the experimental cocktails point to continued biotechnological improvements that will further drive down costs for biorefineries of tomorrow.

  10. Scale-Up of CdTe Photovoltaic Device Processes for Commercial Application: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-196

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D.

    2013-02-01

    Through this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, NREL and PrimeStar Solar will work together to scale up the NREL CdTe photovoltaic process from the laboratory to produce photovoltaic devices in a size that is commercially viable. The work in this phase will focus on the transference of NREL CdTe device fabrication techniques to PrimeStar Solar. NREL and PrimeStar Solar will engage in a series of technical exchange meetings and laboratory training sessions to transfer the knowledge of CdTe PV film growth from NREL to PrimeStar Solar. PrimeStar Solar will grow thin films on PrimeStar Solar equipment and interleave them with NREL-grown films in an effort to develop a commercial scale process on PrimeStar Solar equipment. Select NREL film growth equipment will be upgraded either by PrimeStar Solar or at PrimeStar Solar's expense to increase equipment reliability and throughput.

  11. Optimization of a hybrid electric power system design for large commercial buildings: An application design guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keun

    Renewable energy in different forms has been used in various applications for survival since the beginning of human existence. However, there is a new dire need to reevaluate and recalibrate the overall energy issue both nationally and globally. This includes, but is not limited to, the finite availability of fossil fuel, energy sustainability with an increasing demand, escalating energy costs, environmental impact such as global warming and green-house gases, to name a few. This dissertation is primarily focused and related to the production and usage of electricity from non-hydro renewable sources. Among non-hydro renewable energy sources, electricity generation from wind and solar energy are the fastest-growing technologies in the United States and in the world. However, due to the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage devices are required to maintain proper operation of the grid system and in order to increase reliability. A hybrid system, as the name suggests, is a combination of different forms of non-renewable and renewable energy generation, with or without storage devices. Hybrid systems, when applied properly, are able to improve reliability and enhance stability, reduce emissions and noise pollution, provide continuous power, increase operation life, reduce cost, and efficiently use all available energy. In the United States (U.S.), buildings consume approximately 40% of the total primary energy and 74% of the total electricity. Therefore, reduction of energy consumption and improved energy efficiency in U.S. buildings will play a vital role in the overall energy picture. Electrical energy usage for any such building varies widely depending on age (construction technique), electricity and natural gas usage, appearance, location and climate. In this research, a hybrid system including non-renewable and renewable energy generation with storage devices specifically for building applications, is studied in detail. This research deals with the optimization of the hybrid system design (which consists of PV panels and/or wind turbines and/or storage devices for building applications) by developing an algorithm designed to make the system cost effective and energy efficient. Input data includes electrical load demand profile of the buildings, buildings' structural and geographical characteristics, real time pricing of electricity, and the costs of hybrid systems and storage devices. When the electrical load demand profile of a building that is being studied is available, a measured demand profile is directly used as input data. However, if that information is not available, a building's electric load demand is estimated using a developed algorithm based on three large data sources from a public domain, and used as input data. Using the acquired input data, the algorithm of this research is designed and programmed in order to determine the size of renewable components and to minimize the total yearly net cost. This dissertation also addresses the parametric sensitivity analysis to determine which factors are more significant and are expected to produce useful guidelines in the decision making process. An engineered and more practical, simplified solution has been provided for the optimized design process.

  12. Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Enslin, Johan; Hamaoui, Ronald; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith; Rustom, Khalid; Stuby, Rick; Kuran, Mohammad; Mark, Evlyn; Amarin, Ruba; Alatrash, Hussam; Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing further field testing as a prelude to improved and expanded commercialization.

  13. Progress and profit through microtechnologies: commercial applications of MEMS/MOEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrfeld, Ursula

    2001-09-01

    Micro technology deals with miniaturization and integration in all areas of technology outside of microelectronics like micro mechanics, micro optics, micro acoustics, micro fluid technology, micro reaction technology and further disciplines which are focused on technical components and systems with characteristic dimensions in the micrometer range. Within a period of about ten years a multi-billion dollar market has been set up with many products for daily life. The growth rate of the market of micro technology will remain on a high level for the years to come. Mega trends resulting from fundamental human wishes for health, information, mobility and sustainable development are creating a further growing basis for micro technical products. A broad spectrum of production processes and materials has been developed to meet the requirements of a strongly diversified range of applications. For the development of new components and systems the importance of software tools for simulation of functional properties, production processes and comprehensive optimization is growing rapidly. Micro devices are meanwhile used extensively in information, automotive, and medical technologies. In addition, micro technology is generating a completely novel basis for chemical engineering, life sciences, industrial automation and optical communication, to mention only a few disciplines where future innovation will be dominated by miniaturization.

  14. Space Environment Stability and Physical Properties of New Materials for Space Power and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambourger, Paul D.

    1997-01-01

    Useful and informative results were obtained on virtually all materials investigated. For example, the stability of ITO-based arc-proof transparent coatings was greatly improved by substitution of silicon oxide for magnesium fluoride as a dopant. Research on 'air-doped' ITO films has yielded new insight into their conduction mechanism which will help in further development of these coatings. Some air-doped films were found to be extremely pressure sensitive. This work may lead to improved, low-cost gas sensors and vacuum gauges. Work on another promising transparent arc-proof coating (titanium oxide) was initiated in collaboration with industry. Graphite oxide-like materials were synthesized and tested for possible use in high energy-density batteries and other applications. We also started a high-priority project to find the cause of unexpected environmental damage to the exterior of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) discovered on a recent Shuttle mission. Materials were characterized before and after exposure to soft x-rays and other threats in ground-based simulators.

  15. Rapid Method for Enumeration of Viable Legionella pneumophila and Other Legionella spp. in Water

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Viscogliosi, Pilar; Simonart, Tristan; Parent, Virginie; Marchand, Grégory; Dobbelaere, Marie; Pierlot, Eric; Pierzo, Véronique; Menard-Szczebara, Florence; Gaudard-Ferveur, Elisabeth; Delabre, Karine; Delattre, Jean Marie

    2005-01-01

    A sensitive and specific method has been developed to enumerate viable L. pneumophila and other Legionella spp. in water by epifluorescence microscopy in a short period of time (a few hours). This method allows the quantification of L. pneumophila or other Legionella spp. as well as the discrimination between viable and nonviable Legionella. It simultaneously combines the specific detection of Legionella cells using antibodies and a bacterial viability marker (ChemChrome V6), the enumeration being achieved by epifluorescence microscopy. The performance of this immunological double-staining (IDS) method was investigated in 38 natural filterable water samples from different aquatic sources, and the viable Legionella counts were compared with those obtained by the standard culture method. The recovery rate of the IDS method is similar to, or higher than, that of the conventional culture method. Under our experimental conditions, the limit of detection of the IDS method was <176 Legionella cells per liter. The examination of several samples in duplicates for the presence of L. pneumophila and other Legionella spp. indicated that the IDS method exhibits an excellent intralaboratory reproducibility, better than that of the standard culture method. This immunological approach allows rapid measurements in emergency situations, such as monitoring the efficacy of disinfection shock treatments. Although its field of application is as yet limited to filterable waters, the double-staining method may be an interesting alternative (not equivalent) to the conventional standard culture methods for enumerating viable Legionella when rapid detection is required. PMID:16000824

  16. The potential for increasing the use of catalytic carbons in commercial applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruse, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    A carbon catalyst, prepared either by oxidizing activated carbon with air at 500-700??C or by oxidizing activated carbon with boiling nitric acid followed by heating it to 500-700??C, is the subject of this paper. This catalyst, designated OAC500-700, catalyzes the removal of hydrogen chloride from alkyl halides. Because OAC500-700 retains adsorptive properties of an activated carbon it can be used both to adsorb pollutants from liquid or gaseous streams and to convert them to recyclable products. A highly-developed micropore structure is not required for all uses of activated carbon or a catalyst produced from it. A comparatively inexpensive ($325/ton projected) low surface area (<300 m2/g) carbon has been developed at the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) for cleaning incinerator flue gas. This grade of activated carbon is widely used in Europe for flue gas cleaning and for other applications. Activated carbon adsorbers of some type are required by recently passed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations for municipal waste combustors to control emission of cadmium, mercury, lead, dioxins, furans and acid gases (U.S. EPA, 1995). Similar regulations are expected for hospital and hazardous waste incinerators. The marketing of less costly activated carbons of the type used widely in Europe is expected in the United States. Low cost OAC500-700 made from less expensive grades of activated carbon may become available for large scale adsorbent/catalyst systems designed to both remove and decompose toxic pollutants found in liquid and gaseous streams, chlorinated organic compounds in particular.

  17. Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

    2013-04-01

    The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling risks and costs. This procedure enables a timely, efficient and accurate data access and exchange among the rig site data acquisition system, office-based software applications and data storage. The loading of real-time data has to be quick and efficient in order to refine the model and learn the lessons for the next drilling operations.

  18. Viable mononuclear cell stability study for implementation in a proficiency testing program: impact of shipment conditions.

    PubMed

    Kofanova, Olga A; Davis, Kristine; Glazer, Barbara; De Souza, Yvonne; Kessler, Joseph; Betsou, Fotini

    2014-06-01

    The impact of shipping temperatures and preservation media used during transport of either peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or Jurkat cells was assessed, in view of implementing of a proficiency testing scheme on mononuclear cell viability. Samples were analyzed before and after shipment at different temperatures (ambient temperature, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen) and in different preservation media (serum with cryoprotectant, commercial cryopreservation solution, and room temperature transport medium). Sample quality was assessed by viability assays (Trypan Blue dye exclusion, flow cytometry, Cell Analysis System cell counting (CASY)), and by ELISpot functional assay. The liquid nitrogen storage and shipment were found to be the most stable conditions to preserve cell viability and functionality. However, we show that alternative high quality shipment conditions for viable cells are dry ice shipment and commercial cryopreservation solution. These were also cost-efficient shipment conditions, satisfying the requirements of a proficiency testing scheme for viable mononuclear cells. Room temperature transport medium dramatically and adversely affected the integrity of mononuclear cells. PMID:24955735

  19. Do-It-Yourself: A Special Library's Approach to Creating Dynamic Web Pages Using Commercial Off-The-Shelf Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steeman, Gerald; Connell, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Many librarians may feel that dynamic Web pages are out of their reach, financially and technically. Yet we are reminded in library and Web design literature that static home pages are a thing of the past. This paper describes how librarians at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) library developed a database-driven, dynamic intranet site using commercial off-the-shelf applications. Administrative issues include surveying a library users group for interest and needs evaluation; outlining metadata elements; and, committing resources from managing time to populate the database and training in Microsoft FrontPage and Web-to-database design. Technical issues covered include Microsoft Access database fundamentals, lessons learned in the Web-to-database process (including setting up Database Source Names (DSNs), redesigning queries to accommodate the Web interface, and understanding Access 97 query language vs. Standard Query Language (SQL)). This paper also offers tips on editing Active Server Pages (ASP) scripting to create desired results. A how-to annotated resource list closes out the paper.

  20. Field approach to mining-dump revegetation by application of sewage sludge co-compost and a commercial biofertilizer.

    PubMed

    Sevilla-Perea, A; Mingorance, M D

    2015-08-01

    An approach was devised for revegetation of a mining dump soil, sited in a semiarid region, with basic pH as well as Fe and Mn enrichment. A field experiment was conducted involving the use of co-compost (a mixture of urban sewage sludge and plant remains) along with a commercial biofertilizer (a gel suspension which contains arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus) to reinforce the benefits of the former. Four treatments were studied: unamended soil; application of conditioners separately and in combination. Pistachio, caper, rosemary, thyme and juniper were planted. We evaluated the effects of the treatments using soil quality (physicochemical properties, total content of hazardous elements, nutrient availability, microbial biomass and enzyme activities) and plant establishment indicators (survival, growth, vigor, nutrient content in leaves, nutrient balances and mycorrhizal root colonization). Thyme and juniper did not show a suitable survival rate (<50%) whereas 70-100% of the pistachio, rosemary and caper survived for at least 27 months. In unamended soil, plant growth was severely hampered by P, N, K and Zn deficiencies as well as Fe and Mn excess. Overall, the treatments affected the soil and plant indicators as follows: biofertilizer + co-compost > co-compost > biofertilizer > unamended. The application of co-compost was therefore essential with regard to improving soil fertility; furthermore, it increased leaf N and P content, whereas leaf Fe and Mn concentrations showed a decrease. The combined treatment, however, provided the best results. The positive interaction between the two soil conditioners might be related to the capacity of the biofertilizer to increase nutrient uptake from the composted residue, and to protect plants against Fe and Mn toxicity. PMID:25979296

  1. Hoechst fluorescence intensity can be used to separate viable bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells from viable non-bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Pulvermacher, P. M.; Schultz, E.; Schell, K.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is a powerful compound to study the mitotic activity of a cell. Most techniques that identify BrdU-labeled cells require conditions that kill the cells. However, the fluorescence intensity of the membrane-permeable Hoechst dyes is reduced by the incorporation of BrdU into DNA, allowing the separation of viable BrdU positive (BrdU+) cells from viable BrdU negative (BrdU-) cells. METHODS: Cultures of proliferating cells were supplemented with BrdU for 48 h and other cultures of proliferating cells were maintained without BrdU. Mixtures of viable BrdU+ and viable BrdU- cells from the two proliferating cultures were stained with Hoechst 33342. The viable BrdU+ and BrdU- cells were sorted into different fractions from a mixture of BrdU+ and BrdU- cells based on Hoechst fluorescence intensity and the ability to exclude the vital dye, propidium iodide. Subsequently, samples from the original mixture, the sorted BrdU+ cell population, and the sorted BrdU- cell population were immunostained using an anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody and evaluated using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Two mixtures consisting of approximately 55% and 69% BrdU+ cells were sorted into fractions consisting of greater than 93% BrdU+ cells and 92% BrdU- cells. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. CONCLUSIONS: Hoechst fluorescence intensity in combination with cell sorting is an effective tool to separate viable BrdU+ from viable BrdU- cells for further study. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Anti-cattle tick vaccines: Many candidate antigens, but will a commercially viable product emerge?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is an invited paper from the editor-in-chief of International Journal for Parasitology who requested a Current Opinion manuscript to discuss the status of anti-cattle tick vaccine research. Arguably the world's most significant arthropod pest of cattle, control of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus...

  3. Design and prototype of an automated system for commercially viable production using micro contact printing

    E-print Network

    Chauhan, Karan

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation is a documentation of the thought process, its justification and the implementation details that went into prototyping a fully automated system employing Micro Contact Printing, an emerging technique for ...

