Sample records for viable commercial applications

  1. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  2. Quantitative assessment of viable Cryptosporidium parvum load in commercial oysters (Crassostrea virginica) in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Lewis, Earl J; Glass, Gregory; Dasilva, Alexandre J; Tamang, Leena; Girouard, Autumn S; Curriero, Frank C

    2007-01-01

    The epidemiological importance of increasing reports worldwide on Cryptosporidium contamination of oysters remains unknown in relation to foodborne cryptosporidiosis. Thirty market-size oysters (Crassostrea virginica), collected from each of 53 commercial harvesting sites in Chesapeake Bay, MD, were quantitatively tested in groups of six for Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA). After IFA analysis, the samples were retrospectively retested for viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts by combined fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and IFA. The mean cumulative numbers of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts in six oysters (overall, 42.1+/-4.1) were significantly higher than in the numbers of viable C. parvum oocysts (overall, 28.0+/-2.9). Of 265 oyster groups, 221 (83.4%) contained viable C. parvum oocysts, and overall, from 10-32% (mean, 23%) of the total viable oocysts were identified in the hemolymph as distinct from gill washings. The amount of viable C. parvum oocysts was not related to oyster size or to the level of fecal coliforms at the sampling site. This study demonstrated that, although oysters are frequently contaminated with oocysts, the levels of viable oocysts may be too low to cause infection in healthy individuals. FISH assay for identification can be retrospectively applied to properly stored samples. PMID:16896650

  3. Technical aspects of a commercially viable in-space transportation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenard, Roger X.; Brinkley, Anthony

    1996-03-01

    An in-depth study and evaluation of a commercially-viable in-space transportation system was conducted between the Sandia National Laboratories and the INTRASPACE Corporation. Historical mission profiles were evaluated and a series of missions potentially profitable for a first-generation space tug were identified. The subset of missions from the available manifest was 60%. A survey of available space tug technologies was performed with several requirements: 1) Technology aggregates must be demonstrated; 2) Systems must be represented by a substantial industrial base; 3) The integrated system concept must be of tractable risk for a commercial venture; and 4) The consequential system must be commercially profitable. A definite mission manifest and technical solution emerged which represented a commercially profitable system. Alternative technologies were evaluated including conventional propulsion technologies, solar electric and solar thermal technologies. None of the alternatives were profitable based on the given requirements and system assumptions.

  4. Commercial applications of ferrofluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Raj; R. Moskowitz

    1990-01-01

    Ferrofluids have been in the commercial arena for over two decades. In this paper, the most advanced, successful commercial applications of ferrofluids are discussed. These applications center around the tribological characteristics of ferrofluids, e.g., sealing, damping and hydrodynamic bearings. Also, an account of some lesser known applications is presented.

  5. Is self-sufficiency financially viable and ethically justifiable?--a commercial viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Christie, R B

    1994-12-01

    Manufacturers of blood products have to maintain the highest possible standards for plasma screening and good manufacturing practices to ensure maximum purity and viral safety. The private sector companies have much experience in implementing and complying with national and international regulations. These requirements involve considerable cost in the areas of (1) plasma collection facilities, (2) research and clinical research, (3) manufacture, and (4) quality control. Total self-sufficiency would mean the loss of many existing resources. An alternative would be a collaboration between the public and private sectors to meet the needs of all patients who require plasma derived products. The current definition of self-sufficiency suggests that it is not financially viable. PMID:7795138

  6. Power system requirements and concepts for a commercially viable lunar base architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenard, Roger X.; Binder, Alan B.

    1999-01-01

    Historically, space exploration has been the province of governments and major agencies within those governmental entities. Recent advances in the state-of-the-art in many subsystem technology areas and the revealed inadequacies of governments to singlehandedly underwrite major exploration ventures present the potential to expand the venue of space exploration to the commercial sector. Further, major international projects such as the International Space Station have revealed weaknesses in both international financing and management of such projects. Cost overruns are the rule and significant schedule slips and/or failures to deliver have resulted in an enormously costly and delayed program. The exorbitant costs have stymied exploration ventures beyond Earth orbit. There are many potential advantages to a commercial operation including cost, schedule and a distinct customer orientation to services. The objective of this paper is to describe the first phase of a phased strawman commercial lunar base concept which operates as a user facility for governmental entities, corporations and companies. The paper will discuss the power system options and conditions under which such a base can be made to become profitable.

  7. The GeoSAR program: Development of a commercially viable 3-D radar terrain mapping system

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, R.G. [Decision-Science Applications, Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Davis, M. [Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    GeoSAR is joint development between the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) and the California Department of Conservation (CA DOC) to determine the technical and economic viability of an airborne interferometric and foliage penetration synthetic aperture radar for mapping terrain and man made objects in geographical areas obscured by foliage, urban buildings, and other concealments. The two core technology elements of this program are Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) and Foliage Penetration Radar (FOPEN). These technologies have been developed by NASA and ARPA, principally for defense applications.

  8. [Quality of commercial inoculants for soybean crop in Argentina: concentration of viable rhizobia and presence of contaminants].

    PubMed

    Benintende, S

    2010-01-01

    In view of the inoculant production technology available, quality control is a necessary tool to improve soybean inoculants commercialized in Argentina. In 1988, the Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias de la Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos (Argentina) created a quality control service for soybean crop inoculants to offer to farmers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of soybean crop inoculants for seven cropping seasons and to contrast these results with those from previous investigations conducted in our country. This work was developed using 128 inoculant samples from 30 different trade names. The analyzed variables were: inoculant label information, number of viable rhizobia and presence of contaminants. Twenty per cent of the labels showed defects that did not comply with the Argentine legislation. The detected problems in inoculant labels were related to lot numbers or the expiry date, which lacked, was easy to remove or not visible. Eighty seven per cent of the analyzed inoculants were formulated in liquid carriers. Seventy six per cent of the samples had a number of rhizobia above 10(8) CFU/g or ml, the minimum quantity required by the legislation. Thirty per cent of the analyzed inoculants had contaminants and their presence was related to low rhizobia counts, as shown in a correspondence analysis. The relationship between liquid inoculants and the absence of contaminants was expressed. It can be concluded from the comparison of results found in this investigation with those in previous works published on Argentinean inoculants, that inoculant quality has been improved, although the situation is far from ideal. Adequate manufacturing and commercialization controls are necessary to ensure product quality. PMID:20589336

  9. Can CO-tolerant Anodes be Economically Viable for PEMFC Applications with Reformates?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    He, P.; Zhang, Y.; Ye., S.; Wang, J. X.

    2014-10-05

    Several years ago, the answer to this question was negative based on the criteria for an anode with more »ability to simultaneously enhance activity and stability by using single crystalline Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts. Here, we report that the performance target with reformates was met using bilayer-thick Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts with 0.047 mg cm-2 Pt and 0.024 mg cm-2 Ru loading, supporting a positive prognosis for the economically viable use of reformates in PEMFC applications.« less

  10. Reliable commercial HTS wire for power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellers, Jürgen; Masur, Lawrence J.

    2002-08-01

    The production of HTS wire for power applications is increasingly maturing into industrial dimensions. The most widely considered manufacturing method for this conductor is the BSCCO-2223-OPIT route, used internationally by many organizations, including American Superconductor. Significant advances in HTS wire technology have been made in the past years, with currently a guaranteed minimum critical current performance of 115 A at 77 K over commercial long length. For the HTS wire itself this is equivalent to an engineering current density of 13.5 kA/cm 2. During the past 18 months, American Superconductor increased its HTS wire manufacturing capacity in its Westborough operations from 250 to 500 km/year to meet the increased demand for development and demonstration purposes. While this level of quality and quantity is sufficient to demonstrate technical feasibility and reliability of prototype power applications, it cannot satisfy fully commercial requirements for economic viability. To address broader markets with a commercially viable product, a price level of $50/(kA m) is possible with BSCCO-2223-OPIT when manufactured in much larger quantities. Therefore, American Superconductor is currently siting a new facility dedicated solely to the manufacturing of BSCCO-OPIT-2223 wire in quantities of 10,000 km/year. Key initial applications for this wire are power transmission cables, industrial motors and electrical generators. This paper will report on the performance and reliability testing of BSCCO-2223 wires. We will discuss the electrical, bending, tensile, and fatigue testing results of wires manufactured for applications such as American Superconductor's 5000 hp ultra-compact motor. Due to their compactness, these motors will be less expensive to manufacture compared with conventional motors and will be more energy efficient. We will also review the stringent electrical, mechanical, and environmental testing developed jointly by American Superconductor and Pirelli Cables and Systems for simulating the behavior of HTS wires under the actual operating conditions for an underground power cable. Also, we will give an update of the status of our new manufacturing plant which is planned to be operational in 2002.

  11. How Close We Are to Achieving Commercially Viable Large-Scale Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  12. How close we are to achieving commercially viable large-scale photobiological hydrogen production by cyanobacteria: a review of the biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  13. Can CO-tolerant Anodes be Economically Viable for PEMFC Applications with Reformates?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    He, P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhang, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ye., S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wang, J. X. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-10-05

    Several years ago, the answer to this question was negative based on the criteria for an anode with <0.1 mg cm-2 of platinum group metals to perform similarly without and with 50 ppm CO in hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Now, with the amount of CO impurities reduced to 10 ppm in reformates, a <1% performance loss with a 1.5% air-bleed has become a reasonable target. The CO-tolerant catalyst also needs to be dissolution resistant up to 0.93 V, viz., the potential experienced at the anode during startup and shutdown of the fuel cells. We recently demonstrated our ability to simultaneously enhance activity and stability by using single crystalline Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts. Here, we report that the performance target with reformates was met using bilayer-thick Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts with 0.047 mg cm-2 Pt and 0.024 mg cm-2 Ru loading, supporting a positive prognosis for the economically viable use of reformates in PEMFC applications.

  14. Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study

    E-print Network

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study: Reducing Water Consumption of Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation Report to Congress U.S. Department of Energy This report is being Concentrating Solar Power Technologies............................................... 7 Parabolic Troughs

  15. Dispersal of viable row-crop seeds of commercial agriculture by farmland birds: implication for genetically modified crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John L. Cummings; Levis W. Handley; Bruce Macbryde; Shelagh K. Tupper; Scott J. Werner; Zachary J. Byram

    2008-01-01

    To address some concerns about the expansion of genetically engineered pharmaceutical and industrial crops to outdoor plantings and potential impacts on the human food supply, we determined whether commercial agriculture seeds of maize or corn Zea mays L., barley Hordeum vulgare L., safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. and rice Oryza sativa L. are digested or pass viably through the digestive tract,

  16. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  17. Commercial Application of Freeze Crystallization 

    E-print Network

    Gorgol, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    crystallization, low temperature operation, separation of organic and in-organic contaminants, can be put to use. Freeze crystallization can be applied both economically and practically for specific wastewater applications....

  18. Carbon Nanotubes: Present and Future Commercial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Volder, Michael F. L.; Tawfick, Sameh H.; Baughman, Ray H.; Hart, A. John

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide commercial interest in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is reflected in a production capacity that presently exceeds several thousand tons per year. Currently, bulk CNT powders are incorporated in diverse commercial products ranging from rechargeable batteries, automotive parts, and sporting goods to boat hulls and water filters. Advances in CNT synthesis, purification, and chemical modification are enabling integration of CNTs in thin-film electronics and large-area coatings. Although not yet providing compelling mechanical strength or electrical or thermal conductivities for many applications, CNT yarns and sheets already have promising performance for applications including supercapacitors, actuators, and lightweight electromagnetic shields.

  19. Database tomography for commercial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostoff, Ronald N.; Eberhart, Henry J.

    1994-01-01

    Database tomography is a method for extracting themes and their relationships from text. The algorithms, employed begin with word frequency and word proximity analysis and build upon these results. When the word 'database' is used, think of medical or police records, patents, journals, or papers, etc. (any text information that can be computer stored). Database tomography features a full text, user interactive technique enabling the user to identify areas of interest, establish relationships, and map trends for a deeper understanding of an area of interest. Database tomography concepts and applications have been reported in journals and presented at conferences. One important feature of the database tomography algorithm is that it can be used on a database of any size, and will facilitate the users ability to understand the volume of content therein. While employing the process to identify research opportunities it became obvious that this promising technology has potential applications for business, science, engineering, law, and academe. Examples include evaluating marketing trends, strategies, relationships and associations. Also, the database tomography process would be a powerful component in the area of competitive intelligence, national security intelligence and patent analysis. User interests and involvement cannot be overemphasized.

  20. Wood energy-commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  1. Elastic memory composites (EMC) for deployable industrial and commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzberger, Steven C.; Tupper, Michael L.; Lake, Mark S.; Barrett, Rory; Mallick, Kaushik; Hazelton, Craig; Francis, William; Keller, Phillip N.; Campbell, Douglas; Feucht, Sara; Codell, Dana; Wintergerst, Joe; Adams, Larry; Mallioux, Joe; Denis, Rob; White, Karen; Long, Mark; Munshi, Naseem A.; Gall, Ken

    2005-05-01

    The use of smart materials and multifunctional components has the potential to provide enhanced performance, improved economics, and reduced safety concerns for applications ranging from outer space to subterranean. Elastic Memory Composite (EMC) materials, based on shape memory polymers and used to produce multifunctional components and structures, are being developed and qualified for commercial use as deployable components and structures. EMC materials are similar to traditional fiber-reinforced composites except for the use of a thermoset shape memory resin that enables much higher packaging strains than traditional composites without damage to the fibers or the resin. This unique capability is being exploited in the development of very efficient EMC structural components for deployable spacecraft systems as well as capability enhancing components for use in other industries. The present paper is intended primarily to describe the transition of EMC materials as smart structure technologies into viable industrial and commercial products. Specifically, the paper discusses: 1) TEMBO EMC materials for deployable space/aerospace systems, 2) TEMBO EMC resins for terrestrial applications, 3) future generation EMC materials.

  2. Seasat data applications by commercial users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Montgomery

    1980-01-01

    The Seasat Program was initiated as a proof?of?concept mission to evaluate the effectiveness of remotely sensed oceanographic phenomena from a satellite platform. From inception, this program has been user?oriented. These users, within the academic, government, and commercial ocean communities, have served as the architects of the program and are continuing to be involved in the validation and application of the

  3. Design of commercial applications of EPAM technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonwit, N.; Heim, J.; Rosenthal, M.; Duncheon, C.; Beavers, A.

    2006-03-01

    Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle (EPAM[R]) technology is becoming a robust, high performance, cost effective solution for commercial applications in many sectors. Since its inception in 2004, Artificial Muscle, Inc. (AMI), a spinout company from SRI International, has rigorously pursued the commercialization of this form of artificial muscle technology through innovative designs and fabrication processes, dramatically increasing performance, reliability and manufacturability across a wide variety of applications. Scaleable solutions developed by AMI include air and liquid pumps, valves, linear and angular positioners, rotary motors, sensors and generators. Innovative device designs demonstrating the ability to meet the specifications of demanding applications across broad operating environments and combining practical levels of power densities and actuation lifetimes will be discussed. Integrated electronics control modules allow the freedom to design artificial muscles directly into new or existing product lines while effectively managing the transition from conventional technologies. Simple modular, versatile designs, coupled with low cost industrial materials and flexible automated manufacturing processes, provide a cost effective solution for products serving such diverse industries as consumer electronics, medical devices, and automobiles. Several case examples are presented to illustrate the commercial viability of EPAM[R]-based devices.

  4. Advanced thermal control technology for commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, Theodore D.

    1991-01-01

    A number of the technologies previously developed for the thermal control of spacecraft have found their way into commercial application. Specialized coatings and heat pipes are but two examples. The thermal control of current and future spacecraft is becoming increasingly more demanding, and a variety of new technologies are being developed to meet these needs. Closed two-phase loops are perceived to be the answer to many of the new requirements. All of these technologies are discussed, and their spacecraft and current terrestrial applications are summarized.

  5. A rapid, two-hour method for the enumeration of total viable bacteria in samples from commercial milk powder and whey protein concentrate powder manufacturing plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Flint; Jean-Louis Drocourt; Kylie Walker; Barbara Stevenson; Michelle Dwyer; Ian Clarke; Desmond McGill

    2006-01-01

    A new protocol specifically designed to enumerate total viable bacteria in milk powder using flow cytometry was validated against aerobic plate counts using 178 samples of whole milk powder. Viable counts, as measured using flow cytometry, correlated well (r2>0.80) with plate counts across the range of powders with counts of 102–108cfug?1. The protocol was then used to enumerate total viable

  6. ERAST: Scientific Applications and Technology Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunley, John D. (Compiler); Kellogg, Yvonne (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    This is a conference publication for an event designed to inform potential contractors and appropriate personnel in various scientific disciplines that the ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) vehicles have reached a certain level of maturity and are available to perform a variety of missions ranging from data gathering to telecommunications. There are multiple applications of the technology and a great many potential commercial and governmental markets. As high altitude platforms, the ERAST vehicles can gather data at higher resolution than satellites and can do so continuously, whereas satellites pass over a particular area only once each orbit. Formal addresses are given by Rich Christiansen, (Director of Programs, NASA Aerospace Technology Ent.), Larry Roeder, (Senior Policy Advisor, U.S. Dept. of State), and Dr. Marianne McCarthy, (DFRC Education Dept.). The Commercialization Workshop is chaired by Dale Tietz (President, New Vista International) and the Science Workshop is chaired by Steve Wegener, (Deputy Manager of NASA ERAST, NASA Ames Research Center.

  7. Potential commercial applications of microbial surfactants.

    PubMed

    Banat, I M; Makkar, R S; Cameotra, S S

    2000-05-01

    Surfactants are surface-active compounds capable of reducing surface and interfacial tension at the interfaces between liquids, solids and gases, thereby allowing them to mix or disperse readily as emulsions in water or other liquids. The enormous market demand for surfactants is currently met by numerous synthetic, mainly petroleum-based, chemical surfactants. These compounds are usually toxic to the environment and non-biodegradable. They may bio-accumulate and their production, processes and by-products can be environmentally hazardous. Tightening environmental regulations and increasing awareness for the need to protect the ecosystem have effectively resulted in an increasing interest in biosurfactants as possible alternatives to chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic compounds of microbial origin with considerable potential in commercial applications within various industries. They have advantages over their chemical counterparts in biodegradability and effectiveness at extreme temperature or pH and in having lower toxicity. Biosurfactants are beginning to acquire a status as potential performance-effective molecules in various fields. At present biosurfactants are mainly used in studies on enhanced oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation. The solubilization and emulsification of toxic chemicals by biosurfactants have also been reported. Biosurfactants also have potential applications in agriculture, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, detergents, personal care products, food processing, textile manufacturing, laundry supplies, metal treatment and processing, pulp and paper processing and paint industries. Their uses and potential commercial applications in these fields are reviewed. PMID:10855707

  8. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vílchez, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Cuaresma, María; Bédmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Inés; Vega, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon. PMID:21556162

  9. Commercial gasifier for IGCC applications study report

    SciTech Connect

    Notestein, J.E.

    1990-06-01

    This was a scoping-level study to identify and characterize the design features of fixed-bed gasifiers appearing most important for a gasifier that was to be (1) potentially commercially attractive, and (2) specifically intended for us in integrated coal gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) applications. It also performed comparative analyses on the impact or value of these design features and on performance characteristics options of the whole IGCC system since cost, efficiency, environmental traits, and operability -- on a system basis -- are what is really important. The study also reviewed and evaluated existing gasifier designs, produced a conceptual-level gasifier design, and generated a moderately advanced system configuration that was utilized as the reference framework for the comparative analyses. In addition, technical issues and knowledge gaps were defined. 70 figs., 31 tabs.

  10. Triple redundant precision frequency reference for commercial space applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Stone; P. Duckert; L. Terracciao; M. Block

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a redundant quartz crystal based frequency reference developed for commercial space applications. This product is an outgrowth of many years of experience providing similar functionality for military space applications, but is optimized for low cost, short cycle time commercial space applications. This device provides 3 for 1 redundancy, 8 to 24 outputs for distribution to satellite subsystems,

  11. Lawn and Turf Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, M. S.

    This manual is designed for use in training commercial pesticide applicators. It gives identification and control information for common lawn and turf diseases, insects, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrate pests. It also discusses phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and application methods. (BB)

  12. NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies, that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. The RTI Team has been successful in the development of NASA/industry partnerships and commercialization of NASA technologies. RTI ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed and implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs. (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology. And (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

  13. NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is pleased to report the results of NASA contract NASW-4367, 'Operation of a Technology Applications Team'. Through a period of significant change within NASA, the RTI Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. RTI's ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed an implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs; (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology; and (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

  14. High performance VLSI for space and commercial applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Maki; H. C. Shaw; K. Q. Chen

    1996-01-01

    High performance VLSI is a key electronic technology required to advance science and commercial space missions. This paper illustrates several such NASA applications which require special purpose VLSI. In addition to being able to solve unique scientific problems, specialized VLSI can provide breakthrough technology for new commercial products. For example, the basic technology used to solve a key problem for

  15. Commercial applications of electron beam advanced oxidation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Randy D.; Bosma, John T.

    1995-03-01

    Emerging commercial applications of electron-beam advanced oxidation technology offer a significant advancement in the treatment of waste steams. Both electron beam and X-ray (Brehmsstrahlung) advanced oxidation processes have been shown to be effective in the destruction of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Emerging commercial applications, however, far exceed in scope current applications of oxidation technologies for the destruction of simple semivolatile and volatile organic compounds in water. Emerging applications include direct treatment of contaminated soil, removal of metal ions from water and sterilization of water, sludges, and food. Application of electron beam advanced oxidation technologies are reviewed, along with electron- beam-generated X-ray (Brehmsstrahlung) advanced oxidation processes. Advantages of each technology are discussed along with advanced accelerator technologies which are applicable for commercial processing of waste streams. An overview of the U.S. companies and laboratories participating in this research area are included in this discussion.

  16. Optical intersatellite links - Application to commercial satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, D.; Faris, F.; Garlow, R.; Inukai, T.; Pontano, B.; Razdan, R.; Ganz, Aura; Caudill, L.

    1992-01-01

    Application of optical intersatellite links for commercial satellite communications services is addressed in this paper. The feasibility of commercialization centers around basic issues such as the need and derived benefits, implementation complexity and overall cost. In this paper, commercialization of optical ISLs is assessed in terms of the services provided, systems requirements and feasibility of appropriate technology. Both long- and short-range ISLs for GEO-GEO, GEO-LEO and LEO applications are considered. Impact of systems requirements on the payload design and use of advanced technology in reducing its mass, power, and volume requirements are discussed.

  17. Commercial application of new type scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Iwashita, K.; Takashina, T.; Okino, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    A highly efficient and compact flue gas desulfurization scrubber called the Double Contact Flow Scrubber (DCFS) was developed and successfully applied commercially. The first DCFS unit started commercial operation for an oil-fired boiler since July `93 followed by the second unit for a coal-fired boiler since July `94 in Japan. High density liquid-particulate layer is formed in the scrubber by collision of the absorbent liquid sprayed from the special nozzles installed at the bottom of scrubber with the falling finely-sprayed liquid once spouted up. Due to the highly efficient liquid-gas contact at the liquid layer, high desulfurization and dedusting efficiency can be obtained with low power consumption. Utilizing the simple construction of this scrubber, a stack-integrated simplified compact FGD system was developed and is now being supplied to the Weifang Chemical Plant in China under the Japanese Government`s Green Aid Plan.

  18. Ecosystem Viable Yields

    E-print Network

    De Lara, Michel; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook to restore and exploit their stocks at maximum sustainable yield (MSY), a concept and practice without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model. Acknowledging this gap, we propose a definition of "ecosystem viable yields" (EVY) as yields compatible i) with biological viability levels for all time and ii) with an ecosystem dynamics. To the difference of MSY, this notion is not based on equilibrium, but on viability theory, which offers advantages for robustness. For a generic class of multispecies models with harvesting, we provide explicit expressions for the EVY. We apply our approach to the anchovy--hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem between the years 1971 and 1981.

  19. Rocket engine heat transfer and material technology for commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiltabiddle, J.; Campbell, J.

    1974-01-01

    Liquid fueled rocket engine combustion, heat transfer, and material technology have been utilized in the design and development of compact combustion and heat exchange equipment intended for application in the commercial field. An initial application of the concepts to the design of a compact steam generator to be utilized by electrical utilities for the production of peaking power is described.

  20. Commercial aerospace and terrestrial applications of nickel-hydrogen batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, D.B.; Coates, D.K.; Fox, C.L.; Miller, L.E. [Advanced Systems Operation, Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., Joplin, Missouri 64801 (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The nickel-hydrogen battery system, used extensively in the aerospace industry to supply electrical power to earth-orbital satellites for communications, observation, and military applications, is being developed for commercial, terrestrial applications. Low-cost components, electrodes, cell designs, and battery designs are currently being tested. Catalytic hydrogen electrodes have been developed which are compatible with commercial nickel battery cost. Prismatic and spiral-wound cell designs have been built and tested. Common pressure vessel and dependent pressure vessel battery designs are also being evaluated. The nickel-hydrogen battery offers potential cycle life unequaled by any other battery system. This makes the battery ideal for many commercial and terrestrial energy storage applications such as telecommunication, remote stand-alone power systems, utility load-leveling, and other applications which require long life and a truly maintenance-free and abuse-tolerant battery system. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Commercial aerospace and terrestrial applications of nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, Dwight B.; Coates, Dwaine K.; Fox, Chris L.; Miller, Lee E.

    1996-03-01

    The nickel-hydrogen battery system, used extensively in the aerospace industry to supply electrical power to earth-orbital satellites for communications, observation, and military applications, is being developed for commercial, terrestrial applications. Low-cost components, electrodes, cell designs, and battery designs are currently being tested. Catalytic hydrogen electrodes have been developed which are compatible with commercial nickel battery cost. Prismatic and spiral-wound cell designs have been built and tested. Common pressure vessel and dependent pressure vessel battery designs are also being evaluated. The nickel-hydrogen battery offers potential cycle life unequaled by any other battery system. This makes the battery ideal for many commercial and terrestrial energy storage applications such as telecommunication, remote stand-alone power systems, utility load-leveling, and other applications which require long life and a truly maintenance-free and abuse-tolerant battery system.

  2. Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Ram; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous advances in remote sensing technology and computing power over the last few decades are now providing scientists with the opportunity to investigate, measure, and model environmental patterns and processes with increasing confidence. Such advances are being pursued by the Nebraska Remote Sensing Facility, which consists of approximately 30 faculty members and is very competitive with other institutions in the depth of the work that is accomplished. The development of this facility targeted at applications, commercialization, and education programs in the area of precision agriculture provides a unique opportunity. This critical area is within the scope of NASA goals and objectives of NASA s Applications, Technology Transfer, Commercialization, and Education Division and the Earth Science Enterprise. This innovative integration of Aerospace (Aeronautics) Technology Enterprise applications with other NASA enterprises serves as a model of cross-enterprise transfer of science with specific commercial applications.

  3. 77 FR 14535 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ...Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and...Application to Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This request for comment is...Abstract: The Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) is a trade processing...

  4. 77 FR 30021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and...Application to Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This is a proposed extension...Abstract: The Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) is a trade processing...

  5. Parabolic trough collectors for industrial and commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, R.C.

    1997-06-01

    Industrial Solar Technology Corporation (IST) manufactures and installs parabolic trough solar energy systems for large-scale commercial and industrial applications. Parabolic trough collectors have advanced significantly over the last fifteen years and are the most developed and widely deployed type of solar concentrator. Collector efficiency has increased, installed costs have decreased, and system reliability has improved. These positive trends have moved parabolic trough technology to commercial viability in niche markets where energy costs are high and sunlight is abundant.

  6. Cryogenic Applications of Commercial Electronic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Ernest D.; Benford, Dominic J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electronics include finding components that can function usefully in the cold and possess low enough power dissipation so as not to heat the systems they are designed to measure. From design, test, and integration perspectives it is useful for components to operate similarly at room and cryogenic temperatures; however this is not a necessity. Some of the circuits presented here have been used successfully in the MUSTANG and in the GISMO camera to build a complete digital to analog multiplexer (which will be referred to as the Cryogenic Address Driver board). Many of the circuit elements described are of a more general nature rather than specific to the Cryogenic Address Driver board, and were studied as a part of a more comprehensive approach to addressing a larger set of cryogenic electronic needs.

  7. Space Commercial Opportunities for Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavert, R.

    2000-01-01

    Microgravity research at NASA has been an undertaking that has included both science and commercial approaches since the late 80s and early 90s. The Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community has been developed, through NASA's science grants, into a valuable base of expertise in microgravity science. This was achieved through both ground and flight scientific research. Commercial microgravity research has been primarily promoted thorough NASA sponsored Centers for Space Commercialization which develop cost sharing partnerships with industry. As an example, the Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP)at Northeastern University has been working with cost sharing industry partners in developing Zeolites and zeo-type materials as an efficient storage medium for hydrogen fuel. Greater commercial interest is emerging. The U.S. Congress has passed the Commercial Space Act of 1998 to encourage the development of a commercial space industry in the United States. The Act has provisions for the commercialization of the International Space Station (ISS). Increased efforts have been made by NASA to enable industrial ventures on-board the ISS. A Web site has been established at http://commercial/nasa/gov which includes two important special announcements. One is an open request for entrepreneurial offers related to the commercial development and use of the ISS. The second is a price structure and schedule for U.S. resources and accommodations. The purpose of the presentation is to make the Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community, which understands the importance of microgravity experimentation, aware of important aspects of ISS commercial development. It is a desire that this awareness will be translated into a recognition of Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena application opportunities coordinated through the broad contacts of this community with industry.

  8. Intersatellite link application to commercial communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young S.; Atia, Ali E.; Ponchak, Denise S.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental characteristics of intersatellite link (ISL) systems, and their application to domestic, regional, and global satellite communications, are described. The quantitative advantages of using ISLs to improve orbit utilization, spectrum occupancy, transmission delay (compared to multi-hop links), coverage, and connectivity, and to reduce the number of earth station antennas, are also presented. Cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits of using ISLs are identified, and the technical and systems planning aspects of ISL systems implementation are addressed.

  9. The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is a NASA / Industry / University space commercialization center based at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) in Golden, Colorado. CCACS conducts research and offers students coursework and experience in combustion or related scientific areas. An emphasis is placed on research results that can be "applied to the development of commercial products and processes, where the research can benefit from the unique properties of space, and where the research addresses NASA's priorities in exploring space." Commercialization projects address combustors, fire safety and suppression, and advanced materials. The website describes the center's research approach, provides updates on current projects and events, and a promotional video called Partners in Space illustrates why one should study combustion in space.

  10. Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further sub-divided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

  11. SONOS technology for commercial and military nonvolatile memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Farrell, P.; Jacunski, M.; Williams, D.; Jakubczak, J.; Knoll, M.; Murray, J.

    Silicon Oxide Nitride Oxide Semiconductor (SONOS) technology is well suited for military and commercial nonvolatile memory applications. Excellent long term memory retention, radiation hardness, and endurance has been demonstrated with this technology. This paper summarizes our data in these areas for SONOS technology.

  12. Electrical Insulation Systems [ETS] Applications from General Commercial to Automotive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. LaBanca; A. Werner-Morse; M. Muzzey

    2006-01-01

    The electrical industry has utilized the approach to product performance as an electrical insulation system since electricity became commercially available. As the industry grew it became necessary to shift the method of evaluation from actual units to a simpler laboratory model. The focus of this paper is to present the applications of the laboratory approach to today's industrial needs.

  13. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Renes, Robert

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the industrial, institutional, structural and health related pest control category. The text discusses the use and safety of applying pesticides to control invertebrate and vertebrate pests such as ants,…

  14. Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    E-print Network

    Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

    1987-01-01

    Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

  15. Elastic memory composites (EMC) for deployable industrial and commercial applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven C. Arzberger; Michael L. Tupper; Mark S. Lake; Rory Barrett; Kaushik Mallick; Craig Hazelton; William Francis; Phillip N. Keller; Douglas Campbell; Sara Feucht; Dana Codell; Joe Wintergerst; Larry Adams; Joe Mallioux; Rob Denis; Karen White; Mark Long; Naseem A. Munshi; Ken Gall

    2005-01-01

    The use of smart materials and multifunctional components has the potential to provide enhanced performance, improved economics, and reduced safety concerns for applications ranging from outer space to subterranean. Elastic Memory Composite (EMC) materials, based on shape memory polymers and used to produce multifunctional components and structures, are being developed and qualified for commercial use as deployable components and structures.

  16. A Framework for Effective Commercial Web Application Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Ming-te; Yeung, Wing-lok

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a framework for commercial Web application development based on prior research in hypermedia and human-computer interfaces. First, its social acceptability is investigated. Next, economic, technical, operational, and organizational viability are examined. For Web-page design, the functionality and usability of Web pages are considered.…

  17. Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters 

    E-print Network

    Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

    1987-01-01

    Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

  18. Characterization and evaluation of commercial fragrance microcapsules for textile application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Sofia Nogueira Rodrigues Teixeira; Isabel Maria Duque Martins; Vera Lúcia Gomes Mata; Maria Filomena Filipe Barreiro; Alírio Egídio Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, some commercial microcapsule samples, containing different fragrances used for textile application purposes, were characterized and evaluated. Microcapsule samples were evaluated in terms of particle size, morphology, shell material composition, and fragrance intensity. The effectiveness of the textile impregnation and its durability were assessed. The selection of samples used in each study was made in order to the

  19. Characterization and evaluation of commercial fragrance microcapsules for textile application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Sofia Nogueira Rodrigues Teixeira; Isabel Maria Duque Martins; Vera Lúcia Gomes Mata; Maria Filomena Filipe Barreiro; Alírio Egídio Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, some commercial microcapsule samples, containing different fragrances used for textile application purposes, were characterized and evaluated. Microcapsule samples were evaluated in terms of particle size, morphology, shell material composition, and fragrance intensity. The effectiveness of the textile impregnation and its durability were assessed. The selection of samples used in each study was made in order to the

  20. Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications University of Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Winfred; Evanich, Peggy L.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications grant was funded by NASA's Kennedy Space Center in FY 2002 to provide dedicated biotechnology and agricultural research focused on the regeneration of space flight environments with direct parallels in Earth-based applications for solving problems in the environment, advances in agricultural science, and other human support issues amenable to targeted biotechnology solutions. This grant had three project areas, each with multiple tasks. They are: 1) Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education, 2) Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications, and 3) Commercial Applications. The Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education (SABRE) Center emphasized the fundamental biology of organisms involved in space flight applications, including those involved in advanced life support environments because of their critical role in the long-term exploration of space. The SABRE Center supports research at the University of Florida and at the Space Life Sciences Laboratory (SLSL) at the Kennedy Space Center. The Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications component focused on developing and applying sensor technologies to space environments and agricultural systems. The research activities in nanosensors were coordinated with the SABRE portions of this grant and with the research sponsored by the NASA Environmental Systems Commercial Space Technology Center located in the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. Initial sensor efforts have focused on air and water quality monitoring essential to humans for living and working permanently in space, an important goal identified in NASA's strategic plan. The closed environment of a spacecraft or planetary base accentuates cause and effect relationships and environmental impacts. The limited available air and water resources emphasize the need for reuse, recycling, and system monitoring. It is essential to collect real-time information from these systems to ensure crew safety. This new class of nanosensors will be critical to monitoring the space flight environment in future NASA space systems. The Commercial Applications component of this program pursued industry partnerships to develop products for terrestrial use of NASA sponsored technologies, and in turn to stimulate growth in the biotechnology industry. For technologies demonstrating near term commercial potential, the objective is to include industry partners on or about the time of proof of concept that will not only co-invest in the technology but also take the resultant technology to the commercial market.

  1. Tests of commercial colour CMOS cameras for astronomical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhvala, S. M.; Reshetnyk, V. M.; Zhilyaev, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    We present some results of testing commercial colour CMOS cameras for astronomical applications. Colour CMOS sensors allow to perform photometry in three filters simultaneously that gives a great advantage compared with monochrome CCD detectors. The Bayer BGR colour system realized in colour CMOS sensors is close to the astronomical Johnson BVR system. The basic camera characteristics: read noise (e^{-}/pix), thermal noise (e^{-}/pix/sec) and electronic gain (e^{-}/ADU) for the commercial digital camera Canon 5D MarkIII are presented. We give the same characteristics for the scientific high performance cooled CCD camera system ALTA E47. Comparing results for tests of Canon 5D MarkIII and CCD ALTA E47 show that present-day commercial colour CMOS cameras can seriously compete with the scientific CCD cameras in deep astronomical imaging.

  2. Application of the airborne ocean color imager for commercial fishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to develop a commercial remote sensing system for providing near-real-time data (within one day) in support of commercial fishing operations. The Airborne Ocean Color Imager (AOCI) had been built for NASA by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc., but it needed certain improvements, data processing software, and a delivery system to make it into a commercial system for fisheries. Two products were developed to support this effort: the AOCI with its associated processing system and an information service for both commercial and recreational fisheries to be created by Spectro Scan, Inc. The investigation achieved all technical objectives: improving the AOCI, creating software for atmospheric correction and bio-optical output products, georeferencing the output products, and creating a delivery system to get those products into the hands of commercial and recreational fishermen in near-real-time. The first set of business objectives involved Daedalus Enterprises and also were achieved: they have an improved AOCI and new data processing software with a set of example data products for fisheries applications to show their customers. Daedalus' marketing activities showed the need for simplification of the product for fisheries, but they successfully marketed the current version to an Italian consortium. The second set of business objectives tasked Spectro Scan to provide an information service and they could not be achieved because Spectro Scan was unable to obtain necessary venture capital to start up operations.

  3. Novel PCM Thermal Management Makes Li-ion Batteries a Viable Option for High Power and High Temperature Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Tamburrino; Alan ElShafei; Riza Kizilel; Abdul Lateef; Mohammed M. Farid; Said Al-Hallaj

    Thermal Management of Li-ion batteries plays a significant role in large power applications by addressing the thermal safety in addition to improving the performance and extending the cycle life. The electrochemical performance of the Li-ion battery chemistry, charge acceptance, power and energy capability, cycle life and cost are very much affected by the operating temperature. One of the side effects

  4. Inkjet printing of viable mammalian cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Xu; Joyce Jin; Cassie Gregory; James J. Hickman; Thomas Boland

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of a commercial thermal printer to deposit Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) and embryonic motoneuron cells into pre-defined patterns. These experiments were undertaken to verify the biocompatibility of thermal inkjet printing of mammalian cells and the ability to assemble them into viable constructs. Using a modified Hewlett Packard (HP) 550C computer

  5. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3...

  6. On-Chip Dielectrophoretic Separation and Concentration of Viable, Non-Viable and Viable but Not Culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, M M; Shusteff, M; Alocilja, E C

    2012-04-12

    Although bacterial culture remains the gold standard for detection of viable bacteria in environmental specimens, the typical time requirement of twenty-four hours can delay and even jeopardize appropriate public health intervention. In addition, culture is incapable of detecting viable but not culturable (VBNC) species. Conversely, nucleic acid and antibody-based methods greatly decrease time to detection but rarely characterize viability of the bacteria detected. Through selection by membrane permeability, the method described in this work employs positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for separation and purification of viable and VBNC species from water and allows concentration of bacteria for downstream applications.

  7. Nonacid meat decontamination technologies: model studies and commercial applications.

    PubMed

    Sofos, J N; Smith, G C

    1998-11-10

    Increased consumer awareness and concern about microbial foodborne diseases has resulted in intensified efforts to reduce contamination of raw meat, as evidenced by new meat and poultry inspection regulations being implemented in the United States. In addition to requiring operation of meat and poultry slaughtering and processing plants under the principles of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system, the new regulations have established microbiological testing criteria for Escherichia coli and Salmonella, as a means of evaluating plant performance. These developments have renewed and intensified interest in the development and commercial application of meat and poultry decontamination procedures. Technologies developed and evaluated for decontamination include live animal cleaning/washing, chemical dehairing, carcass knife-trimming to remove physical contaminants, steam/hot water-vacuuming for spot-cleaning/decontamination of carcasses, spray washing/rinsing of carcasses with water of low or high pressures and temperatures or chemical solutions, and exposure of carcass sides to pressurized steam. Under appropriate conditions, the technologies applied to carcasses may reduce mean microbiological counts by approximately one-three log colony forming units (cfu)/cm2, and some of them have been approved and are employed in commercial applications (i.e., steam-vacuuming; carcass spray-washing with water, chlorine, organic acid or trisodium phosphate solutions; hot water deluging/spraying/rinsing, and pressurized steam). The contribution of these decontamination technologies to the enhancement of food safety will be determined over the long term, as surveillance data on microbial foodborne illness are collected. This review examines carcass decontamination technologies, other than organic acids, with emphasis placed on recent advances and commercial applications. PMID:9851598

  8. Extended Evaluations of the Commercial Spectrometer Systems for Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duc T. Vo

    1999-08-01

    Safeguards applications require the best of the spectrometer system with excellent resolution, stability, and throughput. Instruments must perform well in all situations and environments. Data communication to the computer should be convenient, fast, and reliable. The software should have all the necessary tools and be easy to use. Portable systems should be small in size, lightweight, and have a long battery life. Nine commercially available spectrometer systems are tested with five different germanium detectors. Considering the performance of the Digital Signal Processors (DSP), digital-based spectroscope y may become the way of future gamma-ray spectroscopy.

