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1

Commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

2

Prototype to product—developing a commercially viable neural prosthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cochlear implant or 'Bionic ear' is a device that enables people who do not get sufficient benefit from a hearing aid to communicate with the hearing world. The Cochlear implant is not an amplifier, but a device that electrically stimulates the auditory nerve in a way that crudely mimics normal hearing, thus providing a hearing percept. Many recipients are able to understand running speech without the help of lipreading. Cochlear implants have reached a stage of maturity where there are now 170 000 recipients implanted worldwide. The commercial development of these devices has occurred over the last 30 years. This development has been multidisciplinary, including audiologists, engineers, both mechanical and electrical, histologists, materials scientists, physiologists, surgeons and speech pathologists. This paper will trace the development of the device we have today, from the engineering perspective. The special challenges of designing an active device that will work in the human body for a lifetime will be outlined. These challenges include biocompatibility, extreme reliability, safety, patient fitting and surgical issues. It is emphasized that the successful development of a neural prosthesis requires the partnership of academia and industry.

Seligman, Peter

2009-12-01

3

Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

1994-01-01

4

Commercial Application of a New Formaldehyde-free Wood Adhesive from Renewable Professor Kaichang Li  

E-print Network

Commercial Application of a New Formaldehyde-free Wood Adhesive from Renewable materials Professor adhesive protein, have developed several formaldehyde-free, cost-competitive, and commercially viable wood-based adhesives has been licensed by Hercules Incorporated (Wilmington, DE), and is currently used for commercial

Escher, Christine

5

[Quality of commercial inoculants for soybean crop in Argentina: concentration of viable rhizobia and presence of contaminants].  

PubMed

In view of the inoculant production technology available, quality control is a necessary tool to improve soybean inoculants commercialized in Argentina. In 1988, the Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias de la Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos (Argentina) created a quality control service for soybean crop inoculants to offer to farmers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of soybean crop inoculants for seven cropping seasons and to contrast these results with those from previous investigations conducted in our country. This work was developed using 128 inoculant samples from 30 different trade names. The analyzed variables were: inoculant label information, number of viable rhizobia and presence of contaminants. Twenty per cent of the labels showed defects that did not comply with the Argentine legislation. The detected problems in inoculant labels were related to lot numbers or the expiry date, which lacked, was easy to remove or not visible. Eighty seven per cent of the analyzed inoculants were formulated in liquid carriers. Seventy six per cent of the samples had a number of rhizobia above 10(8) CFU/g or ml, the minimum quantity required by the legislation. Thirty per cent of the analyzed inoculants had contaminants and their presence was related to low rhizobia counts, as shown in a correspondence analysis. The relationship between liquid inoculants and the absence of contaminants was expressed. It can be concluded from the comparison of results found in this investigation with those in previous works published on Argentinean inoculants, that inoculant quality has been improved, although the situation is far from ideal. Adequate manufacturing and commercialization controls are necessary to ensure product quality. PMID:20589336

Benintende, S

2010-01-01

6

Commercial Applications Multispectral Sensor System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is funding a multispectral sensor system to be used in the development of remote sensing applications. The Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) is designed to provide versatility in acquiring spectral and spatial information. The ATLAS system will be a test bed for the development of specifications for airborne and spaceborne remote sensing instrumentation for dedicated applications. This objective requires spectral coverage from the visible through thermal infrared wavelengths, variable spatial resolution from 2-25 meters; high geometric and geo-location accuracy; on-board radiometric calibration; digital recording; and optimized performance for minimized cost, size, and weight. ATLAS is scheduled to be available in 3rd quarter 1992 for acquisition of data for applications such as environmental monitoring, facilities management, geographic information systems data base development, and mineral exploration.

Birk, Ronald J.; Spiering, Bruce

1993-01-01

7

Dispersal of viable row-crop seeds of commercial agriculture by farmland birds: implication for genetically modified crops.  

PubMed

To address some concerns about the expansion of genetically engineered pharmaceutical and industrial crops to outdoor plantings and potential impacts on the human food supply, we determined whether commercial agriculture seeds of maize or corn Zea mays L., barley Hordeum vulgare L., safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. and rice Oryza sativa L. are digested or pass viably through the digestive tract, or are transported externally, by captive mallard ducks Anas platyrhynchos L., ring-necked pheasants Phasianus colchicus L., red-winged blackbirds Agelaius phoeniceus (L.) and rock pigeons Columba livia Gmelin (with the exception of whole maize seeds which were too large to feed to the blackbirds). These crop seeds, whether free-fed or force-fed, did not pass through the digestive tract of these bird species. The birds nonetheless did retain viable seeds in the esophagus/crop and gizzard for several hours. For example, after foraging for 6 h, mallards had retained an average of 228 +/- 112 barley seeds and pheasants 192 +/- 78 in the esophagus/crop, and their germination rates were 93 and 50%, respectively. Birds externally transported seeds away from the feeding location, but in only four instances were seeds found attached to their muddy feet or legs and in no case to feathers. Risk of such crop seeds germinating, establishing and reproducing off site after transport by a bird (externally or internally) or movement of a carcass by a predator, will depend greatly on the crop and bird species, location, environmental conditions (including soil characteristics), timing, and seed condition. PMID:19081011

Cummings, John L; Handley, Levis W; Macbryde, Bruce; Tupper, Shelagh K; Werner, Scott J; Byram, Zachary J

2008-01-01

8

Commercial application of rainfall simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landloch Pty Ltd is a commercial consulting firm, providing advice on a range of land management issues to the mining and construction industries in Australia. As part of the company's day-to-day operations, rainfall simulation is used to assess material erodibility and to investigate a range of site attributes. (Landloch does carry out research projects, though such are not its core business.) When treated as an everyday working tool, several aspects of rainfall simulation practice are distinctively modified. Firstly, the equipment used is regularly maintained, and regularly upgraded with a primary focus on ease, safety, and efficiency of use and on reliability of function. As well, trained and experienced technical support is considered essential. Landloch's chief technician has over 10 years experience in running rainfall simulators at locations across Australia and in Africa and the Pacific. Secondly, the specific experimental conditions established for each set of rainfall simulator runs are carefully considered to ensure that they accurately represent the field conditions to which the data will be subsequently applied. Considerations here include: • wetting and drying cycles to ensure material consolidation and/or cementation if appropriate; • careful attention to water quality if dealing with clay soils or with amendments such as gypsum; • strong focus on ensuring that the erosion processes considered are those of greatest importance to the field situation of concern; and • detailed description of both material and plot properties, to increase the potential for data to be applicable to a wider range of projects and investigations. Other important company procedures include: • For each project, the scientist or engineer responsible for analysing and reporting rainfall simulator data is present during the running of all field plots, as it is essential that they be aware of any specific conditions that may have developed when the plots were subjected to rain; and • Regular calibration of all equipment. In general, typical errors when rainfall simulation is carried out by inexperienced researchers include: • Failure to accurately measure rainfall rates (the most common error); • Inappropriate initial conditions, including wetting treatments; • Use of inappropriately small plots - relating to our concern at the erosion processes considered be those of genuine field relevance; • Inappropriate rainfall kinetic energies; and • Failure to observe critical processes operating on the study plots, such as saturation excess or the presence of impeding layers at shallow depths. Landloch regularly uses erodibility data to design stable batter profiles for minesite waste dumps. Subsequent monitoring of designed dumps has confirmed that modelled erosion rates are consistent with those subsequently measured under field conditions.

Loch, Rob J.

2010-05-01

9

Mycorrhizae Application of commercial arbuscular  

E-print Network

. Plants grew better in acid than in alkaline soil, and Glomus sp (iso- late LPA21) was more efficient or type of inoculum used. One inoculant tended to improve growth in alkaline soil, while another was more in acid soil than both commercial inoculants. An increased inoculant dose from 1% to 3% sometimes caused

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

10

Dispersal of viable row-crop seeds of commercial agriculture by farmland birds: implication for genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address some concerns about the expansion of genetically engineered pharmaceutical and industrial crops to outdoor plantings and potential impacts on the human food supply, we determined whether commercial agriculture seeds of maize or corn Zea mays L., barley Hordeum vulgare L., safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. and rice Oryza sativa L. are digested or pass viably through the digestive tract,

John L. Cummings; Levis W. Handley; Bruce Macbryde; Shelagh K. Tupper; Scott J. Werner; Zachary J. Byram

2008-01-01

11

Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study  

E-print Network

Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study: Reducing Water Consumption of Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation Report to Congress U.S. Department of Energy This report is being Concentrating Solar Power Technologies............................................... 7 Parabolic Troughs

Laughlin, Robert B.

12

Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

13

Wood energy-commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

Kennel, R. P.

1978-01-01

14

Commercial Applications of Natural Language Processing  

E-print Network

Commercial Applications of Natural Language Processing Kenneth W. Church AT&T Bell Laboratories with the first public demonstration of MT in 1954 and ending with the sobering findings of the ALPAC committee (in contrast with machine translation). As the AL­ PAC committee predicted, word processing has

Church, Kenneth W.

15

Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)

Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

16

Advanced thermal control technology for commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of the technologies previously developed for the thermal control of spacecraft have found their way into commercial application. Specialized coatings and heat pipes are but two examples. The thermal control of current and future spacecraft is becoming increasingly more demanding, and a variety of new technologies are being developed to meet these needs. Closed two-phase loops are perceived to be the answer to many of the new requirements. All of these technologies are discussed, and their spacecraft and current terrestrial applications are summarized.

Swanson, Theodore D.

1991-01-01

17

ERAST: Scientific Applications and Technology Commercialization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a conference publication for an event designed to inform potential contractors and appropriate personnel in various scientific disciplines that the ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) vehicles have reached a certain level of maturity and are available to perform a variety of missions ranging from data gathering to telecommunications. There are multiple applications of the technology and a great many potential commercial and governmental markets. As high altitude platforms, the ERAST vehicles can gather data at higher resolution than satellites and can do so continuously, whereas satellites pass over a particular area only once each orbit. Formal addresses are given by Rich Christiansen, (Director of Programs, NASA Aerospace Technology Ent.), Larry Roeder, (Senior Policy Advisor, U.S. Dept. of State), and Dr. Marianne McCarthy, (DFRC Education Dept.). The Commercialization Workshop is chaired by Dale Tietz (President, New Vista International) and the Science Workshop is chaired by Steve Wegener, (Deputy Manager of NASA ERAST, NASA Ames Research Center.

Hunley, John D. (Compiler); Kellogg, Yvonne (Compiler)

2000-01-01

18

Commercial applications of perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology  

SciTech Connect

Tracer technology can be successfully applied to many leak-checking and monitoring evaluations of operating systems (e.g., building HVACs), manufacturing processes and products (e.g., air conditioners), and subsurface components and systems (e.g., underground storage tanks). Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology is the most sensitive of all tracer technologies because the ambient background levels of the five (5) routinely-used PFTs are in the range of parts per 10{sup 15} parts of air (i.e., parts per quadrillion-ppq) and this technology's instrumentation can measure down to those levels. The effectiveness of this technology is achieved both in terms of cost (very little PFT need to be used) and detectability; for example, very small leaks can be rapidly detected. The PFT compounds, which are environmentally and biologically safe to use, are commercially available as are the sampling and analysis instrumentation. This presentation concerns (1) the steps being taken to commercialize this technology, (2) new applications of processes currently under study, and (3) applications in areas of use that will be particularly beneficial to the environment. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Dietz, R.N.

1991-06-01

19

Commercial gasifier for IGCC applications study report  

SciTech Connect

This was a scoping-level study to identify and characterize the design features of fixed-bed gasifiers appearing most important for a gasifier that was to be (1) potentially commercially attractive, and (2) specifically intended for us in integrated coal gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) applications. It also performed comparative analyses on the impact or value of these design features and on performance characteristics options of the whole IGCC system since cost, efficiency, environmental traits, and operability -- on a system basis -- are what is really important. The study also reviewed and evaluated existing gasifier designs, produced a conceptual-level gasifier design, and generated a moderately advanced system configuration that was utilized as the reference framework for the comparative analyses. In addition, technical issues and knowledge gaps were defined. 70 figs., 31 tabs.

Notestein, J.E.

1990-06-01

20

Commercial applications of new photovoltaic technologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has directed and managed photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) activities for the Department of Energy for more than 13 years. The NREL budget for these activities is almost $33 million for FY 1991. With the world's increasing concern for the environment and the United States' renewed apprehension over secure and adequate energy supplies, the use of semiconducting materials for the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity - photovoltaics - is an excellent example of government-supported high technology ready for further development by U.S. companies. Some new PV technologies and their research progress, some commercial applications of PV, and NREL's technology transfer activities for helping U.S. industry in its efforts to bring new products or services to the marketplace are described.

Mcconnell, R.

1991-01-01

21

Civilian applications and policy implications of commercial unmanned aerial vehicles  

E-print Network

As UAV capabilities continue to improve the technology will spill out of the military sector and into commercial and civil applications. Already, UAVs have demonstrated commercial marketability in such diverse areas as ...

Sprague, Kara Lynn, 1980-

2004-01-01

22

Seasat data applications by commercial users  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Seasat Program was initiated as a proof-of-concept mission to evaluate the effectiveness of a study of remotely sensed oceanographic phenomena from a satellite platform. From its inception the Seasat Program has been user-oriented. The user comprised three major segments of the ocean community, including academic users, users within various government agencies, and commercial users. Commercial users represent a broad spectrum of commercial marine industries. The commercial users proposed to NASA to carry out a pilot demonstration to assess the utility of Seasat data in the private sector. The commercial users' program is considered along with case studies that utilize Seasat data, and aspects of real-time system operation. Attention is given to the potential value of an employment of synthetic aperture radar, the altimeter, the scatterometer, and the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer.

Montgomery, D. R.

1980-01-01

23

Lawn and Turf Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for use in training commercial pesticide applicators. It gives identification and control information for common lawn and turf diseases, insects, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrate pests. It also discusses phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and application methods. (BB)

Khan, M. S.

24

Commercial applications for thermal imaging instruments: an update  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared thermal imaging instruments were originally developed by the military for passive night vision and surveillance and, subsequently, found applications in weapons aiming and target tracking. Commercial applications for this technology dictate different rules and place different emphasis on instrument configuration and performance characteristics. This paper begins with a performance comparison between military night vision systems and typical commercial imaging

Herbert Kaplan

1994-01-01

25

Robotic UV Curing for Automotive Exterior Applications: A cost-effective and technically viable alternative for UV curing  

Microsoft Academic Search

As car makers continue to look at UV curable coatings as a future exterior paint finish there has been a significant effort to develop coatings that meet the cosmetic and performance requirements of the customer. At the same time, many car makers have lamented that not enough effort has been put forth to develop a cost-effective and technically viable means

P. Mills

26

40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...applicators. (1) All commercial applicators shall demonstrate...competency for each category of commercial applicators...under these regulations. Commercial applicators in each category...babies, children, pregnant women, and elderly...

2011-07-01

27

40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...applicators. (1) All commercial applicators shall demonstrate...competency for each category of commercial applicators...under these regulations. Commercial applicators in each category...babies, children, pregnant women, and elderly...

2012-07-01

28

40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...applicators. (1) All commercial applicators shall demonstrate...competency for each category of commercial applicators...under these regulations. Commercial applicators in each category...babies, children, pregnant women, and elderly...

2010-07-01

29

40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...applicators. (1) All commercial applicators shall demonstrate...competency for each category of commercial applicators...under these regulations. Commercial applicators in each category...babies, children, pregnant women, and elderly...

2013-07-01

30

High performance VLSI for space and commercial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

High performance VLSI is a key electronic technology required to advance science and commercial space missions. This paper illustrates several such NASA applications which require special purpose VLSI. In addition to being able to solve unique scientific problems, specialized VLSI can provide breakthrough technology for new commercial products. For example, the basic technology used to solve a key problem for

G. K. Maki; H. C. Shaw; K. Q. Chen

1996-01-01

31

Commercial applications of millimeterwaves: history, present status, and future trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility to apply millimeterwaves for various applications in the commercial arena has a long history, as the advantages being offered by such systems have been known for more than three decades. Within the last five years the necessity of turning their attention away from the military sector towards commercial products has caused more and more companies to look at

Holger H. Meinel

1995-01-01

32

Energymaster Desiccant System Application to Light Commercial Buildings  

E-print Network

Desiccant cooling systems offer unique advantages over conventional equipment in certain applications. AskCorp's Energymaster unit has been applied in several commercial situations where these advantages are most significant. The magnitude...

Blanpied, M. C.; Coellner, J. A.; Macintosh, D. S.

1987-01-01

33

Photonic Band Gap Devices for Commercial Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In our effort to develop and demonstrate the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of functional photonic crystal devices in both 2D and 3D structures, we identified various tasks and goals towards achieving the proposed applications. Two...

A. Sharkawy, S. Shi, C. Chen, D. Prather

2006-01-01

34

Ecosystem Viable Yields  

E-print Network

The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook to restore and exploit their stocks at maximum sustainable yield (MSY), a concept and practice without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model. Acknowledging this gap, we propose a definition of "ecosystem viable yields" (EVY) as yields compatible i) with biological viability levels for all time and ii) with an ecosystem dynamics. To the difference of MSY, this notion is not based on equilibrium, but on viability theory, which offers advantages for robustness. For a generic class of multispecies models with harvesting, we provide explicit expressions for the EVY. We apply our approach to the anchovy--hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem between the years 1971 and 1981.

De Lara, Michel; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Tam, Jorge

2011-01-01

35

invited Paper CommercialApplications for COIL  

E-print Network

The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is a high power, fiber deliverable tool, which can be used for a number applications are CO, excimer, HFIDF and the chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) [2,3]. Of these other laser oxygen-iodine laser (COIL), the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC)/STI Optronics team

Carroll, David L.

36

Cryogenic Applications of Commercial Electronic Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electronics include finding components that can function usefully in the cold and possess low enough power dissipation so as not to heat the systems they are designed to measure. From design, test, and integration perspectives it is useful for components to operate similarly at room and cryogenic temperatures; however this is not a necessity. Some of the circuits presented here have been used successfully in the MUSTANG and in the GISMO camera to build a complete digital to analog multiplexer (which will be referred to as the Cryogenic Address Driver board). Many of the circuit elements described are of a more general nature rather than specific to the Cryogenic Address Driver board, and were studied as a part of a more comprehensive approach to addressing a larger set of cryogenic electronic needs.

Buchanan, Ernest D.; Benford, Dominic J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

2012-01-01

37

Intersatellite link application to commercial communications satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental characteristics of intersatellite link (ISL) systems, and their application to domestic, regional, and global satellite communications, are described. The quantitative advantages of using ISLs to improve orbit utilization, spectrum occupancy, transmission delay (compared to multi-hop links), coverage, and connectivity, and to reduce the number of earth station antennas, are also presented. Cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits of using ISLs are identified, and the technical and systems planning aspects of ISL systems implementation are addressed.

Lee, Young S.; Atia, Ali E.; Ponchak, Denise S.

1988-01-01

38

Rocket engine heat transfer and material technology for commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid fueled rocket engine combustion, heat transfer, and material technology have been utilized in the design and development of compact combustion and heat exchange equipment intended for application in the commercial field. An initial application of the concepts to the design of a compact steam generator to be utilized by electrical utilities for the production of peaking power is described.

Hiltabiddle, J.; Campbell, J.

1974-01-01

39

Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides practical information needed by commercial pesticide applicators to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of various pesticides. The text and accompanying illustrations cover the seven major topics of pests, pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, using pesticides safely, application equipment,…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

40

Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tremendous advances in remote sensing technology and computing power over the last few decades are now providing scientists with the opportunity to investigate, measure, and model environmental patterns and processes with increasing confidence. Such advances are being pursued by the Nebraska Remote Sensing Facility, which consists of approximately 30 faculty members and is very competitive with other institutions in the depth of the work that is accomplished. The development of this facility targeted at applications, commercialization, and education programs in the area of precision agriculture provides a unique opportunity. This critical area is within the scope of NASA goals and objectives of NASA s Applications, Technology Transfer, Commercialization, and Education Division and the Earth Science Enterprise. This innovative integration of Aerospace (Aeronautics) Technology Enterprise applications with other NASA enterprises serves as a model of cross-enterprise transfer of science with specific commercial applications.

Narayanan, Ram; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

2002-01-01

41

Space Commercial Opportunities for Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity research at NASA has been an undertaking that has included both science and commercial approaches since the late 80s and early 90s. The Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community has been developed, through NASA's science grants, into a valuable base of expertise in microgravity science. This was achieved through both ground and flight scientific research. Commercial microgravity research has been primarily promoted thorough NASA sponsored Centers for Space Commercialization which develop cost sharing partnerships with industry. As an example, the Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP)at Northeastern University has been working with cost sharing industry partners in developing Zeolites and zeo-type materials as an efficient storage medium for hydrogen fuel. Greater commercial interest is emerging. The U.S. Congress has passed the Commercial Space Act of 1998 to encourage the development of a commercial space industry in the United States. The Act has provisions for the commercialization of the International Space Station (ISS). Increased efforts have been made by NASA to enable industrial ventures on-board the ISS. A Web site has been established at http://commercial/nasa/gov which includes two important special announcements. One is an open request for entrepreneurial offers related to the commercial development and use of the ISS. The second is a price structure and schedule for U.S. resources and accommodations. The purpose of the presentation is to make the Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community, which understands the importance of microgravity experimentation, aware of important aspects of ISS commercial development. It is a desire that this awareness will be translated into a recognition of Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena application opportunities coordinated through the broad contacts of this community with industry.

Gavert, R.

2000-01-01

42

77 FR 14535 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and...Application to Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This request for comment is...Abstract: The Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) is a trade processing...

2012-03-12

43

77 FR 30021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and...Application to Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This is a proposed extension...Abstract: The Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) is a trade processing...

2012-05-21

44

43 CFR 3274.12 - How will BLM review my commercial use permit application?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false How will BLM review my commercial use permit application? 3274.12...LEASING Applying for and Obtaining a Commercial Use Permit § 3274.12 How will BLM review my commercial use permit application? (a)...

2013-10-01

45

43 CFR 3274.12 - How will BLM review my commercial use permit application?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false How will BLM review my commercial use permit application? 3274.12...LEASING Applying for and Obtaining a Commercial Use Permit § 3274.12 How will BLM review my commercial use permit application? (a)...

2011-10-01

46

43 CFR 3274.12 - How will BLM review my commercial use permit application?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false How will BLM review my commercial use permit application? 3274.12...LEASING Applying for and Obtaining a Commercial Use Permit § 3274.12 How will BLM review my commercial use permit application? (a)...

2012-10-01

47

14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.  

...certificate application requirements for commercial operators. 119.36 Section 119...OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Certification, Operations...certificate application requirements for commercial operators. (a) Each...

2014-01-01

48

14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...certificate application requirements for commercial operators. 119.36 Section 119...OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Certification, Operations...certificate application requirements for commercial operators. (a) Each...

2010-01-01

49

Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the industrial, institutional, structural and health related pest control category. The text discusses the use and safety of applying pesticides to control invertebrate and vertebrate pests such as ants,…

Fitzwater, William D.; Renes, Robert

50

Commercialization of terrestrial applications of aerospace power technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review is conducted of the current strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. aerospace industry in taking advantage of its expertise in power technology to design and commercialize that technology's terrestrial applications. The energy technologies encompass MHD, turbogenerators, fuel cells, photovoltaic cells, superconducting magnets, flywheels, magnetic levitation systems, and advanced batteries. The environmentally benign character of most of these technologies

Dennis R. Landsberg

1992-01-01

51

Applications Tests of Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters  

E-print Network

Field application tests have been conducted on three 4 to 6-ton commercial heat pump water heater systems in a restaurant, a coin-operated laundry, and an office building cafeteria in Atlanta. The units provide space cooling while rejecting heat...

Oshinski, J. N..; Abrams, D. W.

1987-01-01

52

SONOS technology for commercial and military nonvolatile memory applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon Oxide Nitride Oxide Semiconductor (SONOS) technology is well suited for military and commercial nonvolatile memory applications. Excellent long term memory retention, radiation hardness, and endurance has been demonstrated with this technology. This paper summarizes our data in these areas for SONOS technology.

Adams, D.; Farrell, P.; Jacunski, M.; Williams, D.; Jakubczak, J.; Knoll, M.; Murray, J.

53

Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications University of Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications grant was funded by NASA's Kennedy Space Center in FY 2002 to provide dedicated biotechnology and agricultural research focused on the regeneration of space flight environments with direct parallels in Earth-based applications for solving problems in the environment, advances in agricultural science, and other human support issues amenable to targeted biotechnology solutions. This grant had three project areas, each with multiple tasks. They are: 1) Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education, 2) Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications, and 3) Commercial Applications. The Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education (SABRE) Center emphasized the fundamental biology of organisms involved in space flight applications, including those involved in advanced life support environments because of their critical role in the long-term exploration of space. The SABRE Center supports research at the University of Florida and at the Space Life Sciences Laboratory (SLSL) at the Kennedy Space Center. The Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications component focused on developing and applying sensor technologies to space environments and agricultural systems. The research activities in nanosensors were coordinated with the SABRE portions of this grant and with the research sponsored by the NASA Environmental Systems Commercial Space Technology Center located in the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. Initial sensor efforts have focused on air and water quality monitoring essential to humans for living and working permanently in space, an important goal identified in NASA's strategic plan. The closed environment of a spacecraft or planetary base accentuates cause and effect relationships and environmental impacts. The limited available air and water resources emphasize the need for reuse, recycling, and system monitoring. It is essential to collect real-time information from these systems to ensure crew safety. This new class of nanosensors will be critical to monitoring the space flight environment in future NASA space systems. The Commercial Applications component of this program pursued industry partnerships to develop products for terrestrial use of NASA sponsored technologies, and in turn to stimulate growth in the biotechnology industry. For technologies demonstrating near term commercial potential, the objective is to include industry partners on or about the time of proof of concept that will not only co-invest in the technology but also take the resultant technology to the commercial market.

Phillips, Winfred; Evanich, Peggy L.

2004-01-01

54

Application of the airborne ocean color imager for commercial fishing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the investigation was to develop a commercial remote sensing system for providing near-real-time data (within one day) in support of commercial fishing operations. The Airborne Ocean Color Imager (AOCI) had been built for NASA by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc., but it needed certain improvements, data processing software, and a delivery system to make it into a commercial system for fisheries. Two products were developed to support this effort: the AOCI with its associated processing system and an information service for both commercial and recreational fisheries to be created by Spectro Scan, Inc. The investigation achieved all technical objectives: improving the AOCI, creating software for atmospheric correction and bio-optical output products, georeferencing the output products, and creating a delivery system to get those products into the hands of commercial and recreational fishermen in near-real-time. The first set of business objectives involved Daedalus Enterprises and also were achieved: they have an improved AOCI and new data processing software with a set of example data products for fisheries applications to show their customers. Daedalus' marketing activities showed the need for simplification of the product for fisheries, but they successfully marketed the current version to an Italian consortium. The second set of business objectives tasked Spectro Scan to provide an information service and they could not be achieved because Spectro Scan was unable to obtain necessary venture capital to start up operations.

Wrigley, Robert C.

1993-01-01

55

Evaluation of Multithreaded Uniprocessors for Commercial Application Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

As memory speeds grow at a considerably slower rate than processor speeds, memory accesses are starting to dominate the execution time of processors, and this will likely continue into the future. This trend will be exacerbated by growing miss rates due to commercial applications, object-oriented programming and micro-kernel based operating systems. We examine the use of coarse-grained multithreading to address

Richard J. Eickemeyer; Ross E. Johnson; Steven R. Kunkel; Mark S. Squillante; Shiafun Liu

1996-01-01

56

Robust Low-Cost Cathode for Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under funding from the NASA Commercial Technology Office, a cathode assembly was designed, developed, fabricated, and tested for use in plasma sources for ground-based materials processing applications. The cathode development activity relied on the large prior NASA investment and successful development of high-current, high-efficiency, long-life hollow cathodes for use on the International Space Station Plasma Contactor System. The hollow cathode was designed and fabricated based on known engineering criteria and manufacturing processes for compatibility with the requirements of the plasma source. The transfer of NASA GRC-developed hollow cathode technology for use as an electron emitter in the commercial plasma source is anticipated to yield a significant increase in process control, while eliminating the present issues of electron emitter lifetime and contamination.

Patterson, Michael J.

2007-01-01

57

Commercial applications of diffractive switched optical elements (SOEs)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Switched optical elements (SOE's) are an emerging class of optical devices. These dynamically addressed optical elements utilize transmissive or reflective structures incorporating a material that exhibits an electrically variable index of refraction. When an electric field is applied to the resulting composite structure, a range of predetermined optical characteristics emerge--spatially modulating, diffracting or redirecting light in a controlled manner. Thus, the effect that the device has on an incident wavefront may be controlled by varying the applied electric field. Although not yet in widespread commercial use, these devices could expand the range of applications for holographic optical elements and diffractive optical elements through a new capability, that of real-time control of the optical function of an optical element. A number of diffractive SOE structures will be discussed here as well as some of the technical and engineering issues that affect the performance of switchable optical elements for use in commercial products.

Parker, William P.

1996-05-01

58

Review of Compact Commercial Accelerator Products and Applications.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, particle accelerators were developed initially for nuclear, then for particle physics research. From this research resulted applications of accelerators in the field of medicine and industry. These application-oriented accelerators are generally built commercially, and they often emphasize other qualities than the accelerators for research. The research applications frequently require energies or beam qualities at the limit of the existing technologies. They offer the largest flexibility in term of particles and beam properties, but are more complex, more expensive and often require large and highly qualified staff to operate and maintain them. In contrast, most applications are done with low to moderate energy protons or electrons, but often with large average beam power. The accelerators are generally specialized for a specific application, and are therefore very simple and inexpensive to operate. The author will review some applications in the field of medicine, such as the production of radio-isotopes for medical diagnostic or the production of electrons, protons or fast neutron beams for cancer therapy. In the industrial field, high power electron beam are used for sterilization and for the modification of materials. Log No. 1001

Jongen, Y.

1997-05-01

59

Performance measures in the earth observations commercialization applications program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance measures in the Earth Observations Commercialization Application Program (EOCAP) are key to its success and include net profitability; enhancements to industry productivity through generic innovations in industry practices, standards, and protocols; and documented contributions to public policy governing the newly developing remote sensing industry. Because EOCAP requires company co-funding, both parties to the agreement (the government and the corporate partner) have incentives to pursue these goals. Further strengthening progress towards these goals are requirements for business plans in the company's EOCAP proposal, detailed scrutiny given these plans during proposal selection, and regularly documented progress reports during project implementation.

Macauley, Molly K.

1996-03-01

60

Film forming microbial biopolymers for commercial applications-A review.  

PubMed

Abstract Microorganisms synthesize intracellular, structural and extracellular polymers also referred to as biopolymers for their function and survival. These biopolymers play specific roles as energy reserve materials, protective agents, aid in cell functioning, the establishment of symbiosis, osmotic adaptation and support the microbial genera to function, adapt, multiply and survive efficiently under changing environmental conditions. Viscosifying, gelling and film forming properties of these have been exploited for specific significant applications in food and allied industries. Intensive research activities and recent achievements in relevant and important research fields of global interest regarding film forming microbial biopolymers is the subject of this review. Microbial polymers such as pullulan, kefiran, bacterial cellulose (BC), gellan and levan are placed under the category of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and have several other functional properties including film formation, which can be used for various applications in food and allied industries. In addition to EPS, innumerable bacterial genera are found to synthesis carbon energy reserves in their cells known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), microbial polyesters, which can be extruded into films with excellent moisture and oxygen barrier properties. Blow moldable biopolymers like PHA along with polylactic acid (PLA) synthesized chemically in vitro using lactic acid (LA), which is produced by LA bacteria through fermentation, are projected as biodegradable polymers of the future for packaging applications. Designing and creating of new property based on requirements through controlled synthesis can lead to improvement in properties of existing polysaccharides and create novel biopolymers of great commercial interest and value for wider applications. Incorporation of antimicrobials such as bacteriocins or silver and copper nanoparticles can enhance the functionality of polymer films especially in food packaging applications either in the form of coatings or wrappings. Use of EPS in combinations to obtain desired properties can be evaluated to increase the application range. Controlled release of active compounds, bioactive protection and resistance to water can be investigated while developing new technologies to improve the film properties of active packaging and coatings. An holistic approach may be adopted in developing an economical and biodegradable packaging material with acceptable properties. An interdisciplinary approach with new innovations can lead to the development of new composites of these biopolymers to enhance the application range. This current review focuses on linking and consolidation of recent research activities on the production and applications of film forming microbial polymers like EPS, PHA and PLA for commercial applications. PMID:23919238

Vijayendra, S V N; Shamala, T R

2014-12-01

61

Inkjet printing of viable mammalian cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to explore the use of a commercial thermal printer to deposit Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) and embryonic motoneuron cells into pre-defined patterns. These experiments were undertaken to verify the biocompatibility of thermal inkjet printing of mammalian cells and the ability to assemble them into viable constructs. Using a modified Hewlett Packard (HP) 550C computer

Tao Xu; Joyce Jin; Cassie Gregory; James J. Hickman; Thomas Boland

2005-01-01

62

40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3...

2010-07-01

63

40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3...

2011-07-01

64

Potential Commercial Applications from Combustion and Fire Research in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The near-zero (microgravity) environment of orbiting spacecraft minimizes buoyant flows, greatly simplifying combustion processes and isolating important phenomena ordinarily concealed by the overwhelming gravity-driven forces and flows. Fundamental combustion understanding - the focus to date of the NASA microgravity-combustion program - has greatly benefited from analyses and experiments conducted in the microgravity environment. Because of the economic and commercial importance of combustion in practice, there is strong motivation to seek wider applications for the microgravity-combustion findings. This paper reviews selected technology developments to illustrate some emerging applications. Topics cover improved fire-safety technology in spacecraft and terrestrial systems, innovative combustor designs for aerospace and ground propulsion, applied sensors and controls for combustion processes, and self-sustaining synthesis techniques for advanced materials.

Friedman, Robert; Lyons, Valerie J.

1996-01-01

65

Commercial applications of perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology. Revision  

SciTech Connect

Tracer technology can be successfully applied to many leak-checking and monitoring evaluations of operating systems (e.g., building HVACs), manufacturing processes and products (e.g., air conditioners), and subsurface components and systems (e.g., underground storage tanks). Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology is the most sensitive of all tracer technologies because the ambient background levels of the five (5) routinely-used PFTs are in the range of parts per 10{sup 15} parts of air (i.e., parts per quadrillion-ppq) and this technology`s instrumentation can measure down to those levels. The effectiveness of this technology is achieved both in terms of cost (very little PFT need to be used) and detectability; for example, very small leaks can be rapidly detected. The PFT compounds, which are environmentally and biologically safe to use, are commercially available as are the sampling and analysis instrumentation. This presentation concerns (1) the steps being taken to commercialize this technology, (2) new applications of processes currently under study, and (3) applications in areas of use that will be particularly beneficial to the environment. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Dietz, R.N.

1991-06-01

66

Electrical properties of commercial sheet insulation materials for cryogenic applications  

SciTech Connect

Dielectric properties of electrical insulation materials are needed for low-temperature power applications. Performance of materials and their compatibility determine the size of the electrical insulation in power equipment. In this work we report the dielectric properties of some commercially available materials in sheet form. The selected materials are polypropylene laminated paper from Sumitomo Electric U.S.A., Inc., porous polyethylene (Tyvek\\texttrademark) from Dupont, and polyamide paper (Nomex\\texttrademark) from Dupont. The dielectric properties are characterized with an electrical impedance analyzer in the frequency domain. The impedances are recorded in a cryocooler in the temperature range from 50 to 300 K. The dielectric breakdown characteristics of the materials are measured in a liquid nitrogen bath at atmospheric pressure.

Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL

2008-01-01

67

Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator System (CAPVC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BDM Corporation has completed the installation of its photovoltaic concentrator application experiment denoted as the Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator (CAPVC). The system was dedicated in July of 1982. This is a nominal 50 kilowatt peak system located on the roof of the BDM facilities in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The photovoltaic concentrating array is a single-axis linear parabolic trough utilizing single crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells under 41.56 suns of net solar concentration. A total of 7,560 square feet of aperture is provided by 54 Solar Kinetics T-700 7-foot aperture mirrors configured in nine north-south oriented rows. A two-piece 90 deg V-shape receiver places the cells at the focal point of the mirror and provides cooling utilizing an ethelyne glycol/water mixture. The photovoltaic array is designed to operate in parallel with the local utility in an augmentary load sharing mode. A portion of the thermal energy resulting from the cell cooling is used for building heating during winter months.

Kauffman, W. R.

68

48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.503 Section 12...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items and Commercially Available...

2011-10-01

69

48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.504 Section 12...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items and Commercially Available...

2011-10-01

70

48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.503 Section 12...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items and Commercially Available...

2012-10-01

71

48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.504 Section 12...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items and Commercially Available...

2010-10-01

72

48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.504 Section 12...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items and Commercially Available...

2012-10-01

73

48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.504 Section 12...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items and Commercially Available...

2013-10-01

74

48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.503 Section 12...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items and Commercially Available...

2013-10-01

75

48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.503 Section 12...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items and Commercially Available...

2010-10-01

76

36 CFR 13.1142 - Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application? ...National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1142 Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?...

2011-07-01

77

36 CFR 13.1142 - Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application? ...National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1142 Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?...

2012-07-01

78

Microfabricated Hydrogen Sensor Technology for Aerospace and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leaks on the Space Shuttle while on the Launch Pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. An effective leak monitoring system requires reliable hydrogen sensors, hardware, and software to monitor the sensors. The system should process the sensor outputs and provide real-time leak monitoring information to the operator. This paper discusses the progress in developing such a complete leak monitoring system. Advanced microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and Gencorp Aerojet (Aerojet). Changes in the hydrogen concentrations are detected using a PdAg on silicon Schottky diode structure. Sensor temperature control is achieved with a temperature sensor and heater fabricated onto the sensor chip. Results of the characterization of these sensors are presented. These sensors can detect low concentrations of hydrogen in inert environments with high sensitivity and quick response time. Aerojet is developing the hardware and software for a multipoint leak monitoring system designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Work has commenced on integrating the NASA LeRC-CWRU hydrogen sensors with the Aerojet designed monitoring system. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. Possible commercialization of the system will also be discussed.

Hunter, Gary W.; Bickford, R. L.; Jansa, E. D.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

1994-01-01

79

Commercialization of interferometric interrogation techniques for fiber sensing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optiphase Inc. develops and manufactures fiber optic interferometric sensing and measurement systems. Principal activities involve the commercialization of this technology in two distinct categories: (1) interferometric demodulation; and (2) white-light coherence domain systems. Instead of focusing on specific end-use sensing systems, we have targeted commercialization of the elements of these systems involved with the interrogation of the sensors and accurate

J. Bush; A. Cekorich

2002-01-01

80

Mechanical properties and potential commercial applications of agricultural composites  

SciTech Connect

This paper reveals information on the mechanical properties of the agricultural composites and their commercial potential as a substitute for plastics and woods leading to a lower cost for these products. Chopped and particulate agricultural co-products (hereafter referred to agro-fibers) such as wheat, brome hay, switchgrass, and corn were mixed at a ratio of 66:34 fiber/epoxy by volume to manufacture agricultural composites (hereafter referred to agrocomposites) using the hand lay-up molding technique. The manufactured composite samples were tested for their mechanical properties such as tensile stress, compressive stress, moisture absorption, and thermal expansion. According to results, chopped switchgrass agro-composite samples showed the highest tensile strength, yet less than that of soft woods and slightly higher than that of plastics (high density polyethylene known as HDPE). As a result, a second set of agro-composite samples using only chopped switchgrass was manufactured at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% agro-fiber content to obtain the optimal fiber/epoxy ratio for which agro-composite samples show the maximum tensile stress. The same procedure was followed for comprehensive strength, thermal expansion, and moisture absorption measurements. According to the obtained results, at 50:50, agro-composite samples showed the highest tensile stress at 2,925 psi compared to that of plastic at 2,000 psi and of soft wood at 6,600 psi. At 10:90 agro-fiber/epoxy, compressive strength of the agro-composite samples were 60% higher than that of plastic and 80% higher than that of soft woods. Thermal expansion and moisture absorption of the manufactured agro-composite samples showed better performances than both woods and plastics. Optimized agro-composite samples, due to their cost competitiveness and low weight, could replace woods and plastics in some applications. A small fraction of plastic and wood market wood lead to new source of revenues for farmers.

Asadi, M.; Farokhi, S. [Meetech Corp., Lawrence, KS (United States); McCabe, S.L. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01

81

LIVE\\/DEAD ® BacLight™: application of a new rapid staining method for direct enumeration of viable and total bacteria in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid epifluorescence staining method using the LIVE\\/DEAD® Bacterial Viability Kit (BacLight™) was applied to estimate both viable and total counts of bacteria in drinking water. BacLight is composed of two nucleic acid-binding stains: SYTO 9™ and propidium iodide. SYTO 9™ penetrates all bacterial membranes and stains the cells green, while propidium iodide only penetrates cells with damaged membranes, and

Lina Boulos; Michèle Prévost; Benoit Barbeau; Josée Coallier; Raymond Desjardins

1999-01-01

82

48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.503 Section 212...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.503...

2012-10-01

83

48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.503 Section 212...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.503...

2013-10-01

84

48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.503 Section 212...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.503...

2011-10-01

85

36 CFR 13.1142 - Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application...Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing § 13.1142 Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit...

2010-07-01

86

48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.504 Section 212...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.504...

2010-10-01

87

48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.503 Section 212...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.503...

2010-10-01

88

48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.504 Section 212...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.504...

2012-10-01

89

48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.504 Section 212...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.504...

2011-10-01

90

48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.504 Section 212...ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.504...

2013-10-01

91

Composites: A viable option  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While it sounded great to be asked to talk about composites, I found it difficult to select subject areas that would be of real interest. My choice is based on saying some things about where the maturity of the composite aircraft structures is today and what that means in terms of future criteria for application. This focus was the basis for my title selection. The other issue that will be addressed was requested by NASA and focuses on composites structures cost. This fits well with the state-of-the-art interpretations I will discuss first, since the cost issue must be viewed from both the current status and future points of view. The difficulty in presenting something in these areas is not in the subjects themselves but in trying to present a real world viewpoint to an audience of composite experts. So, with recognition of the expertise of the audience, I hope you will see something in this presentation about how to view composite aircraft structure.

Mccarty, John E.

1991-01-01

92

Is this material to be used for commercial purposes: Yes / No (delete as applicable) COPYRIGHT DECLARATION (Only for non-commercial purposes)  

E-print Network

Is this material to be used for commercial purposes: Yes / No (delete as applicable) COPYRIGHT DECLARATION (Only for non-commercial purposes) LIBRARY (at which order has been placed for the purposes of private study or research for a non-commercial purpose. 2. I have not previously been supplied

Wallace, Mark

93

Facility overview for commercial application of selected Rocky Flats facilities  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this Facility Overview is to support the Rocky Flats Local Impacts Initiative`s Request for Interest, to solicit interest from commercial corporations for utilizing buildings 865 and 883, and the equipment contained within each building, for a commercial venture. In the following sections, this document describes the Rocky Flats Site, the buildings available for lease, the equipment within these buildings, the site services available to a tenant, the human resources available to support operations in buildings 865 and 883, and the environmental condition of the buildings and property. In addition, a brief description is provided of the work performed to date to explore the potential products that might be manufactured in Buildings 865 and 883, and the markets for these products.

NONE

1996-11-01

94

Physical Properties and Durability of New Materials for Space and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To develop and test new materials for use in space power systems and related space and commercial applications, to assist industry in the application of these materials, and to achieve an adequate understanding of the mechanisms by which the materials perform in their intended applications.

Hambourger, Paul D.

2003-01-01

95

Privacy in Distributed Commercial Applications1 Nicolai Kuntze and Carsten Rudolph  

E-print Network

approaches to commercial applications appearing on the market. Some of these approaches involve third is the App Store for iPhone applications [2] where applications are installed on the device share the same devices and networks. Collecting and relating data or linking activities of a particular

Boyer, Edmond

96

Adapting a commercial shear rheometer for applications in cartilage research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cartilage research typically requires a broad range of experimental characterization techniques and thus various testing setups. Here, we describe how several of those tests can be performed with a single experimental platform, i.e. a commercial shear rheometer. Although primarily designed for shear experiments, such a rheometer can be equipped with different adapters to perform indentation and creep measurements, quantify alterations in the sample thickness, and conduct friction measurements in addition to shear rheology. Beyond combining four distinct experimental methods into one setup, the modified rheometer allows for performing material characterizations over a broad range of time scales, frequencies, and normal loads.

Boettcher, K.; Grumbein, S.; Winkler, U.; Nachtsheim, J.; Lieleg, O.

2014-09-01

97

Recent Breakthroughs in Superconductivity Lead to Rush for Commercial Applicants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The excitement and intense competition surrounding the search for new applications of superconductors resembles the entrepreneurial atmosphere of the early 1970s, when faculty were launching profitable companies based on developments in biotechnology and semiconductors. (MSE)

McDonald, Kim

1987-01-01

98

Development of Commodity Grade, Lower Cost Carbon Fiber - Commercial Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fiber reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fiber composites in transportation is the high cost of the fiber when compared to other candidate

Charles David Warren; Felix L Paulauskas; Frederick S Baker; Cliff Eberle; Amit K Naskar

2009-01-01

99

Iowa Supplement...For Commercial Applicators. IC-427.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text outlines the procedures to be followed for certification. Additionally, a general overview of important data such as toxicity of pesticides, poison control centers, record keeping, equipment maintenance and liability is…

Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Cooperative Extension Service.

100

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Seed Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the types of seeds that require chemical protection against pests. Methods of treatment and labeling requirements for such seeds as rye, wheat, soybeans, peas, and grass hybrids are discussed. Safety and environmental precautions…

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

101

A Hydrogen Leak Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leaks on the space shuttle while on the launch pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. Microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). These sensors have been integrated into hardware and software designed by Aerojet. This complete system allows for multipoint leak monitoring designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. This system is in operation in an automotive application which requires high sensitivity to hydrogen.

Hunter, Gary W.; Makel, D. B.; Jansa, E. D.; Patterson, G.; Cova, P. J.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

1995-01-01

102

Industrial and Commercial Heat Pump Applications in the United States  

E-print Network

-to-air heat pump developments and their applications (largely residential) are beyond the scope of this dis,cussion. HEAT PUMP CYCLE DEVELOP~,\\ENT Basic developments have largely centered on four cycle types (I). Mechanical vapor recompression, as shown... in the design of screw, mixed-flow and centrifugal steam, and vapor compressors. The cycles are often referred to as mechanical vapor compression (MVC) or recompression (MVR) cycles. The selection of the compressor type is largely a function...

Niess, R. C.

103

Climbing Robots for Commercial Applications a K. Berns, C. Hillenbrand, T. Luksch  

E-print Network

chambers of the University Aalen, Germany, Rest [2] six-leegged welding robot with magnetic feets (CSICClimbing Robots for Commercial Applications ­ a Survey K. Berns, C. Hillenbrand, T. Luksch applications. Based on a classification of different types of climbing machines examples of robots

Berns, Karsten

104

Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this calculation report, Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, is to validate the computational method used to perform postclosure criticality calculations. The validation process applies the criticality analysis methodology approach documented in Section 3.5 of the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report. The application systems for this validation consist

Georgeta Radulescu; Don Mueller; Sedat Goluoglu; Daniel F Hollenbach; Patricia B Fox

2007-01-01

105

An experimental study of potential residential and commercial applications of small-scale hybrid power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research presented in this thesis provides an understanding of small-scale hybrid power systems. Experiments were conducted to identify potential applications of renewable energy in residential and commercial applications in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Solar and wind energy converted into electric energy was stored in batteries and inverted to power common household and commercial appliances. Several small to medium size hybrid power systems were setup and utilized to conduct numerous tests to study renewable energy prospects and feasibility for various applications. The experimental results obtained indicate that carefully constructed solar power systems can provide people living in isolated communities with sufficient energy to consistently meet their basic power needs.

Acosta, Michael Anthony

106

Habitation Concepts and Tools for Asteroid Missions and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009 studies were initiated in response to the Augustine Commission s review of the Human Spaceflight Program to examine the feasibility of additional options for space exploration beyond the lunar missions planned in the Constellation Program. One approach called a Flexible Path option included possible human missions to near-Earth asteroids. This paper presents an overview of possible asteroid missions with emphasis on the habitation options and vehicle configurations conceived for the crew excursion vehicles. One launch vehicle concept investigated for the Flexible Path option was to use a dual launch architecture that could serve a wide variety of exploration goals. The dual launch concept used two medium sized heavy lift launch vehicles for lunar missions as opposed to the single Saturn V architecture used for the Apollo Program, or the one-and-a-half vehicle Ares I / Ares V architecture proposed for the Constellation Program. This dual launch approach was studied as a Flexible Path option for lunar missions and for possible excursions to other destinations like geosynchronous earth orbiting satellites, Lagrange points, and as presented in this paper, asteroid rendezvous. New habitation and exploration systems for the crew are presented that permit crew sizes from 2 to 4, and mission durations from 100 to 360 days. Vehicle configurations are presented that include habitation systems and tools derived from International Space Station (ISS) experience and new extra-vehicular activity tools for asteroid exploration, Figure 1. Findings from these studies and as presented in this paper indicate that missions to near-Earth asteroids appear feasible in the near future using the dual launch architecture, the technologies under development from the Constellation Program, and systems derived from the current ISS Program. In addition, the capabilities derived from this approach that are particularly beneficial to the commercial sector include human access to geosynchronous orbit and the Lagrange points with new tools for satellite servicing and in-space assembly.

Smitherman, David

2010-01-01

107

Thermal Storage Applications for Commercial/Industrial Facilities  

E-print Network

Carbonic Industries, a division of cp>r Industries has just developed a ,;torage medium for extremely low temperature applications. Their Stored Energy Carbon Dioxide System (SEC0 2 ) relies on the triple point of carbon dioxide (which acts... as the refrigerant) at -57?C or -70?F. In essence the storage device relies upon a system of creating phase change of carbon dioxide crystals to liquid and limited liquid to gas ex change. Carbon dioxide will store approximately 85 htu/lb dt'ring the solid...

Knipp, R. L.

108

Center for commercial applications of combustion in space (CCACS); A partnership for space commercialization at the Colorado School of Mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is a NASA/Industry/University consortium at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM). The mission of the Center is to assist industry in developing commercial products by conducting combustion research which takes advantage of the unique properties of space. By conducting experiments in near-zero gravity, convection and buoyancy effects can be minimized and new fundamental design-related knowledge can be gained which can be used to improve combustion-related products and processes on earth. Companies, government laboratories and universities most actively involved in CCACS at present include ABB Combustion, ADA Technologies, Advanced Refractory Technologies, Golden Technologies, Lockheed-Martin, Southwest Sciences, Space Systems/Lora, NASA-Lewis, JPL, the Baylor Dental School and the University of Connecticut. Products and processes of interest to the Center participants include industrial process combustors; catalytic combustion; Halon replacements; ceramic powders, whiskers and fibers; metal-matrix composites; NiTi for bone replacement; diamond coatings for oil-well drill bits; zeolites; imaging sensor arrays and other instrumentation for flame and particulate diagnostics. The center also assists member companies in marketing the resulting products and processes.

Schowengerdt, F. D.; Kee, Bob; Linne, Mark; McKinnon, Tom; Moore, John; Parker, Terry; Readey, Dennis; Tilton, John E.; Helble, Joe

1997-01-01

109

Space Environment Stability and Physical Properties of New Materials for Space Power and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To test and evaluate suitability of materials for use in space power systems and related space and commercial applications, and to achieve sufficient understanding of the mechanisms by which, the materials perform in their intended applications. Materials and proposed applications included but were not limited to: Improved anodes for lithium ion batteries, highly-transparent arc-proof solar array coatings, and improved surface materials for solar dynamic concentrators and receivers. Cooperation and interchange of data with industrial companies as appropriate.

Hambourger, Paul D.

1997-01-01

110

Viable but Not Cultivable Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-studied, long-term survival mechanism employed by Gram-positive bacteria is formation of endospores. For Gram-negative\\u000a bacteria, the assumption has been that a survival state does not exist. However, a dormancy state has been described for Gram-negative\\u000a bacteria and designated as the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) strategy of nonspore-forming cells. A variety of environmental\\u000a factors are involved in induction of the

Rita R. Colwell

111

Development of Commodity Grade, Lower Cost Carbon Fiber - Commercial Applications  

SciTech Connect

In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fiber reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fiber composites in transportation is the high cost of the fiber when compared to other candidate materials. As part of the United States Department of Energy s FreedomCAR initiative, significant research is being conducted to develop lower cost, high volume technologies for producing carbon fiber. This paper will highlight the on-going research in this area. Through Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and its partners have been working with the US Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to develop technologies that would enable the production of carbon fiber at 5-7 dollars per pound. Achievement of this cost goal would allow the introduction of carbon fiber based composites into a greater number of applications for future vehicles. The approach has necessitated the development of both alternative precursors and more efficient production methods. Alternative precursors under investigation include textile grade polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers and fibers from lignin-based feedstocks. Previously, as part of the research program, Hexcel Corporation developed the science necessary to allow textile grade PAN to be used as a precursor rather than typical carbon fiber grade precursors. Efforts are also underway to develop carbon fiber precursors from lignin-based feedstocks. ORNL and its partners are working on this effort with domestic pulp and paper producers. In terms of alternative production methods, ORNL has developed a microwave-based carbonization unit that can process pre-oxidized fiber at over 200 inches per minute. ORNL has also developed a new method of high speed oxidation and a new method for precursor stabilization. Additionally, novel methods of activating carbon fiber surfaces have been developed which allow atomic oxygen concentrations as high as 25-30% to be achieved rather than the more typical 4-8% achieved by the standard industrial ozone treatment.

Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix L [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

2009-01-01

112

Commercial agrochemical applications in vineyards do not influence ant communities.  

PubMed

Ants have been widely used as bioindicators for various terrestrial monitoring and assessment programs but are seldom considered in evaluation of nontarget pesticide effect. Much chemical assessment has been biased toward laboratory and bioassay testing for control of specific pest ant species. Several field studies that did explore the nontarget impacts of pesticides on ants have reported contradictory findings. To address the impact of chemical applications on ants, we tested the response of epigeal ant assemblages and community structure to three pesticide gradients (cumulative International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control toxicity rating, chlorpyrifos use rate, and sulfur use rate) in 19 vineyards. Ordination analyses using nonmetric multidimensional scaling detected community structures at species and genus levels, but the structures were not explained by any pesticide variables. There was no consistent pattern in species and genus percentage complementarities and ant assemblages along pesticide gradients. In contrast, ant community structure was influenced by the presence of shelterbelts near the sampling area. Reasons for the resilience of ants to pesticides are given and assessment at the colony level instead of workers abundance is suggested. The presence of Linepithema humile (Mayr) is emphasized. PMID:18284765

Chong, Chee Seng; Hoffmann, Ary A; Thomson, Linda J

2007-12-01

113

Computational fluid dynamics in ventilation. 4: Commercial application of CFD in ventilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In considering the commercial applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in ventilation, the following are addressed: typical markets (airport centers, large theaters, atria, shopping malls, etc.); typical problems to be solved (energy flow, draft, ventilation effectiveness, pressure distribution, etc.); and high priority areas, activities and quantities (fast preprocessing, effective visualization software, etc.). It is stated that the commercial application of CFD may be looked upon as an advanced 'zonal' model. The 'zonal' model concept is outlined and CFD with large control volumes is considered. An illustrated example of air flow simulation in a theater is given.

Nielsen, Peter V.

114

Development and application of an enzymatic and cell flotation treatment for the recovery of viable microbial cells from environmental matrices such as anaerobic sludge.  

PubMed

Efficient dissociation of microorganisms from their aggregate matrix is required to study the microorganisms without interaction with their native environment (e.g., biofilms, flocs, granules, etc.) and to assess their community composition through the application of molecular or microscopy techniques. To this end, we combined enzymatic treatments and a cell extraction by density gradient to efficiently recover anaerobic microorganisms from urban wastewater treatment plant sludge. The enzymes employed (amylase, cellulase, DNase, and pectinase) as a pretreatment softly disintegrated the extrapolymeric substances (EPS) interlocked with the microorganisms. The potential damaging effects of the applied procedure on bacterial and archaeal communities were assessed by studying the variations in density (using quantitative PCR), diversity (using capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism fingerprinting [CE-SSCP]), and activity (using a standard anaerobic activity test) of the extracted microorganisms. The protocol preserved the general capacity of the microbial community to produce methane under anaerobic conditions and its diversity; particularly the archaeal community was not affected in terms of either density or structure. This cell extraction procedure from the matrix materials offers interesting perspectives for metabolic, microscopic, and molecular assays of microbial communities present in complex matrices constituted by bioaggregates or biofilms. PMID:22003005

Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jérôme; Gévaudan, Gaëlle; Patureau, Dominique

2011-12-01

115

[Viable non-culturable bacteria].  

PubMed

Viable but non-culturable cells (VBNC) are defined as live bacteria, but which do not either grow or divide. Such bacteria cannot be cultivated on conventional media (they do not form colonies on solid media, they do not change broth appearance), but their existence can be proved using other methods. The switch to the VBNC stage has been described and documented for several bacterial species: Vibrio spp. (cholerae, vulnificus and other species), Escherichia coli (including EHEC), Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolytica, Shigella spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Providencia spp., Morganella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Enterococcus spp. The capacity of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria to enter the VBNC stage started to concern microbiologists in the field of food industry (food and water safety) and pharmaceutical industry. Many studies have shown that processes meant to achieve bactericidal effects can favour bacterial switch to VBNC. Viable but non-culturable stage is reversible. Concerns are due to the capacity of VBNC, especially of potentially pathogen cells, to switch to the infectious stage once in the host organism. PMID:21038700

N??cu?iu, Alexandra-Maria

2010-01-01

116

40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants...

2011-07-01

117

40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants...

2013-07-01

118

40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants...

2010-07-01

119

40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants...

2012-07-01

120

Recent applications of viscoelastic damping for noise control in automobiles and commercial airplanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the application of passive damping technology using viscoelastic materials to control noise and vibration in vehicles and commercial airplanes is described. Special damped laminates and spray paints suitable for mass production and capable of forming with conventional techniques are now manufactured in a continuous manner using advanced processes. These are widely used in the automotive and aerospace

Mohan D Rao

2003-01-01

121

Application of the Leslie Model to Commercial Catch and Effort of the Slipper Lobster,  

E-print Network

Application of the Leslie Model to Commercial Catch and Effort of the Slipper Lobster to the Leslie model to estimate preexploitationabundance andthe catchabil ity coefficient ofslipper lobsterCPUE on cumula tive catch (Leslie and Davis, 1939) or LOG (CPUE) on LOG cumulativeeffort (Delury, 1947

122

Biological Control of Plant Pathogens: Research, Commercialization, and Application in the USA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes the current status of research, commercial development, and application of biocontrol strategies targeted at plant pathogens. Also included is a description of future prospects for using biological control to limit the damage of plant pathogens in both conventional and organic agriculture.

Brian B. McSpadden Gardener (The Ohio State University-OARDC;); Deborah R. Fravel (USDA, ARS;)

2002-05-10

123

Illinois Pesticide Applicator Study Guide. A Training Manual for Private and Commercial Pesticide Applicators and Operators. Special Publication 39.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide is designed to provide the necessary information to prepare for certification as a private or commercial pesticide applicator. In addition to providing basic information covering the various sections of the amended Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, it contains a glossary of common pesticide terms, a list of…

Bever, Wayne; And Others

124

Progress toward achieving a commercially viable solar reflective material  

SciTech Connect

Solar thermal technologies use large mirrors to concentrate sunlight for renewable power generation. The development of advanced reflector materials is important to the viability of electricity production by solar thermal energy systems. The reflector materials must be low in cost and maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under severe outdoor environments. Production processes associated with candidate materials must be scalable to mass production techniques. A promising low-cost construction uses a stainless steel foil substrate with a silver reflective layer protected by an optically transparent oxide topcoat. Thick (2 to 4 micron), dense alumina coatings provide durable protective layers. The excellent performance of alumina-coated reflector materials in outdoor and accelerated testing suggests that a larger field trial of the material is warranted. The key to producing a greater quantity of material for field deployment and testing without incurring substantial capital is the use of a chilled drum coater. An existing chamber is being modified, and the deposition rate will be increased prior to the installation of a drum coater to produce 1-ft wide by 10-ft long strips of solar reflector material. The production and performance of these materials are discussed.

Kennedy, C.E.; Smilgys, R.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)]|[Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1998-06-01

125

A remote sensing applications update: Results of interviews with Earth Observations Commercialization Program (EOCAP) participants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth remote sensing is a uniquely valuable tool for large-scale resource management, a task whose importance will likely increase world-wide through the foreseeable future. NASA research and engineering have virtually created the existing U.S. system, and will continue to push the frontiers, primarily through Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, research, and data and information systems. It is the researchers' view that the near-term health of remote sensing applications also deserves attention; it seems important not to abandon the system or its clients. The researchers suggest that, like its Landsat predecessor, a successful Earth Observing System program is likely to reinforce pressure to 'manage' natural resources, and consequently, to create more pressure for Earth Observations Commercialization (EOCAP) type applications. The current applications programs, though small, are valuable because of their technical and commercial results, and also because they support a community whose contributions will increase along with our ability to observe the Earth from space.

Mcvey, Sally

1991-01-01

126

Commercial applications and scientific research requirements for thermal-infrared observations of terrestrial surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the spring of 1986 the EOSAT Company and NASA Headquarters organized a workshop to consider: (1) the potential value of space-acquired multiband thermal remote sensing in terrestrial research and commercial applications, and (2) the scientific and technological requirements for conducting such observations from the LANDSAT platform. The workshop defined the instrument characteristics of three types of sensors that would be needed to expand the use of thermal information for Earth observation and new commercial opportunities. The panels from two disciplines, geology and evapotranspiration/botany, along with the instrument panel, presented their recommendations to the workshop. The findings of these meetings are presented.

Goward, Samuel N.; Taranik, James V.; Laporte, Daniel; Putnam, Evelyn S. (editor)

1986-01-01

127

40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...commercial and private applicators of restricted use pesticides. 171.7 Section 171.7 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.7 Submission...

2010-07-01

128

40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...commercial and private applicators of restricted use pesticides. 171.7 Section 171.7 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.7 Submission...

2011-07-01

129

High-energy radiation and polymers: A review of commercial processes and emerging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation has been found to be widely applicable in modifying the structure and properties of polymers, and can be used to tailor the performance of either bulk materials or surfaces. Fifty years of research in polymer radiation chemistry has led to numerous applications of commercial and economic importance, and work remains active in the application of radiation to practical uses involving polymeric materials. This paper provides a survey of radiation-processing methods of industrial interest, ranging from technologies already commercially well established, through innovations in the active R&D stage which show exceptional promise for future commercial use. Radiation-processing technologies are discussed under the following categories: cross-linking of plastics and rubbers, curing of coatings and inks, heat-shrink products, fiber-matrix composites, chain-scission for processing control, surface modification, grafting, hydrogels, sterilization, natural product enhancement, plastics recycling, ceramic precursors, electronic property materials, ion-track membranes and lithography for microdevice production. In addition to new technological innovations utilizing conventional gamma and e-beam sources, a number of promising new applications make use of novel radiation types which include ion beams (heavy ions, light ions, highly focused microscopic beams and high-intensity pulses), soft X-rays which are focused, coherent X-rays (from a synchrotron) and e-beams which undergo scattering to generate patterns.

Clough, R. L.

2001-12-01

130

Trends in genetic patent applications: the commercialization of academic intellectual property  

PubMed Central

We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications data from the PATSTAT database from 1990 until 2009 were analyzed for time trends and regional distribution. Overall, the number of patent applications has been growing. In 2009, 152?000 patent applications were submitted under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and within the EP (European Patent) system of the European Patent Office (EPO). The number of genetic patent applications increased until a peak was reached in the year 2000, with >8000 applications, after which it declined by almost 50%. Continents show different patterns over time, with the global peak in 2000 mainly explained by the USA and Europe, while Asia shows a stable number of >1000 per year. Nine countries together account for 98.9% of the total number of genetic patent applications. In The Netherlands, 26.7% of the genetic patent applications originate from public research institutions. After the year 2000, the number of genetic patent applications dropped significantly. Academic leadership and policy as well as patent regulations seem to have an important role in the trend differences. The ongoing investment in genetic research in the past decade is not reflected by an increase of patent applications. PMID:24448546

Kers, Jannigje G; Van Burg, Elco; Stoop, Tom; Cornel, Martina C

2014-01-01

131

The status of commercial and developmental HTS wires  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides an update on the development, performance and application of first and second generation high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires fabricated at American Superconductor (AMSC). First generation, multifilamentary composite wire is available commercially today in different viable product forms. This conductor carries 140× the current of copper of the same cross-section, and is robust enough to stand tough industrial

L. J. Masur; D. Buczek; E. Harley; T. Kodenkandath; X. Li; J. Lynch; N. Nguyen; M. Rupich; U. Schoop; J. Scudiere; E. Siegal; C. Thieme; D. Verebelyi; W. Zhang; J. Kellers

2003-01-01

132

Cost/benefit assessment of the application of composite materials to subsonic commercial transport engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from a number of studies concerned with the cost and benefits of applying advanced composite materials to commercial turbofan engines are summarized. For each application area the optimistic and pessimistic benefit projections were averaged to arrive at a projected yearly percentage fuel savings for a commercial fleet of advanced technology transport aircraft. Engine components included in the summary are the fan section which includes fan blades, fan frame/case, and the blade containment ring; the nacelle; and the high pressure turbine blades and vanes. The projected fuel savings resulting from the application of composites are 1.85 percent for the fan section, 1.75 percent for the nacelle, and 2.35 percent for the high pressure turbine.

Faddoul, J. R.; Signorelli, R. A.

1976-01-01

133

Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

Brunner, Robert

2014-04-01

134

Commercial applications of the ACTS mobile terminal millimeter-wave antennas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT), which will provide voice, data, and video communications to and from a vehicle (van, truck, or car) via NASA's geostationary ACTS satellite using the K- and K(sub a)-band frequency bands. The AMT is already planned to demonstrate a variety of communications from within the mobile vehicular environment, and within this paper a summary of foreseen commercial application opportunities is given. A critical component of the AMT is its antenna system, which must establish and maintain the basic RF link with the satellite. Two versions of the antenna are under development, each incorporating different technologies and offering different commercial applications.

Densmore, Arthur C.; Crist, Rick A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Tulintseff, Ann N.

1991-12-01

135

Validating broadcast application of Telone C-35 complemented with chloropicrin and herbicides in commercial tomato farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large-scale validation trials were conducted to compare a fumigation programme consisting of broadcast-applied 1,3-dichloropropene plus chloropicrin (C-35), in-bed chloropicrin (Pic) application, and the preplant incorporated herbicides pebulate and trifluralin, to in-bed methyl bromide plus Pic (MBr+Pic) injections in commercial tomato fields. There were no significant differences between the tomato plant vigor, height and marketable yields of both treatments. Similarly, both

James P. Gilreath; Bielinski M. Santos; John D. Busacca; Joseph E. Eger; John M. Mirusso; Phyllis R. Gilreath

2006-01-01

136

Advancement of braiding\\/resin transfer molding from commercial to aerospace applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The braiding process, which produces dry fiber preforms fabricated to net shape for subsequent molding, and its compatible marriage to the resin transfer molding (RTM) process is producing a wide variety of composite products for commercial, recreational, and aircraft\\/aerospace applications. The design and fabrication of net-shaped braided preforms is the first step in the manufacture of braided\\/RTM composite parts. In

Garrett C. Sharpless

1991-01-01

137

Barriers and incentives to commercialization of fuel cell technology in cogeneration applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate commercialization of a new energy technology rests heavily upon its economic viability. Recent studies of fuel cell technology commercialization have focused on the supply side and the role of government in reducing the risk exposure of the initial commercial manufacturers of fuel cells. Little attention has been paid, however, to the demand side and the role government incentives might have on the potential users of the technology. This study identifies a number of existing and potential barriers to and incentives for adopting fuel cells by these users. Industry and electric utility ownership are considered. A discounted cash-flow model is developed to test the sensitivity of financial performance to a variety of financial incentives and identified credits. These credits are attributable to fuel cell performance and environmental benefits compared to other technologies. Finally the report describes an initial analytical framework for exploring the relative effectiveness of alternative incentives. The focus of this study is on cogeneration applications for fuel cells because this use has shown promise in previous studies. The Cogeneration Systems Application of Fuel Cells Working Group (COSAF, 1980), a group of DOE contractors who evaluated the application of fuel cells to industrial cogeneration, identifed the Hooker Chemical (Occidental Petroleum) chlorine/caustic acid plant in Taft, Louisiana as a representative industrial site. Louisiana Power and Light which currently supplies power to the Hooker Plant was selected to study the utility owned cogeneration approach.

Not Available

1981-12-01

138

Commercial grade item (CGI) dedication of MDR relays for nuclear safety related applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MDR relays manufactured by Potter & Brumfield (P&B) have been used in various safety related applications in commercial nuclear power plants. These include emergency safety features (ESF) actuation systems, emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) actuation, and reactor protection systems. The MDR relays manufactured prior to May 1990 showed signs of generic failure due to corrosion and outgassing of coil varnish. P&B has made design changes to correct these problems in relays manufactured after May 1990. However, P&B does not manufacture the relays under any 10CFR50 Appendix B quality assurance (QA) program. They manufacture the relays under their commercial QA program and supply these as commercial grade items. This necessitates CGI Dedication of these relays for use in nuclear-safety-related applications. This paper presents a CGI dedication program that has been used to dedicate the MDR relays manufactured after been used to dedicate the MDR relays manufactured after May 1990. The program is in compliance with current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) guidelines and applicable industry standards; it specifies the critical characteristics of the relays, provides the tests and analysis required to verify the critical characteristics, the acceptance criteria for the test results, performs source verification to quality P&B for its control of the critical characteristics, and provides documentation. The program provides reasonable assurance that the new MDR relays will perform their intended safety functions.

Das, Ranjit K.; Julka, Anil; Modi, Govind

1994-08-01

139

Application of narrow-band television to industrial and commercial communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of narrow-band systems for use in space systems is presented. Applications of the technology to future spacecraft requirements are discussed along with narrow-band television's influence in stimulating development within the industry. The transferral of the technology into industrial and commercial communications is described. Major areas included are: (1) medicine; (2) education; (3) remote sensing for traffic control; and (5) weather observation. Applications in data processing, image enhancement, and information retrieval are provided by the combination of the TV camera and the computer.

Embrey, B. C., Jr.; Southworth, G. R.

1974-01-01

140

Study of potential photovoltaic/thermal applications in the commercial sector. Final report  

SciTech Connect

To identify the most promising applications for photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) systems, a procedure has been evolved for ranking applications in the service, commercial, and institutional (SCI) sectors by using FEA's Energy Consumption Data Base, which tabulates energy use by sector, region, fuel type, and end use. Ranking takes into account such factors as temperature requirements of end-use, effects of temperature on efficiencies, cost of fuels replaced, and thermal and electrical loads. The electrical load and the temperature requirement of the thermal load determine size of the array, which meets the requirements of the entire electrical load. Hospitals and nursing homes, public office buildings, and schools rank high as potential applications. The rankings also indicate the PV/T arrays are more cost-effective than PV-only arrays for most commercial applications. Heating and cooling load profiles are determined for a hospital, a high school, and a shopping center, each in a different location; absorption cooling can usually be substituted for vapor-compression cooling. The high school load profiles are used as a case study of a PV/T array application in several energy cost scenarios. The analysis shows the PV/T array can be used advantageously in each scenario considered.

Parker, C.D.; Whisnant, R.A.; Ferrell, G.C.; Hamlin, R.V.

1981-07-01

141

Mobile clinical decision support systems and applications: a literature and commercial review.  