  4. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

  5. Substrata Mechanical Stiffness Can Regulate Adhesion of Viable Bacteria

    E-print Network

    Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    of material surfaces controlling adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria and subsequent colony growth Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most common agent of infection,1,3 exceeding the infection rate of methicillin mechanoselective adhesion of prokaryotes such as these bacteria. We find that adhesion of viable S. epidermidis

  6. The Attempted Immunization of Turkey Hens with Viable Mycoplasma meleagridis

    PubMed Central

    Bigland, C. H.; Vlaovic, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    The attempted immunization of 53 female Broad Breasted White turkeys with five weekly 1.0 ml injections of viable Mycoplasma meleagridis, when combined with insemination with M. meleagridis infected semen, did not produce immunity but only imposed additional infection. This was detrimental to the offspring by increasing the incidence and severity of air sac lesions. PMID:4260949

  7. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    DOEpatents

    Sasaki, Dennis T. (Mountain View, CA); Van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA); Buckie, Anne-Marie (Margate, GB)

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  8. Characteristics of Viable and Sustainable Workers for the Year 2015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Brenda Pennington; West, Russell

    A two-round Delphi study was conducted to identify the characteristics of viable and sustainable employees in northeastern Tennessee in 2015. The Delphi panel selected for the study consisted of 25 experts who represented a cross-section of the businesses and communities in the 10-county area of northeastern Tennessee served by Walters State…

  9. A METHOD TO DETECT VIABLE HELICOBACTER PYLORI BACTERIA IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inability to detect the presence of viable Helicobacter pylori bacteria in environmental waters has hindered the public health community in assessing the role water may playin the transmission of this pathogen. This work describes a cultural enrichment method coupled with an...

  10. Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program

    E-print Network

    Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini, Leslie Gaithersburg Marriott Washingtonian Center #12;Magnet Technology Enables Magnetic Confinement Fusion · Magnets are an essential component for magnetic fusion energy. · Advances in magnet technology are needed to fulfill

  11. Descriptions -a viable choice for video game authors Neesha Desai

    E-print Network

    Szafron, Duane

    Descriptions - a viable choice for video game authors Neesha Desai Department of Computing Science dszafron@ualberta.ca ABSTRACT Modern video game development activities have become as specialized as movie, scripting the video game content usually requires a high level of programming knowledge. Some scripting

  12. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    DOEpatents

    Sasaki, D.T.; Van den Engh, G.J.; Buckie, A.M.

    1995-11-14

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  13. Lease/Purchase: A Viable Alternative for Financing Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, Denise

    1989-01-01

    Lease-purchase finance is a viable alternative for school districts that cannot or do not want to employ traditional financing techniques. Outlines the advantages and disadvantages of lease-purchase financing compared to outright purchase; operating leasing, which is taxable; and traditional tax-exempt bond financing. (MLF)

  14. Viable tumor tissue detection in murine metastatic breast cancer by whole-body MRI and multispectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Barck, Kai H; Willis, Brandon; Ross, Jed; French, Dorothy M; Filvaroff, Ellen H; Carano, Richard A D

    2009-12-01

    Whole-body MRI combined with a semiautomated hierarchical multispectral image analysis technique was evaluated as a method for detecting viable tumor tissue in a murine model of metastatic breast cancer (4T1 cell line). Whole-body apparent diffusion coefficient, T(2), and proton density maps were acquired in this study. The viable tumor tissue segmentation included three-stage k-means clustering of the parametric maps, morphologic operations, application of a size threshold, and reader discrimination of the segmented objects. The segmentation results were validated by histologic evaluation, and the detection accuracy of the technique was evaluated at three size thresholds (15, 100, and 500 voxels). The accuracy was 88.9% for a 500-voxel size threshold, and the area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.84. The regions of segmented viable tumor tissue within the primary tumors were found mostly on the periphery of the tumors in agreement with the histologic findings. The presented technique was found capable of detecting metastases and segmenting the viable tumor from necrotic regions within tumors found in this model. It offers a noninvasive, whole-body, viable tumor tissue detection method for preclinical and potentially clinical applications such as tumor screening and evaluating therapeutic efficacy. PMID:19859948

  15. Development of a high-efficiency, gas-fired, absorption heat pump for residential and small-commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, B. A.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of the total project is to develop a gas fired absorption heat pump for residential and small commercial applications that will produce at least 1.6 Btu of heating and 0.7 Btu of cooling per Btu of heat content in the gas being burned. The primary technology advances that can be used to attain the new goals are higher efficiency cycles, increased flue efficiency, and better fluids. Flue efficiency technology is well developed, and fan assisted combustion systems with condensing heat exchangers can limit flue and insulation losses to the 10 pct range. If this 10 pct loss assumption is made, the resulting target cycle COPs are 1.78 in heating mode and 0.78 in cooling mode at the ARI rating conditions. The objective of Phase 1 was to analyze working fluids and absorption-cycle concepts that are capable of performing at the target COPs and are potentially competitive with existing space-conditioning products in cost, operating life, and reliability. Six advanced cycles were evaluated with ammonia/water as the fluid pair. Then additional analysis was performed with other fluid pairs to determine whether cycle ranking would change depending on which fluid was used. It was concluded that the preferred cycle/fluid was the generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) cycle using ammonia/water as the fluid pair. A cost estimate made by an independent manufacturing engineering firm for a residential heat pump based on the cycle/fluid combination determined that the GAX heat pump could be cost competitive with existing products.

  16. Real-time quantification of viable bacteria in liquid medium using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaimeh, Ahmad A.; Campion, Jeffrey J.; Gharaibeh, Belal Y.; Evans, Martin E.; Saito, Kozo

    2011-11-01

    Quantifying viable bacteria in liquids is important in environmental, food processing, manufacturing, and medical applications. Since vegetative bacteria generate heat as a result of biochemical reactions associated with cellular functions, thermal sensing techniques, including infrared thermography (IRT), have been used to detect viable cells in biologic samples. We developed a novel method that extends the dynamic range and improves the sensitivity of bacterial quantification by IRT. The approach uses IRT video, thermodynamics laws, and heat transfer mechanisms to directly measure, in real-time, the amount of energy lost as heat from the surface of a liquid sample containing bacteria when the specimen cools to a lower temperature over 2 min. We show that the Energy Content ( EC) of liquid media containing as few as 120 colony-forming units (CFU) of Escherichia coli per ml was significantly higher than that of sterile media ( P < 0.0001), and that EC and viable counts were strongly positively correlated ( r = 0.986) over a range of 120 to approximately 5 × 10 8 CFU/ml. Our IRT approach is a unique non-contact method that provides real-time bacterial enumeration over a wide dynamic range without the need for sample concentration, modification, or destruction. The approach could be adapted to quantify other living cells in a liquid milieu and has the potential for automation and high throughput.

  17. Viable Biomass Sensor integration in the MELiSSA CI and CIII compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duatis Juarez, Jordi; Peiro, Enrique; Bragos, Ramon

    Traditionally, the biomass quantity and quality in complex substrate reactor (e.g. activated sludge, high density, fixed bed,..) is determined off-line in laboratories. Within this study, the VIAMASS Sensor System, which uses Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques, has been tested for MELiSSA compartment CI and C III, the liquefying and the nitrifying compartment respectively. This sensor is able to measure viable cells on basis of an impedance spectroscopy measurement. The fact that viable biomass can be detected, distinguishes the sensor from classical biomass sensors used in wastewater treatment plants. Detection of viable biomass and composition of the biomass can be very useful for calibration and validation of biological models. The sensor can be used to detect toxicity in system leading to die-off of organisms. The technology developed initially for space applications has been adapted and will be also able to give overall information on the population distribution of cells, distinguishing what type of biomass is dominant (for example, bacteria or protozoa).

  18. PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Since the Viking missions in the mid-1970s, traditional culture-based methods have been used for microbial enumeration by various NASA programs. Viable microbes are of particular concern for spacecraft cleanliness, for forward contamination of extraterrestrial bodies (proliferation of microbes), and for crew health/safety (viable pathogenic microbes). However, a "true" estimation of viable microbial population and differentiation from their dead cells using the most sensitive molecular methods is a challenge, because of the stability of DNA from dead cells. The goal of this research is to evaluate a rapid and sensitive microbial detection concept that will selectively estimate viable microbes. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have shown promise for reducing time to detection for a wide range of applications. The proposed method is based on the use of a fluorescent DNA intercalating agent, propidium monoazide (PMA), which can only penetrate the membrane of dead cells. The PMA-quenched reaction mixtures can be screened, where only the DNA from live cells will be available for subsequent PCR reaction and microarray detection, and be identified as part of the viable microbial community. An additional advantage of the proposed rapid method is that it will detect viable microbes and differentiate from dead cells in only a few hours, as opposed to less comprehensive culture-based assays, which take days to complete. This novel combination approach is called the PMA-Microarray method. DNA intercalating agents such as PMA have previously been used to selectively distinguish between viable and dead bacterial cells. Once in the cell, the dye intercalates with the DNA and, upon photolysis under visible light, produces stable DNA adducts. DNA cross-linked in this way is unavailable for PCR. Environmental samples suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead microbial cells/spores will be treated with PMA, and then incubated in the dark. Thereafter, the sample is exposed to visible light for five minutes, so that the DNA from dead cells will be cross-linked. Following this PMA treatment step, the sample is concentrated by centrifugation and washed (to remove excessive PMA) before DNA is extracted. The 16S rRNA gene fragments will be amplified by PCR to screen the total microbial community using PhyloChip DNA microarray analysis. This approach will detect only the viable microbial community since the PMA intercalated DNA from dead cells would be unavailable for PCR amplification. The total detection time including PCR reaction for low biomass samples will be a few hours. Numerous markets may use this technology. The food industry uses spore detection to validate new alternative food processing technologies, sterility, and quality. Pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies also detect spores as a marker for sterility. This system can be used for validating sterilization processes, water treatment systems, and in various public health and homeland security applications.

  19. The use of flow cytometry to accurately ascertain total and viable counts of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in chocolate.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the precision and accuracy of flow cytometry (FC) methodologies in the evaluation of populations of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011) in two commercial dried forms, and ascertain the challenges in enumerating them in a chocolate matrix. FC analyses of total (FC(T)) and viable (FC(V)) counts in liquid or dried cultures were almost two times more precise (reproducible) than traditional direct microscopic counts (DCM) or colony forming units (CFU). With FC, it was possible to ascertain low levels of dead cells (FC(D)) in fresh cultures, which is not possible with traditional CFU and DMC methodologies. There was no interference of chocolate solids on FC counts of probiotics when inoculation was above 10(7) bacteria per g. Addition of probiotics in chocolate at 40 °C resulted in a 37% loss in viable cells. Blending of the probiotic powder into chocolate was not uniform which raised a concern that the precision of viable counts could suffer. FCT data can serve to identify the correct inoculation level of a sample, and viable counts (FCV or CFU) can subsequently be better interpreted. PMID:25475282

  20. Characterization of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC) State in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Salma, Mohammad; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Sequeira-Le Grand, Anabelle; Divol, Benoit; Alexandre, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    The Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC) state has been thoroughly studied in bacteria. In contrast, it has received much less attention in other microorganisms. However, it has been suggested that various yeast species occurring in wine may enter in VBNC following sulfite stress.In order to provide conclusive evidences for the existence of a VBNC state in yeast, the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enter into a VBNC state by applying sulfite stress was investigated. Viable populations were monitored by flow cytometry while culturable populations were followed by plating on culture medium. Twenty-four hours after the application of the stress, the comparison between the culturable population and the viable population demonstrated the presence of viable cells that were non culturable. In addition, removal of the stress by increasing the pH of the medium at different time intervals into the VBNC state allowed the VBNC S. cerevisiae cells to “resuscitate”. The similarity between the cell cycle profiles of VBNC cells and cells exiting the VBNC state together with the generation rate of cells exiting VBNC state demonstrated the absence of cellular multiplication during the exit from the VBNC state. This provides evidence of a true VBNC state. To get further insight into the molecular mechanism pertaining to the VBNC state, we studied the involvement of the SSU1 gene, encoding a sulfite pump in S. cerevisiae. The physiological behavior of wild-type S. cerevisiae was compared to those of a recombinant strain overexpressing SSU1 and null ?ssu1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that the SSU1 gene is only implicated in the first stages of sulfite resistance but not per se in the VBNC phenotype. Our study clearly demonstrated the existence of an SO2-induced VBNC state in S. cerevisiae and that the stress removal allows the “resuscitation” of VBNC cells during the VBNC state. PMID:24204887

  1. Hair follicles are viable after delayed FUE procedure.

    PubMed

    Mohebbipour Laran, Alireza; Mirmohammadi, Ramin; Rezaei Bana, Mohammadreza; Manoochehri, Shaghayegh

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, male pattern hair loss is usually managed with hair transplant. However, maintaining the hair follicle viability between extraction and implantation period is a great concern which restricts the hair transplantation period. However, it is possible that the hair follicles can be preserved and be viable for few days. Here, we report a case with delayed follicular unit extraction in three consecutive days with acceptable hair growth after a 5-month follow-up. PMID:25968165

  2. Soluble Factors Released by Endogenous Viable Cells Enhance the Antioxidant and Chemoattractive Activities of Cryopreserved Amniotic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Duan-Arnold, Yi; Gyurdieva, Alexandra; Johnson, Amy; Jacobstein, Douglas A.; Danilkovitch, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Regulation of oxidative stress and recruitment of key cell types are activities of human amniotic membrane (hAM) that contribute to its benefits for wound treatment. Progress in tissue preservation has led to commercialization of hAM. The majority of hAM products are devitalized with various degrees of matrix alteration. Data show the importance of hAM matrix preservation, but little is known about the advantages of retaining viable endogenous cells. In this study, we compared the antioxidant and chemoattractive properties of viable intact cryopreserved hAM (int-hAM) and devitalized cryopreserved hAM (dev-hAM) to determine the benefits of cell preservation. Approach: We evaluated the ability of int-hAM and dev-hAM to protect fibroblasts from oxidant-induced cell damage, to suppress oxidants, and to recruit fibroblasts and keratinocytes in vitro. Results: Both the int-hAM–derived conditioned medium (CM) and the int-hAM tissue rescued significantly more fibroblasts from oxidant-induced damage than dev-hAM (844% and 93% more, respectively). The int-hAM CM showed a 202% greater antioxidant capacity than dev-hAM. The int-hAM CM enhanced the recruitment of fibroblasts and normal and diseased keratinocytes to a greater extent than dev-hAM (1,555%, 315%, and 151% greater, respectively). Innovation and Conclusion: Int-hAM, in which all native components are preserved, including endogenous viable cells, demonstrated a significantly greater antioxidant and fibroblast and keratinocyte chemoattractive potential compared to dev-hAM, in which viable cells are destroyed. The release of soluble factors that protect fibroblasts from oxidative injury by hAM containing viable cells is a mechanism of hAM antioxidant activity, which is a novel finding of this study. PMID:26029483

  3. Genetic Algorithms and the Search for Viable String Vacua

    E-print Network

    Steven Abel; John Rizos

    2014-06-16

    Genetic Algorithms are introduced as a search method for finding string vacua with viable phenomenological properties. It is shown, by testing them against a class of Free Fermionic models, that they are orders of magnitude more efficient than a randomised search. As an example, three generation, exophobic, Pati-Salam models with a top Yukawa occur once in every 10^{10} models, and yet a Genetic Algorithm can find them after constructing only 10^5 examples. Such non-deterministic search methods may be the only means to search for Standard Model string vacua with detailed phenomenological requirements.