  9. 14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01...application requirements for commercial operators. 119.36 Section 119.36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS...

  10. 14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01...application requirements for commercial operators. 119.36 Section 119.36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS...

  11. 14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01...application requirements for commercial operators. 119.36 Section 119.36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS...

  12. 14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01...application requirements for commercial operators. 119.36 Section 119.36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS...

  13. 14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01...application requirements for commercial operators. 119.36 Section 119.36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION...CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS...

  14. Commercial saliva collections tools.

    PubMed

    Slowey, Paul D

    2013-02-01

    Saliva has been used as a specimen for diagnostics purposes for many years, but it has only been in the last 10 years that a number of new tools have been developed that promise to greatly increase the use of oral specimens for broad-based diagnosis and potentially screening applications. This article focuses on tools that are commercially viable or can play a role in whole saliva collection and future testing for critical diseases. PMID:23505755

  15. Electrical properties of commercial sheet insulation materials for cryogenic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    Dielectric properties of electrical insulation materials are needed for low-temperature power applications. Performance of materials and their compatibility determine the size of the electrical insulation in power equipment. In this work we report the dielectric properties of some commercially available materials in sheet form. The selected materials are polypropylene laminated paper from Sumitomo Electric U.S.A., Inc., porous polyethylene (Tyvek\\texttrademark) from Dupont, and polyamide paper (Nomex\\texttrademark) from Dupont. The dielectric properties are characterized with an electrical impedance analyzer in the frequency domain. The impedances are recorded in a cryocooler in the temperature range from 50 to 300 K. The dielectric breakdown characteristics of the materials are measured in a liquid nitrogen bath at atmospheric pressure.

  16. A lightweight, high strength dexterous manipulator for commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Schena, Bruce M.; Cohan, Steve M.

    1991-01-01

    The concept, design, and features are described of a lightweight, high strength, modular robot manipulator being developed for space and commercial applications. The manipulator has seven fully active degrees of freedom and is fully operational in 1 G. Each of the seven joints incorporates a unique drivetrain design which provides zero backlash operation, is insensitive to wear, and is single fault tolerant to motor or servo amplifier failure. Feedback sensors provide position, velocity, torque, and motor winding temperature information at each joint. This sensing system is also designed to be single fault tolerant. The manipulator consists of five modules (not including gripper). These modules join via simple quick-disconnect couplings and self-mating connectors which allow rapid assembly and/or disassembly for reconfiguration, transport, or servicing. The manipulator is a completely enclosed assembly, with no exposed components or wires. Although the initial prototype will not be space qualified, the design is well suited to meeting space requirements. The control system provides dexterous motion by controlling the endpoint location and arm pose simultaneously. Potential applications are discussed.

  17. The venture space alliance commercial application of microgravity research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dave Whitton

    1999-01-01

    The Venture Space Alliance is a Canadian commercial enterprise formed to develop a successful sustainable business, providing industrial and institutional clients with cost effective timely access to space and microgravity facilities for commercial and scientific benefit. The goal is to offer users a comprehensive and reliable set of products and services from the early stages of research, where access to

  18. Composites: A viable option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, John E.

    1991-01-01

    While it sounded great to be asked to talk about composites, I found it difficult to select subject areas that would be of real interest. My choice is based on saying some things about where the maturity of the composite aircraft structures is today and what that means in terms of future criteria for application. This focus was the basis for my title selection. The other issue that will be addressed was requested by NASA and focuses on composites structures cost. This fits well with the state-of-the-art interpretations I will discuss first, since the cost issue must be viewed from both the current status and future points of view. The difficulty in presenting something in these areas is not in the subjects themselves but in trying to present a real world viewpoint to an audience of composite experts. So, with recognition of the expertise of the audience, I hope you will see something in this presentation about how to view composite aircraft structure.

  19. Cost-Effective Gas-Fueled Cooling Systems for Commercial/Industrial Buildings and Process Applications 

    E-print Network

    Lindsay, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Gas Research Institute initiated a program in 1985 to develop cost-effective gas engine-driven cooling systems for commercial and industrial applications. Tecogen, Inc., has designed, fabricated, and tested a nominal 150-ton engine-driven water...

  20. Gallium nitride (GaN) HEMT's: progress and potential for commercial applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Shealy; J. Smart; M. Poulton; R. Sadler; D. Grider; S. Gibb; B. Hosse; B. Sousa; D. Halchin; V. Steel; P. Garber; P. Wilkerson; B. Zaroff; J. Dick; T. Mercier; J. Bonaker; C. Greer; M. Isenhour

    2002-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of 100 mm gallium nitride HEMT technology at RF Micro Devices and the utilization of GaN transistors for commercial applications such as power amplifiers, power switches and low-noise power oscillators.

  1. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...tobacco, peanuts, cotton, feed grains, soybeans and forage; vegetables; small fruits; tree fruits and nuts; as well as on grasslands and non-crop agricultural lands. (ii) Animal. This category includes commercial applicators using or...

  2. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...tobacco, peanuts, cotton, feed grains, soybeans and forage; vegetables; small fruits; tree fruits and nuts; as well as on grasslands and non-crop agricultural lands. (ii) Animal. This category includes commercial applicators using or...

  3. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...tobacco, peanuts, cotton, feed grains, soybeans and forage; vegetables; small fruits; tree fruits and nuts; as well as on grasslands and non-crop agricultural lands. (ii) Animal. This category includes commercial applicators using or...

  4. Determination of the authenticity of commercial coffees by application of chemometrics to 1

    E-print Network

    Ferreira, Márcia M. C.

    Determination of the authenticity of commercial coffees by application of chemometrics to 1 H NMR of this information makes the spectra too complex to be analysed one by one and require chemometric analysis

  5. Commercial Application of Biological Control: Status and Prospects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Jutsum

    1988-01-01

    The global market value of control agents used in crop protection and public health is approaching 16 000 million annually, but less than 1% of this market is penetrated by biological control agents (BCAs). This paper examines the suitability of different types of BCA to research and commercialization, bearing in mind the sharply targeted approach employed by much of the

  6. Transcritical carbon dioxide small commercial cooling applications analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Cecchinato; Marco Corradi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a project to develop an R744 commercial single door bottle cooler that is cost competitive and matches the performance of typical cost optimised R404A and R134a systems. Compressors with different displacement and efficiency values are evaluated for refrigerating systems with fin and tube and steel wire-on-tube gas coolers. Capillary tubes are tested. A methodology to properly sizing

  7. MHD Power Generation Prospects for Commercial and Space Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Steve Shepard

    1987-01-01

    (MHD)processto commercial power toriscombined witha conventional steampowerplant. generation. The UnitedStatesDepartment of EnergyA schematic oftheconventional steamplantisshownin (DOE)hasspentapproximately $500milliononresearchFigure1. A schematic oftheproposed MHDsystemis relatedto commerical MHDpowergeneration. At its showninFigure 2. TheMHDportionofthecycle, from peakthebudgetwas $70millionperyear. TheDOE the combustor to the exitof thediffuser, is the budgetforMHDduringthe1986fiscal yearwasapproxi-topping cycle, andtherestofthecomponents arethe mately$28.5millionaftertheGramm-Ruddman-Hollings bottoming cycle.Notethata conventional powerplant formula wasapplied tothe1985budget. is justan atmospheric coalcombustor connected to

  8. Adapting a commercial shear rheometer for applications in cartilage research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, K.; Grumbein, S.; Winkler, U.; Nachtsheim, J.; Lieleg, O.

    2014-09-01

    Cartilage research typically requires a broad range of experimental characterization techniques and thus various testing setups. Here, we describe how several of those tests can be performed with a single experimental platform, i.e. a commercial shear rheometer. Although primarily designed for shear experiments, such a rheometer can be equipped with different adapters to perform indentation and creep measurements, quantify alterations in the sample thickness, and conduct friction measurements in addition to shear rheology. Beyond combining four distinct experimental methods into one setup, the modified rheometer allows for performing material characterizations over a broad range of time scales, frequencies, and normal loads.

  9. Towards Commercial Mobile Ad Hoc Network Applications: A Radio Dispatch System

    E-print Network

    Crowcroft, Jon

    Towards Commercial Mobile Ad Hoc Network Applications: A Radio Dispatch System Elgan Huang, Wenjun application scenario for mobile ad hoc networks in the form of a radio dispatch system. We evaluate the system in the form of a MANET dispatch system for taxis. A major novel contribution of this paper is that we use

  10. "The tail wags the dog": A study of anomaly detection in commercial application performance

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    . Most large enterprises have private data center arrangements with varying degrees of infrastructure to understand application performance and pro-actively manage their state is becoming increasingly important"The tail wags the dog": A study of anomaly detection in commercial application performance Richard

  11. Adaptation of commercial microscopes for advanced imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brideau, Craig; Poon, Kelvin; Stys, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Today's commercially available microscopes offer a wide array of options to accommodate common imaging experiments. Occasionally, an experimental goal will require an unusual light source, filter, or even irregular sample that is not compatible with existing equipment. In these situations the ability to modify an existing microscopy platform with custom accessories can greatly extend its utility and allow for experiments not possible with stock equipment. Light source conditioning/manipulation such as polarization, beam diameter or even custom source filtering can easily be added with bulk components. Custom and after-market detectors can be added to external ports using optical construction hardware and adapters. This paper will present various examples of modifications carried out on commercial microscopes to address both atypical imaging modalities and research needs. Violet and near-ultraviolet source adaptation, custom detection filtering, and laser beam conditioning and control modifications will be demonstrated. The availability of basic `building block' parts will be discussed with respect to user safety, construction strategies, and ease of use.

  12. Commercial application of microalgae other than as biofuels: a brief review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Milledge

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable discussion in recent years about the potential of micro-algae for the production of sustainable\\u000a and renewable biofuels, but there may be other more readily exploitable commercial opportunities for microalgae. This paper\\u000a briefly reviews the current and potential situation for the commercial application of the growth of microalgae for products\\u000a other than biofuels.

  13. 48 CFR 212.570 - Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition...ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial...570 Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the...

  14. Risk and safety analysis for Florida commercial aerial application operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, John Michael

    The purpose of this study was to determine self-reported perceptions in the areas of agroterrorism, bioterrorism, chemical exposure and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight. The aerial application industry has been in existence since the 1920's with a gamut of issues ranging from pesticide drift to counterterrorism. The attacks of September 11th, 2001, caused a paradigm shift in the way the United States views security and, more importantly, the prevention of malicious activity. Through the proper implementation and dissemination of educational materials dealing with industry specific concerns, it is imperative that everyone has the proper level of resources and training to effectively manage terrorist threats. This research study was designed to interpret how aerial applicators view these topics of concern and how they perceive the current threat level of terrorism in the industry. Research results were consistent, indicating that a high number of aerial applicators in the state of Florida are concerned with these topics. As a result, modifications need to be made with respect to certain variables. The aerial application industry works day in and day out to provide a professional service that helps maintain the integrity of the food and commodities that we need to survive. They are a small percentage of the aviation community that we all owe a great deal for the vital and necessary services they provide.

  15. Knowledge-based system to define context in commercial applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Sanchez-Pi; V. Fuentes; J. Carbo; J. M. Molina

    2007-01-01

    New wireless communications, user mobility and the growing need of taking into account the characteristics of the context make feasible the development of advanced frameworks to support context-aware knowledge systems. In this paper we present the design of the contextual information for an airport domain using a platform that exploits the modular and distributed architecture to develop context-aware applications.

  16. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Seed Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the types of seeds that require chemical protection against pests. Methods of treatment and labeling requirements for such seeds as rye, wheat, soybeans, peas, and grass hybrids are discussed. Safety and environmental precautions…

  17. Recent developments for commercial applications of low expansion glass ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Pannhorst

    Examples of recent developments of low expansion glass ceramics are presented. These include new cook top panels with higher temperature stability and new base colours. The expansion properties achieved for mirror segments of several large telescopes are evaluated. For mirror substrates in Extreme UV- Lithography the requirements for zero expansion have become tighter than in previous applications; it is shown

  18. Iowa Supplement...For Commercial Applicators. IC-427.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text outlines the procedures to be followed for certification. Additionally, a general overview of important data such as toxicity of pesticides, poison control centers, record keeping, equipment maintenance and liability is…

  19. Industrial and Commercial Heat Pump Applications in the United States

    E-print Network

    Niess, R. C.

    gaining acceptance, including groundwater/geothermal water. INTRODUCTION The large-scale application of heat pumps in the United States had its beginning with the first known installation of an air-to-air heat pump in Reading, Pennsylvania, in 1932... embargo and completely revolutionizing the energy pricing and availability structure. One major effect was the development of interest in waste heat recovery and heat pumping, which could conse rve ene rgy. At the same time, solar and geothermal...

  20. Energymaster Desiccant System Application to Light Commercial Buildings

    E-print Network

    Blanpied, M. C.; Coellner, J. A.; Macintosh, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    rooftop, self-contained packaged units. These systems are operated in one of three configurations: 1. 100% recirculation. 2. Recirculation with makeup air. 3. 100% makeup air. The Energymaster desiccant system offers unique advantages to each... climates Enerqymaster has two (2) outstanding applications: treatment of makeup air and maintenance of indoor humidity levels. In 100% makeup situations It can replace units of up to six (6) tans. In combination 2 4 (I 8 10 recirculation/makeur air...

  1. Application of the iron-enriched basalt waste form for immobilizing commercial transuranic waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, D. E.

    1981-08-01

    The principal sources of commercial transuranic (TRU) waste in the United States are identified. The physical and chemical nature of the wastes from these sources are discussed. The fabrication technique and properties of iron enriched basalt, a rock-like waste from developd for immobilizing defense TRU wastes, are discussed. The application of iron enriched basalt to commercial TRU wastes is discussed. Commercial TRU wastes from mixed oxide fuel fabrication, light water reactor fuel reprocessing, and miscellaneous medical, research, and industrial sources are reviewed. These indicate that iron enriched basalt is suitable for most types of commercial TRU wastes. Noncombustible TRU wastes are dissolved in the high temperature, oxidizing iron enriched basalt melt. Combustible TRU wastes are immobilized in iron enriched basalt by incinerating the wastes and adding the TRU bearing ash to the melt. Casting and controlled cooling of the melt produces a devitrified, rock like iron enriched basalt monolith.

  2. Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communications. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further subdivided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

  3. Fuel cell commercialization issues for light-duty vehicle applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E.

    The major challenges facing fuel cells in light-duty vehicle applications relate to the high cost of the fuel cell stack components (membrane, electro-catalyst and bipolar plate) which dictate that new manufacturing processes and materials must be developed. Initially, the best fuel for a mass market light-duty vehicle will probably not be the best fuel for the fuel cell (hydrogen); refueling infrastructure and energy density concerns may demand the use of an on-board fuel processor for petroleum-based fuels since this will increase customer acceptance. The use of fuel processors does, however, reduce the fuel cell system's efficiency. Moreover, if such fuels are used then the emissions benefit associated with fuel cells may come with a significant penalty in terms of added complexity, weight, size and cost. However, ultimately, fuel cells powered by hydrogen do promise to be the most efficient and cleanest of automotive powertrains.

  4. Towards Commercial Mobile Ad Hoc Network Applications: A Radio Dispatch System

    E-print Network

    Hand, Steven

    Towards Commercial Mobile Ad Hoc Network Applications: A Radio Dispatch System Elgan Huang Wenjun hoc networks in the form of a radio dispatch system. We evaluate the system from both financial dispatch system for taxis. A major novel contribution of this paper is that we use realism in our models

  5. Biological Control of Plant Pathogens: Research, Commercialization, and Application in the USA

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brian B. McSpadden Gardener (The Ohio State University-OARDC; )

    2002-05-10

    This article describes the current status of research, commercial development, and application of biocontrol strategies targeted at plant pathogens. Also included is a description of future prospects for using biological control to limit the damage of plant pathogens in both conventional and organic agriculture.

  6. Privacy in Distributed Commercial Applications1 Nicolai Kuntze and Carsten Rudolph

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    , bandwidth, accounting information and utilization allow the CPs to analyze the market penetration approaches to commercial applications appearing on the market. Some of these approaches involve third content according to their needs in terms of security and distribution strategies. P2P protocols are used

  7. Applicability of neural networks to industrial and commercial power systems: a tutorial overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mark Halpin; Reuben F. Burch

    1997-01-01

    This paper is intended as a tutorial overview of neural network applications that are relevant to industrial and commercial power systems. The paper is arranged to provide the practicing engineer with answers to the following questions: (1) why would a neural network be needed?;(2) what is required to use a neural network?; (3) how are neural networks superior to conventional

  8. Applicability of neural networks to industrial and commercial power systems: a tutorial overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mark Halpin; Reuben F. Burch

    1996-01-01

    This paper is intended as a tutorial overview of neural network applications that are relevant to industrial and commercial power systems. The paper is arranged to provide the practicing engineer with answers to the following questions: (1) Why would a neural network be needed? (2) What is required to use a neural network? (3) How are neural networks superior to

  9. An investigation of the military applications of commercial personal satellite-communications systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Mahoney; P. Kerr; B. Felstead; P. Wells; M. Cunningham; G. Baumgartner; L. Jeromin

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of the results of a four-nation workshop that investigated the military use of commercial satellite-based personal communications systems (SPCS). Military considerations and nine potential application areas are described. Of the fifteen vulnerability of SPCS examined in the workshop, six of the more important vulnerabilities (jamming, detection, position location, interception, communications security, and system and network

  10. 40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...commercial and private applicators of restricted use pesticides. 171.7 Section 171.7 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.7 Submission...

  11. Ka-band monolithic GaAs PHEMT low-noise amplifiers for commercial wireless applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huei Wang; Tzu-Hung Chen; D. C. Niu; Yi-Jen Chan; P. W. Kuo; H. S. Chou; K. L. Deng

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a one-stage and a two-stage Ka-band monolithic LNA for commercial wireless communication applications. The monolithic microwave\\/millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMICs) are fabricated with a 0.2-micrometers pseudomorphic GaAs-based HEMT technology, carried out by commercially available foundry. The one-stage amplifier demonstrated a measured small signal gain of 9.5 dB with a noise figure (NF) of 2.7 dB

  12. Commercial applications and scientific research requirements for thermal-infrared observations of terrestrial surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, Samuel N.; Taranik, James V.; Laporte, Daniel; Putnam, Evelyn S. (editor)

    1986-01-01

    In the spring of 1986 the EOSAT Company and NASA Headquarters organized a workshop to consider: (1) the potential value of space-acquired multiband thermal remote sensing in terrestrial research and commercial applications, and (2) the scientific and technological requirements for conducting such observations from the LANDSAT platform. The workshop defined the instrument characteristics of three types of sensors that would be needed to expand the use of thermal information for Earth observation and new commercial opportunities. The panels from two disciplines, geology and evapotranspiration/botany, along with the instrument panel, presented their recommendations to the workshop. The findings of these meetings are presented.

  13. A remote sensing applications update: Results of interviews with Earth Observations Commercialization Program (EOCAP) participants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, Sally

    1991-01-01

    Earth remote sensing is a uniquely valuable tool for large-scale resource management, a task whose importance will likely increase world-wide through the foreseeable future. NASA research and engineering have virtually created the existing U.S. system, and will continue to push the frontiers, primarily through Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, research, and data and information systems. It is the researchers' view that the near-term health of remote sensing applications also deserves attention; it seems important not to abandon the system or its clients. The researchers suggest that, like its Landsat predecessor, a successful Earth Observing System program is likely to reinforce pressure to 'manage' natural resources, and consequently, to create more pressure for Earth Observations Commercialization (EOCAP) type applications. The current applications programs, though small, are valuable because of their technical and commercial results, and also because they support a community whose contributions will increase along with our ability to observe the Earth from space.

  14. The Application Of Commercial Star Couplers To Increase Signal Dynamic Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, B. M.; Smiley, V. N.; Flurer, R. L.; Nelson, L. K.

    1984-10-01

    Fused biconical tapered (FBT) fiber optic star couplers have been used in a variety of applications at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in several diagnostic experiments to provide increased dynamic range for the recording devices or to divide the available signal between different recording devices. A number of installation problems have been manifested in this application of FBT couplers. The most severe problem results from the modal selection mechanism inherent in the design of FBT couplers. Substantial work has been done to characterize a variety of commercial couplers for this application.

  15. High-energy radiation and polymers: A review of commercial processes and emerging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    Ionizing radiation has been found to be widely applicable in modifying the structure and properties of polymers, and can be used to tailor the performance of either bulk materials or surfaces. Fifty years of research in polymer radiation chemistry has led to numerous applications of commercial and economic importance, and work remains active in the application of radiation to practical uses involving polymeric materials. This paper provides a survey of radiation-processing methods of industrial interest, ranging from technologies already commercially well established, through innovations in the active R&D stage which show exceptional promise for future commercial use. Radiation-processing technologies are discussed under the following categories: cross-linking of plastics and rubbers, curing of coatings and inks, heat-shrink products, fiber-matrix composites, chain-scission for processing control, surface modification, grafting, hydrogels, sterilization, natural product enhancement, plastics recycling, ceramic precursors, electronic property materials, ion-track membranes and lithography for microdevice production. In addition to new technological innovations utilizing conventional gamma and e-beam sources, a number of promising new applications make use of novel radiation types which include ion beams (heavy ions, light ions, highly focused microscopic beams and high-intensity pulses), soft X-rays which are focused, coherent X-rays (from a synchrotron) and e-beams which undergo scattering to generate patterns.

  16. Flow-Aware Admission Control for a Commercially Viable Internet

    E-print Network

    Oueslati, Sara

    .e., over-provisioning, Intserv or Diffserv, constitutes a cost-effective quality of service solution who would be prepared to pay the implied cost. Service models such as Inteserv and Diffserv QoS define

  17. Trends in genetic patent applications: the commercialization of academic intellectual property

    PubMed Central

    Kers, Jannigje G; Van Burg, Elco; Stoop, Tom; Cornel, Martina C

    2014-01-01

    We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications data from the PATSTAT database from 1990 until 2009 were analyzed for time trends and regional distribution. Overall, the number of patent applications has been growing. In 2009, 152?000 patent applications were submitted under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and within the EP (European Patent) system of the European Patent Office (EPO). The number of genetic patent applications increased until a peak was reached in the year 2000, with >8000 applications, after which it declined by almost 50%. Continents show different patterns over time, with the global peak in 2000 mainly explained by the USA and Europe, while Asia shows a stable number of >1000 per year. Nine countries together account for 98.9% of the total number of genetic patent applications. In The Netherlands, 26.7% of the genetic patent applications originate from public research institutions. After the year 2000, the number of genetic patent applications dropped significantly. Academic leadership and policy as well as patent regulations seem to have an important role in the trend differences. The ongoing investment in genetic research in the past decade is not reflected by an increase of patent applications. PMID:24448546

  18. Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Chase H.

    1995-01-01

    While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

  19. Cost/benefit assessment of the application of composite materials to subsonic commercial transport engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.; Signorelli, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Results from a number of studies concerned with the cost and benefits of applying advanced composite materials to commercial turbofan engines are summarized. For each application area the optimistic and pessimistic benefit projections were averaged to arrive at a projected yearly percentage fuel savings for a commercial fleet of advanced technology transport aircraft. Engine components included in the summary are the fan section which includes fan blades, fan frame/case, and the blade containment ring; the nacelle; and the high pressure turbine blades and vanes. The projected fuel savings resulting from the application of composites are 1.85 percent for the fan section, 1.75 percent for the nacelle, and 2.35 percent for the high pressure turbine.

  20. The NASA LeRC regenerative fuel cell system testbed program for goverment and commercial applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Maloney; Paul R. Prokopius; Gerald E. Voecks

    1995-01-01

    The Electrochemical Technology Branch of the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has initiated a program to develop a renewable energy system testbed to evaluate, characterize, and demonstrate fully integrated regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system for space, military, and commercial applications. A multi-agency management team, led by NASA LeRC, is implementing the program through a unique international coalition which encompasses both

  1. Commercialization-steps to successful applications and scaleup: May 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, B. [Cober Electronics, Inc., Stanford, CT (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Successful applications of Microwave Heating Technology result from much more than successful engineering, modeling and pilot demonstration. There must be beneficial fulfillment of a customer`s need! Understanding that need requires thorough knowledge of the industry being served and all of the process and conventional heating alternatives. We hamper ourselves with excellence in physics and chemistry and only superficial experience in ceramic casting and manufacture. The microwave supplier must change his focus if he is to realize commercialization.

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CMOS ACTIVE PIXEL IMAGE SENSORS FOR LOW COST COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell C. Gee; Sabrina E. Kcmcny; Quicsup Kim; Junichi Nakamura; Robert H. Nixon; Monico A. Ortiz; Craig Staller; Zhimin Zhou; Eric R Fossum

    2004-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under sponsorship from the NASA Oflice of Advanced Cmeepts and Technology, has been developing a second-generat ion scdid-state image sensor technology. Charge-coupled devices (CCDS) are a well-establish ed first generation image sensor technology. For both commercial and NASA applications, CCDS have numerous short comings. In response, the active phcl sensor (APS) technology has been under research,

  3. Rhinitis associated with pesticide exposure among commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R E Slager; J A Poole; T D LeVan; D P Sandler; M C R Alavanja; J A Hoppin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:Rhinitis is common, but the risk factors are not well described. To investigate the association between current rhinitis and pesticide use, we used data from 2245 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.Methods:Using logistic regression models adjusted for age, education and growing up on a farm, we evaluated the association between current rhinitis and 34 pesticides used in

  4. Can Surveillance Systems Identify and Avert Adverse Drug Events? A Prospective Evaluation of a Commercial Application

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Ashish K.; Laguette, Julia; Seger, Andrew; Bates, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Computerized monitors can effectively detect and potentially prevent adverse drug events (ADEs). Most monitors have been developed in large academic hospitals and are not readily usable in other settings. We assessed the ability of a commercial program to identify and prevent ADEs in a community hospital. Design and Measurement We prospectively evaluated the commercial application in a community-based hospital. We examined the frequency and types of alerts produced, how often they were associated with ADEs and potential ADEs, and the potential financial impact of monitoring for ADEs. Results Among 2,407 patients screened, the application generated 516 high priority alerts. We were able to review 266 alerts at the time they were generated and among these, 30 (11.3%) were considered substantially important to warrant contacting the physician caring for the patient. These 30 alerts were associated with 4 ADEs and 11 potential ADEs. In all 15 cases, the responsible physician was unaware of the event, leading to a change in clinical care in 14 cases. Overall, 23% of high priority alerts were associated with an ADE (95% confidence interval [CI] 12% to 34%) and another 15% were associated with a potential ADE (95% CI 6% to 24%). Active surveillance used approximately 1.5 hours of pharmacist time daily. Conclusions A commercially available, computer-based ADE detection tool was effective at identifying ADEs. When used as part of an active surveillance program, it can have an impact on preventing or ameliorating ADEs. PMID:18579834

  5. Current state of commercial radiation detection equipment for homeland security applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R. T.; Shergur, J.; Mattesich, G.; Nuclear Engineering Division; DHS

    2009-10-01

    With the creation of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) came the increased concern that terrorist groups would attempt to manufacture and use an improvised nuclear device or radiological dispersal device. As such, a primary mission of DHS is to protect the public against the use of these devices and to assist state and local responders in finding, locating, and identifying these types of devices and materials used to manufacture these devices. This assistance from DHS to state and local responders comes in the form of grant money to procure radiation detection equipment. In addition to this grant program, DHS has supported the development of American National Standards Institute standards for radiation detection equipment and has conducted testing of commercially available instruments. This paper identifies the types and kinds of commercially available equipment that can be used to detect and identify radiological material - for use in traditional search applications as well as primary and secondary screening of personnel, vehicles, and cargo containers. In doing so, key considerations for the conduct of operations are described as well as critical features of the instruments for specific applications. The current state of commercial instruments is described for different categories of detection equipment including personal radiation detectors, radioisotope identifiers, man-portable detection equipment, and radiation portal monitors. In addition, emerging technologies are also discussed, such as spectroscopic detectors and advanced spectroscopic portal monitors.

  6. Astaxanthin: sources, extraction, stability, biological activities and its commercial applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Ranga Rao; Phang, Siew Moi; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

    2014-01-01

    There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-?, ?'-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications. PMID:24402174

  7. Effect of Bacteriophage Application on Campylobacter jejuni Loads in Commercial Broiler Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Kittler, Sophie; Fischer, Samuel; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Glünder, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent food-borne human enteritis. The major source for infection with Campylobacter spp. is broiler meat. Risk assessments consider the reduction of Campylobacter in primary production to be most beneficial for human health. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a bacteriophage application under commercial conditions which had proved to be effective in previous noncommercial studies under controlled experimental conditions. A phage cocktail for Campylobacter reduction was tested on three commercial broiler farms each with a control and an experimental group. Colonization of Campylobacter was confirmed prior to phage application in fecal samples. Subsequently, a phage cocktail was applied via drinking water in the experimental group (log10 5.8 to 7.5 PFU/bird). One day after phage application, Campylobacter counts of one experimental group were reduced under the detection limit (<50 CFU/g, P = 0.0140) in fecal samples. At slaughter, a significant reduction of >log10 3.2 CFU/g cecal content compared to the control was still detected (P = 0.0011). No significant reduction was observed in the experimental groups of the other trials. However, a significant drop in cecal Campylobacter counts occurred in a phage-contaminated control. These results suggest that maximum reduction of Campylobacter at the slaughterhouse might be achieved by phage application 1 to 4 days prior to slaughter. PMID:24077703

  8. Astaxanthin: Sources, Extraction, Stability, Biological Activities and Its Commercial Applications—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ambati, Ranga Rao; Siew Moi, Phang; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

    2014-01-01

    There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3?-dihydroxy-?, ??-carotene-4,4?-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications. PMID:24402174

  9. Fluorogenic Substrate Detection of Viable Intracellular and Extracellular Pathogenic Protozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Peter R.; Pappas, Michael G.; Hansen, Brian D.

    1985-01-01

    Viable Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes were detected by epifluorescence microscopy with fluorescein diacetate being used to mark living parasites and the nucleic acid-binding compound ethidium bromide to stain dead cells. This procedure is superior to other assays because it is faster and detects viable intracellular as well as extracellular Leishmania. Furthermore, destruction of intracellular pathogens by macrophages is more accurately determined with fluorescein diacetate than with other stains. The procedure may have applications in programs to develop drugs and vaccines against protozoa responsible for human and animal disease.

  10. Potential commercial application of a bi-layer bone-ligament regeneration scaffold to anterior cruciate ligament replacement

    E-print Network

    Li, Jessica C. (Jessica Ching-Yi)

    2006-01-01

    A business model was created in order to explore the commercial application of a bi-layer bone-ligament scaffold to the treatment of torn anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) requiring replacement. The two main keys in producing ...

  11. Tokamaks with high-performance resistive magnets: advanced test reactors and prospects for commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Williams, J.E.C.; Becker, H.; Leclaire, R.; Yang, T.

    1981-10-01

    Scoping studies have been made of tokamak reactors with high performance resistive magnets which maximize advantages gained from high field operation and reduced shielding requirements, and minimize resistive power requirements. High field operation can provide very high values of fusion power density and n tau/sub e/ while the resistive power losses can be kept relatively small. Relatively high values of Q' = Fusion Power/Magnet Resistive Power can be obtained. The use of high field also facilitates operation in the DD-DT advanced fuel mode. The general engineering and operational features of machines with high performance magnets are discussed. Illustrative parameters are given for advanced test reactors and for possible commercial reactors. Commercial applications that are discussed are the production of fissile fuel, electricity generation with and without fissioning blankets and synthetic fuel production.

  12. Commercial and industrial applications of indium gallium arsenide near-infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Marshall J.; Ettenberg, Martin H.; Lange, Michael J.; Olsen, Gregory H.

    1999-07-01

    Sensors Unlimited, Inc. has developed focal pane arrays (FPAs) fabricated with indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) photodiode arrays and silicon CMOS readout integrated circuits. These devices are readily available in a wide variety of formats suitable for commercial and industrial applications. InGaAs FPAs are sensitive to the near IR, operate without cooling, and come in both 2D formats and 1D formats. 1D InGaAs FPAs are used as both spectroscopic detectors and line scan imagers. Key applications include miniature spectrometers used for wavelength control and monitoring of WDM laser sources, octane determination, the sorting o plastics during recycling, and web process control. 2D InGaAs FPAs find use in applications such as laser beam profiling, visualization of 'clear' ice on aircraft and roadways, and industrial thermal imaging.

  13. Peri-viable birth: legal considerations.

    PubMed

    Sayeed, Sadath A

    2014-02-01

    Peri-viable birth raises an array of complex moral and legal concerns. This article discusses the problem with defining viability, touches on its relationship to abortion jurisprudence, and analyzes a few interesting normative implications of current medical practice at the time of peri-viable birth. PMID:24468570

  14. Conservation targets for viable species assemblages?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariaan Solomon; Albert S. Van Jaarsveld; Harry C. Biggs; Michael H. Knight

    2003-01-01

    Estimates of minimum areas required for effective biodiversity conservation differ substantially. Scientific reserve design and placement procedures indicate that between 30 and 75% of any region may be required to sample biodiversity features. These estimates do not routinely incorporate measures for sampling viable populations of species or explore the area requirements of sampling viable populations of species assemblages. To determine

  15. Regenerative Fuel Cell System Testbed Program for Government and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Electrochemical Technology Branch has led a multiagency effort to design, fabricate, and operate a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system testbed. Key objectives of this program are to evaluate, characterize, and demonstrate fully integrated RFC's for space, military, and commercial applications. The Lewis-led team is implementing the program through a unique international coalition that encompasses both Government and industry participants. Construction of the 25-kW RFC testbed at the NASA facility at Edwards Air Force Base was completed in January 1995, and the system has been operational since that time.

  16. Development of CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensors for Low Cost Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, R.; Kemeny, S.; Kim, Q.; Mendis, S.; Nakamura, J.; Nixon, R.; Ortiz, M.; Pain, B.; Staller, C.; Zhou, Z; Fossum, E.

    1994-01-01

    JPL, under sponsorship from the NASA Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology, has been developing a second-generation solid-state image sensor technology. Charge-coupled devices (CCD) are a well-established first generation image sensor technology. For both commercial and NASA applications, CCDs have numerous shortcomings. In response, the active pixel sensor (APS) technology has been under research. The major advantages of APS technology are the ability to integrate on-chip timing, control, signal-processing and analog-to-digital converter functions, reduced sensitivity to radiation effects, low power operation, and random access readout.

  17. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the fundamental Intersatellite Link (ISL) systems characteristics, potential applications of ISLs to domestic, regional, and global commercial satellite communications were identified, and their cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits quantified wherever possible. Implementation scenarios for the cost-effective communications satellite systems employing ISLs were developed for the first launch in 1993 to 1994 and widespread use of ISLs in the early 2000's. Critical technology requirements for both the microwave (60 GHz) and optical (0.85 micron) ISL implementations were identified, and their technology development programs, including schedule and cost estimates, were derived.

  18. Safety Evaluation of Two Commercial Lithium-ion Batteries for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Collins, Jacob; Cook, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have been used for applications on the Shuttle and Station for the past six years. A majority of the li-ion batteries flown are Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) varieties. The COTS batteries and cells were tested under nominal and abusive conditions for performance and safety characterization. Within the past six months two batteries have been certified for flight and use on the Space Station. The first one is a Hand Spring PDA battery that had a single prismatic li-ion cell and the second is an Iridium satellite phone that had a two-cell pack with prismatic li-ion cells.

  19. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aerial Application of Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist aerial pesticide applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. An introduction with the explanation of requirements of effective aerial application is presented. The six topics included describe: (1) Dispersal equipment; (2) Calibration; (3) Pattern testing; (4)…

  20. An application for monitoring order set usage in a commercial electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Cowansage, Cadran B; Green, Robert A; Kratz, Alexander; Vawdrey, David K

    2012-01-01

    Organizations that use electronic health records (EHRs) often maintain a considerable amount of clinical content in the form of order sets, documentation templates, and decision support rules. EHR vendors seldom provide analytic tools for customers to maintain such content and monitor its usage. We developed an application for tracking order sets, documentation templates and clinical alerts in a commercial electronic health record. Using the application, we compared trends in order set creation and usage at two academic medical centers over a three-year period. In January 2012, one medical center had 873 order sets available to clinicians; the other had 787. Approximately 50-75 new order sets were added each year at each medical center. We found that 46% of order sets at the first medical center and 39% at the second medical center were unused over the three-year period. PMID:23304395

  1. Determinants of atrazine contamination in the homes of commercial pesticide applicators across time.

    PubMed

    Lozier, Matthew J; Curwin, Brian; Nishioka, Marcia G; Sanderson, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-nine commercial pesticide applicator households in eastern Iowa were enrolled to investigate in-home contamination of atrazine, the most commonly used corn herbicide in the Unites States. From each home, four vacuum dust samples were collected during atrazine application season (Visit 1) and again 6 months later during winter months (Visit 2). Samples were taken from the following locations: primary entryway for pesticide applicator, living room, master bedroom, and kitchen. The applicator completed an atrazine handling log and household questionnaire with spouse. Of the 230 dust samples, only 2 were below the level of detection, 2 ng of atrazine per gram (ng/g) of fine dust (dust particle size 5-150 ?m). Dust levels were standardized to chemical loading. During application season the entryway (2.68 ng/cm(2)) and kitchen (0.47 ng/cm(2)) had the highest geometric mean atrazine chemical loading. The entryway chemical loading during Visit 2 was the second highest aggregate (0.55 ng/cm(2)). Aggregate concentrations were significantly higher at Visit 1 compared with Visit 2 when paired by location (p?0.02). Analysis showed that job (application, mixing/loading, or both) was not associated with in-home atrazine contamination. Linear regression showed a strong positive association between atrazine handling (number of acres applied with atrazine, number of days atrazine handled, and pounds of atrazine handled) and aggregate dust chemical loading from both visits (p = 0.06, 0.03, and 0.10, respectively). Frequency of vacuuming was inversely associated with Visit 2 concentrations (p = 0.10) and showed a weaker association with Visit 1 (p = 0.30). Removing shoes outside the home was associated with lower atrazine chemical loading (p = 0.03), and applicators changing work clothes in the master bedroom had significantly increased atrazine chemical loading in master bedrooms (p = 0.01). Changes in hygiene practices for commercial pesticide applicators could significantly reduce atrazine and, likely, other pesticide contaminations in the home. PMID:22506545

  2. Prospects for increased low-grade bio-fuels use in home and commercial heating applications

    E-print Network

    Pendray, John Robert

    2007-01-01

    Though we must eventually find viable alternatives for fossil fuels in large segments of the energy market, there are economically attractive fossil fuel alternatives today for niche markets. The easiest fossil fuels to ...

  3. Viable textures for the fermion sector

    E-print Network

    Hernández, A E Cárcamo

    2014-01-01

    We consider a modification of the Fukuyama-Nishiura texture and compare it to the precision quark flavour data, finding that it fits the data very well. We then propose different viable textures for quarks, where only the Cabibbo mixing arises from the down sector, and extend to the charged leptons while constructing a complementary neutrino structure that leads to viable lepton masses and mixing.

  4. Viable textures for the fermion sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cárcamo Hernández, A. E.; de Medeiros Varzielas, I.

    2015-06-01

    We consider a modification of the Fukuyama–Nishiura texture and compare it to the precision quark flavour data, finding that it fits the data very well but at the cost of accidental cancelations between parameters. We then propose different viable textures for quarks, where only the Cabibbo mixing arises from the down sector, and extend to the charged leptons while constructing a complementary neutrino structure that leads to viable lepton masses and mixing.