PubMed

The latest advances in eHealth and mHealth have propitiated the rapidly creation and expansion of mobile applications for health care. One of these types of applications are the clinical decision support systems, which nowadays are being implemented in mobile apps to facilitate the access to health care professionals in their daily clinical decisions. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to make a review of the current systems available in the literature and in commercial stores. Secondly, to analyze a sample of applications in order to obtain some conclusions and recommendations. Two reviews have been done: a literature review on Scopus, IEEE Xplore, Web of Knowledge and PubMed and a commercial review on Google play and the App Store. Five applications from each review have been selected to develop an in-depth analysis and to obtain more information about the mobile clinical decision support systems. Ninety-two relevant papers and 192 commercial apps were found. Forty-four papers were focused only on mobile clinical decision support systems. One hundred seventy-one apps were available on Google play and 21 on the App Store. The apps are designed for general medicine and 37 different specialties, with some features common in all of them despite of the different medical fields objective. The number of mobile clinical decision support applications and their inclusion in clinical practices has risen in the last years. However, developers must be careful with their interface or the easiness of use, which can impoverish the experience of the users. PMID:24399281

Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Sainz-de-Abajo, Beatriz; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan Miguel

2014-01-01

142

Present and Future Applications of Digital Electronics in Nuclear Science - a Commercial Prospective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital readout electronics instrumenting radiation detectors have experienced significant advancements in the last decade or so. This on one hand can be attributed to the steady improvements in commercial digital processing components such as analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), digital-to-analog converters (DACs), field-programmable-gate-arrays (FPGAs), and digital-signal-processors (DSPs), and on the other hand can also be attributed to the increasing needs for improved time, position, and energy resolution in nuclear physics experiments, which have spurred the rapid development of commercial off-the-shelf high speed, high resolution digitizers or spectrometers. Absent from conventional analog electronics, the capability to record fast decaying pulses from radiation detectors in digital readout electronics has profoundly benefited nuclear physics researchers since they now can perform detailed pulse processing for applications such as gamma-ray tracking and decay-event selection and reconstruction. In this talk, present state-of-the-art digital readout electronics and its applications in a variety of nuclear science fields will be discussed, and future directions in hardware development for digital electronics will also be outlined, all from the prospective of a commercial manufacturer of digital electronics.

Tan, Hui

2011-10-01

143

Astaxanthin: Sources, Extraction, Stability, Biological Activities and Its Commercial Applications—A Review  

PubMed Central

There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3?-dihydroxy-?, ??-carotene-4,4?-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications. PMID:24402174

Ambati, Ranga Rao; Siew Moi, Phang; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

2014-01-01

144

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 11: Aerial Applicators. CS-26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the calibration and application of pesticides/herbicides by aircraft. Special attention is given to the field flight patterns and safety precautions which must be considered for the pilot, ground crews and the…

DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

145

Application study of filamentary composites in a commercial jet aircraft fuselage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of applications of filamentary composite materials to aircraft fuselage structure was performed. General design criteria were established and material studies conducted using the 727-200 forebody as the primary structural component. Three design approaches to the use of composites were investigated: uniaxial reinforcement of metal structure, uniaxial and biaxial reinforcement of metal structure, and an all-composite design. Materials application studies for all three concepts were conducted on fuselage shell panels, keel beam, floor beams, floor panels, body frames, fail-safe straps, and window frames. Cost benefit studies were conducted and developmental program costs estimated. On the basis of weight savings, cost effectiveness, developmental program costs, and potential for early application on commercial aircraft, the unaxial design is recommended for a 5-year flight service evaluation program.

Johnson, R. W.; June, R. R.

1972-01-01

146

Commercialization of NASA's High Strength Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, the commercialization of a new high strength cast aluminum alloy, invented by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, for high temperature applications will be presented. Originally developed to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low- exhaust emission, the novel NASA aluminum alloy offers dramatic improvement in tensile and fatigue strengths at elevated temperatures (450 F-750 F), which can lead to reducing part weight and cost as well as improving performance for automotive engine applications. It is an ideal low cost material for cast components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. NASA alloy also offers greater wear resistance, dimensional stability, and lower thermal expansion compared to conventional aluminum alloys, and the new alloy can be produced economically from sand, permanent mold and investment casting. Since 2001, this technology was licensed to several companies for automotive and marine internal combustion engines applications.

Lee, Jonathan A.

2003-01-01

147

Optimization, validation, and application of a real-time PCR protocol for quantification of viable bacterial cells in municipal sewage sludge and biosolids using reporter genes and Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Biosolids result from treatment of sewage sludge to meet jurisdictional standards, including pathogen reduction. Once government regulations are met, materials can be applied to agricultural lands. Culture-based methods are used to enumerate pathogen indicator microorganisms but may underestimate cell densities, which is partly due to bacteria existing in a viable but non-culturable physiological state. Viable indicators can also be quantified by realtime polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) used with propidium monoazide (PMA), a dye that inhibits amplification of DNA found extracellularly or in dead cells. The objectives of this study were to test an optimized PMA-qPCR method for viable pathogen detection in wastewater solids and to validate it by comparing results to data obtained by conventional plating. Reporter genes from genetically marked Pseudomonas sp. UG14Lr and Agrobacterium tumefaciens 542 cells were spiked into samples of primary sludge, and anaerobically digested and Lystek-treated biosolids as cell-free DNA, dead cells, viable cells, and mixtures of live and dead cells, followed by DNA extraction with and without PMA, and qPCR. The protocol was then used for Escherichia coli quantification in the three matrices, and results compared to plate counts. PMA-qPCR selectively detected viable cells, while inhibiting signals from cell-free DNA and DNA found in membrane-compromised cells. PMA-qPCR detected 0.5-1 log unit more viable E. coli cells in both primary solids and dewatered biosolids than plate counts. No viable E. coli was found in Lystek-treated biosolids. These data suggest PMA-qPCR may more accurately estimate pathogen cell numbers than traditional culture methods. PMID:23958912

van Frankenhuyzen, Jessica K; Trevors, Jack T; Flemming, Cecily A; Lee, Hung; Habash, Marc B

2013-11-01

148

Fluorogenic Substrate Detection of Viable Intracellular and Extracellular Pathogenic Protozoa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Viable Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes were detected by epifluorescence microscopy with fluorescein diacetate being used to mark living parasites and the nucleic acid-binding compound ethidium bromide to stain dead cells. This procedure is superior to other assays because it is faster and detects viable intracellular as well as extracellular Leishmania. Furthermore, destruction of intracellular pathogens by macrophages is more accurately determined with fluorescein diacetate than with other stains. The procedure may have applications in programs to develop drugs and vaccines against protozoa responsible for human and animal disease.

Jackson, Peter R.; Pappas, Michael G.; Hansen, Brian D.

1985-01-01

149

Potential commercial application of a bi-layer bone-ligament regeneration scaffold to anterior cruciate ligament replacement  

E-print Network

A business model was created in order to explore the commercial application of a bi-layer bone-ligament scaffold to the treatment of torn anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) requiring replacement. The two main keys in producing ...

Li, Jessica C. (Jessica Ching-Yi)

2006-01-01

150

Application of commercial best practices for new technology development within the constraints of defense contract funded R&D  

E-print Network

This thesis explores the application of commercial best practices for new technology development within the constraints of the defense contract funded research and development (R&D) environment. Key elements of successful ...

Davis, Monica K. (Monica Karin)

2007-01-01

151

Tools and Data Services from the NASA Earth Satellite Observations for Remote Sensing Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several commercial applications of remote sensing data, such as water resources management, environmental monitoring, climate prediction, agriculture, forestry, preparation for and migration of extreme weather events, require access to vast amounts of archived high quality data, software tools and services for data manipulation and information extraction. These on the other hand require gaining detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation of data reduction, combination and data product production. The time-consuming task must be undertaken before the core investigation can begin and is an especially difficult challenge when science objectives require users to deal with large multi-sensor data sets of different formats, structures, and resolutions.

Vicente, Gilberto

2005-01-01

152

Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 1: Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the fundamental Intersatellite Link (ISL) systems characteristics, potential applications of ISLs to domestic, regional, and global commercial satellite communications were identified, and their cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits quantified wherever possible. Implementation scenarios for the cost-effective communications satellite systems employing ISLs were developed for the first launch in 1993 to 1994 and widespread use of ISLs in the early 2000's. Critical technology requirements for both the microwave (60 GHz) and optical (0.85 micron) ISL implementations were identified, and their technology development programs, including schedule and cost estimates, were derived.

Young, S. Lee

1987-01-01

153

License Buyback Programs in Commercial Fisheries: An Application to the Shrimp Fishery in the Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

L. Griffin Committee Members, H. Alan Love W. Douglass Shaw Head of Department, John P. Nichols May 2009 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics iii ABSTRACT License Buyback Programs in Commercial Fisheries: An Application to the Shrimp... L. Griffin Committee Members, H. Alan Love W. Douglass Shaw Head of Department, John P. Nichols May 2009 Major Subject: Agricultural Economics iii ABSTRACT License Buyback Programs in Commercial Fisheries: An Application to the Shrimp...

Mamula, Aaron T.

2010-01-16

154

MOSES: a modular sensor electronics system for space science and commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The camera group of the DLR--Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration is developing imaging instruments for scientific and space applications. One example is the ROLIS imaging system of the ESA scientific space mission `Rosetta', which consists of a descent/downlooking and a close-up imager. Both are parts of the Rosetta-Lander payload and will operate in the extreme environment of a cometary nucleus. The Rosetta Lander Imaging System (ROLIS) will introduce a new concept for the sensor electronics, which is referred to as MOSES (Modula Sensor Electronics System). MOSES is a 3D miniaturized CCD- sensor-electronics which is based on single modules. Each of the modules has some flexibility and enables a simple adaptation to specific application requirements. MOSES is mainly designed for space applications where high performance and high reliability are required. This concept, however, can also be used in other science or commercial applications. This paper describes the concept of MOSES, its characteristics, performance and applications.

Michaelis, Harald; Behnke, Thomas; Tschentscher, Matthias; Mottola, Stefano; Neukum, Gerhard

1999-10-01

155

SP-100 nuclear space power systems with application to space commercialization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the Space Commercialization Community with the status and characteristics of the SP-100 space nuclear power system. The program is a joint undertaking by the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy and NASA. The goal of the program is to develop, validate, and demonstrate the technology for space nuclear power systems in the range of 10 to 1000 kWe electric for use in the future civilian and military space missions. Also discussed are mission applications which are enhanced and/or enabled by SP-100 technology and how this technology compares to that of more familiar solar power systems. The mission applications include earth orbiting platforms and lunar/Mars surface power.

Smith, John M.

1988-01-01

156

Advancement of braiding/resin transfer molding from commercial to aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The braiding process, which produces dry fiber preforms fabricated to net shape for subsequent molding, and its compatible marriage to the resin transfer molding (RTM) process is producing a wide variety of composite products for commercial, recreational, and aircraft/aerospace applications. The design and fabrication of net-shaped braided preforms is the first step in the manufacture of braided/RTM composite parts. In most cases, braiding is the process of choice because the desired preform shape is usually complex. The stability of a braided structure makes it ideal for use in a subsequent RTM operation. The problems and techniques involved in the braiding of various complex preforms are discussed. The RTM process is then examined, along with its compatibility and flexibility with the braiding process in manufacturing. Examples are then presented of structurally demanding applications for braided/RTM composites in the aircraft and aerospace industries.

Sharpless, Garrett C.

1991-03-01

157

Prospects for increased low-grade bio-fuels use in home and commercial heating applications  

E-print Network

Though we must eventually find viable alternatives for fossil fuels in large segments of the energy market, there are economically attractive fossil fuel alternatives today for niche markets. The easiest fossil fuels to ...

Pendray, John Robert

2007-01-01

158

Overview of cell-free protein synthesis: historic landmarks, commercial systems, and expanding applications.  

PubMed

During the early days of molecular biology, cell-free protein synthesis played an essential role in deciphering the genetic code and contributed to our understanding of translation of protein from messenger RNA. Owing to several decades of major and incremental improvements, modern cell-free systems have achieved higher protein synthesis yields at lower production costs. Commercial cell-free systems are now available from a variety of material sources, ranging from "traditional" E. coli, rabbit reticulocyte lysate, and wheat germ extracts, to recent insect and human cell extracts, to defined systems reconstituted from purified recombinant components. Although each cell-free system has certain advantages and disadvantages, the diversity of the cell-free systems allows in vitro synthesis of a wide range of proteins for a variety of downstream applications. In the post-genomic era, cell-free protein synthesis has rapidly become the preferred approach for high-throughput functional and structural studies of proteins and a versatile tool for in vitro protein evolution and synthetic biology. This unit provides a brief history of cell-free protein synthesis and describes key advances in modern cell-free systems, practical differences between widely used commercial cell-free systems, and applications of this important technology. Curr. Protoc. Mol. Biol. 108:16.30.1-16.30.11. © 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25271714

Chong, Shaorong

2014-01-01

159

Development of zinc-bromine batteries for utility applications: Commercialization task  

SciTech Connect

Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been working on two complementary, concurrent zinc-bromine battery contracts directed at the use of this technology in utility load leveling operations. The Department of Energy contract is concerned with technology development while the Electric Power Research Institute contract RR2123-3 is centered around those studies necessary for commercialization to take place. The commercialization program reported herein was divided into four major sub-tasks. The first task, a product definition effort resulted in a 10-MW plant design. A financial and technical study of this 10-MW facility indicated that this size plant could be made available in production at a cost of $95/kWh with an overall efficiency in the range of 72--77%. In task 2 ERC developed a business plan which covered the construction of a manufacturing facility and full financial estimates for both utility and non-utility size power plants including 15 years of sales, cash flow and profits. The market size and needs were assessed for both utility and non-utility applications in Task 3. A total of 24 utilities were interviewed under this task to review this technology an its applicability in their systems. Finally, in Task 4, one utility case study was conducted which showed that the zinc-bromine battery could achieve substantial penetration into their load leveling requirements at the battery costs developed in Task 1.

Chi, C.; Voyentzie, P.R. (Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (USA))

1990-12-01

160

75 FR 12561 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...create an Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of the Customs...industry sectors affected by CBP commercial operations with balanced...account-based processing, commercial enforcement and uniformity...ethnic diversity, qualified women and members of minority...

2010-03-16

161

Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation report, Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, is to validate the computational method used to perform postclosure criticality calculations. The validation process applies the criticality analysis methodology approach documented in Section 3.5 of the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report. The application systems for this validation consist of waste packages containing transport, aging, and disposal canisters (TAD) loaded with commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) of varying assembly types, initial enrichments, and burnup values that are expected from the waste stream and of varying degree of internal component degradation that may occur over the 10,000-year regulatory time period. The criticality computational tool being evaluated is the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The nuclear cross-section data distributed with MCNP 5.1.40 and used to model the various physical processes are based primarily on the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version VI (ENDF/B-VI) library. Criticality calculation bias and bias uncertainty and lower bound tolerance limit (LBTL) functions for CSNF waste packages are determined based on the guidance in ANSI/ANS 8.1-1998 (Ref. 4) and ANSI/ANS 8.17-2004 (Ref. 5), as described in Section 3.5.3 of Ref. 1. The development of this report is consistent with Test Plan for: Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality. This calculation report has been developed in support of licensing activities for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the results of the calculation may be used in the criticality evaluation for CSNF waste packages based on a conceptual TAD canister.

Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL; Goluoglu, Sedat [ORNL; Hollenbach, Daniel F [ORNL; Fox, Patricia B [ORNL

2007-10-01

162

Research and test facilities for development of technologies and experiments with commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of NASA'S agency-wide goals is the commercial development of space. To further this goal NASA is implementing a policy whereby U.S. firms are encouraged to utilize NASA facilities to develop and test concepts having commercial potential. Goddard, in keeping with this policy, will make the facilities and capabilities described in this document available to private entities at a reduced cost and on a noninterference basis with internal NASA programs. Some of these facilities include: (1) the Vibration Test Facility; (2) the Battery Test Facility; (3) the Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator Facility; (4) the High Voltage Testing Facility; (5) the Magnetic Field Component Test Facility; (6) the Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility; (7) the High Capacity Centrifuge Facility; (8) the Acoustic Test Facility; (9) the Electromagnetic Interference Test Facility; (10) the Space Simulation Test Facility; (11) the Static/Dynamic Balance Facility; (12) the High Speed Centrifuge Facility; (13) the Optical Thin Film Deposition Facility; (14) the Gold Plating Facility; (15) the Paint Formulation and Application Laboratory; (16) the Propulsion Research Laboratory; (17) the Wallops Range Facility; (18) the Optical Instrument Assembly and Test Facility; (19) the Massively Parallel Processor Facility; (20) the X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Auger Microscopy/Spectroscopy Laboratory; (21) the Parts Analysis Laboratory; (22) the Radiation Test Facility; (23) the Ainsworth Vacuum Balance Facility; (24) the Metallography Laboratory; (25) the Scanning Electron Microscope Laboratory; (26) the Organic Analysis Laboratory; (27) the Outgassing Test Facility; and (28) the Fatigue, Fracture Mechanics and Mechanical Testing Laboratory.

1989-01-01

163

Large Scale Application of Vibration Sensors for Fan Monitoring at Commercial Layer Hen Houses  

PubMed Central

Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable. PMID:22163544

Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A.; Heber, Albert J.; Bogan, Bill W.; Chai, Li-Long

2010-01-01

164

Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

1996-07-01

165

InfraCAM (trade mark): A Hand-Held Commercial Infrared Camera Modified for Spaceborne Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1994, Inframetrics introduced the InfraCAM(TM), a high resolution hand-held thermal imager. As the world's smallest, lightest and lowest power PtSi based infrared camera, the InfraCAM is ideal for a wise range of industrial, non destructive testing, surveillance and scientific applications. In addition to numerous commercial applications, the light weight and low power consumption of the InfraCAM make it extremely valuable for adaptation to space borne applications. Consequently, the InfraCAM has been selected by NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for use as part of the DARTFire (Diffusive and Radiative Transport in Fires) space borne experiment. In this experiment, a solid fuel is ignited in a low gravity environment. The combustion period is recorded by both visible and infrared cameras. The infrared camera measures the emission from polymethyl methacrylate, (PMMA) and combustion products in six distinct narrow spectral bands. Four cameras successfully completed all qualification tests at Inframetrics and at NASA Lewis. They are presently being used for ground based testing in preparation for space flight in the fall of 1995.

Manitakos, Daniel; Jones, Jeffrey; Melikian, Simon

1996-01-01

166

Commercial Dengue Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Point-of-Care Application: Recent Evaluations and Future Needs?  

PubMed Central

Dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome (DF/DHF/DSS) are tropical diseases that cause significant humanitarian and economic hardship. It is estimated that more than 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection and more than 100 countries have endemic dengue virus transmission. Laboratory tests are essential to provide an accurate diagnosis of dengue virus infection so that appropriate treatment and patient management may be administered. In many dengue endemic settings, laboratory diagnostic resources are limited and simple rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) provide opportunities for point-of-care diagnosis. This paper addresses current issues relating to the application of commercial dengue RDTs for the diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection, recent diagnostic evaluations, and identifies future needs. PMID:22654479

Blacksell, Stuart D.

2012-01-01

167

Digimarc MediaBridge: the birth of a consumer product from concept to commercial application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the issues encountered in the development and commercial deployment of a system based on digital watermarking technology. The paper provides an overview of the development of digital watermarking technology and the first applications to use the technology. It also looks at how we took the concept of digital watermarking as a communications channel within a digital environment and applied it to the physical print world to produce the Digimarc MediaBridge product. We describe the engineering tradeoffs that were made to balance competing requirements of watermark robustness, image quality, embedding process, detection speed and end user ease of use. Today, the Digimarc MediaBridge product links printed materials to auxiliary information about the content, via the Internet, to provide enhanced informational marketing, promotion, advertising and commerce opportunities.

Perry, Burt; MacIntosh, Brian; Cushman, David

2002-04-01

168

Commercial Development Business Development 7  

E-print Network

Commercial Development @ Cardiff #12;Contents Foreword 4 Welcome 6 Business Development 7 Knowledge committed to converting the outcomes of its research into commercially viable products and processes throughout this publication. Analysis of a number of commercial indicators from the 2009-10 and 2010

Davies, Christopher

169

Image Analysis via Soft Computing: Prototype Applications at NASA KSC and Product Commercialization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the use of "soft computing" which differs from "hard computing" in that it is more tolerant of imprecision, partial truth, uncertainty, and approximation and its use in image analysis. Soft computing provides flexible information processing to handle real life ambiguous situations and achieve tractability, robustness low solution cost, and a closer resemblance to human decision making. Several systems are or have been developed: Fuzzy Reasoning Edge Detection (FRED), Fuzzy Reasoning Adaptive Thresholding (FRAT), Image enhancement techniques, and visual/pattern recognition. These systems are compared with examples that show the effectiveness of each. NASA applications that are reviewed are: Real-Time (RT) Anomaly Detection, Real-Time (RT) Moving Debris Detection and the Columbia Investigation. The RT anomaly detection reviewed the case of a damaged cable for the emergency egress system. The use of these techniques is further illustrated in the Columbia investigation with the location and detection of Foam debris. There are several applications in commercial usage: image enhancement, human screening and privacy protection, visual inspection, 3D heart visualization, tumor detections and x ray image enhancement.

Dominguez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve

2011-01-01

170

Collecting Commercial Vehicle Tour Data with Passive Global Positioning System Technology: Issues and Potential Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of strategies designed to manage the continued growth in road-based freight and associated externalities has been hampered by a paucity of disaggregate data on commercial vehicle movements. When disaggregated data are available, the analysis of commercial vehicle route and trip chain structure can provide insightful information about urban commercial vehicle tours, travel patterns, and congestion levels. Over the

Stephen P. Greaves; Miguel A. Figliozzi

2008-01-01

171

Application of Best Industry Practices to the Design of Commercial Refrigerators  

SciTech Connect

The substantial efficiency improvements which have been realized in residential refrigerators over the last twenty years due to implementation of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act and changing consumer reactions to energy savings give an indication of the potential for improvement in the commercial sector, where few such efficiency improvements have been made to date. The purchase decision for commercial refrigerators is still focused primarily on first cost and product performance issues such as maximizing storage capacity, quick pulldown, durability, and reliability. The project applied techniques used extensively to reduce energy use in residential refrigeration to a commercial reach-in refrigerator. The results will also be applicable to other commercial refrigeration equipment, such as refrigerated vending machines, reach-in freezers, beverage merchandisers, etc. The project described in this paper was a collaboration involving the Appliance and Building Technology Sector of TIAX, the Delfield Company, and the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies. Funding was provided by DOE through Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT41000. The program plan and schedule were structured to assure successful integration of the TIAX work on development of efficient design concepts into Delfield's simultaneous development of the Vantage product line. The energy-saving design options evaluated as part of the development included brushless DC and PSC fan motors, high-efficiency compressors, variable-speed compressor technology, cabinet thermal improvement (particularly in the face frame area), increased insulation thickness, a trap for the condensate line, improved insulation, reduced-wattage antisweat heaters, non-electric antisweat heating, off-cycle defrost termination, rifled heat exchanger tubing, and system optimization (selection of heat exchangers, fans, and subcooling, superheat, and suction temperatures for efficient operation). The project started with a thorough evaluation of the baseline Delfield Model 6051 two-door reach-in refrigerator. Performance testing was done to establish a performance baseline which, to meet end-users requirements, would have to be met or exceeded by the high-efficiency refrigerator design. Energy testing was done to establish the baseline energy use. Diagnostic testing such as reverse heat leak testing and insulation conductivity testing was done to evaluate factors contributing to the cabinet load and energy use. Modeling was done to assess the energy savings potential of the energy saving design options. Discussion with vendors and cost modeling was done to assess the manufacturing cost impact of the options. Based on this work, the following group of design options was selected for incorporation in the final refrigerator design: (1) Brushless DC evaporator fans; (2) Improved face frame design; (3) Reduced antisweat heater wattage; (4) Condensate line trap; and (5) Optimized refrigeration system. There was no net cost premium associated with these design changes, leading to a high-efficiency design requiring no payback of any initial additional investment. Delfield incorporated these design options in the Vantage line design and built a first prototype, which was tested at TIAX. Additional design changes were implemented in the transition to manufacturing, based in part on results of initial prototype testing, and a pilot production unit was sent to TIAX for final testing. The energy use of the pilot production unit was 68% less than that of the baseline refrigerator when tested according to the ASHRAE 117 Energy Test Standard. The energy test results for the baseline refrigerator and the two new-design units is shown in Figure ES-1 below. The resulting energy consumption is well below Energy Star and proposed Canadian and California standards levels. Delfield has successfully transitioned the design to production and is manufacturing all configurations of the energy efficient reach-ins at a rate greater than 7,000 per year, with production quantities projec

None

2002-06-30

172

PROCESS SIMULATION TO MAKE PERSONALISATION ECONOMICALLY VIABLE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of fashion products can be customised to better meet the needs and preferences of individual consumers. Although the technology to achieve this is becoming available, it is still unclear whether mass customisation of fashion products will be economi- cally viable. This paper explores how the economics of different customisation approaches in the textile industry can be assessed by

Claudia M. Eckert; David C. Wynn; P. John Clarkson; Sandy Black

2008-01-01

173

Isolation of viable human pancreatic islets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports a method for the isolation of viable pancreatic islets from the human pancreas. Isolated islets were obtained from human pancreata of cadavers, patients undergoing surgical operations, and fetuses, using a freehand microdissection procedure. Viability was assessed by light microscopy of sections stained with aldehyde fuchsin and by measuring the insulin output of islets in response to a

John Ferguson; Roger H. Allsopp; Ross M. R. Taylor; Ivan D. A. Johnston

1977-01-01

174

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara Eladio Oca~na Ricardo Oliveros-Ramos Jorge Tam April 21- cation of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States undertook ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific model

175

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara  

E-print Network

Ecosystem Viable Yields Michel De Lara Eladio Oca~na Ricardo Oliveros-Ramos Jorge Tam November the appli- cation of the ecosystem approach by 2010. However, at the same Summit, the signatory States without ecosystemic dimension, since MSY is computed species by species, on the basis of a monospecific

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

176

Process heat in California: Applications and potential for solar energy in the industrial, agricultural and commercial sectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the results of a survey of potential applications of solar energy for supplying process heat requirements in the industrial, agricultural, and commercial sectors of California is presented. Technical, economic, and institutional characteristics of the three sectors are examined. Specific applications for solar energy are then discussed. Finally, implications for California energy policy are discussed along with recommendations for possible actions by the State of California.

Barbieri, R. H.; Bartera, R. E.; Davis, E. S.; Hlavka, G. E.; Pivirotto, D. S.; Yanow, G.

1978-01-01

177

Caltech/JPL Conference on Image Processing Technology, Data Sources and Software for Commercial and Scientific Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in image processing and new applications are presented to the user community to stimulate the development and transfer of this technology to industrial and commercial applications. The Proceedings contains 37 papers and abstracts, including many illustrations (some in color) and provides a single reference source for the user community regarding the ordering and obtaining of NASA-developed image-processing software and science data.

Redmann, G. H.

1976-01-01

178

Risk mitigation process for utilization of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts in CCD camera for military applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the lessons learned during the design and development of a high performance cooled CCD camera for military applications utilizing common commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts. Our experience showed that concurrent evaluation and testing of high risk COTS must be performed to assess their performance over the required temperature range and other special product requirements such as

Anees Ahmad; Scott Batcheldor; Steven C. Cannon; Thomas E. Roberts

2002-01-01

179

The New Anechoic Shielded Chambers Designed for Space and Commercial Applications at LIT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective of this paper is to present the capabilities of the new anechoic shielded rooms designed for space and commercial applications as part of the Integration and Testing Laboratory (LIT, Laboratorio de Integracao e Testes) in Brazil. A new anechoic shielded room named CBA2 has been in full operation since March 2007 and a remodeled chamber CBA1 is planned to be ready by the end of 2008, replacing an old facility which was in operation for the last 18 years. The Brazilian Space Program started with very small and simple satellites and the old CBA1 chamber was conceived in 1987 to accomplish the EMI/EMC tests not requiring significant volumes. Since the very beginning this facility was also used by the private sector for other applications mainly due to the absorption of digital electronics in all kind of products. The intense use of this facility during the last years, operating three shifts a day, caused a normal degradation and imposed several limitations. Therefore, a new totally remodeled chamber was designed considering the state of the art in terms of absorbers and associated instrumentation. On the other hand the facility CBA2 was conceived, designed and implemented to test large satellites taking into account the advance of the technology in terms of RF frequencies, power level, testing methodologies and several other factors. A very interesting and unique aspect of this project was the partnership between the private sector and governmental institution. As a result, the total investment was shared between several companies and consequently a time-sharing use of the facility as well.

da Silva, Benjamim; Galvao, M. C.; Pereira, Clovis Solano

2008-01-01

180

MBE development of dilute nitrides for commercial long-wavelength laser applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

InGaAsN-based materials are being developed at IQE, Inc. for 1.3 ?m laser applications. Both MBE and MOCVD growth technology are employed and under investigation for commercial viability. The MBE effort focuses on optimizing the process for the large-volume manufacturing environment. The PL efficiencies of InGaAsN QWs grown with different nitrogen sources on single and multi-wafer MBE platforms are compared. The effect of various annealing treatments on the PL intensity and wavelength uniformity is also discussed in detail. The PL intensity of MBE-grown InGaAsN QWs is inferior to the efficiency of MOCVD samples emitting below 1.29 ?m. MOCVD samples, however, exhibit a faster decay of the PL intensity with increasing wavelength, and loose their advantage above 1.29 ?m. Deep and shallow ridge-waveguide lasers emitting at 1.28 ?m were processed from the MBE material and the laser characteristics are discussed.

Malis, O.; Liu, W. K.; Gmachl, C.; Fastenau, J. M.; Joel, A.; Gong, P.; Bland, S. W.; Moshegov, N.

2003-04-01

181

Short communication: Application of an N-acetyl-L-cysteine-NaOH decontamination method for the recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from milk of naturally infected cows.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is shed into the milk of cattle affected by Johne's disease and, therefore, is a route of transmission for infection in young stock in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to validate a decontamination and culture protocol for the recovery of MAP from individual bovine milk samples from known infected herds. Decontamination of milk samples (n = 17) with either 0.75% hexadecylpyridinium chloride for 5h or N-acetyl-L-cysteine-1.5% sodium hydroxide (NALC-1.5% NaOH) for 15 min before culture in BACTEC 12 B (Becton Dickinson, Franklin, NJ), para-JEM [Thermo Fisher Scientific (TREK Diagnostic Systems, Inc.), Cleveland, OH], and Herrold's egg yolk (HEY; Becton Dickinson) media was compared. Treatment with NALC-NaOH resulted in a lower percentage (6%) of contaminated samples than did treatment with hexadecylpyridinium chloride (47%), regardless of culture medium. The decontamination protocol (NALC-1.5% NaOH) was then applied to milk samples (n = 144) collected from cows at 7 US dairies. Recovery of viable MAP from the milk samples was low, regardless of culture medium, with recovery from 2 samples cultured in BACTEC 12 B medium, 1 sample cultured in para-JEM medium, and no viable MAP recovered on HEY medium. However, 32 cows were fecal culture positive and 13 milk samples were positive by direct PCR, suggesting that several cows were actively shedding MAP at the time of milk collection. Contamination rates were similar across media, with 39.6, 34.7, and 41.7% of samples contaminated after culture in BACTEC 12 B, para-JEM, and HEY media, respectively. Herd-to-herd variation had a major effect on sample contamination, with the percentage of contaminated samples ranging from 4 to 83%. It was concluded that decontamination of milk with NALC-1.5% NaOH before culture in BACTEC 12 B medium was the most efficacious method for the recovery of viable MAP from milk, although the ability to suppress the growth of contaminating microorganisms varied greatly between herds. PMID:24657082

Bradner, L; Robbe-Austerman, S; Beitz, D C; Stabel, J R

2014-06-01

182

Assessment of a Texas Structural Pesticide Applicator Training Course Based on Performance of Participants Seeking Commercial or Non-Commercial Applicator Licenses  

E-print Network

of the pest control industry in Texas - or, more specifically, the demographics of those taking a Structural Pesticide Applicator Training (SPAT) course from AES - have not changed much since 1998. The major differences in demographics between the two groups...

Brown, Jacob 1988-

2012-08-15

183

Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2E: Commercial equipment utility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examination of commercial equipment technologies revealed that the functional performance requirements of space processing equipment could generally be met by state-of-the-art design practices. Thus, an apparatus could be evolved from a standard item or derived by custom design using present technologies. About 15 percent of the equipment needed has no analogous commercial base of derivation and requires special development. This equipment is involved primarily with contactless heating and position control. The derivation of payloads using commercial equipment sources provides a broad and potentially cost-effective base upon which to draw. The derivation of payload equipment from commercial technologies poses other issues beyond that of the identifiable functional performance, but preliminary results on testing of selected equipment testing appear quite favorable. During this phase of the SPA study, several aspects of commercial equipment utility were assessed and considered. These included safety, packaging and structural, power conditioning (electrical/electronic), thermal and materials of construction.

Smith, A. G. (editor)

1974-01-01

184

Natural Transfer of Viable Microbes in Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including:—radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays; dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius×density), combined with dose

Curt Mileikowsky; Francis A. Cucinotta; John W. Wilson; Brett Gladman; Gerda Horneck; Lennart Lindegren; Jay Melosh; Hans Rickman; Mauri Valtonen; J. Q. Zheng

2000-01-01

185

The transfer of viable microorganisms between planets.  

PubMed

There is increasing acceptance that catastrophic cosmic impacts have played an important role in shaping the history of terrestrial life. Large asteroid and cometary impacts are also capable of displacing substantial quantities of planetary surface material into space. The discovery of Martian rocks on Earth suggests that viable microorganisms within such ejecta could be exchanged between planets. If this conjecture is correct, it will have profound implications for the origin and evolution of life in the solar system. PMID:9243022

Davies, P C

1996-01-01

186

Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications  

SciTech Connect

Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative technologies. As the technology gains a foothold in its target markets and demand increases, the costs will decline in response to improved manufacturing efficiencies, similar to trends seen with other technologies. Transparency Market Research forecasts suggest that the CHP-FCS market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of greater than 27 percent over the next 5 years. These production level increases, coupled with the expected low price of natural gas, indicate the economic payback period will move to less than 5 years over the course of the next 5 years. To better understand the benefits of micro-CHP-FCSs, The U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe fuel cells in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is evaluating these systems in terms of economics, operations, and their environmental impact in real-world applications. As expected, the economic analysis has indicated that the high capital cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than typically is acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, a payback period of less than 3 years may be expected as increased production brings system cost down, and CHP incentives are maintained or improved.

Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

2013-10-30

187

Application of Commercial Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Sensors for Sub-Ambient Carbon Dioxide Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration within a spacecraft or spacesuit is critically important to ensuring the safety of the crew. Carbon dioxide uniquely absorbs light at wavelengths of 3.95 micrometers and 4.26 micrometers. As a result, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy can be employed as a reliable and inexpensive method for the quantification of CO2 within the atmosphere. A multitude of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) NDIR sensors exist for CO2 quantification. The COTS sensors provide reasonable accuracy so long as the measurements are attained under conditions close to the calibration conditions of the sensor (typically 21.1 C and 1 atm). However, as pressure deviates from atmospheric to the pressures associated with a spacecraft (8.0-10.2 PSIA) or spacesuit (4.1-8.0 PSIA), the error in the measurement grows increasingly large. In addition to pressure and temperature dependencies, the infrared transmissivity through a volume of gas also depends on the composition of the gas. As the composition is not known a priori, accurate sub-ambient detection must rely on iterative sensor compensation techniques. This manuscript describes the development of recursive compensation algorithms for sub-ambient detection of CO2 with COTS NDIR sensors. In addition, the basis of the exponential loss in accuracy is developed theoretically considering thermal, Doppler, and Lorentz broadening effects which arise as a result of the temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas mixture under analysis. As a result, this manuscript provides an approach to employing COTS sensors at sub-ambient conditions and may also lend insight into designing future NDIR sensors for aerospace application.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Boerman, Craig

2011-01-01

188

Application of Commercial Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Sensors for Sub-Ambient Carbon Dioxide Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration within a spacecraft or spacesuit is critically important to ensuring the safety of the crew. Carbon dioxide uniquely absorbs light at wavelengths of 3.95 micrometers and 4.26 micrometers. As a result, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy can be employed as a reliable and inexpensive method for the quantification of CO2 within the atmosphere. A multitude of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) NDIR sensors exist for CO2 quantification. The COTS sensors provide reasonable accuracy as long as the measurements are attained under conditions close to the calibration conditions of the sensor (typically 21.1 C (70.0 F) and 1 atmosphere). However, as pressure deviates from atmospheric to the pressures associated with a spacecraft (8.0{10.2 pounds per square inch absolute (psia)) or spacesuit (4.1{8.0 psia), the error in the measurement grows increasingly large. In addition to pressure and temperature dependencies, the infrared transmissivity through a volume of gas also depends on the composition of the gas. As the composition is not known a priori, accurate sub-ambient detection must rely on iterative sensor compensation techniques. This manuscript describes the development of recursive compensation algorithms for sub-ambient detection of CO2 with COTS NDIR sensors. In addition, the source of the exponential loss in accuracy is developed theoretically. The basis of the loss can be explained through thermal, Doppler, and Lorentz broadening effects that arise as a result of the temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas mixture under analysis. This manuscript provides an approach to employing COTS sensors at sub-ambient conditions and may also lend insight into designing future NDIR sensors for aerospace application.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

2012-01-01

189

Geothermal potential for commercial and industrial direct heat applications in Salida, Colorado. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Salida Geothermal Prospect (Poncha Hot Springs) was evaluated for industrial and commercial direct heat applications at Salida, Colorado, which is located approximately five miles east of Poncha Hot Springs. Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd., holds the geothermal leases on the prospect and the right-of-way for the main pipeline to Salida. The Poncha Hot Springs are located at the intersection of two major structural trends, immediately between the Upper Arkansas graben and the Sangre de Cristo uplift. Prominent east-west faulting occurs at the actual location of the hot springs. Preliminary exploration indicates that 1600 gpm of geothermal fluid as hot as 250/sup 0/F is likely to be found at around 1500 feet in depth. The prospective existing endusers were estimated to require 5.02 x 10/sup 10/ Btu per year, but the total annual amount of geothermal energy available for existing and future endusers is 28.14 x 10/sup 10/ Btu. The engineering design for the study assumed that the 1600 gpm would be fully utilized. Some users would be cascaded and the spent fluid would be cooled and discharged to nearby rivers. The economic analysis assumes that two separate businesses, the energy producer and the energy distributor, are participants in the geothermal project. The producer would be an existing limited partnership, with Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd. as one of the partners; the distributor would be a new Colorado corporation without additional income sources. Economic evaluations were performed in full for four cases: the Base Case and three alternate scenarios. Alternate 1 assumes a three-year delay in realizing full production relative to the Base Case; Alternate 2 assumes that the geothermal reservoir is of a higher quality than is assumed for the Base Case; and Alternate 3 assumes a lower quality reservoir. 11 refs., 34 figs., 40 tabs.

Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.; Galloway, M.J.; Gross, J.T.; Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

1982-10-01

190

Technology data characterizing water heating in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting  

SciTech Connect

Commercial-sector conservation analyses have traditionally focused on lighting and space conditioning because of their relatively-large shares of electricity and fuel consumption in commercial buildings. In this report we focus on water heating, which is one of the neglected end uses in the commercial sector. The share of the water-heating end use in commercial-sector electricity consumption is 3%, which corresponds to 0.3 quadrillion Btu (quads) of primary energy consumption. Water heating accounts for 15% of commercial-sector fuel use, which corresponds to 1.6 quads of primary energy consumption. Although smaller in absolute size than the savings associated with lighting and space conditioning, the potential cost-effective energy savings from water heaters are large enough in percentage terms to warrant closer attention. In addition, water heating is much more important in particular building types than in the commercial sector as a whole. Fuel consumption for water heating is highest in lodging establishments, hospitals, and restaurants (0.27, 0.22, and 0.19 quads, respectively); water heating`s share of fuel consumption for these building types is 35%, 18% and 32%, respectively. At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and refined a base-year data set characterizing water heating technologies in commercial buildings as well as a modeling framework. We present the data and modeling framework in this report. The present commercial floorstock is characterized in terms of water heating requirements and technology saturations. Cost-efficiency data for water heating technologies are also developed. These data are intended to support models used for forecasting energy use of water heating in the commercial sector.

Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

1995-12-01

191

Process to Selectively Distinguish Viable from Non-Viable Bacterial Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combination of ethidium monoazide (EMA) and post-fragmentation, randomly primed DNA amplification technologies will enhance the analytical capability to discern viable from non-viable bacterial cells in spacecraft-related samples. Intercalating agents have been widely used since the inception of molecular biology to stain and visualize nucleic acids. Only recently, intercalating agents such as EMA have been exploited to selectively distinguish viable from dead bacterial cells. Intercalating dyes can only penetrate the membranes of dead cells. Once through the membrane and actually inside the cell, they intercalate DNA and, upon photolysis with visible light, produce stable DNA monoadducts. Once the DNA is crosslinked, it becomes insoluble and unable to be fragmented for post-fragmentation, randomly primed DNA library formation. Viable organisms DNA remains unaffected by the intercalating agents, allowing for amplification via post-fragmentation, randomly primed technologies. This results in the ability to carry out downstream nucleic acid-based analyses on viable microbes to the exclusion of all non-viable cells.

LaDuc, Myron T.; Bernardini, Jame N.; Stam, Christina N.

2010-01-01

192

Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8B: Mosquito Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the mimimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the mosquito control category. The text discusses the aspects of mosquito biology and control by biological, mechanical, and integrated measures. A study guide with sample and study questions is included.…

Schulze, Terry L., Ed.; Kriner, Ray R., Ed.

193

Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7B: Termites and Other Wood Destroying Pests. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite and wood destroying pest control category. The text discusses the importance, description, biology, and control of termites, powderpost beetles, house and warf borers, carpenter ants, and…

Schmitt, John B.

194

Technology data characterizing space conditioning in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with COMMEND 4.0  

SciTech Connect

In the US, energy consumption is increasing most rapidly in the commercial sector. Consequently, the commercial sector is becoming an increasingly important target for state and federal energy policies and also for utility-sponsored demand side management (DSM) programs. The rapid growth in commercial-sector energy consumption also makes it important for analysts working on energy policy and DSM issues to have access to energy end-use forecasting models that include more detailed representations of energy-using technologies in the commercial sector. These new forecasting models disaggregate energy consumption not only by fuel type, end use, and building type, but also by specific technology. The disaggregation of space conditioning end uses in terms of specific technologies is complicated by several factors. First, the number of configurations of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and heating and cooling plants is very large. Second, the properties of the building envelope are an integral part of a building`s HVAC energy consumption characteristics. Third, the characteristics of commercial buildings vary greatly by building type. The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Commercial End-Use Planning System (COMMEND 4.0) and the associated data development presented in this report attempt to address the above complications and create a consistent forecasting framework. This report describes the process by which the authors collected space-conditioning technology data and then mapped it into the COMMEND 4.0 input format. The data are also generally applicable to other end-use forecasting frameworks for the commercial sector.

Sezgen, O.; Franconi, E.M.; Koomey, J.G.; Greenberg, S.E.; Afzal, A.; Shown, L.

1995-12-01

195

Commercialization of silicon on lattice-engineered substrate for electronic applications  

E-print Network

The commercial potential of SOLES (Silicon on Lattice-Engineered Substrate) is investigated considering the competing technologies, competing market players and market demands. Monolithic integration of Si devices with ...

Liang, Yu Yan

2008-01-01

196

An Automatic Commercial Search Application for TV Broadcasting Using Audio Fingerprinting  

E-print Network

Nowadays, TV advertising is an important part of our daily life. However, it is usually hard for organizations that produce and pay for the advertisements to confirm whether their commercials are broadcasted as required in time and frequency...

Song, Yaohua

2012-10-19

197

40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

2013-07-01

198

40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

2010-07-01

199

40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457... EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

2011-07-01

200

40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

2012-07-01

201

Estimating commercial property prices: an application of cokriging with housing prices as ancillary information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A vast majority of the recent literature on spatial hedonic analysis has been concerned with residential property values, with only very few examples of studies focused on commercial property prices. The dearth of studies can be attributed to some of the challenges faced in the analysis of commercial properties, in particular the scarcity of information compared to residential transactions. In order to address this issue, in this paper we propose the use of cokriging and housing prices as ancillary information to estimate commercial property prices. Cokriging takes into account the spatial autocorrelation structure of property prices, and the use of more abundant information on housing prices helps to improve the accuracy of property value estimates. A case study of Toledo in Spain, a city for which commercial activity stemming from tourism is one of the key elements of the economy in the city, demonstrates that substantial accuracy and precision gains can be obtained from the use of cokriging.

Montero-Lorenzo, José-María; Larraz-Iribas, Beatriz; Páez, Antonio

2009-12-01

202

NASA's human system risk management approach and its applicability to commercial spaceflight.  

PubMed

As planning continues for commercial spaceflight, attention is turned to NASA to assess whether its human system risk management approach can be applied to mitigate the risks associated with commercial suborbital and orbital flights. NASA uses a variety of methods to assess the risks to the human system based on their likelihood and consequences. In this article, we review these methods and categorize the risks in the system as "definite," "possible," or "least" concern for commercial spaceflight. As with career astronauts, these risks will be primarily mitigated by screening and environmental control. Despite its focus on long-duration exploration missions, NASA's human system risk management approach can serve as a preliminary knowledge base to help medical planners prepare for commercial spaceflights. PMID:23305003

Law, Jennifer; Mathers, Charles H; Fondy, Susan R E; Vanderploeg, James M; Kerstman, Eric L

2013-01-01

203

Flat Conductor Cable systems - Originally developed for space flight, useful for commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flat Conductor Cable (FCC) technology has now reached a level of development where it is being considered for, and used in, numerous interconnection projects. First developed for aerospace use, FCC is becoming a major contender for commercial wiring tasks as well. This presentation is designed to show why and how FCC has been able to make the transition from the aerospace to the commercial field.

Angele, W.

1973-01-01

204

The Scaleup of Structured Packing from Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application  

E-print Network

in the process industry for increased efficiency, greater capacity, and energy savings in distillation columns. Pilot plant testing of the actual chemical system using commercially available structured packing is invaluable, but years of experience in pilot... pilot plant test in order to determine exactly how the process wi 11 respond to the use of hi gh efficiency, low pressure drop packings. Pilot plant testing of the actual chemical system using commercially available structured packing is invaluable...

Berven, O. J.; Ulowetz, M. A.

205

Natural transfer of viable microbes in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency.

Mileikowsky, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Gladman, B.; Horneck, G.; Lindegren, L.; Melosh, J.; Rickman, H.; Valtonen, M.; Zheng, J. Q.

2000-01-01

206

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION OF PLASMA MASS SEPARATION IN THE ARCHIMEDES FILTER PLANT  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the commercial application of an innovative plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter to a pre-treatment plant that can be integrated into the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford and Savannah River Sites to significantly enhance the treatment of radioactive high-level waste. The output of the Archimedes Filter is completely compatible with existing waste immobilization processes such as vitrification and requires no new waste form to be developed. A full-geometric-scale Demonstration Filter Unit (DEMO) has been constructed and is undergoing initial testing at the Archimedes Technology Group Development Facilities in San Diego. Some of the technology and engineering development is being performed by other organizations in collaboration with Archimedes. The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing the plasma calcination technology and all of the associated systems for AFP feed preparation. Two Russian institutes are involved in the development of the ICP torch and injector system. The Remote System Group (UT-Battelle) at ORNL is developing the remote maintenance system for the filter units. Conceptual design of the Archimedes Filter Plant (AFP) is being developed concurrently with the DEMO testing program. The AFP mission is to significantly reduce the cost and accelerate the rate of vitrification of high-level waste by separating low activity waste from the sludge removed from underground storage tanks. Mass separation is accomplished by vaporizing the sludge feed and injecting it into a partially ionized, neutral plasma. In a single pass, heavy ions are deposited near the center of the filter and light mass ions are transported by the plasma to the ends of the cylindrically-shaped vacuum vessel. Responding to the DOE programs for cost reduction and cleanup acceleration, the AFP Project is planned on an expeditious schedule that executes all phases of the project with private sector funding. The initial AFP implementation is targeted for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site. Hot commissioning is scheduled for late 2007 with design throughput and availability achieved by end of 2008. It is anticipated that AFP revenues will be based on a shared cost savings model, thus providing first revenues by late 2007. Preliminary safety studies have shown that AFP process hazards are similar to or less hazardous than those in a radio-chemical pre-treatment plant for high-level waste. Conservative criticality evaluations indicate very large margins from criticality. Development of a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report will begin in mid 2003 to support licensing activities. A detailed permitting plan has been developed which, when combined with other activities, support a start of construction in 2005.

Ahlfeld, C.E.; Gilleland, J.G.; Wagoner, J.D.

2003-02-27

207

Civil tiltrotor missions and applications. Phase 2: The commercial passenger market  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commercial passenger market for the civil tiltrotor was examined in phase 2. A market responsive commercial tiltrotor was found to be technically feasible, and a significant worldwide market potential was found to exist for such an aircraft, especially for relieving congestion in urban area-to-urban area service and for providing cost effective hub airport feeder service. Potential technical obstacles of community noise, vertiport area navigation, surveillance, and control, and the pilot/aircraft interface were determined to be surmountable. Nontechnical obstacles relating to national commitment and leadership and development of ground and air infrastructure were determined to be more difficult to resolve; an innovative public/private partnership is suggested to allow coordinated development of an initial commercial tiltrotor network to relieve congestion in the crowded US Northeast corridor by the year 2000.

Thompson, P.; Neir, R.; Reber, R.; Scholes, R.; Alexander, H.; Sweet, D.; Berry, D. (editor)

1991-01-01

208

Trans-aortic counterpulsation: a viable alternative?  

PubMed

Transthoracic intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) insertion has been a relatively rare and uncommon procedure. However, it is an established beneficial option in patients with severe peripheral vascular disease (PVD) accompanied with bi-lateral femoral arterial occlusion. There are several viable alternatives to trans-aortic IABP insertion, including trans-axillary or in abdominal aorta (requiring a laparotomy). Cardiac surgery has the advantage of an open sternum, facilitating effortless direct intra-aortic balloon (IAB) insertion into the aorta. The IAB can be inserted either through a 9-mm graft or directly into the ascending aorta. During cardiac surgery, direct insertion into the ascending aorta with the balloon tip lying distally in the abdominal aorta is facilitated with an open sternum. The base of the balloon lies approximately 2 cm below the left subclavian and can be confirmed through a trans-esophageal echocardiogram (TEE). Elimination of a graft insertion saves the team from time-consuming maneuvers and additional hemorrhagic complications. In our experience, postoperative vasoplegic syndrome coupled with myocardial edema contributed to patent instability and was treated with vasopressin and transthoracic IAB insertion. The CS 100 (Datascope Corp., Mahwah, NJ) console allowed the ability to time the balloon accurately. This case report details our experience with one such patient and establishes trans-aortic counter-pulsation as a safe and viable option in patients with severe PVD, where percutaneous insertion is precluded or has failed. PMID:17672190

Datt, Bharat; Hutchison, Lisa; Peniston, Charles

2007-06-01

209

Application of a Bioenergetics Model for Hatchery Production: Largemouth Bass Fed Commercial Feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fish bioenergetics models based on natural prey items have been widely used to address research and management questions. However, few attempts have been made to evaluate and apply bioenergetics models to hatchery-reared fish receiving commercial feeds that contain substantially higher energy densities than natural prey. In this study, we evaluated a bioenergetics model for age-0 largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides reared

Isak J. Csargo; Michael L. Brown; Steven R. Chipps

2012-01-01

210

Thirty years of development and application of CFD at Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Seattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 30 years, Boeing has developed, manufactured, sold, and supported hundreds of billions of dollars worth of commercial airplanes. During this period, it has been absolutely essential that Boeing aerodynamicists have access to tools that accurately predict and confirm vehicle flight characteristics. Thirty years ago, these tools consisted almost entirely of analytic approximation methods, wind tunnel tests, and

Forrester T. Johnson; Edward N. Tinoco; N. Jong Yu

2005-01-01

211

A performance analysis on the application of commercial standards for IP SATCOM modems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of satellite communications (SATCOM) in support of the deployed warfighter has increased in recent years. With this increased reliance on SATCOM, the importance for a Department of Defense (DoD) wide strategy to efficiently procure and utilize the limited set of commercial DoD space assets has been emphasized. A step in the migration towards this strategy will be the

J. Heissler; J. Marshall; R. M. Piccola; R. V. Sonalkar; Jianyu Zeng

2005-01-01

212

Bioculture System Expanding ISS Capabilities for Space Biosciences Research and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oral presentation at the ASGSR 2013 Annual Meeting. The presentation describes the NASA Bioculture System hardware design, capabilities, enabling science research capabilities, and flight concept of operations. The presentation is part of the Enabling Technologies special session and will be presented to perspective users in both academics and commercial communities.

Sato, Kevin Y.

2013-01-01

213

Comparison of epifluorescent viable bacterial count methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods, the 2-(4-Iodophenyl) 3-(4-nitrophenyl) 5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) method and the direct viable count (DVC), were tested and compared for their efficiency for the determination of the viability of bacterial populations. Use of the INT method results in the formation of a dark spot within each respiring cell. The DVC method results in elongation or swelling of growing cells that are rendered incapable of cell division. Although both methods are subjective and can result in false positive results, the DVC method is best suited to analysis of waters in which the number of different types of organisms present in the same sample is assumed to be small, such as processed waters. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

Rodgers, E. B.; Huff, T. L.

1992-01-01

214

Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

1980-09-01

215

Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

216

A comparison of crop data measured by two commercial sensors for variable-rate nitrogen application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates applied spatially according to crop requirements can improve the efficiency of N use. The study\\u000a compares the performance of two commercial sensors, the Yara N-Sensor\\/FieldScan (Yara International ASA, Germany) and the\\u000a GreenSeeker (NTech Industries Inc., Ukiah, California, USA), for assessing the status of N in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). Four

Nicolas Tremblay; Zhijie Wang; Bao-Luo Ma; Carl Belec; Philippe Vigneault

2009-01-01

217

In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot Potential Commercial and Exploration Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The key goals and objectives for an In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot are to support a safe, reliable, affordable and effective future human and robotic space exploration initiative. Previous studies have been conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to determine technical requirements and feasibility for exploration and commercial potential of an in-space cryogenic propellant depot in low-Earth-orbit (LEO), low-Lunar orbit (LLO) and/or on the lunar surface. Results indicate that in-space cryogenic propellant depots are technically feasible given continued technology development and that there is a substantial growing market that depots could support. Systems studies showed that the most expensive part of transferring payloads to geo-synchronous-orbit (GEO) is the fuel. A cryogenic propellant production and storage depot stationed in LEO could lower the cost of missions to GEO and beyond. Propellant production separates water into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis. This process requires large amounts of power which is enabled by Space Solar Power technologies. Recent analysis indicate that in the coming decades there could be a significant demand for water-based propellants from Earth, moon, or asteroid resources if in-space transfer vehicles (upper stages) transitioned to reusable systems using water based propellants. This type of strategic planning move could create a substantial commercial market for space resources development, and ultimately lead toward significant commercial infrastructure development within the Earth-Moon system.

Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; Henley, Mark W.

2006-01-01

218

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Food Processing Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Characteristics, life cycles and habits of pests such as roaches, beetles, flies, ants and rodents are discussed. Additionally, pest control measures, especially by application of aerosols, dusts, baits, fumigants or vapors, is presented. (CS)

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

219

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the recognition of weeds and methods of their control in rights-of-way. Different types of application equipment both airborne and ground are discussed with precautions for the safe and effective use of herbicides. (CS)

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

220

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 6: Right-of-Way Pest Control. CS-18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses important right-of-way weeds and unwanted woody plants and provides suggestions for both long- and short-term control. Attention is also given to special problems associated with application of right-of-way herbicides.…

Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephan O.

221

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 5: Aquatic Pest Control. CS-17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the control of aquatic weeds in a variety of water use situations, i.e. static water, limited-flow impoundments and moving water. Also discussed are the principles of limited area application such as surface or…

Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

222

Application of commercially pure titanium coatings using HVOF thermal spray for machinery component restoration  

SciTech Connect

Alloy 625 has been shown to be susceptible to crevice corrosion under tight metal to nonmetal crevices in both natural and treated seawater. Under similar conditions, commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) has been shown to be immune. Therefore, coating alloy 625 sealing areas with CP Ti is a potentially effective crevice corrosion countermeasure. Specialized thermal spray techniques were developed utilizing the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) process to apply coatings of CP Ti to alloy 625 substrates in atmosphere. Coating quality was similar to plasma sprayed coatings of other less reactive, metals. Crevice corrosion tests were conducted and issues relating to implementation of HVOF thermal spraying on a production basis were considered.

McCaw, R.L.; Hays, R.A.; Brenna, R.T.

1994-12-31

223

Combining direct viable count (DVC) and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) to enumerate viable E. coli in rivers and wastewaters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a combination of the direct viable count procedure (DVC) and the FISH method was used to monitor by epifluorescence microscopy the abundance of viable E. coli in river water and wastewater samples. The DVC procedure consisted of exposing bacterial cells to a resuscitation medium containing antibiotics preventing cellular division and, thus, inducing an elongation of the viable

T. Garcia Armisen; P. Servais

224

The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

2008-01-01

225

The application of electrodialysis to extend the lifetime of commercial electroplating baths  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis has been investigated as a method to extend the lifetime of industrial electroplating solutions via the selective removal of inert electrolyte salts that build up during electroplating operations. The electrodialysis measurements were made using a commercially available plate-and frame-type cell and various combinations of Nafion cation ``change and either Tosflex or Neosepta anion exchange membranes. Two commercial plating solutions were studied: a zinc-tin bath in which there is a buildup of excess potassium hydroxide and a nickel-tungsten bath characterized by a buildup of excess sodium sulfate. Potassium hydroxide was effectively removed from the zinc-tin bath with very little loss of the heavy metals. Two configurations were investigated: a three compartment configuration with potassium hydroxide in the anolyte strip and sulfuric acid in the catholyte strip, and a two compartment configuration with sulfuric acid in the catholyte strip and the anode placed directly in the plating solution. In both cases potassium hydroxide was stripped from the plating solution at greater than 94% current efficiency, but at a slightly greater voltage in the three compartment cell due to increased resistance caused by the extra membrane. A three compartment configuration was used to remove sodium sulfate from the nickel-tungsten bath, with acid solution in the catholyte and alkaline solution in the anolyte. Current efficiencies for salt removal were high but with appreciable loss of tungsten and nickel to the strip solutions.

Purdy, G.; Zawodzinski, C.; Smith, B.; Smith, W.H.

1993-12-31

226

The law applicable to the use of space for commercial activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general principles of space law that have an impact on commercial space activities are discussed. The Outer Space Treaty guaranteed the right of private enterprise in space, with jurisdiction over the participating parties residing in the country of origin. The liability for damages caused to a third party is also assigned to the country of origin. Government consent is necessary in the U.S. before a private firm is permitted to launch an object into space, with the relevant statute sections being part of the Arms Export Control Act; launches are legally treated as exports. FAA regulations define the safe area and flight conditions that must be satisfied for a private launch, although NASA, in the 1958 act which formed the agency, potentialy has the power to regulate space launch activities. The DoD must be notified of any launches in order to notify the U.S.S.R., filings must be made with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, and fees must be paid to the IRS. It is presently U.S. government policy to encourage and facilitate private sector development of commercial launch services.

Hosenball, S. N.

1983-01-01

227

An economically viable space power relay system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes and analyzes the economics of a power relay system that takes advantage of recent technological advances to implement a system that is economically viable. A series of power relay systems are described and analyzed which transport power ranging from 1,250 megawatts to 5,000 megawatts, and distribute it to receiving sites at transcontinental distances. Two classes of systems are discussed—those with a single reflector and delivering all the power to a single rectenna, and a second type which has multiple reflectors and distributes it to 10 rectenna sites, sharing power among them. It is shown that when offering electricity at prices competitive to those prevalent in developed cities in the US that a low IRR is inevitable, and economic feasibility of a business is unlikely. However, when the target market is Japan where the prevalent electricity prices are much greater, that an IRR exceeding 65% is readily attainable. This is extremely attractive to potential investors, making capitalization of a venture likely. The paper shows that the capital investment required for the system can be less than 1 per installed watt, contributing less than 0.02 /KW-hr to the cost of energy provision. Since selling prices in feasible regions range from 0.18 to over 030 $/kW-hr, these costs are but a small fraction of the operating expenses. Thus a very large IRR is possible for such a business.

Bekey, Ivan; Boudreault, Richard

1999-09-01

228

Use of G1.2\\/G2.2 media for commercial bovine embryo culture: equivalent development and pregnancy rates compared to co-culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expanded application of commercial bovine IVM, IVF, and IVC systems is dependent on the ability to produce embryos in culture that are capable of producing normal pregnancies. Because serum containing culture systems can induce neonatal and fetal problems there exists a definite need for a serum-free culture system that produces viable blastocysts. This study demonstrated that the physiological sequential

David K. Gardner; Marilyn J. Hasler; John F. Hasler

2003-01-01

229

Commercialization potential of compositionally graded Ge - Si??x?Gex? - Si substrates for solar applications  

E-print Network

This project considers the potential of Ge - Si??x?Gex? - Si substrates for solar applications. The use of compositionally graded substrates to achieve heterointegration across different materials platforms such as Si, Ge ...

Goh, Johnathan Jian Ming

2006-01-01

230

Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 2: Technical final report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intersatellite Link (ISL) applications can improve and expand communication satellite services in a number of ways. As the demand for orbital slots within prime regions of the geostationary arc increases, attention is being focused on ISLs as a method to utilize this resource more efficiently and circumvent saturation. Various GEO-to-GEO applications were determined that provide potential benefits over existing communication systems. A set of criteria was developed to assess the potential applications. Intersatellite link models, network system architectures, and payload configurations were developed. For each of the chosen ISL applications, ISL versus non-ISL satellite systems architectures were derived. Both microwave and optical ISL implementation approaches were evaluated for payload sizing and cost analysis. The technological availability for ISL implementations was assessed. Critical subsystems technology areas were identified, and an estamate of the schedule and cost to advance the technology to the requiered state of readiness was made.

Young, S. Lee

1987-01-01

231

Commercial potential for thermal & magnetic sensitive polymer in drug delivery applications  

E-print Network

Thermal and magnetically sensitive polymers are a new class of materials with unique properties suitable for applications in drug delivery. Specifically, these polymers can be combined with a drug reservoir to make a drug ...

Edward, Jonathan M. (Jonathan Mark)

2008-01-01

232

Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator system. Phase I. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the design and analysis of the BDM CAPVC (Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator) system. The preliminary design, prototype test and evaluation, system analysis, and final design of a large-scale concentrating photovoltaic system are described. The application is on an attractive new office building which represents a large potential market. The photovoltaic concentrating array is a roof-mounted, single-axis linear parabolic trough, using single crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells. A total of 6720 square feet of aperture is focussed on 13,944 PV cells. The photovoltaic system operates in parallel with the local utility in an augmentary loadsharing operating mode. The array is actively cooled and the thermal energy utilized for building heat during winter months. (WHK)

Anderson, D.J.; Anderson, E.R.; Bardwell, K.M.

1980-04-01

233

On the Use of Thermoelectric (TE) Applications Based on Commercial Modules: The Case of TE Generator and TE Cooler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, thermoelectricity sees rapidly increasing usages in applications like portable refrigerators, beverage coolers, electronic component coolers etc. when used as Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC), and Thermoelectric Generators (TEG) which make use of the Seebeck effect in semiconductors for the direct conversion of heat into electrical energy and is of particular interest for systems of highest reliability or for waste heat recovery. In this work, we examine the performance of commercially available TEC and TEG. A prototype TEC-refrigerator has been designed, modeled and constructed for in-car applications. Additionally, a TEG was made, in order to measure the gained power and efficiency. Furthermore, a TEG module was tested on a small size car (Toyota Starlet, 1300 cc), in order to measure the gained power and efficiency for various engine loads. With the use of a modeling approach, we evaluated the thermal contact resistances and their influence on the final device efficiency.

Zorbas, K.; Hatzikraniotis, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Kyratsi, Th.

2010-01-01

234

Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part I - progress in the patent landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 20 years, diffractive optics experienced a strong research interest and was in the center of many development projects in applied optics. To offer a side view for optical engineers, here, we discuss selected, business-related aspects of the current status of the transfer process to bring diffractive optics into commercial products. The contribution is divided into two parts. Here, in part I, we focus on the patent landscape of diffractive optics with a closer look on the temporal development and the distribution over main players. As an important result, currently, new strong patent activities are observed especially in the context of imaging systems. In the second part, the business volumes of selected market segments are discussed.

Brunner, Robert

2013-12-01

235

Economic modeling of fault tolerant flight control systems in commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the current development of a comprehensive model which will supply the assessment and analysis capability to investigate the economic viability of Fault Tolerant Flight Control Systems (FTFCS) for commercial aircraft of the 1990's and beyond. An introduction to the unique attributes of fault tolerance and how they will influence aircraft operations and consequent airline costs and benefits is presented. Specific modeling issues and elements necessary for accurate assessment of all costs affected by ownership and operation of FTFCS are delineated. Trade-off factors are presented, aimed at exposing economically optimal realizations of system implementations, resource allocation, and operating policies. A trade-off example is furnished to graphically display some of the analysis capabilities of the comprehensive simulation model now being developed.

Finelli, G. B.

1982-01-01

236

Thermographic-phosphor temperature measurements: Commercial and defense-related applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a review of a diverse set of applications of the thermographic-phosphor (TP) method for measuring temperatures remotely. The TP method is useful in hostile and/or inaccessible environments where no other known method works. It is highly accurate, nonintrusive, durable, conceptually simple, covers an unprecedented temperature range (0 K to >1200 K), can measure temperature at a single point or over an entire surface, and can make static, steady-state, or very high speed dynamic measurements. The TP method can also be used to make leadless, remotely interrogated heat-flux gauges that can nonintrusively measure spatial distributions of heat flux over arbitrarily large areas with high resolution. The applications described include measurements in gas centrifuges, motors, variable-area ejectors, rotors and stators in gas turbines, and others. The authors also briefly discuss heat-flux gauges and their applications.

Noel, B.W. [Noel (B.W.), Espanola, NM (United States); Turley, W.D. [EG& G Energy Measurements, Goleta, CA (United States); Allison, S.W. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1994-06-01

237

Study of fuel cell on-site, integrated energy systems in residential/commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three building applications were selected for a detailed study: a low rise apartment building; a retail store, and a hospital. Building design data were then specified for each application, based on the design and construction of typical, actual buildings. Finally, a computerized building loads analysis program was used to estimate hourly end use load profiles for each building. Conventional and fuel cell based energy systems were designed and simulated for each building in each location. Based on the results of a computer simulation of each energy system, levelized annual costs and annual energy consumptions were calculated for all systems.

Wakefield, R. A.; Karamchetty, S.; Rand, R. H.; Ku, W. S.; Tekumalla, V.

1980-01-01

238

Study of fuel cell on-site, integrated energy systems in residential/commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three building applications were selected for a detailed study: a low rise apartment building; a retail store, and a hospital. Building design data were then specified for each application, based on the design and construction of typical, actual buildings. Finally, a computerized building loads analysis program was used to estimate hourly end use load profiles for each building. Conventional and fuel cell based energy systems were designed and simulated for each building in each location. Based on the results of a computer simulation of each energy system, levelized annual costs and annual energy consumptions were calculated for all systems.

Wakefield, R. A.; Karamchetty, S.; Rand, R. H.; Ku, W. S.; Tekumalla, V.

1980-10-01

239

Microencapsulated fuel technology for commercial light water and advanced reactor application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential application of microencapsulated fuels to light water reactors (LWRs) has been explored. The specific fuel manifestation being put forward is for coated fuel particles embedded in silicon carbide or zirconium metal matrices. Detailed descriptions of these concepts are presented, along with a review of attributes, potential benefits, and issues with respect to their application in LWR environments, specifically from the standpoints of materials, neutronics, operations, and economics. Preliminary experiment and modeling results imply that with marginal redesign, significant gains in operational reliability and accident response margins could be potentially achieved by replacing conventional oxide-type LWR fuel with microencapsulated fuel forms.

Terrani, Kurt A.; Snead, Lance L.; Gehin, Jess C.

2012-08-01

240

Hydronic heat pumps for residential and light-commercial applications: Volume 2, Appendixes: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic potential of hydronic heat pump heating systems was investigated. The work included review of the status of current hydronic and hydronic heat pump technology in the US and Europe, development of candidate design concepts and performance parameters for air-to-water, water-to-water and backup systems, development of control strategies to minimize costs and electrical demand, analysis of transient and seasonal performance for a wide range of applications, and preliminary investigation of the financial attractiveness and market potential of hydronic heat pump systems. The status review uncovered only a few suppliers of hydronic heat pumps in the United States. Hydronic heat pumps in Europe are technologically mature, but the market expansion is impeded by high initial and installation costs. Steady-state and transient performance of a candidate hydronic heat pump was computed using available models adapted for the hydronic application. Design and application features explored included refrigerant type, source temperature, convector sizing, compressor type, condenser and evaporator sizing, optimum charge, frosting/defrosting losses, control strategy, effect of day and night rates, thermostat setback and electrical demand, and thermal energy storage. Based on life-cycle cost savings, a number of hydronic heat-pump systems appear financially attractive in selective applications. Consumer awareness and education are considered essential to market growth.

Fischer, D.; Ball, D.; Talbert, S.; Broehl, J.; Buhr, A.; Martineau, T.

1987-03-01

241

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Control of Wood Destroying Pests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist pesticide applicators in the category of wood destroying organisms to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of the Agriculture for certification. The 10 sections included describe: (1) Subterranean termites; (2) Dampwood termites; (3) Drywood termites; (4) Powder-post beetles; (5) Old house borer; (6)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

242

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Regulatory Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist regulatory pest control applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The guide discusses: (1) Factors influencing introduction and spread of pests and their population dynamics; (2) Methods and techniques used to suppress, control, or eradicate pests of…

Mesecher, Robert

243

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

Brunner, J.; And Others

244

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of aquatic pest control meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aquatic Pest Control Guide served as a basis for this manual. The six sections presented describe: (1) Aquatic pest control; (2)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

245

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

246

Creating Commercial Web 2.0 Applications with Autodesk MapGuide Studio and DM Solutions  

E-print Network

, the technical enablers underlying Web 2.0 including AJAX, and creating dynamic Web 2.0 mapping applications. YouGuide Web Tier. The MapGuide Server holds all the data and performs all the basic operations of creating

Ahmad, Sajjad

247

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and…

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

248

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 4: Seed Treatment. CS-16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the storage insects, soil insects and fungi which are the major kinds of seed pests. Chemical and nonchemical control measures and the labeling and coloring requirements for treated seed are also discussed.…

Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

249

The application of photovoltaic roof shingles to residential and commercial buildings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent development of a shingle-type solar-cell module makes it possible to incorporate easily photovoltaic power generation into the sloping roofs of residential or commercial buildings. These modules, which use a closely packed array of nineteen 53-mm-diameter circular solar cells, are capable of producing 101 watts/sq m of module area under standard operating conditions. This module performance is achievable by the use of solar cells with an average efficiency of 13.3 percent at 1 kW/sq m air-mass-1.5 insolation and at a cell temperature of 28 C. When these modules are mounted on a sloping south-facing roof which is insulated on the rear surface, the annual energy generated at the maximum power operating point will vary from 255.6 to 137.3 kWh/sq m of module area depending on the site location, with Albuquerque, NM, and Seattle, WA, representing the highest and lowest values of the thirteen sites considered.

Shepard, N. F., Jr.; Sanchez, L. E.

1978-01-01

250

Applicability of commercial CFD tools for assessment of heavy vehicle aerodynamic characteristics.  