  4. Genetic Algorithms and the Search for Viable String Vacua

    E-print Network

    Abel, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Genetic Algorithms are introduced as a search method for finding string vacua with viable phenomenological properties. It is shown, by testing them against a class of Free Fermionic models, that they are orders of magnitude more efficient than a randomised search. As an example, three generation, exophobic, Pati-Salam models with a top Yukawa occur once in every 10^{10} models, and yet a Genetic Algorithm can find them after constructing only 10^5 examples. Such non-deterministic search methods may be the only means to search for Standard Model string vacua with detailed phenomenological requirements.

  5. Genetic algorithms and the search for viable string vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Steven; Rizos, John

    2014-08-01

    Genetic Algorithms are introduced as a search method for finding string vacua with viable phenomenological properties. It is shown, by testing them against a class of Free Fermionic models, that they are orders of magnitude more efficient than a randomised search. As an example, three generation, exophobic, Pati-Salam models with a top Yukawa occur once in every 1010 models, and yet a Genetic Algorithm can find them after constructing only 105 examples. Such non-deterministic search methods may be the only means to search for Standard Model string vacua with detailed phenomenological requirements.

  6. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R.; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Persson Hovmalm, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals. PMID:25913379

  7. Market Research Survey of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Portable MS Systems for IAEA Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Garret L.; Hager, George J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes the results for the market research survey of mass spectrometers that are deemed pertinent to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) needs and strategic objectives. The focus of the report is on MS instruments that represent currently available (or soon to be) commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technology and weigh less than 400 pounds. A compilation of all available MS instruments (36 COTS and 2 R&D) is presented, along with pertinent information regarding each instrument.

  8. Free-floating planets: a viable option for panspermia

    E-print Network

    Durand-Manterola, Hector Javier

    2010-01-01

    Genomic complexity can be used as a clock with which the moment in which life originated can be measured. Some authors who have studied this problem have come to the conclusion that it is not possible that terrestrial life originated here and that, in reality, life originated giga-years ago, before the solar system existed. If we accept this conclusion there is no other option than to admit that panspermia is something viable.The goal of this study is to propose a viable hypothesis for the transport of SLF from one planetary system to another. During the formation period of a planetary system giant planets can eject planets the size of the Earth, or larger, turning them into free-floating planets in interstellar space. These free-floating planets have also been called free floaters. If a free floater, which has developed life, enters a lifeless planetary system, it can seed the worlds of this system with SLF dragged by the stellar wind from one planet to another or by great impacts on the free planet. To supp...

  9. Construction of cosmologically viable f(G) gravity models

    E-print Network

    Antonio De Felice; Shinji Tsujikawa

    2009-03-31

    We derive conditions under which f(G) gravity models, whose Lagrangian densities f are written in terms of a Gauss-Bonnet term G, are cosmologically viable. The most crucial condition to be satisfied is that f_GG, the second derivative of f with respect to G, must be positive, which is required to ensure the stability of a late-time de-Sitter solution as well as the existence of standard radiation/matter dominated epochs. We present a number of explicit f(G) models in which a cosmic acceleration is followed by the matter era. We find that the equation of state of dark energy can cross the phantom divide before reaching the present Universe. The viable models have asymptotic behavior f_GG goes to +0 when |G| goes to infinity, in which case a rapid oscillation of perturbations occurs unless such an oscillating degree of freedom is suppressed relative to a homogeneous mode in the early universe. We also introduce an iterative method to avoid numerical instabilities associated with a large mass of the oscillating mode.

  10. Metabolic activity of bacterial cells enumerated by direct viable count

    SciTech Connect

    Roszak, D.B.; Colwell, R.R.

    1987-12-01

    The direct viable count (DVC) method was modified by incorporating radiolabeled substrates in microautoradiographic analyses to assess bacterial survival in controlled laboratory microcosms. The DVC method, which permits enumeration of culturable and nonculturable cells, discriminates those cells that are responsive to added nutrients but in which division is inhibited by the addition of nalidixic acid. The resulting elongated cells represent all viable cells; this includes those that are culturable on routine media and those that are not. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis were employed in the microcosm studies, and radiolabeled substrates included (methyl-tritium thymidine or (Uranium-Carbon 14) glutamic acid. Samples taken at selected intervals during the survival experiments were examined by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate cells by the DVC and acridine orange direct count methods, as well as by culture methods. Good correlation was obtained for cell-associated metabolic activity, measured by microautoradiography and substrate responsiveness (by the DVC method) at various stages of survival. Of the cells responsive to nutrients by the DVC method, ca 90% were metabolically active by the microautoradiographic method. No significant difference was observed between DVC enumerations with or without added radiolabeled substrate.

  11. From formamide to purine: an energetically viable mechanistic reaction pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Jiande; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Springsteen, Greg; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2013-02-28

    A step-by-step mechanistic pathway following the transformation of formamide to purine through a five-membered ring intermediate has been explored by density functional theory computations. The highlight of the mechanistic route detailed here is that the proposed pathway represents the simplest reaction pathway. All necessary reactants are generated from a single starting compound, formamide, through energetically viable reactions. Several important reaction steps are involved in this mechanistic route: formylation-dehydration, Leuckart reduction, five- and six-membered ring-closure, and deamination. On the basis of the study of noncatalytic pathways, catalytic water has been found to provide energetically viable step-by-step mechanistic pathways. Among these reaction steps, five-member ring-closure is the rate-determining step. The energy barrier (ca. 42 kcal/mol) of this rate-control step is somewhat lower than the rate-determining step (ca. 44 kcal/mol) for a pyrimidine-based pathway reported previously. The mechanistic pathway reported herein is less energetically demanding than for previously proposed routes to adenine. PMID:23347082

  12. Viable but Nonculturable Bacteria: Food Safety and Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fakruddin, Md.; Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin; Andrews, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state is a unique survival strategy of many bacteria in the environment in response to adverse environmental conditions. VBNC bacteria cannot be cultured on routine microbiological media, but they remain viable and retain virulence. The VBNC bacteria can be resuscitated when provided with appropriate conditions. A good number of bacteria including many human pathogens have been reported to enter the VBNC state. Though there have been disputes on the existence of VBNC in the past, extensive molecular studies have resolved most of them, and VBNC has been accepted as a distinct survival state. VBNC pathogenic bacteria are considered a threat to public health and food safety due to their nondetectability through conventional food and water testing methods. A number of disease outbreaks have been reported where VBNC bacteria have been implicated as the causative agent. Further molecular and combinatorial research is needed to tackle the threat posed by VBNC bacteria with regard to public health and food safety. PMID:24191231

  13. Commercial Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) at Stennis Space Center, Applied Analysis, Inc. developed a new tool for analyzing remotely sensed data. The Applied Analysis Spectral Analytical Process (AASAP) detects or classifies objects smaller than a pixel and removes the background. This significantly enhances the discrimination among surface features in imagery. ERDAS, Inc. offers the system as a modular addition to its ERDAS IMAGINE software package for remote sensing applications. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant. Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP), Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing (OCENS) developed SeaStation for marine users. SeaStation is a low-cost, portable, shipboard satellite groundstation integrated with vessel catch and product monitoring software. Linked to the Global Positioning System, SeaStation provides real time relationships between vessel position and data such as sea surface temperature, weather conditions and ice edge location. This allows the user to increase fishing productivity and improve vessel safety. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant.

  14. Efficacy of several commercially formulated essential oils against caged female Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus when operationally applied via an automatic-timed insecticide application system.

    PubMed

    Cilek, J E; Hallmon, C F; Johnson, R

    2011-09-01

    The effectiveness of several commercially available products containing plant essential oils against caged female Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus was studied. Products operationally applied via an automatic-timed insecticide application system (MistAway) at maximum label rates were EcoExempt MC (9.0 ml/liter, rosemary oil [18% AI], cinnamon oil [2% AI], lemongrass oil [2% AI], plus 78% "other ingredients" in wintergreen oil). Misting System Concentrate (4 ml/liter, oil of Juniperus virginiana [85% AI]), Mosquito Barrier (31.1 ml/liter, garlic oil [99.3% AI], and citric acid [0.5% AI]), and No-See-Um Organic Repellent (99.5 ml/liter, lemongrass [4% AI], citronella [3% AI], castor oil [3% AI], sodium laurate [3%], and garlic oil [1% AI] in an 86% [AI] mixture of wintergreen oil, lecithin, and water). All products were compared with a commercial formulation of synergized pyrethrins, Riptide (9.0 ml/liter, pyrethrins [5% AI], piperonyl butoxide [25% AI]), as a standard. Mortality was the greatest for Riptide to both mosquito species with effectiveness influenced by distance from the nozzle (ranging from > 80% at 3 m to > 10% at 20 m). The essential oil products resulted in < 10% mortality for each species regardless of application exposure distance with the exception of EcoExempt, which gave approximately 13% mortality of caged female Ae. albopictus 6 m from the nozzles. PMID:22017089

  15. Production of viable trout offspring derived from frozen whole fish.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seungki; Seki, Shinsuke; Katayama, Naoto; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2015-01-01

    Long-term preservation of fish fertility is essential for the conservation of endangered fishes. However, cryopreservation techniques for fish oocytes and embryos have not yet been developed. In the present study, functional eggs and sperm were derived from whole rainbow trout that had been frozen in a freezer and stored without the aid of exogenous cryoprotectants. Type A spermatogonia retrieved from frozen-thawed whole trout remained viable after freezing duration up to 1,113 days. Long-term-frozen trout spermatogonia that were intraperitoneally transplanted into triploid salmon hatchlings migrated toward the recipient gonads, where they were incorporated, and proliferated rapidly. Although all triploid recipients that did not undergo transplantation were functionally sterile, 2 of 12 female recipients and 4 of 13 male recipients reached sexual maturity. Eggs and sperm obtained from the salmon recipients were capable of producing donor-derived trout offspring. This methodology is thus a convenient emergency tool for the preservation of endangered fishes. PMID:26522018

  16. Simultaneous pyometra and viable puppies’ gestation in a bitch

    PubMed Central

    Risso, A.; Pellegrino, F.J.; Corrada, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Here we describe a case of pyometra coexisting with gestation in a 4.5 year-old miniature short-haired Dachshund. The dog exhibited depression, vaginal discharge, polydipsia and dehydration. Ultrasound examination revealed the presence of low to moderate anechoic fluid collection in the left uterine horn. Blood analysis revealed mild neutrophilia with a left shift. Based on these findings a presumptive diagnosis of pyometra was made and the bitch was treated using amoxicillin-clavulanate with dopaminergic agonist (cabergoline). A second ultrasound scan revealed the presence of two gestational vesicles in the right uterine horn that were successfully carried to term. Unusually, while pyometra persisted in the left uterine horn, two viable puppies were delivered by caesarean section from the right uterine horn.

  17. A viable logarithmic f(R) model for inflation

    E-print Network

    Amin, M; Salah, M

    2016-01-01

    Inflation in the framework of $f(R)$ modified gravity is revisited. We study the conditions that $f(R)$ should satisfy in order to lead to a viable inflationary model in the original form and in the Einstein frame. Based on these criteria we propose a new logarithmic model as a potential candidate for $f(R)$ theories aiming to describe inflation consistent with observations from \\textit{Planck} satellite (2015). The model predicts scalar spectral index $n_s\\approx0.965$ in agreement with observation and tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ of order $10^{-3}$. Furthermore, we show that for a class of models, a natural coupling between inflation and a scalar boson is generated through the minimal coupling between gravity and matter fields and a reheating temperature less that $10^9$ GeV is obtained.

  18. Production of viable trout offspring derived from frozen whole fish

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seungki; Seki, Shinsuke; Katayama, Naoto; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2015-01-01

    Long-term preservation of fish fertility is essential for the conservation of endangered fishes. However, cryopreservation techniques for fish oocytes and embryos have not yet been developed. In the present study, functional eggs and sperm were derived from whole rainbow trout that had been frozen in a freezer and stored without the aid of exogenous cryoprotectants. Type A spermatogonia retrieved from frozen-thawed whole trout remained viable after freezing duration up to 1,113 days. Long-term-frozen trout spermatogonia that were intraperitoneally transplanted into triploid salmon hatchlings migrated toward the recipient gonads, where they were incorporated, and proliferated rapidly. Although all triploid recipients that did not undergo transplantation were functionally sterile, 2 of 12 female recipients and 4 of 13 male recipients reached sexual maturity. Eggs and sperm obtained from the salmon recipients were capable of producing donor-derived trout offspring. This methodology is thus a convenient emergency tool for the preservation of endangered fishes. PMID:26522018

  19. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  20. A viable alternative to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) analyses...An axial inductively coupled plasma spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Petterelli, M.N.

    1994-12-31

    As in many business sectors, the increase in the competitiveness of commercial environmental laboratories has risen rapidly in the past several years. One of the mechanisms that the commercial laboratories use to overcome these difficulties is the total quality management (TQM) process. One of the cornerstones of the TQM process is the continuous improvement idea of identifying, defining and improving upon the ``limiting factor`` in any given area. In the trace metals section of their laboratory, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption (GFAA) Spectrometer analyses were identified as being the ``limiting factor`` in many instances. To resolve or improve upon this situation the authors looked to the many TQM concepts available. When the authors saw the word ``innovation``, the authors more seriously investigated the use of Axial Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) techniques as a viable alternative to GFAA analyses.