  5. Large Scale Application of Vibration Sensors for Fan Monitoring at Commercial Layer Hen Houses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A.; Heber, Albert J.; Bogan, Bill W.; Chai, Li-Long

    2010-01-01

    Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable. PMID:22163544

  6. Computers for Manned Space Applications Base on Commercial Off-the-Shelf Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, T.; Gronowski, M.

    2009-05-01

    Similar to the consumer markets there has been an ever increasing demand in processing power, signal processing capabilities and memory space also for computers used for science data processing in space. An important driver of this development have been the payload developers for the International Space Station, requesting high-speed data acquisition and fast control loops in increasingly complex systems. Current experiments now even perform video processing and compression with their payload controllers. Nowadays the requirements for a space qualified computer are often far beyond the capabilities of, for example, the classic SPARC architecture that is found in ERC32 or LEON CPUs. An increase in performance usually demands costly and power consuming application specific solutions. Continuous developments over the last few years have now led to an alternative approach that is based on complete electronics modules manufactured for commercial and industrial customers. Computer modules used in industrial environments with a high demand for reliability under harsh environmental conditions like chemical reactors, electrical power plants or on manufacturing lines are entered into a selection procedure. Promising candidates then undergo a detailed characterisation process developed by Astrium Space Transportation. After thorough analysis and some modifications, these modules can replace fully qualified custom built electronics in specific, although not safety critical applications in manned space. This paper focuses on the benefits of COTS1 based electronics modules and the necessary analyses and modifications for their utilisation in manned space applications on the ISS. Some considerations regarding overall systems architecture will also be included. Furthermore this paper will also pinpoint issues that render such modules unsuitable for specific tasks, and justify the reasons. Finally, the conclusion of this paper will advocate the implementation of COTS based electronics for a range of applications within specifically adapted systems. The findings in this paper are extrapolated from two reference computer systems, both having been launched in 2008. One of those was a LEON-2 based computer installed onboard the Columbus Orbital Facility while the other system consisted mainly of a commercial Power-PC module that was modified for a launch mounted on the ICC pallet in the Space Shuttle's cargo bay. Both systems are currently upgraded and extended for future applications.

  7. Design and market study of photovoltaic systems for commercial building and applications. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, G. T.; Hagely, J. R.; Broehl, J. H.

    1982-03-01

    Details of the methodologies and analyses used in developing the results of the design and market study are given. They include: definition of commercial and institutional buildings in terms of the standard industrial classification code; distribution of roof area by building type and region; building characteristics of roof area by building and region; building characteristics survey forms; list of individuals and firms participating in building characteristics survey, by region; selected building characteristics and level of retrofit difficulty; modular design for low-cost flat-panel photovoltaic array fields; life-cycle cost and financial analyses; portions of California and Western Texas included in the Southwest Region market assessments; photovoltaic module specification; and an example photovoltaic applications systems analysis printout.

  8. Irradiation of commercial, high-Tc superconducting tape for potential fusion applications: electromagnetic transport properties

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Gapud, Albert A. [University of South Alabama, Mobile; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Leonard, Keith J [ORNL; Rupich, Marty [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Greenwood, N T [University of South Alabama, Mobile; Alexander, J A [University of South Alabama, Mobile; Khan, A [University of South Alabama, Mobile

    2015-01-01

    Effects of low dose irradiation on the electrical transport current properties of commercially available high-temperature superconducting, coated-conductor tapes were investigated, in view of potential applications in the irradiative environment of fusion reactors. Three different tapes, each with unique as-grown flux-pinning structures, were irradiated with Au and Ni ions at energies that provide a range of damage effects, with accumulated damage levels near that expected for conductors in a fusion reactor environment. Measurements using transport current determined the pre- and post-irradiation resistivity, critical current density, and pinning force density, yielding critical temperatures, irreversibility lines, and inferred vortex creep rates. Results show that at the irradiation damage levels tested, any detriment to as-grown pre-irradiation properties is modest; indeed in one case already-superior pinning forces are enhanced, leading to higher critical currents.

  9. Comparative recoveries of airborne fungus spores by viable and non-viable modes of volumetric collection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harriet P. Burge; J. R. Boise; J. A. Rutherford; W. R. Solomon

    1977-01-01

    The suitability of viable and non-viable volumetric collectors as prevalence indicators for potentially allergenic airborne fungi was studied during 124 paired exposures of the Burkard (Hirst) spore trap and a modified, wind-oriented Andersen sampler. Overall, viable recoveries of several Cladosporium form species varied directly with microscopic spore counts (p=0.0001). However, as spore levels rose, culture plate data progressively underestimated prevailing

  10. An integral solar power and propulsion system concept for commercial space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Choong, P.T.S. [California International Power Associates, Los Altos Hills, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An integral space power concept deriving both the electrical and propulsion power from a common high-temperature heat source module offers superior performance capabilities over conventional chemical upper-stage propulsion with separate solar photovoltaic power systems. This hybrid system concept is based on a high efficiency solar concentrator-heated propulsion and a high temperature thermionic technology derived from the proven Solar Energy Thermionics (SET) or the advanced Hydrogen Thermo-ElectroChemical Conversion (HYTEC) for electrical power generation. The thermal hydrogen propulsion technology is derived from the NERVA rocket program. The integral system is capable of long-life power operation at an efficiency of at least twice the conventional photovoltaic approach. Because of anticipated high conversion efficiency of the HYTEC, the electrical power output can be increased several folds using the similarly sized solar concentrator. The propulsion module is capable of high specific impulse during the orbital transfer thrusting. The same module is also usable for long-term orbit management applications. The resulting savings in propellant and power generator equipment enable the use of new generation of low-cost launchers for many commercial satellite applications.

  11. Commercial application in high-efficiency FGD of sorbent injection with flue gas humidification

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, W.; Walsh, W.A.; Serinken, S.

    1999-07-01

    The paper updates the commercial progress in the recent development of a low-capital-cost method of achieving high efficiency (85--90%) removal of SO{sub 2} from high-sulfur fossil fuel combustion. The results of the successful performance of a proof-of-concept, field pilot plant operation in Izmir, Turkey are presented. In addition, details of the design of the first commercial scale, high-performance installation of dry sorbent injection, now underway in Turkey, is described. Superior performance and cost-effectiveness are shown to be achieved by employing unique, linear nozzle-lances for integrating, in the same device, the injection of alkali-enhanced, dry hydrated lime and the fine atomization of water required for effective gas cooling and sorbent surface wetting. The high efficiency is achieved via a comparatively rapid and complete intermixing of the flue gas and the enhanced-reactivity sorbent, surface-wetted by the fin spray droplets as the flat, parallel plumes containing droplets and powdered reagent intermix in the vicinity of the nozzle. The fine atomization also enables a close approach (of the cooled-gas dry bulb temperature) to the gas-stream wet bulb temperature with evaporation to dryness, thereby permitting the recycle of partially spent sorbent for enhanced lime utilization and mass transfer, lower-cost operation and reduced wasted generation. Uniquely fine atomization has enabled the use of economically-sized spray towers in both the field pilot plant and commercial plant installations. This is essential when plot space is limited or when an alternative, long, horizontal duct required for complete spray water evaporation, (and the attendant, high, gas-stream velocity), would not be feasible in plant retrofits or new plant designs. The method and designs described in the paper are shown to have broad application in low- and high-sulfur fuel combustion. They offer an advancement in the use of dry sorbent injection in conjunction with fabric filtration in the retrofit of older and smaller U.S. domestic generating plants. They will also help support the current growth in the use of diesel engine and gas turbine plants fueled by low-cost, high sulfur residual oil available in the Middle East.

  12. A simple single crystal sample temperature controller based on commercial components for ultrahigh vacuum surface science application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    St. J. Dixon-Warren; N. Burson; V. Bondzie; L. Zhang; Y. Yu; L. Lucchesi

    1998-01-01

    A simple temperature control system for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) surface science applications has been developed. It is based on commercially available components and can be constructed with minimal electronics expertise. It controls the temperature of a single crystal sample in UHV over the range 80-1633 K using a type K thermocouple to monitor the temperature of the sample. The controller

  13. TECHNOLOGY DATA CHARACTERIZING LIGHTING IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS: APPLICATION TO END-USE FORECASTING WITH COMMEND 4.0

    E-print Network

    LBL-34243 UC - 1600 TECHNOLOGY DATA CHARACTERIZING LIGHTING IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS: APPLICATION Technologies, and the Office of Environmental Analysis, Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098. #12;Technology Data Characterizing Lighting

  14. Caltech/JPL Conference on Image Processing Technology, Data Sources and Software for Commercial and Scientific Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmann, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    Recent advances in image processing and new applications are presented to the user community to stimulate the development and transfer of this technology to industrial and commercial applications. The Proceedings contains 37 papers and abstracts, including many illustrations (some in color) and provides a single reference source for the user community regarding the ordering and obtaining of NASA-developed image-processing software and science data.

  15. Application of Best Industry Practices to the Design of Commercial Refrigerators

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2002-06-30

    The substantial efficiency improvements which have been realized in residential refrigerators over the last twenty years due to implementation of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act and changing consumer reactions to energy savings give an indication of the potential for improvement in the commercial sector, where few such efficiency improvements have been made to date. The purchase decision for commercial refrigerators is still focused primarily on first cost and product performance issues such as maximizing storage capacity, quick pulldown, durability, and reliability. The project applied techniques used extensively to reduce energy use in residential refrigeration to a commercial reach-in refrigerator. The results will also be applicable to other commercial refrigeration equipment, such as refrigerated vending machines, reach-in freezers, beverage merchandisers, etc. The project described in this paper was a collaboration involving the Appliance and Building Technology Sector of TIAX, the Delfield Company, and the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies. Funding was provided by DOE through Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT41000. The program plan and schedule were structured to assure successful integration of the TIAX work on development of efficient design concepts into Delfield's simultaneous development of the Vantage product line. The energy-saving design options evaluated as part of the development included brushless DC and PSC fan motors, high-efficiency compressors, variable-speed compressor technology, cabinet thermal improvement (particularly in the face frame area), increased insulation thickness, a trap for the condensate line, improved insulation, reduced-wattage antisweat heaters, non-electric antisweat heating, off-cycle defrost termination, rifled heat exchanger tubing, and system optimization (selection of heat exchangers, fans, and subcooling, superheat, and suction temperatures for efficient operation). The project started with a thorough evaluation of the baseline Delfield Model 6051 two-door reach-in refrigerator. Performance testing was done to establish a performance baseline which, to meet end-users requirements, would have to be met or exceeded by the high-efficiency refrigerator design. Energy testing was done to establish the baseline energy use. Diagnostic testing such as reverse heat leak testing and insulation conductivity testing was done to evaluate factors contributing to the cabinet load and energy use. Modeling was done to assess the energy savings potential of the energy saving design options. Discussion with vendors and cost modeling was done to assess the manufacturing cost impact of the options. Based on this work, the following group of design options was selected for incorporation in the final refrigerator design: (1) Brushless DC evaporator fans; (2) Improved face frame design; (3) Reduced antisweat heater wattage; (4) Condensate line trap; and (5) Optimized refrigeration system. There was no net cost premium associated with these design changes, leading to a high-efficiency design requiring no payback of any initial additional investment. Delfield incorporated these design options in the Vantage line design and built a first prototype, which was tested at TIAX. Additional design changes were implemented in the transition to manufacturing, based in part on results of initial prototype testing, and a pilot production unit was sent to TIAX for final testing. The energy use of the pilot production unit was 68% less than that of the baseline refrigerator when tested according to the ASHRAE 117 Energy Test Standard. The energy test results for the baseline refrigerator and the two new-design units is shown in Figure ES-1 below. The resulting energy consumption is well below Energy Star and proposed Canadian and California standards levels. Delfield has successfully transitioned the design to production and is manufacturing all configurations of the energy efficient reach-ins at a rate greater than 7,000 per year, with production quantities projec

  16. The New Anechoic Shielded Chambers Designed for Space and Commercial Applications at LIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Benjamim; Galvao, M. C.; Pereira, Clovis Solano

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the capabilities of the new anechoic shielded rooms designed for space and commercial applications as part of the Integration and Testing Laboratory (LIT, Laboratorio de Integracao e Testes) in Brazil. A new anechoic shielded room named CBA2 has been in full operation since March 2007 and a remodeled chamber CBA1 is planned to be ready by the end of 2008, replacing an old facility which was in operation for the last 18 years. The Brazilian Space Program started with very small and simple satellites and the old CBA1 chamber was conceived in 1987 to accomplish the EMI/EMC tests not requiring significant volumes. Since the very beginning this facility was also used by the private sector for other applications mainly due to the absorption of digital electronics in all kind of products. The intense use of this facility during the last years, operating three shifts a day, caused a normal degradation and imposed several limitations. Therefore, a new totally remodeled chamber was designed considering the state of the art in terms of absorbers and associated instrumentation. On the other hand the facility CBA2 was conceived, designed and implemented to test large satellites taking into account the advance of the technology in terms of RF frequencies, power level, testing methodologies and several other factors. A very interesting and unique aspect of this project was the partnership between the private sector and governmental institution. As a result, the total investment was shared between several companies and consequently a time-sharing use of the facility as well.

  17. A new design paradigm for the rapid development of haptic and telehaptic applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Rossi; K. Tuer; D. Wang

    2005-01-01

    The concept of modern day haptics - providing the simulated sense of touch - has been a topic of research since the early 1980's. Since then, a number of researchers and companies have striven to drive haptic applications into the mainstream. One of the primary barriers to the development of commercially viable application is the disconnection between the application visionaries,

  18. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general and household pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests that effect health, stored products, grain, fabric, or the household; and vertebrate pests such as rats, mice, and…

  19. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8A: General Public Health Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests such as cockroaches, lice, fleas, and mites, vertebrate pests; and plant pests such as poison ivy and ragweed. A study guide…

  20. Process to Selectively Distinguish Viable from Non-Viable Bacterial Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Bernardini, Jame N.; Stam, Christina N.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of ethidium monoazide (EMA) and post-fragmentation, randomly primed DNA amplification technologies will enhance the analytical capability to discern viable from non-viable bacterial cells in spacecraft-related samples. Intercalating agents have been widely used since the inception of molecular biology to stain and visualize nucleic acids. Only recently, intercalating agents such as EMA have been exploited to selectively distinguish viable from dead bacterial cells. Intercalating dyes can only penetrate the membranes of dead cells. Once through the membrane and actually inside the cell, they intercalate DNA and, upon photolysis with visible light, produce stable DNA monoadducts. Once the DNA is crosslinked, it becomes insoluble and unable to be fragmented for post-fragmentation, randomly primed DNA library formation. Viable organisms DNA remains unaffected by the intercalating agents, allowing for amplification via post-fragmentation, randomly primed technologies. This results in the ability to carry out downstream nucleic acid-based analyses on viable microbes to the exclusion of all non-viable cells.

  1. Geothermal potential for commercial and industrial direct heat applications in Salida, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.; Galloway, M.J.; Gross, J.T.; Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

    1982-10-01

    The Salida Geothermal Prospect (Poncha Hot Springs) was evaluated for industrial and commercial direct heat applications at Salida, Colorado, which is located approximately five miles east of Poncha Hot Springs. Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd., holds the geothermal leases on the prospect and the right-of-way for the main pipeline to Salida. The Poncha Hot Springs are located at the intersection of two major structural trends, immediately between the Upper Arkansas graben and the Sangre de Cristo uplift. Prominent east-west faulting occurs at the actual location of the hot springs. Preliminary exploration indicates that 1600 gpm of geothermal fluid as hot as 250/sup 0/F is likely to be found at around 1500 feet in depth. The prospective existing endusers were estimated to require 5.02 x 10/sup 10/ Btu per year, but the total annual amount of geothermal energy available for existing and future endusers is 28.14 x 10/sup 10/ Btu. The engineering design for the study assumed that the 1600 gpm would be fully utilized. Some users would be cascaded and the spent fluid would be cooled and discharged to nearby rivers. The economic analysis assumes that two separate businesses, the energy producer and the energy distributor, are participants in the geothermal project. The producer would be an existing limited partnership, with Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd. as one of the partners; the distributor would be a new Colorado corporation without additional income sources. Economic evaluations were performed in full for four cases: the Base Case and three alternate scenarios. Alternate 1 assumes a three-year delay in realizing full production relative to the Base Case; Alternate 2 assumes that the geothermal reservoir is of a higher quality than is assumed for the Base Case; and Alternate 3 assumes a lower quality reservoir. 11 refs., 34 figs., 40 tabs.

  2. Damage tolerance assessment of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.

    1998-08-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration has sponsored a project at its Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to validate the use of bonded composite doublers on commercial aircraft. A specific application was chosen in order to provide a proof-of-concept driving force behind this test and analysis project. However, the data stemming from this study serves as a comprehensive evaluation of bonded composite doublers for general use. The associated documentation package provides guidance regarding the design, analysis, installation, damage tolerance, and nondestructive inspection of these doublers. This report describes a series of fatigue and strength tests which were conducted to study the damage tolerance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Tension-tension fatigue and ultimate strength tests attempted to grow engineered flaws in coupons with composite doublers bonded to aluminum skin. An array of design parameters, including various flaw scenarios, the effects of surface impact, and other off-design conditions, were studied. The structural tests were used to: (1) assess the potential for interply delaminations and disbonds between the aluminum and the laminate, and (2) determine the load transfer and crack mitigation capabilities of composite doublers in the presence of severe defects. A series of specimens were subjected to ultimate tension tests in order to determine strength values and failure modes. It was demonstrated that even in the presence of extensive damage in the original structure (cracks, material loss) and in spite of non-optimum installations (adhesive disbonds), the composite doubler allowed the structure to survive more than 144,000 cycles of fatigue loading. Installation flaws in the composite laminate did not propagate over 216,000 fatigue cycles. Furthermore, the added impediments of impact--severe enough to deform the parent aluminum skin--and hot-wet exposure did not effect the doubler`s performance. Since the tests were conducting using extreme combinations of flaw scenarios (sizes and collocation) and excessive fatigue load spectrums, the performance parameters were arrived at in a conservative manner.

  3. Application of Commercial Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Sensors for Sub-Ambient Carbon Dioxide Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Boerman, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration within a spacecraft or spacesuit is critically important to ensuring the safety of the crew. Carbon dioxide uniquely absorbs light at wavelengths of 3.95 micrometers and 4.26 micrometers. As a result, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy can be employed as a reliable and inexpensive method for the quantification of CO2 within the atmosphere. A multitude of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) NDIR sensors exist for CO2 quantification. The COTS sensors provide reasonable accuracy so long as the measurements are attained under conditions close to the calibration conditions of the sensor (typically 21.1 C and 1 atm). However, as pressure deviates from atmospheric to the pressures associated with a spacecraft (8.0-10.2 PSIA) or spacesuit (4.1-8.0 PSIA), the error in the measurement grows increasingly large. In addition to pressure and temperature dependencies, the infrared transmissivity through a volume of gas also depends on the composition of the gas. As the composition is not known a priori, accurate sub-ambient detection must rely on iterative sensor compensation techniques. This manuscript describes the development of recursive compensation algorithms for sub-ambient detection of CO2 with COTS NDIR sensors. In addition, the basis of the exponential loss in accuracy is developed theoretically considering thermal, Doppler, and Lorentz broadening effects which arise as a result of the temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas mixture under analysis. As a result, this manuscript provides an approach to employing COTS sensors at sub-ambient conditions and may also lend insight into designing future NDIR sensors for aerospace application.

  4. Application of Commercial Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Sensors for Sub-Ambient Carbon Dioxide Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration within a spacecraft or spacesuit is critically important to ensuring the safety of the crew. Carbon dioxide uniquely absorbs light at wavelengths of 3.95 micrometers and 4.26 micrometers. As a result, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy can be employed as a reliable and inexpensive method for the quantification of CO2 within the atmosphere. A multitude of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) NDIR sensors exist for CO2 quantification. The COTS sensors provide reasonable accuracy as long as the measurements are attained under conditions close to the calibration conditions of the sensor (typically 21.1 C (70.0 F) and 1 atmosphere). However, as pressure deviates from atmospheric to the pressures associated with a spacecraft (8.0{10.2 pounds per square inch absolute (psia)) or spacesuit (4.1{8.0 psia), the error in the measurement grows increasingly large. In addition to pressure and temperature dependencies, the infrared transmissivity through a volume of gas also depends on the composition of the gas. As the composition is not known a priori, accurate sub-ambient detection must rely on iterative sensor compensation techniques. This manuscript describes the development of recursive compensation algorithms for sub-ambient detection of CO2 with COTS NDIR sensors. In addition, the source of the exponential loss in accuracy is developed theoretically. The basis of the loss can be explained through thermal, Doppler, and Lorentz broadening effects that arise as a result of the temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas mixture under analysis. This manuscript provides an approach to employing COTS sensors at sub-ambient conditions and may also lend insight into designing future NDIR sensors for aerospace application.

  5. Applications of commercial biosensors in clinical, food, environmental, and biothreat/biowarfare analyses.

    PubMed

    Bahad?r, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-01

    The lack of specific, low-cost, rapid, sensitive, and easy detection of biomolecules has resulted in the development of biosensor technology. Innovations in biosensor technology have enabled many biosensors to be commercialized and have enabled biomolecules to be detected onsite. Moreover, the emerging technologies of lab-on-a-chip microdevices and nanosensors offer opportunities for the development of new biosensors with much better performance. Biosensors were first introduced into the laboratory by Clark and Lyons. They developed the first glucose biosensor for laboratory conditions. Then in 1973, a glucose biosensor was commercialized by Yellow Springs Instruments. The commercial biosensors have small size and simple construction and they are ideal for point-of-care biosensing. In addition to glucose, a wide variety of metabolites such as lactate, cholesterol, and creatinine can be detected by using commercial biosensors. Like the glucose biosensors (tests) other commercial tests such as for pregnancy (hCG), Escherichia coli O157, influenza A and B viruses, Helicobacter pylori, human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis, and malaria have achieved success. Apart from their use in clinical analysis, commercial tests are also used in environmental (such as biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate, pesticide), food (such as glutamate, glutamine, sucrose, lactose, alcohol, ascorbic acid), and biothreat/biowarfare (Bacillus anthracis, Salmonella, Botulinum toxin) analysis. In this review, commercial biosensors in clinical, environmental, food, and biowarfare analysis are summarized and the commercial biosensors are compared in terms of their important characteristics. This is the first review in which all the commercially available tests are compiled together. PMID:25790902

  6. Assessment of a Texas Structural Pesticide Applicator Training Course Based on Performance of Participants Seeking Commercial or Non-Commercial Applicator Licenses 

    E-print Network

    Brown, Jacob 1988-

    2012-08-15

    of the pest control industry in Texas - or, more specifically, the demographics of those taking a Structural Pesticide Applicator Training (SPAT) course from AES - have not changed much since 1998. The major differences in demographics between the two groups...

  7. Short communication Validating broadcast application ofTelone C-35 complemented with chloropicrin and herbicides in commercial tomato farms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Gilreath; Bielinski M. Santos; John D. Busacca; Joseph E. Eger Jr; John M. Mirussoc; Phyllis R. Gilreath

    Large-scale validation trials were conducted to compare a fumigation programme consisting of broadcast-applied 1,3- dichloropropene plus chloropicrin (C-35), in-bed chloropicrin (Pic) application, and the preplant incorporated herbicides pebulate and trifluralin, to in-bed methyl bromide plus Pic (MBr+Pic) injections in commercial tomato fields. There were no significant differences between the tomato plant vigor, height and marketable yields of both treatments. Similarly,

  8. An Automatic Commercial Search Application for TV Broadcasting Using Audio Fingerprinting

    E-print Network

    Song, Yaohua

    2012-10-19

    commercial search algorithm is composed of two parts: one for audio feature extraction and another for database search. For the first part, although the video stream of TV broadcast contains a great deal of intuitive information, we decide to ignore...

  9. 40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

  10. 40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

  11. 40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

  12. 40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

  13. 40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

  14. Commercialization of silicon on lattice-engineered substrate for electronic applications

    E-print Network

    Liang, Yu Yan

    2008-01-01

    The commercial potential of SOLES (Silicon on Lattice-Engineered Substrate) is investigated considering the competing technologies, competing market players and market demands. Monolithic integration of Si devices with ...

  15. NASA's human system risk management approach and its applicability to commercial spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Law, Jennifer; Mathers, Charles H; Fondy, Susan R E; Vanderploeg, James M; Kerstman, Eric L

    2013-01-01

    As planning continues for commercial spaceflight, attention is turned to NASA to assess whether its human system risk management approach can be applied to mitigate the risks associated with commercial suborbital and orbital flights. NASA uses a variety of methods to assess the risks to the human system based on their likelihood and consequences. In this article, we review these methods and categorize the risks in the system as "definite," "possible," or "least" concern for commercial spaceflight. As with career astronauts, these risks will be primarily mitigated by screening and environmental control. Despite its focus on long-duration exploration missions, NASA's human system risk management approach can serve as a preliminary knowledge base to help medical planners prepare for commercial spaceflights. PMID:23305003

  16. Natural transfer of viable microbes in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mileikowsky, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Gladman, B.; Horneck, G.; Lindegren, L.; Melosh, J.; Rickman, H.; Valtonen, M.; Zheng, J. Q.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency.

  17. Energy use and conservation in the commercial sector: Volume 2, An application of the NBECS (Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey) commercial conditional demand model to a test case utility, San Diego Gas and Electric Company: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parti, M.; Sebald, A.V.; Farber, M.

    1988-02-01

    This report describes an investigation into the application of an enhanced conditional demand analysis (CDA) technique to the estimation and forecasting of commercial sector energy demand. The report consists of two volumes. This volume, the second, describes the application of the technique to a particular utility service area. 5 refs., 4 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. Determining Transit’s Impact on Seoul Commercial Land Values: An Application of Spatial Econometrics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Kim; Ming Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Literature regarding transit’s impact on land values reports mixed results concerning the economic benefits of accessibility to subway stations, specifically regarding commercial properties. After examining 731 commercial land values in Seoul, Korea, this study suggests a possible explanation for the mixed results: transit’s discrimination impact on land values by location in a built-up urban area. The regression coefficient for distance

  19. Commercial application in high-efficiency FGD of sorbent injection with flue gas humidification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Ellison; W. A. Walsh; S. Serinken

    1999-01-01

    The paper updates the commercial progress in the recent development of a low-capital-cost method of achieving high efficiency (85--90%) removal of SO from high-sulfur fossil fuel combustion. The results of the successful performance of a proof-of-concept, field pilot plant operation in Izmir, Turkey are presented. In addition, details of the design of the first commercial scale, high-performance installation of dry

  20. Flat Conductor Cable systems - Originally developed for space flight, useful for commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angele, W.

    1973-01-01

    Flat Conductor Cable (FCC) technology has now reached a level of development where it is being considered for, and used in, numerous interconnection projects. First developed for aerospace use, FCC is becoming a major contender for commercial wiring tasks as well. This presentation is designed to show why and how FCC has been able to make the transition from the aerospace to the commercial field.

  1. More viable parameter space for leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbrecht, Björn

    2014-09-01

    Lepton flavor asymmetries generated at the onset of the oscillations of sterile neutrinos with masses above the electroweak scale can be large enough to partly survive washout and to explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. This opens up new regions of parameter space, where leptogenesis is viable within the type-I seesaw framework. In particular, we find it possible that the sterile neutrino masses are substantially below 109 GeV, while not being degenerate. However, the required reheat temperature that is determined by the beginning of the oscillations lies some orders of magnitude above the sterile neutrino mass scale.

  2. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  3. 40 CFR 171.6 - Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified private and commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified...APPLICATORS § 171.6 Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified...to be physically present, “direct supervision” shall include verifiable...

  4. Civil tiltrotor missions and applications. Phase 2: The commercial passenger market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P.; Neir, R.; Reber, R.; Scholes, R.; Alexander, H.; Sweet, D.; Berry, D. (editor)

    1991-01-01

    The commercial passenger market for the civil tiltrotor was examined in phase 2. A market responsive commercial tiltrotor was found to be technically feasible, and a significant worldwide market potential was found to exist for such an aircraft, especially for relieving congestion in urban area-to-urban area service and for providing cost effective hub airport feeder service. Potential technical obstacles of community noise, vertiport area navigation, surveillance, and control, and the pilot/aircraft interface were determined to be surmountable. Nontechnical obstacles relating to national commitment and leadership and development of ground and air infrastructure were determined to be more difficult to resolve; an innovative public/private partnership is suggested to allow coordinated development of an initial commercial tiltrotor network to relieve congestion in the crowded US Northeast corridor by the year 2000.

  5. Models for residential-and commercial-sector energy conservation analysis: Applications, limitations, and future potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, H. E.; Fuller, R. E.

    1980-09-01

    Four of the major models used by DOE for energy conservation analyses in the residential and commercial building sectors are reviewed and critically analyzed to determine how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. The most effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy conservation policy and analysis is assessed. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  6. One-Pot Synthesis of 3,4-Diaryl-Substituted 2(5H)-Furanone and Its Commercial Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil Argade; Jigar Desai; Pravin Thombare; Kiran Shah; Sanjay Gite; Vijay Prajapati; Bipin Pandey; Mukul Jain; Pankaj Patel; Rajesh Bahekar

    2012-01-01

    One-pot synthesis of 3,4-diaryl substituted 2(5H)-furanones was established and its commercial application has been demonstrated by accomplishing total synthesis of rofecoxib, under mild reaction conditions, with good yields and purity.

  7. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  8. [PAH Cations as Viable Carriers of DIBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Ted

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to fill in the blanks in NASA's file system for our lab astro study of molecular ions of astrophysical interest. In order to give NASA what it needs for its files, I attach below the text of the section from our recent proposal to continue this work, in which we describe progress to date, including a large number of publications. Our initial studies were focused on PAH cations, which appear to be viable candidates as the carriers of the DIBs, an idea that has been supported by laboratory spectroscopy of PAH cations in inert matrices. Beginning with the simplest aromatic (benzene; C6H6) and moving progressively to larger species (naphthalene, C10OH8; pyrene, C16H10; and most recently chrysene, C18H12), we have been able to derive rate coefficients for reactions with neutral spices that are abundant in the diffuse interstellar medium.

  9. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

  10. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

  11. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

  12. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266...Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities. (a) Requirement for a...directly causes damage or injury to a viable coral community that is located on the...

  13. Comparative recoveries of airborne fungus spores by viable and non-viable modes of volumetric collection.

    PubMed

    Burge, H P; Boise, J R; Rutherford, J A; Solomon, W R

    1977-07-29

    The suitability of viable and non-viable volumetric collectors as prevalence indicators for potentially allergenic airborne fungi was studied during 124 paired exposures of the Burkard (Hirst) spore trap and a modified, wind-oriented Andersen sampler. Overall, viable recoveries of several Cladosporium form species varied directly with microscopic spore counts (p less than or equal to 0.0001). However, as spore levels rose, culture plate data progressively underestimated prevailing concentrations (recoveries falling below 5% at levels above 500 spores/M3). Viable collections yielded low estimates of prevalence (20-40%) even at modest Cladosporium levels (less than 100 spores/M3) and substantially understated the abundance and regularity in air of several additional taxa. Spores typical of Penicillium and Aspergillus form species were not sought in spore trap deposits. Careful examination of these failed to reveal typical arthrospores or Fusarium macrospores despite substantial recoveries of corresponding growth in culture. Correlations in the occurrence patterns of arthrospore-forming and non-sporulating colonies with those of Coprinus and 'other basidiospores' (excluding Ganoderma) were noted. PMID:895829

  14. Optimization of Amylase Application in Raw Sugar Manufacture. Part I: Characterization of Commercial Alpha-Amylases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there have been warnings by some U.S. refineries that there may be a penalty for high starch concentrations in raw sugar if starch control is not improved. Most commercial amylases used by the U.S. sugar industry to control starch have intermediate temperature stability (up to 85 de...

  15. Operational characteristics of commercial crop canopy sensors for nitrogen application in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop canopy reflectance sensing can be used to assess in-season nitrogen (N) health for automatic control of N fertilization, and several systems are commercially available. Because data comparing the performance of the different sensor designs is lacking, the objective of this research was to evalu...

  16. History of a Gene Patent: Tracing the Development and Application of Commercial BRCA Testing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryn Williams-Jones

    The patenting and commercialization of human genetic material raises a host of complex social, ethical, and policy issues, such as the potential for discrimination or stigmatization in access to health care services or employment, the exploitation of minority or indigenous communities in DNA prospecting, and the implications for ongoing biomedical research and access to health care services. But in order

  17. Application of a Bioenergetics Model for Hatchery Production: Largemouth Bass Fed Commercial Feeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isak J. Csargo; Michael L. Brown; Steven R. Chipps

    2012-01-01

    Fish bioenergetics models based on natural prey items have been widely used to address research and management questions. However, few attempts have been made to evaluate and apply bioenergetics models to hatchery-reared fish receiving commercial feeds that contain substantially higher energy densities than natural prey. In this study, we evaluated a bioenergetics model for age-0 largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides reared

  18. Determinants of Commercial Bank Performance in TransitionAn Application of Data Envelopment Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Grigorian; Vlad Manole

    2002-01-01

    Banking sectors in transition economies have experienced major transformations throughout the 1990s. While some countries have been successful in eliminating underlying distortions and restructuring their financial sectors, in some cases financial sectors remain underdeveloped and the rates of financial intermediation continue to be low. We estimate indicators of commercial bank efficiency by applying a version of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)

  19. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  20. CHAPTER FIVE COMMERCIAL PROGRAMS

    E-print Network

    of Space, NASA established the Office of Commercial Programs (OCP). This office encouraged the private sector to become more involved in using space for commercial purposes and increased NASA's efforts, funding for commercial- ization activities was located in the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications

  1. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 9: Regulatory Pest Control. CS-24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses methods to prevent the introduction and/or spread of pests and diseases through application of suppression, control and eradication. (CS)

  2. 77 FR 4881 - Commercial Driver's license (CDL) Standards; Rotel North American Tours, LLC; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ...American Tours, LLC; Application for Renewal of Exemption; Request for Comments AGENCY...DOT. ACTION: Notice of application for renewal of exemption; request for comments...Tours, LLC (Rotel), has applied for renewal of its current exemption permitting...

  3. 75 FR 33661 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Rotel North American Tours, LLC; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ...American Tours, LLC; Application for Renewal of Exemption; Request for Comments AGENCY...DOT. ACTION: Notice of application for renewal; request for comments...Tours, LLC (Rotel), has applied for renewal of its current exemption permitting...

  4. Creating Commercial Web 2.0 Applications with Autodesk MapGuide Studio and DM Solutions

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    applications and DM Solutions Group's Fusion application development framework to develop interactive web is a Resource document that provides the cartographic representation of a Feature Source to the MapGuide Server

  5. The application of photovoltaic roof shingles to residential and commercial buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Shepard Jr.; L. E. Sanchez

    1978-01-01

    The recent development of a shingle-type solar-cell module makes it possible to incorporate easily photovoltaic power generation into the sloping roofs of residential or commercial buildings. These modules, which use a closely packed array of nineteen 53-mm-diameter circular solar cells, are capable of producing 101 watts\\/sq m of module area under standard operating conditions. This module performance is achievable by

  6. Compilation of information on commercially available ceramic coatings for high-temperature applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Federer; A. J. Moorhead

    1985-01-01

    Ceramic recuperator materials are exposed to high temperature corrosive\\/fouling flue gases during service. Recent exposure tests have shown that SiC ceramics are susceptible to corrosion in certain furnace environments. Ceramic coatings might protect SiC ceramics and other recuperator materials from corrosion. This compilation presents commercially available ceramic coatings that could be considered for corrosion protection of heat exchanger materials. The

  7. The BioDyn facility on ISS: Advancing biomaterial production in microgravity for commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Niki; Wessling, Francis; Deuser, Mark; Anderson, C. D.; Lewis, Marian

    1999-01-01

    The primary goals of the BioDyn program are to foster use of the microgravity environment for commercial production of bio-materials from cells, and to develop services and processes for obtaining these materials through space processing. The scope of products includes commercial bio-molecules such as cytokines, other cell growth regulatory proteins, hormones, monoclonal antibodies and enzymes; transplantable cells or tissues which can be improved by low-G processes, or which cannot be obtained through standard processes in earth gravity; agriculture biotechnology products from plant cells; microencapsulation for diabetes treatment; and factors regulating cellular aging. To facilitate BioDyn's commercial science driven goals, hardware designed for ISS incorporates the flexibility for interchange between the different ISS facilities including the glovebox, various thermal units and centrifuges. By providing a permanent research facility, ISS is the critical space-based platform required by scientists for carrying out the long-term experiments necessary for developing bio-molecules and tissues using several cell culture modalities including suspension and anchorage-dependent cell types.

  8. Biocatalytically active silCoat-composites entrapping viable Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Findeisen, A; Thum, O; Ansorge-Schumacher, M B

    2014-02-01

    Application of whole cells in industrial processes requires high catalytic activity, manageability, and viability under technical conditions, which can in principle be accomplished by appropriate immobilization. Here, we report the identification of carrier material allowing exceptionally efficient adsorptive binding of Escherichia coli whole cells hosting catalytically active carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CPCR2). With the immobilizates, composite formation with both hydrophobic and hydrophilized silicone was achieved, yielding advanced silCoat-material and HYsilCoat-material, respectively. HYsilCoat-whole cells were viable preparations with a cell loading up to 400 mg(E. coli)?·?g(-1)(carrier) and considerably lower leaching than native immobilizates. SilCoat-whole cells performed particularly well in neat substrate exhibiting distinctly increased catalytic activity. PMID:24257838

  9. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  10. Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator system. Phase I. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.J.; Anderson, E.R.; Bardwell, K.M.

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the design and analysis of the BDM CAPVC (Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator) system. The preliminary design, prototype test and evaluation, system analysis, and final design of a large-scale concentrating photovoltaic system are described. The application is on an attractive new office building which represents a large potential market. The photovoltaic concentrating array is a roof-mounted, single-axis linear parabolic trough, using single crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells. A total of 6720 square feet of aperture is focussed on 13,944 PV cells. The photovoltaic system operates in parallel with the local utility in an augmentary loadsharing operating mode. The array is actively cooled and the thermal energy utilized for building heat during winter months. (WHK)

  11. Investigation and modification of a commercially available tactile sensor suited for robotic applications. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creus, Carolina

    1991-01-01

    Active (dynamic) tactile sensing was explored using a commercially available tactile array sensor. This task requires the redesign of the sensor interface and a full understanding of the old sensor hardware implementation. There were different stages to this research; the first stage involved the reverse engineering of the old tactile sensor. The second stage had to do with the exploration of the characteristics and behavior of the tactile sensor pad. The next stage dealt with the redesign of the sensor interface using the knowledge gained from the previous two stages. Finally, in the last stage, software to control the tactile sensor was developed to aid in the data acquisition process.

  12. Application of commercially pure titanium coatings using HVOF thermal spray for machinery component restoration

    SciTech Connect

    McCaw, R.L.; Hays, R.A.; Brenna, R.T.

    1994-12-31

    Alloy 625 has been shown to be susceptible to crevice corrosion under tight metal to nonmetal crevices in both natural and treated seawater. Under similar conditions, commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) has been shown to be immune. Therefore, coating alloy 625 sealing areas with CP Ti is a potentially effective crevice corrosion countermeasure. Specialized thermal spray techniques were developed utilizing the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process to apply coatings of CP Ti to alloy 625 substrates in atmosphere. Coating quality was similar to plasma sprayed coatings of other less reactive, metals. Crevice corrosion tests were conducted and issues relating to implementation of HVOF thermal spraying on a production basis were considered.

  13. Validating Object-oriented Design Metrics on a Commercial Java Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela Glasberg; Khaled El Emam; Walcelio Melo; Nazim Madhavji

    Evidence suggests that most field faults in software applications are found in a small percentage of the software's components. This means that if these faulty software components can be detected early in the development project's life cycle, mitigating actions can be taken, such as a redesign. For object-oriented applications, prediction models using design metrics can be used to identify faulty

  14. Being everything to anyone: Applicability of thermoacoustic technology in the commercial refrigeration market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poese, Matthew E.; Smith, Robert W. M.; Garrett, Steven L.