SciTech Connect

In preliminary validation studies, computational predictions from the commercial CFD codes Star-CD were compared with detailed velocity, pressure and force balance data from experiments completed in the 7 ft. by 10 ft. wind tunnel at NASA Ames using a Generic Conventional Model (GCM) that is representative of typical current-generation tractor-trailer geometries. Lessons learned from this validation study were then applied to the prediction of aerodynamic drag impacts associated with various changes to the GCM geometry, including the addition of trailer based drag reduction devices and modifications to the radiator and hood configuration. Add-on device studies have focused on ogive boat tails, with initial results indicating that a seven percent reduction in drag coefficient is easily achievable. Radiator and hood reconfiguration studies have focused on changing only the size of the radiator and angle of the hood components without changes to radii of curvature between the radiator grill and hood components. Initial results indicate that such changes lead to only modest changes in drag coefficient.

Pointer, W. D.; Sofu, T.; Chang, J.; Weber, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2008-12-01

251

Thin Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization, Critical Issues, and Applications; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

We report here on the major commercialization aspects of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies based on CIGS and CdTe (a-Si and thin-Si are also reported for completeness on the status of thin-film PV). Worldwide silicon (Si) based PV technologies continues to dominate at more than 94% of the market share, with the share of thin-film PV at less than 6%. However, the market share for thin-film PV in the United States continues to grow rapidly over the past several years and in CY 2006, they had a substantial contribution of about 44%, compared to less than 10% in CY 2003. In CY 2007, thin-film PV market share is expected to surpass that of Si technology in the United States. Worldwide estimated projections for CY 2010 are that thin-film PV production capacity will be more than 3700 MW. A 40-MW thin-film CdTe solar field is currently being installed in Saxony, Germany, and will be completed in early CY 2009. The total project cost is Euro 130 million, which equates to an installed PV system price of Euro 3.25/-watt averaged over the entire solar project. This is the lowest price for any installed PV system in the world today. Critical research, development, and technology issues for thin-film CIGS and CdTe are also elucidated in this paper.

Ullal, H. S.; von Roedern, B.

2007-09-01

252

Evaluating the Performance and Economics of Transpired Solar Collectors for Commercial Applications: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Using transpired solar collectors to preheat ventilation air has recently become recognized as an economic alternative for integrating renewable energy into commercial buildings in heating climates. The collectors have relatively low installed costs and operate on simple principles. Theory and performance testing have shown that solar collection efficiency can exceed 70% of incident solar. However, implementation and current absorber designs have adversely affected the efficiency and associated economics from this initial analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has actively studied this technology and monitored performance at several installations. A calibrated model that uses typical meteorological weather data to determine absorber plate efficiency resulted from this work. With this model, an economic analysis across heating climates was done to show the effects of collector size, tilt, azimuth, and absorptivity. The analysis relates the internal rate of return of a system based on the cost of the installed absorber area. In general, colder and higher latitude climates return a higher rate of return because the heating season extends into months with good solar resource.

Kozubal, E.; Deru, M.; Slayzak, S.; Norton, P.; Barker, G.; McClendon, J,

2008-07-01

253

Commercial Radio as Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

1996-01-01

254

SP-100 nuclear space power systems with application to space commercialization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technology of the SP-100 space nuclear power system program is compared to that of more familiar solar-power systems. The SP-100 program develops, validates, and demonstrates the technology for space nuclear power systems in the range of 10 to 1000 kilowatts electric for use in future military and civilian space missions. Mission applications, including earth orbiting platforms and lunar/Mars surface power, are enhanced or made possible by SP-100 technology. Attention is given to the SP-100 reference flight system design, the SP-100 nuclear reactor and nuclear-reactor shield, the platform-mounted, tethered, and free-flying reactors, and installation, operation, and disposal options, as well as lunar-Mars surface applications. The SP-100 is presented as one of the nuclear energy sources needed for long-life, compact, lightweight, continuous high power independent of solar orientation, specific orbits, or missions.

Smith, J. M.

1990-01-01

255

Impact of Public Key Enabled Applications on the Operation and Maintenance of Commercial Airplanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making airplanes network-enabled can significantly increase the efficiency of aircraft manufacturing, operation and maintenance processes. Yet these benefits cannot be realized without addressing the potential for network-induced security threats. This paper addresses challenges that emerge for network-enabled airplanes that use public key cryptography-based applications. In particular, we focus on the electronic distribution of airplane software and data. We present both

Richard V. Robinson; Mingyan Li; Scott A. Lintelman; Krishna Sampigethaya; Radha Poovendran; David von Oheimb

256

Towards genetic improvement of commercially important microalga Haematococcus pluvialis for biotech applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haematococcus pluvialis is a unicellular green alga which produces a ketocarotenoid, astaxanthin which has pharmaceutical and nutraceutical applications\\u000a owing to its high antioxidant activity. Biotechnological approaches such as genetic transformation methods (Agrobacterium-mediated) and cloning strategies, are essential to improve\\/regulate this ketocarotenoid in Haematococcus. For this studies are necessary to improve Haematococcus through biotechnological means. In this connection, a suitable cocultivation

Shanmugam Kathiresan; Ravi Sarada

2009-01-01

257

Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 2 - Forest Pest Control. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use as it relates to safety of humans and the environment. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of…

Sinclair, W. A., Comp.

258

Survival of “pre-viable” infants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary OBJECTIVE: We investigated temporal trend in survival of pre-viable (200–499 g) fetuses over the previous decade, and estimated future survival rates based on previous and current survival thresholds. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective cohort study on live-born pre-viable fetuses (200–499 g) in the United States comparing two period cohorts; 1985–1988 versus 1995–1999. We computed survival of pre-viable babies

Hamisu M. Salihu; Donath Emusu; Zakari Y. Aliyu; Russell S. Kirby; Greg R. Alexander

2005-01-01

259

A new RF package suitable for aeronautical commercial and DSCS satellite applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher levels of integration through the use of GaAs and silicon MMIC devices, a die-cast housing, and the reduction of the number of subassemblies has enabled a large reduction of the size and weight of the electronics package for commercial and military satellite communications. This paper presents an electronics architecture and hardware that utilizes many new integrated circuits and design techniques, and allows flexibility for future satellite frequency changes and expansion. Key features of the radio are extended C-band, InSat, Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS), and Ku-band coverage options; 70 (or 140) MHz transponder bandwidth or L-band block bandwidth IFs; integrated RS-232 control through local handheld terminal or remote computer; remote control of crystal reference oscillator for aging and temperature compensation; integrated 2 or 5 watt solid-state power amplifiers (SSPA); optional integrated solid-state booster amplifiers to 40 watts; optional external amplifiers to 100 watts; integral beacon tracking with second integrated downcoverter for antenna positioning; radio, including low-noise block converter (LNB) and SSPA, weighs 8.5 kg and measures 32 x 23 x 16.5 cm; environmentally ruggedized for -40 to +60 C; O-ring sealed for waterproofing; passive (convection) cooling; and simple cabling and installation, with a single cable between radio and LNB, and two cables between radio and IF interface. The small size and light weight of the radio make it ideal for mounting on stabilized antenna platforms (gyroscopic or servo). Several input power options (110 or 220 VAC; +48, +12, or -24 VDC) facilitate operation on multiple platforms.

Hamilton, Robert J., Jr.

1995-01-01

260

Rapid enumeration of viable bacteria by image analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A direct viable counting method for enumerating viable bacteria was modified and made compatible with image analysis. A comparison was made between viable cell counts determined by the spread plate method and direct viable counts obtained using epifluorescence microscopy either manually or by automatic image analysis. Cultures of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were incubated at 35 degrees C in a dilute nutrient medium containing nalidixic acid. Filtered samples were stained for epifluorescence microscopy and analysed manually as well as by image analysis. Cells enlarged after incubation were considered viable. The viable cell counts determined using image analysis were higher than those obtained by either the direct manual count of viable cells or spread plate methods. The volume of sample filtered or the number of cells in the original sample did not influence the efficiency of the method. However, the optimal concentration of nalidixic acid (2.5-20 micrograms ml-1) and length of incubation (4-8 h) varied with the culture tested. The results of this study showed that under optimal conditions, the modification of the direct viable count method in combination with image analysis microscopy provided an efficient and quantitative technique for counting viable bacteria in a short time.

Singh, A.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

1989-01-01

261

Small capacity, low cost (Ni-H2) design concept for commercial, military, and higher-volume aerospace applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nickel Hydrogen (Ni/H2) batteries have become the technology of choice for both commercial and defense related satellites in geosynchronous orbits. Their use for low earth orbit (LEO) applications is not as advanced, but seems just as inevitable because of their inherent advantages over nickel cadmium batteries. These include superior energy density, longer cycle life, and better tolerance to over-charge and reversal. Ni/H2 cells have the added advantage in both construction and operation of not presenting the environmental possibility of cadmium pollution. Unfortunately, but necessarily, the design of these cells has been driven to high cost by the sophistication of the satellites and their uses. Now, using most of the same concepts but less costly materials and techniques, a low cost, small cell design was developed. Combined with the concept of the common pressure vessel, this new design promises to be ideal for the small-sat and commercial markets which, increasingly, are calling for large numbers of less expensive satellites.

Wheeler, James R.; Cook, William D.; Smith, Ron

1991-01-01

262

Application of submarine extended operating cycle programs to the enhancement of commercial nuclear power plant operation and maintenance  

SciTech Connect

During the past 10 yr, the US Navy has extended submarine operating cycles - the period between major ship overhauls - from 4 to > 15 yr. Major programs to extend submarine operating cycles have been the submarine extended operating cycle (SEOC) and the engineered SEOC programs. Currently, the navy is incorporating lessons learned from these programs, as well as new concepts, into its newest Seawolf (SSN-21) ship class. Major elements of these programs are a disciplined machinery condition assessment (MCA) program consisting of intrusive and nonintrusive elements, the use of rotatable equipment pools, and the engineering of maintenance periodicities to establish operating cycles. Many of the concepts and elements of these programs can be applied to two objectives for enhanced operation and maintenance: the increased availability of means of improved equipment performance and reduced outage durations and the extension of plant life. The objectives of this paper are to review the US Navy SEOC programs, to draw parallels between the US Navy programs and commercial nuclear power plant programs, and to suggest potential opportunities for application to commercial nuclear power plants.

Mason, J.H.; Livingston, B.K.; Clarke, E.J.

1988-01-01

263

NASA commercial programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

1988-01-01

264

Viable capture and release of cancer cells in human whole blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present viable cancer cell isolation devices utilizing the physical properties of cells. The tapered slit structure is proposed to isolate cancer cells from blood cells and collect them by reversed flow. From the experimental study using the spiked cancer cells in human whole blood, we verified the capability of the present cancer cell isolation chip in terms of capture efficiency, viability, and release rate. The viable cancer cells obtained from the present chip can be used for the further applications of cancer diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and new target drug development for cancer stem cells.

Doh, Il; Yoo, Hwan-il; Cho, Young-Ho; Lee, Jinseon; Kwan Kim, Hong; Kim, Jhingook

2012-07-01

265

DECREASE Final Technical Report: Development of a Commercial Ready Enzyme Application System for Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of biomass to sugars plays a central in reducing our dependence on petroleum, as it allows production of a wide range of biobased fuels and chemicals, through fermentation of those sugars. The DECREASE project delivers an effective enzyme cocktail for this conversion, enabling reduced costs for producing advanced biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol. Benefits to the public contributed by growth of the advanced biofuels industry include job creation, economic growth, and energy security. The DECREASE primary project objective was to develop a two-fold improved enzyme cocktail, relative to an advanced cocktail (CZP00005) that had been developed previously (from 2000- 2007). While the final milestone was delivery of all enzyme components as an experimental mixture, a secondary objective was to deploy an improved cocktail within 3 years following the close of the project. In February 2012, Novozymes launched Cellic CTec3, a multi-enzyme cocktail derived in part from components developed under DECREASE. The externally validated performance of CTec3 and an additional component under project benchmarking conditions indicated a 1.8-fold dose reduction in enzyme dose required for 90% conversion (based on all available glucose and xylose sources) of NREL dilute acid pretreated PCS, relative to the starting advanced enzyme cocktail. While the ability to achieve 90% conversion is impressive, targeting such high levels of biomass digestion is likely not the most cost effective strategy. Novozymes techno economic modeling showed that for NREL's dilute acid pretreated corn stover (PCS), 80% target conversion enables a lower total production cost for cellulosic ethanol than for 90% conversion, and this was also found to be the case when cost assumptions were based on the NREL 2002 Design Report. A 1.8X dose-reduction was observed for 80% conversion in the small scale (50 g) DECREASE benchmark assay for CTec3 and an additional component. An upscaled experiment (in 0.5 kg kettle reactors) was performed to compare the starting enzyme mixture CZP00005 with CTec3 alone; these results indicated a 1.9X dose- reduction for 80% conversion. The CTec3 composition does not include the best available enzyme components from the DECREASE effort. While these components are not yet available in a commercial product, experimental mixtures were assayed in a smaller scale assay using DECREASE PCS, at high solids loadings (21.5% TS). The results indicated that the newer mixtures required 2.9X-less enzyme for 90% conversion, and 3.2X-less enzyme for 80% conversion, relative to the starting enzyme cocktail. In conclusion, CTec3 delivers a 1.8-1.9X dose reduction on NREL PCS at high solids loadings, and the next generation enzyme from Novozymes will continue to show dramatically improved biochemical performance. CTec3 allows reduced costs today, and the experimental cocktails point to continued biotechnological improvements that will further drive down costs for biorefineries of tomorrow.

Teter, Sarah A

2012-04-18

266

Space Environment Stability and Physical Properties of New Materials for Space Power and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Useful and informative results were obtained on virtually all materials investigated. For example, the stability of ITO-based arc-proof transparent coatings was greatly improved by substitution of silicon oxide for magnesium fluoride as a dopant. Research on 'air-doped' ITO films has yielded new insight into their conduction mechanism which will help in further development of these coatings. Some air-doped films were found to be extremely pressure sensitive. This work may lead to improved, low-cost gas sensors and vacuum gauges. Work on another promising transparent arc-proof coating (titanium oxide) was initiated in collaboration with industry. Graphite oxide-like materials were synthesized and tested for possible use in high energy-density batteries and other applications. We also started a high-priority project to find the cause of unexpected environmental damage to the exterior of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) discovered on a recent Shuttle mission. Materials were characterized before and after exposure to soft x-rays and other threats in ground-based simulators.

Hambourger, Paul D.

1997-01-01

267

Progress and profit through microtechnologies: commercial applications of MEMS/MOEMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro technology deals with miniaturization and integration in all areas of technology outside of microelectronics like micro mechanics, micro optics, micro acoustics, micro fluid technology, micro reaction technology and further disciplines which are focused on technical components and systems with characteristic dimensions in the micrometer range. Within a period of about ten years a multi-billion dollar market has been set up with many products for daily life. The growth rate of the market of micro technology will remain on a high level for the years to come. Mega trends resulting from fundamental human wishes for health, information, mobility and sustainable development are creating a further growing basis for micro technical products. A broad spectrum of production processes and materials has been developed to meet the requirements of a strongly diversified range of applications. For the development of new components and systems the importance of software tools for simulation of functional properties, production processes and comprehensive optimization is growing rapidly. Micro devices are meanwhile used extensively in information, automotive, and medical technologies. In addition, micro technology is generating a completely novel basis for chemical engineering, life sciences, industrial automation and optical communication, to mention only a few disciplines where future innovation will be dominated by miniaturization.

Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrfeld, Ursula

2001-09-01

268

Acoustophoretic Sorting of Viable Mammalian Cells in a Microfluidic Device  

PubMed Central

We report the first use of ultrasonic acoustophoresis for the label-free separation of viable and nonviable mammalian cells within a microfluidic device. Cells that have undergone apoptosis are physically smaller than viable cells, and our device exploits this fact to achieve efficient sorting based on the strong size dependence of acoustic radiation forces within a microchannel. As a model, we have selectively enriched viable MCF-7 breast tumor cells from heterogeneous mixtures of viable and nonviable cells. We found that this mode of separation is gentle and enables efficient, label-free isolation of viable cells from mixed samples containing 106 cells/mL at flow rates of up to 12 mL/h. We have extensively characterized the device, and we report the effects of piezoelectric voltage and sample flow rate on device performance and describe how these parameters can be tuned to optimize recovery, purity, or throughput. PMID:23157478

Yang, Allen H. J.; Soh, H. Tom

2013-01-01

269

3D microfilter device for viable circulating tumor cell (CTC) enrichment from blood  

PubMed Central

Detection of circulating tumor cells has emerged as a promising minimally invasive diagnostic and prognostic tool for patients with metastatic cancers. We report a novel three dimensional microfilter device that can enrich viable circulating tumor cells from blood. This device consists of two layers of parylene membrane with pores and gap precisely defined with photolithography. The positions of the pores are shifted between the top and bottom membranes. The bottom membrane supports captured cells and minimize the stress concentration on cell membrane and sustain cell viability during filtration. Viable cell capture on device was investigated with scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and immunofluorescent staining using model systems of cultured tumor cells spiked in blood or saline. The paper presents and validates this new 3D microfiltration concept for circulation tumor cell enrichment application. The device provides a highly valuable tool for assessing and characterizing viable enriched circulating tumor cells in both research and clinical settings. PMID:20978853

Lin, Henry K.; Lu, Bo; Williams, Anthony; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard J.; Tai, Yu-Chong

2013-01-01

270

The potential for increasing the use of catalytic carbons in commercial applications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A carbon catalyst, prepared either by oxidizing activated carbon with air at 500-700??C or by oxidizing activated carbon with boiling nitric acid followed by heating it to 500-700??C, is the subject of this paper. This catalyst, designated OAC500-700, catalyzes the removal of hydrogen chloride from alkyl halides. Because OAC500-700 retains adsorptive properties of an activated carbon it can be used both to adsorb pollutants from liquid or gaseous streams and to convert them to recyclable products. A highly-developed micropore structure is not required for all uses of activated carbon or a catalyst produced from it. A comparatively inexpensive ($325/ton projected) low surface area (<300 m2/g) carbon has been developed at the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) for cleaning incinerator flue gas. This grade of activated carbon is widely used in Europe for flue gas cleaning and for other applications. Activated carbon adsorbers of some type are required by recently passed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations for municipal waste combustors to control emission of cadmium, mercury, lead, dioxins, furans and acid gases (U.S. EPA, 1995). Similar regulations are expected for hospital and hazardous waste incinerators. The marketing of less costly activated carbons of the type used widely in Europe is expected in the United States. Low cost OAC500-700 made from less expensive grades of activated carbon may become available for large scale adsorbent/catalyst systems designed to both remove and decompose toxic pollutants found in liquid and gaseous streams, chlorinated organic compounds in particular.

Kruse, C. W.

1996-01-01

271

Petroleum Coke: A Viable Fuel for Cogeneration  

E-print Network

properties are most critical, the physical characteristics of each type playa major role in the final market application. Unlike the others, needle coke is a product (versus by-product) which the refinery intentionally produces from selected feedstocks... producing refineries in the U.S. are shown in Figure 1. FIGURE I UNITED STATES COKERS 1992 "'ADO I 9'l3 PAlm) ~.Im "ADDJ IQ,.Jf'll "ADD" )G "Al!DS '11r1 TOTAL ....., Petroleum Coke Technical Indicators Pace follows two technical indicators...

Dymond, R. E.

272

Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

US DOE mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 181,000 cubic meters (about 2,000 waste streams). Treatability studies may be used as part of DOE`s mixed waste management program. Commercial treatability study suppliers have been identified that either have current capability in their own facilities or have access to licensed facilities. Numerous federal and state regulations, as well as DOE Order 5820.2A, impact the performance of treatability studies. Generators, transporters, and treatability study facilities are subject to regulation. From a mixed- waste standpoint, a key requirement is that the treatability study facility must have an NRC or state license that allows it to possess radioactive materials. From a RCRA perspective, the facility must support treatability study activities with the applicable plans, reports, and documentation. If PCBs are present in the waste, TSCA will also be an issue. CERCLA requirements may apply, and both DOE and NRC regulations will impact the transportation of DOE mixed waste to an off-site treatment facility. DOE waste managers will need to be cognizant of all applicable regulations as mixed-waste treatability study programs are initiated.

NONE

1996-09-01

273

Differentiation of genes extracted from non-viable versus viable micro-organisms in environmental samples using ethidium monoazide bromide.  

PubMed

Differentiation of DNA derived from viable or non-viable microorganisms within mixed microbial communities continues to be one of the greatest challenges in molecular studies of environmental samples. A novel method developed for microbial food pathogens is tested here on environmental samples. This technique involves the use of ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA) for the distinction of live/dead cells. In non-viable cells EMA intercalates into the DNA which prevents amplification by PCR. We adapted and evaluated the EMA technique for soil, elemental sulfur and river biofilm samples. Quantitative PCR determined that EMA suppressed 99.99% of E. coli LKI gfp+ signal in non-viable cultures and 100.00% when the cultures were added to soil samples. The same technique was also successful at suppressing DNA amplification from spiked non-viable cells in elemental sulfur samples by 100.00%, but not in three Saskatchewan River biofilms. In sub Antarctic soil, EMA-Q-PCR was used to detect the prevalence of a functional gene, amoA, and this was closely correlated to nitrification activity measurements. The ability of EMA to differentiate between viable and non-viable populations in soil was confirmed by the similarity of the 16S rRNA denaturing-gradient-gel electrophoresis DNA fingerprint of EMA treated soil and the 16S rRNA cDNA fingerprint of non-EMA treated soil. The EMA technique effectively suppressed amplification of non-viable spiked controls, closely mirrored activity assays and yielded community composition profiles similar to rRNA techniques. The use of EMA in soil effectively suppressed amplification of non-viable organism DNA, however it was not effective in biofilm samples and EMA partially inhibited amplification of viable organism DNA in elemental sulfur samples. PMID:17963903

Pisz, Jola M; Lawrence, John R; Schafer, Alexis N; Siciliano, Steven D

2007-12-01

274

Development and assessment of a clinically viable system for breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chances of surviving a breast cancer diagnosis as well as the effectiveness of any potential treatments increase significantly with early detection of the disease. As such, a considerable amount of research is being conducted to augment the breast cancer detection and diagnosis process. One such area of research involves the investigation and application of sophisticated computer algorithms to assist clinicians in detecting and diagnosing breast cancer on medical images (termed generally as "computer-aided diagnosis" or CAD). This study investigated a previously-developed breast ultrasound CAD system with the intent of translating it into a clinically-viable system. While past studies have demonstrated that breast ultrasound CAD may be a beneficial aid during the diagnosis of breast cancer on ultrasound, there are no investigations concerning its potential clinical translation and there are currently no commercially-available implementations of such systems. This study "bridges the gap" between the laboratory-developed system and the steps necessary for clinical implementation. A novel observer study was conducted that mimicked the clinical use of the breast ultrasound CAD system in order to assess the impact it had on the diagnostic performance of the user. Several robustness studies were also performed: the sonographic features used by the system were evaluated and the databases used for calibration and testing were characterized, the effect of the user's input was assessed by evaluating the performance of the system with variations in lesion identification and image selection, and the performance of the system on different patient populations was investigated by evaluating its performance on a database consisting solely of patients with Asian ethnicity. The analyses performed here indicate that the breast ultrasound CAD system under investigation is robust and demonstrates only minor variability when subjected to "real-world" use. All of these results are critical to the success of a CAD system in a clinical environment, and they support the execution of a prospective clinical trial of the system.

Gruszauskas, Nicholas Peter

275

Scale-Up of CdTe Photovoltaic Device Processes for Commercial Application: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-196  

SciTech Connect

Through this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, NREL and PrimeStar Solar will work together to scale up the NREL CdTe photovoltaic process from the laboratory to produce photovoltaic devices in a size that is commercially viable. The work in this phase will focus on the transference of NREL CdTe device fabrication techniques to PrimeStar Solar. NREL and PrimeStar Solar will engage in a series of technical exchange meetings and laboratory training sessions to transfer the knowledge of CdTe PV film growth from NREL to PrimeStar Solar. PrimeStar Solar will grow thin films on PrimeStar Solar equipment and interleave them with NREL-grown films in an effort to develop a commercial scale process on PrimeStar Solar equipment. Select NREL film growth equipment will be upgraded either by PrimeStar Solar or at PrimeStar Solar's expense to increase equipment reliability and throughput.

Albin, D.

2013-02-01

276

Generation of Viable Cell and Biomaterial Patterns by Laser Transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to fabricate and interface biological systems for next generation applications such as biosensors, protein recognition microarrays, and engineered tissues, it is imperative to have a method of accurately and rapidly depositing different active biomaterials in patterns or layered structures. Ideally, the biomaterial structures would also be compatible with many different substrates including technologically relevant platforms such as electronic circuits or various detection devices. We have developed a novel laser-based technique, termed matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation direct write (MAPLE DW), that is able to direct write patterns and three-dimensional structures of numerous biologically active species ranging from proteins and antibodies to living cells. Specifically, we have shown that MAPLE DW is capable of forming mesoscopic patterns of living prokaryotic cells (E. coli bacteria), living mammalian cells (Chinese hamster ovaries), active proteins (biotinylated bovine serum albumin, horse radish peroxidase), and antibodies specific to a variety of classes of cancer related proteins including intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins, signaling proteins, cell cycle proteins, growth factors, and growth factor receptors. In addition, patterns of viable cells and active biomolecules were deposited on different substrates including metals, semiconductors, nutrient agar, and functionalized glass slides. We will present an explanation of the laser-based transfer mechanism as well as results from our recent efforts to fabricate protein recognition microarrays and tissue-based microfluidic networks.

Ringeisen, Bradley

2001-03-01

277

Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.  

SciTech Connect

Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

2011-09-01

278

Do-It-Yourself: A Special Library's Approach to Creating Dynamic Web Pages Using Commercial Off-The-Shelf Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many librarians may feel that dynamic Web pages are out of their reach, financially and technically. Yet we are reminded in library and Web design literature that static home pages are a thing of the past. This paper describes how librarians at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) library developed a database-driven, dynamic intranet site using commercial off-the-shelf applications. Administrative issues include surveying a library users group for interest and needs evaluation; outlining metadata elements; and, committing resources from managing time to populate the database and training in Microsoft FrontPage and Web-to-database design. Technical issues covered include Microsoft Access database fundamentals, lessons learned in the Web-to-database process (including setting up Database Source Names (DSNs), redesigning queries to accommodate the Web interface, and understanding Access 97 query language vs. Standard Query Language (SQL)). This paper also offers tips on editing Active Server Pages (ASP) scripting to create desired results. A how-to annotated resource list closes out the paper.

Steeman, Gerald; Connell, Christopher

2000-01-01

279

IS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS  

E-print Network

IS URBAN LOGISTICS POOLING VIABLE? A MULTISTAKEHOLDER MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS Jesus Gonzalez. Urban consolidation and logistics sharing. III. Multi-stakeholder mutli-criteria methodology. A seems a good city logistics alternative to classical urban consolidation centres, but it is still

Boyer, Edmond

280

Commercial Capaciflector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

Vranish, John M.

1991-01-01

281

Viable skin efficiently absorbs and metabolizes bisphenol A.  

PubMed

Skin contact has been hypothesized to contribute to human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA). We examined the diffusion and metabolism of BPA using viable skin models: human skin explants and short-term cultures of pig ear skin, an alternative model for the study of the fate of xenobiotics following contact exposure. 14C-BPA [50-800 nmol] was applied on the surface of skin models. Radioactivity distribution was measured in all skin compartments and in the diffusion cells of static cells diffusion systems. BPA and metabolites were further quantified by radio-HPLC. BPA was efficiently absorbed in short-term cultures, with no major difference between the models used in the study [viable pig ear skin: 65%; viable human explants: 46%; non-viable (previously frozen) pig skin: 58%]. BPA was extensively metabolized in viable systems only. Major BPA metabolites produced by the skin were BPA mono-glucuronide and BPA mono-sulfate, accounting together for 73% and 27% of the dose, in pig and human, respectively. In conclusion, experiments with viable skin models unequivocally demonstrate that BPA is readily absorbed and metabolized by the skin. The trans-dermal route is expected to contribute substantially to BPA exposure in human, when direct contact with BPA (free monomer) occurs. PMID:21030062

Zalko, Daniel; Jacques, Carine; Duplan, Hélène; Bruel, Sandrine; Perdu, Elisabeth

2011-01-01

282

Production of Liquid Synthetic Fuels from Carbon, Water and Nuclear Power on Ships and at Shore Bases for Military and Potential Commercial Applications  

SciTech Connect

It is demonstrable that synthetic fuels (jet/diesel/gasoline {approx_equal} (CH{sub 2}){sub n}) can be produced from carbon, water, and nuclear energy. What remains to be shown is that all system processes are scalable, integrable, and economical. Sources of carbon include but are not limited to CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere or seawater, CO{sub 2} from fossil-fired power plants, and elemental carbon from coal or biomass. For mobile defense (Navy) applications, the ubiquitous atmosphere is our chosen carbon source. For larger-scale sites such as Naval Advance Bases, the atmosphere may still be the choice should other sources not be readily available. However, at many locations suitable for defense and, potentially, commercial syn-fuel production, far higher concentrations of carbon may be available. The rationale for this study was manifold: fuel system security from terrorism and possible oil embargoes; rising demand and, eventually, peaking supply of conventional petroleum; and escalating costs and prices of fuels. For these reasons, the initial parts of the study were directed at Syn-fuel production for mobile Naval platforms and shore sites such as Rokkasho, Japan (as an exemplar). Nuclear reactors would provide the energy for H{sub 2} from water-splitting, Membrane Gas Absorption (MGA) would extract CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere, the Reverse Water-Gas Reaction (RWGR) would convert the CO{sub 2} to CO, and the resultant H{sub 2} and CO feeds would be converted to (CH{sub 2})n by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Many of these processes exist at commercial scale. Some, particularly MGA and RWGR, have been demonstrated at the bench-scale, requiring up-scaling. Likewise, the demonstration of an integrated system at some scale is yet to be done. For ship-based production, it has been shown that the system should be viable and, under reasonable assumptions, both scalable and economical for defense fuels. For the assumptions in the study, fuel cost estimates range from {approx} $2.55 to $4.75 per gallon with a nominal cost of {approx} $3.65 per gallon. For large installations and advanced nuclear power and hydrogen production systems (high temperature reactors and thermo-chemical hydrogen production), then fuel production might be produced at near-commercial fuel prices. For the H2-MHR and plausible assumptions and estimates of CO{sub 2} extraction and fuel synthesis capital and operating costs, such fuels might have nominal and low production costs ranging from {approx} $2.40 to $1.70 per gallon, respectively, for a Public Sector Fixed Charge Rate of 5%. Next, it was shown that for CO{sub 2} provided from a fossil-fired power plant, a CO{sub 2} 'disposal' fee of $30/tonne and a Fixed Charge Rate of 10%, then syn-fuel might be produced at {approx} $3.00 and $2.45 (nominal cost values) and $1.90 and $1.85 (low cost values) per gallon by LWRs and H2-MHRs, respectively. Last, it was shown that nuclear-produced H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} could convert coal to liquid fuels at very low cost. For a Fixed Charge Rate of 10% and nominal plant costs, fuel costs ranged from {approx} $1.60 (LWR) per gallon to {approx} $1.30 (H2-MHR) for an assumed CO{sub 2} avoidance credit of $30/Tonne. Our studies have shown that the addition of nuclear-produced hydrogen and oxygen to the coal syn-fuel process can greatly reduce CO{sub 2} production and, for modest CO{sub 2} credit, can further reduce the cost of the syn-fuel. Capturing CO{sub 2} from stack gas or even the air will further reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} that must be dealt with. This last case is independent of the price of fossil fuels and liquid fuel production costs and prices will have been capped. Of possibly even greater importance, the carbon fuel cycle will have been closed, thus minimizing or eliminating concerns with Global Climate Change. (authors)

Locke Bogart, S. [7982 Chaucer Drive, Weeki Wachee, FL 34607 (United States); Schultz, Ken; Brown, Lloyd; Russ, Ben [General Atomics 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

2006-07-01

283

Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2  

SciTech Connect

As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

1992-09-01

284

Development of commercially viable high-[Tc] Bi-2223 superconductor tapes  

SciTech Connect

Long lengths of flexible Ag-clad Bi-2223 Superconductors have been fabricated by the powder-in-tube technique using prereacted, poly-phase, Pb-doped Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O powders. At liquid helium (4.2 K) temperature, improved process conditions yielded transport critical current density (J[sub c]) values greater than 10[sup 5] A/cm[sup 2] at zero field; at liquid nitrogen (77K) temperature, the J[sub c] values of short tape samples exceeded 4 [times] 10[sup 4] A/cm[sub 2]. Rolled tapes are cut into lengths up to 2 - meters long and are used in parallel to fabricate small superconducting pancake coils by the wind-and-react'' technique. The cots are characterized at 77K and 4.2 K. The J[sub c] of the coils are up to 80% of the short, rolled sample result at 77 K. The coils exhibited these results even after being cooled and warmed several times between ambient, 77 K and 4.2 K, indicating their stability following thermal cycling.

Balachandran, U.; Youngdahl, C.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials and Components Technology Div.); Haldar, P. (Intermagnetics General Corp., Guilderland, NY (United States)); Motowidlo, L.R. (IGC/Advanced Superconductors, Inc., Waterbury, CT (United States))

1993-02-01

285

Development of commercially viable high-{Tc} Bi-2223 superconductor tapes  

SciTech Connect

Long lengths of flexible Ag-clad Bi-2223 Superconductors have been fabricated by the powder-in-tube technique using prereacted, poly-phase, Pb-doped Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O powders. At liquid helium (4.2 K) temperature, improved process conditions yielded transport critical current density (J{sub c}) values greater than 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at zero field; at liquid nitrogen (77K) temperature, the J{sub c} values of short tape samples exceeded 4 {times} 10{sup 4} A/cm{sub 2}. Rolled tapes are cut into lengths up to 2 - meters long and are used in parallel to fabricate small superconducting pancake coils by the ``wind-and-react`` technique. The cots are characterized at 77K and 4.2 K. The J{sub c} of the coils are up to 80% of the short, rolled sample result at 77 K. The coils exhibited these results even after being cooled and warmed several times between ambient, 77 K and 4.2 K, indicating their stability following thermal cycling.

Balachandran, U.; Youngdahl, C.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials and Components Technology Div.; Haldar, P. [Intermagnetics General Corp., Guilderland, NY (United States); Motowidlo, L.R. [IGC/Advanced Superconductors, Inc., Waterbury, CT (United States)

1993-02-01

286

Production and optimization of a commercially viable alkaline protease from a haloalkaliphilic bacterium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty five haloalkaliphilic bacterial strains were isolated from sea water along the Coastal Gujarat (India) and screened\\u000a for their ability to secret alkaline proteases. Among them, a potent strain S-20-9 (GenBank accession number EU118360), resembling\\u000a to Halophilic Bacterium MBIC3303 on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, was selected for the optimization of enzyme production.\\u000a S-20-9 produced protease optimally, under

R. H. Joshi; M. S. Dodia; S. P. Singh

2008-01-01

287

Design and prototype of an automated system for commercially viable production using micro contact printing  

E-print Network

This dissertation is a documentation of the thought process, its justification and the implementation details that went into prototyping a fully automated system employing Micro Contact Printing, an emerging technique for ...

Chauhan, Karan

2006-01-01

288

Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.  

SciTech Connect

Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing further field testing as a prelude to improved and expanded commercialization.