  1. Viable spore counts in biological controls pre-sterilization.

    PubMed

    Brusca, María I; Bernat, María I; Turcot, Liliana; Nastri, Natalia; Nastri, Maria; Rosa, Alcira

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the total count of viable spores in standardized inoculated carriers pre-sterilization. Samples of "Bacterial Spore Sterilization Strip" (R Biological Laboratories) (well before their expiry date) were divided into Group A (B. subtilis) and Group B (B. stearothermophylus). Twenty-four strips were tested per group. The strips were minced in groups of three, placed in chilled sterile water and vortexed for 5 minutes to obtain a homogenous suspension. Ten ml of the homogenous suspension were transferred to two sterile jars, i.e. one jar per group. The samples were then heated in a water bath at 95 degrees C (Group A) or 80 degrees C (Group B) for 15 minutes and cooled rapidly in an ice bath at 0- 4 degrees C during 15 minutes. Successive dilutions were performed until a final aliquot of 30 to 300 colony-forming units (CFU) was obtained. The inoculums were placed in Petri dishes with culture medium (soy extract, casein agar adapted for spores, melted and cooled to 45-50 degrees C) and incubated at 55 degrees C or 37 degrees C. Statistical analysis of the data was performed. A larger number of spores were found at 48 hours than at 24 hours. However, this finding did not hold true for all the groups. The present results show that monitoring viable spores pre-sterilization would guarantee the accuracy of the data. Total spore counts must be within 50 and 300% of the number of spores indicated in the biological control. The procedure is essential to guarantee the efficacy of the biological control. PMID:16673791

  2. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section...26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. Each serial...required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be tested as...

  3. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section...26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. Each serial...required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be tested as...

  4. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section...26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. Each serial...required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be tested as...

  5. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section...26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. Each serial...required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be tested as...

  6. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section...26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. Each serial...required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be tested as...

  7. Newly designed and validated impedance spectroscopy setup in microtiter plates successfully monitors viable biomass online.

    PubMed

    Luchterhand, Bettina; Nolten, Jannis; Hafizovic, Sadik; Schlepütz, Tino; Wewetzer, Sandra Janine; Pach, Elke; Meier, Kristina; Wandrey, Georg; Büchs, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    In microtiter plates, conventional online monitoring of biomass concentration based on optical measurements is limited to transparent media: It also cannot differentiate between dead or viable biomass or suspended particles. To address this limitation, this study introduces and validates a new online monitoring setup based on impedance spectroscopy for detecting only viable biomass in 48- and 96-well microtiter plates. The setup was first validated electronically and characterized by determining the cell constants of the measuring geometry. Defined cell suspensions of Ustilago maydis, Hansenula polymorpha, Escherichia coli and Bacillus licheniformis were characterized to find, among other parameters, the most suitable frequency range and the characteristic frequency of ?-dispersion for each organism. Finally, the setup was exemplarily applied to monitor the growth of Hansenula polymorpha online. As reference, three different parallel cultures were performed in established cultivation systems. This new online monitoring setup based on impedance spectroscopy is robust and enables precise measurements of microbial biomass concentration. It is promising for future high-throughput applications. PMID:26014759

  8. On the Trace-Free Einstein Equations as a Viable Alternative to General Relativity

    E-print Network

    George F. R. Ellis; Henk van Elst; Jeff Murugan; Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-04-11

    The quantum field theoretic prediction for the vacuum energy density leads to a value for the effective cosmological constant that is incorrect by between 60 to 120 orders of magnitude. We review an old proposal of replacing Einstein's Field Equations by their trace-free part (the Trace-Free Einstein Equations), together with an independent assumption of energy--momentum conservation by matter fields. While this does not solve the fundamental issue of why the cosmological constant has the value that is observed cosmologically, it is indeed a viable theory that resolves the problem of the discrepancy between the vacuum energy density and the observed value of the cosmological constant. However, one has to check that, as well as preserving the standard cosmological equations, this does not destroy other predictions, such as the junction conditions that underlie the use of standard stellar models. We confirm that no problems arise here: hence, the Trace-Free Einstein Equations are indeed viable for cosmological and astrophysical applications.

  9. Intracellular integration of synthetic nanostructures with viable cells for controlled biochemical manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Timothy E.; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Griffin, Guy D.; Guillorn, Michael A.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Serna, Francisco; Hensley, Dale K.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2003-05-01

    We demonstrate the integration of vertically aligned carbon nanofibre (VACNF) elements with the intracellular domains of viable cells for controlled biochemical manipulation. Deterministically synthesized VACNFs were modified with either adsorbed or covalently-linked plasmid DNA and were subsequently inserted into cells. Post insertion viability of the cells was demonstrated by continued proliferation of the interfaced cells and long-term (> 22 day) expression of the introduced plasmid. Adsorbed plasmids were typically desorbed in the intracellular domain and segregated to progeny cells. Covalently bound plasmids remained tethered to nanofibres and were expressed in interfaced cells but were not partitioned into progeny, and gene expression ceased when the nanofibre was no longer retained. This provides a method for achieving a genetic modification that is non-inheritable and whose extent in time can be directly and precisely controlled. These results demonstrate the potential of VACNF arrays as an intracellular interface for monitoring and controlling subcellular and molecular phenomena within viable cells for applications including biosensors, in vivo diagnostics, and in vivo logic devices.

  10. 15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents... of commercial recovery. The plan must include sufficient information for the Administrator,...

  11. 15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents... of commercial recovery. The plan must include sufficient information for the Administrator,...

  12. 15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents... of commercial recovery. The plan must include sufficient information for the Administrator,...

  13. 15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents... of commercial recovery. The plan must include sufficient information for the Administrator,...

  14. 77 FR 40142 - Applications for Exemption: Commercial Driver's License (CDL) and Hours-of-Service (HOS) of Drivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...drivers who transport aviation fuel for aircraft engaged in firefighting operations in remote areas. Western asked for exemption...transport jet fuel in tank CMVs in support of aircraft engaged in firefighting operations. The applicants asked for exemption from...

  15. 78 FR 23150 - Commercial Radio Operators

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ...follows: Sec. 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses...Telecommunications Bureau, with respect to amateur and commercial radio operator licenses...An expired or unexpired FCC-issued Amateur Extra Class operator license grant...

  16. Laser Coating Technology; A Commercial Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Andrew G.; Mangaly, A. A.; Everett, M. A.; Hammeke, A. H.

    1988-10-01

    Commercial acceptance of laser coating technology suffered for many years due to questions about its economic viability. During this period, however, many companies, universities, and government research groups were busy developing the technology to overcome these questions. Today, laser coating technology is having a major impact as a high quality, economical method of hardfacing for wear and corrosion resistance in several key industries. This has occurred because of advances in five key areas: 1. High power laser design 2. Method of alloy deposition, and associated hardware 3. In-process feed back control system hardware/software development 4. Alloy systems 5. Marketing/sales sophistication High power lasers have improved in mode stability, power conversion efficiency, and optical flexibility (reflective vs. transmissive materials). This has enabled the process engineer to increase deposition efficiency, and maintain flexibility on the use of optics specifically designed for a user application. Improvements in the method of alloy deposition have led to developments such as the DPF system with specialized nozzles developed for specific user applications. Another effective technique includes the use of pre-fabricated cast alloy chips that are welded to the component surface on the specific area requiring protection. The development of feedback control systems that integrate process control software with hard tooling, the laser, and the alloy delivery system are greatly improving process reliability and product quality. Because of this, "in-process" quality control is becoming a viable alternative to traditional methods of quality control. Metallurgical evaluations of some of the most widely used hardfacing alloys and base materials have been investigated by numerous researchers. Analysis has confirmed that laser applied coatings are of high metallurgical quality, extremely low in dilution, and distort less due to low heat input. The technology can also be used to apply. wear/corrosion resistant alloys heretofore considered unweldable. These technological advances, coupled with application experience have proven that laser coating technology is not only a viable alternative to conventional hardface and/or spray coatings; but in many cases significantly reduces the overall manufacturing costs of a coated product. Early marketing efforts focused on direct "coating process to coating process" comparisons with competing technologies.

  17. Introduction to applications and industries for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen

    2003-07-01

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) have gained acceptance as viable products for many commercial and government applications. MEMS are currently being used as displays for digital projection systems, sensors for airbag deployment systems, inkjet print head systems, and optical routers. This paper will discuss current and future MEMS applications. What are MEMS? MEMS are typically defined as microscopic devices designed, processed, and used to interact or produce changes within a local environment. A mechanical, electrical, or chemical stimulus can be used to create a mechanical, electrical, or chemical response in a local environment. These smaller, more sophisticated devices that think, act, sense, and communicate are replacing their bulk counterparts in many traditional applications.

  18. Application of laboratory prepared and commercially available biochars to adsorption of cadmium, copper and zinc ions from water.

    PubMed

    Bogusz, Aleksandra; Oleszczuk, Patryk; Dobrowolski, Ryszard

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the presented work was the evaluation and comparison of two biochars (produced from Sida hermaphrodita - BCSH/laboratory produced and from wheatstraw - BCS/commercial available) to adsorb heavy metal ions (Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)) from water. Kinetics of the sorption as well as sorption isotherms, the influence of solution pH and interfering ions were investigated. Different physico-chemical properties of biochars had the great influence on adsorption capacity. The greater adsorption efficiency was observed for BCSH than for BCS in the case of all investigated metals. The adsorption efficiency of BCSH was correlated with higher content of carbon and oxygen, what is equal with higher content of polar-groups on the BCSH surface e.g., -COOH. Furthermore, the molar ratio of O/C as well as polarity index (which was higher for BCSH) was also important parameters. PMID:26295440

  19. The commercialization of aluminum composites: Technical challenges and commercial realities

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    The establishment of a viable commercial business for the production and sale of aluminum composites has been a dream for at least twenty years. Unfortunately, the successful realization of this goal is very complex and frustrating. The development of a viable process for the commercial production of an aluminum composite with attractive physical/mechanical properties and price is only just the beginning, Substantial technical challenges of forming, casting, joining, machining and recycling must be faced along with a myriad of support technologies such as chemical analysis, quality standards and specifications. These technical challenges are complimented with a range of business issues such as price, product standardization, complex customer relationships, competition and product acceptance which often conflict with or influence the technical considerations. Duralcan USA has been working for more than five years to conquer these challenges and success appears to be within sight. A review of Duralcan USA`s technical and business experiences will provide insight into the issues and conflicts, a perspective into the size of the challenges and guidance to other emerging composites companies.

  20. Commercialization of fuel-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O'Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  1. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

  2. 40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Submission and approval of State plans... CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.7 Submission and approval of State plans for certification of... appropriate in the event of criminal conviction under section 14(b) of the amended FIFRA, a final...

  3. 40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Submission and approval of State plans... CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.7 Submission and approval of State plans for certification of... appropriate in the event of criminal conviction under section 14(b) of the amended FIFRA, a final...

  4. 40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Submission and approval of State plans... CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.7 Submission and approval of State plans for certification of... appropriate in the event of criminal conviction under section 14(b) of the amended FIFRA, a final...

  5. 40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submission and approval of State plans... CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.7 Submission and approval of State plans for certification of... appropriate in the event of criminal conviction under section 14(b) of the amended FIFRA, a final...

  6. An Overview of Nuclear vs. Non-Nuclear Design Code Requirements for a Candidate Steam Supply System for Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Jetter

    2011-04-01

    The objective is to identify (mostly for industrial end-users) the difference between a Section III nuclear steam generator (classified as Structures, Systems and Components (SSC)) and a Section VIII steam generator in the same general conditions, but used in a conventional application. Specifically, applicable temperature and pressure ranges and a more quantitative description of how materials change, design margins change and required design rigor changes are of interest. This overview focuses on the steam generator pressure boundary but the downstream piping will also be considered. Within the designations of Section III and Section VIII there are subcategories with their specific regions of applicability. Each of these subcategories has evolved their own unique features with respect to design rules and their implementation. A general overview of the various design codes will be provided in sufficient detail to illustrate the major differences; however, a detailed discussion of the various design requirements and their implementation is beyond the scope of this discussion. References (1) and (2) are sources of more detailed information. Also, example wall sizing calculations will be provided to illustrate the application of the relevant design codes under the candidate design conditions. The candidate steam supply Design Conditions are 600C (1112F) and 24MPa (3,480psi). The Operating Conditions or Service Levels will be somewhat lower and the difference shows up in some of the various design methodologies employed.

  7. Evaluation of low-residue soldering for military and commercial applications: A report from the Low-Residue Soldering Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J.; Burress, R.V.

    1995-06-01

    The LRSTF combined the efforts of industry, military, and government to evaluate low-residue soldering processes for military and commercial applications. These processes were selected for evaluation because they provide a means for the military to support the presidential mandate while producing reliable hardware at a lower cost. This report presents the complete details and results of a testing program conducted by the LRSTF to evaluate low-residue soldering for printed wiring assemblies. A previous informal document provided details of the test plan used in this evaluation. Many of the details of that test plan are contained in this report. The test data are too massive to include in this report, however, these data are available on disk as Excel spreadsheets upon request. The main purpose of low-residue soldering is to eliminate waste streams during the manufacturing process.

  8. NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 6; NASA Space Applications, Aeronautics and Space Research and Technology, Tracking and Data Acquisition/Support Operations, Commercial Programs and

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumerman, Judy A.

    2000-01-01

    This sixth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of several critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the space applications effort, the development and operation of aeronautics and space research and technology programs, tracking and data acquisition/space operations, commercial programs, facilities and installations, personnel, and finances and procurement during this era. Special thanks are owed to the student research assistants who gathered and input much of the tabular material-a particularly tedious undertaking. There are numerous people at NASA associated with historical study, technical information, and the mechanics of publishing who helped in myriad ways in the preparation of this historical data book.

  9. Neutron imaging of a commercial Li-ion battery during discharge: Application of monochromatic imaging and polychromatic dynamic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Leslie G.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Ham, Kyungmin; Dobbins, Tabbetha A.; Liu, Ping; Vajo, John J.

    2011-09-01

    A commercial lithium-ion polymer battery of prismatic construction was imaged in 2D by monochromatic neutron radiography at wavelengths around a LiC 6 spectral feature. Over the range of 3-4 Å, the neutron attenuation spectra for charged and discharged batteries are distinctly different. In a real-time experiment, a battery was observed during discharge at wavelengths spanning the LiC 6 spectral feature and its disappearance monitored. No evidence of "staging" was detected in this preliminary experiment. A similar battery was imaged in 3D with a new tomographic data acquisition scheme based on the Greek golden ratio; the scheme allows convenient post-processing to establish "time windows" for 3D image reconstruction. The 3D images at 5% state of charge intervals are compromised by beam hardening, but still show some asymmetric battery volume change with discharge. Finally comments on the future of neutron imaging for battery experiments, whether at continuous sources at nuclear reactors or at pulsed spallation sources, are discussed.