    2005-09-01

    This talk will compare electrodynamically driven thermoacoustic refrigeration technology to some common implementations of low-lift vapor-compression technology. A rudimentary explanation of vapor-compression refrigeration will be presented along with some of the implementation problems faced by refrigeration engineers using compressor-based systems. These problems include oil management, compressor slugging, refrigerant leaks and the environmental impact of refrigerants. Recently, the method of evaluating this environmental impact has been codified to include the direct effects of the refrigerants on global warming as well as the so-called ``indirect'' warming impact of the carbon dioxide released during the generation (at the power plant) of the electrical power consumed by the refrigeration equipment. It is issues like these that generate commercial interest in an alternative refrigeration technology. However, the requirements of a candidate technology for adoption in a mature and risk-averse commercial refrigeration industry are as hard to divine as they are to meet. Also mentioned will be the state of other alternative refrigeration technologies like free-piston Stirling, thermoelectric and magnetocaloric as well as progress using vapor compression technology with alternative refrigerants like hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide.

  15. Application of commercial glasses for high dose measurement using the thermoluminescent technique.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Pradeep; Senwar, K R; Vaijapurkar, S G; Kumar, D; Bhatnagar, P K

    2008-01-01

    Commercial glasses under this study showed linear thermoluminescence (TL) response in gamma dose range 100 Gy to 10 kGy, glow peaks between 175 and 200 degrees C, fading under dark and room light 2.86-7.36% and 10.42-20.82%, respectively, in 24h and 34.86-70.80% under sunlight in 5h after exposure. The TL glass dosimetric results have been found to be reproducible within +/- 6.0%. Glasses have been observed as thermally unstable and its TL sensitivity reduces after annealing. The TL response of the glasses has been found to reduce by 7.40-51.49% after first annealing of the samples at 400 degrees C for 15 min. The trace element study suggests that presence of impurities has no role in TL sensitivity of glasses rather imperfections and dislocations in the lattice are the major contributor in the formation of TL centers. Commercial glasses can serve as good TL material for gamma irradiator and gamma chamber dosimetry. The various radiation parameters for glass TL dosimetry have been studied in detail and presented. PMID:17720505

  16. The application of electrodialysis to extend the lifetime of commercial electroplating baths

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, G.; Zawodzinski, C.; Smith, B.; Smith, W.H.

    1993-12-31

    Electrodialysis has been investigated as a method to extend the lifetime of industrial electroplating solutions via the selective removal of inert electrolyte salts that build up during electroplating operations. The electrodialysis measurements were made using a commercially available plate-and frame-type cell and various combinations of Nafion cation ``change and either Tosflex or Neosepta anion exchange membranes. Two commercial plating solutions were studied: a zinc-tin bath in which there is a buildup of excess potassium hydroxide and a nickel-tungsten bath characterized by a buildup of excess sodium sulfate. Potassium hydroxide was effectively removed from the zinc-tin bath with very little loss of the heavy metals. Two configurations were investigated: a three compartment configuration with potassium hydroxide in the anolyte strip and sulfuric acid in the catholyte strip, and a two compartment configuration with sulfuric acid in the catholyte strip and the anode placed directly in the plating solution. In both cases potassium hydroxide was stripped from the plating solution at greater than 94% current efficiency, but at a slightly greater voltage in the three compartment cell due to increased resistance caused by the extra membrane. A three compartment configuration was used to remove sodium sulfate from the nickel-tungsten bath, with acid solution in the catholyte and alkaline solution in the anolyte. Current efficiencies for salt removal were high but with appreciable loss of tungsten and nickel to the strip solutions.

  17. Phosphine fumigation and residues in dry-cured ham in commercial applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Abbar, S; Phillips, T W; Schilling, M W

    2015-09-01

    Dry-cured hams often become infested with ham mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae) during the aging process. Methyl bromide has been used to fumigate dry cured ham plants and is the only available fumigant that is effective at controlling ham mite infestations. However, methyl bromide will eventually be phased out of all industries. This research was designed to determine the efficacy of phosphine fumigation at controlling ham mites and red-legged beetles and any impact of phosphine fumigation on the sensory quality and safety of dry cured hams. Fumigation trials were conducted in simulated ham aging houses and commercial ham aging houses. Mite postembryonic mortality was 99.8% in the simulated aging houses and >99.9% in commercial aging houses three weeks post fumigation. Sensory tests with trained panelists indicated that there were no detectable differences (P>0.05) between phosphine fumigated and control hams. In addition, residual phosphine concentration was below the legal limit of 0.01ppm in ham slices that were taken from phosphine fumigated hams. PMID:25951409

  18. Detection of Only Viable Bacterial Spores Using a Live/Dead Indicator in Mixed Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Stam, Christina N.; Smiley, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This method uses a photoaffinity label that recognizes DNA and can be used to distinguish populations of bacterial cells from bacterial spores without the use of heat shocking during conventional culture, and live from dead bacterial spores using molecular-based methods. Biological validation of commercial sterility using traditional and alternative technologies remains challenging. Recovery of viable spores is cumbersome, as the process requires substantial incubation time, and the extended time to results limits the ability to quickly evaluate the efficacy of existing technologies. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) have shown promise for improving time to detection for a wide range of applications. Recent real-time PCR methods are particularly promising, as these methods can be made at least semi-quantitative by correspondence to a standard curve. Nonetheless, PCR-based methods are rarely used for process validation, largely because the DNA from dead bacterial cells is highly stable and hence, DNA-based amplification methods fail to discriminate between live and inactivated microorganisms. Currently, no published method has been shown to effectively distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores. This technology uses a DNA binding photoaffinity label that can be used to distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores with detection limits ranging from 109 to 102 spores/mL. An environmental sample suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead vegetative cells and bacterial endospores is treated with a photoaffinity label. This step will eliminate any vegetative cells (live or dead) and dead endospores present in the sample. To further determine the bacterial spore viability, DNA is extracted from the spores and total population is quantified by real-time PCR. The current NASA standard assay takes 72 hours for results. Part of this procedure requires a heat shock step at 80 degC for 15 minutes before the sample can be plated. Using a photoaffinity label would remove this step from the current assay as the label readily penetrates both live and dead bacterial cells. Secondly, the photoaffinity label can only penetrate dead bacterial spores, leaving behind the viable spore population. This would allow for rapid bacterial spore detection in a matter of hours compared to the several days that it takes for the NASA standard assay.

  19. Survival of “pre-viable” infants in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hamisu M. Salihu; Donath Emusu; Zakari Y. Aliyu; Russell S. Kirby; Greg R. Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE: We investigated temporal trend in survival of pre-viable (200–499 g) fetuses over the previous decade, and estimated future survival rates based on previous and current survival thresholds. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective cohort study on live-born pre-viable fetuses (200–499 g) in the United States comparing two period cohorts; 1985–1988 versus 1995–1999. We computed survival of pre-viable babies

  20. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Animal. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, R. F., Ed.; Schmidtmann, E. T., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Chapter one deals with the safety problems of pesticide use to humans, livestock and the environment. The second chapter is concerned with the types of application equipment and their utilization. Specific pests of livestock and poultry…

  1. Chlorpyrifos residue levels in avian food items following applications of a commercial EC formulation to alfalfa and citrus.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Larry W; McQuillen, Harry L; Mayes, Monte A; Stafford, Jennifer M; Tank, Susan L

    2003-11-01

    Two 10-day field residue studies were conducted to measure the amount of chlorpyrifos residue found in typical avian food following applications of a commercial 480 g liter(-1) EC (Lorsban 4E) at 1.1 kg AI ha(-1) (1 lb AI acre(-1)) to alfalfa and at 2.3 kg Al ha(-1) (2.0 lb AI acre(-1)) to citrus. Avian food items used in these studies included: crickets (Acheta domestica (L)), earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L), darkling ground beetle larvae (Tenebrio molitor L), seed heads (Triticum sp), and naturally occurring flying and ground-dwelling insects. The studies incorporated a design involving three main study plots placed within larger treated areas of an alfalfa crop and a mature orange grove. The three main study plots represented three replications and each contained four sub-plots. One sub-plot, on each study plot, was sampled on day 0 (2-h post-application), day 1, day 5 and day 10 post-application. Chlorpyrifos residues were present in all avian food sampled following the application; however, residue levels were lower than estimated residue values typically used by the US EPA to establish expected environmental concentration (EEC) used in screening assessments of risk to terrestrial wildlife. PMID:14620043

  2. 77 FR 17105 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Rotel North American Tours, LLC; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ...Standards; Rotel North American Tours, LLC; Application for Renewal of Exemption...employed by Rotel North American Tours, LLC. This notice corrects the error and provides...announcing that Rotel North American Tours, LLC (Rotel) had applied for renewal of...

  3. Commercial potential for thermal & magnetic sensitive polymer in drug delivery applications

    E-print Network

    Edward, Jonathan M. (Jonathan Mark)

    2008-01-01

    Thermal and magnetically sensitive polymers are a new class of materials with unique properties suitable for applications in drug delivery. Specifically, these polymers can be combined with a drug reservoir to make a drug ...

  4. Commercialization potential of compositionally graded Ge - Si??x?Gex? - Si substrates for solar applications

    E-print Network

    Goh, Johnathan Jian Ming

    2006-01-01

    This project considers the potential of Ge - Si??x?Gex? - Si substrates for solar applications. The use of compositionally graded substrates to achieve heterointegration across different materials platforms such as Si, Ge ...

  5. 78 FR 50139 - Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Miami Nice Tours

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Miami Nice Tours AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...SUMMARY: FMCSA announces that Miami Nice Tours (Miami) has applied for an exemption from the...

  6. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 2: Technical final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Intersatellite Link (ISL) applications can improve and expand communication satellite services in a number of ways. As the demand for orbital slots within prime regions of the geostationary arc increases, attention is being focused on ISLs as a method to utilize this resource more efficiently and circumvent saturation. Various GEO-to-GEO applications were determined that provide potential benefits over existing communication systems. A set of criteria was developed to assess the potential applications. Intersatellite link models, network system architectures, and payload configurations were developed. For each of the chosen ISL applications, ISL versus non-ISL satellite systems architectures were derived. Both microwave and optical ISL implementation approaches were evaluated for payload sizing and cost analysis. The technological availability for ISL implementations was assessed. Critical subsystems technology areas were identified, and an estamate of the schedule and cost to advance the technology to the requiered state of readiness was made.

  7. Desiccation induces viable but Non-Culturable cells in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is a microorganism commercially used in the production of e.g. Medicago sativa seed inocula. Many inocula are powder-based and production includes a drying step. Although S. meliloti survives drying well, the quality of the inocula is reduced during this process. In this study we determined survival during desiccation of the commercial strains 102F84 and 102F85 as well as the model strain USDA1021. The survival of S. meliloti 1021 was estimated during nine weeks at 22% relative humidity. We found that after an initial rapid decline of colony forming units, the decline slowed to a steady 10-fold reduction in colony forming units every 22 days. In spite of the reduction in colony forming units, the fraction of the population identified as viable (42-54%) based on the Baclight live/dead stain did not change significantly over time. This change in the ability of viable cells to form colonies shows (i) an underestimation of the survival of rhizobial cells using plating methods, and that (ii) in a part of the population desiccation induces a Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC)-like state, which has not been reported before. Resuscitation attempts did not lead to a higher recovery of colony forming units indicating the VBNC state is stable under the conditions tested. This observation has important consequences for the use of rhizobia. Finding methods to resuscitate this fraction may increase the quality of powder-based seed inocula. PMID:22260437

  8. Characterization of salt stable, biologically decomposable polymers for commercial application in EOR

    SciTech Connect

    Kulicke, W.M.; van Eikeren, A.; Jacobs, A. [Universitaet Hamburg (Germany); Littmann, W.; Kleinitz, W. [Deilmann Erdol Erdgas, Hannover (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Polymers that are both stable to salts and biologically degradable are a rarity; one example of a polymer that does possess these properties is the fermentation polymer xanthan. The chemical and steric microstructure of 40 different xanthan samples (both laboratory and commercially available samples) were investigated with the aid of NMR spectroscopy, enzymatic analysis, light scattering and viscometry. In these experiments it was found that xanthan is a quaternary polymer. The viscosity yield depends not only on the initial concentration and molecular weight but also on the chemical composition. The injectability and flow behavior were examined under various conditions. The way in which the samples are pretreated is not only of significance in the characterization of the microstructure but also, and especially, in terms of the flow behavior within the pore spaces. An account of the first trials is also included.

  9. Application of submarine extended operating cycle programs to the enhancement of commercial nuclear power plant operation and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.H.; Livingston, B.K.; Clarke, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    During the past 10 yr, the US Navy has extended submarine operating cycles - the period between major ship overhauls - from 4 to > 15 yr. Major programs to extend submarine operating cycles have been the submarine extended operating cycle (SEOC) and the engineered SEOC programs. Currently, the navy is incorporating lessons learned from these programs, as well as new concepts, into its newest Seawolf (SSN-21) ship class. Major elements of these programs are a disciplined machinery condition assessment (MCA) program consisting of intrusive and nonintrusive elements, the use of rotatable equipment pools, and the engineering of maintenance periodicities to establish operating cycles. Many of the concepts and elements of these programs can be applied to two objectives for enhanced operation and maintenance: the increased availability of means of improved equipment performance and reduced outage durations and the extension of plant life. The objectives of this paper are to review the US Navy SEOC programs, to draw parallels between the US Navy programs and commercial nuclear power plant programs, and to suggest potential opportunities for application to commercial nuclear power plants.

  10. Characterization of a commercialized SERS-active substrate and its application to the identification of intact Bacillus endospores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Troy A.; Le, Dianna M.

    2007-06-01

    Surface-enhanced-Raman-spectroscopy (SERS) can be made an attractive approach for the identification of Raman-active compounds and biological materials (i.e., toxins, viruses, or intact bacterial cells or spores) through development of reproducible, spatially uniform SERS-active substrates. Recently, reproducible (from substrate to substrate), spatially homogeneous (over large areas) SERS-active substrates have been commercialized and are now available in the marketplace. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution, tapping-mode atomic force microscopy have been used to analyze these novel plasmonic surfaces for topographical consistency. Additionally, we have assessed, by wavelength-tunable microreflectance spectrometry, the spatial distribution of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) across a single substrate surface as well as the LSPR ?MAX variance from substrate to substrate. These analyses reveal that these surfaces are topologically uniform with small LSPR variance from substrate to substrate. Further, we have utilized these patterned surfaces to acquire SERS spectral signatures of four intact, genetically distinct Bacillus spore species cultivated under identical growth conditions. Salient spectral signature features make it possible to discriminate among these genetically distinct spores. Additionally, partial least squares, a multivariate calibration method, has been used to develop personal-computer-borne algorithms useful for classification of unknown spore samples based solely on SERS spectral signatures. To our knowledge, this is the first report detailing application of these commercially available SERS-active substrates to identification of intact Bacillus spores.

  11. Study of fuel cell on-site, integrated energy systems in residential/commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, R. A.; Karamchetty, S.; Rand, R. H.; Ku, W. S.; Tekumalla, V.

    1980-01-01

    Three building applications were selected for a detailed study: a low rise apartment building; a retail store, and a hospital. Building design data were then specified for each application, based on the design and construction of typical, actual buildings. Finally, a computerized building loads analysis program was used to estimate hourly end use load profiles for each building. Conventional and fuel cell based energy systems were designed and simulated for each building in each location. Based on the results of a computer simulation of each energy system, levelized annual costs and annual energy consumptions were calculated for all systems.

  12. Microencapsulated Fuel Technology for Commercial Light Water and Advanced Reactor Application

    SciTech Connect

    Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The potential application of microencapsulated fuels to light water reactors (LWRs) has been explored. The specific fuel manifestation being put forward is for coated fuel particles embedded in silicon carbide or zirconium metal matrices. Detailed descriptions of these concepts are presented, along with a review of attributes, potential benefits, and issues with respect to their application in LWR environments, specifically from the standpoints of materials, neutronics, operations, and economics. Preliminary experiment and modeling results imply that with marginal redesign, significant gains in operational reliability and accident response margins could be potentially achieved by replacing conventional oxide-type LWR fuel with microencapsulated fuel forms.

  13. Application of commercial sensor manufacturing methods for NOx/NH3 mixed potential sensors for emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, Eric L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Mark A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sekhar, Praveen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williamson, Todd [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garzon, Fernando H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to develop a low cost on-board Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x})/Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) sensor that can not only be used for emissions control but has the potential to improve efficiency through better monitoring of the combustion process and feedback control in both vehicle and stationary systems. Over the past decade, Los AJamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a unique class of electrochemical gas sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen and nitrogen oxides. These sensors are based on the mixed-potential phenomenon and are a modification of the existing automotive lambda (oxygen) sensor and have the potential to meet the stringent sensitivity, selectivity and stability requirements of an on-board emissions/engine control sensor system. The current state of the art LANL technology is based on the stabilization of the electrochemical interfaces and relies on an externally heated, hand-made, tape cast device. We are now poised to apply our patented sensing principles in a mass production sensor platform that is more suitable for real world engine-out testing such as on dynamometers for vehicle applications and for exhaust-out testing in heavy boilers/SCR systems in power plants. In this present work, our goal is to advance towards commercialization of this technology by packaging the unique LANL sensor design in a standard automotive sensor-type platform. This work is being performed with the help of a leading US technical ceramics firm, utilizing commercial manufacturing techniques. Initial tape cast platforms with screen printed metal oxide and Pt sensor electrodes have shown promising results but also clearly show the need for us to optimize the electrode and electrolyte compositions/morphologies and interfaces of these devices in order to demonstrate a sensitive, selective, and stable NO{sub x} sensor. Our previous methods and routes to preparing stable and reproducible mixed potential sensors - in bulk, tape cast, and thin film variants - need to be adapted as a necessary adjunct to address materials challenges resulting from the implementation of commercial manufacturing methods. We also modified the electrodes to demonstrate a NH{sub 3} sensor that can be used in conjunction with the NO{sub x} sensor for feedback control of emissions systems. Once desirable properties are achieved, we will work closely with potential customers in order to dynamometer and boiler test these devices. Ultimately, this will accurately gauge the level of readiness of mixed potential sensor technology for commercialization and eventual use of this important electrochemical technology.

  14. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 3: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. CS-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cott, A. E.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section serves as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of common problems on some of the more common ornamental plants. Recommended control measures are suggested. The second section provides color photographs of common lawn…

  15. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 8: Public Health Pest Control. CS-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses those pests which are agents in transmitting disease, cause injury or discomfort, and bite or sting. Control methods for each of these categories are provided. (CS)

  16. Applicability of Commercial Adsorbents to Multicolumn Adsorption Systems with Condenser for Tritiated Water Vapor Removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji KOTOH; Kazuhiko KUDO

    1997-01-01

    In a previous paper, two types of multi-column adsorption system with condenser for removal of tritiated atmospheric moisture were proposed and the system performance was estimated by analyzing the necessary amount of adsorbent for columns. The analysis revealed that the necessary amount depends on the types of adsorption isotherm for water vapor on candidate adsorbents. In this paper, the applicability

  17. An Implementation of a Commercial Messaging System Standard for a Space Mission Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Carrion

    Standardization of interfaces between on board spacecraft subsystems, operation control centers, and ground terminals is seen as a way to reduce overall mission development, integration and operations costs. Messaging systems used in the electrical utility, petrochemical, and automotive industries look promising for application to space based systems for command, control, and communications. These messaging systems provide a baseline set of

  18. Viable versus inactivated lactobacillus strain GG in acute rotavirus diarrhoea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Kaila; E Isolauri; M Saxelin; H Arvilommi; T Vesikari

    1995-01-01

    The effect of viable or heat inactivated human Lactobacillus casei strain GG on rotavirus immune responses in patients with rotavirus diarrhoea was assessed. Rotavirus serum IgA enzyme immunoassay antibody responses were higher in infants treated with viable L casei strain GG than in those treated with inactivated L casei strain GG. There was a significant difference at convalescence with rotavirus

  19. Thin Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization, Critical Issues, and Applications; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H. S.; von Roedern, B.

    2007-09-01

    We report here on the major commercialization aspects of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies based on CIGS and CdTe (a-Si and thin-Si are also reported for completeness on the status of thin-film PV). Worldwide silicon (Si) based PV technologies continues to dominate at more than 94% of the market share, with the share of thin-film PV at less than 6%. However, the market share for thin-film PV in the United States continues to grow rapidly over the past several years and in CY 2006, they had a substantial contribution of about 44%, compared to less than 10% in CY 2003. In CY 2007, thin-film PV market share is expected to surpass that of Si technology in the United States. Worldwide estimated projections for CY 2010 are that thin-film PV production capacity will be more than 3700 MW. A 40-MW thin-film CdTe solar field is currently being installed in Saxony, Germany, and will be completed in early CY 2009. The total project cost is Euro 130 million, which equates to an installed PV system price of Euro 3.25/-watt averaged over the entire solar project. This is the lowest price for any installed PV system in the world today. Critical research, development, and technology issues for thin-film CIGS and CdTe are also elucidated in this paper.

  20. Evaluating the Performance and Economics of Transpired Solar Collectors for Commercial Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Deru, M.; Slayzak, S.; Norton, P.; Barker, G.; McClendon, J,

    2008-07-01

    Using transpired solar collectors to preheat ventilation air has recently become recognized as an economic alternative for integrating renewable energy into commercial buildings in heating climates. The collectors have relatively low installed costs and operate on simple principles. Theory and performance testing have shown that solar collection efficiency can exceed 70% of incident solar. However, implementation and current absorber designs have adversely affected the efficiency and associated economics from this initial analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has actively studied this technology and monitored performance at several installations. A calibrated model that uses typical meteorological weather data to determine absorber plate efficiency resulted from this work. With this model, an economic analysis across heating climates was done to show the effects of collector size, tilt, azimuth, and absorptivity. The analysis relates the internal rate of return of a system based on the cost of the installed absorber area. In general, colder and higher latitude climates return a higher rate of return because the heating season extends into months with good solar resource.

  1. Application of high temperature ceramic superconductors (CSC) to commercial tokamak reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D.A.; Kim, S.; Gohar, Y.; Turner, L.; Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.

    1987-10-01

    Ceramic superconductors operating near liquid nitrogen temperature may experience higher heating rates without losing stability, compared to conventional superconductors. This will permit cable design with less stabilizer, reducing fabrication costs for large fusion magnets. Magnet performance is studied for different operating current densities in the superconductor, and cost benefits to commercial tokamak reactors are estimated. It appears that 10 kA . cm/sup -2/ (at 77 K and approx.10 T) is a target current density which must be achieved in order for the ceramic superconductors to compete with conventional materials. At current densities around 50 kA . cm/sup -2/ most potential benefits have already been gained, as magnet structural steel begins to dominate the cost at this point. For a steady state reactor reductions of approx.7% are forecast for the overall capital cost of the power plant in the best case. An additional approx.3% cost saving is possible for pulsed tokamaks. 9 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Applicability of commercial CFD tools for assessment of heavy vehicle aerodynamic characteristics.

    SciTech Connect

    Pointer, W. D.; Sofu, T.; Chang, J.; Weber, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-12-01

    In preliminary validation studies, computational predictions from the commercial CFD codes Star-CD were compared with detailed velocity, pressure and force balance data from experiments completed in the 7 ft. by 10 ft. wind tunnel at NASA Ames using a Generic Conventional Model (GCM) that is representative of typical current-generation tractor-trailer geometries. Lessons learned from this validation study were then applied to the prediction of aerodynamic drag impacts associated with various changes to the GCM geometry, including the addition of trailer based drag reduction devices and modifications to the radiator and hood configuration. Add-on device studies have focused on ogive boat tails, with initial results indicating that a seven percent reduction in drag coefficient is easily achievable. Radiator and hood reconfiguration studies have focused on changing only the size of the radiator and angle of the hood components without changes to radii of curvature between the radiator grill and hood components. Initial results indicate that such changes lead to only modest changes in drag coefficient.

  3. Ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography of lipophilic compounds with application to synthetic and commercial biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Yang, J; Rainville, P; Jones, M D; Fountain, K J; Isaac, G; Taylor, L T

    2015-03-01

    Ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) in combination with sub-2?m particles and either diode array ultraviolet (UV), evaporative light scattering, (ELSD), or mass spectrometric (MS) detection has been shown to be a valuable technique for the determination of acylglycerols in soybean, corn, sesame, and tobacco seed oils. Excellent resolution on an un-endcapped single C18 column (3.0mm×150mm) with a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile and carbon dioxide in as little as 10min served greatly as an improvement on first generation packed column SFC instrumentation. Unlike high resolution gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, UHPSFC/MS was determined to be a superior analytical tool for both separation and detection of mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerols as well as free glycerol itself in biodiesel without derivatization. Baseline separation of residual tri-, di-, and mono-acylglycerols alongside glycerol at 0.05% (w/w) was easily obtained employing packed column SFC. The new analytical methodology was applied to both commercial B100 biodiesel (i.e. fatty acid methyl esters) derived from vegetable oil and to an "in-house" synthetic biodiesel (i.e. fatty acid ethyl esters) derived from tobacco seed oil and ethanol both before and after purification via column chromatography on bare silica. PMID:25635951

  4. MOA2—an R&D paradigm buster enabling space propulsion by commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hettmer, Manfred; Koudelka, Otto; Löb, Horst

    2012-04-01

    More than 60 years after the late Nobel laureate Hannes Alfvén had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfvén waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. Consequently improved since then, the name of the latest concept, relying on magneto-acoustic waves to accelerate electric conductive matter, is MOA2—Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified Accelerator. Based on computer simulations, which were undertaken to get a first estimate on the performance of the system, MOA2 is a corrosion free and highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted in operation, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable of delivering a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. First tests—that are further described in this paper—have been conducted successfully with a 400 W prototype system at an ambient pressure of 0.20 Pa, delivered 9.24 mN of thrust at 1472 s ISP, thereby underlining the feasibility of the concept. Based on these results, space propulsion is expected to be a prime application for MOA2—a claim that is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion. However, MOA2 has so far seen most of its R&D impetus from terrestrial applications, like coating, semiconductor implantation and manufacturing as well as steel cutting. Based on this observation, MOA2 resembles an R&D paradigm buster, as it is the first space propulsion system, whose R&D is driven primarily by its terrestrial applications. Different terrestrial applications exist, but the most successful scenarios so far revolve around MOA2's unique features with respect to high throughput/low target temperature coatings on sensitive materials. In combination with its intrinsic high flexibility, MOA2 is highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. This paper presents the recent developments of the MOA2 R&D activities at Q2 Technologie(s), the company in Vienna, Austria, which has been set up to further develop and test the magneto-acoustic wave technology and its applications.

  5. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Plant. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, J. E., Ed.; Pendleton, R. F., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use, particularly those associated with safety. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of insects…

  6. Application issues for large-area electrochromic windows in commercial buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Lee; D. L. DiBartolomeo

    2002-01-01

    Projections of performance from small-area devices to large-area windows and enterprise marketing have created high expectations for electrochromic glazings. As a result, this paper seeks to precipitate an objective dialog between material scientists and building-application scientists to determine whether actual large-area electrochromic devices will result in significant performance benefits and what material improvements are needed, if any, to make electrochromics

  7. Development, characterization and commercial application of palm based dihydroxystearic acid and its derivatives: an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory F. L. Koay; Teong-Guan Chuah; Sumaiya Zainal-Abidin; Salmiah Ahmad; Thomas S. Y. Choong

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyl fatty acids and their derivatives are of high value due to their wide range of industrial application, including cosmetic, food, personal care and pharmaceutical products. Realizing the importance of hydroxyl fatty acids, and yet due to the absence of the conventional starting raw materials, Malaysia has developed 9,10-dihydroxystearic acid (9,10-DHSA) and its derivatives from locally abundant palm based oils.

  8. 40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants Subcategory...description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants...

  9. 40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants Subcategory...description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants...

  10. 40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants Subcategory...description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants...

  11. 40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants Subcategory...description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants...

  12. 40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants Subcategory...description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants...

  13. A Commercial 65 nm CMOS Technology for Space Applications: Heavy Ion, Proton and Gamma Test Results and Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Roche; Gilles Gasiot; Slawosz Uznanski; Jean-Marc Daveau; Josep Torras-Flaquer; Sylvain Clerc; Reno Harboe-Sorensen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents new experimental and modeling evidences that advanced commercial CMOS technologies get intrinsically harder against space radiations with technology downscaling. A 65 nm commercial bulk CMOS process can deliver improved radiation-tolerance without sacrificing electrical performance.

  14. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    US DOE mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 181,000 cubic meters (about 2,000 waste streams). Treatability studies may be used as part of DOE`s mixed waste management program. Commercial treatability study suppliers have been identified that either have current capability in their own facilities or have access to licensed facilities. Numerous federal and state regulations, as well as DOE Order 5820.2A, impact the performance of treatability studies. Generators, transporters, and treatability study facilities are subject to regulation. From a mixed- waste standpoint, a key requirement is that the treatability study facility must have an NRC or state license that allows it to possess radioactive materials. From a RCRA perspective, the facility must support treatability study activities with the applicable plans, reports, and documentation. If PCBs are present in the waste, TSCA will also be an issue. CERCLA requirements may apply, and both DOE and NRC regulations will impact the transportation of DOE mixed waste to an off-site treatment facility. DOE waste managers will need to be cognizant of all applicable regulations as mixed-waste treatability study programs are initiated.

  15. Scale-Up of CdTe Photovoltaic Device Processes for Commercial Application: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-196

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D.

    2013-02-01

    Through this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, NREL and PrimeStar Solar will work together to scale up the NREL CdTe photovoltaic process from the laboratory to produce photovoltaic devices in a size that is commercially viable. The work in this phase will focus on the transference of NREL CdTe device fabrication techniques to PrimeStar Solar. NREL and PrimeStar Solar will engage in a series of technical exchange meetings and laboratory training sessions to transfer the knowledge of CdTe PV film growth from NREL to PrimeStar Solar. PrimeStar Solar will grow thin films on PrimeStar Solar equipment and interleave them with NREL-grown films in an effort to develop a commercial scale process on PrimeStar Solar equipment. Select NREL film growth equipment will be upgraded either by PrimeStar Solar or at PrimeStar Solar's expense to increase equipment reliability and throughput.

  16. Generation of Viable Cell and Biomaterial Patterns by Laser Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringeisen, Bradley

    2001-03-01

    In order to fabricate and interface biological systems for next generation applications such as biosensors, protein recognition microarrays, and engineered tissues, it is imperative to have a method of accurately and rapidly depositing different active biomaterials in patterns or layered structures. Ideally, the biomaterial structures would also be compatible with many different substrates including technologically relevant platforms such as electronic circuits or various detection devices. We have developed a novel laser-based technique, termed matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation direct write (MAPLE DW), that is able to direct write patterns and three-dimensional structures of numerous biologically active species ranging from proteins and antibodies to living cells. Specifically, we have shown that MAPLE DW is capable of forming mesoscopic patterns of living prokaryotic cells (E. coli bacteria), living mammalian cells (Chinese hamster ovaries), active proteins (biotinylated bovine serum albumin, horse radish peroxidase), and antibodies specific to a variety of classes of cancer related proteins including intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins, signaling proteins, cell cycle proteins, growth factors, and growth factor receptors. In addition, patterns of viable cells and active biomolecules were deposited on different substrates including metals, semiconductors, nutrient agar, and functionalized glass slides. We will present an explanation of the laser-based transfer mechanism as well as results from our recent efforts to fabricate protein recognition microarrays and tissue-based microfluidic networks.

  17. Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C

    2015-01-20

    Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure. PMID:25552560

  18. DECREASE Final Technical Report: Development of a Commercial Ready Enzyme Application System for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Teter, Sarah A

    2012-04-18

    Conversion of biomass to sugars plays a central in reducing our dependence on petroleum, as it allows production of a wide range of biobased fuels and chemicals, through fermentation of those sugars. The DECREASE project delivers an effective enzyme cocktail for this conversion, enabling reduced costs for producing advanced biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol. Benefits to the public contributed by growth of the advanced biofuels industry include job creation, economic growth, and energy security. The DECREASE primary project objective was to develop a two-fold improved enzyme cocktail, relative to an advanced cocktail (CZP00005) that had been developed previously (from 2000- 2007). While the final milestone was delivery of all enzyme components as an experimental mixture, a secondary objective was to deploy an improved cocktail within 3 years following the close of the project. In February 2012, Novozymes launched Cellic CTec3, a multi-enzyme cocktail derived in part from components developed under DECREASE. The externally validated performance of CTec3 and an additional component under project benchmarking conditions indicated a 1.8-fold dose reduction in enzyme dose required for 90% conversion (based on all available glucose and xylose sources) of NREL dilute acid pretreated PCS, relative to the starting advanced enzyme cocktail. While the ability to achieve 90% conversion is impressive, targeting such high levels of biomass digestion is likely not the most cost effective strategy. Novozymes techno economic modeling showed that for NREL's dilute acid pretreated corn stover (PCS), 80% target conversion enables a lower total production cost for cellulosic ethanol than for 90% conversion, and this was also found to be the case when cost assumptions were based on the NREL 2002 Design Report. A 1.8X dose-reduction was observed for 80% conversion in the small scale (50 g) DECREASE benchmark assay for CTec3 and an additional component. An upscaled experiment (in 0.5 kg kettle reactors) was performed to compare the starting enzyme mixture CZP00005 with CTec3 alone; these results indicated a 1.9X dose- reduction for 80% conversion. The CTec3 composition does not include the best available enzyme components from the DECREASE effort. While these components are not yet available in a commercial product, experimental mixtures were assayed in a smaller scale assay using DECREASE PCS, at high solids loadings (21.5% TS). The results indicated that the newer mixtures required 2.9X-less enzyme for 90% conversion, and 3.2X-less enzyme for 80% conversion, relative to the starting enzyme cocktail. In conclusion, CTec3 delivers a 1.8-1.9X dose reduction on NREL PCS at high solids loadings, and the next generation enzyme from Novozymes will continue to show dramatically improved biochemical performance. CTec3 allows reduced costs today, and the experimental cocktails point to continued biotechnological improvements that will further drive down costs for biorefineries of tomorrow.

  19. One-Pot Synthesis of 3,4-di Aryl Substituted 2(5H)-Furanones and Its Commercial Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil Argade; Jigar Desai; Pravin Thombare; Kiran Shah; Sanjay Gite; Vijay Prajapati; Bipin Pandey; Mukul Jain; Pankaj Patel; Rajesh Bahekar

    2012-01-01

    One-pot synthesis of 3,4-di aryl substituted 2(5H)-furanones was established and its commercial application has been demonstrated by accomplishing total synthesis of Rofecoxib, under mild reaction conditions, with high yields and purity.

  20. IS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    IS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS Jesus Gonzalez. Urban consolidation and logistics sharing. III. Multi-stakeholder mutli-criteria methodology. A seems a good city logistics alternative to classical urban consolidation centres, but it is still

  1. ESTIMATION OF VIABLE AIRBORNE MICROBES DOWNWIND FROM A POINT SOURCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modification of the Pasquill atmospheric diffusion equations for estimating viable microbial airborne cell concentrations downwind from a continuous point source is presented. A graphical method is given to estimate the ground level cell concentration given (1) microbial death ra...

  2. A probabilistic approach to determine thermal process setting parameters: application for commercial sterility of products.

    PubMed

    Membré, Jeanne-Marie; van Zuijlen, André

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the probabilistic data analysis presented in this paper was to enable the thermal process to be set on actual data rather than on generic or conservative rules. The application was an ambient stable soup product, heated in a continuous UHT line. The data set comes from a decade of microbiological analysis: initial spore load and survival spore concentration after moderate heat-treatment (100°C for 15 min and 110°C for 15 min) have been enumerated in forty eight ingredients. The probabilistic analysis was carried out within a risk-based context, considering a Performance Objective, PO, set after the heat-treatment process and an initial spore contamination (H?) at the ingredient mixing step. The probabilistic analysis was based upon Bayesian inference, chosen for its flexibility when dealing with censored data (some values were reported as less than 1 log cfu/g) and also for its ability to incorporate in the data analysis prior information. Beforehand, Z values around 10°C for aerobic bacterial spores, and log count error around 1 log, were assumed. The methodology and the results are reported using two ingredients (garlic and milk powder) illustrating the 'not detected' (censored data) issue and also the inter-ingredient variability. Indeed, Z was estimated to be 13.6°C (mean) for spores selected from garlic and 5.9°C for those selected from milk powder. Based upon a hypothetical soup recipe with these two ingredients, the sterilization value was estimated to be 13 min (95th percentile). The potential use of similar methodology to design and set the sterilization value for the thermal process of future products, is discussed. PMID:21111502

  3. Viable Cyanobacteria and Green Algae from the Permafrost Darkness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana A. Vishnivetskaya; Tatiana A

    2009-01-01

    This review represents an overview of the existence, distribution and abundance of the photoautotrophic microorganisms in\\u000a the deep subsurface permafrost of the Northeast Russia and McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The morphology, growth rate, spectral\\u000a properties, phylogenetic position of the viable permafrost green algae and cyanobacteria have been studied. Viable photoautotrophs\\u000a were represented by unicellular green algae and filamentous cyanobacteria with

  4. Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Enslin, Johan (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Hamaoui, Ronald (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Rustom, Khalid (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Stuby, Rick (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Kuran, Mohammad (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Mark, Evlyn (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Amarin, Ruba (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Alatrash, Hussam (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing further field testing as a prelude to improved and expanded commercialization.

  5. Production of Liquid Synthetic Fuels from Carbon, Water and Nuclear Power on Ships and at Shore Bases for Military and Potential Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Locke Bogart, S. [7982 Chaucer Drive, Weeki Wachee, FL 34607 (United States); Schultz, Ken; Brown, Lloyd; Russ, Ben [General Atomics 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    It is demonstrable that synthetic fuels (jet/diesel/gasoline {approx_equal} (CH{sub 2}){sub n}) can be produced from carbon, water, and nuclear energy. What remains to be shown is that all system processes are scalable, integrable, and economical. Sources of carbon include but are not limited to CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere or seawater, CO{sub 2} from fossil-fired power plants, and elemental carbon from coal or biomass. For mobile defense (Navy) applications, the ubiquitous atmosphere is our chosen carbon source. For larger-scale sites such as Naval Advance Bases, the atmosphere may still be the choice should other sources not be readily available. However, at many locations suitable for defense and, potentially, commercial syn-fuel production, far higher concentrations of carbon may be available. The rationale for this study was manifold: fuel system security from terrorism and possible oil embargoes; rising demand and, eventually, peaking supply of conventional petroleum; and escalating costs and prices of fuels. For these reasons, the initial parts of the study were directed at Syn-fuel production for mobile Naval platforms and shore sites such as Rokkasho, Japan (as an exemplar). Nuclear reactors would provide the energy for H{sub 2} from water-splitting, Membrane Gas Absorption (MGA) would extract CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere, the Reverse Water-Gas Reaction (RWGR) would convert the CO{sub 2} to CO, and the resultant H{sub 2} and CO feeds would be converted to (CH{sub 2})n by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Many of these processes exist at commercial scale. Some, particularly MGA and RWGR, have been demonstrated at the bench-scale, requiring up-scaling. Likewise, the demonstration of an integrated system at some scale is yet to be done. For ship-based production, it has been shown that the system should be viable and, under reasonable assumptions, both scalable and economical for defense fuels. For the assumptions in the study, fuel cost estimates range from {approx} $2.55 to $4.75 per gallon with a nominal cost of {approx} $3.65 per gallon. For large installations and advanced nuclear power and hydrogen production systems (high temperature reactors and thermo-chemical hydrogen production), then fuel production might be produced at near-commercial fuel prices. For the H2-MHR and plausible assumptions and estimates of CO{sub 2} extraction and fuel synthesis capital and operating costs, such fuels might have nominal and low production costs ranging from {approx} $2.40 to $1.70 per gallon, respectively, for a Public Sector Fixed Charge Rate of 5%. Next, it was shown that for CO{sub 2} provided from a fossil-fired power plant, a CO{sub 2} 'disposal' fee of $30/tonne and a Fixed Charge Rate of 10%, then syn-fuel might be produced at {approx} $3.00 and $2.45 (nominal cost values) and $1.90 and $1.85 (low cost values) per gallon by LWRs and H2-MHRs, respectively. Last, it was shown that nuclear-produced H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} could convert coal to liquid fuels at very low cost. For a Fixed Charge Rate of 10% and nominal plant costs, fuel costs ranged from {approx} $1.60 (LWR) per gallon to {approx} $1.30 (H2-MHR) for an assumed CO{sub 2} avoidance credit of $30/Tonne. Our studies have shown that the addition of nuclear-produced hydrogen and oxygen to the coal syn-fuel process can greatly reduce CO{sub 2} production and, for modest CO{sub 2} credit, can further reduce the cost of the syn-fuel. Capturing CO{sub 2} from stack gas or even the air will further reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} that must be dealt with. This last case is independent of the price of fossil fuels and liquid fuel production costs and prices will have been capped. Of possibly even greater importance, the carbon fuel cycle will have been closed, thus minimizing or eliminating concerns with Global Climate Change. (authors)

  6. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  7. Corrosion behavior of titanium boride composite coating fabricated on commercially pure titanium in Ringer's solution for bioimplant applications.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Bose; Singh, Raghuvir; Pathak, Lokesh Chandra

    2015-03-01

    The boriding of commercially pure titanium was performed at 850°C, 910°C, and 1050°C for varied soaking periods (1, 3 and 5h) to enhance the surface properties desirable for bioimplant applications. The coating developed was characterized for the evolution of phases, microstructure and morphology, microhardness, and consequent corrosion behavior in the Ringer's solution. Formation of the TiB2 layer at the outermost surface followed by the TiB whiskers across the borided CpTi is unveiled. Total thickness of the composite layer on the substrates borided at 850, 910, and 1050°C for 5h was found to be 19.1, 26.4, and 18.2?m respectively which includes <3?m thick TiB2 layer. The presence of TiB2 phase was attributed to the high hardness ~2968Hv15gf of the composite coating. The anodic polarization studies in the simulated body fluid unveiled a reduction in the pitting corrosion resistance after boriding the CpTi specimens. However, this value is >0.55VSCE (electrochemical potential in in-vivo physiological environment) and hence remains within the safe region. Both the untreated and borided CpTi specimens show two passive zones associated with different passivation current densities. Among the CpTi borided at various times and temperatures, a 3h treated shows better corrosion resistance. The corrosion of borided CpTi occurred through the dissolution of TiB2. PMID:25579920

  8. Practical application of DNA markers for high-throughput authentication of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius from commercial ginseng products.