Enslin, Johan (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Hamaoui, Ronald (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Rustom, Khalid (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Stuby, Rick (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Kuran, Mohammad (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Mark, Evlyn (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Amarin, Ruba (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Alatrash, Hussam (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

2012-03-01

289

Rapid Method for Enumeration of Viable Legionella pneumophila and Other Legionella spp. in Water  

PubMed Central

A sensitive and specific method has been developed to enumerate viable L. pneumophila and other Legionella spp. in water by epifluorescence microscopy in a short period of time (a few hours). This method allows the quantification of L. pneumophila or other Legionella spp. as well as the discrimination between viable and nonviable Legionella. It simultaneously combines the specific detection of Legionella cells using antibodies and a bacterial viability marker (ChemChrome V6), the enumeration being achieved by epifluorescence microscopy. The performance of this immunological double-staining (IDS) method was investigated in 38 natural filterable water samples from different aquatic sources, and the viable Legionella counts were compared with those obtained by the standard culture method. The recovery rate of the IDS method is similar to, or higher than, that of the conventional culture method. Under our experimental conditions, the limit of detection of the IDS method was <176 Legionella cells per liter. The examination of several samples in duplicates for the presence of L. pneumophila and other Legionella spp. indicated that the IDS method exhibits an excellent intralaboratory reproducibility, better than that of the standard culture method. This immunological approach allows rapid measurements in emergency situations, such as monitoring the efficacy of disinfection shock treatments. Although its field of application is as yet limited to filterable waters, the double-staining method may be an interesting alternative (not equivalent) to the conventional standard culture methods for enumerating viable Legionella when rapid detection is required. PMID:16000824

Delgado-Viscogliosi, Pilar; Simonart, Tristan; Parent, Virginie; Marchand, Gregory; Dobbelaere, Marie; Pierlot, Eric; Pierzo, Veronique; Menard-Szczebara, Florence; Gaudard-Ferveur, Elisabeth; Delabre, Karine; Delattre, Jean Marie

2005-01-01

290

Viable quantitative PCR for assessing the response of Candida albicans to antifungal treatment.  

PubMed

Propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) treatment has been used before nucleic acid detection methods, such as PCR, to distinguish between live and dead cells using membrane integrity as viability criterion. The performance of these DNA intercalating dyes was compared in many studies utilizing different microorganisms. These studies demonstrated that EMA and PMA differ in their abilities to identify nonviable cells from mixed cell populations, depending on the microorganism and the nature of the sample. Due to this heterogeneity, both dyes were used in the present study to specifically distinguish dead from live Candida albicans cells using viable quantitative PCR (qPCR). The viable qPCR was optimized, and the best results were obtained when pre-treating the cells for 10 min in the dark with 25 ?M EMA followed by continuous photoactivation for 15 min. The suitability of this technique to distinguish clotrimazole- and fluconazole-treated C. albicans cells from untreated cells was then assessed. Furthermore, the antifungal properties of two commercial essential oils (Thymus vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla) were evaluated. The viable qPCR method was determined to be a feasible technique for assessing the viability of C. albicans after drug treatment and may help to provide a rapid diagnostic and susceptibility testing method for fungal infections, especially for patients treated with antifungal therapies. PMID:23132341

Agustí, Gemma; Fittipaldi, Mariana; Morató, Jordi; Codony, Francesc

2013-01-01

291

Hoechst fluorescence intensity can be used to separate viable bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells from viable non-bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is a powerful compound to study the mitotic activity of a cell. Most techniques that identify BrdU-labeled cells require conditions that kill the cells. However, the fluorescence intensity of the membrane-permeable Hoechst dyes is reduced by the incorporation of BrdU into DNA, allowing the separation of viable BrdU positive (BrdU+) cells from viable BrdU negative (BrdU-) cells. METHODS: Cultures of proliferating cells were supplemented with BrdU for 48 h and other cultures of proliferating cells were maintained without BrdU. Mixtures of viable BrdU+ and viable BrdU- cells from the two proliferating cultures were stained with Hoechst 33342. The viable BrdU+ and BrdU- cells were sorted into different fractions from a mixture of BrdU+ and BrdU- cells based on Hoechst fluorescence intensity and the ability to exclude the vital dye, propidium iodide. Subsequently, samples from the original mixture, the sorted BrdU+ cell population, and the sorted BrdU- cell population were immunostained using an anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody and evaluated using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Two mixtures consisting of approximately 55% and 69% BrdU+ cells were sorted into fractions consisting of greater than 93% BrdU+ cells and 92% BrdU- cells. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. CONCLUSIONS: Hoechst fluorescence intensity in combination with cell sorting is an effective tool to separate viable BrdU+ from viable BrdU- cells for further study. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Mozdziak, P. E.; Pulvermacher, P. M.; Schultz, E.; Schell, K.

2000-01-01

292

Development and Application of a Procedure to Estimate Overall Building and Ventilation Parameters from Monitored Commercial Building Energy Use  

E-print Network

This thesis proposes and validates a simplified model appropriate for parameter identification and evaluates several different inverse parameter identification schemes suitable for use when heating and cooling data from a commercial building...

Deng, Song

293

Development and application of a procedure to estimate overall building and ventilation parameters from monitored commercial building energy use  

E-print Network

This thesis proposes and validates a simplified model appropriate for parameter identification and evaluates several different inverse parameter identification schemes suitable for use when heating and cooling data from a commercial building...

Deng, Song Jiu

2012-06-07

294

48 CFR 212.570 - Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01...contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially available off-the-shelf...570 Section 212.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...

2010-10-01

295

Accelerating the commercialization of university technologies for military healthcare applications: the role of the proof of concept process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The von Liebig Center for Entrepreneurism and Technology Advancement at UC San Diego (vonliebig.ucsd.edu) is focused on accelerating technology transfer and commercialization through programs and education on entrepreneurism. Technology Acceleration Projects (TAPs) that offer pre-venture grants and extensive mentoring on technology commercialization are a key component of its model which has been developed over the past ten years with the

Rosibel Ochoa; Hal Delong; Jessica Kenyon; Eli Wilson

2011-01-01

296

Application analysis and photovoltaic system conceptual design for service\\/commercial\\/institutional and industrial sectors, task 1 report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approach used to identify applications in the defined sectors for photovoltaic conversion are: (1) The Standard Industrial Classification Codes and to describe the applications that must be considered and data on the attributes of these applications germane to solar photovoltaic systems application. (2) The expected profitability of photovoltaic applications was determined from the discounted future costs of conventional energy

R. A. Whisnant; R. D. Alberts; R. M. Burger; R. P. Gardner; C. B. Morrison; N. G. Staffa

1978-01-01

297

A theory-driven training programme in the use of emerging commercial technology: Application to an adolescent with severe memory impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a theory-driven memory intervention programme for training individuals with moderate to severe memory impairment in the use of emerging commercial technology. Here we demonstrate the application of the programme to training MK, an 18-year-old woman with severe memory impairment following treatment for a suprasellar germinoma, to autonomously use a smartphone to support her day-to-day memory. A within-subject ABAB

Eva Svoboda; Brian Richards; Angelina Polsinelli; Sharon Guger

2010-01-01

298

Quantification of viable bacteria in wastewater treatment plants by using propidium monoazide combined with quantitative PCR (PMA-qPCR).  

PubMed

The detection of viable bacteria in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is very important for public health, as WWTPs are a medium with a high potential for waterborne disease transmission. The aim of this study was to use propidium monoazide (PMA) combined with the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) to selectively detect and quantify viable bacteria cells in full-scale WWTPs in China. PMA was added to the concentrated WWTP samples at a final concentration of 100 micromol/L and the samples were incubated in the dark for 5 min, and then lighted for 4 min prior to DNA extraction and qPCR with specific primers for Escherichia coli and Enterococci, respectively. The results showed that PMA treatment removed more than 99% of DNA from non-viable cells in all the WWTP samples, while matrices in sludge samples markedly reduced the effectiveness of PMA treatment. Compared to qPCR, PMA-qPCR results were similar and highly linearly correlated to those obtained by culture assay, indicating that DNA from non-viable cells present in WWTP samples can be eliminated by PMA treatment, and that PMA-qPCR is a reliable method for detection of viable bacteria in environmental samples. This study demonstrated that PMA-qPCR is a rapid and selective detection method for viable bacteria in WWTP samples, and that WWTPs have an obvious function in removing both viable and non-viable bacteria. The results proved that PMA-qPCR is a promising detection method that has a high potential for application as a complementary method to the standard culture-based method in the future. PMID:25076521

Li, Dan; Tong, Tiezheng; Zeng, Siyu; Lin, Yiwen; Wu, Shuxu; He, Miao

2014-02-01

299

High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells  

DOEpatents

Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

Sasaki, Dennis T. (Mountain View, CA); Van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA); Buckie, Anne-Marie (Margate, GB)

1995-01-01

300

Upconversion as a Viable Route to Increased Efficiency Solar Energy  

E-print Network

Upconversion as a Viable Route to Increased Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion Joshua Zide, Matt University of Delaware Energy Institute #12;Efficiency drives reduced $/W.... http://www.nrel.gov/ncpv/! Shockley-Queisser Limit! *adopted from http://www.lbl.gov/Science-Articles/Archive/MSD-full-spectrum-solar

Firestone, Jeremy

301

Descriptions -a viable choice for video game authors Neesha Desai  

E-print Network

Descriptions - a viable choice for video game authors Neesha Desai Department of Computing Science dszafron@ualberta.ca ABSTRACT Modern video game development activities have become as specialized as movie, scripting the video game content usually requires a high level of programming knowledge. Some scripting

Szafron, Duane

302

Ultrafiltration is a potentially viable method of removing finely dispersed  

E-print Network

RECYLING ABSTRACT Ultrafiltration is a potentially viable method of removing finely dispersed flexographic pigments from the deink- ing water loop. This work examines the effects of surface-active materials an ultrafiltration efficiency. A logarith- mic relationship between permeate flax and pigment

Abubakr, Said

303

Application analysis and photovoltaic system conceptual design for service\\/commercial\\/institutional and industrial sectors. Volume 2: Technical report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the attributes of the applications that are germane to solar photovoltaic systems application were identified and acquired, and the figure of merit, utilizing the collected data, that indicates the relative photovoltaic potential for displacement of conventionally generated electricity of the various of applications were devised and applied. The expected profitability of photovoltaic application was determined from the discounted

R. A. Whisnant; C. B. Morrison; N. G. Staffa; R. D. Alberts

1979-01-01

304

A Device to Measure Shell Hardness of Dungeness Crabs and Trial Application in the Kodiak Island, Alaska, Commercial Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

An objective method of measuring shell hardness of Dungeness crab Cancer magister is necessary because the time elapsed since molting is used in part by fishery managers to set commercial seasons. Limiting the catch of soft-shelled crabs in a fishery is important to decrease mortality from handling and to maintain product quality. We developed a durometer to measure shell hardness

Dave Hicks; B. Alan Johnson

1999-01-01

305

TECHNOLOGY DATA CHARACTERIZING LIGHTING IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS: APPLICATION TO END-USE FORECASTING WITH COMMEND 4.0  

E-print Network

. A tradeoff curve, in general terms, is a functional form which relates efficiency to capital cost. Each end uses in commercial buildings in the U.S. In general, lighting energy reductions increase the heatingMahon and Ellen Franconi of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The work was funded by David Patton of the Office

306

The status of commercial and developmental HTS wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an update on the development, performance and application of first and second generation high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires fabricated at American Superconductor (AMSC). First generation, multifilamentary composite wire is available commercially today in different viable product forms. This conductor carries 140 × the current of copper of the same cross-section, and is robust enough to stand tough industrial requirements. Second generation HTS wires, having a coated conductor composite architecture, are under development today and achieved substantial progress recently. AMSC’s first generation wire will continue as the workhorse of the industry for the next 3-4 years while AMSC’s second generation coated conductor wire is on track to be reproducible, uniform, scalable, and low cost. This paper provides a product differentiation with a view on the application of HTS wire in the electric power sector. Basic engineering data is reviewed that shall aid the engineer in the selection of the HTS wire product.

Masur, L. J.; Buczek, D.; Harley, E.; Kodenkandath, T.; Li, X.; Lynch, J.; Nguyen, N.; Rupich, M.; Schoop, U.; Scudiere, J.; Siegal, E.; Thieme, C.; Verebelyi, D.; Zhang, W.; Kellers, J.

307

In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activities of various commercial essential oils, oleoresin and pure compounds against food pathogens and application in ham.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the application of commercially available essential oils (EOs) and oleoresins to control bacterial pathogens for ready to eat food. In this study, sixty seven commercial EOs, oleoresins (ORs) and pure compounds were used to evaluate in vitro their antimicrobial activity against six food pathogens. These products were first screened for their antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion assay. Forty one products were then chosen for further analysis to determine their minimum inhibitory concentration against 6 different bacteria. There were 5 different products (allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamon Chinese cassia, cinnamon OR, oregano and red thyme) that showed high antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria. Further analysis examined the effect of four selected EOs on controlling the growth rate of mixed cultures of Listeria monocytogenes in ham. A reduction of the growth rate by 19 and 10% was observed when oregano and cinnamon cassia EOs were respectively added in ham at a concentration of 500 ppm. PMID:24012976

Dussault, Dominic; Vu, Khanh Dang; Lacroix, Monique

2014-01-01

308

Real-time quantification of viable bacteria in liquid medium using infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying viable bacteria in liquids is important in environmental, food processing, manufacturing, and medical applications. Since vegetative bacteria generate heat as a result of biochemical reactions associated with cellular functions, thermal sensing techniques, including infrared thermography (IRT), have been used to detect viable cells in biologic samples. We developed a novel method that extends the dynamic range and improves the sensitivity of bacterial quantification by IRT. The approach uses IRT video, thermodynamics laws, and heat transfer mechanisms to directly measure, in real-time, the amount of energy lost as heat from the surface of a liquid sample containing bacteria when the specimen cools to a lower temperature over 2 min. We show that the Energy Content ( EC) of liquid media containing as few as 120 colony-forming units (CFU) of Escherichia coli per ml was significantly higher than that of sterile media ( P < 0.0001), and that EC and viable counts were strongly positively correlated ( r = 0.986) over a range of 120 to approximately 5 × 10 8 CFU/ml. Our IRT approach is a unique non-contact method that provides real-time bacterial enumeration over a wide dynamic range without the need for sample concentration, modification, or destruction. The approach could be adapted to quantify other living cells in a liquid milieu and has the potential for automation and high throughput.

Salaimeh, Ahmad A.; Campion, Jeffrey J.; Gharaibeh, Belal Y.; Evans, Martin E.; Saito, Kozo

2011-11-01

309

Fluorescence particle detector for real-time quantification of viable organisms in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect viable organisms in air in real time is important in a number of applications. Detecting high levels of airborne organisms in hospitals can prevent post-operative infections and the spread of diseases. Monitoring levels of airborne viable organisms in pharmaceutical facilities can ensure safe production of drugs or vaccines. Monitoring airborne bacterial levels in meat processing plants can help to prevent contamination of food products. Monitoring the level of airborne organisms in bio-containment facilities can ensure that proper procedures are being followed. Finally, detecting viable organisms in real time is a key to defending against biological agent attacks. This presentation describes the development and performance of a detector, based on fluorescence particle counting technology, where an ultraviolet laser is used to count particles by light scattering and elicit fluorescence from specific biomolecules found only in living organisms. The resulting detector can specifically detect airborne particles containing living organisms from among the large majority of other particles normally present in air. Efforts to develop the core sensor technology, focusing on integrating an UV laser with a specially designed particle-counting cell will be highlighted. The hardware/software used to capture the information from the sensor, provide an alarm in the presence of an unusual biological aerosol content will also be described. Finally, results from experiments to test the performance of the detector will be presented.

Luoma, Greg; Cherrier, Pierre P.; Piccioni, Marc; Tanton, Carol; Herz, Steve; DeFreez, Richard K.; Potter, Michael; Girvin, Kenneth L.; Whitney, Ronald

2002-02-01

310

Evidence for viable, non-clonal but fatherless Boa constrictors  

PubMed Central

Parthenogenesis in vertebrates is considered an evolutionary novelty. In snakes, all of which exhibit genetic sex determination with ZZ : ZW sex chromosomes, this rare form of asexual reproduction has failed to yield viable female WW offspring. Only through complex experimental manipulations have WW females been produced, and only in fish and amphibians. Through microsatellite DNA fingerprinting, we provide the first evidence of facultative parthenogenesis in a Boa constrictor, identifying multiple, viable, non-experimentally induced females for the first time in any vertebrate lineage. Although the elevated homozygosity of the offspring in relation to the mother suggests that the mechanism responsible may be terminal fusion automixis, no males were produced, potentially indicating maternal sex chromosome hemizygosity (WO). These findings provide the first evidence of parthenogenesis in the family Boidae (Boas), and suggest that WW females may be more common within basal reptilian lineages than previously assumed. PMID:21047849

Booth, Warren; Johnson, Daniel H.; Moore, Sharon; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L.

2011-01-01

311

Synthesis of highly stable mesoporous aluminosilicates from commercially available zeolites and their application to the pyrolysis of woody biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ordered mesoporous aluminosilicates have been successfully obtained via the simple combination of top–down and bottom–up approaches, using commercially available zeolites as the framework sources. The mesoporous aluminosilicates are characterized by XRD, N2 sorption, SEM, TEM, ICP, and NMR, and have proven to have controllable aluminium contents, well-developed mesoporosity, and excellent hydrothermal stability. The hydrothermally stable mesoporous aluminosilicates, which possess the

Hyung Ik Lee; Hyun Ju Park; Young-Kwon Park; Jae Young Hur; Jong-Ki Jeon; Ji Man Kim

2008-01-01

312

Different analytical approaches in assessing antibacterial activity and the purity of commercial lysozyme preparations for dairy application.  

PubMed

Hen egg-white lysozyme (LSZ) is currently used in the food industry to limit the proliferation of lactic acid bacteria spoilage in the production of wine and beer, and to inhibit butyric acid fermentation in hard and extra hard cheeses (late blowing) caused by the outgrowth of clostridial spores. The aim of this work was to evaluate how the enzyme activity in commercial preparations correlates to the enzyme concentration and can be affected by the presence of process-related impurities. Different analytical approaches, including turbidimetric assay, SDS-PAGE and HPLC were used to analyse 17 commercial preparations of LSZ marketed in different countries. The HPLC method adopted by ISO allowed the true LSZ concentration to be determined with accuracy. The turbidimetric assay was the most suitable method to evaluate LSZ activity, whereas SDS-PAGE allowed the presence of other egg proteins, which are potential allergens, to be detected. The analytical results showed that the purity of commercially available enzyme preparations can vary significantly, and evidenced the effectiveness of combining different analytical approaches in this type of control. PMID:23698052

Brasca, Milena; Morandi, Stefano; Silvetti, Tiziana; Rosi, Veronica; Cattaneo, Stefano; Pellegrino, Luisa

2013-01-01

313

Characterization of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC) State in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC) state has been thoroughly studied in bacteria. In contrast, it has received much less attention in other microorganisms. However, it has been suggested that various yeast species occurring in wine may enter in VBNC following sulfite stress.In order to provide conclusive evidences for the existence of a VBNC state in yeast, the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enter into a VBNC state by applying sulfite stress was investigated. Viable populations were monitored by flow cytometry while culturable populations were followed by plating on culture medium. Twenty-four hours after the application of the stress, the comparison between the culturable population and the viable population demonstrated the presence of viable cells that were non culturable. In addition, removal of the stress by increasing the pH of the medium at different time intervals into the VBNC state allowed the VBNC S. cerevisiae cells to "resuscitate". The similarity between the cell cycle profiles of VBNC cells and cells exiting the VBNC state together with the generation rate of cells exiting VBNC state demonstrated the absence of cellular multiplication during the exit from the VBNC state. This provides evidence of a true VBNC state. To get further insight into the molecular mechanism pertaining to the VBNC state, we studied the involvement of the SSU1 gene, encoding a sulfite pump in S. cerevisiae. The physiological behavior of wild-type S. cerevisiae was compared to those of a recombinant strain overexpressing SSU1 and null ?ssu1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that the SSU1 gene is only implicated in the first stages of sulfite resistance but not per se in the VBNC phenotype. Our study clearly demonstrated the existence of an SO2-induced VBNC state in S. cerevisiae and that the stress removal allows the "resuscitation" of VBNC cells during the VBNC state. PMID:24204887

Salma, Mohammad; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Sequeira-Le Grand, Anabelle; Divol, Benoit; Alexandre, Hervé

2013-01-01

314

Characterization of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC) State in Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC) state has been thoroughly studied in bacteria. In contrast, it has received much less attention in other microorganisms. However, it has been suggested that various yeast species occurring in wine may enter in VBNC following sulfite stress.In order to provide conclusive evidences for the existence of a VBNC state in yeast, the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enter into a VBNC state by applying sulfite stress was investigated. Viable populations were monitored by flow cytometry while culturable populations were followed by plating on culture medium. Twenty-four hours after the application of the stress, the comparison between the culturable population and the viable population demonstrated the presence of viable cells that were non culturable. In addition, removal of the stress by increasing the pH of the medium at different time intervals into the VBNC state allowed the VBNC S. cerevisiae cells to “resuscitate”. The similarity between the cell cycle profiles of VBNC cells and cells exiting the VBNC state together with the generation rate of cells exiting VBNC state demonstrated the absence of cellular multiplication during the exit from the VBNC state. This provides evidence of a true VBNC state. To get further insight into the molecular mechanism pertaining to the VBNC state, we studied the involvement of the SSU1 gene, encoding a sulfite pump in S. cerevisiae. The physiological behavior of wild-type S. cerevisiae was compared to those of a recombinant strain overexpressing SSU1 and null ?ssu1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that the SSU1 gene is only implicated in the first stages of sulfite resistance but not per se in the VBNC phenotype. Our study clearly demonstrated the existence of an SO2-induced VBNC state in S. cerevisiae and that the stress removal allows the “resuscitation” of VBNC cells during the VBNC state. PMID:24204887

Salma, Mohammad; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Sequeira-Le Grand, Anabelle; Divol, Benoit; Alexandre, Herve

2013-01-01

315

A new viable region of the inert doublet model  

SciTech Connect

The inert doublet model, a minimal extension of the Standard Model by a second Higgs doublet, is one of the simplest and most attractive scenarios that can explain the dark matter. In this paper, we demonstrate the existence of a new viable region of the inert doublet model featuring dark matter masses between M{sub W} and about 160 GeV. Along this previously overlooked region of the parameter space, the correct relic density is obtained thanks to cancellations between different diagrams contributing to dark matter annihilation into gauge bosons (W{sup +}W{sup ?} and Z{sup 0}Z{sup 0}). First, we explain how these cancellations come about and show several examples illustrating the effect of the parameters of the model on the cancellations themselves and on the predicted relic density. Then, we perform a full scan of the new viable region and analyze it in detail by projecting it onto several two-dimensional planes. Finally, the prospects for the direct and the indirect detection of inert Higgs dark matter within this new viable region are studied. We find that present direct detection bounds already rule out a fraction of the new parameter space and that future direct detection experiments, such as Xenon100, will easily probe the remaining part in its entirety.

Honorez, Laura Lopez [Service de Physique Théorique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Yaguna, Carlos E., E-mail: carlos.yaguna@uam.es, E-mail: llopezho@ulb.ac.be [Departamento de Física Teórica C-XI and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

2011-01-01

316

Formation and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable Salmonella typhi.  

PubMed

Salmonella typhi is a pathogen that causes the human disease of typhoid fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of S. typhi. Some samples were stimulated at 4°C or -20°C, while others were induced by different concentrations of CuSO4. Total cell counts remained constant throughout several days by acridine orange direct counting; however, plate counts declined to undetectable levels within 48 hours by plate counting at -20°C. The direct viable counts remained fairly constant at this level by direct viable counting. Carbon and nitrogen materials slowly decreased which indicated that a large population of cells existed in the VBNC state and entered the VBNC state in response to exposure to 0.01 or 0.015?mmol/L CuSO4 for more than 14 or 12 days, respectively. Adding 3% Tween 20 or 1% catalase enabled cells to become culturable again, with resuscitation times of 48?h and 24?h, respectively. The atomic force microscope results showed that cells gradually changed in shape from short rods to coccoids, and decreased in size when they entered the VBNC state. Further animal experiments suggested that resuscitated cells might regain pathogenicity. PMID:23509799

Zeng, Bin; Zhao, Guozhong; Cao, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua

2013-01-01

317

Formation and Resuscitation of Viable but Nonculturable Salmonella typhi  

PubMed Central

Salmonella typhi is a pathogen that causes the human disease of typhoid fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of S. typhi. Some samples were stimulated at 4°C or ?20°C, while others were induced by different concentrations of CuSO4. Total cell counts remained constant throughout several days by acridine orange direct counting; however, plate counts declined to undetectable levels within 48 hours by plate counting at ?20°C. The direct viable counts remained fairly constant at this level by direct viable counting. Carbon and nitrogen materials slowly decreased which indicated that a large population of cells existed in the VBNC state and entered the VBNC state in response to exposure to 0.01 or 0.015?mmol/L CuSO4 for more than 14 or 12 days, respectively. Adding 3% Tween 20 or 1% catalase enabled cells to become culturable again, with resuscitation times of 48?h and 24?h, respectively. The atomic force microscope results showed that cells gradually changed in shape from short rods to coccoids, and decreased in size when they entered the VBNC state. Further animal experiments suggested that resuscitated cells might regain pathogenicity. PMID:23509799

Zeng, Bin; Zhao, Guozhong; Cao, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua

2013-01-01

318

Emerging commercial opportunities based on combined communication navigation services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cost reduction pressure on companies and increasing regulatory and legislative demand together with rapid technological progress in space-based communication and navigation are opening up new and exciting commercial opportunities. In this framework, a novel service for maritime applications is presented using a two-way messaging system and the global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The system implements an end-to-end solution for asset tracking and fleet management, positioning and tracing, messaging and security for all types of sea-going vessels. The service applies a vessel-based terminal hosting a GNSS receiver which transmits the navigation status together with messages to a Service Center with a flexible return-link capability. A hybrid space segment is considered comprising the Inmarsat constellation of geostationary communications satellites augmented by two highly inclined low earth orbit satellites for truly global services. Services will be offered to commercial enterprises such as fishing companies as well as public entities such as National Coast Guards. A detailed market analysis has been performed to assess these markets and to determine their penetration. Commercial viability has been proven for business models purely based on Inmarsat and a hybrid space segment using Inmarsat and dedicated micro-satellites. Both cases represent viable businesses in the range of MEUR 100 p.a. Although tailored to a specific market, the approach can be extended to other commercial opportunities requiring space-based communication-navigation services.

Gill, Eberhard; Fox, Brian M.; Kreisel, Joerg

2006-07-01

319

Commercial Crew  

NASA Video Gallery

Phil McAlister delivers a presentation by the Commercial Crew (CC) study team on May 25, 2010, at the NASA Exploration Enterprise Workshop held in Galveston, TX. The purpose of this workshop was to...

320

Safely Coupling Livestock and Crop Production Systems: How Rapidly Do Antibiotic Resistance Genes Dissipate in Soil following a Commercial Application of Swine or Dairy Manure?  

PubMed Central

Animal manures recycled onto crop production land carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated the fate in soil of selected genes associated with antibiotic resistance or genetic mobility in field plots cropped to vegetables and managed according to normal farming practice. Referenced to unmanured soil, fertilization with swine or dairy manure increased the relative abundance of the gene targets sul1, erm(B), str(B), int1, and IncW repA. Following manure application in the spring of 2012, gene copy number decayed exponentially, reaching background levels by the fall of 2012. In contrast, gene copy number following manure application in the fall of 2012 or spring of 2013 increased significantly in the weeks following application and then declined. In both cases, the relative abundance of gene copy numbers had not returned to background levels by the fall of 2013. Overall, these results suggest that under conditions characteristic of agriculture in a humid continental climate, a 1-year period following a commercial application of raw manure is sufficient to ensure that an additional soil burden of antibiotic resistance genes approaches background. The relative abundance of several gene targets exceeded background during the growing season following a spring application or an application done the previous fall. Results from the present study reinforce the advisability of treating manure prior to use in crop production systems. PMID:24632259

Marti, Romain; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Scott, Andrew; Sabourin, Lyne

2014-01-01

321

Characterization of commercial synthetic resins by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry: application to modern art and conservation.  

PubMed

To characterize a set of synthetic resins, a methodology by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) has been developed. The studied reference materials were commercial versions of a wide range of synthetic resins. For each polymer, the pyrolytic and chromatographic conditions were optimized to adequately resolve the fragment mixture in a short time. The proposed analytical method does not require previous treatment of the sample, and due to its high sensitivity, only a small sample quantity in the microgram range can be used. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have little effect on the obtained pyrograms. The summarized data set for the individual polymer materials, especially the characteristic fragments with a structure close to the monomeric unit, was useful to identify commercial synthetic resins. These materials were used in the art and conservation field, as binding media, paint additives, painting varnishes, coatings, or consolidants. Two case studies are introduced where direct Py-GC/MS and thermally assisted hydrolysis and methylation GC/MS were applied on art objects: first, a modern gluing material of a medieval reverse glass painting, and the second example, the binding medium of a painting by Georg Baselitz ("Senta", 1992/1993) from the Sammlung Moderne Kunst at the Pinakothek der Moderne, Munich. PMID:19364144

Peris-Vicente, J; Baumer, U; Stege, H; Lutzenberger, K; Gimeno Adelantado, J V

2009-04-15

322

Predicting adolescents' disclosure of personal information in exchange for commercial incentives: an application of an extended theory of planned behavior.  

PubMed

This study adopts a global theoretical framework to predict adolescents' disclosure of personal information in exchange for incentives offered by commercial Websites. The study postulates and tests the validity of a model based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), including antecedent factors of attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC). A survey was conducted among 1,042 respondents. Results from SEM analyses show that the hypothesized model fits the empirical data well. The model accounts for 61.9 percent of the variance in adolescents' intention to disclose and 43.7 percent of the variance in self-reported disclosure. Perceived social pressure exerted by significant others (subjective norm) is the most important TPB factor in predicting intention to disclose personal information in exchange for incentives. This finding suggests that in discussions of adolescents' information privacy, the importance of social factors outweighs the individually oriented TPB factors of attitude and PBC. Moreover, privacy concern and trust propensity are significant predictors of respondents' attitudes toward online disclosure in exchange for commercial incentives, whereas the frequency of Internet use significantly affects their level of PBC. PMID:23113689

Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen

2013-02-01

323

Commercial Earth Observation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) at Stennis Space Center, Applied Analysis, Inc. developed a new tool for analyzing remotely sensed data. The Applied Analysis Spectral Analytical Process (AASAP) detects or classifies objects smaller than a pixel and removes the background. This significantly enhances the discrimination among surface features in imagery. ERDAS, Inc. offers the system as a modular addition to its ERDAS IMAGINE software package for remote sensing applications. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant. Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP), Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing (OCENS) developed SeaStation for marine users. SeaStation is a low-cost, portable, shipboard satellite groundstation integrated with vessel catch and product monitoring software. Linked to the Global Positioning System, SeaStation provides real time relationships between vessel position and data such as sea surface temperature, weather conditions and ice edge location. This allows the user to increase fishing productivity and improve vessel safety. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant.

1995-01-01

324

Genetic algorithms and the search for viable string vacua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Genetic Algorithms are introduced as a search method for finding string vacua with viable phenomenological properties. It is shown, by testing them against a class of Free Fermionic models, that they are orders of magnitude more efficient than a randomised search. As an example, three generation, exophobic, Pati-Salam models with a top Yukawa occur once in every 1010 models, and yet a Genetic Algorithm can find them after constructing only 105 examples. Such non-deterministic search methods may be the only means to search for Standard Model string vacua with detailed phenomenological requirements.

Abel, Steven; Rizos, John

2014-08-01

325

Sodium chloride affects propidium monoazide action to distinguish viable cells.  

PubMed

Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a DNA-intercalating agent used to selectively detect DNA from viable cells by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here, we report that high concentrations (>5%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) prevents PMA from inhibiting DNA amplification from dead cells. Moreover, Halobacterium salinarum was unable to maintain cell integrity in solutions containing less than 15% NaCl, indicating that extreme halophilic microorganisms may not resist the concentration range in which PMA fully acts. We conclude that NaCl, but not pH, directly affects the efficiency of PMA treatment, limiting its use for cell viability assessment of halophiles and in hypersaline samples. PMID:22728959

Barth, Valdir C; Cattani, Fernanda; Ferreira, Carlos A S; de Oliveira, Sílvia D

2012-09-15

326

Genetic Algorithms and the Search for Viable String Vacua  

E-print Network

Genetic Algorithms are introduced as a search method for finding string vacua with viable phenomenological properties. It is shown, by testing them against a class of Free Fermionic models, that they are orders of magnitude more efficient than a randomised search. As an example, three generation, exophobic, Pati-Salam models with a top Yukawa occur once in every 10^{10} models, and yet a Genetic Algorithm can find them after constructing only 10^5 examples. Such non-deterministic search methods may be the only means to search for Standard Model string vacua with detailed phenomenological requirements.

Steven Abel; John Rizos

2014-04-29

327

Genetic Algorithms and the Search for Viable String Vacua  

E-print Network

Genetic Algorithms are introduced as a search method for finding string vacua with viable phenomenological properties. It is shown, by testing them against a class of Free Fermionic models, that they are orders of magnitude more efficient than a randomised search. As an example, three generation, exophobic, Pati-Salam models with a top Yukawa occur once in every 10^{10} models, and yet a Genetic Algorithm can find them after constructing only 10^5 examples. Such non-deterministic search methods may be the only means to search for Standard Model string vacua with detailed phenomenological requirements.

Abel, Steven

2014-01-01

328

Efficacy of several commercially formulated essential oils against caged female Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus when operationally applied via an automatic-timed insecticide application system.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of several commercially available products containing plant essential oils against caged female Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus was studied. Products operationally applied via an automatic-timed insecticide application system (MistAway) at maximum label rates were EcoExempt MC (9.0 ml/liter, rosemary oil [18% AI], cinnamon oil [2% AI], lemongrass oil [2% AI], plus 78% "other ingredients" in wintergreen oil). Misting System Concentrate (4 ml/liter, oil of Juniperus virginiana [85% AI]), Mosquito Barrier (31.1 ml/liter, garlic oil [99.3% AI], and citric acid [0.5% AI]), and No-See-Um Organic Repellent (99.5 ml/liter, lemongrass [4% AI], citronella [3% AI], castor oil [3% AI], sodium laurate [3%], and garlic oil [1% AI] in an 86% [AI] mixture of wintergreen oil, lecithin, and water). All products were compared with a commercial formulation of synergized pyrethrins, Riptide (9.0 ml/liter, pyrethrins [5% AI], piperonyl butoxide [25% AI]), as a standard. Mortality was the greatest for Riptide to both mosquito species with effectiveness influenced by distance from the nozzle (ranging from > 80% at 3 m to > 10% at 20 m). The essential oil products resulted in < 10% mortality for each species regardless of application exposure distance with the exception of EcoExempt, which gave approximately 13% mortality of caged female Ae. albopictus 6 m from the nozzles. PMID:22017089

Cilek, J E; Hallmon, C F; Johnson, R

2011-09-01

329

Specific and Rapid Enumeration of Viable but Nonculturable and Viable-Culturable Gram-Negative Bacteria by Using Flow Cytometry ? †  

PubMed Central

An issue of critical concern in microbiology is the ability to detect viable but nonculturable (VBNC) and viable-culturable (VC) cells by methods other than existing approaches. Culture methods are selective and underestimate the real population, and other options (direct viable count and the double-staining method using epifluorescence microscopy and inhibitory substance-influenced molecular methods) are also biased and time-consuming. A rapid approach that reduces selectivity, decreases bias from sample storage and incubation, and reduces assay time is needed. Flow cytometry is a sensitive analytical technique that can rapidly monitor physiological states of bacteria. This report outlines a method to optimize staining protocols and the flow cytometer (FCM) instrument settings for the enumeration of VBNC and VC bacterial cells within 70 min. Experiments were performed using the FCM to quantify VBNC and VC Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas syringae, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cells after staining with different fluorescent probes: SYTO 9, SYTO 13, SYTO 17, SYTO 40, and propidium iodide (PI). The FCM data were compared with those for specific standard nutrient agar to enumerate the number of cells in different states. By comparing results from cultures at late log phase, 1 to 64% of cells were nonculturable, 40 to 98% were culturable, and 0.7 to 4.5% had damaged cell membranes and were therefore theoretically dead. Data obtained using four different Gram-negative bacteria exposed to heat and stained with PI also illustrate the usefulness of the approach for the rapid and unbiased detection of dead versus live organisms. PMID:20543046

Khan, Mohiuddin M. Taimur; Pyle, Barry H.; Camper, Anne K.