  10. An adhesive conducting electrode material based on commercial mesoporous titanium dioxide as a support for Horseradish peroxidase for bioelectrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Rahemi, Vanoushe; Trashin, Stanislav; Meynen, Vera; De Wael, Karolien

    2016-01-01

    An adhesive conducting electrode material containing of graphite, biocompatible ion exchange polymer nafion(®) and commercial mesoporous TiO2 impregnated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is prepared and characterized by amperometric, UV-vis and N2 sorption methods. The factors influencing the performance of the resulting biosensor are studied in detail. The optimal electrode material consists of 45% graphite, 50% impregnated HRP-TiO2 and 5% nafion(®). The optimum conditions for H2O2 reduction are an applied potential of -0.3V and 0.1mM hydroquinone. Sensitivity and limit of detection in the optimum conditions are 1AM(-1) cm(-2) and 1µM correspondingly. The N2 sorption results show that the pore volume of TiO2 decreases sharply upon adsorption of HRP. The preparation process of the proposed enzyme electrode is straightforward and potentially can be used for preparation of carbon paste electrodes for bioelectrochemical detections. PMID:26695318

  11. 78 FR 36790 - Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ...Docket No. USCG-2013-0518] Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies...applications for membership on the Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee (CFSAC...relating to the safe operation of commercial fishing industry vessels. DATES:...

  12. Towards viable cosmological models of disformal theories of gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The late-time cosmological dynamics of disformal gravity are investigated using dynamical systems methods. It is shown that in the general case there are no stable attractors that screen fifth forces locally and simultaneously describe a dark energy dominated universe. Viable scenarios have late-time properties that are independent of the disformal parameters and are identical to the equivalent conformal quintessence model. Our analysis reveals that configurations where the Jordan frame metric becomes singular are only reached in the infinite future, thus explaining the natural pathology resistance observed numerically by several previous works. The viability of models where this can happen is discussed in terms of both the cosmological dynamics and local phenomena. We identify a special parameter tuning such that there is a new fixed point that can match the presently observed dark energy density and equation of state. This model is unviable when the scalar couples to the visible sector but may provide a good candidate model for theories where only dark matter is disformally coupled.

  13. Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good. PMID:18096578

  14. The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta; Lepla, Ken B.; Van Winkle, Webb; James, Mr Brad; McAdam, Dr Steve

    2010-01-01

    Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

  15. Preparation of viable single cell suspensions of tracheal epithelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, N. F.; Margiotta, E. A.; Wilson, J. S.; Sebring, R. J.; Smith, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports a procedure used for isolating the entire epithelial lining of the rat trachea. Isolated trachea was initially filled with 0.2% hyaluronidase and incubated at 37 degrees C for 30 min. Tracheas were flushed with medium and then reinflated with 0.5 microgram/ml cytochalasin B and re-incubated for 60 min. The tracheal lumens were again flushed and reinstilled with 24 iu/ml pronase and incubated for a further 30 min. The tracheas were flushed again and the cells removed enumerated and viability assessed by trypan blue dye exclusion. Cell yields (X 10(6)) from 30 consecutive Fischer 344 rats were 5.06 +/- 0.16 (s.e.m.) and the mean percentage of viable cells was 83.13 +/- 1.10 (s.e.m.). This cell yield was close to the estimated tracheal cell population (5.3 X 10(6)). The suspensions were predominantly single cells which apparently retained a normal ultrastructural appearance. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3555592

  16. Precast commercial polyacrylamide gels for separation of DNA amplificates by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis: application to clonality analysis of lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Suttorp, M; von Neuhoff, N; Tiemann, M; Dreger, P; Schaub, J; Löffer, H; Parwaresch, R; Schmitz, N

    1996-04-01

    The third complementary determining region (CDR-III) of the rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) genes represents a unique marker for a lymphocyte and its clonal descendants and can be amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. This approach has markedly enhanced the sensitivity for detection of clonal lymphocyte populations in patients with malignant B-lymphoid neoplasias. To monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) in tissue specimens during or after antineoplastic treatment, the problem of detecting the presence of a few clonal (malignant) lymphocytes in coexistence with a majority of polyclonal lymphocytes has to be addressed. Semi-nested PCR amplification of CDR-III rearrangements from specimen infiltrated by tumor cells generates clonal signals in front of a polyclonal background, and therefore high resolution electrophoretic techniques for separation of DNA fragments are required. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) resolving DNA homo- and heteroduplexes according to their thermal stability has been successfully applied for this purpose using special electrophoretic equipment. We describe an adjustment to this technique by using a commercially available precast 0.5 mm thick polyacrylamide gel and by changing a standard horizontal electrophoretic device into a TGGE device. By this means we screened patients with B-cell lymphoma undergoing high-dosage radiochemotherapy followed by autologous transplantation for continuous presence of clonal (tumor-specific) CDR-III rearrangements. Specimens from blood and bone marrow were collected on diagnosis as well as before and after autologous transplantation. In addition, the autograft (bone marrow or peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells) was analyzed. Tumor cells were easily detected in the transplants and in specimens collected during follow-up examinations. The clinical value of these findings remains unclear as yet because the number of cases investigated was small and the follow-up time is still too short. However, we conclude that the technique of combining the sensitivity of PCR with the specificity of high resolution TGGE is easy to use, making it possible to handle, in a clinical routine, a great number of samples within a short time in order to monitor MRD in patients with B-cell neoplasias. PMID:8738325

  17. Prospective validation of a comprehensive in silico hERG model and its applications to commercial compound and drug databases.

    PubMed

    Doddareddy, Munikumar R; Klaasse, Elisabeth C; Shagufta; Ijzerman, Adriaan P; Bender, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Ligand-based in silico hERG models were generated for 2 644 compounds using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machines (SVM). As a result, the dataset used for the model generation is the largest publicly available (see Supporting Information). Extended connectivity fingerprints (ECFPs) and functional class fingerprints (FCFPs) were used to describe chemical space. All models showed area under curve (AUC) values ranging from 0.89 to 0.94 in a fivefold cross-validation, indicating high model consistency. Models correctly predicted 80 % of an additional, external test set; Y-scrambling was also performed to rule out chance correlation. Additionally models based on patch clamp data and radioligand binding data were generated separately to analyze their predictive ability when compared to combined models. To experimentally validate the models, 50 of the predicted hERG blockers from the Chembridge database and ten of the predicted non-hERG blockers from an in-house compound library were selected for biological evaluation. Out of those 50 predicted hERG blockers, tested at a concentration of 10 microM, 18 compounds showed more than 50 % displacement of [(3)H]astemizole binding to cell membranes expressing the hERG channel. K(i) values of four of the selected binders were determined to be in the micromolar and high nanomolar range (K(i) (VH01)=2.0 microM, K(i) (VH06)=0.15 microM, K(i) (VH19)=1.1 microM and K(i) (VH47)=18 microM). Of these four compounds, VH01 and VH47 showed also a second, even higher affinity binding site with K(i) values of 7.4 nM and 36 nM, respectively. In the case of non-hERG blockers, all ten compounds tested were found to be inactive, showing less than 50 % displacement of [(3)H]astemizole binding at 10 microM. These experimentally validated models were then used to virtually screen commercial compound databases to evaluate whether they contain hERG blockers. 109 784 (23 %) of Chembridge, 133 175 (38 %) of Chemdiv, 111 737 (31 %) of Asinex and 11 116 (18 %) of the Maybridge database were predicted to be hERG blockers by at least two of the models, a prediction which could, for example, be used as a pre-filtering tool for compounds with potential hERG liabilities. PMID:20349498

  18. Triclocarban, triclosan and its transformation product methyl triclosan in native earthworm species four years after a commercial-scale biosolids application.

    PubMed

    Macherius, André; Lapen, David R; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Römbke, Jörg; Topp, Edward; Coors, Anja

    2014-02-15

    Triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS) and methyl triclosan (Me-TCS) were detected in soil and the native population of earthworms of an agricultural field in Ottawa, Canada, about four years after a commercial-scale application of biosolids. In soil that received biosolids, TCC and TCS were detected at median concentrations of 13.0 and 1.5 ng/g soil (d.w.), respectively, while Me-TCS, the transformation product of triclosan, was detected at a six-fold higher median concentration than its precursor. In earthworms collected at the biosolids-amended field-plot about four years post application, Me-TCS was also detected at higher concentrations (26 to 114 ng/g tissue d.w.) than TCS (16-51 ng/g) and TCC (4-53 ng/g). These data provide evidence that not only parent compounds but also their transformation products need to be considered in faunal bioaccumulation studies. Moreover, the preliminary results for pooled earthworm samples from different ecological groups suggest that the degree of bioaccumulation of biosolids-associated contaminants may depend on the habitat and feeding behavior of the organisms. PMID:24291564

  19. 10 CFR 609.7 - Programmatic, technical and financial evaluation of Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... commercially in the United States, cannot yield a commercially viable product or service in the use proposed in..., research, or development. (5) The project does not avoid, reduce or sequester air pollutants or... in the United States, can be replicated, yields a commercially viable project or service in the...

  20. CASH 2021: commercial access and space habitation.

    PubMed

    Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Feretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frederic; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

    2002-01-01

    Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed. PMID:12583394

  1. Role of CD31 Binding Partners in Viable Leukocyte Detachment from Macrophages 

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Kim

    2007-01-01

    CD31 mediates homophilic interactions between leukocytes and macrophages during inflammation, apoptotic cells remain attached and are engulfed whereas viable cells actively detach. We hypothesised that differential ...

  2. Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells for pure electric bus applications: Aging mechanism identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zeyu; Jiang, Jiuchun; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Weige; Mi, Chunting Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need to provide more realistic and accurate State of Health estimations for batteries in electric vehicles. Thus, it is necessary to research various lithium-ion cell aging processes, including cell degradation and related path dependence. This paper focuses on quantitative analyses of cell aging path dependence in a repeatable laboratory setting, considering the influence of duty cycles, depth of discharge (DOD), and the frequency and severity of the thermal cycle, as reflected in pure electric buses operated in Beijing. Incremental capacity analysis (ICA) and differential voltage analysis (DVA) are applied to infer cell degradation mechanisms and quantify the attributions to capacity fade. It was observed that the cells experienced a higher rate of aging at 80% DOD and an accelerated aging at 40 °C in the thermal cycling, as a result of possible loss of active material (LAM) in both electrodes, in addition to the loss of lithium inventory (LLI) and inhibited kinetics. The slight capacity fade from low-temperature extremes likely caused by LLI due to lithium plating, whereas the noticeable fade after the high-temperature excursion was likely caused by LAM and hindrance to kinetics. These results may lead to improved battery management in EV applications.

  3. Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-06-01

    This report reviews published experimental and theoretical investigations of particle deposition from turbulent flows and considers the applicability of this body of work to the specific case of particle deposition from flows in the ducts of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Particle deposition can detrimentally affect the performance of HVAC systems and it influences the exposure of building occupants to a variety of air pollutants. The first section of this report describes the types of HVAC systems under consideration and discusses the components, materials and operating parameters commonly found in these systems. The second section reviews published experimental investigations of particle deposition rates from turbulent flows and considers the ramifications of the experimental evidence with respect to HVAC ducts. The third section considers the structure of turbulent airflows in ventilation ducts with a particular emphasis on turbulence investigations that have been used as a basis for particle deposition models. The final section reviews published literature on predicting particle deposition rates from turbulent flows.

  4. Energy simulation and optimization for a small commercial building through Modelica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, Bryan

    Small commercial buildings make up the majority of buildings in the United States. Energy consumed by these buildings is expected to drastically increase in the next few decades, with a large percentage of the energy consumed attributed to cooling systems. This work presents the simulation and optimization of a thermostat schedule to minimize energy consumption in a small commercial building test bed during the cooling season. The simulation occurs through the use of the multi-engineering domain Dymola environment based on the Modelica open source programming language and is optimized with the Java based optimization program GenOpt. The simulation uses both physically based modeling utilizing heat transfer principles for the building and regression analysis for energy consumption. GenOpt is dynamically coupled to Dymola through various interface files. There are very few studies that have coupled GenOpt to a building simulation program and even fewer studies have used Dymola for building simulation as extensively as the work presented here. The work presented proves Dymola as a viable alternative to other building simulation programs such as EnergyPlus and MatLab. The model developed is used to simulate the energy consumption of a test bed, a commissioned real world small commercial building, while maintaining indoor thermal comfort. Potential applications include smart or intelligent building systems, predictive simulation of small commercial buildings, and building diagnostics.

  5. Toward An Affordable Commercial Fuel Cell (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Visco, Steve

    2014-05-06

    Steve Visco, a materials scientist, has come up with a solid oxide fuel cell that promises to generate electricity as cheaply as the most efficient gas turbine engine. But there's a lot more work to do before commercially viable fuel cells and pollution-free power generators become reality.

  6. Challenges in Running a Commercial Web Search Engine

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    traffic from SEs to a Viagra seller ­ Make $6 per sale · Siphon traffic from SEs to a porn site ­ Make $20% commercially viable · Much more if you include porn queries ­ Assume $0.50 made per click (from 5c to $40

  7. The world in the network: the Interop trade show, Carl Malamud's Internet 1996 Exposition, and the politics of internet commercialization

    E-print Network

    Kaman, Colleen E

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Internet emerged as a commercially viable global communications medium. This study considers the role that representatives of the military-industrial research world played in the physical expansion ...

  8. A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Jesse Stuart

    A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing so, a justifiable course of action (COA) can be determined based on a variety of quantitative and qualitative information available. This thesis describes and applies the ATLAS method to a notional military scenario that involves the Navy concept of Seabasing and the Marine Corps concept of Distributed Operations applied to a platoon sized element. The small force is tasked to conduct deterrence and combat operations over a seven day period. This work uses modeling and simulation to incorporate expert opinion and knowledge of military operations, dynamic reasoning methods, and certainty analysis to create a decisions support system (DSS) that can be used to provide the DM an enhanced view of the logistics environment and uses variables that impact specific measures of effectiveness. The results from applying the ATLAS method provide a better understanding and ability for the DM to conduct the logistics planning/execution more efficiently and quickly. This is accomplished by providing relevant data that can be applied to perform dynamic forecasting activities for the platoon and aids in determining the necessary support architecture to fulfill the forecasted need.