    PubMed

    Jung, Juyeon; Kim, Kyung Hee; Yang, Kiwoung; Bang, Kyong-Hwan; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2014-04-01

    Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) are widely used medicinal plants with similar morphology but different medicinal efficacy. Roots, flowers, and processed products of Korean and American ginseng can be difficult to differentiate from each other, leading to illegal trade in which one species is sold as the other. This study was carried out to develop convenient and reliable chloroplast genome-derived DNA markers for authentication of Korean and American ginseng in commercial processed products. One codominant marker could reproducibly identify both species and intentional mixtures of the two species. We further developed a set of species-unique dominant DNA markers. Each species-specific dominant marker could detect 1% cross contamination with other species by low resolution agarose gel electrophoresis or quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Both markers were successfully applied to evaluate the original species from various processed ginseng products purchased from markets in Korea and China. We believe that high-throughput application of this marker system will eradicate illegal trade and promote confident marketing for both species to increase the value of Korean as well as American ginseng in Korea and worldwide. PMID:24748836

  9. Ionic liquids as stationary phases in gas chromatography--an LSER investigation of six commercial phases and some applications.

    PubMed

    Weber, Waldemar; Andersson, Jan T

    2014-09-01

    The separation properties of six novel stationary phases for gas chromatography, commercially available from Sigma-Aldrich (Supelco) and based on ionic liquids (ILs), were investigated. The linear solvation energy relationship model (LSER) was used to describe the molecular interactions between these stationary phases and 30 solutes. The solutes belong to different groups of compounds, like haloalkanes, alcohols, ketones, aromatics, aliphatics, and others. A good description of different interactions, as described by the LSER model, could be achieved. The calculated values of system constants for the ionic liquid phases were compared with constants of commonly used standard phases like a 5 % phenyl/95 % dimethyl siloxane and a polyethylene glycol phase. The solute descriptors are in good agreement with those found by previous authors who have used the LSER model for 44 different ionic liquids as stationary phase. The experiments were carried out at two temperatures to evaluate the influence on the phase parameters and separation characteristics. The interactions of different functional groups with the IL phases are discussed. These novel IL phases are a promising replacement of or an addition to common polar phases. Based on the evaluated phase properties, several possibilities for applications of these novel phases are shown. PMID:24965162

  10. Practical application of DNA markers for high-throughput authentication of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius from commercial ginseng products

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Juyeon; Kim, Kyung Hee; Yang, Kiwoung; Bang, Kyong-Hwan; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) are widely used medicinal plants with similar morphology but different medicinal efficacy. Roots, flowers, and processed products of Korean and American ginseng can be difficult to differentiate from each other, leading to illegal trade in which one species is sold as the other. This study was carried out to develop convenient and reliable chloroplast genome-derived DNA markers for authentication of Korean and American ginseng in commercial processed products. One codominant marker could reproducibly identify both species and intentional mixtures of the two species. We further developed a set of species-unique dominant DNA markers. Each species-specific dominant marker could detect 1% cross contamination with other species by low resolution agarose gel electrophoresis or quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Both markers were successfully applied to evaluate the original species from various processed ginseng products purchased from markets in Korea and China. We believe that high-throughput application of this marker system will eradicate illegal trade and promote confident marketing for both species to increase the value of Korean as well as American ginseng in Korea and worldwide. PMID:24748836

  11. Field approach to mining-dump revegetation by application of sewage sludge co-compost and a commercial biofertilizer.

    PubMed

    Sevilla-Perea, A; Mingorance, M D

    2015-08-01

    An approach was devised for revegetation of a mining dump soil, sited in a semiarid region, with basic pH as well as Fe and Mn enrichment. A field experiment was conducted involving the use of co-compost (a mixture of urban sewage sludge and plant remains) along with a commercial biofertilizer (a gel suspension which contains arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus) to reinforce the benefits of the former. Four treatments were studied: unamended soil; application of conditioners separately and in combination. Pistachio, caper, rosemary, thyme and juniper were planted. We evaluated the effects of the treatments using soil quality (physicochemical properties, total content of hazardous elements, nutrient availability, microbial biomass and enzyme activities) and plant establishment indicators (survival, growth, vigor, nutrient content in leaves, nutrient balances and mycorrhizal root colonization). Thyme and juniper did not show a suitable survival rate (<50%) whereas 70-100% of the pistachio, rosemary and caper survived for at least 27 months. In unamended soil, plant growth was severely hampered by P, N, K and Zn deficiencies as well as Fe and Mn excess. Overall, the treatments affected the soil and plant indicators as follows: biofertilizer + co-compost > co-compost > biofertilizer > unamended. The application of co-compost was therefore essential with regard to improving soil fertility; furthermore, it increased leaf N and P content, whereas leaf Fe and Mn concentrations showed a decrease. The combined treatment, however, provided the best results. The positive interaction between the two soil conditioners might be related to the capacity of the biofertilizer to increase nutrient uptake from the composted residue, and to protect plants against Fe and Mn toxicity. PMID:25979296

  12. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

  13. Predictors of Speeding Behavior Among a Sample of Iranian Commercial Automobile Drivers: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sedigheh Sadat Tavafian; Teamur Aghamolaei; Abdoulhossain Madani

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Speeding has been reported as one of the most important public health issues worldwide. Using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the self-reported behavior of driving within posted speed limits for a sample of commercial automobile drivers. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all commercial automobile drivers who were literate and who transported people to and from

  14. Design and prototype of an automated system for commercially viable production using micro contact printing

    E-print Network

    Chauhan, Karan

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation is a documentation of the thought process, its justification and the implementation details that went into prototyping a fully automated system employing Micro Contact Printing, an emerging technique for ...

  15. Anti-cattle tick vaccines: Many candidate antigens, but will a commercially viable product emerge?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is an invited paper from the editor-in-chief of International Journal for Parasitology who requested a Current Opinion manuscript to discuss the status of anti-cattle tick vaccine research. Arguably the world's most significant arthropod pest of cattle, control of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus...

  16. technology can be considered commercially viable, such as the low operating temperature

    E-print Network

    Zettl, Alex

    . 7, 77 (1982). 6. X. A. Shen, E. Chiang, R. Kachru, ibid. 19, 1246 (1994). 7. T. Mossberg, R. Kachru, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 527 (1986)]. 9. R. Yano, M. Mitsunaga, N. Uesugi, Opt. Lett. 16, 1884 (1991

  17. Enhancement of viable Campylobacter detection by chemotactic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Wisessombat, Sueptrakool; Kittiniyom, Kanokwan; Srimanote, Potjanee; Wonglumsom, Wijit; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2010-08-01

    The effects of chemotactic stimuli on motility ability of viable Campylobacter to pass through a 0.45 microm pore size filter in viscous condition were investigated. Reference strains including C. jejuni ATCC 33291, C. coli MUMT 18407, C. lari ATCC 43675, and C. upsaliensis DMST 19055 were used. The initial numbers of artificially-inoculated viable cells per g of chicken meat were approximately 10 to 10(4). Constituents of mucin plus bile (1:1), varieties of amino acids, and sodium salts were added into a soft-agar-coated membrane filter and incubated at both 37 degrees C and 42 degrees C for 24h. The drop plate method was used to determine numbers of viable Campylobacter at 6, 12, 18, and 24h. After 6h, constituents of mucin plus bile at the concentrations of 1, 5, and 10% demonstrated significant increases in numbers of viable cells (p<0.05). The numbers of the organisms at 42 degrees C were higher than those at 37 degrees C. In contrast, no significant difference in cell numbers was observed by adding amino acids or sodium salts. In addition, the role of starvation on chemotactic responses was also studied. Starved cells showed lower chemotactic response than non-starved cells. This method permitted rapid detection of viable thermophilic Campylobacter. PMID:20561959

  18. Investigation of hermetically sealed commercial LiNbO3 optical modulator for use in laser\\/LIDAR space-flight applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Thomes; Frank V. LaRoccaa; Melanie N. Ottb

    This paper is the first in a series of publications to investigate the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components for space flight fiber laser transmitter systems and LIDAR (laser imaging detection and ranging) detection systems. In the current study, a hermetically sealed COTS LiNbO3 optical modulator is characterized for space flight applications. The modulator investigated was part of the family of

  19. Investigation of hermetically sealed commercial LiNbO3 optical modulator for use in laser\\/LIDAR space-flight applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J. Thomes Jr.; Frank V. LaRocca; Melanie N. Ott; Xiaodan Linda Jin; Richard F. Chuska; Shawn L. MacMurphy; Tracee L. Jamison

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series of publications to investigate the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components for space flight fiber laser transmitter systems and LIDAR (laser imaging detection and ranging) detection systems. In the current study, a hermetically sealed COTS LiNbO3 optical modulator is characterized for space flight applications. The modulator investigated was part of the family of

  20. Skin penetration of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs out of a lipophilic vehicle: influence of the viable epidermis.

    PubMed

    Wenkers, B P; Lippold, B C

    1999-12-01

    The skin penetration of 10 nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was investigated after application in the lipophilic vehicle light mineral oil. The skin permeabilities and maximum fluxes, which were calculated from the concentration decreases of the applied solutions in the steady state phases, were correlated with physicochemical parameters, mainly the vehicle solubilities and the partition coefficients of the model drugs according to the Fickian diffusion laws. The objective of the study was to characterize the barrier function of the stratum corneum and the viable epidermis and to predict their influences on the skin permeabilities and the maximum fluxes of the NSAIDs by model equations. The permeability of the human skin for NSAIDs applied in a lipophilic vehicle is a function of their hydrophilicity, while the maximum flux is primarily dependent on their vehicle solubilities. The viable epidermis was found to represent the decisive resistance to the drug transport. PMID:10585230

  1. Emerging commercial opportunities based on combined communication navigation services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Eberhard; Fox, Brian M.; Kreisel, Joerg

    2006-07-01

    Cost reduction pressure on companies and increasing regulatory and legislative demand together with rapid technological progress in space-based communication and navigation are opening up new and exciting commercial opportunities. In this framework, a novel service for maritime applications is presented using a two-way messaging system and the global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The system implements an end-to-end solution for asset tracking and fleet management, positioning and tracing, messaging and security for all types of sea-going vessels. The service applies a vessel-based terminal hosting a GNSS receiver which transmits the navigation status together with messages to a Service Center with a flexible return-link capability. A hybrid space segment is considered comprising the Inmarsat constellation of geostationary communications satellites augmented by two highly inclined low earth orbit satellites for truly global services. Services will be offered to commercial enterprises such as fishing companies as well as public entities such as National Coast Guards. A detailed market analysis has been performed to assess these markets and to determine their penetration. Commercial viability has been proven for business models purely based on Inmarsat and a hybrid space segment using Inmarsat and dedicated micro-satellites. Both cases represent viable businesses in the range of MEUR 100 p.a. Although tailored to a specific market, the approach can be extended to other commercial opportunities requiring space-based communication-navigation services.

  2. Hot Thermal Storage/Selective Energy System Reduces Electric Demand for Space Cooling As Well As Heating in Commercial Application 

    E-print Network

    Meckler, G.

    1985-01-01

    Based on an experimental residential retrofit incorporating thermal storage, and extensive subsequent modeling, a commercial design was developed and implemented to use hot thermal storage to significantly reduce electric demand and utility energy...

  3. Limitations of Commercializing Fuel Cell Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Normayati

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cell is the technology that, nowadays, is deemed having a great potential to be used in supplying energy. Basically, fuel cells can be categorized particularly by the kind of employed electrolyte. Several fuel cells types which are currently identified having huge potential to be utilized, namely, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC), Polymer Electron Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). In general, each of these fuel cells types has their own characteristics and specifications which assign the capability and suitability of them to be utilized for any particular applications. Stationary power generations and transport applications are the two most significant applications currently aimed for the fuel cell market. It is generally accepted that there are lots of advantages if fuel cells can be excessively commercialized primarily in context of environmental concerns and energy security. Nevertheless, this is a demanding task to be accomplished, as there is some gap in fuel cells technology itself which needs a major enhancement. It can be concluded, from the previous study, cost, durability and performance are identified as the main limitations to be firstly overcome in enabling fuel cells technology become viable for the market.

  4. A METHOD TO DETECT VIABLE HELICOBACTER PYLORI BACTERIA IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inability to detect the presence of viable Helicobacter pylori bacteria in environmental waters has hindered the public health community in assessing the role water may playin the transmission of this pathogen. This work describes a cultural enrichment method coupled with an...

  5. Substrata Mechanical Stiffness Can Regulate Adhesion of Viable Bacteria

    E-print Network

    Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    Substrata Mechanical Stiffness Can Regulate Adhesion of Viable Bacteria Jenny A. Lichter,, M. Todd, 2008 The competing mechanisms that regulate adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and subsequent biofilm and hospital-acquired infections due to bacteria, there is considerable interest in better understanding

  6. Fort Osage School District Works toward Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Administrators at Fort Osage School District in Independence, Missouri, feel it is their responsibility to provide students with a guaranteed and viable curriculum. Based on Dr. Robert Marzano's model, district leaders set out to alter their curriculum so that it could be taught adequately in the time allotted for instruction. They wanted to…

  7. Characteristics of Viable and Sustainable Workers for the Year 2015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Brenda Pennington; West, Russell

    A two-round Delphi study was conducted to identify the characteristics of viable and sustainable employees in northeastern Tennessee in 2015. The Delphi panel selected for the study consisted of 25 experts who represented a cross-section of the businesses and communities in the 10-county area of northeastern Tennessee served by Walters State…

  8. Original article The ability to enter into an avirulent viable

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is widespread among Listeria monocytogenes isolates from salmon, patients and environment Toril LINDBA¨ CK 1-culturable organisms and the risk of consuming viable but non-culturable (VBNC) Listeria monocytogenes is unknown. We, when the VBNC state is induced by starvation, is negligible. Listeria monocytogenes / VBNC / ATP / m

  9. The commercial conversion of wood to liquids via RTP{trademark} for fuel chemical and power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.G.; Freel, B.; Kravetz, D. [Ensyn Technologies Inc., Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Ensyn Technologies Inc. is a commercial company which derives its income solely from the conversion of wood residues into liquid biofuel, chemicals and power via Rapid Thermal Processing (RTP{trademark}). RTP{trademark} is a recirculating transported bed technology based on extremely fast cracking of biomass, and resulting in non-viscous liquid yields exceeding 70%, by mass, from wood. Whether producing chemicals or liquid biofuels, the RTP{trademark} plant is configured in the same mode. Chemicals production simply allows economical production to occur at a lower plant capacity, as low as 2 tonnes/day, than is feasible for a dedicated {open_quotes}stand-alone{close_quotes} fuel plant (typically greater than 100 tonnes/day). This paper characterizes the RTP{trademark} technology, and traces its development from bench-scale to demonstration and finally through to commercialization. The demonstration and commercial plants are described in terms of site, capacity and product end-use. Permitting and environmental issues with respect to both production of the fuel product and combustion are described. The liquid biofuel has been tested in at least 15 combustion systems/boilers throughout Canada, the U.S.A. and Europe. Three systems are presently using the biofuel on a routine commercial basis. Economic parameters required for a commercial RTP{trademark} project are identified.

  10. The use of flow cytometry to accurately ascertain total and viable counts of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in chocolate.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the precision and accuracy of flow cytometry (FC) methodologies in the evaluation of populations of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011) in two commercial dried forms, and ascertain the challenges in enumerating them in a chocolate matrix. FC analyses of total (FC(T)) and viable (FC(V)) counts in liquid or dried cultures were almost two times more precise (reproducible) than traditional direct microscopic counts (DCM) or colony forming units (CFU). With FC, it was possible to ascertain low levels of dead cells (FC(D)) in fresh cultures, which is not possible with traditional CFU and DMC methodologies. There was no interference of chocolate solids on FC counts of probiotics when inoculation was above 10(7) bacteria per g. Addition of probiotics in chocolate at 40 °C resulted in a 37% loss in viable cells. Blending of the probiotic powder into chocolate was not uniform which raised a concern that the precision of viable counts could suffer. FCT data can serve to identify the correct inoculation level of a sample, and viable counts (FCV or CFU) can subsequently be better interpreted. PMID:25475282

  11. Fluorescence particle detector for real-time quantification of viable organisms in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoma, Greg; Cherrier, Pierre P.; Piccioni, Marc; Tanton, Carol; Herz, Steve; DeFreez, Richard K.; Potter, Michael; Girvin, Kenneth L.; Whitney, Ronald

    2002-02-01

    The ability to detect viable organisms in air in real time is important in a number of applications. Detecting high levels of airborne organisms in hospitals can prevent post-operative infections and the spread of diseases. Monitoring levels of airborne viable organisms in pharmaceutical facilities can ensure safe production of drugs or vaccines. Monitoring airborne bacterial levels in meat processing plants can help to prevent contamination of food products. Monitoring the level of airborne organisms in bio-containment facilities can ensure that proper procedures are being followed. Finally, detecting viable organisms in real time is a key to defending against biological agent attacks. This presentation describes the development and performance of a detector, based on fluorescence particle counting technology, where an ultraviolet laser is used to count particles by light scattering and elicit fluorescence from specific biomolecules found only in living organisms. The resulting detector can specifically detect airborne particles containing living organisms from among the large majority of other particles normally present in air. Efforts to develop the core sensor technology, focusing on integrating an UV laser with a specially designed particle-counting cell will be highlighted. The hardware/software used to capture the information from the sensor, provide an alarm in the presence of an unusual biological aerosol content will also be described. Finally, results from experiments to test the performance of the detector will be presented.

  12. PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Since the Viking missions in the mid-1970s, traditional culture-based methods have been used for microbial enumeration by various NASA programs. Viable microbes are of particular concern for spacecraft cleanliness, for forward contamination of extraterrestrial bodies (proliferation of microbes), and for crew health/safety (viable pathogenic microbes). However, a "true" estimation of viable microbial population and differentiation from their dead cells using the most sensitive molecular methods is a challenge, because of the stability of DNA from dead cells. The goal of this research is to evaluate a rapid and sensitive microbial detection concept that will selectively estimate viable microbes. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have shown promise for reducing time to detection for a wide range of applications. The proposed method is based on the use of a fluorescent DNA intercalating agent, propidium monoazide (PMA), which can only penetrate the membrane of dead cells. The PMA-quenched reaction mixtures can be screened, where only the DNA from live cells will be available for subsequent PCR reaction and microarray detection, and be identified as part of the viable microbial community. An additional advantage of the proposed rapid method is that it will detect viable microbes and differentiate from dead cells in only a few hours, as opposed to less comprehensive culture-based assays, which take days to complete. This novel combination approach is called the PMA-Microarray method. DNA intercalating agents such as PMA have previously been used to selectively distinguish between viable and dead bacterial cells. Once in the cell, the dye intercalates with the DNA and, upon photolysis under visible light, produces stable DNA adducts. DNA cross-linked in this way is unavailable for PCR. Environmental samples suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead microbial cells/spores will be treated with PMA, and then incubated in the dark. Thereafter, the sample is exposed to visible light for five minutes, so that the DNA from dead cells will be cross-linked. Following this PMA treatment step, the sample is concentrated by centrifugation and washed (to remove excessive PMA) before DNA is extracted. The 16S rRNA gene fragments will be amplified by PCR to screen the total microbial community using PhyloChip DNA microarray analysis. This approach will detect only the viable microbial community since the PMA intercalated DNA from dead cells would be unavailable for PCR amplification. The total detection time including PCR reaction for low biomass samples will be a few hours. Numerous markets may use this technology. The food industry uses spore detection to validate new alternative food processing technologies, sterility, and quality. Pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies also detect spores as a marker for sterility. This system can be used for validating sterilization processes, water treatment systems, and in various public health and homeland security applications.

  13. In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activities of various commercial essential oils, oleoresin and pure compounds against food pathogens and application in ham.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Dominic; Vu, Khanh Dang; Lacroix, Monique

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the application of commercially available essential oils (EOs) and oleoresins to control bacterial pathogens for ready to eat food. In this study, sixty seven commercial EOs, oleoresins (ORs) and pure compounds were used to evaluate in vitro their antimicrobial activity against six food pathogens. These products were first screened for their antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion assay. Forty one products were then chosen for further analysis to determine their minimum inhibitory concentration against 6 different bacteria. There were 5 different products (allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamon Chinese cassia, cinnamon OR, oregano and red thyme) that showed high antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria. Further analysis examined the effect of four selected EOs on controlling the growth rate of mixed cultures of Listeria monocytogenes in ham. A reduction of the growth rate by 19 and 10% was observed when oregano and cinnamon cassia EOs were respectively added in ham at a concentration of 500 ppm. PMID:24012976

  14. Commercial free flyer satellites and orbital re-entry/recovery systems for low cost microgravity research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassanto, John M.; Hobbs, Robert B.; Bem, Michael B.

    2001-02-01

    Part of the next generation network of Space Transportation Systems will include unmanned, autonomous ``Free Flyer'' satellites with ground-controlled re-entry and recovery systems for low-cost biomedical and microgravity research. A commercial space requirement for the launch, LEO deployment and orbital recovery of low-cost research satellites will be an important function of spaceport operations and technology development in the next decade. Free flyer satellites will effectively complement the capabilities of intermittent manned Shuttle/SpaceHab missions and more sophisticated, long-duration, manned Mir and International Space Station missions. The USCORP initiative has been developed by ITA, Inc. to provide a commercially owned and operated orbital free flyer satellite and re-entry/recovery system to support microgravity, biomedical and life sciences research. The next generation low-cost, commercially viable orbital platform for microgravity research will depend on the application of existing technologies with flight-proven systems. This approach will ensure the operational reliability and low costs that will be required for commercial unmanned research missions. These commercial flight systems will be launched, remotely operated on orbit, and recovered from commercial spaceports utilizing next-generation advanced spaceport technologies and capabilities. .

  15. Institutional Issues Related to the Application of Intelligent Vehicle Highway Systems Technologies to Commercial Vehicle Operations in Indiana

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Kavalaris; Kumares C. Sinha

    1994-01-01

    The study focused on potential barriers and opportunities to implementing Intelligent Vehicle-Highway System (IVHS) technologies to Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO) in Indiana. Specific concepts included: (1) Automatic payment of tolls while driving at mainline speeds; (2) Pre-Clearance of vehicles and drivers past weigh stations; (3) \\

  16. Evaluation under commercial conditions of the application of continuous, low concentrations of ozone during the cold storage of table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis cinerea causes gray mold, a postharvest disease of table grapes. The ability of ozone (O3) in air to inhibit gray mold in stored grapes was reported in chamber studies, but O3 needed evaluation under commercial conditions. Ozone merits attention because it is pesticide-residue free and all...

  17. Application of microcomputer for assessing the probe lobing error and geometric errors of CMMs using commercial ring gauges

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heuijae Pahk; Jonghoo Kim

    1995-01-01

    Performance verification and frequent reverification of working accuracy of coordinate measuring machines are currently acknowledged as essential operational processes. In this paper, an efficient microcomputer based method has been proposed for the accuracy assessment of the CMMs of CNC type based on the probing of commercially available ring gauges.

  18. APPLICATION OF A FUNCTIONAL MATHEMATICAL QUALITY INDEX TO ASPARAGINE, FREE SUGAR AND PHENOLIC ACID CONTENT OF 20 COMMERCIAL POTATO VARIETIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this article, we apply a functional mathematical index (FMI), introduced in a previous publication, to 20 commercial potato varieties. The index allows evaluation of nutritional, safety and processing “quality parameters” of different potato cultivars. The main goal of the index is to link the q...

  19. Enumeration of Viable Bacteria in the Marine Pelagic Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ARMAND BIANCHI; ANDLAURA GIULIANO

    1996-01-01

    The low percentage of living bacteria commonly obtained when comparing viable counts with total direct counts in seawater could be due more to inappropriate techniques for appreciating the growth ability of living cellsthantounadaptedcultureconditions.Themost-probable-numbercountsinfilteredseawaterculturesand the microscopic counts of 4*,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained aggregate-forming units grown on black polycarbonatefilters appeared significantly correlated to the direct counts. Both these techniques show that in the superficial

  20. Survey of viable airborne fungal propagules in French wine cellars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joël Simeray; Danielle Mandin; Mariette Mercier; Jean-Pierre Chaumont

    2001-01-01

    A study was carried out of the viable airbornemycological flora of 12 wine cellars in the Arboisregion in France. Results show that there wereconsiderable variations in the quantities ofpropagules: from 57 to 2547 CFU m-3. There was arelatively large number of species (48), which aremore frequently recovered from certain cellar types.The most common were Cladosporium sphaerospermum,Aspergillus versicolor, A. restrictus, Penicilliumglabrum,

  1. A rapid biosensor for viable B. anthracis spores

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antje J. Baeumner; Barbara Leonard; John McElwee; Richard A. Montagna

    2004-01-01

    A simple membrane-strip-based biosensor assay has been combined with a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) reaction for rapid (4 h) detection of a small number (ten) of viable B. anthracis spores. The biosensor is based on identification of a unique mRNA sequence from one of the anthrax toxin genes, the protective antigen ( pag), encoded on the toxin plasmid, pXO1, and

  2. Development of isoindoline nitroxides for EPR oximetry in viable systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Shen; S. Bottle; N. Khan; O. Grinberg; D. Reid; A. Micallef; H. Swartz

    2002-01-01

    Nitroxides are widely used as biophysical probes to study molecular motion, intracellular oxygen, pH, transmembrane potential,\\u000a and cellular redox metabolism, etc. They may be rapidly metabolized to hydroxylamines by cells, which limits their use in\\u000a viable systems. In this study, we have characterized relevant properties in cells of several isoindoline nitroxides that have\\u000a been prepared to have different physicochemical properties:

  3. Gravitational waves in viable f(R) models

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Louis; Lee, Chung-Chi; Geng, Chao-Qiang, E-mail: louis.lineage@msa.hinet.net, E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: g9522545@oz.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-01

    We study gravitational waves in viable f(R) theories under a non-zero background curvature. In general, an f(R) theory contains an extra scalar degree of freedom corresponding to a massive scalar mode of gravitational wave. For viable f(R) models, since there always exits a de-Sitter point where the background curvature in vacuum is non-zero, the mass squared of the scalar mode of gravitational wave is about the de-Sitter point curvature R{sub d} ? 10{sup ?66}eV{sup 2}. We illustrate our results in two types of viable f(R) models: the exponential gravity and Starobinsky models. In both cases, the mass will be in the order of 10{sup ?33}eV when it propagates in vacuum. However, in the presence of matter density in galaxy, the scalar mode can be heavy. Explicitly, in the exponential gravity model, the mass becomes almost infinity, implying the disappearance of the scalar mode of gravitational wave, while the Starobinsky model gives the lowest mass around 10{sup ?24}eV, corresponding to the lowest frequency of 10{sup ?9} Hz, which may be detected by the current and future gravitational wave probes, such as LISA and ASTROD-GW.

  4. Soluble Factors Released by Endogenous Viable Cells Enhance the Antioxidant and Chemoattractive Activities of Cryopreserved Amniotic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Duan-Arnold, Yi; Gyurdieva, Alexandra; Johnson, Amy; Jacobstein, Douglas A.; Danilkovitch, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Regulation of oxidative stress and recruitment of key cell types are activities of human amniotic membrane (hAM) that contribute to its benefits for wound treatment. Progress in tissue preservation has led to commercialization of hAM. The majority of hAM products are devitalized with various degrees of matrix alteration. Data show the importance of hAM matrix preservation, but little is known about the advantages of retaining viable endogenous cells. In this study, we compared the antioxidant and chemoattractive properties of viable intact cryopreserved hAM (int-hAM) and devitalized cryopreserved hAM (dev-hAM) to determine the benefits of cell preservation. Approach: We evaluated the ability of int-hAM and dev-hAM to protect fibroblasts from oxidant-induced cell damage, to suppress oxidants, and to recruit fibroblasts and keratinocytes in vitro. Results: Both the int-hAM–derived conditioned medium (CM) and the int-hAM tissue rescued significantly more fibroblasts from oxidant-induced damage than dev-hAM (844% and 93% more, respectively). The int-hAM CM showed a 202% greater antioxidant capacity than dev-hAM. The int-hAM CM enhanced the recruitment of fibroblasts and normal and diseased keratinocytes to a greater extent than dev-hAM (1,555%, 315%, and 151% greater, respectively). Innovation and Conclusion: Int-hAM, in which all native components are preserved, including endogenous viable cells, demonstrated a significantly greater antioxidant and fibroblast and keratinocyte chemoattractive potential compared to dev-hAM, in which viable cells are destroyed. The release of soluble factors that protect fibroblasts from oxidative injury by hAM containing viable cells is a mechanism of hAM antioxidant activity, which is a novel finding of this study. PMID:26029483

  5. Upgrade of an existing earth station for commercial and military applications using a new Ka-band feed system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Parfitt; K. J. Greene; S. G. Lay; A. R. Forsyth; C. Granet; S. J. Barker

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a Ka-band feed system capable of covering the full commercial and military frequency allocations (19.2 to 21.2 GHz for downlink and 29.0 to 31.0 GHz for uplink). The feed offers both right-hand circular polarization (RHCP) and left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) in the transmit and receive frequency bands, making it suitable for installations accessing a number of Ka-band

  6. Market Research Survey of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Portable MS Systems for IAEA Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Garret L.; Hager, George J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes the results for the market research survey of mass spectrometers that are deemed pertinent to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) needs and strategic objectives. The focus of the report is on MS instruments that represent currently available (or soon to be) commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technology and weigh less than 400 pounds. A compilation of all available MS instruments (36 COTS and 2 R&D) is presented, along with pertinent information regarding each instrument.

  7. Technology data characterizing lighting in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with commend 4.0

    SciTech Connect

    Sezgen, A.O.; Huang, Y.J.; Atkinson, B.A.; Eto, J.H.; Koomey, J.G.

    1994-05-01

    End-use forecasting models typically utilize technology tradeoff curves to represent technology options available to consumers. A tradeoff curve, in general terms, is a functional form which relates efficiency to capital cost. Each end-use is modeled by a single tradeoff curve. This type of representation is satisfactory in the analysis of many policy options. On the other hand, for policies addressing individual technology options or groups of technology options, because individual technology options are accessible to the analyst, representation in such reduced form is not satisfactory. To address this and other analysis needs, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has enhanced its Commercial End-Use Planning System (COMMEND) to allow modeling of specific lighting and space conditioning (HVAC) technology options. This report characterizes the present commercial floorstock in terms of lighting technologies and develops cost-efficiency data for these lighting technologies. This report also characterizes the interactions between the lighting and space conditioning end uses in commercial buildings in the US In general, lighting energy reductions increase the heating and decrease the cooling requirements. The net change in a building`s energy requirements, however, depends on the building characteristics, operating conditions, and the climate. Lighting/HVAC interactions data were generated through computer simulations using the DOE-2 building energy analysis program.

  8. Genetic algorithms and the search for viable string vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Steven; Rizos, John

    2014-08-01

    Genetic Algorithms are introduced as a search method for finding string vacua with viable phenomenological properties. It is shown, by testing them against a class of Free Fermionic models, that they are orders of magnitude more efficient than a randomised search. As an example, three generation, exophobic, Pati-Salam models with a top Yukawa occur once in every 1010 models, and yet a Genetic Algorithm can find them after constructing only 105 examples. Such non-deterministic search methods may be the only means to search for Standard Model string vacua with detailed phenomenological requirements.

  9. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R.; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Persson Hovmalm, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals. PMID:25913379

  10. Identification of factors which affect competitive exclusion culture establishment and efficacy in commercial poultry 

    E-print Network

    McReynolds, Jackson Lee

    2000-01-01

    of antibiotics commonly used by the commercial poultry industry on Preempt[] establishment as measured by 48 h cecal propionic acid concentration. Additionally, since CE cultures and modified-live vaccines each represent viable means for controlling the food-borne...

  11. Viable but Nonculturable Bacteria: Food Safety and Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fakruddin, Md.; Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin; Andrews, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state is a unique survival strategy of many bacteria in the environment in response to adverse environmental conditions. VBNC bacteria cannot be cultured on routine microbiological media, but they remain viable and retain virulence. The VBNC bacteria can be resuscitated when provided with appropriate conditions. A good number of bacteria including many human pathogens have been reported to enter the VBNC state. Though there have been disputes on the existence of VBNC in the past, extensive molecular studies have resolved most of them, and VBNC has been accepted as a distinct survival state. VBNC pathogenic bacteria are considered a threat to public health and food safety due to their nondetectability through conventional food and water testing methods. A number of disease outbreaks have been reported where VBNC bacteria have been implicated as the causative agent. Further molecular and combinatorial research is needed to tackle the threat posed by VBNC bacteria with regard to public health and food safety. PMID:24191231

  12. Method to detect only viable cells in microbial ecology.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian-Fei; Lin, Wei-Tie; Guo, Yong

    2010-03-01

    Propidium monoazide can limit the analysis of microbial communities derived from genetic fingerprints to viable cells with intact cell membranes. However, PMA treatment cannot completely suppress polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification when the targeted gene is too short. PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR was designed to overcome this problem. Four experiments were performed to determine the limitation of PMA treatment and to evaluate the suitability of the method by applying the following samples: (1) pure cultures of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Alcaligenes faecalis; (2) pond water samples spiked with heat-killed E. coli O157:H7 and E. aerogenes; (3) anaerobic sludge samples exposed to increasing heat stress; and (4) selected natural samples of estuarine sediment and lake mud. Results from the first two experiments show that PMA treatment cannot efficiently suppress dead cells from PCR amplification when the targeted gene is as short as 190 bp, however, the two-step nested PCR can overcome this problem. The last two experiments indicate the method that PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR is useful for viable cells detection in microbial ecology. PMID:20024544

  13. Introduction to applications and industries for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS).

    SciTech Connect

    Walraven, Jeremy Allen

    2003-07-01

    Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) have gained acceptance as viable products for many commercial and government applications. MEMS are currently being used as displays for digital projection systems, sensors for airbag deployment systems, inkjet print head systems, and optical routers. This paper will discuss current and future MEMS applications. What are MEMS? MEMS are typically defined as microscopic devices designed, processed, and used to interact or produce changes within a local environment. A mechanical, electrical, or chemical stimulus can be used to create a mechanical, electrical, or chemical response in a local environment. These smaller, more sophisticated devices that think, act, sense, and communicate are replacing their bulk counterparts in many traditional applications.

  14. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

  15. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

  16. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

  17. 9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113...27 Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless...of Master Seed Virus and Master Seed Bacteria shall be tested for extraneous...

  18. Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

  19. Onshore ballast water treatment: a viable option for major ports.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Newton Narciso; Brinati, Hernani Luiz

    2012-11-01

    Ballast water treatment consists of the elimination of exotic species. Currently, the development of alternative methods for this process is directed toward treatment onboard ships. However, we present onshore treatment as a viable alternative for ballast water treatment. We investigated onshore treatment in two iron ore ports with movement capacities of 25 and 90 million tons annually (Mta) that receive 7.5 and 25 million cubic meters annually (Mm(3)) of ballast water, respectively. Discrete event simulation was used as the method of analysis, considering the processes of arrival, berthing, ship loading and capture and treatment of ballast water. We analyzed data from 71 ships operating in these ports to validate our simulation model. We were able to demonstrate that onshore treatment does not impact the cargo capacity, occupation rate or average queuing time of ships at these ports. We concluded that implementation of onshore ballast water treatment may be practicable in ports that receive high volumes of ballast water. PMID:22920715

  20. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

  1. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

  2. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

  3. 9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...Procedures § 113.26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. ...product are required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be...