2010-01-01

330

Overview of thermostable DNA polymerases for classical PCR applications: from molecular and biochemical fundamentals to commercial systems.  

PubMed

During the genomics era, the use of thermostable DNA polymerases increased greatly. Many were identified and described-mainly of the genera Thermus, Thermococcus and Pyrococcus. Each polymerase has different features, resulting from origin and genetic modification. However, the rational choice of the adequate polymerase depends on the application itself. This review gives an overview of the most commonly used DNA polymerases used for PCR application: KOD, Pab (Isis™), Pfu, Pst (Deep Vent™), Pwo, Taq, Tbr, Tca, Tfi, Tfl, Tfu, Tgo, Tli (Vent™), Tma (UITma™), Tne, Tth and others. PMID:24177730

Terpe, Kay

2013-12-01

331

On the Use of Thermoelectric (TE) Applications Based on Commercial Modules: The Case of TE Generator and TE Cooler  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, thermoelectricity sees rapidly increasing usages in applications like portable refrigerators, beverage coolers, electronic component coolers etc. when used as Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC), and Thermoelectric Generators (TEG) which make use of the Seebeck effect in semiconductors for the direct conversion of heat into electrical energy and is of particular interest for systems of highest reliability or for waste

K. Zorbas; E. Hatzikraniotis; K. M. Paraskevopoulos; Th. Kyratsi

2010-01-01

332

Application of maltodextrin as chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis for quantification of amlodipine enantiomers in commercial tablets.  

PubMed

Maltodextrin was investigated as a chiral selector in capillary electrophoresis (CE) analysis of amlodipine (AM) enantiomers. For development of a stereoselective CE method, various effective parameters on the enantioseparation were optimized. The best results were achieved on an uncoated fused silica capillary at 20?°C using phosphate buffer (100?mM, pH?4) containing 10% w/v maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent value 4-7). The UV detector was set at 214?nm and a constant voltage of 20?kV was applied. The range of quantitation was 2.5-250?µg/mL (R(2) ?>?0.999) for both enantiomers. Intra- (n?=?5) and interday (n?=?3) relative standard deviation (RSD) values were less than 7%. The limits of quantitation and detection were 1.7?µg/mL and 0.52?µg/mL, respectively. Recoveries of R(+) and S(-) enantiomers from tablet matrix were 97.2% and 97.8%, respectively. The method was applied for the quantification of AM enantiomers in commercial tablets. Also, the enantioseparation capability of heparin was evaluated and the results showed that heparin did not have any chiral selector activity in this study. PMID:24830506

Nojavan, Saeed; Pourmoslemi, Shabnam; Behdad, Hamideh; Fakhari, Ali Reza; Mohammadi, Ali

2014-08-01

333

Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

2010-12-01

334

Minimum viable population sizes and global extinction risk are unrelated.  

PubMed

Theoretical and empirical work has shown that once reduced in size and geographical range, species face a considerably elevated risk of extinction. We predict minimum viable population sizes (MVP) for 1198 species based on long-term time-series data and model-averaged population dynamics simulations. The median MVP estimate was 1377 individuals (90% probability of persistence over 100 years) but the overall distribution was wide and strongly positively skewed. Factors commonly cited as correlating with extinction risk failed to predict MVP but were able to predict successfully the probability of World Conservation Union Listing. MVPs were most strongly related to local environmental variation rather than a species' intrinsic ecological and life history attributes. Further, the large variation in MVP across species is unrelated to (or at least dwarfed by) the anthropogenic threats that drive the global biodiversity crisis by causing once-abundant species to decline. PMID:16623722

Brook, Barry W; Traill, Lochran W; Bradshaw, Corey J A

2006-04-01

335

Diagnostic performance and application of two commercial cell viability assays in foot-and-mouth disease research.  

PubMed

Cell-based assays are still used widely in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research, despite the existence of a wide variety of molecular techniques. The aim of this study was to validate an automated, quantitative spectrometric reading to replace the time-consuming and subjective microscopic (MIC) evaluation of the FMD virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE). Therefore, the diagnostic performance of two commercial cell viability assays (CellTiter 96(®) AQueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay (MTS) and CellTiter-Blue(®) Cell Viability Assay (CTB), both from Promega, Leiden, The Netherlands) was evaluated. Following optimization of the assay protocols and using the MIC results as a reference standard, the absorbance-read MTS assay, the fluorescence-read CTB assay and the absorbance-read CTB (CTB(abs)) assay demonstrated similar high sensitivities (97%, 99% and 98%, respectively), specificities (100%, 98% and 99%, respectively), accuracy measures (0.99, 0.98 and 0.98, respectively), precision measures (1.00, 0.98 and 0.99, respectively) and Cohen kappa agreement indices (0.97, 0.97 and 0.96, respectively) for detecting CPE in cell cultures. Due to its performance, cost effectiveness and ease of use, the CTB(abs) assay was selected for further evaluation of its ability to detect virus neutralization and to screen antiviral compounds. The CTB(abs) assay had 99% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the detection of neutralizing antibodies in sera from cattle infected with FMDV and in sera from unvaccinated, uninfected cattle and resulted in a mean Z'-factor of 0.85 for antiviral compound test plates. The CTB(abs) assay is now used routinely in the Belgian FMD reference laboratory for serological testing and high-throughput antiviral compound screening. PMID:21295609

Willems, Tom; Lefebvre, David J; Neyts, Johan; De Clercq, Kris

2011-04-01

336

The commercialization of aluminum composites: Technical challenges and commercial realities  

SciTech Connect

The establishment of a viable commercial business for the production and sale of aluminum composites has been a dream for at least twenty years. Unfortunately, the successful realization of this goal is very complex and frustrating. The development of a viable process for the commercial production of an aluminum composite with attractive physical/mechanical properties and price is only just the beginning, Substantial technical challenges of forming, casting, joining, machining and recycling must be faced along with a myriad of support technologies such as chemical analysis, quality standards and specifications. These technical challenges are complimented with a range of business issues such as price, product standardization, complex customer relationships, competition and product acceptance which often conflict with or influence the technical considerations. Duralcan USA has been working for more than five years to conquer these challenges and success appears to be within sight. A review of Duralcan USA`s technical and business experiences will provide insight into the issues and conflicts, a perspective into the size of the challenges and guidance to other emerging composites companies.

Hoover, W.R. [Duralcan, San Diego, CA (United States)

1993-12-31

337

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...180.1011 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of...

2011-07-01

338

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...180.1011 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of...

2012-07-01

339

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...180.1011 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of...

2010-07-01

340

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...180.1011 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of...

2013-07-01

341

The Health Effects of Cultured Milk Products with Viable and Nonviable Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In food regulations, the viability of bacteria is emphasised in food standards and regulations for yoghurt and fermented milks. Non-viable cultured milks have longer shelf-life and easier storage which favour the technology, but it has been claimed that only dairy products with viable microorganisms have beneficial health effects. In the case of lactose tolerance by lactase-deficient subjects, viable and non-viable

Arthur C. Ouwehand; Seppo J. Salminen

1998-01-01

342

Evaluation of low-residue soldering for military and commercial applications: A report from the Low-Residue Soldering Task Force  

SciTech Connect

The LRSTF combined the efforts of industry, military, and government to evaluate low-residue soldering processes for military and commercial applications. These processes were selected for evaluation because they provide a means for the military to support the presidential mandate while producing reliable hardware at a lower cost. This report presents the complete details and results of a testing program conducted by the LRSTF to evaluate low-residue soldering for printed wiring assemblies. A previous informal document provided details of the test plan used in this evaluation. Many of the details of that test plan are contained in this report. The test data are too massive to include in this report, however, these data are available on disk as Excel spreadsheets upon request. The main purpose of low-residue soldering is to eliminate waste streams during the manufacturing process.

Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burress, R.V. [SEHO (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

343

NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 6; NASA Space Applications, Aeronautics and Space Research and Technology, Tracking and Data Acquisition/Support Operations, Commercial Programs and  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This sixth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of several critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the space applications effort, the development and operation of aeronautics and space research and technology programs, tracking and data acquisition/space operations, commercial programs, facilities and installations, personnel, and finances and procurement during this era. Special thanks are owed to the student research assistants who gathered and input much of the tabular material-a particularly tedious undertaking. There are numerous people at NASA associated with historical study, technical information, and the mechanics of publishing who helped in myriad ways in the preparation of this historical data book.

Rumerman, Judy A.

2000-01-01

344

Automatic detection of TV commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

TV advertising commercials are a critical marketing tool for many companies. Their interspersion within regular broadcast television programming can be entertaining, informing, annoying or a sales gold mine depending on one's viewpoint. As a result, there are two major reasons for being able to detect commercial segments within television broadcasts. These two applications' goals - at least indirectly - are

B. Satterwhite; O. Marques

2004-01-01

345

A viable technique for tagging earthworms using visible implant elastomer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms perform many ecosystem services. However, due to their body shape, mucus covering, and subterranean behaviour, it has been very difficult to successfully tag individual animals for experimental purposes. This paper examines the potential use of commercially available visible implant elastomer (VIE) tags to mark earthworms. Two laboratory experiments were conducted employing four temperate earthworm species by injection of the

Kevin R. Butt; Christopher N. Lowe

2007-01-01

346

Detection of viable and non-viable cells of Erwinia carotovora var. atroseptica in inoculated tubers of var. Bintje with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The ELISA technique was unable to distinguish between viable an non-viable cells (killed with ethanol) ofErwinia carotovora var.atroseptica in inoculated tubers during 8 weeks storage at C. The use of this technique to determine latent infections is questioned.

E. J. Cother; H. Vruggink

1980-01-01

347

Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews published experimental and theoretical investigations of particle deposition from turbulent flows and considers the applicability of this body of work to the specific case of particle deposition from flows in the ducts of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Particle deposition can detrimentally affect the performance of HVAC systems and it influences the exposure of building occupants to a variety of air pollutants. The first section of this report describes the types of HVAC systems under consideration and discusses the components, materials and operating parameters commonly found in these systems. The second section reviews published experimental investigations of particle deposition rates from turbulent flows and considers the ramifications of the experimental evidence with respect to HVAC ducts. The third section considers the structure of turbulent airflows in ventilation ducts with a particular emphasis on turbulence investigations that have been used as a basis for particle deposition models. The final section reviews published literature on predicting particle deposition rates from turbulent flows.

Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

2002-06-01

348

Triclocarban, triclosan and its transformation product methyl triclosan in native earthworm species four years after a commercial-scale biosolids application.  

PubMed

Triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS) and methyl triclosan (Me-TCS) were detected in soil and the native population of earthworms of an agricultural field in Ottawa, Canada, about four years after a commercial-scale application of biosolids. In soil that received biosolids, TCC and TCS were detected at median concentrations of 13.0 and 1.5 ng/g soil (d.w.), respectively, while Me-TCS, the transformation product of triclosan, was detected at a six-fold higher median concentration than its precursor. In earthworms collected at the biosolids-amended field-plot about four years post application, Me-TCS was also detected at higher concentrations (26 to 114 ng/g tissue d.w.) than TCS (16-51 ng/g) and TCC (4-53 ng/g). These data provide evidence that not only parent compounds but also their transformation products need to be considered in faunal bioaccumulation studies. Moreover, the preliminary results for pooled earthworm samples from different ecological groups suggest that the degree of bioaccumulation of biosolids-associated contaminants may depend on the habitat and feeding behavior of the organisms. PMID:24291564

Macherius, André; Lapen, David R; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Römbke, Jörg; Topp, Edward; Coors, Anja

2014-02-15

349

Ballast water treatment technologies: hydrocyclonic a viable option  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many governments, international maritime environmental entities and public health organizations have recognized the environmental,\\u000a economic and health threats caused by the translocation and release of ballast water. A wide variety of ballast water treatment\\u000a systems are available at both commercial and under evaluation levels. The available ballast water treatment technologies are\\u000a reviewed. This work reviews the various types of technologies

Mazen M. Abu-Khader; Omar Badran; Menwer Attarakih

2011-01-01

350

A viable supersymmetric model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation  

SciTech Connect

We propose an electroweak model which is compatible with the UV insensitive anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. The model is an extension of the NMSSM by adding vector-like matter fields which can drive the soft scalar masses of the singlet Higgs field negative and the successful electroweak symmetry breaking is achieved. Viable parameter regions are found to preserve perturbativity of all the coupling constants up to the Planck scale. With this success, the model becomes a perfect candidate of physics beyond the standard model without the FCNC and CP problem. The cosmology is also quite interesting. The lightest neutralino is the wino which is a perfect cold dark matter candidate assuming the non-thermal production from the gravitino decay. There is no gravitino problem because it decays before the BBN era, and thus the thermal leptogenesis works. The cosmological domain wall problem inherent in the NMSSM is absent since the Z_3 symmetry is broken by the QCD instanton effect in the presence of the vector-like quarks. We also briefly comment on a possible solution to the strong CP problem a la the Nelson-Barr mechanism.

Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi

2004-12-14

351

The pattern of growth in viable f(R) cosmologies  

E-print Network

We study the evolution of linear perturbations in metric f(R) models of gravity and identify a potentially observable characteristic scale-dependent pattern in the behavior of cosmological structures. While at the background level viable f(R) models must closely mimic LCDM, the differences in their prediction for the growth of large scale structures can be sufficiently large to be seen with future weak lensing surveys. While working in the Jordan frame, we perform an analytical study of the growth of structures in the Einstein frame, demonstrating the equivalence of the dynamics in the two frames. We also provide a physical interpretation of the results in terms of the dynamics of an effective dark energy fluid with a non-zero shear. We find that the growth of structure in f(R) is enhanced, but that there are no small scale instabilities associated with the additional attractive "fifth force". We then briefly consider some recently proposed observational tests of modified gravity and their utility for detecting the f(R) pattern of structure growth.

Levon Pogosian; Alessandra Silvestri

2007-09-04

352

Pattern of growth in viable f(R) cosmologies  

SciTech Connect

We study the evolution of linear perturbations in metric f(R) models of gravity and identify a potentially observable characteristic scale-dependent pattern in the behavior of cosmological structures. While at the background level viable f(R) models must closely mimic Lambda Cold Dark Matter, the differences in their prediction for the growth of large scale structures can be sufficiently large to be seen with future weak lensing surveys. While working in the Jordan frame, we perform an analytical study of the growth of structures in the Einstein frame, demonstrating the equivalence of the dynamics in the two frames. We also provide a physical interpretation of the results in terms of the dynamics of an effective dark energy fluid with a nonzero shear. We find that the growth of structure in f(R) is enhanced, but that there are no small scale instabilities associated with the additional attractive ''fifth force.'' We then briefly consider some recently proposed observational tests of modified gravity and their utility for detecting the f(R) pattern of structure growth.

Pogosian, Levon [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Silvestri, Alessandra [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States)

2008-01-15

353

The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon  

SciTech Connect

Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-01-01

354

A Microscopic Multiphase Diffusion Model of Viable Epidermis Permeability  

PubMed Central

A microscopic model of passive transverse mass transport of small solutes in the viable epidermal layer of human skin is formulated on the basis of a hexagonal array of cells (i.e., keratinocytes) bounded by 4-nm-thick, anisotropic lipid bilayers and separated by 1-?m layers of extracellular fluid. Gap junctions and tight junctions with adjustable permeabilities are included to modulate the transport of solutes with low membrane permeabilities. Two keratinocyte aspect ratios are considered to represent basal and spinous cells (longer) and granular cells (more flattened). The diffusion problem is solved in a unit cell using a coordinate system conforming to the hexagonal cross section, and an efficient two-dimensional treatment is applied to describe transport in both the cell membranes and intercellular spaces, given their thinness. Results are presented in terms of an effective diffusion coefficient, D¯epi, and partition coefficient, K¯epi/w, for a homogenized representation of the microtransport problem. Representative calculations are carried out for three small solutes—water, L-glucose, and hydrocortisone—covering a wide range of membrane permeability. The effective transport parameters and their microscopic interpretation can be employed within the context of existing three-layer models of skin transport to provide more realistic estimates of the epidermal concentrations of topically applied solutes. PMID:23708370

Nitsche, Johannes M.; Kasting, Gerald B.

2013-01-01

355

The Heating of the ICM: Energy Crisis and viable solutions  

E-print Network

X-ray observations indicate that non-gravitational processes play a key role in the thermodynamics of the Intra Cluster Medium (ICM). The effect of non-gravitational processes is imprinted in the ICM as an entropy minimum, whose effects are visible in the Luminosity-Temperature relation and in the Entropy-Temperature relation. However, the X-ray emission alone cannot discriminate between different mechanisms and sources of heating. There are no answers at present to the following questions: how much non-gravitational energy per baryons is present in the ICM? When was this energy injected? Which are the sources of heating? The embarrassment in front of these questions is amplified by the fact that the most viable sources of heating, SNae and stellar winds, seem to be inefficient in bringing the ICM to the observed entropy level. We may call it the energy crisis. Here we review the main aspects of this crisis, listing possible solutions, including other sources, like AGNs and Radio Galaxies, or other mechanisms, like large scale shocks and selective cooling.

Paolo Tozzi

2001-09-05

356

Towards a viable and just global nursing ethics.  

PubMed

Globalization, an outgrowth of technology, while informing us about people throughout the world, also raises our awareness of the extreme economic and social disparities that exist among nations. As part of a global discipline, nurses are vitally interested in reducing and eliminating disparities so that better health is achieved for all people. Recent literature in nursing encourages our discipline to engage more actively with social justice issues. Justice in health care is a major commitment of nursing; thus questions in the larger sphere of globalization, justice and ethics, are our discipline's questions also. Global justice, or fairness, is not an issue for some groups or institutions, but a deeper human rights issue that is a responsibility for everyone. What can we do to help reduce or eliminate the social and economic disparities that are so evident? What kind of ethical milieu is needed to address the threat that globalization imposes on justice and fairness? This article enriches the conceptualization of globalization by investigating recent work by Schweiker and Twiss. In addition, I discuss five qualities or characteristics that will facilitate the development of a viable and just global ethic. A global ethic guides all people in their response to human rights and poverty. Technology and business, two major forces in globalization that are generally considered beneficial, are critiqued as barriers to social justice and the common good. PMID:18096578

Crigger, Nancy J

2008-01-01

357

Statistical evaluation of a commercial Neospora caninum competitive ELISA in the absence of a gold standard: application to wild elk (Cervus elaphus) in Alberta.  

PubMed

Neospora caninum is an important abortive agent of domestic ruminants, but few diagnostic tools are available to reliably assess the exposure of wild cervid species such as elk (Cervus elaphus) to this pathogen, which limits our ability to understand their role in the life cycle of this parasite. In the absence of a gold standard test or panels of samples from individuals of known infection status, classical laboratory-based validation methods are not applicable. However, there are a number of statistical methods that can help in selecting an appropriate cut-off value and estimating the resulting diagnostic test performances. In this paper, the performance of a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) on elk serum samples was evaluated with two statistical approaches: a mixture distribution model fitted to the cELISA results, and a Bayesian latent class analysis combining results from the cELISA and an indirect immuno-fluorescence antibody test. Both methods indicated that the commercial kit could be used on elk serum with the specifications recommended by the manufacturer. In particular, the optimal combination of sensitivity and specificity were obtained for a percentage of inhibition cutoff of 30%. The 95% probability interval of the proportion of elk exposed to N. caninum, adjusting for the sensitivity and specificity of this test in elk, was estimated between 1.3 and 7.4%. There was no association between the serological status of female elk and their pregnancy status. These results point out to the involvement of elk in a sylvatic cycle of N. caninum in this area. PMID:24861013

Pruvot, Mathieu; Hutchins, Wendy; Orsel, Karin

2014-08-01

358

Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part I: Initial characterizations  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating commercial Li-ion batteries presents some unique benefits. One of them is to use cells made from established fabrication process and form factor, such as those offered by the 18650 cylindrical configuration, to provide a common platform to investigate and understand performance deficiency and aging mechanism of target chemistry. Such an approach shall afford us to derive relevant information without influence from processing or form factor variability that may skew our understanding on cell-level issues. A series of 1.9 Ah 18650 lithium ion cells developed by a commercial source using a composite positive electrode comprising (LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 + LiMn2O4) is being used as a platform for the investigation of certain key issues, particularly path-dependent aging and degradation in future plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications, under the US Department of Energy's Applied Battery Research (ABR) program. Here we report in Part I the initial characterizations of the cell performance and Part II some aspects of cell degradation in 2C cycle aging. The initial characterizations, including cell-to-cell variability, are essential for life cycle performance characterization in the second part of the report when cell-aging phenomena are discussed. Due to the composite nature of the positive electrode, the features (or signature) derived from the incremental capacity (IC) of the cell appear rather complex. In this work, the method to index the observed IC peaks is discussed. Being able to index the IC signature in details is critical for analyzing and identifying degradation mechanism later in the cycle aging study.

Matthieu Dubarry; Cyril Truchot; Mikael Cugnet; Bor Yann Liaw; Kevin Gering; Sergiy Sazhin; David Jamison; Christopher Michelbacher

2011-12-01

359

Lysis of Viable Rumen Bacteria in Bovine Rumen Fluid  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus bovis and Butyrivibrio sp. were labeled with thymidine-methyl-3H, washed, and resuspended in rumen fluid or rumen fluid fractions obtained from Holstein and Jersey cows fed alfalfa hay once daily. Factors affecting the lytic activity found in untreated rumen fluid were examined. Day to day variation and differences before and after feeding were observed for the same cow. There were also differences between cows on the same day. For a given rumen fluid, the rate of release of label was roughly proportional to the number of labeled cells present over a 100-fold range in concentration. Removal of protozoa largely abolished the lytic action of fresh rumen fluid for S. bovis, but some soluble lytic activity remained. Mixed rumen protozoa added to media containing labeled S. bovis caused label to appear in solution. In a sample of rumen fluid containing 4.3 × 104 protozoa/ml 5.2% of the S. bovis population were destroyed by protozoa per hr. The mean rate of destruction for 12 runs on whole rumen fluid was 8.7% per hr with a standard deviation of 6.05. Parallel experiments with Butyrivibrio indicated that soluble lytic factors were more important for this organism. They could be destroyed by autoclaving and were generated when viable rumen bacteria were resuspended in autoclaved rumen fluid. The lysis of S. bovis and Butyrivibrio, at equal cell densities, by mixed rumen protozoa was compared in 30% rumen fluid media, and Butyrivibrio appeared to be more readily lysed than S. bovis. PMID:5659364

Jarvis, B. D. W.

1968-01-01

360

Viable cell sorting of dinoflagellates by multiparametric flow cytometry  

PubMed Central

Electronic cell sorting for isolation and culture of dinoflagellates and other marine eukaryotic phytoplankton was compared to the traditional method of manually picking cells using a micropipette. Trauma to electronically sorted cells was not a limiting factor, as fragile dinoflagellates, such as Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae), survived electronic cell sorting to yield viable cells. The rate of successful isolation of large-scale (> 4 litres) cultures was higher for manual picking than for electronic cell sorting (2% vs 0.5%, respectively). However, manual picking of cells is more labor intensive and time consuming. Most manually isolated cells required repicking, as the cultures were determined not to be unialgal after a single round of isolation; whereas, no cultures obtained in this study from electronic single-cell sorting required resorting. A broad flow cytometric gating logic was employed to enhance species diversity. The percentages of unique genotypes produced by manual picking or electronic cell sorting were similar (57% vs 54%, respectively), and each approach produced a variety of dinoflagellate or raphidophyte genera. Alternatively, a highly restrictive gating logic was successfully used to target K. brevis from a natural bloom sample. Direct electronic single-cell sorting was more successful than utilizing a pre-enrichment sort followed by electronic single-cell sorting. The appropriate recovery medium may enhance the rate of successful isolations. Seventy percent of isolated cells were recovered in a new medium (RE) reported here, which was optimized for axenic dinoflagellate cultures. The greatest limiting factor to the throughput of electronic cell sorting is the need for manual postsort culture maintenance and assessment of the large number of isolated cells. However, when combined with newly developed automated methods for growth screening, electronic single-cell sorting has the potential to accelerate the discovery of new algal strains. PMID:20305733

Sinigalliano, Christopher D.; Winshell, Jamie; Guerrero, Maria A.; Scorzetti, Gloria; Fell, Jack W.; Eaton, Richard W.; Brand, Larry; Rein, Kathleen S.

2009-01-01

361

15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial recovery plan. 971.203 Section...DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery plan. (a)...

2010-01-01

362

15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial recovery plan. 971.203 Section...DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery plan. (a)...

2014-01-01

363

15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial recovery plan. 971.203 Section...DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery plan. (a)...

2012-01-01

364

15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial recovery plan. 971.203 Section...DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery plan. (a)...

2013-01-01

365

15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial recovery plan. 971.203 Section...DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery plan. (a)...

2011-01-01

366

Microstructure of a Biocatalytic Latex Coating Containing Viable Escherichia coli Cells.  

PubMed

Cryogenic scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) was employed to visualize the microstructure of latex coatings in which viable Escherichia coli cells were entrapped for use as biocatalysts. Cryo-SEM examination of surfaces and fracture cross sections of dry and hydrated coatings cast with or without glycerol revealed two different porosities in the films: a macroporosity in which the bacterial cells reside and a microporosity made up of the interstitial voids between partially coalesced latex polymer particles. Polymer particle consolidation and coalescence in the cell-laden coatings were at an earlier stage than in cell-free latex coatings detailed in a companion paper. Coatings cast with glycerol showed a lesser degree of latex particle consolidation and coalescence than those cast without glycerol. However, the effect of glycerol was not as pronounced as in cell-free coatings. We conclude that part of the added glycerol is sequestered inside the bacterial cells and the portion remaining outside the cells retards the latex film formation process and enhances microporosity. Two commercial acrylic acid/vinyl acetate copolymer latexes were examined. Coatings made with the polydisperse latex showed less microporosity and a greater degree of particle welding than those made with the nearly monodisperse latex. Copyright 1999 Academic Press. PMID:10419659

Thiagarajan; Huang; Scriven; Schottel; Flickinger

1999-07-15

367

Introduction to applications and industries for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS).  

SciTech Connect

Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) have gained acceptance as viable products for many commercial and government applications. MEMS are currently being used as displays for digital projection systems, sensors for airbag deployment systems, inkjet print head systems, and optical routers. This paper will discuss current and future MEMS applications. What are MEMS? MEMS are typically defined as microscopic devices designed, processed, and used to interact or produce changes within a local environment. A mechanical, electrical, or chemical stimulus can be used to create a mechanical, electrical, or chemical response in a local environment. These smaller, more sophisticated devices that think, act, sense, and communicate are replacing their bulk counterparts in many traditional applications.

Walraven, Jeremy Allen

2003-07-01

368

Monitoring the prevalence of viable and dead cariogenic bacteria in oral specimens and in vitro biofilms by qPCR combined with propidium monoazide  

PubMed Central

Background Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are associated with the development of dental caries in humans. However, previous diagnostic systems are unsuitable for monitoring viable cell numbers in oral specimens. Assessing the relationship between the numbers of viable and dead bacterial cells and oral status is important for understanding oral infectious diseases. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been reported to penetrate dead cells following membrane damage and to cross-link DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA amplification. In the present study, we established an assay for selective analysis of two viable human cariogenic pathogens, S. mutans and S. sobrinus, using PMA combined with real-time PCR (PMA-qPCR). Results We designed species-specific primer sets for S. mutans and S. sobrinus, generated standard curves for measuring cell numbers, and evaluated the dynamic range of the assay. To determine the effectiveness of the assay, PMA was added to viable and autoclave-killed cell mixtures. PMA treatment effectively prevented DNA amplification from dead cells. No amplification of DNA from dead cells was observed in these organisms. In addition, we applied this assay to analyze viable cell numbers in oral specimens. A significant correlation was found between the number of viable S. mutans cells in saliva and that in plaque among caries-free patients, whereas no correlation was observed between saliva and carious dentin. The total and viable cell numbers in caries-positive saliva were significantly higher than those in caries-free saliva. Finally, we analyzed the usefulness of this assay for in vitro oral biofilm analysis. We applied PMA-qPCR for monitoring viable S. mutans cell numbers in vitro in planktonic cells and oral biofilm treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In planktonic cells, the number of viable cells decreased significantly with increasing H2O2 concentration, whereas only a small decrease was observed in biofilm cell numbers. Conclusions PMA-qPCR is potentially useful for quantifying viable cariogenic pathogens in oral specimens and is applicable to oral biofilm experiments. This assay will help to elucidate the relationship between the number of viable cells in oral specimens and the oral status. PMID:23848601

2013-01-01

369

75 FR 74719 - Auction of VHF Commercial Television Station Construction Permits Scheduled for February 15, 2011...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mutually exclusive applications proposing commercial stations will proceed to auction. In...exclusive with any application for a commercial station. Accordingly, if an FCC Form...during that window by an applicant for a commercial station, the former will be...

2010-12-01

370

Kaluza-Klein models: Can we construct a viable example?  

SciTech Connect

In Kaluza-Klein models with toroidal compactification of the extra dimensions, we investigate soliton solutions of Einstein equation. The nonrelativistic gravitational potential of these solitons exactly coincides with the Newtonian one. We obtain the formulas for perihelion shift, deflection of light, time delay of radar echoes and post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters. Using the constraint on PPN parameter {gamma}, we find that the solitonic parameter k should be very big: |k|{>=}2.3x10{sup 4}. We define a soliton solution which corresponds to a pointlike mass source. In this case the soliton parameter k=2, which is clearly contrary to this restriction. A similar problem with the observations takes place for static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with the dustlike equation of state in all dimensions. The common for both of these models is the same (dustlike) equations of state in our three dimensions and in the extra dimensions. All dimensions are treated at equal footing. This is the crucial point. To be in agreement with observations, it is necessary to break the symmetry (in terms of equations of state) between the external/our and internal spaces. It takes place for black strings which are particular examples of solitons with k{yields}{infinity}. For such k, black strings are in concordance with the observations. Moreover, we show that they are the only solitons which are at the same level of agreement with the observations as in general relativity. Black strings can be treated as perfect fluid with dustlike equation of state p{sub 0}=0 in the external/our space and very specific equation of state p{sub 1}=-(1/2){epsilon} in the internal space. The latter equation is due to negative tension in the extra dimension. We also demonstrate that dimension 3 for the external space is a special one. Only in this case we get the latter equation of state. We show that the black string equations of state satisfy the necessary condition of the internal space stabilization. Therefore, black strings are good candidates for a viable model of astrophysical objects (e.g., Sun) if we can provide a satisfactory explanation of negative tension for particles constituting these objects.

Eingorn, Maxim [Astronomical Observatory and Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa National University, Street Dvoryanskaya 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine); Zhuk, Alexander [Astronomical Observatory and Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa National University, Street Dvoryanskaya 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine); Faculdade de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-110, Belem, PA (Brazil)

2011-02-15

371

Commercial Application of Freeze Crystallization  

E-print Network

Comparison The curve for evaporation represenls the installed cost for a multiple effecl, steam driven system. Our cost estimates indicate Ihe total installed capital cost for a mechanical vapor recompression unit would be somewhat higher. We expect... will lower substantially in future generation designs, perhaps even approaching the cost of mechanical vapor recompression evaporation. POWER CONSUMPTION An adherent advantage of freeze crystallization is the low phase change energy required...

Gorgol, R. G.

372

Associate Program, Commercial Banking Commercial Banking  

E-print Network

Associate Program, Commercial Banking Commercial Banking Job Code 0203 � Level 6 CIBC is a leading and services to 11 million individual, small business, commercial, corporate and institutional clients Group of Companies please visit CIBC.com. Job Overview The Commercial Banking Associate Program provides

Northern British Columbia, University of

373

COMMERCIAL SPACE ACCOMPLISHMENTS Commercial Cargo Space Accomplishments  

E-print Network

11/13/2013 COMMERCIAL SPACE ACCOMPLISHMENTS Commercial Cargo Space Accomplishments The Obama Administration's ambitious commercial space program, which has bipartisan support in Congress, has enabled NASA NASA does business, helping build a strong American commercial space industry, and freeing the agency

Waliser, Duane E.

374

Commercialization of nanotechnology.  

PubMed

The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization. PMID:20049790

Hobson, David W

2009-01-01

375

Predictors of viable germ cell tumor in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify predictors of viable germ cell tumor (GCT) in postchemotherapeutic residual retroperitoneal masses. Materials and Methods: The pertinent clinical and pathologic data of 16 male patients who underwent postchemotherapeutic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (PC-RPLND) at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre between 1994 and 2005 were reviewed retrospectively. It was found that all patients received cisplatin-based chemotherapy for advanced testicular GCT. Results: Out of the 16 male patients, 2 (13%), 8 (50%), and 6 (37%) had viable GCT, fibrosis, and teratoma, respectively. Ten (10) of the patients with prechemotherapeutic S1 tumor markers did not have viable GCT, and two of the six patients who had prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers have viable GCT. All tumor marker levels normalized after chemotherapy even in patients with viable GCT. Four patients had vascular invasion without viable GCT. Furthermore, four patients had more than 60% embryonal elements in the original pathology, but only 1 had viable GCT at PC-RPLND. Four of the five patients with immature teratoma had teratoma at PC-RPLND but no viable GCT; however, out of the four patients with mature teratoma, one had viable GCT and two had teratoma at PC-RPLND. Of the two patients with viable GCT, one had 100% embryonal cancer in the original pathology, prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers, history of orchiopexy, and no vascular invasion; the other patient had yolk sac tumor with 25% embryonal elements and 40% teratoma in the original pathology, and prechemotherapeutic S2 tumor markers. Conclusion: None of the clinical or pathological parameters showed a strong correlation with the presence of viable GCT in PC-RPLND. However, patients with ?S2 may be at higher risk to have viable GCT. Further studies are needed to clarify this. PMID:24669118

Al Othman, Khalid; Al Hathal, Naif; Mokhtar, Alaa

2014-01-01

376

The 8 Steps of Technology Commercialization  

E-print Network

The 8 Steps of Technology Commercialization 1 Research Observations and experiments during research activities often lead to discoveries and inventions that may have commercial applicability.2 Disclosing assesses a dis- closed invention and develops a prelimi- nary commercialization strate- gy. Based

Lightsey, Glenn

377

Commercial buildings solar market assessment report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial sector provides an opportunity for substantial energy savings through programs designed to accelerate solar applications. This paper summarizes an extensive market report for developing a California government solar program in the commercial sector. The analysis includes an evaluation of the magnitude of end use energy consumption in commercial buildings, the potential of a variety of solar technologies to

S. Rashkin; M. De Angelis; E. Quiroz; D. Ware

1983-01-01

378

The Value of the EWIT Computer Program in Identifying Economically Viable Retrofit Options for Existing Commercial Buildings  

E-print Network

, Release 1.0, 66 pages. AREA. Inc., Albuquerque. New Mexico. 4. Mazria, Edward. "The Passive Solar Energy Book," Rodale Press, 1979, pp. 309-408. 5. Olgyay, Victor, "Design with Climate," Princeton University Press, 1973, chapters 7. 8. 10. 6. =,ive..., Release 1.0, 66 pages. AREA. Inc., Albuquerque. New Mexico. 4. Mazria, Edward. "The Passive Solar Energy Book," Rodale Press, 1979, pp. 309-408. 5. Olgyay, Victor, "Design with Climate," Princeton University Press, 1973, chapters 7. 8. 10. 6. =,ive...

Andrews, W. M.

1984-01-01

379

Challenges in Running a Commercial Web Search Engine  

E-print Network

traffic from SEs to a Viagra seller ­ Make $6 per sale · Siphon traffic from SEs to a porn site ­ Make $20% commercially viable · Much more if you include porn queries ­ Assume $0.50 made per click (from 5c to $40

Tomkins, Andrew

380

A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing so, a justifiable course of action (COA) can be determined based on a variety of quantitative and qualitative information available. This thesis describes and applies the ATLAS method to a notional military scenario that involves the Navy concept of Seabasing and the Marine Corps concept of Distributed Operations applied to a platoon sized element. The small force is tasked to conduct deterrence and combat operations over a seven day period. This work uses modeling and simulation to incorporate expert opinion and knowledge of military operations, dynamic reasoning methods, and certainty analysis to create a decisions support system (DSS) that can be used to provide the DM an enhanced view of the logistics environment and uses variables that impact specific measures of effectiveness. The results from applying the ATLAS method provide a better understanding and ability for the DM to conduct the logistics planning/execution more efficiently and quickly. This is accomplished by providing relevant data that can be applied to perform dynamic forecasting activities for the platoon and aids in determining the necessary support architecture to fulfill the forecasted need.