  9. Sage: Creating a Viable Free Open Source Alternative to Magma, Maple, Mathematica,

    E-print Network

    Stein, William

    1 Sage: Creating a Viable Free Open Source Alternative to Magma, Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB 1.1 Introduction The goal of the Sage project (http://www.sagemath.org) is to create a viable free open source explain some of the motivation for starting the Sage project, in Section 1.3 we describe the basic

  10. HIGH PREVALENCE OF VIABLE TOXOPLASMA GONDII INFECTION IN MARKET WEIGHT PIGS FROM A FARM IN MASSACHUSETTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ingestion of uncooked infected meat is considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and little is known of the prevalence of viable T. gondii in meat used for human consumption in the U.S. In the present study, viable T. gondii was isolated from 51 of 55 of ...

  11. APPLICATION INFORMATION

    E-print Network

    Yamamoto, Hirosuke

    SECRET STUDY KNOWLEDGE VIDEO ECONOMIC COMMERCIAL NUMBER JAPAN DESIGN APPLICATION SOCIAL HERE TEXT FOLLOW ECONOMIC TRAINING DATA COMMERCIAL LEAD DESIGN NUMBER FICTION EXPAND JAPAN ENGAGE NETWORK SOCIAL BLOG TEXT VIDEO ECONOMIC COMMERCIAL NUMBER JAPAN DESIGN APPLICATION SOCIAL VIDEO TEXT RIS APPLICATION SPEED

  12. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Muenchen on apples as affected by application of commercial fruit waxes.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Stephen J; Beuchat, Larry R

    2002-08-25

    Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Muenchen, and yeasts and molds on apples as affected by application of five commercial apple waxes was investigated. Red Delicious cv. apples at 21 degrees C were spot inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. Muenchen and spray coated with waxes. Apples sprayed with water served as controls. Apples were dried at either 21 or 55 degrees C for 2 min before subjecting to microbiological analysis after storage for 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 weeks at 2 or 21 degrees C. Drying temperature did not significantly influence populations of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Muenchen. Waxing reduced populations E. coli O157:H7 and S. Muenchen by up to 1.48 log10 cfu/apple. Compared to untreated apples, treatment of apples with water or waxes resulted in significant (P < or = 0.05) reductions in populations of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Muenchen during storage at 2 degrees C. Reductions on waxed apples stored at 21 degrees C were not as marked compared to reductions on waxed apples stored at 2 degrees C. With the exception of one wax, drying temperature did not significantly influence populations of yeasts and molds. Mold populations were less affected by wax applications than were yeasts, and were detected in higher numbers on apples treated with three of the five waxes compared to populations recovered from untreated control apples. None of the waxes evaluated can be relied upon to kill or remove E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on apples. PMID:12160082

  13. Supplementary steam - A viable hydrogen power generation concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, D. E.; Lee, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Technical and economic aspects of a supplementary steam generation for peaking power applications are discussed. Preliminary designs of the hydrogen/oxygen combustors to be used for such applications are described. The integration of the hydrogen/oxygen steam-generating equipment into a typical coal-fired steam station is studied. The basic steam generation system was designed as a 20 MW supplementary system to be added to the existing 160 MW system. An analysis of the operating and design requirements of the supplementary system is conducted. Estimates were made for additional steam and fuel supply lines and for additional control required to operate the combustors and to integrate the combustor system into the facility.

  14. Scribable multi-walled carbon nanotube-silicon nanocomposites: a viable lithium-ion battery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epur, Rigved; Ramanathan, Madhumati; Datta, Moni K.; Hong, Dae Ho; Jampani, Prashanth H.; Gattu, Bharat; Kumta, Prashant N.

    2015-02-01

    A novel electrode fabrication technique involving a manual scribing action of vertically aligned silicon coated multiwall carbon nanotubes (VASCNTs) on a copper foil have been developed as a viable approach to Li-ion battery electrodes. The scribed electrodes were prepared without the use of any conductive additives and binders, and they were directly assembled in a coin cell. These `binder-less' scribed Si-CNT electrodes exhibited a very high discharge capacity in excess of 3000 mA h g-1 and a low first cycle irreversible loss (FIR) (19%). In addition, the electrodes also showed good cyclability with capacity retention of 76% at the end of 50 cycles corresponding to a fade rate of 0.48% loss per cycle rendering the technique attractive for suitable Li-ion applications.A novel electrode fabrication technique involving a manual scribing action of vertically aligned silicon coated multiwall carbon nanotubes (VASCNTs) on a copper foil have been developed as a viable approach to Li-ion battery electrodes. The scribed electrodes were prepared without the use of any conductive additives and binders, and they were directly assembled in a coin cell. These `binder-less' scribed Si-CNT electrodes exhibited a very high discharge capacity in excess of 3000 mA h g-1 and a low first cycle irreversible loss (FIR) (19%). In addition, the electrodes also showed good cyclability with capacity retention of 76% at the end of 50 cycles corresponding to a fade rate of 0.48% loss per cycle rendering the technique attractive for suitable Li-ion applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (1) Video S1: video showing the preparation of the SiCNT pellets and subsequent scribing on copper foils to form the electrodes; (2) Fig. S2: TGA plot of CNT/Si heterostructures performed in air from 25 °C to 1000 °C at a heating rate of 10 °C min-1. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04288c

  15. A study of factors related to commercial space platform services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    In the past four years, the issue of the commercial development of space has come to the forefront of the U. S. national space policy. Though the Administration, Congress and NASA have all shown strong support for encouraging the private sector to become more actively involved in the commercial utilization of space, the question remains whether they must do more to foster the creation and development of a viable U. S. commercial space industry. Marketing aspects, insurance and risk loss, tax related factors, space transportation, termination liability, institutional barriers, and procurement laws and regulations are discussed.

  16. Lithium Phthalocyanine: A Probe for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Oximetry in Viable Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. J.; Gast, P.; Moussavi, M.; Norby, S. W.; Vahidi, N.; Walczak, T.; Wu, M.; Swartz, H. M.

    1993-06-01

    Lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) is a prototype of another generation of synthetic, metallic-organic, paramagnetic crystallites that appear very useful for in vitro and in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry. The peak-to-peak line width of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of LiPc is a linear function of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO_2); this linear relation is independent of the medium surrounding the LiPc. It has an extremely exchange-narrowed spectrum (peak-to-peak line width = 14 mG in the absence of O_2). Physicochemically LiPc is very stable; its response to pO_2 does not change with conditions and environments (e.g., pH, temperature, redox conditions) likely to occur in viable biological systems. These characteristics provide the sensitivity, accuracy, and range to measure physiologically and pathologically pertinent O_2 tensions (0.1-50 mmHg; 1 mmHg = 133 Pa). The application of LiPc in biological systems is demonstrated in measurements of pO_2 in vivo in the heart, brain, and kidney of rats.

  17. Cereal crops as viable production and storage systems for pharmaceutical scFv antibodies.

    PubMed

    Stöger, E; Vaquero, C; Torres, E; Sack, M; Nicholson, L; Drossard, J; Williams, S; Keen, D; Perrin, Y; Christou, P; Fischer, R

    2000-03-01

    This report describes the stable expression of a medically important antibody in the staple cereal crops rice and wheat. We successfully expressed a single-chain Fv antibody (ScFvT84.66) against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a well characterized tumor-associated marker antigen. scFv constructs were engineered for recombinant antibody targeting to the plant cell apoplast and ER. Up to 30 microg/g of functional recombinant antibody was detected in the leaves and seeds of wheat and rice. We confirmed that transgenic dry seeds could be stored for at least five months at room temperature, without significant loss of the amount or activity of scFvT84.66. Our results represent the first transition from model plant expression systems, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis, to widely cultivated cereal crops, such as rice and wheat, for expression of an antibody molecule that has already shown efficacy in clinical applications. Thus, we have established that molecular pharming in cereals can be a viable production system for such high-value pharmaceutical macromolecules. Our findings provide a strong foundation for exploiting alternative uses of cereal crops both in industrialized and developing countries. PMID:10809004

  18. Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

  19. Telestroke a viable option to improve stroke care in India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Padma V; Sudhan, Paulin; Khurana, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Rohit; Kaul, Subash; Sylaja, P N; Moonis, Majaz; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai

    2014-10-01

    In India, stroke care services are not well developed. There is a need to explore alternative options to tackle the rising burden of stroke. Telemedicine has been used by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to meet the needs of remote hospitals in India. The telemedicine network implemented by ISRO in 2001 presently stretches to around 100 hospitals all over the country, with 78 remote/rural/district health centers connected to 22 specialty hospitals in major cities, thus providing treatment to more than 25?000 patients, which includes stroke patients. Telemedicine is currently used in India for diagnosing stroke patients, subtyping stroke as ischemic or hemorrhagic, and treating accordingly. However, a dedicated telestroke system for providing acute stroke care is needed. Keeping in mind India's flourishing technology sector and leading communication networks, the hub-and-spoke model could work out really well in the upcoming years. Until then, simpler alternatives like smartphones, online data transfer, and new mobile applications like WhatsApp could be used. Telestroke facilities could increase the pool of patients eligible for thrombolysis. But this primary aim of telestroke can be achieved in India only if thrombolysis and imaging techniques are made available at all levels of health care. PMID:25042038

  20. All-printed smart structures: a viable option?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, John; Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Yoon, Hwan-Sik; Washington, Gregory

    2014-03-01

    The last two decades have seen evolution of smart materials and structures technologies from theoretical concepts to physical realization in many engineering fields. These include smart sensors and actuators, active damping and vibration control, biomimetics, and structural health monitoring. Recently, additive manufacturing technologies such as 3D printing and printed electronics have received attention as methods to produce 3D objects or electronic components for prototyping or distributed manufacturing purposes. In this paper, the viability of manufacturing all-printed smart structures, with embedded sensors and actuators, will be investigated. To this end, the current 3D printing and printed electronics technologies will be reviewed first. Then, the plausibility of combining these two different additive manufacturing technologies to create all-printed smart structures will be discussed. Potential applications for this type of all-printed smart structures include most of the traditional smart structures where sensors and actuators are embedded or bonded to the structures to measure structural response and cause desired static and dynamic changes in the structure.

  1. The Seasat commercial demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccandless, S. W.; Miller, B. P.; Montgomery, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    The background and development of the Seasat commercial demonstration program are reviewed and the Seasat spacecraft and its sensors (altimeter, wind field scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer) are described. The satellite data distribution system allows for selected sets of data, reformatted or tailored to specific needs and geographical regions, to be available to commercial users. Products include sea level and upper atmospheric pressure, sea surface temperature, marine winds, significant wave heights, primary wave direction and period, and spectral wave data. The results of a set of retrospective case studies performed for the commercial demonstration program are described. These are in areas of application such as marine weather and ocean condition forecasting, offshore resource exploration and development, commercial fishing, and marine transportation.

  2. 40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1011 Viable spores of the... fly larvae toxicity test (“Microbial Control of Insects and Mites,” R.P.M. Bond et al., p. 280...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1011 Viable spores of the... fly larvae toxicity test (“Microbial Control of Insects and Mites,” R.P.M. Bond et al., p. 280...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1011 Viable spores of the... fly larvae toxicity test (“Microbial Control of Insects and Mites,” R.P.M. Bond et al., p. 280...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1011 Viable spores of the... fly larvae toxicity test (“Microbial Control of Insects and Mites,” R.P.M. Bond et al., p. 280...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1011 Viable spores of the... fly larvae toxicity test (“Microbial Control of Insects and Mites,” R.P.M. Bond et al., p. 280...

  7. Near Real-Time Quantitation of Viable Microorganisms for Planetary Protection and Crew Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, N. R.

    2015-03-01

    For planetary protection and crew health, the knowledge of when minimal acceptable levels of microbial contamination are exceeded is critical. We have developed an instrument and procedures to detect as few as one viable organism under 1 hour.

  8. Establishment of a Viable Population of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, P.A.

    2002-01-14

    Report on program's objective to restore viable population of Red-cockaded woodpecker at SRS. Several management strategies were used to promote population expansion of Red-cockaded woodpecker and reduction of interspecific competition with Red-Cockaded woodpecker.

  9. Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini and Miklos Porkolab

    E-print Network

    Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini and Miklos Porkolab Executive Summary Magnet systems are the ultimate enabling technology for magnetic confinement fusion devices. Powerful magnets

  10. Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini1

    E-print Network

    Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini1 , Leslie Bromberg1 , Peter J. Lee2 , David C. Larbalestier2 , Introduction Magnet systems are the ultimate enabling technology for magnetic confinement fusion devices. Powerful

  11. RELATIONSHIP OF TOTAL VIABLE AND CULTURABLE CELLS TO EPIPHYTIC POPULATIONS OF PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accuracy of the plate count method used routinely for enumeration of viable bacterial populations in natural environments is limited by the culturability of the target population. he method was modified to examine epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae. iable populatio...

  12. Diet-induced hypermethylation at agouti viable yellow is not inherited transgenerationally through the female

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of nonmutagenic environmental exposures can sometimes be transmitted for several generations, suggesting transgenerational inheritance of induced epigenetic variation. Methyl donor supplementation of female mice during pregnancy induces CpG hypermethylation at the agouti viable yellow (A...

  13. Solar System Constraints on a Cosmologically Viable $f(R)$ Theory

    E-print Network

    Yousef Bisabr

    2009-12-02

    Recently, a model $f(R)$ theory is proposed \\cite{recent} which is cosmologically viable and distinguishable from $\\Lambda$CDM. We use chameleon mechanism to investigate viability of the model in terms of Solar System experiments.

  14. Legionella pneumophila in commercial bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Klont, Rocus R; Rijs, Antonius J M; Warris, Adilia; Sturm, Patrick D J; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E

    2006-06-01

    Sixty-eight commercial bottled mineral waters (64 brands, 68 different 'best-before dates') were tested for the presence of bacteria and fungi. Six samples were Legionella antigen positive and six were Legionella pneumophila PCR positive. Two samples were both Legionella antigen and L. pneumophila PCR positive. Legionella cultures were negative. Although the PCR might have detected only dead Legionella cells, the PCR has been described to detect specifically viable but not culturable (VBNC) L. pneumophila cells as well. Whether VBNC bacteria may be present in bottled mineral waters and the risk for infection this may pose for severely immunocompromised patients should be investigated. PMID:16706786

  15. Correlation of Direct Viable Counts with Heterotrophic Activity for Marine Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kogure, Kazuhiro; Simidu, Usio; Taga, Nobuo; Colwell, Rita R.