  4. Commercial options for energy storage multiply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    Utilities have used pumped-storage hydroelectric plants for decades. Now, as described in this article independently developed pumped hydro and several advanced technologies are emerging to help respond to the long-term need for managing peak demand. Not long ago, large, utility-owned, pumped-storage hydroelectric plants were the only commercially viable means of storing electric energy during off-peak hours and boosting output during

  5. Viable spore counts in biological controls pre-sterilization.

    PubMed

    Brusca, María I; Bernat, María I; Turcot, Liliana; Nastri, Natalia; Nastri, Maria; Rosa, Alcira

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the total count of viable spores in standardized inoculated carriers pre-sterilization. Samples of "Bacterial Spore Sterilization Strip" (R Biological Laboratories) (well before their expiry date) were divided into Group A (B. subtilis) and Group B (B. stearothermophylus). Twenty-four strips were tested per group. The strips were minced in groups of three, placed in chilled sterile water and vortexed for 5 minutes to obtain a homogenous suspension. Ten ml of the homogenous suspension were transferred to two sterile jars, i.e. one jar per group. The samples were then heated in a water bath at 95 degrees C (Group A) or 80 degrees C (Group B) for 15 minutes and cooled rapidly in an ice bath at 0- 4 degrees C during 15 minutes. Successive dilutions were performed until a final aliquot of 30 to 300 colony-forming units (CFU) was obtained. The inoculums were placed in Petri dishes with culture medium (soy extract, casein agar adapted for spores, melted and cooled to 45-50 degrees C) and incubated at 55 degrees C or 37 degrees C. Statistical analysis of the data was performed. A larger number of spores were found at 48 hours than at 24 hours. However, this finding did not hold true for all the groups. The present results show that monitoring viable spores pre-sterilization would guarantee the accuracy of the data. Total spore counts must be within 50 and 300% of the number of spores indicated in the biological control. The procedure is essential to guarantee the efficacy of the biological control. PMID:16673791

  6. Independently tunable electronic and structural parameters in ternary Group IV semiconductors for optoelectronic applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Kouvetakis; V. R. D'Costa; Y.-Y. Fang; J. Tolle; A. V. G. Chizmeshya; J. Xie; J. Menéndez

    Si-Ge-Sn alloys represent an emerging class of IR semiconductors offering the potential for independent variation of band structure and lattice dimension, making them the first practical group-IV ternary system. Here we present the development and application of new and commercially viable protocols to fabricate Ge1-x-ySixSny semiconductors on Ge buffered Si (100) exhibiting tunable direct band gaps (Eo) ranging from 0.8-1.4

  7. Recent Experience of the Application of a Commercial Data Base Management System (ADABAS) to a Scientific Data Bank (ECDIN).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Town, William G.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the problems encountered and solutions adopted in application of the ADABAS database management system to the ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) data bank. SIMAS, the pilot system, and ADABAS are compared, and ECDIN ADABAS design features are described. Appendices provide additional facts about ADABAS and SIMAS.…

  8. Commercial buildings solar market assessment report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rashkin; M. De Angelis; E. Quiroz; D. Ware

    1983-01-01

    The commercial sector provides an opportunity for substantial energy savings through programs designed to accelerate solar applications. This paper summarizes an extensive market report for developing a California government solar program in the commercial sector. The analysis includes an evaluation of the magnitude of end use energy consumption in commercial buildings, the potential of a variety of solar technologies to

  9. Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Viable Giardia Cysts and Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Large-Volume Water Samples with Wound Fiberglass Cartridge Filters and Reverse Transcription-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Kaucner, Christine; Stinear, Timothy

    1998-01-01

    We recently described a reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for detecting low numbers of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts spiked into clarified environmental water concentrates. We have now modified the assay for direct analysis of primary sample concentrates with simultaneous detection of viable C. parvum oocysts, Giardia cysts, and a novel type of internal positive control (IPC). The IPC was designed to assess both efficiency of mRNA isolation and potential RT-PCR inhibition. Sensitivity testing showed that low numbers of organisms, in the range of a single viable cyst and oocyst, could be detected when spiked into 100-?l packed pellet volumes of concentrates from creek and river water samples. The RT-PCR was compared with an immunofluorescence (IF) assay by analyzing 29 nonspiked environmental water samples. Sample volumes of 20 to 1,500 liters were concentrated with a wound fiberglass cartridge filter. Frequency of detection for viable Giardia cysts increased from 24% by IF microscopy to 69% by RT-PCR. Viable C. parvum oocysts were detected only once by RT-PCR (3%) in contrast to detection of viable Cryptosporidium spp. in four samples by IF microscopy (14%), suggesting that Cryptosporidium species other than C. parvum were present in the water. This combination of the large-volume sampling method with RT-PCR represents a significant advance in terms of protozoan pathogen monitoring and in the wider application of PCR technology to this field of microbiology. PMID:9572946

  10. Designing viable business models for context-aware mobile services

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark De Reuver; Timber Haaker

    2009-01-01

    Technologies of 3G and beyond open up new opportunities to develop and commercialize context-aware services that utilize information like user location and social context. Although initial expectations were high, the adoption and diffusion of context-aware services have thus far been limited. Existing literature points to failing business models to explain part of the disappointing uptake. However, most authors focus on

  11. Scribable multi-walled carbon nanotube-silicon nanocomposites: a viable lithium-ion battery system.

    PubMed

    Epur, Rigved; Ramanathan, Madhumati; Datta, Moni K; Hong, Dae Ho; Jampani, Prashanth H; Gattu, Bharat; Kumta, Prashant N

    2015-02-28

    A novel electrode fabrication technique involving a manual scribing action of vertically aligned silicon coated multiwall carbon nanotubes (VASCNTs) on a copper foil have been developed as a viable approach to Li-ion battery electrodes. The scribed electrodes were prepared without the use of any conductive additives and binders, and they were directly assembled in a coin cell. These 'binder-less' scribed Si-CNT electrodes exhibited a very high discharge capacity in excess of 3000 mA h g(-1) and a low first cycle irreversible loss (FIR) (19%). In addition, the electrodes also showed good cyclability with capacity retention of 76% at the end of 50 cycles corresponding to a fade rate of 0.48% loss per cycle rendering the technique attractive for suitable Li-ion applications. PMID:25628146

  12. Towards Viable Cosmological Models of Disformal Theories of Gravity

    E-print Network

    Jeremy Sakstein

    2014-12-17

    The late-time cosmological dynamics of disformal gravity are investigated using dynamical systems methods. It is shown that in the general case there are no stable attractors that screen fifth-forces locally and simultaneously describe a dark energy dominated universe. Viable scenarios have late-time properties that are independent of the disformal parameters and are identical to the equivalent conformal quintessence model. Our analysis reveals that configurations where the Jordan frame metric becomes singular are only reached in the infinite future, thus explaining the natural pathology resistance observed numerically by several previous works. The viability of models where this can happen is discussed in terms of both the cosmological dynamics and local phenomena. We identify a special parameter tuning such that there is a new fixed point that can match the presently observed dark energy density and equation of state. This model is unviable when the scalar couples to the visible sector but may provide a good candidate model for theories where only dark matter is disformally coupled.

  13. The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon

    SciTech Connect

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

    2010-01-01

    Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

  14. Stepwise changes in viable but nonculturable Vibrio cholerae cells.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Daisuke; Mizuno, Tamaki; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi; Shinoda, Sumio

    2015-05-01

    Many bacterial species are known to become viable but nonculturable (VBNC) under conditions that are unsuitable for growth. In this study, the requirements for resuscitation of VBNC-state Vibrio cholerae cells were found to change over time. Although VBNC cells could initially be converted to culturable by treatment with catalase or HT-29 cell extract, they subsequently entered a state that was not convertible to culturable by these factors. However, fluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of live cells in this state, from which VBNC cells were resuscitated by co-cultivation with HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Ultimately, all cells entered a state from which they could not be resuscitated, even by co-cultivation with HT-29. These characteristic changes in VBNC-state cells were a common feature of strains in both V. cholerae O1 and O139 serogroups. Thus, the VBNC state of V. cholerae is not a single property but continues to change over time. PMID:25664673

  15. Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.

    PubMed

    Crigger, Nancy J

    2008-01-01

    Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good. PMID:18096578

  16. Triclocarban, triclosan and its transformation product methyl triclosan in native earthworm species four years after a commercial-scale biosolids application.

    PubMed

    Macherius, André; Lapen, David R; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Römbke, Jörg; Topp, Edward; Coors, Anja

    2014-02-15

    Triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS) and methyl triclosan (Me-TCS) were detected in soil and the native population of earthworms of an agricultural field in Ottawa, Canada, about four years after a commercial-scale application of biosolids. In soil that received biosolids, TCC and TCS were detected at median concentrations of 13.0 and 1.5 ng/g soil (d.w.), respectively, while Me-TCS, the transformation product of triclosan, was detected at a six-fold higher median concentration than its precursor. In earthworms collected at the biosolids-amended field-plot about four years post application, Me-TCS was also detected at higher concentrations (26 to 114 ng/g tissue d.w.) than TCS (16-51 ng/g) and TCC (4-53 ng/g). These data provide evidence that not only parent compounds but also their transformation products need to be considered in faunal bioaccumulation studies. Moreover, the preliminary results for pooled earthworm samples from different ecological groups suggest that the degree of bioaccumulation of biosolids-associated contaminants may depend on the habitat and feeding behavior of the organisms. PMID:24291564

  17. Toward An Affordable Commercial Fuel Cell (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Visco, Steve

    2014-05-06

    Steve Visco, a materials scientist, has come up with a solid oxide fuel cell that promises to generate electricity as cheaply as the most efficient gas turbine engine. But there's a lot more work to do before commercially viable fuel cells and pollution-free power generators become reality.

  18. Challenges in Running a Commercial Web Search Engine

    E-print Network

    Tomkins, Andrew

    traffic from SEs to a Viagra seller ­ Make $6 per sale · Siphon traffic from SEs to a porn site ­ Make $20% commercially viable · Much more if you include porn queries ­ Assume $0.50 made per click (from 5c to $40

  19. With recent developments in the wireless networks field, new and innovative medical applications based on this technology are being developed in the research as well as commercial sectors. This trend has just started

    E-print Network

    Jain, Raj

    in the medical field. Then we will talk about some of the wireless technologies currently in use. Afterwards, weWith recent developments in the wireless networks field, new and innovative medical applications based on this technology are being developed in the research as well as commercial sectors. This trend

  20. COMMERCIAL-OFF-THE-SHELF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeshuni Ramesham; Reza Ghaffarian

    Research and development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has shown a significant promise for a variety of commercial applications. For example, accelerometers are widely used for air bag in automobile, MEMS inkjet print heads are used for printers, gyroscopes for guidance and navigation and pressure sensors for various industrial applications. Some of the MEMS devices have potential to become the commercial-off-the-shelf

  1. Phage amplification and immunomagnetic separation combined with targeted mass spectrometry for sensitive detection of viable bacteria in complex food matrices.

    PubMed

    Martelet, Armelle; L'Hostis, Guillaume; Nevers, Marie-Claire; Volland, Hervé; Junot, Christophe; Becher, François; Muller, Bruno H

    2015-06-01

    We have developed and describe here for the first time a highly sensitive method for the fast and unambiguous detection of viable Escherichia coli in food matrices. The new approach is based on using label-free phages (T4), obligate parasites of bacteria, which are attractive for pathogen detection because of their inherent natural specificity and ease of use. A specific immunomagnetic separation was used to capture the progeny phages produced. Subsequently, T4 phage markers were detected by liquid chromatography coupled to targeted mass spectrometry. Combining the specificity of these three methodologies is of great interest in developing an alternative to conventional time-consuming culture-based technologies for the detection of viable bacteria for industrial applications. First, optimization experiments with phage T4 spiked in complex matrices (without a phage amplification event) were performed and demonstrated specific, sensitive, and reproducible phage capture and detection in complex matrices including Luria-Bertani broth, orange juice, and skimmed milk. The method developed was then applied to the detection of E. coli spiked in foodstuffs (with a phage amplification event). After having evaluated the impact of infection duration on assay sensitivity, we showed that our assay specifically detects viable E. coli in milk at an initial count of ?1 colony-forming unit (cfu)/mL after an 8-h infection. This excellent detection limit makes our new approach an alternative to PCR-based assays for rapid bacterial detection. PMID:25932746

  2. Kaluza-Klein models: Can we construct a viable example?

    SciTech Connect

    Eingorn, Maxim [Astronomical Observatory and Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa National University, Street Dvoryanskaya 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine); Zhuk, Alexander [Astronomical Observatory and Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa National University, Street Dvoryanskaya 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine); Faculdade de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-110, Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    In Kaluza-Klein models with toroidal compactification of the extra dimensions, we investigate soliton solutions of Einstein equation. The nonrelativistic gravitational potential of these solitons exactly coincides with the Newtonian one. We obtain the formulas for perihelion shift, deflection of light, time delay of radar echoes and post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters. Using the constraint on PPN parameter {gamma}, we find that the solitonic parameter k should be very big: |k|{>=}2.3x10{sup 4}. We define a soliton solution which corresponds to a pointlike mass source. In this case the soliton parameter k=2, which is clearly contrary to this restriction. A similar problem with the observations takes place for static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with the dustlike equation of state in all dimensions. The common for both of these models is the same (dustlike) equations of state in our three dimensions and in the extra dimensions. All dimensions are treated at equal footing. This is the crucial point. To be in agreement with observations, it is necessary to break the symmetry (in terms of equations of state) between the external/our and internal spaces. It takes place for black strings which are particular examples of solitons with k{yields}{infinity}. For such k, black strings are in concordance with the observations. Moreover, we show that they are the only solitons which are at the same level of agreement with the observations as in general relativity. Black strings can be treated as perfect fluid with dustlike equation of state p{sub 0}=0 in the external/our space and very specific equation of state p{sub 1}=-(1/2){epsilon} in the internal space. The latter equation is due to negative tension in the extra dimension. We also demonstrate that dimension 3 for the external space is a special one. Only in this case we get the latter equation of state. We show that the black string equations of state satisfy the necessary condition of the internal space stabilization. Therefore, black strings are good candidates for a viable model of astrophysical objects (e.g., Sun) if we can provide a satisfactory explanation of negative tension for particles constituting these objects.

  3. A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hester, Jesse Stuart

    A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing so, a justifiable course of action (COA) can be determined based on a variety of quantitative and qualitative information available. This thesis describes and applies the ATLAS method to a notional military scenario that involves the Navy concept of Seabasing and the Marine Corps concept of Distributed Operations applied to a platoon sized element. The small force is tasked to conduct deterrence and combat operations over a seven day period. This work uses modeling and simulation to incorporate expert opinion and knowledge of military operations, dynamic reasoning methods, and certainty analysis to create a decisions support system (DSS) that can be used to provide the DM an enhanced view of the logistics environment and uses variables that impact specific measures of effectiveness. The results from applying the ATLAS method provide a better understanding and ability for the DM to conduct the logistics planning/execution more efficiently and quickly. This is accomplished by providing relevant data that can be applied to perform dynamic forecasting activities for the platoon and aids in determining the necessary support architecture to fulfill the forecasted need.

  4. The effect of different characteristics of the diluent on the viable count of certain psychrophilic bacteria 

    E-print Network

    Patel, Sudhir Desaibhai

    1965-01-01

    . 2bs offset ef tbs three diluents oa tho viable count of cultures p 10 ~ y-ll, snd y&1 Sawn in ?utrient broth at 25 end lcC is ahoun in pharos 4, 5, snd d. with culture p 10 decreases in viable population vere obsor vod iu Standard Hotbeds bufder...

  5. Sage: Creating a Viable Free Open Source Alternative to Magma, Maple, Mathematica,

    E-print Network

    Stein, William

    1 Sage: Creating a Viable Free Open Source Alternative to Magma, Maple, Mathematica, and MATLAB 1.1 Introduction The goal of the Sage project (http://www.sagemath.org) is to create a viable free open source explain some of the motivation for starting the Sage project, in Section 1.3 we describe the basic

  6. Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

  7. Commercial Application of Freeze Crystallization

    E-print Network

    Gorgol, R. G.

    begun to realize water is a very valuable resource. Even municipalities must husband thcir water. The day is coming very soon when all industrywill produce clean water as a cash product and water use will be carefully managed. Everywhere you look... becn since the world bcgan. The most noticeable frozen substance is, of course, water. Snow, ice cubcs, frozen lakes and streams, even iccbcrgs are all evidences of the freezing process at work. This process is also used to form crystalline...

  8. Mycorrhizae Application of commercial arbuscular

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to the establishment of micropropagated grapevine rootstock and pineapple plants P Lovato JP Guillemin, S Gianinazzi; 30%. The same inoculants were compared to efficient fungal isolates in micropropagated pineapple efficient in acid soil. The implications of the use of these products are discussed. grapevine / pineapple

  9. Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan Enslin; Ronald Hamaoui; Sigifredo Gonzalez; Ghaith Haddad; Khalid Rustom; Rick Stuby; Mohammad Kuran; Evlyn Mark; Ruba Amarin; Hussam Alatrash; Ward Isaac Bower; Scott S. Kuszmaul; Lisa Sena-Henderson; Carolyn David; Abbas Ali Akhil

    2012-01-01

    Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the

  10. Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in commercial yoghurt during refrigerated storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nagendra P. Shah; Warnakulasuriya E. V. Lankaputhra; Margaret L. Britz; William S. A. Kyle

    1995-01-01

    Samples of five brands of commercial yoghurt were obtained directly from the processors and enumeration of viable Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum and determination of pH was carried out at three-day intervals over a five-week period. Three of the five products contained 107–108 g?1 viable cells of L. acidophilus, whereas the other two products contained ? 105 of this organism

  11. Economic benefits of commercial space activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Barbara A.

    Space is not only an endless frontier for exploration, but also a potentially rich arena for profitable commerce to benefit all mankind. Access to the unique environment of space provides opportunities for unprecedented kinds of research to develop new products and services. This research can lead to commercially viable enterprises, which will become permanent businesses, which will provide good jobs for workers, pay taxes to their governments, and return dividends to their investors. Seeking superior products and processes is vital if the economy is to grow and prosper. This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the economy of selected private sector space activities.

  12. Legionella pneumophila in commercial bottled mineral water.

    PubMed

    Klont, Rocus R; Rijs, Antonius J M; Warris, Adilia; Sturm, Patrick D J; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E

    2006-06-01

    Sixty-eight commercial bottled mineral waters (64 brands, 68 different 'best-before dates') were tested for the presence of bacteria and fungi. Six samples were Legionella antigen positive and six were Legionella pneumophila PCR positive. Two samples were both Legionella antigen and L. pneumophila PCR positive. Legionella cultures were negative. Although the PCR might have detected only dead Legionella cells, the PCR has been described to detect specifically viable but not culturable (VBNC) L. pneumophila cells as well. Whether VBNC bacteria may be present in bottled mineral waters and the risk for infection this may pose for severely immunocompromised patients should be investigated. PMID:16706786

  13. Selective Quantification of Viable Escherichia coli Bacteria in Biosolids by Quantitative PCR with Propidium Monoazide Modification ?

    PubMed Central

    Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Duran, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative differentiation of live cells in biosolids samples, without the use of culturing-based approaches, is highly critical from a public health risk perspective, as recent studies have shown significant regrowth and reactivation of indicator organisms. Persistence of DNA in the environment after cell death in the range of days to weeks limits the application of DNA-based approaches as a measure of live cell density. Using selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) is one of the alternative approaches to detecting and quantifying viable cells by quantitative PCR. These compounds have the ability to penetrate only into dead cells with compromised membrane integrity and intercalate with DNA via their photoinducible azide groups and in turn inhibit DNA amplification during PCRs. PMA has been successfully used in different studies and microorganisms, but it has not been evaluated sufficiently for complex environmental samples such as biosolids. In this study, experiments were performed with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the model organism and the uidA gene as the target sequence using real-time PCR via the absolute quantification method. Experiments with the known quantities of live and dead cell mixtures showed that PMA treatment inhibits PCR amplification from dead cells with over 99% efficiency. The results also indicated that PMA-modified quantitative PCR could be successfully applied to biosolids when the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration is at or below 2,000 mg·liter?1. PMID:21602375

  14. Going Commercial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Charles

    2005-01-01

    while the conditions are more rigorous today for the ISS than they were in the very early days of space travel, opportunities still abound, and we just need to overcome the hurdles. As Pogo put it, "By gosh, we seem to be surrounded by an insurmountable opportunity here." This really is a great time in human spaceflight. We re doing marvelous things up there from an engineering standpoint. We now have to put them to good use. We need to optimize the 30 percent of the ISS that our federal government and the international partners have available in terms of the Station s power, volume, and crew time. Despite the recent issues with cost and schedule, as Mr. Goldin has said, this Agency will find a way. This country and the partners will find a way to restore the ISS s capability. We need help from this government, from our Congress, from our partners to do that, but it will be done, and then this facility is going to be world class--nah, it will out-of-this- world class. I m pleased to be a part of not only the history of spaceflight and the history of industry s participation in spaceflight, but I m also pleased to be a part of the future, the future applications, the future benefits that our spaceflight program is going to bring to our economy, to our careers, and to those of us that are both taxpayers and participants as well, to the great joy of seeing success as part of this country, as a part of our intellect, applied to the great beyond.

  15. Telestroke a viable option to improve stroke care in India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Padma V; Sudhan, Paulin; Khurana, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Rohit; Kaul, Subash; Sylaja, P N; Moonis, Majaz; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai

    2014-10-01

    In India, stroke care services are not well developed. There is a need to explore alternative options to tackle the rising burden of stroke. Telemedicine has been used by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to meet the needs of remote hospitals in India. The telemedicine network implemented by ISRO in 2001 presently stretches to around 100 hospitals all over the country, with 78 remote/rural/district health centers connected to 22 specialty hospitals in major cities, thus providing treatment to more than 25?000 patients, which includes stroke patients. Telemedicine is currently used in India for diagnosing stroke patients, subtyping stroke as ischemic or hemorrhagic, and treating accordingly. However, a dedicated telestroke system for providing acute stroke care is needed. Keeping in mind India's flourishing technology sector and leading communication networks, the hub-and-spoke model could work out really well in the upcoming years. Until then, simpler alternatives like smartphones, online data transfer, and new mobile applications like WhatsApp could be used. Telestroke facilities could increase the pool of patients eligible for thrombolysis. But this primary aim of telestroke can be achieved in India only if thrombolysis and imaging techniques are made available at all levels of health care. PMID:25042038

  16. Improved Direct Viable Count Procedure for Quantitative Estimation of Bacterial Viability in Freshwater Environments

    PubMed Central

    Yokomaku, Daisaku; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu; Nasu, Masao

    2000-01-01

    A direct viable count (DVC) procedure was developed which clearly and easily discriminates the viability of bacterial cells. In this quantitative DVC (qDVC) procedure, viable cells are selectively lysed by spheroplast formation caused by incubation with antibiotics and glycine. This glycine effect leads to swollen cells with a very loose cell wall. The viable cells then are lysed easily by a single freeze-thaw treatment. The number of viable cells was obtained by subtracting the number of remaining cells after the qDVC procedure from the total cell number before the qDVC incubation. This improved procedure should provide useful information about the metabolic potential of natural bacterial communities. PMID:11097948

  17. Near Real-Time Quantitation of Viable Microorganisms for Planetary Protection and Crew Health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, N. R.

    2015-03-01

    For planetary protection and crew health, the knowledge of when minimal acceptable levels of microbial contamination are exceeded is critical. We have developed an instrument and procedures to detect as few as one viable organism under 1 hour.

  18. Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini and Miklos Porkolab

    E-print Network

    , dc and/or pulsed magnetic fields are required for plasma initiation, ohmicSuperconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini and Miklos Porkolab Executive Summary Magnet systems are the ultimate

  19. Establishment of a Viable Population of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, P.A.

    2002-01-14

    Report on program's objective to restore viable population of Red-cockaded woodpecker at SRS. Several management strategies were used to promote population expansion of Red-cockaded woodpecker and reduction of interspecific competition with Red-Cockaded woodpecker.

  20. Solar System Constraints on a Cosmologically Viable $f(R)$ Theory

    E-print Network

    Yousef Bisabr

    2009-12-02

    Recently, a model $f(R)$ theory is proposed \\cite{recent} which is cosmologically viable and distinguishable from $\\Lambda$CDM. We use chameleon mechanism to investigate viability of the model in terms of Solar System experiments.

  1. Laboratory 1: Bacterial Abundance Method 1: SERIAL DILUTION-AGAR PLATING TO QUANTITATE VIABLE CELLS

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Laboratory 1: Bacterial Abundance Method 1: SERIAL DILUTION- AGAR PLATING TO QUANTITATE VIABLE) and spread with an ethanol-flamed glass rod. Cool glass rod on agar plat before spreading. Incubate the five

  2. Harvesting strategies for conserving minimum viable populations based on World Conservation

    E-print Network

    Tufto, Jarle

    that is too high. Keywords: threshold harvesting; minimum viable population size; stochasticity; Ursus arctos is the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos) population, which was persecuted for several centuries mainly due to its

  3. Commercially Hosted Resilient Communications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Don Brown; Doug Schroeder

    2011-01-01

    Intelsat General Corporation (IGC) presents a paper for the (AT&L)\\/SIO sponsored session on “Protected Communications Over Commercial Satellites” at MILCOM 2011 entitled “Commercially Hosted Resilient Communications” to describe the evolution of commercially provided satellite communications serving challenged and contested environments. This paper explores avenues for “Resilient SATCOM” technologies to be included aboard commercial missions as readily as Unprotected and Wideband

  4. ATP as a biomarker of viable microorganisms in clean-room facilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kasthuri Venkateswaran; Noriaki Hattori; Myron T. La Duc; Roger Kern

    2003-01-01

    A new firefly luciferase bioluminescence assay method that differentiates free extracellular ATP (dead cells, etc.) from intracellular ATP (viable microbes) was used to determine the viable microbial cleanliness of various clean-room facilities. For comparison, samples were taken from both clean-rooms, where the air was filtered to remove particles >0.5 ?m, and ordinary rooms with unfiltered air. The intracellular ATP was

  5. Biosensor for the specific detection of a single viable B. anthracis spore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harriet A. Hartley; Antje J. Baeumner

    2003-01-01

    A simple membrane strip-based biosensor for the detection of viable B. anthracis spores was developed and combined with a spore germination procedure as well as a nucleic acid amplification reaction to identify as little as one viable B. anthracis spore in less than 12 h. The biosensor is based on identification of a unique mRNA sequence from the anthrax toxin activator (atxA) gene

  6. Recovery of Viable Bacteria from Probiotic Products that Target Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Banas, Jeffrey A.; Popp, Eric T.

    2013-01-01

    Probiotic therapy has predominantly been directed toward promoting and maintaining intestinal health. In recent years, however, probiotic regimens that target oral health have appeared on the market. These regimens are often delivered in the form of lozenges. Despite the oral health claims made by the manufacturers of these products, there is little independent evidence in the literature to support such claims. In theory, probiotic organisms can be beneficial by several different means including direct inhibition of pathogens and boosting of the host immune response, with the underlying assumption that these mechanisms require a critical number of viable organisms. In this study, five brands of probiotics marketed for oral health were tested for the recovery of viable bacteria. For only one brand could viable bacteria be recovered within one log of the manufacturer’s stated starting amount of bacteria. Nearly a billion viable bacteria could be recovered from a lozenge of this brand. The other brands claimed similar starting amounts of bacteria at the time of manufacture but at least a three-log drop off was observed in the amount of viable bacteria recovered from those products. Refrigeration of the probiotics significantly improved the recovery for one brand, but recoveries for all but one brand remained below the recommended daily dosage for probiotic regimens. It is concluded that probiotic brands differ significantly in the quantities of bacteria that remain viable with most failing to meet recommended dosage targets. PMID:24015157

  7. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. 105.05-1 Section 105...COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The...

  8. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. 105.05-1 Section 105...COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The...

  9. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. 105.05-1 Section 105...COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The...

  10. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. 105.05-1 Section 105...COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The...

  11. 50 CFR 622.371 - Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. 622.371 Section 622.371...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. (a) No applications for additional...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel will be accepted....

  12. 50 CFR 622.371 - Limited access system for commercial vessel permits for king mackerel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. 622.371 Section 622.371...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel. (a) No applications for additional...commercial vessel permits for king mackerel will be accepted....

  13. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  14. Assessment of commercial probiotic bacterial contents and label accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Weese, J. Scott; Martin, Hayley

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics are widely available for use in animals but quality control of veterinary probiotics has been shown to be poor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the labels and bacterial contents of commercial probiotics marketed for use in animals. Twenty-five probiotics were purchased, labels were scrutinized, and bacterial contents were enumerated. Twenty-one (84%) products listed specific microorganisms. Expected bacterial numbers were listed for 15 (60%) products. One or more organisms were misspelled on the labels of 7/22 (32%) of products that listed specific organisms. Viable growth ranged from 0 to 2 × 109 colony forming units (CFU)/g. Only 4/15 (27%) products that had specific claims of viable organisms met or exceeded their label claim. Only 2 of these also had an acceptable label, which properly described the contents. Deficiencies in veterinary probiotic quality remain. Veterinarians and owners should scrutinize commercial probiotics and demand evidence of quality control and efficacy. PMID:21461205

  15. THE IDEA IS TO USEMODIS IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE CURRENT LIMITED LANDSAT CAPABILITY, COMMERCIAL SATELLITES, ANDUNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV), IN A MULTI-STAGE APPROACH TO MEET EPA INFORMATION NEEDS.REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW: EPA CAPABILITIES, PRIORITY AGENCY APPLICATIONS, SENSOR/AIRCRAFT CAPABILITIES, COST CONSIDERATIONS, SPECTRAL AND SPATIAL RESOLUTIONS, AND TEMPORAL CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA remote sensing capabilities include applied research for priority applications and technology support for operational assistance to clients across the Agency. The idea is to use MODIS in conjunction with the current limited Landsat capability, commercial satellites, and Unma...

  16. Far UV responsivity of commercial silicon photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caria, M.; Barberini, L.; Cadeddu, S.; Giannattasio, A.; Lai, A.; Rusani, A.; Sesselego, A.

    2001-06-01

    Responsivity measurements have been performed on commercial silicon photodetectors in the UV range 200-400 nm. The microstrip and pixel detectors have been reverse biased in fully depleted condition (more than 25 V reverse bias) and in partially depleted condition (5 V reverse bias). We have also performed measurements in back illumination geometry, of particular interest in most industrial applications. Promising results obtained with commercial photodetectors in the UV range in terms of photocurrent stability and sensitivity open a variety of applications.

  17. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  18. Evaluation of propidium monoazide-quantitative PCR to detect viable Mycobacterium fortuitum after chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet disinfection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Sook; Lee, Man-Ho; Kim, Bog-Soon

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated whether propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is suitable for detecting viable Mycobacterium fortuitum after chlorine, ozone, and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection. PMA-qPCR was effective in determining the viability of M. fortuitum compared with qPCR based on the membrane integrity. However, with a mild chlorine concentration, PMA-qPCR as an alternative method was not applicable due to a large gap between loss of culturability and membrane integrity damage. In ozonation, PMA-qPCR was able to differentiate between viable and injured mycobacteria, and the results were similar to those obtained by the culture method. Interestingly, PMA-qPCR was successful in monitoring the viability after UV disinfection due to the long UV exposure needed to effectively inactivate M. fortuitum. The findings of the present study suggested that the characteristics of disinfectants and the M. fortuitum resistance to disinfectants play critical roles in determining the suitability of PMA-qPCR for evaluating the efficacy of disinfection methods. PMID:26143168

  19. Cosmic history of viable exponential gravity: Equation of state oscillations and growth index from inflation to dark energy era

    E-print Network

    Kazuharu Bamba; Antonio Lopez-Revelles; R. Myrzakulov; S. D. Odintsov; L. Sebastiani

    2012-11-13

    A generic feature of viable $F(R)$ gravity is investigated: It is demonstrated that during the matter dominated era the large frequency oscillations of the effective dark energy may influence the behavior of higher derivatives of the Hubble parameter with the risk to produce some singular unphysical solutions at high redshift. This behavior is explicitly analyzed for realistic $F(R)$ models, in particular, exponential gravity and a power form model. To stabilize such oscillations, we consider the additional modification of the models via a correction term which does not destroy the viability properties. A detailed analysis on the future evolution of the universe and the evolution history of the growth index of the matter density perturbations are performed. Furthermore, we explore two applications of exponential gravity to the inflationary scenario. We show how it is possible to obtain different numbers of $e$-folds during the early-time acceleration by making different choices of the model parameters in the presence of ultrarelativistic matter, which destabilizes inflation and eventually leads to the exit from the inflationary stage. We execute the numerical analysis of inflation in two viable exponential gravity models. It is proved that at the end of the inflation, the effective energy density and curvature of the universe decrease and thus a unified description between inflation and the $\\Lambda$CDM-like dark energy dominated era can be realized.

  20. 1.1 Ghz integer N phase lock loop with superior single event upset and total dose properties suitable for commercial space applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Lyons

    1998-01-01

    Poor single event upset (SEU) and single event latchup (SEL) immunity are of major concern in high speed RF phase lock loops (PLLs) incorporated in many of current commercial satellites. As a result, greater demands are placed at the system level to compensate for this. These include reloading programming every clock cycle, parallel interfaces and redundancy, which result in increased

  1. Aerospace century XXI: Space sciences, applications, and commercial developments; Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual AAS International Conference, Boulder, CO, Oct. 26-29, 1986

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Morgenthaler; J. N. Koster

    1987-01-01

    Papers are presented on rocket UV observations of Comet Halley, a space system for microgravity research, transitioning from Spacelab to Space Station science, and assemblers and future space hardware. Also considered are spatial and temporal scales of atmospheric disturbances, Doppler radar for prediction and warning, data management for the Columbus program, communications satellites of the future, and commercial launch vehicles.

  2. Cryopreservation of viable human lung tissue for versatile post-thaw analyses and culture.

    PubMed

    Baatz, John E; Newton, Danforth A; Riemer, Ellen C; Denlinger, Chadrick E; Jones, E Ellen; Drake, Richard R; Spyropoulos, Demetri D

    2014-01-01

    Clinical trials are currently used to test therapeutic efficacies for lung cancer, infections and diseases. Animal models are also used as surrogates for human disease. Both approaches are expensive and time-consuming. The utility of human biospecimens as models is limited by specialized tissue processing methods that preserve subclasses of analytes (e.g. RNA, protein, morphology) at the expense of others. We present a rapid and reproducible method for the cryopreservation of viable lung tissue from patients undergoing lobectomy or transplant. This method involves the pseudo-diaphragmatic expansion of pieces of fresh lung tissue with cryoprotectant formulation (pseudo-diaphragmatic expansion-cryoprotectant perfusion or PDX-CP) followed by controlled-rate freezing in cryovials. Expansion-perfusion rates, volumes and cryoprotectant formulation were optimized to maintain tissue architecture, decrease crystal formation and increase long-term cell viability. Rates of expansion of 4 cc/min or less and volumes ranging from 0.8-1.2 × tissue volume were well-tolerated by lung tissue obtained from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, showing minimal differences compared to standard histopathology. Morphology was greatly improved by the PDX-CP procedure compared to simple fixation. Fresh versus post-thawed lung tissue showed minimal differences in histology, RNA integrity numbers and post-translational modified protein integrity (2-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis). It was possible to derive numerous cell types, including alveolar epithelial cells, fibroblasts and stem cells, from the tissue for at least three months after cryopreservation. This new method should provide a uniform, cost-effective approach to the banking of biospecimens, with versatility to be amenable to any post-acquisition process applicable to fresh tissue samples. PMID:24982205

  3. Fibrotic sequelae in pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis: histopathological aspects in BALB/c mice infected with viable and non-viable paracoccidioides brasiliensis propagules.

    PubMed

    Cock, A M; Cano, L E; Vélez, D; Aristizábal, B H; Trujillo, J; Restrepo, A

    2000-01-01

    Patients with paracoccidioidomycosis often present pulmonary fibrosis and exhibit important respiratory limitations. Based on an already established animal model, the contribution of viable and non-viable P. brasiliensis propagules to the development of fibrosis was investigated. BALB/c male mice, 4-6 weeks old were inoculated intranasally either with 4x10(6) viable conidia (Group I), or 6. 5x10(6) fragmented yeast cells (Group II). Control animals received PBS. Six mice per period were sacrificed at 24, 48, 72h (initial) and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post-challenge (late). Paraffin embedded lungs were sectioned and stained with H&E, trichromic (Masson), reticulin and Grocot&tacute;s. During the initial period PMNs influx was important in both groups and acute inflammation involving 34% to 45% of the lungs was noticed. Later on, mononuclear cells predominated. In group I, the inflammation progressed and granulomas were formed and by the 12th week they fussed and became loose. Thick collagen I fibers were observed in 66.6% and 83.3% of the animals at 8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Collagen III, thick fibers became apparent in some animals at 4 weeks and by 12 weeks, 83% of them exhibited alterations in the organization and thickness of these elements. In group II mice, this pattern was different with stepwise decrease in the number of inflammatory foci and lack of granulomas. Although initially most animals in this group had minor alterations in thin collagen I fibers, they disappeared by the 4th week. Results indicate that tissue response to fragmented yeast cells was transitory while viable conidia evoked a progressive inflammatory reaction leading to granuloma formation and to excess production and/or disarrangement of collagens I and III; the latter led to fibrosis. PMID:10810319

  4. NASA's commercial space program - Initiatives for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, James T.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's commercial development of the space program aimed at the stimulation and assistance of expanded private sector involvement and investment in civil space activities is discussed, focusing on major new program initiatives and their implementation. NASA's Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) program, composed of competitively selected consortia of universities, industries, and government involved in early research and testing phases of potentially commercially viable technologies is described. The 16 centers concentrate on seven different technical areas such as automation and robotics; remote sensing; life sciences; and space power, propulsion, and structures. Private sector participation, CCDS technology development, government and commercially supplied access to space in support of CCDS programs, CCDS hardware development, and CCDS spinoffs are discussed together with various cooperative and reimbursable agreements between NASA and the private sector.

  5. PMA-Linked Fluorescence for Rapid Detection of Viable Bacterial Endospores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Mohapatra, Bidyut

    2012-01-01

    The most common approach for assessing the abundance of viable bacterial endospores is the culture-based plating method. However, culture-based approaches are heavily biased and oftentimes incompatible with upstream sample processing strategies, which make viable cells/spores uncultivable. This shortcoming highlights the need for rapid molecular diagnostic tools to assess more accurately the abundance of viable spacecraft-associated microbiota, perhaps most importantly bacterial endospores. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has received a great deal of attention due to its ability to differentiate live, viable bacterial cells from dead ones. PMA gains access to the DNA of dead cells through compromised membranes. Once inside the cell, it intercalates and eventually covalently bonds with the double-helix structures upon photoactivation with visible light. The covalently bound DNA is significantly altered, and unavailable to downstream molecular-based manipulations and analyses. Microbiological samples can be treated with appropriate concentrations of PMA and exposed to visible light prior to undergoing total genomic DNA extraction, resulting in an extract comprised solely of DNA arising from viable cells. This ability to extract DNA selectively from living cells is extremely powerful, and bears great relevance to many microbiological arenas.

  6. Algae Biodiesel: Commercialization

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Algae Biodiesel: A Path to Commercialization Center conservation and biomonitoring · Algae biodiesel is largest CEHMM project #12;Project Overview: The Missing replace petroleum #12;Project Overview: Local Resources for Algae Biodiesel Project Overview: Local

  7. Application of the Cross Battery Approach in the Assessment of American Indian Children: A Viable Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plank, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Current psychometric and testing practices are inadequate for assessing the intelligence of American Indian students, due to complicating factors of culture and language. These deficient methods are then used to make educational decisions, resulting in improper special education placements. The benefits of alternative methods of testing, including…

  8. Applicability of stable C and N isotope analysis in inferring the geographical origin and authentication of commercial fish (Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock).

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejoong; Suresh Kumar, K; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Globalisation of seafood and aquaculture products and their convenient marketing worldwide, increases the possibility for the distribution of mislabelled products; thereby, underlining the need to identify their origin. Stable isotope analysis is a promising approach to identify the authenticity and traceability of seafood and aquaculture products. In this investigation, we measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (?(13)C and ?(15)N) of three commercial fish, viz. Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock, originating from various countries. Apart from the species-dependent variation in the isotopic values, marked differences in the ?(13)C and ?(15)N ratios were also observed with respect to the country of origin. This suggests that C and N isotopic signatures could be reliable tools to identify and trace the origin of commercial fish. PMID:25442587

  9. Research and development of Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Fuel cell infrastructure and commercialization study

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This paper has been prepared in partial fulfillment of a subcontract from the Allison Division of General Motors under the terms of Allison`s contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AC02-90CH10435). The objective of this task (The Fuel Cell Infrastructure and Commercialization Study) is to describe and prepare preliminary evaluations of the processes which will be required to develop fuel cell engines for commercial and private vehicles. This report summarizes the work undertaken on this study. It addresses the availability of the infrastructure (services, energy supplies) and the benefits of creating public/private alliances to accelerate their commercialization. The Allison prime contract includes other tasks related to the research and development of advanced solid polymer fuel cell engines and preparation of a demonstration automotive vehicle. The commercialization process starts when there is sufficient understanding of a fuel cell engine`s technology and markets to initiate preparation of a business plan. The business plan will identify each major step in the design of fuel cell (or electrochemical) engines, evaluation of the markets, acquisition of manufacturing facilities, and the technical and financial resources which will be required. The process will end when one or more companies have successfully developed and produced fuel cell engines at a profit. This study addressed the status of the information which will be required to prepare business plans, develop the economic and market acceptance data, and to identify the mobility, energy and environment benefits of electrochemical or fuel cell engines. It provides the reader with information on the status of fuel cell or electrochemical engine development and their relative advantages over competitive propulsion systems. Recommendations and descriptions of additional technical and business evaluations that are to be developed in more detail in Phase II, are included.

  10. Application technology progress report: Evaluation of PM10 commercial inlets and development of an inlet for new Rocky Flats Plant surveillance air sampler, January 1986December 1986

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Langer; C. A. Deitesfeld

    1987-01-01

    Work during 1986 was concerned with developing a new PM-10 inlet for use at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), Golden, Colorado. The commercial units that we evaluated did not allow for recovery of the >10-..mu..m dust fraction as may be required by EPA and DOE for nuclear installations. One of them, the Wedding PM-10 Inlet, did not meet the PM-10 cut-point

  11. Commercialization of space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. Rose; B. A. Stone

    1988-01-01

    Space-commercialization activities are grouped into five categories: private sector development from existing technology for private sector use; pure privatization; private sector development for US government use; private sector development from novel technology for private sector use; and, finally, full commercialization. The authors define the commercialization of space categories and highlight the key issues in each. A description of key NASA

  12. Enumeration of Vibrio cholerae O1 in Bangladesh waters by fluorescent-antibody direct viable count.

    PubMed Central

    Brayton, P R; Tamplin, M L; Huq, A; Colwell, R R

    1987-01-01

    A field trial to enumerate Vibrio cholerae O1 in aquatic environments in Bangladesh was conducted, comparing fluorescent-antibody direct viable count with culture detection by the most-probable-number index. Specificity of a monoclonal antibody prepared against the O1 antigen was assessed and incorporated into the fluorescence staining method. All pond and water samples yielded higher counts of viable V. cholerae O1 by fluorescent-antibody direct viable count than by the most-probable-number index. Fluorescence microscopy is a more sensitive detection system than culture methods because it allows the enumeration of both culturable and nonculturable cells and therefore provides more precise monitoring of microbiological water quality. PMID:3324967

  13. A simple way to identify non-viable cells within living plant tissue using confocal microscopy

    E-print Network

    Truernit, Elisabeth; Haseloff, Jim

    2008-06-23

    not stained. Non-viable cells are stained selectively The root cap, consisting of columella and lateral root cap, gation zone of the root (Figure 2) [6]. Cells at the end of the lateral root cap die, thus exposing the root epidermis [6]. The enhancer-trap line... Figure 2 SYTOX orange staining of non-viable lateral root cap cells. (A) to (D) Enhancer-trap line Q0171 expressing GFP (green) in the columella (c) and lateral root cap (lrc). (A), (C) Overlay projection image of Q0171 stained with propidium iodide...