    1987-01-01

    Viable-bacteria counts, heterotrophic activity, and substrate responsiveness of viable bacteria have been used to measure microbial activity. However, the relationship between these parameters is not clear. Thus, the direct viable count (DVC) method was used to analyze seawater samples collected from several different geographical locations. Samples collected from offshore waters of the South China Sea and western Pacific Ocean yielded DVC that indicated the presence of surface and subsurface peaks of viable, substrate-responsive bacteria which could be correlated with turnover rates of amino acids obtained by using uniformly 14C-labeled amino acids. DVC were always less than total viable counts (acridine orange direct counts), and the DVC subsurface peak occurred close to and within the chlorophyll a zone, suggesting algal-bacterial interactions within the layer. For comparison with the open-ocean samples, selected substrates were used to determine the response of viable bacteria present in seawater samples collected near an ocean outfall of the Barceloneta Regional Waste Treatment Plant, Barceloneta, Puerto Rico. The number of specific substrate-responsive bacteria at the outfall stations varied depending on the substrate used and the sampling location. Changes in the population size or physiological condition of the bacteria were detected and found to be associated with the presence of pharmaceutical waste. PMID:16347454

  16. Cellular bone matrices: viable stem cell-containing bone graft substitutes

    PubMed Central

    Skovrlj, Branko; Guzman, Javier Z.; Al Maaieh, Motasem; Cho, Samuel K.; Iatridis, James C.; Qureshi, Sheeraz A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT Advances in the field of stem cell technology have stimulated the development and increased use of allogenic bone grafts containing live mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also known as cellular bone matrices (CBMs). It is estimated that CBMs comprise greater than 17% of all bone grafts and bone graft substitutes used. PURPOSE To critically evaluate CBMs, specifically their technical specifications, existing published data supporting their use, US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation, cost, potential pitfalls, and other aspects pertaining to their use. STUDY DESIGN Areview of literature. METHODS A series of Ovid, Medline, and Pubmed-National Library of Medicine/National Institutes of Health (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) searches were performed. Only articles in English journals or published with English language translations were included. Level of evidence of the selected articles was assessed. Specific technical information on each CBM was obtained by direct communication from the companies marketing the individual products. RESULTS Five different CBMs are currently available for use in spinal fusion surgery. There is a wide variation between the products with regard to the average donor age at harvest, total cellular concentration, percentage of MSCs, shelf life, and cell viability after defrosting. Three retrospective studies evaluating CBMs and fusion have shown fusion rates ranging from 90.2% to 92.3%, and multiple industry-sponsored trials are underway. No independent studies evaluating spinal fusion rates with the use of CBMs exist. All the commercially available CBMs claim to meet the FDA criteria under Section 361, 21 CFR Part 1271, and are not undergoing FDA premarket review. The CBMs claim to provide viable MSCs and are offered at a premium cost. Numerous challenges exist in regard to MSCs’ survival, function, osteoblastic potential, and cytokine production once implanted into the intended host. CONCLUSIONS Cellular bone matrices may be a promising bone augmentation technology in spinal fusion surgery. Although CBMs appear to be safe for use as bone graft substitutes, their efficacy in spinal fusion surgery remains highly inconclusive. Large, nonindustry sponsored studies evaluating the efficacy of CBMs are required. Without results from such studies, surgeons must be made aware of the potential pitfalls of CBMs in spinal fusion surgery. With the currently available data, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of CBMs as bone graft substitutes in spinal fusion surgery. PMID:24929059

  17. Applications of microfabrication techniques in electrochemical sensor development.

    PubMed

    Liu, C C

    1993-01-01

    Electrochemical sensors have been used either as a whole or as an integral part of a chemical and biological sensing device. Microfabrication technology has been used in the development of electrochemical sensors. The recent advancement of micromachining techniques adds new impetus to electrochemical sensor development. Most noticeable is the application of anisotropic chemical etching, plasma etching, sacrificial layer methods, and high aspect ratio X-ray lithography to enhance the opportunity to produce scientifically and commercially viable electrochemical sensors. Examples will be used to illustrate the potential of microfabrication and micromachining techniques in electrochemical sensor development. PMID:8215346

  18. Going Commercial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Charles

    2005-01-01

    while the conditions are more rigorous today for the ISS than they were in the very early days of space travel, opportunities still abound, and we just need to overcome the hurdles. As Pogo put it, "By gosh, we seem to be surrounded by an insurmountable opportunity here." This really is a great time in human spaceflight. We re doing marvelous things up there from an engineering standpoint. We now have to put them to good use. We need to optimize the 30 percent of the ISS that our federal government and the international partners have available in terms of the Station s power, volume, and crew time. Despite the recent issues with cost and schedule, as Mr. Goldin has said, this Agency will find a way. This country and the partners will find a way to restore the ISS s capability. We need help from this government, from our Congress, from our partners to do that, but it will be done, and then this facility is going to be world class--nah, it will out-of-this- world class. I m pleased to be a part of not only the history of spaceflight and the history of industry s participation in spaceflight, but I m also pleased to be a part of the future, the future applications, the future benefits that our spaceflight program is going to bring to our economy, to our careers, and to those of us that are both taxpayers and participants as well, to the great joy of seeing success as part of this country, as a part of our intellect, applied to the great beyond.

  19. 15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery...

  20. 15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery...

  1. Re-engineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Kelly, Angelita C.; Lightfoot, Patricia C.; Bell, Holland T.; Cureton-Snead, Izeller E.; Hurd, William J.; Scales, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    Along with the Red and Blue Teams commissioned by the NASA Administrator in 1992, NASA's Associate Administrator for Space Communications commissioned a Blue Team to review the Office of Space Communications (Code O) Core Program and determine how the program could be conducted faster, better, and cheaper. Since there was no corresponding Red Team for the Code O Blue Team, the Blue Team assumed a Red Team independent attitude and challenged the status quo, including current work processes, functional distinctions, interfaces, and information flow, as well as traditional management and system development practices. The Blue Team's unconstrained, non-parochial, and imaginative look at NASA's space communications program produced a simplified representation of the space communications infrastructure that transcends organizational and functional boundaries, in addition to existing systems and facilities. Further, the Blue Team adapted the 'faster, better, cheaper' charter to be relevant to the multi-mission, continuous nature of the space communications program and to serve as a gauge for improving customer services concurrent with achieving more efficient operations and infrastructure life cycle economies. This simplified representation, together with the adapted metrics, offers a future view and process model for reengineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment. Code O remains firm in its commitment to improve productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency. In October 1992, the Associate Administrator reconstituted the Blue Team as the Code O Success Team (COST) to serve as a catalyst for change. In this paper, the COST presents the chronicle and significance of the simplified representation and adapted metrics, and their application during the FY 1993-1994 activities.

  2. Cryopreservation of viable human lung tissue for versatile post-thaw analyses and culture.

    PubMed

    Baatz, John E; Newton, Danforth A; Riemer, Ellen C; Denlinger, Chadrick E; Jones, E Ellen; Drake, Richard R; Spyropoulos, Demetri D

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials are currently used to test therapeutic efficacies for lung cancer, infections and diseases. Animal models are also used as surrogates for human disease. Both approaches are expensive and time-consuming. The utility of human biospecimens as models is limited by specialized tissue processing methods that preserve subclasses of analytes (e.g. RNA, protein, morphology) at the expense of others. We present a rapid and reproducible method for the cryopreservation of viable lung tissue from patients undergoing lobectomy or transplant. This method involves the pseudo-diaphragmatic expansion of pieces of fresh lung tissue with cryoprotectant formulation (pseudo-diaphragmatic expansion-cryoprotectant perfusion or PDX-CP) followed by controlled-rate freezing in cryovials. Expansion-perfusion rates, volumes and cryoprotectant formulation were optimized to maintain tissue architecture, decrease crystal formation and increase long-term cell viability. Rates of expansion of 4 cc/min or less and volumes ranging from 0.8-1.2 × tissue volume were well-tolerated by lung tissue obtained from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, showing minimal differences compared to standard histopathology. Morphology was greatly improved by the PDX-CP procedure compared to simple fixation. Fresh versus post-thawed lung tissue showed minimal differences in histology, RNA integrity numbers and post-translational modified protein integrity (2-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis). It was possible to derive numerous cell types, including alveolar epithelial cells, fibroblasts and stem cells, from the tissue for at least three months after cryopreservation. This new method should provide a uniform, cost-effective approach to the banking of biospecimens, with versatility to be amenable to any post-acquisition process applicable to fresh tissue samples. PMID:24982205

  3. Commercial researcher perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucas, Larry

    1992-01-01

    Protein crystallography--a research tool used to study the structure of the complex building blocks of living systems--has a lot to gain from space-based research. In order to know how a protein works in the human body, researchers must understand its molecular structure. Researchers have identified 150,000 different proteins in the body, but they now know the structure of less than a third of them. The only viable technique for analyzing the structure of these proteins is x-ray diffraction of the proteins in their crystal form. The better the quality of a protein crystal, the more useful it is to researchers who are trying to delineate its structure. The microgravity environment of space allows protein crystals to grow nearly undisturbed by convection and other gravity-driven forces that cause flaws to form in them on the ground. In space, lack of convection enables protein crystals to grow more slowly than they do on Earth, and the slower a protein crystal grows, the fewer flaws it will have. Protein crystal growth experiments have already flown on 14 Space Shuttle missions. This year's USML-1 Spacelab mission included protein crystal growth experiments conducted for commercial researchers. The results of protein crystal experiments flown thus far have been larger crystals with more uniform morphologies. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (A NASA-cosponsored CCDS) currently builds flight hardware to meet researchers' needs and handles sample loading and retrieval for flight experiments. Protein crystallography enables 'rational drug design': the development of drugs that bind only with the target protein and, hence, do not cause side effects. For example, pharmaceutical companies presently are interested in developing drugs that can inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a protein that plays a role in auto-immune diseases. To continue these kinds of investigations, researchers need a constant supply of protein crystals that are as free of flaws as possible. Space Station Freedom will provide the kind of research environment that will enable the production of such supplies. In addition, Freedom will provide the kind of long-duration facility required by protein crystal researchers: 40 percent of proteins require more than two weeks to crystallize.

  4. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated to determine the physical compatibility of integrating multiple technologies and then the impact on the design, both improvements and degradations, must be determined. These technologies are assessed deterministically. Again, Response Surface Equations (RSEs) are developed to allow for a full factorial evaluation of the combinations of the technologies. The best combination of technologies is selected and then the design space is again reevaluated for feasibility and viability.

  5. Commercial Magneto-Rheological Fluid Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, J. D.; Catanzarite, D. M.; St. Clair, K. A.

    Controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid devices have reached the stage where they are in commercial production. Such devices are finding application in a variety of real world situations ranging from active vibration control to aerobic exercise equipment. Examples of several, commercial MR fluid devices are described and the comparative ability of MR and ER fluids to meet the needs of practical devices is discussed.

  6. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Commercial photography. 1005.5....5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be filmed... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography....

  7. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005... OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography....

  8. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005... OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography....

  9. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005... OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography....

  10. 36 CFR 1005.5 - Commercial photography.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial photography. 1005... OPERATIONS § 1005.5 Commercial photography. (a) Motion pictures, television. Before any motion picture may be... charge. (Applicant) For (Company) Bond Requirement $ Approved: (Date) (Title) (b) Still photography....

  11. Airborne viable fungi in school environments in different climatic regions - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salonen, Heidi; Duchaine, Caroline; Mazaheri, Mandana; Clifford, Sam; Lappalainen, Sanna; Reijula, Kari; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-03-01

    Elevated levels of fungi in indoor environments have been linked with mould/moisture damage in building structures. However, there is a lack of information about "normal" concentrations and flora as well as guidelines of viable fungi in the school environment in different climatic conditions. We have reviewed existing guidelines for indoor fungi and the current knowledge of the concentrations and flora of viable fungi in different climatic areas, the impact of the local factors on concentrations and flora of viable fungi in school environments. Meta-regression was performed to estimate the average behaviour for each analysis of interest, showing wide variation in the mean concentrations in outdoor and indoor school environments (range: 101-103 cfu/m3). These concentrations were significantly higher for both outdoors and indoors in the moderate than in the continental climatic area, showing that the climatic condition was a determinant for the concentrations of airborne viable fungi. The most common fungal species both in the moderate and continental area were Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. The suggested few quantitative guidelines for indoor air viable fungi for school buildings are much lower than for residential areas. This review provides a synthesis, which can be used to guide the interpretation of the fungi measurements results and help to find indications of mould/moisture in school building structures.

  12. PMA-Linked Fluorescence for Rapid Detection of Viable Bacterial Endospores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Mohapatra, Bidyut

    2012-01-01

    The most common approach for assessing the abundance of viable bacterial endospores is the culture-based plating method. However, culture-based approaches are heavily biased and oftentimes incompatible with upstream sample processing strategies, which make viable cells/spores uncultivable. This shortcoming highlights the need for rapid molecular diagnostic tools to assess more accurately the abundance of viable spacecraft-associated microbiota, perhaps most importantly bacterial endospores. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has received a great deal of attention due to its ability to differentiate live, viable bacterial cells from dead ones. PMA gains access to the DNA of dead cells through compromised membranes. Once inside the cell, it intercalates and eventually covalently bonds with the double-helix structures upon photoactivation with visible light. The covalently bound DNA is significantly altered, and unavailable to downstream molecular-based manipulations and analyses. Microbiological samples can be treated with appropriate concentrations of PMA and exposed to visible light prior to undergoing total genomic DNA extraction, resulting in an extract comprised solely of DNA arising from viable cells. This ability to extract DNA selectively from living cells is extremely powerful, and bears great relevance to many microbiological arenas.

  13. On a viable first order formulation of relativistic viscous fluids and its applications to cosmology

    E-print Network

    Disconzi, Marcelo M; Scherrer, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    We consider a first order formulation of relativistic fluids with bulk viscosity based on a stress-energy tensor introduced by Lichnerowicz. Choosing a barotropic equation of state, we show that this theory satisfies basic physical requirements and, under the further assumption of vanishing vorticity, that the equations of motion are causal, both in the case of a fixed background and when the equations are coupled to Einstein's equations. Furthermore, Lichnerowicz's proposal does not fit into the general framework of first order theories studied by Hiscock and Lindblom, and hence their instability results do not apply. These conclusions apply to the full-fledged non-linear theory, without any equilibrium or near equilibrium assumptions. Similarities and differences between the approach here explored and other theories of relativistic viscosity, including the Mueller-Israel-Stewart formulation, are addressed. Cosmological models based on the Lichnerowicz stress-energy tensor are studied. Finally, it is also sh...