  14. Preparation for commercial demonstration of biomass-to-ethanol conversion technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this program was to complete the development of a commercially viable process to produce fuel ethanol from renewable cellulosic biomass. The program focused on pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation technologies where Amoco has a unique proprietary position. Assured access to low-cost feedstock is a cornerstone of attractive economics for cellulose to ethanol conversion in the 1990s. Most of Amoco`s efforts in converting cellulosic feedstocks to ethanol before 1994 focused on using paper from municipal solid waste as the feed. However, while many municipalities and MSW haulers expressed interest in Amoco`s technology, none were willing to commit funding to process development. In May, 1994 several large agricultural products companies showed interest in Amoco`s technology, particularly for application to corn fiber. Amoco`s initial work with corn fiber was encouraging. The project work plan was designed to provide sufficient data on corn fiber conversion to convince a major agriculture products company to participate in the construction of a commercial demonstration facility.

  15. Design and Development of a 100 MVA HTS Generator for Commercial Entry

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2007-06-07

    In 2002, General Electric and the US Department of Energy (DOE) entered into a cooperative agreement for the development of a commercialized 100 MVA generator using high temperature superconductors (HTS) in the field winding. The intent of the program was to: (1) identify and develop technologies that would be needed for such a generator; (2) develop conceptual designs for generators with ratings of 100 MVA and higher using HTS technology; (3) perform proof of concept tests at the 1.5 MW level for GE's proprietary warm iron rotor HTS generator concept; and (4) design, build, and test a prototype of a commercially viable 100 MVA generator that could be placed on the power grid. This report summarizes work performed during the program and is provided as one of the final program deliverables. The design for the HTS generator was based on GE's warm iron rotor concept in which a cold HTS coil is wound around a warm magnetic iron pole. This approach for rotating HTS electrical machinery provides the efficiency benefits of the HTS technology while addressing the two most important considerations for power generators in utility applications: cost and reliability. The warm iron rotor concept uses the least amount of expensive HTS wire compared to competing concepts and builds on the very high reliability of conventional iron core stators and armature windings.

  16. NASA's commercial space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Richard H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper will review the goals, status and progress of NASA's commercial space development program administered by the Office of Commercial Programs (OCP). The technologies and flight programs underway by NASA's Centers for Commercial Development (CCDS), NASA's field centers, and the NASA/Industry Joint Endeavor Programs will be summarized. A summary of completed and upcoming commercial payload activities on Shuttle, suborbital rockets, and orbital ELV's will be provided. The new commercial infrastructure and transportation initiatives will be discussed including the Wake Shield Facility, Consort and Joust suborbital rocket programs, the COMET orbital and recovery program, and the Commercial Middeck Accommodation Module Program with Spacehab Inc. Finally, the Commercial Space Station Freedom Program planned by OCP will be reviewed.

  17. Aerospace century XXI: Space sciences, applications, and commercial developments; Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual AAS International Conference, Boulder, CO, Oct. 26-29, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenthaler, G.W.; Koster, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Papers are presented on rocket UV observations of Comet Halley, a space system for microgravity research, transitioning from Spacelab to Space Station science, and assemblers and future space hardware. Also considered are spatial and temporal scales of atmospheric disturbances, Doppler radar for prediction and warning, data management for the Columbus program, communications satellites of the future, and commercial launch vehicles. Other topics include space geodesy and earthquake predictions, inverted cellular radio satellite systems, material processing in space, and potential for earth observations from the manned Space Station.

  18. Enrolment Rates into Parenting Programs using a Clinically Viable Recruitment Strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Matthey; Pandora Patterson; Natalie Mutton; Kirsten Kreutzfeldt

    2006-01-01

    Studies of parenting programs often have enrolment rates of 20% or more of the targeted parents. These rates are usually from funded research projects, and may not equate to enrolment rates in programs using clinically viable recruitment strategies without large specialist funding. Two studies were conducted to explore the enrolment rates of parents in group parenting programs. The first investigated

  19. ROTATIONAL DRAG FORCE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO DARK MATTER Max I. Fomitchev

    E-print Network

    Giles, C. Lee

    ROTATIONAL DRAG FORCE: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE TO DARK MATTER Max I. Fomitchev Submitted May 16th not require dark matter but rather relies on classical Newtonian dynamics and an overlooked effect of quantum: dark matter ­ galaxies: spiral ­ galaxies: kinematics and dynamics 1. INTRODUCTION Directly applied

  20. Superconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini1

    E-print Network

    on the magnetic configuration, dc and/or pulsed magnetic fields are required for plasmaSuperconducting Magnets Research for a Viable US Fusion Program Joseph V. Minervini1 , Leslie Bromberg1 , Peter J. Lee2 , David C. Larbalestier2 , Introduction Magnet systems

  1. Making TCP/IP Viable for Wireless Sensor Adam Dunkels, Juan Alonso, Thiemo Voigt

    E-print Network

    Voigt, Thiemo

    Making TCP/IP Viable for Wireless Sensor Networks Adam Dunkels, Juan Alonso, Thiemo Voigt Swedish Institute of Computer Science {adam,alonso,thiemo}@sics.se Abstract-- The TCP/IP protocol suite, which has that are intended to enable the use of TCP/IP for wireless sensor networks: spatial IP address assignment, shared

  2. Making TCP/IP Viable for Wireless Sensor Adam Dunkels, Juan Alonso, Thiemo Voigt

    E-print Network

    Making TCP/IP Viable for Wireless Sensor Networks Adam Dunkels, Juan Alonso, Thiemo Voigt Swedish:23 ISSN 1100-3154 ISRN:SICS-T­2003/23-SE Abstract The TCP/IP protocol suite, which has proven itself to enable the use of TCP/IP for wireless sensor networks: spatial IP address assignment, shared context

  3. Agouti signaling protein stimulates cell division in "viable yellow" (A vy/a) mouse liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enhanced linear growth, hyperplasia, and tumorigenesis are well-known characteristics of "viable yellow" agouti Avy/- mice (1); however, the functional basis for this aspect of the phenotype is unknown. In the present study, we ascertained whether agouti signaling protein (ASIP) levels in Avy/a or a...

  4. Detection of the total viable counts in chicken based on visible/near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fachao; Long, Yuan; Tang, Xiuying; Zhao, Linlin; Peng, Yankun; Wang, Caiping

    2014-05-01

    The viable counts in chicken have significant effects on food safety. Exceeding standard index can have negative influence to the public. Visible-near infrared spectra have had rapid development in food safety recently. The objective of this study was to detect the total viable counts in chicken breast fillets.36 chicken breast fillets used in the study were stored in a refrigerator at 4°C for 9 days. Each day four samples were taken and Vis/NIR spectra were collected from each sample before detecting their total viable counts by standard method. The original data was processed in four main steps: Savitzky-Golay smoothing method, standard normalized variate (SNV), model calibrating and model validating. Prediction model was established using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. Several statistical indicators such as root mean squared errors and coefficients were calculated for determination of calibration and validation accuracy respectively. As a result, the Rc, SEC, Rv and SEV, of the best model were obtained to be 0.8854, 0.7455, 0.9070 and 0.6045 respectively, which demonstrate that visible-near infrared spectra is a potential technique to detect the total viable counts(TVC) in chicken and the best wavelengths for the establishment of the calibration model are near 449nm.

  5. Search for Viable Thermoelectric Materials Anthony Frachioni, Bruce White, Binghamton University

    E-print Network

    Suzuki, Masatsugu

    Search for Viable Thermoelectric Materials Anthony Frachioni, Bruce White, Binghamton University vibrations Thermoelectrics: What they do and how they work m m m m k k k 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 0.00001 0 with thermoelectric devices. VTH TC Figure 3: Visualizing a thermoelectric device Thermoelectrics are devices which

  6. ESTIMATION OF DOWNWIND VIABLE AIRBORNE MICROBES FROM A WET COOLING TOWER - INCLUDING SETTLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    In recent years, reuse of municipal waste water as the coolant in drift-producing cooling towers at electrical generating plants has become increasingly common. A hueristic model is presented that can be used to estimate the concentrations of viable airborne microbes in the drift...

  7. An isothermal absorptiometric assay for viable microbes using the redox color indicator 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hideaki; Hattori, Daisuke; Tokunaga, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yusuke

    2013-10-15

    A simple and rapid isothermal absorptiometric assay for detection of viable microbes using the redox color indicator 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) was studied. The absorbance of DCPIP decreased at 600 nm because of a redox reaction occurring between DCPIP and the surface membrane of viable microbes and was inversely proportional to the viable cell density. The redox reaction was found not only with bacteria, but also with yeast and a mixture of bacteria and yeast. In this assay, the influence of light scattering and absorption caused by microbial cells and coexisting substances in the sample was excluded by a time difference method. The assay required only 10 min for one incubation mixture, and highly repeatable results from three consecutive measurements were obtained by isothermal incubation for specific times at 30 °C using a thermostable three-cuvette-stir system. Thus, the cell density of microbial cell suspensions or growth medium was successfully determined, and a practical lower detection limit for food inspection was obtained at 10?-10? cfu/ml. Single-cell effects on DCPIP reduction were evaluated and compared between species. Consequently, this assay is expected to be a useful tool for the rapid measurement of viable microbes as a preliminary assay for the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point program. PMID:23871996

  8. METHIONINE UPTAKE AND CYTOPATHOGENICITY OF VIABLE BUT NONCULTURABLE SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE TYPE 1

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pathogenic strain of Shigella dysenteriae Type 1 was selected for study to elucidate the physiology and potential pathogenicity of organisms In the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state In the environment. tudies in our laboratory have shown that S. dysenteriae Type 1 survives ...

  9. Birth of viable puppies derived from breeding cloned female dogs with a cloned male

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Park; S. G. Hong; J. T. Kang; H. J. Oh; M. K. Kim; H. J. Kim; D. Y. Kim; G. Jang; B. C. Lee

    2009-01-01

    Since the establishment of production of viable cloned dogs by somatic cell nucleus transfer, great concern has been given to the reproductive abilities of these animals (Canis familiaris). Therefore, we investigated reproductive activity of cloned dogs by (1) performing sperm analysis using computer-assisted sperm analysis and early embryonic development, (2) assessing reproductive cycling by measuring serum progesterone (P4) levels and

  10. Determination of viable Salmonellae from potable and source water through PMA assisted qPCR.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi

    2013-07-01

    Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.1×10(4)-2.6×10(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management. PMID:23623706

  11. FAILURE OF VIABLE NONCULTURABLE CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI TO COLONIZE THE CECUM OF NEWLY HATCHED LEGHORN CHICKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter jejuni cells entered the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state upon suspension in reverse osmosis water. Viability was determined with tetrazolium violet. VBNC cells suspended in water for 7, 10, or 14 days were given, by gastric gavage, to day-of-hatch leghorn chickens. The ceca of...

  12. Resuscitation of Viable but Nonculturable Legionella pneumophila Philadelphia JR32 by Acanthamoeba castellanii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL STEINERT; LEVENTE EMODY; RUDOLF AMANN; JORG HACKER

    1997-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an aquatic bacterium and is responsible for Legionnaires' disease in humans. Free-living amoebae are parasitized by legionellae and provide the intracellular environment required for the replication of this bacterium. In low-nutrient environments, however, L. pneumophila is able to enter a non- replicative viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state. In this study, L. pneumophila Philadelphia I JR 32 was

  13. USE OF PLUME DISPERSION MODELLING FOR VIABLE AEROSOLS FROM AN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Predictions of the emissions of airborne total viable particle (TVP) concentrations from sewage are of concern due to possible adverse human health effects. Two types of modelling approaches were explored: dispersion modelling such as the Gaussian plume dispersion model and stati...

  14. Toward a zero-carbon energy policy in Europe: defining a viable solution

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Christopher; Glachant, Jean-Michel

    2010-04-15

    The present pace of carbon emission is not sustainable. Human societies need to react and to change. A rational responsive policy to deliver the required carbon emission reduction can be delineated if the key objective parameters are identified and addressed. This article attempts to lay the groundwork for a viable carbon energy policy for Europe. (author)

  15. Electrical detection of germination of viable model Bacillus anthracis spores in microfluidic biochips{{

    E-print Network

    Bashir, Rashid

    Electrical detection of germination of viable model Bacillus anthracis spores in microfluidic microfluidic biochips. We used Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores as the model organism. During germination in microfluidic and BioMEMS devices. Introduction Bacillus anthracis has long been identified as the causative

  16. Breaking Through the Bottleneck Transportation to Make Stewart a Viable New York Airport

    E-print Network

    leased an isolated airport 97 kilometers north of the city--Stewart International (SWF). Due to Stewart's distance from Manhattan however, airlines are hesitant to shift operations to SWF without a noticeable makes SWF a more viable air travel choice to passengers and airlines alike. Keywords - airport

  17. Could Message Ferrying be a Viable Technology for Small Cell Backhaul?

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    Could Message Ferrying be a Viable Technology for Small Cell Backhaul? Mahbub Hassan Chun Tung Chou of New South Wales Sydney 2052, Australia #12;Abstract Small cell is seen as key to combat the looming when it comes to connecting outdoor small cells to the core network. We anal- yse the viability

  18. Exemplifying Attack Identification and Analysis in a Novel Forensically Viable Syslog Model

    E-print Network

    Erbacher, Robert F.

    that will validate and authenticate syslogs for computer forensic analysis. Syslogs are often smoking guns [9 of course the syslog files can be made to be legally admissible. Computer forensics, a relatively new fieldExemplifying Attack Identification and Analysis in a Novel Forensically Viable Syslog Model Steena

  19. Viable but non-culturable Vibrio cholerae O1 revert to a cultivable state in the human intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Colwell; P. Brayton; D. Herrington; B. Tall; A. Huq; M. M. Levine

    1996-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae O1 can enter a state in which they remain viable but are non-culturable. Presumably, such bacteria can be pathogenic if they retain the capacity to proliferate in the human intestine following ingestion. Two groups of volunteeers were given inocula containing viable but non-culturable V. cholerae O1 of the attenuated vaccine strain CVD 101 (viable CVD 101 organisms readily

  20. Commercial Pilot Airplane Written Test Guide. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    This guide is intended to help applicants prepare for the Commercial Airplane Pilot Written Test. The guide outlines the aeronautical knowledge requirements for a commercial pilot, informs the applicant of source material that can be used to acquire their knowledge, and includes test items and illustrations representative of those used in the…

  1. Commercial potential of space-based plant research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond J. Bula; Eric Christophersen

    1999-01-01

    Plant research conducted in space by commercial organizations could enhance the development of plant materials having superior characteristics and unique constituents for a wide range of agricultural, industrial, and medical applications. These commercial efforts will also include terrestrial application of controlled environment technologies that reduce the time involved in making the new plant materials available in the marketplace. The International

  2. Lighting in Commercial Buildings

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    Lighting is a major consumer of electricity in commercial buildings and a target for energy savings through use of energy-efficient light sources along with other advanced lighting technologies. The Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) collects information on types of lighting equipment, the amount of floorspace that is lit, and the percentage of floorspace lit by each type. In addition, CBECS data are used to model end-use consumption, including energy consumed for lighting in commercial buildings.

  3. The Commercial TREMOR Strong-Motion Seismograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. R.; Hamstra, R. H.; Kuendig, C.; Camina, P.

    2001-12-01

    The emergence of major seismological and earthquake-engineering problems requiring large, dense instrument arrays led several of us to investigate alternate solutions. Evans and Rogers (USGS Open File Report 95-555, 1995) and Evans (USGS Open File Report 98-109, 1998) demonstrated the efficacy of low-cost robust silicon accelerometers in strong-motion seismology, making possible a vast increase in the spatial density of such arrays. The 1998 design displays true 16-bit performance and excellent robustness and linearity---13 of these prototype near-real-time instruments are deployed in Oakland, California, and have recorded data from seven small events (up to 5.7 %g). Since this technology is a radical departure from past efforts, it was necessary for the USGS to develop the sensor and demonstrate its efficacy thoroughly. Since it is neither practical nor appropriate for the USGS to produce instrumentation beyond a demonstration phase, the US Geological Survey and GeoSIG Ltd undertook a collaborative effort (a ``CRAD'') to commercialize the new technology. This effort has resulted in a fully temperature-compensated 16-bit system, the GeoSIG GT-316, announced in April, 2001, combining the ICS-3028 TM-based USGS sensor, temperature compensation technique, and peak ground velocity (PGV) computation with a highly customized 16-bit GeoSIG recorder. The price has not been set but is likely to be around \\2000 in large quantities. The result is a near-real-time instrument telemetering peak ground acceleration (PGA) and PGV about 90 s after onset of the P wave, then minutes later transmitting the waveform. The receiving software, ``HomeBase()'', also computes spectral acceleration, S_{a}. PGA, PGV, S_{a}, and waveforms are forwarded immediately by HomeBase() for ShakeMap generation and other uses. Shaking metrics from the prototypes in Oakland are consistently among the first to arrive for the northern California ShakeMap. For telemetry we use a low-cost always-connected cell-phone-based Internet technology (CDPD), but any RS-232 connected telemetry system is a viable candidate (spread spectrum, CDMA, GSM, POT). The instruments can be synchronized via CDPD to a few tenths of a second, or to full precision with an optional GPS receiver. Sensor RMS noise is 33 \\mathrm \\mu g over the band 0.1 to 35 Hz, 11 \\mathrm \\mu g$ over the band 0.1 to 1.0 Hz; the sensor is extremely linear (far better than 1% of full scale); temperature compensation is to better than 1% of full scale. TREMOR-class instruments are intended to fill the niche of high spatial resolution with an economical low-maintenance device, while conventional instruments continue to pursue maximum amplitude resolution. The TREMOR instrument also has applications in areas where budget or access limitations require lower purchase, installation, or maintenance cost (commercial ANSS partners, remote sites, on-call aftershock arrays, extremely dense arrays, and organizations with limited budgets). However, we primarily envision large, mixed arrays of conventional and TREMOR instruments in urban areas, the former providing better early information from small events and the TREMOR instruments guaranteeing better spatial resolution and more near-field recording of large events. Together, they would meet the ANSS goal of dense near-real-time urban monitoring and the collection of requisite data for risk mitigation.

  4. Commercial communications satellite survivability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, F. E.; Porter, R. L.

    The Government is considering the use of commercial communications satellite systems to support its national security and emergency preparedness needs. However, the vulnerabilities to hostile action inherent in commercial satellite systems could dramatically reduce their ability to provide essential services in emergency situations. Consequently, concern for the survivability of satellite, as well as other commercial telecommunications systems, has led to the establishment of the National Security Telecommunications Advisory Committee (NSTAC). Working in concert with the Government, the NSTAC, a Presidential Advisory Committee, has recommended a program to enhance the survivability of commercial communications satellite systems.

  5. Commercialization of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, James T.; Stone, Barbara A.

    1988-01-01

    Space-commercialization activities are grouped into five categories: private sector development from existing technology for private sector use; pure privatization; private sector development for U.S. government use; private sector development from novel technology for private sector use; and, finally, full commercialization. The commercialization of space categories is defined, and the key issues in each are highlighted. A description of key NASA actions is included for each category. It is concluded that NASA and other government agency involvement is a common thread across the spectrum of space commercialization activities.

  6. Evaluation of the Proportion of Phases and Mechanical Strength of Two-Phase Steels Using Barkhausen Noise Measurements: Application to Commercial Dual-Phase Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleber, X.; Hug-Amalric, A.; Merlin, J.

    2008-06-01

    The possibility to assess the relative proportion of phases and the mechanical strength in two-phase steels by means of Barkhausen noise measurements has been studied. It was found that the amplitudes of the Barkhausen peaks are directly proportional to the relative proportion of the corresponding phases. We have shown that the peak amplitude can be used to assess not only phase proportion but also its magnetic field position. These conclusions were drawn for ferrite-martensite steels with different proportions and compositions and also for spheroidal graphite cast iron composed of ferrite-martensite and ferrite-bainite phases. We also applied these results to different grades of commercial dual-phase (DP) steels, thereby confirming the possibility to assess phase proportion and mechanical strength using this nondestructive magnetic technique.

  7. Development of a rapid phage-based method for the detection of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in blood within 48 h.

    PubMed

    Swift, Benjamin M C; Denton, Emily J; Mahendran, Sophie A; Huxley, Jonathan N; Rees, Catherine E D

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to rapidly detect viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in clinical blood samples. MAP cells spiked into commercially available blood were recovered using optimised peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMMS) and detected using a phage-based method, and the identity of the cells detected confirmed using nested-PCR amplification of MAP signature sequences (IS900). The limit of detection was determined to be 10 MAP cells per ml of blood and was used to detect MAP present in clinical bovine blood samples. Using the PMMS-phage method there was no difference when detecting MAP from whole blood or from isolated buffy coat. MAP was detected in animals that were milk-ELISA positive (15 animals) by PMMS-phage and no MAP was detected in blood samples from an accredited Johne's disease free herd (5 animals). In a set of samples from one herd (10 animals) that came from animals with variable milk ELISA status, the PMMS-phage results agreed with the positive milk-ELISA results in all but one case. These results show that the PMMS-phage method can detect MAP present in naturally infected blood. Total assay time is 48 h and, unlike PCR-based detection tests, only viable cells are detected. A rapid method for detecting MAP in blood could further the understanding of disseminated infection in animals with Johne's disease. PMID:23811207

  8. Development of a rapid phage-based method for the detection of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in blood within 48 h?

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Benjamin M.C.; Denton, Emily J.; Mahendran, Sophie A.; Huxley, Jonathan N.; Rees, Catherine E.D.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to rapidly detect viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in clinical blood samples. MAP cells spiked into commercially available blood were recovered using optimised peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMMS) and detected using a phage-based method, and the identity of the cells detected confirmed using nested-PCR amplification of MAP signature sequences (IS900). The limit of detection was determined to be 10 MAP cells per ml of blood and was used to detect MAP present in clinical bovine blood samples. Using the PMMS-phage method there was no difference when detecting MAP from whole blood or from isolated buffy coat. MAP was detected in animals that were milk-ELISA positive (15 animals) by PMMS-phage and no MAP was detected in blood samples from an accredited Johne's disease free herd (5 animals). In a set of samples from one herd (10 animals) that came from animals with variable milk ELISA status, the PMMS-phage results agreed with the positive milk-ELISA results in all but one case. These results show that the PMMS-phage method can detect MAP present in naturally infected blood. Total assay time is 48 h and, unlike PCR-based detection tests, only viable cells are detected. A rapid method for detecting MAP in blood could further the understanding of disseminated infection in animals with Johne's disease. PMID:23811207

  9. Assessments of Total and Viable Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Field and Laboratory Grown Lettuce

    PubMed Central

    Moyne, Anne-Laure; Harris, Linda J.; Marco, Maria L.

    2013-01-01

    Leafy green produce has been associated with numerous outbreaks of foodborne illness caused by strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7. While the amounts of culturable E. coli O157:H7 rapidly decline after introduction onto lettuce in the field, it remains to be determined whether the reduction in cell numbers is due to losses in cell viability, cell injury and a subsequent inability to be detected by standard laboratory culturing methods, or a lack of adherence and hence rapid removal of the organism from the plants during application. To assess which of these options is most relevant for E. coli O157:H7 on leafy green produce, we developed and applied a propidium monoazide (PMA) real-time PCR assay to quantify viable (with PMA) and total (without PMA) E. coli O157:H7 cells on growth chamber and field-grown lettuce. E. coli O157:H7, suspended in 0.1% peptone, was inoculated onto 4-week-old lettuce plants at a level of approximately 106 CFU/plant. In the growth chamber at low relative humidity (30%), culturable amounts of the nontoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 strain ATCC 700728 and the virulent strain EC4045 declined 100 to 1000-fold in 24 h. Fewer E. coli O157:H7 cells survived when applied onto plants in droplets with a pipette compared with a fine spray inoculation. Total cells for both strains were equivalent to inoculum levels for 7 days after application, and viable cell quantities determined by PMA real-time PCR were approximately 104 greater than found by colony enumeration. Within 2 h after application onto plants in the field, the number of culturable E. coli ATCC 700728 was reduced by up to 1000-fold, whereas PCR-based assessments showed that total cell amounts were equivalent to inoculum levels. These findings show that shortly after inoculation onto plants, the majority of E. coli O157:H7 cells either die or are no longer culturable. PMID:23936235

  10. Commercialization of space activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanneke L. van Traa-Engelman

    1996-01-01

    Commercialization of space activities requires a legal framework for private investors and entrepreneurs in order to promote and develop this sector of industry into a fully-fledged commercial enterprise. Apart from the already existing international public legal framework of space law, rules should be created to provide a level playing field for all interested parties. These rules should point to transparency

  11. Commercial Real Estate Returns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Miles; Tom McCue

    1984-01-01

    In the commercial real estate market, which is perceived to be relatively inefficient, investors have comparative advantages; hence there are significant costs to diversification. This paper presents for the first time a series of market (or quasi-market) returns for a large data base. This data base is believed to be the most complete commercial real estate data base yet constructed.

  12. Nanotechnology Commercialization in Oregon

    E-print Network

    Moeck, Peter

    Nanotechnology Commercialization in Oregon February 27, 2012 Portland State University Physics Seminar Robert D. "Skip" Rung President and Executive Director #12;2 Nanotechnology Commercialization on "green" nanotechnology and gap fund portfolio company examples #12;3 Goals of the National Nanotechnology

  13. Estimating downwind concentrations of viable airborne microorganisms in dynamic atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Lighthart, B; Mohr, A J

    1987-01-01

    A Gaussian plume model has been modified to include an airborne microbial survival term that is a best-fit function of laboratory experimental data of weather variables. The model has been included in an algorithm using microbial source strength and local hourly mean weather data to drive the model through a summer- and winter-day cycle. For illustrative purposes, a composite airborne "virus" (developed using actual characteristics from two viruses) was used to show how wind speed could have a major modulating effect on near-source viable concentrations. For example, at high wind speeds such as those occurring during the day, or with short travel times, near-source locations experience high viable concentrations because the microorganisms have not had time to become inactivated. As the travel time increases, because of slow wind speed or longer distances, die-off modulation by sunshine, relative humidity, temperature, etc., potentially becomes increasingly predominant. PMID:3662508

  14. Technology Transfer and Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Katherine; Chapman, Diane; Giffith, Melanie; Molnar, Darwin

    2001-01-01

    During concurrent sessions for Materials and Structures for High Performance and Emissions Reduction, the UEET Intellectual Property Officer and the Technology Commercialization Specialist will discuss the UEET Technology Transfer and Commercialization goals and efforts. This will include a review of the Technology Commercialization Plan for UEET and what UEET personnel are asked to do to further the goals of the Plan. The major goal of the Plan is to define methods for how UEET assets can best be infused into industry. The National Technology Transfer Center will conduct a summary of its efforts in assessing UEET technologies in the areas of materials and emissions reduction for commercial potential. NTTC is assisting us in completing an inventory and prioritization by commercialization potential. This will result in increased exposure of UEET capabilities to the private sector. The session will include audience solicitation of additional commercializable technologies.

  15. Larvae of the pteropod Cavolinia inflexa exposed to aragonite undersaturation are viable but shell-less

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Comeau; G. Gorsky; S. Alliouane; J.-P. Gattuso

    2010-01-01

    Larvae of the Mediterranean pteropod Cavolinia inflexa were maintained at controlled pHT values of 8.1, 7.82 and 7.51, equivalent, respectively, to pCO2 levels of 380, 857 and 1,713 ?atm. At pHT 7.82, larvae exhibited malformations and lower shell growth, compared to the control condition. At pHT 7.51, the larvae did not make shells but were viable and showed a normal

  16. Molecular approaches for viable bacterial population and transcriptional analyses in a rodent model of dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Marlise I.; Scott-Anne, Kathleen M.; Gregoire, Stacy; Rosalen, Pedro L.; Koo, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Culturing methods are the primary approach for microbiological analysis of plaque-biofilms in rodent models of dental caries. In this study, we developed strategies for isolation of DNA and RNA from in vivo formed plaque-biofilms to analyze the viable bacterial population and gene expression. Plaque-biofilm samples from rats were treated with propidium monoazide to isolate DNA from viable cells, and the purified DNA was used to quantify total bacteria and S. mutans population via qPCR and specific primers; the same samples were also analyzed by colony forming unit (CFU) counting. In parallel, RNA was isolated from plaque-biofilm samples (from same animals) and used for transcriptional analyses via RT-qPCR. The viable population of both S. mutans and total bacteria assessed by qPCR were positively correlated with the CFU data (P<0.001; r>0.8). However, the qPCR data showed higher bacterial cell counts, particularly for total bacteria (vs. CFU). Moreover, S. mutans proportion in the plaque-biofilm determined by qPCR analysis showed strong correlation with incidence of smooth-surface caries (P=0.0022, r=0.71). The purified RNAs presented high RNA integrity numbers (>7), which allowed measurement of the expression of genes that are critical for S. mutans virulence (e.g. gtfB and gtfC). Our data show that the viable microbial population and the gene expression can be analyzed simultaneously, providing a global assessment of the infectious aspect of the disease dental caries. Our approach could enhance the value of the current rodent model in further understanding the pathophysiology of this disease and facilitating the exploration of novel anti-caries therapies. PMID:22958384

  17. An evaluation framework for viable business models for m-commerce in the information technology sector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sulabh Sharma; Jairo Alberto Gutiérrez

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the characteristics of viable business models in the field of Mobile Commerce (m-commerce).\\u000a Mobility has given new dimensions to the way commerce works. All over the world various stakeholder organisations are consistently\\u000a probing into the areas where m-commerce can be exploited and can generate revenue or value for them, even though some of those

  18. Dendritic Cells Take up and Present Antigens from Viable and Apoptotic Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Alfaro; Natalia Suarez; Carmen Oñate; Jose L. Perez-Gracia; Ivan Martinez-Forero; Sandra Hervas-Stubbs; Inmaculada Rodriguez; Guiomar Perez; Elixabet Bolaños; Asis Palazon; Miguel Fernandez de Sanmamed; Aizea Morales-Kastresana; Alvaro Gonzalez; Ignacio Melero

    2011-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are endowed with the ability to cross-present antigens from other cell types to cognate T cells. DC are poised to meet polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) as a result of being co-attracted by interleukin-8 (IL-8), for instance as produced by tumor cells or infected tissue. Human monocyte-derived and mouse bone marrow-derived DC can readily internalize viable or UV-irradiated PMNs.

  19. Isolation, characterization, and recovery of small peptide phage display epitopes selected against viable malignant glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Spear, M A; Breakefield, X O; Beltzer, J; Schuback, D; Weissleder, R; Pardo, F S; Ladner, R

    2001-07-01

    Phage display techniques rely on nearly random oligonucleotide sequences inserted into the protein III filament binding protein of an Escherichia coli filamentous phage M13 to generate a library of phage that express more than 10(7) different peptides. Phage that expresses a sequence having high affinity for a specific molecule, cell, or tissue can then be isolated through selective binding and recovery. Selected phage cannot only be used as gene transfer vectors in themselves, but the small peptide epitopes can be sequenced and potentially recombined into the attachment proteins of viral vectors, or used by themselves to target other therapeutic agents and diagnostic imaging radiolabels. Most phage display selections are carried out against purified and/or fixed protein targets, raising concerns as to the relevance of the selected epitopes. We have selected phage from the CMTI library against viable U87-MG human malignant glioma cells using a derivation of biopanning. The library, which initially contained phage expressing 2x10(7) different epitope sequences, collapsed after four rounds of selection such that 42% of recovered clones expressed a consensus sequence. Selective binding to viable adherent U87-MG cells was subsequently demonstrated under physiologic conditions at 167% (+/-27%) unselected phage using a novel, viable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. In comparison, there was no difference in binding to control 9L rat gliosarcoma, PANC-1 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma, T98-MG human malignant glioma, or AST-4 human malignant glioma cells of selected compared to unselected phage. Using polymerase chain reaction, the epitope was recovered with flanking unique restriction sites for recombination into a herpes simplex virus type-1 vector. This study demonstrates and discusses optimized methodologies for using phage display to target viable cells. PMID:11498772

  20. Optimization and control of perfusion cultures using a viable cell probe and cell specific perfusion rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason E. Dowd; Anthea Jubb; K. Ezra Kwok; James M. Piret

    2003-01-01

    Consistent perfusion culture production requires reliable cell retention and control of feed rates. An on-line cell probe\\u000a based on capacitance was used to assay viable biomass concentrations. A constant cell specific perfusion rate controlled medium\\u000a feed rates with a bioreactor cell concentration of ?5 106 cells mL-1. Perfusion feeding was automatically adjusted based on the cell concentration signal from the

  1. Can Malin's gravitational-field equations be modified to obtain a viable theory of gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, L. L.; Prestage, J.

    1976-01-01

    Malin's (1975) gravitational theory, which was recently shown by Lindblom and Nester (1975) to be incorrect, is modified by means of a recently proposed method for obtaining viable gravitational theories. The resulting self-consistent theory, which is in effect a Rastall-type modification of the Einstein theory, exhibits nonconservation of momentum, yet agrees with all experimental limits known to date within the post-Newtonian approximation framework.

  2. Novel Electrical Method for Early Detection of Viable Bacteria in Blood Cultures?

    PubMed Central

    Puttaswamy, Sachidevi; Lee, Byung Doo; Sengupta, Shramik

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel electrical method for detecting viable bacteria in blood cultures that is 4 to 10 times faster than continuous monitoring blood culture systems (CMBCS) like the Bactec system. Proliferating bacteria are detected via an increase in the bulk capacitance of suspensions, and the threshold concentration for detection is ?104 CFU/ml (compared to ?108 CFU/ml for the Bactec system). PMID:21471337

  3. Interdigitated microelectrode (IME) impedance sensor for the detection of viable Salmonella typhimurium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liju Yang; Yanbin Li; Carl L Griffis; Michael G Johnson

    2004-01-01

    Interdigitated microelectrodes (IMEs) were used as impedance sensors for rapid detection of viable Salmonella typhimurium in a selective medium and milk samples. The impedance growth curves, impedance against bacterial growth time, were recorded at four frequencies (10Hz, 100Hz, 1kHz, and 10kHz) during the growth of S. typhimurium. The impedance did not change until the cell number reached 105?106CFUml?1. The greatest

  4. Banking of non-viable skin allografts using high concentrations of glycerol or propylene glycol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qizhi Huang; David E. Pegg; John N. Kearney

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the kinetics of the current glycerol banking method for the preservation of non-viable\\u000a skin allografts; to improve it with respect to efficiency and microbial safety; and to investigate the possibility of using\\u000a propylene glycol in place of glycerol to provide a more rapid process. Skin grafts were preserved in 98% v\\/v glycerol

  5. NASA's commercial research plans and opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Ray J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the primary goals of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) commercial space development plan is to encourage the development of space-based products and markets, along with the infrastructure and transportation that will support those products and markets. A three phased program has been instituted to carry out this program. The first phase utilizes government grants through the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) for space-related, industry driven research; the development of a technology data base; and the development of commercial space transportation and infrastructure. The second phase includes the development of these technologies by industry for new commercial markets, and features unique industry/government collaborations such as Joint Endeavor Agreements. The final phase will feature technical applications actually brought to the marketplace. The government's role will be to support industry required infrastructure to encourage start-up markets and industries through follow-on development agreements such as the Space Systems Development Agreement. The Office of Commercial Programs has an aggressive flight program underway on the Space Shuttle, suborbital rockets, orbital expendable launch vehicles, and the Commercial Middeck Accommodation Module with SPACEHAB Inc. The Office of Commercial Program's has been allocated 35 percent of the U.S. share of the Space Station Freedom resources for 1997 utilization. A utilization plan has been developed with the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space and has identified eleven materials processing and biotechnology payloads occupying 5 double racks in the pressurized module as well as two payloads external to the module in materials exposure and environment monitoring. The Office of Commercial Programs will rely on the Space Station Freedom to provide the long duration laboratory component for space-based commercial research.

  6. The Commercial Energy Consumer: About Whom Are We Speaking?

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher

    2006-05-12

    Who are commercial sector customers, and how do they make decisions about energy consumption and energy efficiency investment? The energy policy field has not done a thorough job of describing energy consumption in the commercial sector. First, the discussion of the commercial sector itself is dominated by discussion of large businesses/buildings. Second, discussion of this portion of the commercial sectors consumption behavior is driven primarily by theory, with very little field data collected on the way commercial sector decision-makers describe their own options, choices, and reasons for taking action. These limitations artificially constrain energy policy options. This paper reviews the extant literature on commercial sector energy consumption behavior and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, it argues that the primary energy policy model of commercial sector energy consumption is a top-down model that uses macro-level investment data to make conclusions about commercial behavior. Missing from the discussion is a model of consumption behavior that builds up to a theoretical framework informed by the micro-level data provided by commercial decision-makers themselves. Such a bottom-up model could enhance the effectiveness of commercial sector energy policy. In particular, translation of some behavioral models from the residential sector to the commercial sector may offer new opportunities for policies to change commercial energy consumption behavior. Utility bill consumption feedback is considered as one example of a policy option that may be applicable to both the residential and small commercial sector.

  7. Elimination of harmonic induced viable bifurcations with TCSC for ac-fed electric arc furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varan, Metin; Uyarog˜lu, Y?lmaz

    2012-11-01

    AC-fed electric arc furnaces (EAFs) are known with their unbalanced, excessively nonlinear and time varying load characteristics. The nonlinear oscillations produced by EAF operation cause several problems to interconnected feed system. Injection of harmonics/interharmonics and rising flicker effects on the feed system are two of major problems produced by EAF. These nonlinear effects result into quasistatic changes in the feed system parameters (L - R) . In last decade many studies have been reported that such quasistatic changes in the feed system parameters result in viable bifurcation formations which strictly cause sudden and drastic changes on system behaviors. This paper presents an analytical control procedure to eliminate viable bifurcation points on L - I and R - I curves that cause sudden resonant peak arc currents. After control procedure, stability margins of EAF are extended into larger levels and viable bifurcation points on the feed system parameter have been eliminated. During study, possible roles of small parameter changes of uncontrolled EAF around bifurcation points and controlled EAF have been traced over time series analysis, phase plane analysis and bifurcation diagrams. A wide collection of useful dynamic analysis procedures for the exploration of studied arc furnace dynamics have been handled through the AUTO open-source algorithms.

  8. Mice carrying a complete deletion of the talin2 coding sequence are viable and fertile

    SciTech Connect

    Debrand, Emmanuel; Conti, Francesco J.; Bate, Neil; Spence, Lorraine; Mazzeo, Daniela; Pritchard, Catrin A.; Monkley, Susan J. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom)] [Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom); Critchley, David R., E-mail: drc@le.ac.uk [Department of Biochemistry, University of Leicester, Lancaster Road, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mice lacking talin2 are viable and fertile with only a mildly dystrophic phenotype. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Talin2 null fibroblasts show no major defects in proliferation, adhesion or migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maintaining a colony of talin2 null mice is difficult indicating an underlying defect. -- Abstract: Mice homozygous for several Tln2 gene targeted alleles are viable and fertile. Here we show that although the expression of talin2 protein is drastically reduced in muscle from these mice, other tissues continue to express talin2 albeit at reduced levels. We therefore generated a Tln2 allele lacking the entire coding sequence (Tln2{sup cd}). Tln2{sup cd/cd} mice were viable and fertile, and the genotypes of Tln2{sup cd/+} intercrosses were at the expected Mendelian ratio. Tln2{sup cd/cd} mice showed no major difference in body mass or the weight of the major organs compared to wild-type, although they displayed a mildly dystrophic phenotype. Moreover, Tln2{sup cd/cd} mouse embryo fibroblasts showed no obvious defects in cell adhesion, migration or proliferation. However, the number of Tln2{sup cd/cd} pups surviving to adulthood was variable suggesting that such mice have an underlying defect.

  9. Tapered-slit membrane filters for high-throughput viable circulating tumor cell isolation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoon-Tae; Doh, Il; Cho, Young-Ho

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents tapered-slit membrane filters for high-throughput viable circulating tumor cell (CTC) isolation. The membrane filter with a 2D array of vertical tapered slits with a gap that is wide at the entrance and gradually decreases with depth, provide minimal cell stress and reduce 82.14% of the stress generated in conventional straight-hole filters. We designed two types of tapered-slit filters, Filters 6 and 8, respectively, containing the tapered slits with outlet widths of 6 ?m and 8 ?m at a slit density of 34,445/cm(2) on the membrane. We fabricated the vertical slits with a tapered angle of 2 ° on a SU8 membrane by adjusting the UV expose dose and the air gap between the membrane and the photomask during lithography. In the experimental study, the proposed tapered-slit filter captured 89.87% and 82.44% of the cancer cells spiked in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and diluted blood (blood: PBS?=?1:4), respectively, at a sample flow rate of 5 ml per hour, which is 33.3 times faster than previous lateral tapered-slit filters. We further verified the capability to culture on chip after capturing: 72.33% of cells among the captured cells still remained viable after a 5-day culture. The proposed tapered-slit membrane filters verified high-throughput viable CTC isolation capability, thereby inaugurating further advanced CTC research for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. PMID:25790944

  10. Isolation of viable Toxoplasma gondii from tissues and feces of cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Darrington, C; Tiao, N; Ferreira, L R; Choudhary, S; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A

    2013-02-01

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia, were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined with the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25); 33 cats were seropositive. Hearts of all 36 cats were homogenized, digested in pepsin, and bioassayed in mice. Feces were examined for T. gondii oocysts by bioassay in mice. Viable T. gondii was isolated from heart of 26 by bioassay in mice and from 25 seropositive and 1 seronegative cats. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from feces (oocysts) by bioassay in mice. In total, viable T. gondii was isolated from 27 of the 36 cats, and these isolates were designated TgCatEt1 to TgCatEt27. The high prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in feces of 8 (19.4%) of 36 cats is of high epidemiologic significance. This is the first report of isolation of viable T. gondii from any host in Ethiopia. PMID:22924928

  11. 75 FR 58417 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application-Alternative Inspection Services (SENTRI...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...Protection Agency Information Collection Activities...FAST Commercial Driver Application) AGENCY...FAST Commercial Driver Application (CBP...extension of an information collection that...or other forms of information. Title: Application...FAST Commercial Driver Application....

  12. Enhanced detection of ischemic but viable myocardium by the reinjection of thallium after stress-redistribution imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasken Dilsizian; Thomas P. Rocco; Nanette M. T. Freedman; Martin B. Leon; Robert O. Bonow

    1990-01-01

    The identification of ischemic but viable myocardium by thallium exercise scintigraphy is often imprecise, since many of the perfusion defects that develop in ischemic myocardium during exercise do not fill in on subsequent redistribution images. We hypothesized that a second injection of thallium given after the redistribution images were taken might improve the detection of ischemic but viable myocardium. We

  13. A DEXTRAN SWIM-UP PROCEDURE FOR SEPARATION OF HIGHLY MOTILE AND VIABLE RAM SPERMATOZOA FROM SEMINAL PLASMA

    E-print Network

    Zaragoza, Universidad de

    a selection of highly motile and viable ram spermatozoa free of semen plasma. Semen collected from 3 rams overELSEVIER A DEXTRAN SWIM-UP PROCEDURE FOR SEPARATION OF HIGHLY MOTILE AND VIABLE RAM SPERMATOZOA individual motility, membrane integrity and resistance to a hypoosmotic swelling test (HOS). Semen samples

  14. Spatial patterns of viable spore deposition of the corn ear rot pathogen, Gibberella zeae, in first-year corn fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Schmale III; Gary C. Bergstrom; Denis A. Shah

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the spatial patterns of viable spore deposition of Gibberella zeae in two years (2003 and 2004) within corn fields lacking corn or cereal debris at Aurora, New York, USA. Viable airborne spores of G. zeae were collected inside corn canopies at the levels of silks and tassels on Petri plates containing a selective medium. Spores were sampled over

  15. Application of excitation-emission fluorescence matrices and UV/Vis absorption to monitoring the photocatalytic degradation of commercial humic acid.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Sergio; Marín, Juan M; Restrepo, Gloria; Frimmel, Fritz H

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the use of excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and UV/Vis spectroscopy to monitor the changes in the composition and reactivity of Aldrich humic acids (Aldrich HA) as a model compound for natural organic matter (NOM) during photocatalytic degradation. Degussa P-25 titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) and a solar UV-light simulator (a batch reactor) were used. The photocatalysis shifted the fluorescence maxima of EEMs of Aldrich HA toward shorter wavelengths, which implied that the photocatalytic degradation of commercial Aldrich HA caused the breakdown of high molecular weight components and the formation of lower molecular weight fractions. In addition, the fluorescence intensity of fulvic- and humic-like Aldrich HA presented a strong correlation with dissolved organic carbon (DOC), specific UV absorbance (SUVA) parameters, trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP), and organically bound halogens absorbable on activated carbon formation potential (AOXFP). Fluorescence spectroscopy was shown to be a powerful tool for monitoring of the photocatalytic degradation of HA. PMID:23178828

  16. Commercial Fertilizers and Commercial Poisonous Insecticides.

    E-print Network

    Harrington, H. H. (Henry Hill)

    1903-01-01

    reg- ulating the sale of commercial fertilizers, the particular brand herein named, Stern's Amrnoniated 'Razo Bone Szbperfosfate, has the following composition : Total phosphoric acid. .................... .9.6 r per cent. Water sol... in sulphate of ammonia. The source of phosphoric acid is acid phos- phate, or as it is somztimes called, superphosphate, or bone llleal and steamed bones. Acid phosphate or superphosphate means an insolu- ble phosphate-whether a rock phosphate. a bone...

  17. Comparing Commercial WWW Browsers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notess, Greg R.

    1995-01-01

    Four commercial World Wide Web browsers are evaluated for features such as handling of WWW protocols and different URLs: FTP, Telnet, Gopher and WAIS, and e-mail and news; bookmark capabilities; navigation features; file management; and security support. (JKP)

  18. ERC commercialization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    The ERC family of companies is anticipating market entry of their first commercial product, a 2.8-MR power plant, in the second quarter of 1999. The present Cooperative Agreement provides for: (1) Commercialization planning and organizational development, (2) Completion of the pre-commercial DFC technology development, (3) Systems and plant design, (4) Manufacturing processes` scale-up to full- sized stack components and assemblies, (5) Upgrades to ERC`s test facility for full-sized stack testing, and (6) Sub-scale testing of a DFC Stack and BOP fueled with landfill gas. This paper discusses the first item, that of preparing for commercialization. ERC`s formal commercialization program began in 1990 with the selection of the 2-MR Direct Fuel Cell power plant by the American Public Power Association (APPA) for promotion to the over 2000 municipal utilities comprising APPA`s segment of the utility sector. Since that beginning, the APPA core group expanded to become the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group (FCCG) which includes representation from all markets - utilities and other power generation equipment buyers.

  19. Commercial Actors Stage Strike

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Missner, Emily D.

    On May 1, 2000, 75,000 members of the Screen Actors Guild (SAG) and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists staged a walk-out in protest of advertisers's proposed changes to the ways in which actors get paid for work in commercials. According to the current pay scheme, principle on-screen actors appearing in network commercials earn $479 in base pay as well as a residual payment ranging from $47 to $123. Over a standard thirteen-week run, actors earn an average of $13,000 per commercial. However, actors in cable commercials make a flat fee of $479 to $1,014 for the same thirteen-week run. SAG and the American Federation of Television and Radio Artists are demanding a fourteen percent pay raise for both types of commercials. However, the advertisers would like to pay the actors only $2,575 for an unlimited thirteen-week network run. While this amount may seem like a lot of money, the average income for members of the SAG members is only $7000 a year, reflecting the possibility that actors may only appear in one or two commercials a year. This is the first major strike in the entertainment industry since 1988.

  20. NASA's approach to the commercial use of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillam, I. T., IV

    1984-01-01

    NASA planning activities in the area of commercial development of space resources are reviewed. Examples of specific types of commercial space ventures are given, according to three different categories: new commercial high-technology ventures; new commercial application of existing space technology, and commercial ventures resulting from the transfer of existing space programs to the private sector. Basic objectives for reducing technical, financial and institutional risks for commercial space operations are considered. Attention is given to the cooperative working environment encouraged by Joint Endeavor Agreements (JEAs) and Technical Exchange Agreements (TEAs) between industrial organizations in the development of space systems. Benefits of the commercial development of space resources include the production of purer pharmaceuticals for the treatment of cancers, kidney diseases, and diabetes; and the development of ultra-pure semiconductor crystals for use in next generation electronic equipment.

  1. Parasite Antigen in Serum Predicts the Presence of Viable Brain Parasites in Patients With Apparently Calcified Cysticercosis Only

    PubMed Central

    Zea-Vera, Alonso; Cordova, Erika G.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gonzales, Isidro; Pretell, E. Javier; Castillo, Yesenia; Castro-Suarez, Sheila; Gabriël, Sarah; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Dorny, Pierre; Garcia, Hector H.

    2013-01-01

    Background.?Computed tomography (CT) remains the standard neuroimaging screening exam for neurocysticercosis, and residual brain calcifications are the commonest finding. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is more sensitive than CT but is rarely available in endemic regions. Enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay uses antibody detection for diagnosis confirmation; by contrast, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antigen detection (Ag-ELISA) detects circulating parasite antigen. This study evaluated whether these assays predict undetected viable cysts in patients with only calcified lesions on brain CT. Methods.?Serum samples from 39 patients with calcified neurocysticercosis and no viable parasites on CT were processed by Ag-ELISA and EITB. MRI was performed for each patient within 2 months of serologic testing. Conservatively high ELISA and EITB cutoffs were used to predict the finding of viable brain cysts on MRI. Results.?Using receiver operating characteristic–optimized cutoffs, 7 patients were Ag-ELISA positive, and 8 had strong antibody reactions on EITB. MRI showed viable brain cysts in 7 (18.0%) patients. Patients with positive Ag-ELISA were more likely to have viable cysts than Ag-ELISA negatives (6/7 vs 1/32; odds ratio, 186 [95% confidence interval, 1–34 470.0], P < .001; sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 96.9%, positive likelihood ratio of 27 to detect viable cysts). Similar but weaker associations were also found between a strong antibody reaction on EITB and undetected viable brain cysts. Conclusions.?Antigen detection, and in a lesser degree strong antibody reactions, can predict viable neurocysticercosis. Serological diagnostic methods could identify viable lesions missed by CT in patients with apparently only calcified cysticercosis and could be considered for diagnosis workup and further therapy. PMID:23788241

  2. Detection of viable Salmonella in lettuce by propidium monoazide real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ningjian; Dong, Jin; Luo, Laixin; Li, Yong

    2011-05-01

    Contamination of lettuce by Salmonella has caused serious public health problems. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in food, but it is inaccurate as it might amplify DNA from dead target cells as well. This study aimed to investigate the stability of DNA of dead Salmonella cells in lettuce and to develop an approach to detecting viable Salmonella in lettuce. Salmonella-free lettuce was inoculated with heat-killed Salmonella Typhimurium cells and stored at 4 °C. Bacterial DNA extracted from the sample was amplified by real-time PCR targeting the invA gene. Our results indicate that DNA from the dead cells remained stable in lettuce for at least 8 d. To overcome this limitation, propidium monoazide (PMA), a dye that can selectively penetrate dead bacterial cells and cross-link their DNA upon light exposure, was combined with real-time PCR. Lettuce samples inoculated with different levels of dead or viable S. Typhimurium cells were treated or untreated with PMA before DNA extraction. Real-time PCR suggests that PMA treatment effectively prevented PCR amplification from as high as 10(8) CFU/g dead S. Typhimurium cells in lettuce. The PMA real-time PCR assay could detect viable Salmonella at as low as 10(2) CFU/mL in pure culture and 10(3) CFU/g in lettuce. With 12-h enrichment, S. Typhimurium of 10(1) CFU/g in lettuce was detectable. In conclusion, the PMA real-time PCR assay provides an alternative to real-time PCR assay for accurate detection of Salmonella in food. PMID:22417362

  3. A direct viable count method for the enumeration of attached bacteria and assessment of biofilm disinfection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, F. P.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the adaptation of an in situ direct viable count (in situ DVC) method in biofilm disinfection studies. The results obtained with this technique were compared to two other enumeration methods, the plate count (PC) and conventional direct viable count (c-DVC). An environmental isolate (Klebsiella pneumoniae Kp1) was used to form biofilms on stainless steel coupons in a stirred batch reactor. The in situ DVC method was applied to directly assess the viability of bacteria in biofilms without disturbing the integrity of the interfacial community. As additional advantages, the results were observed after 4 h instead of the 24 h incubation time required for colony formation and total cell numbers that remained on the substratum were enumerated. Chlorine and monochloramine were used to determine the susceptibilities of attached and planktonic bacteria to disinfection treatment using this novel analytical approach. The planktonic cells in the reactor showed no significant change in susceptibility to disinfectants during the period of biofilm formation. In addition, the attached cells did not reveal any more resistance to disinfection than planktonic cells. The disinfection studies of young biofilms indicated that 0.25 mg/l free chlorine (at pH 7.2) and 1 mg/l monochloramine (at pH 9.0) have comparable disinfection efficiencies at 25 degrees C. Although being a weaker disinfectant, monochloramine was more effective in removing attached bacteria from the substratum than free chlorine. The in situ DVC method always showed at least one log higher viable cell densities than the PC method, suggesting that the in situ DVC method is more efficient in the enumeration of biofilm bacteria. The results also indicated that the in situ DVC method can provide more accurate information regarding the cell numbers and viability of bacteria within biofilms following disinfection.

  4. Identifying viable regulatory and innovation pathways for regenerative medicine: a case study of cultured red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Mittra, J; Tait, J; Mastroeni, M; Turner, M L; Mountford, J C; Bruce, K

    2015-01-25

    The creation of red blood cells for the blood transfusion markets represents a highly innovative application of regenerative medicine with a medium term (5-10 year) prospect for first clinical studies. This article describes a case study analysis of a project to derive red blood cells from human embryonic stem cells, including the systemic challenges arising from (i) the selection of appropriate and viable regulatory protocols and (ii) technological constraints related to stem cell manufacture and scale up to clinical Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standard. The method used for case study analysis (Analysis of Life Science Innovation Systems (ALSIS)) is also innovative, demonstrating a new approach to social and natural science collaboration to foresight product development pathways. Issues arising along the development pathway include cell manufacture and scale-up challenges, affected by regulatory demands emerging from the innovation ecosystem (preclinical testing and clinical trials). Our discussion reflects on the efforts being made by regulators to adapt the current pharmaceuticals-based regulatory model to an allogeneic regenerative medicine product and the broader lessons from this case study for successful innovation and translation of regenerative medicine therapies, including the role of methodological and regulatory innovation in future development in the field. PMID:25094050

  5. The pathway to commercialization for nanomedicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ted Flynn; Chiming Wei

    2005-01-01

    Nanomedicine is a global opportunity that will change the face of medicine and drug delivery in the next 20 years. To date, US firms have focused primarily on the science and less on the commercial application of nanomedicine. As a result, there remain significant obstacles in bringing a nanomedicine product to market. Overcoming those obstacles will require a multidisciplinary approach

  6. Techniques of comparative analysis regarding commercial websites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Eliza Micu; Adrian Micu

    2007-01-01

    Both for potential customers and the loyal ones, Web Marketing determines the interactivity degree growth of commercial relationships. Marketing initiatives can be quickly launched and precisely focused on every part of customers’ database, created by means of the Permission Marketing application. The comparative approach of three representative e-commerce websites in the computer field illustrate the techniques concerning the opportunities that

  7. Communication Satellites: Experimental & Operational, Commercial & Public Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1979

    1979-01-01

    The title reflects the first and major article in an issue of this newsletter devoted entirely to communication satellites. This series of articles on the potential and applications of communication satellites in development projects is concerned with their development for commercial and public service, development in the Pacific region, SPACECOM…

  8. From Homochiral Clusters to Racemate Crystals: Viable Nuclei in 2D Chiral Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Seibel, Johannes; Parschau, Manfred; Ernst, Karl-Heinz

    2015-07-01

    The quest for enantiopure compounds raises the question of which factors favor conglomerate crystallization over racemate crystallization. Studying nucleation and crystal growth at surfaces with submolecular-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy is a suitable approach to better understand intermolecular chiral recognition. Racemic heptahelicene on the Ag(100) surface shows a transition from homochiral nuclei to larger racemic motifs, although the extended homochiral phase exhibits higher density. The homochiral-heterochiral transition is explained by the higher stability of growing nuclei due to a better match of the molecular lattice to the substrate surface. Our observations are direct visual proof of viable nuclei. PMID:26069901

  9. Viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria: Gene expression in planktonic and biofilm cells.

    PubMed

    Trevors, J T

    2011-08-01

    Viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria are common in nutrient poor and/or stressed environments as planktonic cells and biofilms. This article discusses approaches to researching VBNC bacteria to obtain knowledge that is lacking on their gene expression while in the VBNC state, and when they enter into and then recover from this state, when provided with the necessary nutrients and environmental conditions to support growth and cell division. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of proteins, global gene expression, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and sequencing by synthesis coupled with data on cell numbers, viability and species present are central to understanding the VBNC state. PMID:21616099

  10. 46 CFR 28.200 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for Documented Vessels...200 Applicability. Each documented commercial fishing industry vessel must meet the requirements of this...

  11. 46 CFR 28.100 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 28.100 Applicability. Each commercial fishing industry vessel must meet the requirements of this...

  12. 1978 Suggested Fungicide Guide: Fungicide Guide for Commercial Vegetable Growers. Circular 999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Barry; Shurtleff, M. C.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides and fungicides for the control of pests and disease by commercial vegetable growers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of fungicides to control infestation in all crops of commercial importance. (CS)

  13. Supporting Commercial Space Development Supporting Commercial Space Development

    E-print Network

    Supporting Commercial Space Development Part 1 Supporting Commercial Space Development Part 1 Commercial Space Development Part 1: Support Alternatives versus Investor Risk Perceptions & Tolerances Administration or the United States Government. 1 of 228 #12;Supporting Commercial Space Development Part 1 "When

  14. Commercial Spacewalking: Designing an EVA Qualification Program for Space Tourism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-01-01

    In the near future, accessibility to space will be opened to anyone with the means and the desire to experience the weightlessness of microgravity, and to look out upon both the curvature of the Earth and the blackness of space, from the protected, shirt-sleeved environment of a commercial spacecraft. Initial forays will be short-duration, suborbital flights, but the experience and expertise of half a century of spaceflight will soon produce commercial vehicles capable of achieving low Earth orbit. Even with the commercial space industry still in its infancy, and manned orbital flight a number of years away, there is little doubt that there will one day be a feasible and viable market for those courageous enough to venture outside the vehicle and into the void, wearing nothing but a spacesuit, armed with nothing but preflight training. What that Extravehicular Activity (EVA) preflight training entails, however, is something that has yet to be defined. A number of significant factors will influence the composition of a commercial EVA training program, but a fundamental question remains: 'what minimum training guidelines must be met to ensure a safe and successful commercial spacewalk?' Utilizing the experience gained through the development of NASA's Skills program - designed to qualify NASA and International Partner astronauts for EVA aboard the International Space Station - this paper identifies the attributes and training objectives essential to the safe conduct of an EVA, and attempts to conceptually design a comprehensive training methodology meant to represent an acceptable qualification standard.

  15. CRADA Final Report: Application of Dual-Mode Invertor Control to Commercially Available Radial-Gap Permanent Magnet Motors - Vol. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lawler, J.S. (U. Tennessee-Knoxville); McKeever, J.W.; Downing, M.E.; Stahlhut, R.D (John Deere); Bremmer, R. (John Deere); Shoemaker, J.M. (John Deere); Seksarian, A.K. (john Deere); Poore, B. (John Deere); Lutz, J. (UQM)

    2006-05-01

    John Deere and Company (Deere), their partner, UQM Technologies, Inc. (UQM), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) recently completed work on the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) Number ORNL 04-0691 outlined in this report. CRADA 04-0691 addresses two topical issues of interest to Deere: (1) Improved characterization of hydrogen storage and heat-transfer management; and (2) Potential benefits from advanced electric motor traction-drive technologies. This report presents the findings of the collaborative examination of potential operational and cost benefits from using ORNL/PEEMRC dual-mode inverter control (DMIC) to drive permanent magnet (PM) motors in applications of interest to Deere. DMIC was initially developed and patented by ORNL to enable PM motors to be driven to speeds far above base speed where the back-electromotive force (emf) equals the source voltage where it is increasingly difficult to inject current into the motor. DMIC is a modification of conventional phase advance (CPA). DMIC's dual-speed modes are below base speed, where traditional pulse-width modulation (PWM) achieves maximum torque per ampere (amp), and above base speed, where six-step operation achieves maximum power per amp. The modification that enables DMIC adds two anti-parallel thyristors in each of the three motor phases, which consequently adds the cost of six thyristors. Two features evaluated in this collaboration with potential to justify the additional thyristor cost were a possible reduction in motor cost and savings during operation because of higher efficiency, both permitted because of lower current. The collaborative analysis showed that the reduction of motor cost and base cost of the inverter was small, while the cost of adding six thyristors was greater than anticipated. Modeling the DMIC control displayed inverter efficiency gains due to reduced current, especially under light load and higher speed. This current reduction, which is the salient feature of DMIC, may be significant when operating duty cycles have low loads at high frequencies. Reduced copper losses make operation more efficient thereby reducing operating costs. In the Deere applications selected for this study, the operating benefit was overshadowed by the motor's rotational losses. Rotational losses of Deere 1 and Deere 2 dominate the overall drive efficiency so that their reduction has the greatest potential to improve performance. A good follow-up project would be to explore cost erective ways to reduce the rotational losses buy 66%.

  16. New perspectives on viable microbial communities in low-biomass cleanroom environments

    PubMed Central

    Vaishampayan, Parag; Probst, Alexander J; La Duc, Myron T; Bargoma, Emilee; Benardini, James N; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2013-01-01

    The advent of phylogenetic DNA microarrays and high-throughput pyrosequencing technologies has dramatically increased the resolution and accuracy of detection of distinct microbial lineages in mixed microbial assemblages. Despite an expanding array of approaches for detecting microbes in a given sample, rapid and robust means of assessing the differential viability of these cells, as a function of phylogenetic lineage, remain elusive. In this study, pre-PCR propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment was coupled with downstream pyrosequencing and PhyloChip DNA microarray analyses to better understand the frequency, diversity and distribution of viable bacteria in spacecraft assembly cleanrooms. Sample fractions not treated with PMA, which were indicative of the presence of both live and dead cells, yielded a great abundance of highly diverse bacterial pyrosequences. In contrast, only 1% to 10% of all of the pyrosequencing reads, arising from a few robust bacterial lineages, originated from sample fractions that had been pre-treated with PMA. The results of PhyloChip analyses of PMA-treated and -untreated sample fractions were in agreement with those of pyrosequencing. The viable bacterial population detected in cleanrooms devoid of spacecraft hardware was far more diverse than that observed in cleanrooms that housed mission-critical spacecraft hardware. The latter was dominated by hardy, robust organisms previously reported to survive in oligotrophic cleanroom environments. Presented here are the findings of the first ever comprehensive effort to assess the viability of cells in low-biomass environmental samples, and correlate differential viability with phylogenetic affiliation. PMID:23051695

  17. New perspectives on viable microbial communities in low-biomass cleanroom environments.

    PubMed

    Vaishampayan, Parag; Probst, Alexander J; La Duc, Myron T; Bargoma, Emilee; Benardini, James N; Andersen, Gary L; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2013-02-01

    The advent of phylogenetic DNA microarrays and high-throughput pyrosequencing technologies has dramatically increased the resolution and accuracy of detection of distinct microbial lineages in mixed microbial assemblages. Despite an expanding array of approaches for detecting microbes in a given sample, rapid and robust means of assessing the differential viability of these cells, as a function of phylogenetic lineage, remain elusive. In this study, pre-PCR propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment was coupled with downstream pyrosequencing and PhyloChip DNA microarray analyses to better understand the frequency, diversity and distribution of viable bacteria in spacecraft assembly cleanrooms. Sample fractions not treated with PMA, which were indicative of the presence of both live and dead cells, yielded a great abundance of highly diverse bacterial pyrosequences. In contrast, only 1% to 10% of all of the pyrosequencing reads, arising from a few robust bacterial lineages, originated from sample fractions that had been pre-treated with PMA. The results of PhyloChip analyses of PMA-treated and -untreated sample fractions were in agreement with those of pyrosequencing. The viable bacterial population detected in cleanrooms devoid of spacecraft hardware was far more diverse than that observed in cleanrooms that housed mission-critical spacecraft hardware. The latter was dominated by hardy, robust organisms previously reported to survive in oligotrophic cleanroom environments. Presented here are the findings of the first ever comprehensive effort to assess the viability of cells in low-biomass environmental samples, and correlate differential viability with phylogenetic affiliation. PMID:23051695

  18. Quantifying viable Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes simultaneously in raw shrimp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaohuan; Liu, Haiquan; Lou, Yang; Xiao, Lili; Liao, Chao; Malakar, Pradeep K; Pan, Yingjie; Zhao, Yong

    2015-08-01

    A novel TaqMan-based multiplex real-time PCR method combined with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment was firstly developed for the simultaneous quantification of viable Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes in raw shrimp. The optimization of PMA concentration showed that 100 ?M was considered optimal to effectively inhibit 10(8) CFU/mL dead cells of both bacteria. The high specificity of this method was confirmed on tests using 96 target and non-target strains. The optimized assay could detect as low as 10(1)-10(2) CFU/g of each strain on the artificially contaminated shrimp, and its amplification efficiencies were up to 100 and 106 % for V. parahaemolyticus and L. monocytogenes, respectively. Furthermore, this assay has been successfully applied to describe the behavior of these two pathogens in raw shrimps stored at 4 °C. In conclusion, this PMA TaqMan-based multiplex real-time PCR technique, where the whole procedure takes less than 5 h, provides an effective and rapid tool for monitoring contamination of viable V. parahaemolyticus and L. monocytogenes in seafood, improving seafood safety and protecting public health. PMID:26048473

  19. Matter power spectra in viable f (R) gravity models with massive neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lee, Chung-Chi; Shen, Jia-Liang

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the matter power spectra in the power law and exponential types of viable f (R) theories along with massive neutrinos. The enhancement of the matter power spectrum is found to be a generic feature in these models. In particular, we show that in the former type, such as the Starobinsky model, the spectrum is magnified much larger than the latter one, such as the exponential model. A greater scale of the total neutrino mass, ?m?, is allowed in the viable f (R) models than that in the ?CDM one. We obtain the constraints on the neutrino masses by using the CosmoMC package with the modified MGCAMB. Explicitly, we get ?m? < 0.451 (0.214) eV at 95% C.L. in the Starobinsky (exponential) model, while the corresponding one for the ?CDM model is ?m? < 0.200 eV. Furthermore, by treating the effective number of neutrino species Neff as a free parameter along with ?m?, we find that Neff =3.78-0.84+0.64 (3.47-0.60+0.74) and ?m? =0.533-0.411+0.254 (< 0.386) eV at 95% C.L. in the Starobinsky (exponential) model.

  20. The determination of viable counts in probiotic cultures microencapsulated by spray-coating.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Claude P; Raymond, Yves; Tompkins, Thomas A

    2010-12-01

    An assessment of various methods to determine viable counts (CFU) in freeze-dried and dried microencapsulated (ME) probiotic cultures was carried out. Microencapsulation was done by spray-coating of dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 or Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15708 cultures with fat. Rehydration of the ME powders was incomplete when they were added to water and gently agitated. As a result analytical methods based on vortexing of rehydrated ME cultures and which did not incorporate a high-shear homogenization (HSH) step underestimated the viable counts. The CFU of ME cultures were identical when methods using either blender or generator probes high-shear homogenization (HSH) were carried out. Furthermore HSH reduced the variability of the CFU results of both free-cell and ME cultures by a factor of three. The addition of an emulsifier (Tween 80) in the rehydrating medium to dissolve fat did not improve CFU counts when generator probes were used for HSH. The presence of fat in the ME product, or when added to the rehydration medium, improved CFU counts of B. longum but not of L. rhamnosus. PMID:20832691

  1. Real time PCR quantification of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum samples treated with propidium monoazide.

    PubMed

    de Assunção, Thiago Milech; Batista, Eraldo L; Deves, Candida; Villela, Anne Drumond; Pagnussatti, Vany Elisa; de Oliveira Dias, Ana Christina; Kritski, Afrânio; Rodrigues-Junior, Valnês; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Santos, Diógenes Santiago

    2014-07-01

    Diagnostic methods of TB, nowadays, are prone to delay in diagnosis, increased false negative results and are not sensitive to many forms of paucibacillary disease. The aims of this study were to implement a quantitative nucleic acid-based diagnostic test for paucibacillary tuberculosis, enabling the identification and quantification of viable Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli by quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR). The intergenic region of the single-copy inhA-mabA gene was chosen as the target region for design of primers and probes conjugated with fluorophores. The construction of synthetic DNA flanking the target region served as standards for absolute quantification of nucleic acids. Using the intercaling dye, propidium monoazide, we were able to discriminate between viable and dead cells of M. tuberculosis. The diagnosis method showed a broad sensitivity (96.1%) when only compared to samples of smear-positive sputum and ROC analyses shows that our approach performed well and yielded a specificity of 84.6% and a sensitivity of 84.6% when compared to M. tuberculosis colony-forming units counting. PMID:24863654

  2. Short communication: Viable Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in retail artisanal Coalho cheese from Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Faria, A C S; Schwarz, D G G; Carvalho, I A; Rocha, B B; De Carvalho Castro, K N; Silva, M R; Moreira, M A S

    2014-07-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis and it potentially plays a role in Crohn's disease. In humans, the main route of transmission of MAP might be the intake of contaminated milk and dairy products. Considering that MAP has already been detected in many types of cheese in different counties, and that Coalho cheese is an important dairy product in northeastern Brazil, the aim of this study was to report the first detection of MAP in retail Coalho cheese in Brazil by PCR and culture. Of 30 retail Coalho cheese samples, 3 (10%) amplified fragments of a similar size to that expected (626 bp) were obtained and viable MAP was recovered by culture from 1 (3.3%) sample. The DNA from the positive culture sample was sequenced and showed 99% identity with the insertion sequence IS900 deposited in GenBank. It was possible to identify the presence of MAP-specific DNA in the analyzed samples for the first time in Brazil, and to recover viable cells from retail Coalho cheese. PMID:24797534

  3. SUMMER 2014 INTERN Commercial Banking Credit Analyst Group

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    usbank.com Fly high. SUMMER 2014 INTERN Commercial Banking ­ Credit Analyst Group US Bank, one of the nation's top performing banks, is seeking an Intern for the summer of 2014 in the Commercial Banking ­ Credit Analyst Group, for our Billings office. The successful applicant should

  4. Private Astronaut Training Prepares Commercial Crews of Tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    A new company that includes a handful of former NASA personnel is already taking applications for the first comprehensive commercial astronaut training approved by the Federal Aviation Administration. Waypoint 2 Space, located at Johnson Space Center, hopes to draw space tourists and enthusiasts and future commercial crewmembers with first-hand NASA know-how, as well as agency training technology.

  5. Purity assessment of commercial zein products after purification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful utilization of commercial zein products for certain food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and medical applications requires a decolorized/deodorized zein of high purity. A zein protein product with those qualifications can be achieved by column filtration of commercial yellow zein solutions thro...

  6. The Belem Framework for Action: Harnessing the Power and Potential of Adult Learning and Education for a Viable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adult Learning, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the Belem Framework for Action. This framework focuses on harnessing the power and potential of adult learning and education for a viable future. This framework begins with a preamble on adult education and towards lifelong learning.

  7. Commercial Space Activities at Goddard

    E-print Network

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Commercial Space Activities at Goddard Space Flight Center Chris Scolese Director, Goddard Space Flight Center #12;Commercial Space at Goddard · Goddard has been involved in Commercial Space for over 30, or the launch vehicle. ­ Rapid Spacecraft Development Office ­ Commercial Utilization of Integration & Test

  8. Space Station Freedom commercial infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barquinero, Kevin; Cassidy, Jeff

    1989-01-01

    NASA policy concerning the commercial infrastructure of the Space Station is examined. Plans for receiving and evaluating unsolicited proposals to provide commercial infrastructure are outlined. The guidelines for development of the commercial infrastructure and examples of opportunities for industry are listed. Also, a program for industry feedback concerning the commercial infrastructure policy is discussed.

  9. Principles and application of high pressure-based technologies in the food industry.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, V M Bala; Martínez-Monteagudo, Sergio I; Gupta, Rockendra

    2015-01-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) has emerged as a commercially viable food manufacturing tool that satisfies consumers' demand for mildly processed, convenient, fresh-tasting foods with minimal to no preservatives. Pressure treatment, with or without heat, inactivates pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, yeast, mold, viruses, and also spores and extends shelf life. Pressure treatment at ambient or chilled temperatures has minimal impact on product chemistry. The product quality and shelf life are often influenced more by storage conditions and packaging material barrier properties than the treatment itself. Application of pressure reduces the thermal exposure of the food during processing, thereby protecting a variety of bioactive compounds. This review discusses recent scientific advances of high pressure technology for food processing and preservation applications such as pasteurization, sterilization, blanching, freezing, and thawing. We highlight the importance of in situ engineering and thermodynamic properties of food and packaging materials in process design. Current and potential future promising applications of pressure technology are summarized. PMID:25747234

  10. Suborbital rocket program for commercial microgravity research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessling, F. C.; Lundquist, C. A.; Seaquist, V.; Naumann, R.

    1992-08-01

    A review is presented of NASA's Consort program, a series of low-gravity materials-processing experiment payloads to be launched from the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The overall objectives of the Consort missions are investigation of minerals processing in low gravity for commercial application, development of operational concepts and flight-qualified hardware for future missions utilizing STS Shuttle/Orbiter facilities, and enhancement of U.S. commercial launch capabilities and marketing of sounding rockets. Attention is given to vehicle description, experiment accommodations, and industrial participation.

  11. CRADA Final Report: Application of Dual-Mode Inverter Control to Commercially Available Radial-Gap Mermanent Magnet Motors - Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    McKeever, John W [ORNL; Lawler, Jack [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL; Stahlhut, Ronnie D [ORNL; Bremmer, R. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Shoemaker, J. M. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Seksarian, A. K. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Poore, B. [John Deere -- Moline Tech Center; Lutz, Jon F [ORNL

    2006-05-01

    John Deere and Company (Deere), their partner, UQM Technologies, Inc. (UQM), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) recently completed work on the cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) Number ORNL 04-0691 outlined in this report. CRADA 04-0691 addresses two topical issues of interest to Deere: (1) Improved characterization of hydrogen storage and heat-transfer management; and (2) Potential benefits from advanced electric motor traction-drive technologies. This report presents the findings of the collaborative examination of potential operational and cost benefits from using ORNL/PEEMRC dual-mode inverter control (DMIC) to drive permanent magnet (PM) motors in applications of interest to Deere. DMIC was initially developed and patented by ORNL to enable PM motors to be driven to speeds far above base speed where the back-electromotive force (emf) equals the source voltage where it is increasingly difficult to inject current into the motor. DMIC is a modification of conventional phase advance (CPA). DMIC's dual-speed modes are below base speed, where traditional pulse-width modulation (PWM) achieves maximum torque per ampere (amp), and above base speed, where six-step operation achieves maximum power per amp. The modification that enables DMIC adds two anti-parallel thyristors in each of the three motor phases, which consequently adds the cost of six thyristors. Two features evaluated in this collaboration with potential to justify the additional thyristor cost were a possible reduction in motor cost and savings during operation because of higher efficiency, both permitted because of lower current. The collaborative analysis showed that the reduction of motor cost and base cost of the inverter was small, while the cost of adding six thyristors was greater than anticipated. Modeling the DMIC control displayed inverter efficiency gains due to reduced current, especially under light load and higher speed. This current reduction, which is the salient feature of DMIC, may be significant when operating duty cycles have low loads at high frequencies. Reduced copper losses make operation more efficient thereby reducing operating costs. In the Deere applications selected for this study, the operating benefit was overshadowed by the motor's rotational losses. Rotational losses of Deere 1 and Deere 2 dominate the overall drive efficiency so that their reduction has the greatest potential to improve performance. A good follow-up project would be to explore cost erective ways to reduce the rotational losses buy 66%. During this analysis it has been shown that, for a PM synchronous motor (PMSM), the DMIC's salient feature is its ability to minimize the current required to deliver a given power. The root-mean-square (rms) current of a motor is determined by the speed, power, motor drive parameters, and controls as I{sub rms} = (n, P, motor drive parameters, controls), where n is the relative speed, {omega}/{omega}{sub base} = {Omega}/{Omega}{sub base}, {omega} is the mechanical frequency, {Omega} is the electrical frequency, and P is the power. The characteristic current is the rms current at infinite speed, when all resistance and rotational losses are neglected. Expressions have been derived for the characteristic currents of PMSMs when the motor is controlled by CPA and by DMIC. The expression for CPA characteristic current is I{sub n{yields}{infinity}}{sup CPA} = nE{sub base}/X = nE{sub base}/n{Omega}{sub b}L = E{sub base}/{Omega}{sub b}L, which is strictly a function of the machine parameters, back-emf at base speed, base speed electrical frequency, and inductance. At high speeds, the rms current tends to remain constant even when the load-power requirements are reduced. The expression for DMIC characteristic current is I{sub n{yields}{infinity}}{sup DMIC} = P/3V{sub max} = P{pi}/3{radical}2V{sub dc}, which has nothing to do with machine parameters. This interesting result shows that at high speeds under DMIC control, the rms current diminis

  12. Space Radiation Environmental Considerations for Commercial Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steve; Zapp, Neal

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews basic environmental information regarding solar energetic particle events and includes some discussion slides regarding the operational impacts application as it may apply to commercial spaceflight.

  13. Assessment of a High Purity Zein Product from Commercial Zein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful utilization of commercial zein products for food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and medical applications requires a decolorized/deodorized zein that is substantially undenatured protein. A zein protein product with those qualifications has already been developed by a patent pending process. ...

  14. 15 CFR 971.503 - Diligent commercial recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...However, required expenditures will not be established at a level which would discourage commercial recovery or operational efficiency. (b) To meet the diligence requirement, the applicant must propose to the Administrator an...

  15. 15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...COMMERCE GENERAL REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications...requirements for resource assessment and logical mining unit (§ 971.501); (6) A description...

  16. 75 FR 32983 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ...engaged in the commercial application of fertilizer and other agricultural products by airplane...restricted CDLs to the transport of solid fertilizers and limited quantities of diesel fuel or liquid fertilizer. NAAA wants FMCSA, by exemption,...

  17. Monitoring of Electrical End-Use Loads in Commercial Buildings 

    E-print Network

    Martinez, M.; Alereza, T.; Mort, D.

    1988-01-01

    energy management programs oriented toward end-use applications. The focus of the program is on five major types of commercial buildings: offices, grocery stores, restaurants, retail stores, and warehouses. End-use metering equipment is installed at about...

  18. 33 CFR 151.1003 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste § 151.1003 Applicability...transportation of municipal or commercial waste in coastal waters. (b) This subpart does...

  19. 33 CFR 151.1003 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...GARBAGE, MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Transportation of Municipal and Commercial Waste § 151.1003 Applicability...transportation of municipal or commercial waste in coastal waters. (b) This subpart does...

  20. Commercial microwave space power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Siambis; W. Gregorwich; S. Walmsley; K. Shockey; K. Chang

    1991-01-01

    The authors present and investigate a current technology design point for beamed microwave commercial space power. The design point requires that 25 kW be delivered to the user load with 30 percent overall system efficiency. The key elements of the design are: an efficient rectenna at the user end; a high gain, low beam width, efficient antenna at the central