  14. Application of the Cross Battery Approach in the Assessment of American Indian Children: A Viable Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Current psychometric and testing practices are inadequate for assessing the intelligence of American Indian students, due to complicating factors of culture and language. These deficient methods are then used to make educational decisions, resulting in improper special education placements. The benefits of alternative methods of testing, including…

  15. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  16. THE IDEA IS TO USEMODIS IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE CURRENT LIMITED LANDSAT CAPABILITY, COMMERCIAL SATELLITES, ANDUNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV), IN A MULTI-STAGE APPROACH TO MEET EPA INFORMATION NEEDS.REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW: EPA CAPABILITIES, PRIORITY AGENCY APPLICATIONS, SENSOR/AIRCRAFT CAPABILITIES, COST CONSIDERATIONS, SPECTRAL AND SPATIAL RESOLUTIONS, AND TEMPORAL CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA remote sensing capabilities include applied research for priority applications and technology support for operational assistance to clients across the Agency. The idea is to use MODIS in conjunction with the current limited Landsat capability, commercial satellites, and Unma...

  17. APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Laser system based on a commercial microwave oscillator with time compression of a microwave pump pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arteev, M. S.; Vaulin, V. A.; Slinko, V. N.; Chumerin, P. Yu; Yushkov, Yu G.

    1992-06-01

    An analysis is made of the possibility of using a commercial microsecond microwave oscillator, supplemented by a device for time compression of microwave pulses, in pumping of industrial lasers with a high efficiency of conversion of the pump source energy into laser radiation. The results are reported of preliminary experiments on the commissioning of an excimer XeCl laser.

  18. Commercial Zone Melting Ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yun; Xie, Hongyao; Shu, Shengcheng; Yan, Yonggao; Li, Han; Tang, Xinfeng

    2014-06-01

    Bismuth telluride-based compounds have been extensively utilized for commercial application. However, thermoelectric materials must suffer numerous mechanical vibrations and thermal stresses while in service, making it equally important to discuss the mechanical properties, especially at high temperature. In this study, the compressive and bending strengths of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 commercial zone melting (ZM) ingots were investigated at 25, 100, and 200 °C, respectively. Due to the obvious anisotropy of materials prepared by ZM method, the effect of anisotropy on the strengths was also explored. Two-parameter Weibull distribution was employed to fit a series of values acquired by a universal testing machine. And digital speckle photography was applied to record the strain field evolution, providing visual observation of surface strain. The compressive and bending strengths along ZM direction were approximately three times as large as those perpendicular to the ZM direction independent of the temperature, indicating a weak van der Waals bond along the c axis.

  19. Enumeration of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Bangladesh waters by fluorescent-antibody direct viable count.

    PubMed Central

    Brayton, P R; Tamplin, M L; Huq, A; Colwell, R R

    1987-01-01

    A field trial to enumerate Vibrio cholerae O1 in aquatic environments in Bangladesh was conducted, comparing fluorescent-antibody direct viable count with culture detection by the most-probable-number index. Specificity of a monoclonal antibody prepared against the O1 antigen was assessed and incorporated into the fluorescence staining method. All pond and water samples yielded higher counts of viable V. cholerae O1 by fluorescent-antibody direct viable count than by the most-probable-number index. Fluorescence microscopy is a more sensitive detection system than culture methods because it allows the enumeration of both culturable and nonculturable cells and therefore provides more precise monitoring of microbiological water quality. PMID:3324967

  20. 75 FR 14609 - Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast... on the Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee (CFIVSAC). The CFIVSAC provides... commercial fishing industry vessels. DATES: Completed application forms should reach the Coast Guard at...

  1. 77 FR 31422 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Daimler Trucks North America (Daimler) Exemption...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...No. FMCSA-2012-0032] Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Daimler...application for an exemption for two Daimler drivers to drive commercial motor vehicles (CMVs...without possessing the requisite commercial driver's license (CDL) issued by one of...

  2. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. 105.05-1 Section 105...COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The...

  3. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. 105.05-1 Section 105...COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The...

  4. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. 105.05-1 Section 105...COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The...

  5. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products...AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum...

  6. 75 FR 14609 - Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...Docket No. USCG-2010-0163] Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee...applications for membership on the Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee...relating to the safe operation of commercial fishing industry vessels. DATES: Completed...

  7. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products...AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum...

  8. 50 CFR 622.371 - Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. 622.371 Section 622.371...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. (a) No applications for additional...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel will be accepted....

  9. 50 CFR 622.371 - Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. 622.371 Section 622.371...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. (a) No applications for additional...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel will be accepted....

  10. Comparative Analysis and Limitations of Ethidium Monoazide and Propidium Monoazide Treatments for the Differentiation of Viable and Nonviable Campylobacter Cells

    PubMed Central

    Seinige, Diana; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter

    2014-01-01

    The lack of differentiation between viable and nonviable bacterial cells limits the implementation of PCR-based methods for routine diagnostic approaches. Recently, the combination of a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and ethidium monoazide (EMA) or propidium monoazide (PMA) pretreatment has been described to circumvent this disadvantage. In regard to the suitability of this approach for Campylobacter spp., conflicting results have been reported. Thus, we compared the suitabilities of EMA and PMA in various concentrations for a Campylobacter viability qPCR method. The presence of either intercalating dye, EMA or PMA, leads to concentration-dependent shifts toward higher threshold cycle (CT) values, especially after EMA treatment. However, regression analysis resulted in high correlation coefficient (R2) values of 0.99 (EMA) and 0.98 (PMA) between Campylobacter counts determined by qPCR and culture-based enumeration. EMA (10 ?g/ml) and PMA (51.10 ?g/ml) removed DNA selectively from nonviable cells in mixed samples at viable/nonviable ratios of up to 1:1,000. The optimized EMA protocol was successfully applied to 16 Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli field isolates from poultry and indicated the applicability for field isolates as well. EMA-qPCR and culture-based enumeration of Campylobacter spiked chicken leg quarters resulted in comparable bacterial cell counts. The correlation coefficient between the two analytical methods was 0.95. Nevertheless, larger amounts of nonviable cells (>104) resulted in an incomplete qPCR signal reduction, representing a serious methodological limitation, but double staining with EMA considerably improved the signal inhibition. Hence, the proposed Campylobacter viability EMA-qPCR provides a promising rapid method for diagnostic applications, but further research is needed to circumvent the limitation. PMID:24487529

  11. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  12. A novel approach for using dielectric spectroscopy to predict viable cell volume (VCV) in early process development.

    PubMed

    Downey, Brandon J; Graham, Lisa J; Breit, Jeffrey F; Glutting, Nathaniel K

    2014-01-01

    Online monitoring of viable cell volume (VCV) is essential to the development, monitoring, and control of bioprocesses. The commercial availability of steam-sterilizable dielectricspectroscopy probes has enabled successful adoption of this technology as a key noninvasive method to measure VCV for cell-culture processes. Technological challenges still exist, however. For some cell lines, the technique’s accuracy in predicting the VCV from probepermittivity measurements declines as the viability of the cell culture decreases. To investigate the cause of this decrease in accuracy, divergences in predicted vs. actual VCV measurements were directly related to the shape of dielectric frequency scans collected during a cell culture. The changes in the shape of the beta dispersion, which are associated with changes in cell state, are quantified by applying a novel “area ratio” (AR) metric to frequency-scanning data from the dielectric-spectroscopy probes. The AR metric is then used to relate the shape of the beta dispersion to single-frequency permittivity measurements to accurately predict the offline VCV throughout an entire fed-batch run, regardless of cell state. This work demonstrates the possible feasibility of quantifying the shape of the beta dispersion, determined from frequency-scanning data, for enhanced measurement of VCV in mammalian cell cultures by applying a novel shape-characterization technique. In addition, this work demonstrates the utility of using changes in the shape of the beta dispersion to quantify cell health. PMID:24851255

  13. Applicability of stable C and N isotope analysis in inferring the geographical origin and authentication of commercial fish (Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock).

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejoong; Suresh Kumar, K; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Globalisation of seafood and aquaculture products and their convenient marketing worldwide, increases the possibility for the distribution of mislabelled products; thereby, underlining the need to identify their origin. Stable isotope analysis is a promising approach to identify the authenticity and traceability of seafood and aquaculture products. In this investigation, we measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (?(13)C and ?(15)N) of three commercial fish, viz. Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock, originating from various countries. Apart from the species-dependent variation in the isotopic values, marked differences in the ?(13)C and ?(15)N ratios were also observed with respect to the country of origin. This suggests that C and N isotopic signatures could be reliable tools to identify and trace the origin of commercial fish. PMID:25442587

  14. Research and development of Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Fuel cell infrastructure and commercialization study

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    This paper has been prepared in partial fulfillment of a subcontract from the Allison Division of General Motors under the terms of Allison`s contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AC02-90CH10435). The objective of this task (The Fuel Cell Infrastructure and Commercialization Study) is to describe and prepare preliminary evaluations of the processes which will be required to develop fuel cell engines for commercial and private vehicles. This report summarizes the work undertaken on this study. It addresses the availability of the infrastructure (services, energy supplies) and the benefits of creating public/private alliances to accelerate their commercialization. The Allison prime contract includes other tasks related to the research and development of advanced solid polymer fuel cell engines and preparation of a demonstration automotive vehicle. The commercialization process starts when there is sufficient understanding of a fuel cell engine`s technology and markets to initiate preparation of a business plan. The business plan will identify each major step in the design of fuel cell (or electrochemical) engines, evaluation of the markets, acquisition of manufacturing facilities, and the technical and financial resources which will be required. The process will end when one or more companies have successfully developed and produced fuel cell engines at a profit. This study addressed the status of the information which will be required to prepare business plans, develop the economic and market acceptance data, and to identify the mobility, energy and environment benefits of electrochemical or fuel cell engines. It provides the reader with information on the status of fuel cell or electrochemical engine development and their relative advantages over competitive propulsion systems. Recommendations and descriptions of additional technical and business evaluations that are to be developed in more detail in Phase II, are included.

  15. Comparative investigation between acetylcholinesterase obtained from commercial sources and genetically modified Drosophila melanogaster: application in amperometric biosensors for methamidophos pesticide detection.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Marques, Paulo Roberto Brasil; Nunes, Gilvanda Silva; dos Santos, Teresa Cristina Rodrigues; Andreescu, Silvana; Marty, Jean-Louis

    2004-11-01

    Genetically modified acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from Drosophila melanogaster (dm) and from commercial sources, Electric eel (ee), Bovine erythrocites (be) and Human erythrocites (he), were investigated as biological receptors for the detection of methamidophos pesticide based on inhibition studies. Most engineered variant of AChE from dm showed enhanced sensitivity toward methamidophos pesticide. Among 24 dmAChE variants tested, 12 presented a sensitivity comparable to the commercially available eeAChE, but higher than AChEs from be and he. Four were found more sensitive and six others were insensitive to methamidophos insecticide. The D375G,Y370F,Y374A,F376L mutant was the most sensitive, with a ki value of 2.2 X 10(6) mol(-1) L min(-1), three orders of magnitude higher than eeAChE (1.1 X 10(3) mol(-1) L min(-1)). The sensor constructed with genetically modified enzyme showed better characteristics with respect to detection limit and sensitivity compared with those using commercial eeAChE. Differential pulse polarography and chronoamperometry were used as electrochemical techniques to characterize the AChE biosensors. The lower detection limit of 1 ppb was obtained with D375G,Y370F,Y374A,F376L mutant of dmAChE, compared to 90 ppb for the commercial eeAChE. This study may stimulate scientists to develop more sensitive and selective procedures for organophosphorus insecticides detection by using engineered variant of dmAChE. PMID:15522598

  16. Detection of the total viable counts in chicken based on visible/near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fachao; Long, Yuan; Tang, Xiuying; Zhao, Linlin; Peng, Yankun; Wang, Caiping

    2014-05-01

    The viable counts in chicken have significant effects on food safety. Exceeding standard index can have negative influence to the public. Visible-near infrared spectra have had rapid development in food safety recently. The objective of this study was to detect the total viable counts in chicken breast fillets.36 chicken breast fillets used in the study were stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for 9 days. Each day four samples were taken and Vis/NIR spectra were collected from each sample before detecting their total viable counts by standard method. The original data was processed in four main steps: Savitzky-Golay smoothing method, standard normalized variate (SNV), model calibrating and model validating. Prediction model was established using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. Several statistical indicators such as root mean squared errors and coefficients were calculated for determination of calibration and validation accuracy respectively. As a result, the Rc, SEC, Rv and SEV, of the best model were obtained to be 0.8854, 0.7455, 0.9070 and 0.6045 respectively, which demonstrate that visible-near infrared spectra is a potential technique to detect the total viable counts(TVC) in chicken and the best wavelengths for the establishment of the calibration model are near 449nm.

  17. Amazon S3 for Science Grids: a Viable Solution? Mayur Palankar

    E-print Network

    Iamnitchi, Adriana

    Amazon S3 for Science Grids: a Viable Solution? Mayur Palankar Adriana Iamnitchi Computer Science simsong@acm.org ABSTRACT Amazon.com has introduced the Simple Storage Service (S3), a commodity Measurement, Performance, Experimentation. Keywords Utility computing, Performance evaluation, Amazon Simple

  18. COMPARISON OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF NON-VIABLE BIOLOGICAL PM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a preliminary research effort to develop a methodology for the measurement of non-viable biologically based particulate matter (PM), analyzing for mold, dust mite, and ragweed antigens and endotoxins. Using a comparison of analytical methods, the research obj...

  19. ABSTRACT A viable rechargeable lithium/oxygen battery would impact transportation markets

    E-print Network

    in a metal/oxygen battery cell comprises a liquid-permeated, electronically conductive porous solid, whichABSTRACT A viable rechargeable lithium/oxygen battery would impact transportation markets O2 diffuse through the liquid phase to meet at the solid surface, where they receive an electron

  20. Interhemispheric transport of viable fungi and bacteria from Africa to the Caribbean with soil dust

    E-print Network

    Prospero, Joseph M.

    Interhemispheric transport of viable fungi and bacteria from Africa to the Caribbean with soil dust, bacteria, fungi, intercontinental transport, microorganisms Abstract Daily aerosol samples collected (culture-forming) bacteria and fungi only when African dust was present. Air masses from the North Atlantic