Hester, Jesse Stuart

381

Why is IPSec a viable option for Wireless Sensor Networks Jorge Granjal Ricardo Silva Edmundo Monteiro Jorge Sa Silva Fernando Boavida  

E-print Network

Why is IPSec a viable option for Wireless Sensor Networks Jorge Granjal Ricardo Silva Edmundo investigation on the feasibility of the application of IPSec on sensor nodes. IPSec is already part ofIPv6 IPSec in real sensor nodes. We analyze the security and performance tradeoffs involved lvhen employing

Monteiro, Edmundo

382

Why is IPSec a viable option for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many issues still remain to be addressed in order to achieve acceptable security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This necessity, together with the adoption of IPv6 on WSNs being defined at the 6lowpan working group of the IETF, motivates our investigation on the feasibility of the application of IPSec on sensor nodes. IPSec is already part of IPv6, which makes

Jorge Granjal; Ricardo Silva; Edmundo Monteiro; J. Sa Silva; F. Boavida

2008-01-01

383

Industrial viable process of making nanoparticles of various shapes and interior structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 10 years, we attempted to develop industrial viable processes which were of significance in manufacturing the nanoparticles in good quality and large volume. Our effort relied on the self-assembly concepts of block macromolecules in solutions to prepare particles with a hard core made of crosslinked plastics and a soft shell made of low Tg elastomer. Depending on the type and microstructure of the copolymers, the solvent concentration and other process parameters chosen, a variety of shell-core nano-particles of different shapes (spheres, hollow spheres, ellipsoids, cylinders, linear and branched strings, disks and etc.) and sizes (5-100 nm diameter) were reproducibly synthesized. Scale-up studies led to an optimization of the manufacturing process and the production of nanoparticles in large quantities for various product application efforts. The unique performance of those nanoparticles as performance tuning additives and novel rubber reinforcing elements was explored in rubber compounds. This review describes the synthesis methods used to produce the polymer nanoparticles, the technology to modify the particles through functionalization, the means to optimize their performance for specific applications, and the methods to use those particles in rubber compounds. Collaborators: Victor J. Foltz, Kurasch Jessica, Chenchy J. Lin, Jeff Magestrelli, Sandra Warren, Alberto Scuratti, James E. Hall, Jim Krom, Mindaugas Rackaitis, Michael W. Hayes, Pat Sadhukhan, Georg G. A. Bohm

Wang, Xiaorong

2008-03-01

384

Waste-heat steam generation is economically viable in ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Generation of electric power by turbine-driven generators serviced by waste heat boilers is not a blue sky dream. It is time-proven technology, employing time-proven equipment-equipment that is expected to run uninterrupted in fouryear cycles. This equipment and its control are made right here in the U.S. The equipment is very simple to operate and maintain. This article describes the applications of ceramics in this industry.

McMann, F.C.; Marshall, R.W.

1984-03-01

385

Comparative study of methods for DNA preparation from olive oil samples to identify cultivar SSR alleles in commercial oil samples: possible forensic applications.  

PubMed

Virgin olive oil is made from diverse cultivars either mixed or single. Those ensure different tastes and typicity, and these may be also enhanced by the region of production of cultivars. The different olive oil labels correspond to their chemical composition and acidity. Labels also may correspond to a protected origin indication, and thus, such oils contain a given composition in cultivars. To verify the main cultivars used at the source of an olive oil sample, our method is based on DNA technology. DNA is present in all olive oil samples and even in refined oil, but the quantity may depend on the oil processing technology and oil conservation conditions. Thus, several supports were used to retain DNA checking different techniques (silica extraction, hydroxyapatite, magnetic beads, and spun column) to prepare DNA from variable amounts of oil. At this stage, it was usable for amplification through PCR technology and especially with the magnetic beads, and further purification processes were checked. Finally, the final method used magnetic beads. DNA is released from beads in a buffer. Once purified, we showed that it did not contain compounds inhibiting PCR amplification using SSR primers. Aliquot dilution fractions of this solution were successfully routinely used through PCR with different SSR primer sets. This enables confident detection of eventual alien alleles in oil samples. First applied to virgin oil samples of known composition, either single cultivars or mixtures of them, the method was verified working on commercial virgin oil samples using bottles bought in supermarkets. Last, we defined a protocol starting from 2 x 40 mL virgin olive oil, and DNA was prepared routinely in about 5 h. It was convenient to genotype together several loci per sample to check whether alleles were in accordance with those of expected cultivars. Thus, forensic applications of our method are expected. However, the method needs further improvement to work on all oil samples. PMID:14759144

Breton, Catherine; Claux, Delphine; Metton, Isabelle; Skorski, Gilbert; Bervillé, André

2004-02-11

386

Dead or alive? Autofluorescence distinguishes heat-fixed from viable cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose A proof-of-concept study to evaluate a new autofluorescence method to differentiate necrotic thermally fixed cells from viable tissue following thermal ablation. Methods A conductive interstitial thermal therapy (CITT) device was used to ablate swine mammary tissue and rabbit VX-2 carcinomas in vivo. The ablated regions and 10-mm margins were resected 24 h following treatment, embedded in HistOmer® and sectioned at 3 mm. The fresh sections were evaluated for gross viability with triphenyl tetrazolium chloride, 1 h post-resection. Representative non-viable and viable areas were then processed and embedded into paraffin, and sectioned at 5 ?m. Standard H&E staining and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry were compared against autofluorescence intensity, at 488-nm wavelength, for cellular viability. Results Heat-fixed cells in non-viable regions exhibit increased autofluorescence intensity compared to viable tissue (area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve =0.96; Mann-Whitney P <0.0001). An autofluorescence intensity-based classification rule achieved 92% sensitivity with 100% specificity for distinguishing non-viable from viable samples. In contrast, PCNA staining did not reliably distinguish heat-fixed, dead cells from viable cells. Conclusions Examination of H&E-stained sections using autofluorescence intensity-based classification is a reliable and readily available method to accurately identify heat-fixed cells in ablated surgical margins. PMID:19533483

HENNINGS, LEAH; KAUFMANN, YIHONG; GRIFFIN, ROBERT; SIEGEL, ERIC; NOVAK, PETR; CORRY, PETER; MOROS, EDUARDO G.; SHAFIRSTEIN, GAL

2010-01-01

387

Enumeration of viable E. coli in rivers and wastewaters by fluorescent in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of direct viable count (DVC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) procedures was used to enumerate viable Escherichia coli in river waters and wastewaters. A probe specific for the 16S rRNA of E. coli labeled with the CY3 dye was used; enumeration of hybridized cells was performed by epifluorescence microscopy. Data showed that the method was able to

Tamara Garcia-Armisen; Pierre Servais

2004-01-01

388

Breaking Through the Bottleneck Transportation to Make Stewart a Viable New York Airport  

E-print Network

makes SWF a more viable air travel choice to passengers and airlines alike. Keywords - airportBreaking Through the Bottleneck Transportation to Make Stewart a Viable New York Airport Amar.edu Abstract­The city of New York is served by the largest and busiest airport complex in the world. The three

389

Cybernetics and Resilience Engineering: Can Cybernetics and the Viable System Model Advance Resilience Engineering?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cybernetics as the science of control in the animal and machine provides a para- digm for inquiry into organisational behaviour. Management cybernetics supplies comple- mentary perspectives on managing complexity and organisational performance. Using the Viable System Model (VSM) a qualitative diagnosis can be made of the communication structures in the viable organization. Viability is the ability to maintain the organisational

Arthur Dijkstra

390

Accelerating Commercial Remote Sensing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the Visiting Investigator Program (VIP) at Stennis Space Center, Community Coffee was able to use satellites to forecast coffee crops in Guatemala. Using satellite imagery, the company can produce detailed maps that separate coffee cropland from wild vegetation and show information on the health of specific crops. The data can control coffee prices and eventually may be used to optimize application of fertilizers, pesticides and irrigation. This would result in maximal crop yields, minimal pollution and lower production costs. VIP is a mechanism involving NASA funding designed to accelerate the growth of commercial remote sensing by promoting general awareness and basic training in the technology.

1995-01-01

391

Going Commercial  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

while the conditions are more rigorous today for the ISS than they were in the very early days of space travel, opportunities still abound, and we just need to overcome the hurdles. As Pogo put it, "By gosh, we seem to be surrounded by an insurmountable opportunity here." This really is a great time in human spaceflight. We re doing marvelous things up there from an engineering standpoint. We now have to put them to good use. We need to optimize the 30 percent of the ISS that our federal government and the international partners have available in terms of the Station s power, volume, and crew time. Despite the recent issues with cost and schedule, as Mr. Goldin has said, this Agency will find a way. This country and the partners will find a way to restore the ISS s capability. We need help from this government, from our Congress, from our partners to do that, but it will be done, and then this facility is going to be world class--nah, it will out-of-this- world class. I m pleased to be a part of not only the history of spaceflight and the history of industry s participation in spaceflight, but I m also pleased to be a part of the future, the future applications, the future benefits that our spaceflight program is going to bring to our economy, to our careers, and to those of us that are both taxpayers and participants as well, to the great joy of seeing success as part of this country, as a part of our intellect, applied to the great beyond.

Walker, Charles

2005-01-01

392

Hymenolepis nana: immunity against oncosphere challenge in mice previously given viable or non-viable oncospheres of H. nana, H. diminuta, H. microstoma and Taenia taeniaeformis.  

PubMed

When mice, previously given oral inoculation with viable oncospheres of the heterologous cestode species (Hymenolepis diminuta, H. microstoma, Taenia taeniaeformis) and the homologous one (H. nana), were challenged with oncospheres of H. nana 4 days after the primary inoculation, they showed strong and complete resistance to H. nana challenge, respectively. However, the resistance was not evoked in mice given either infective eggs of Toxocara canis or non-viable oncospheres of all cestode species examined. Congenitally athymic nude mice given viable oncospheres did not show any resistance to H. nana either. Eosinophil infiltration around cysticercoids of H. nana in the intestinal villi appeared to be more prominent in mice previously given viable oncospheres of H. diminuta than in mice given non-viable oncospheres or PBS only. Some of the eosinophils in the villus harboring cysticercoid(s) of H. nana invaded the epithelia in the former, whereas all eosinophils remained in the lamina propria in the latter. There was almost no eosinophil infiltration in nude mice. Microscopic observations revealed that oncospheres of H. diminuta, which require beetles as the intermediate host like H. microstoma, could invade the mouse intestinal tissue. Therefore, it is strongly suggested that the strong cross resistance to H. nana in mice, induced by oncospheres of all heterologous cestode species, is thymus-dependent and due to oncospheral invasion into the intestinal tissue of mice. PMID:1869358

Ito, A; Onitake, K; Sasaki, J; Takami, T

1991-04-01

393

Moving Ethiopian smallholder dairy along a sustainable commercialization path: missing links in the innovation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethiopian needs to achieve accelerated agricultural development along a sustainable commercialization path to alleviate poverty and ensure overall national development. In this regard, sustainable commercial of smallholder dairying provides a viable and growing opportunity; with deliberate, appropriate and sustained policy support. A recent empirical analysis concludes however, that Ethiopian smallholder dairy sub-sector has not been able to take-off despite decades

Tesfaye Lemma Tefera; Azage Tegegne; Ranjitha Puskur; Dirk Hoekstra

394

The Seasat commercial demonstration program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The background and development of the Seasat commercial demonstration program are reviewed and the Seasat spacecraft and its sensors (altimeter, wind field scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar, and scanning multichannel microwave radiometer) are described. The satellite data distribution system allows for selected sets of data, reformatted or tailored to specific needs and geographical regions, to be available to commercial users. Products include sea level and upper atmospheric pressure, sea surface temperature, marine winds, significant wave heights, primary wave direction and period, and spectral wave data. The results of a set of retrospective case studies performed for the commercial demonstration program are described. These are in areas of application such as marine weather and ocean condition forecasting, offshore resource exploration and development, commercial fishing, and marine transportation.

Mccandless, S. W.; Miller, B. P.; Montgomery, D. R.

1981-01-01

395

Long-term storage of aerobic granules in liquid media: viable but non-culturable status.  

PubMed

Long-term storage and successful reactivation after storage are essential for practical applications of aerobic granules on wastewater treatment. This study cultivated aerobic granules (SI) in sequencing batch reactors and then stored the granules at 4 °C in five liquid media (DI water (SW), acetone (SA), acetone/isoamyl acetate mix (SAA), saline water (SS), and formaldehyde (SF)) for over 1 year. The first four granules were then successfully reactivated in 24h cultivation. The specific oxygen uptake rates (SOUR) of the granules followed SI>SS>SA>SAA>SW>SF; and the corresponding granular strengths (10 min ultrasound) followed SI>SA=SS>SAA>SW>SF. During storage the granular cells secreted excess quantities of cyclic-diguanylate (c-di-GMP) and pentaphosphate (ppGpp) as responses to the stringent challenges. We proposed that to force cells in granules (Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Sphingobacteria, and Clostridia) entering viable but non-culturable (VBNC) status is the key of success for extended period storage of granules. PMID:24950091

Wan, Chunli; Zhang, Qinlan; Lee, Duu-Jong; Wang, Yayi; Li, Jieni

2014-08-01

396

Selective Quantification of Viable Escherichia coli Bacteria in Biosolids by Quantitative PCR with Propidium Monoazide Modification ?  

PubMed Central

Quantitative differentiation of live cells in biosolids samples, without the use of culturing-based approaches, is highly critical from a public health risk perspective, as recent studies have shown significant regrowth and reactivation of indicator organisms. Persistence of DNA in the environment after cell death in the range of days to weeks limits the application of DNA-based approaches as a measure of live cell density. Using selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) is one of the alternative approaches to detecting and quantifying viable cells by quantitative PCR. These compounds have the ability to penetrate only into dead cells with compromised membrane integrity and intercalate with DNA via their photoinducible azide groups and in turn inhibit DNA amplification during PCRs. PMA has been successfully used in different studies and microorganisms, but it has not been evaluated sufficiently for complex environmental samples such as biosolids. In this study, experiments were performed with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the model organism and the uidA gene as the target sequence using real-time PCR via the absolute quantification method. Experiments with the known quantities of live and dead cell mixtures showed that PMA treatment inhibits PCR amplification from dead cells with over 99% efficiency. The results also indicated that PMA-modified quantitative PCR could be successfully applied to biosolids when the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration is at or below 2,000 mg·liter?1. PMID:21602375

Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Duran, Metin

2011-01-01

397

Telestroke a viable option to improve stroke care in India.  

PubMed

In India, stroke care services are not well developed. There is a need to explore alternative options to tackle the rising burden of stroke. Telemedicine has been used by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to meet the needs of remote hospitals in India. The telemedicine network implemented by ISRO in 2001 presently stretches to around 100 hospitals all over the country, with 78 remote/rural/district health centers connected to 22 specialty hospitals in major cities, thus providing treatment to more than 25?000 patients, which includes stroke patients. Telemedicine is currently used in India for diagnosing stroke patients, subtyping stroke as ischemic or hemorrhagic, and treating accordingly. However, a dedicated telestroke system for providing acute stroke care is needed. Keeping in mind India's flourishing technology sector and leading communication networks, the hub-and-spoke model could work out really well in the upcoming years. Until then, simpler alternatives like smartphones, online data transfer, and new mobile applications like WhatsApp could be used. Telestroke facilities could increase the pool of patients eligible for thrombolysis. But this primary aim of telestroke can be achieved in India only if thrombolysis and imaging techniques are made available at all levels of health care. PMID:25042038

Srivastava, Padma V; Sudhan, Paulin; Khurana, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Rohit; Kaul, Subash; Sylaja, P N; Moonis, Majaz; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai

2014-10-01

398

All-printed smart structures: a viable option?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last two decades have seen evolution of smart materials and structures technologies from theoretical concepts to physical realization in many engineering fields. These include smart sensors and actuators, active damping and vibration control, biomimetics, and structural health monitoring. Recently, additive manufacturing technologies such as 3D printing and printed electronics have received attention as methods to produce 3D objects or electronic components for prototyping or distributed manufacturing purposes. In this paper, the viability of manufacturing all-printed smart structures, with embedded sensors and actuators, will be investigated. To this end, the current 3D printing and printed electronics technologies will be reviewed first. Then, the plausibility of combining these two different additive manufacturing technologies to create all-printed smart structures will be discussed. Potential applications for this type of all-printed smart structures include most of the traditional smart structures where sensors and actuators are embedded or bonded to the structures to measure structural response and cause desired static and dynamic changes in the structure.

O'Donnell, John; Ahmadkhanlou, Farzad; Yoon, Hwan-Sik; Washington, Gregory

2014-03-01

399

Vaccination with hatched but non-activated, non-viable oncospheres of Taenia taeniaeformis in rats.  

PubMed

The usefulness of hatched but non-activated oncospheres as a candidate vaccine was evaluated using a Taenia taeniaeformis/rat system, since preparation of these oncospheres in vitro is known to be very simple. The findings were: (1) rats vaccinated with non-viable oncospheres became completely resistant to challenge infection; (2) intra-venous injection was the most effective to induce complete resistance; (3) a single oncosphere was sufficient to induce complete resistance in infected rats, whereas approximately 50 and 500 non-viable oncospheres were required to evoke strong and complete resistance, respectively, in vaccinated rats. The usefulness of non-viable oncospheres without adjuvant is discussed. PMID:8354864

Ito, A; Hashimoto, A

1993-06-01

400

Signaling Through Rho GTPase Pathway as Viable Drug Target  

PubMed Central

Signaling through the Rho family of small GTPases has been increasingly investigated for their involvement in a wide variety of diseases such as cardiovascular, pulmonary, and neurological disorders as well as cancer. Rho GTPases are a subfamily of the Ras superfamily proteins which play essential roles in a number of biological processes, especially in the regulation of cell shape change, cytokinesis, cell adhesion, and cell migration. Many of these processes demonstrate a common theme: the rapid and dynamic reorganization of actin cytoskeleton of which Rho signaling has now emerged as a major switch control. The involvement of dynamic changes of Rho GTPases in disease states underscores the need to produce effective inhibitors for their therapeutic applications. Fasudil and Y-27632, with many newer additions, are two classes of widely used chemical compounds that inhibit Rho kinase (ROCK), an important downstream effector of RhoA subfamily GTPases. These inhibitors have been successful in many preclinical studies, indicating the potential benefit of clinical Rho pathway inhibition. On the other hand, except for Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766, there are few effective inhibitors directly targeting Rho GTPases, likely due to the lack of optimal structural information on individual Rho-RhoGEF, Rho-RhoGAP, or Rho-RhoGDI interaction to achieve specificity. Recently, LM11A-31 and other derivatives of peptide mimetic ligands for p75 neutrotrophoin receptor (p75NTR) show promising effects upstream of Rho GTPase signaling in neuronal regeneration. CCG-1423, a chemical compound showing profiles of inhibiting downstream of RhoA, is a further attempt for the development of novel pharmacological tools to disrupt Rho signaling pathway in cancer. Because of a rapidly growing number of studies deciphering the role of the Rho proteins in many diseases, specific and potent pharmaceutical modulators of various steps of Rho GTPase signaling pathway are critically needed to target for therapeutic intervention in cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and cancer progression. PMID:19355891

Lu, Qun; Longo, Frank M.; Zhou, Huchen; Massa, Stephen M.; Chen, Yan-Hua

2013-01-01

401

Economic benefits of commercial space activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space is not only an endless frontier for exploration, but also a potentially rich arena for profitable commerce to benefit all mankind. Access to the unique environment of space provides opportunities for unprecedented kinds of research to develop new products and services. This research can lead to commercially viable enterprises, which will become permanent businesses, which will provide good jobs for workers, pay taxes to their governments, and return dividends to their investors. Seeking superior products and processes is vital if the economy is to grow and prosper. This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the economy of selected private sector space activities.

Stone, Barbara A.

402

Commercial researcher perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Protein crystallography--a research tool used to study the structure of the complex building blocks of living systems--has a lot to gain from space-based research. In order to know how a protein works in the human body, researchers must understand its molecular structure. Researchers have identified 150,000 different proteins in the body, but they now know the structure of less than a third of them. The only viable technique for analyzing the structure of these proteins is x-ray diffraction of the proteins in their crystal form. The better the quality of a protein crystal, the more useful it is to researchers who are trying to delineate its structure. The microgravity environment of space allows protein crystals to grow nearly undisturbed by convection and other gravity-driven forces that cause flaws to form in them on the ground. In space, lack of convection enables protein crystals to grow more slowly than they do on Earth, and the slower a protein crystal grows, the fewer flaws it will have. Protein crystal growth experiments have already flown on 14 Space Shuttle missions. This year's USML-1 Spacelab mission included protein crystal growth experiments conducted for commercial researchers. The results of protein crystal experiments flown thus far have been larger crystals with more uniform morphologies. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (A NASA-cosponsored CCDS) currently builds flight hardware to meet researchers' needs and handles sample loading and retrieval for flight experiments. Protein crystallography enables 'rational drug design': the development of drugs that bind only with the target protein and, hence, do not cause side effects. For example, pharmaceutical companies presently are interested in developing drugs that can inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a protein that plays a role in auto-immune diseases. To continue these kinds of investigations, researchers need a constant supply of protein crystals that are as free of flaws as possible. Space Station Freedom will provide the kind of research environment that will enable the production of such supplies. In addition, Freedom will provide the kind of long-duration facility required by protein crystal researchers: 40 percent of proteins require more than two weeks to crystallize.

Delucas, Larry

1992-01-01

403

Commercial researcher perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein crystallography--a research tool used to study the structure of the complex building blocks of living systems--has a lot to gain from space-based research. In order to know how a protein works in the human body, researchers must understand its molecular structure. Researchers have identified 150,000 different proteins in the body, but they now know the structure of less than a third of them. The only viable technique for analyzing the structure of these proteins is x-ray diffraction of the proteins in their crystal form. The better the quality of a protein crystal, the more useful it is to researchers who are trying to delineate its structure. The microgravity environment of space allows protein crystals to grow nearly undisturbed by convection and other gravity-driven forces that cause flaws to form in them on the ground. In space, lack of convection enables protein crystals to grow more slowly than they do on Earth, and the slower a protein crystal grows, the fewer flaws it will have. Protein crystal growth experiments have already flown on 14 Space Shuttle missions. This year's USML-1 Spacelab mission included protein crystal growth experiments conducted for commercial researchers. The results of protein crystal experiments flown thus far have been larger crystals with more uniform morphologies. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (A NASA-cosponsored CCDS) currently builds flight hardware to meet researchers' needs and handles sample loading and retrieval for flight experiments. Protein crystallography enables 'rational drug design': the development of drugs that bind only with the target protein and, hence, do not cause side effects. For example, pharmaceutical companies presently are interested in developing drugs that can inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a protein that plays a role in auto-immune diseases. To continue these kinds of investigations, researchers need a constant supply of protein crystals that are as free of flaws as possible. Space Station Freedom will provide the kind of research environment that will enable the production of such supplies. In addition, Freedom will provide the kind of long-duration facility required by protein crystal researchers: 40 percent of proteins require more than two weeks to crystallize.

Delucas, Larry

404

Free space optics: a viable last-mile alternative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores Free Space Optics (FSO) as an access technology in the last mile of metropolitan area networks (MANs). These networks are based in part on fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, including network architectures of Synchronous Optical Network (commonly referred to as SONET), the North American standard for synchronous data transmission; and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (commonly referred to as SDH), the international standard and equivalent of SONET. Several converging forces have moved FSO beyond a niche technology for use only in local area networks (LANs) as a bridge connecting two facilities. FSO now allows service providers to cost effectively provide optical bandwidth for access networks and accelerate the extension of metro optical networks bridging what has been termed by industry experts as the optical dead zone. The optical dead zone refers to both the slowdown in capital investment in the short-term future and the actual connectivity gap that exists today between core metro optical networks and the access optical networks. Service providers have built extensive core and minimal metro networks but have not yet provided optical bandwidth to the access market largely due to the non-compelling economics to bridge the dead zone with fiber. Historically, such infrastructure build-out slowdowns have been blamed on a combination of economics, time-to-market constraints and limited technology options. However, new technology developments and market acceptance of FSO give service providers a new cost-effective alternative to provide high-bandwidth services with optical bandwidth in the access networks. Merrill Lynch predicts FSO will grow into a $2 billion market by 2005. The drivers for this market are a mere 5%- 6% penetration of fiber to business buildings; cost effective solution versus RF or fiber; and significant capacity which can only be matched by a physical fiber link, Merrill Lynch reports. This paper will describe FSO technology, its capabilities and its limitations. The paper will investigate how FSO technology has evolved to its current stage for deployment in MANs, LANs, wireless backhaul and metropolitan network extensions - applications that fall within the category of last mile. The paper will address the market, drivers and the adoption of FSO, plus provide a projection of future FSO technology, based on today's product roadmaps. The paper concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations.

Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.

2001-10-01

405

Commercial Security on the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses commercial security on the Internet and explains public key technology as successfully melding the conflicting requirements of openness for practical business applications and isolation and confidentiality for protection of data. Examples of public key value-added products are described, including encryption, digital signature and…

Liddy, Carrie

1996-01-01

406

Harvesting strategies for conserving minimum viable populations based on World Conservation  

E-print Network

that is too high. Keywords: threshold harvesting; minimum viable population size; stochasticity; Ursus arctos is the Scandinavian brown bear (Ursus arctos) population, which was persecuted for several centuries mainly due to its

Tufto, Jarle

407

Solar System Constraints on a Cosmologically Viable $f(R)$ Theory  

E-print Network

Recently, a model $f(R)$ theory is proposed \\cite{recent} which is cosmologically viable and distinguishable from $\\Lambda$CDM. We use chameleon mechanism to investigate viability of the model in terms of Solar System experiments.

Yousef Bisabr

2009-07-22

408

Quorum-regulated biofilms enhance the development of conditionally viable, environmental Vibrio cholerae  

E-print Network

Quorum-regulated biofilms enhance the development of conditionally viable, environmental Vibrio that this process involves biofilm formation that is dependent on quorum sens- ing, a regulatory response and biofilm formation displayed altered CVEC formation in environmental waterfollowingintestinalinfections

Mekalanos, John

409

Immunological resistance to L1210 leukemia induced by viable L1210\\/DTIC cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent, drug-induced antigenic alterations, not detectable in parental cells and transmissible after the withdrawal of treatment with the drug, have been obtained in mouse lymphoma. Viable L1210\\/DTIC cells, because they are rejected by syngeneic animals and carry L1210-associated TAA, can elicit host resistance to a subsequent inoculum of parental L1210. Mice challenged with viable L1210\\/DTIC cells, following rejection, were more

A. Nicolin; F. Veronese; O. Marelli; A. Goldin

1980-01-01

410

Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory  

E-print Network

Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory Galveston, Texas Penaeid Shrimp Life Cvcle ^.y Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Circular 307 #12;The Bureau of Commercial Fisheries Biological Laboratory at commercially important species of shrimp in the Gulf of Mexico through four research programs: (1) Shrimp

411

APPLICATIONS OF LASERS AND OTHER TOPICS IN QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Laser system based on a commercial microwave oscillator with time compression of a microwave pump pulse  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is made of the possibility of using a commercial microsecond microwave oscillator, supplemented by a device for time compression of microwave pulses, in pumping of industrial lasers with a high efficiency of conversion of the pump source energy into laser radiation. The results are reported of preliminary experiments on the commissioning of an excimer XeCl laser.

Arteev, M. S.; Vaulin, V. A.; Slinko, V. N.; Chumerin, P. Yu; Yushkov, Yu G.

1992-06-01

412

Characterisation and migration properties of silicone materials during typical long-term commercial and household use applications: a combined case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In consequent continuation of previous described studies, pre-characterised silicone materials were assessed for chemical and physical parameters during long-term usage. In a particular case study silicone moulds were used in a commercial pizza bakery on a daily basis up to 1700 times. Migration behaviour, uptake of fat, the amount of volatiles and extractables, as well as physical properties (elongation, tensile

R. Helling; P. Seifried; D. Fritzsche; T. J. Simat

2012-01-01

413

Commercial Zone Melting Ingots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bismuth telluride-based compounds have been extensively utilized for commercial application. However, thermoelectric materials must suffer numerous mechanical vibrations and thermal stresses while in service, making it equally important to discuss the mechanical properties, especially at high temperature. In this study, the compressive and bending strengths of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 commercial zone melting (ZM) ingots were investigated at 25, 100, and 200 °C, respectively. Due to the obvious anisotropy of materials prepared by ZM method, the effect of anisotropy on the strengths was also explored. Two-parameter Weibull distribution was employed to fit a series of values acquired by a universal testing machine. And digital speckle photography was applied to record the strain field evolution, providing visual observation of surface strain. The compressive and bending strengths along ZM direction were approximately three times as large as those perpendicular to the ZM direction independent of the temperature, indicating a weak van der Waals bond along the c axis.

Zheng, Yun; Xie, Hongyao; Shu, Shengcheng; Yan, Yonggao; Li, Han; Tang, Xinfeng

2014-06-01

414

Delayed uptake and washout of contrast in non-viable infarcted myocardium shown with dynamic computed tomography  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of ischemic but potentially viable myocardium plays an important role in the planning of coronary revascularization. Until now SPECT, PET, and MRI have been used to identify viable myocardium. Computed tomography (CT) is increasingly used to diagnose coronary atherosclerosis. Objective To evaluate the feasibility of CT enhancement as a viability marker by investigating myocardial contrast distribution over time in pigs with experimentally induced antero-septal myocardial infarctions. Methods Twelve pigs were subjected to 60 min of balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending artery, followed by removal of the balloon and reperfusion. Four pigs died due to refractory ventricular fibrillation. After 6 weeks, dynamic cardiac CT was performed assessing both wall motion and contrast attenuation. Measurements of attenuation values in Hounsfield units (HU) in the infarct zone and the normal lateral wall were performed at 20 s, and 1, 3, 5, 8 and 12 min after contrast injection. Results We found highly significant differences in attenuation values between the two zones at all-time points except t =1 min (ANOVA P=0.85). The normal myocardium showed higher uptake- and washout-rates of contrast than the infarct zone (84±15 vs. 58±8 at 20 s, P=0.0001 and 27±12 vs. 81±13 at 12 min, P=0.0001). Specifically, the ratio between early (20 s) and late (12 min) uptake is a valid marker of viable myocardium. In all animals this ration was above one in the normal zone and below one in the infarct zone. Conclusions Delayed infarct related uptake and washout of contrast shows promise for future clinical application of CT in a combined assessment of coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial viability.

Laugesen, Sofie; Agger, Peter; Hønge, Jesper; Smerup, Morten; Udholm, Nichlas; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Bøttcher, Morten

2014-01-01

415

40 CFR 180.1076 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from...180.1076 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from...following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of...

2013-07-01

416

40 CFR 180.1076 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from...180.1076 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from...following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of...

2012-07-01

417

40 CFR 180.1076 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from...180.1076 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from...following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of...

2010-07-01

418

Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

2000-01-01

419

Successful commercialization of nanophotonic technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploitation of nanotechnology from proof of principle to realizable commercial applications encounters considerable challenges in regards to high volume, large scale, low cost manufacturability and social ethics. This has led to concerns over converting powerful intellectual property into realizable, industry attractive technologies. At The Technology Partnership we specifically address the issue of successful integration of nanophotonics into industry in markets such as biomedical, ophthalmic, energy, telecommunications, and packaging. In this paper we draw on a few examples where we have either developed industrial scale nanophotonic technology or engineering platforms which may be used to fortify nano/microphotonic technologies and enhance their commercial viability.

Jaiswal, Supriya L.; Clarke, Roger B. M.; Hyde, Sam C. W.

2006-08-01

420

APPLICATION OF THE CROSS BATTERY APPROACH IN THE ASSESSMENT OF AMERICAN INDIAN CHILDREN: A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines current psychometric and testing practices that appear to do a limited job of assessing the intelligence of American Indian individuals. For several reasons, contemporary approaches are found to be inadequate. Unfortunately, these practices are then employed in making educational decisions and placing these same children into Special Education programs. Alternative methods of testing, including the Gf-Gc Cross-

Gary A. Plank

421

Commercial combustion research: ISS hardware and commercial products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary ISS hardware to be used for commercial combustion research, and the first commercial hardware to be sent to ISS, is SpaceDRUMS™. The centerpiece of the display is a full-scale mockup of the SpaceDRUMS™ facility, which is scheduled to be launched to ISS aboard UF-1 in January, 2001. This facility was developed by CCACS industrial member Guigné International Ltd. (GIL), in partnership with SpaceHab™. It is capable of high-precision positioning, manipulation and shaping of both solid and liquid samples. The positioning system operates by application of pulsed acoustic restoring forces. This display features some of the commercial combustion hardware planned for the International Space Station, as well as one of the early commercial products to come out of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines. Backing up the display is a board showing all of the combustion research within CCACS. Each of the projects is described, along with the hardware planned for the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. The industrial partners in CCACS are listed, along with the project interests of each. Finally, summaries of the investments made to date by all the parties are shown. The display also contains a new commercial product, a de-modulating digital camera, which was developed in the course of the combustion research within CCACS and in conjunction with member Princeton Instruments (now a division of Roper Scientific). The camera operates through lock-in detection and amplification applied to the signals associated with each pixel in the field of view. By employing a modulation/de-modulation technique, weak images can be extracted from the strong backgrounds that characterize combustion experiments. Particular portions of flames and solid matter within flames can be observed using this camera. .

Schowengerdt, F. D.

2000-01-01

422

Application technology progress report: Evaluation of PM10 commercial inlets and development of an inlet for new Rocky Flats Plant surveillance air sampler, January 1986December 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work during 1986 was concerned with developing a new PM-10 inlet for use at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), Golden, Colorado. The commercial units that we evaluated did not allow for recovery of the >10-..mu..m dust fraction as may be required by EPA and DOE for nuclear installations. One of them, the Wedding PM-10 Inlet, did not meet the PM-10 cut-point

G. Langer; C. A. Deitesfeld

1987-01-01

423

Comparative investigation between acetylcholinesterase obtained from commercial sources and genetically modified Drosophila melanogaster: application in amperometric biosensors for methamidophos pesticide detection.  

PubMed

Genetically modified acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from Drosophila melanogaster (dm) and from commercial sources, Electric eel (ee), Bovine erythrocites (be) and Human erythrocites (he), were investigated as biological receptors for the detection of methamidophos pesticide based on inhibition studies. Most engineered variant of AChE from dm showed enhanced sensitivity toward methamidophos pesticide. Among 24 dmAChE variants tested, 12 presented a sensitivity comparable to the commercially available eeAChE, but higher than AChEs from be and he. Four were found more sensitive and six others were insensitive to methamidophos insecticide. The D375G,Y370F,Y374A,F376L mutant was the most sensitive, with a ki value of 2.2 X 10(6) mol(-1) L min(-1), three orders of magnitude higher than eeAChE (1.1 X 10(3) mol(-1) L min(-1)). The sensor constructed with genetically modified enzyme showed better characteristics with respect to detection limit and sensitivity compared with those using commercial eeAChE. Differential pulse polarography and chronoamperometry were used as electrochemical techniques to characterize the AChE biosensors. The lower detection limit of 1 ppb was obtained with D375G,Y370F,Y374A,F376L mutant of dmAChE, compared to 90 ppb for the commercial eeAChE. This study may stimulate scientists to develop more sensitive and selective procedures for organophosphorus insecticides detection by using engineered variant of dmAChE. PMID:15522598

de Oliveira Marques, Paulo Roberto Brasil; Nunes, Gilvanda Silva; dos Santos, Teresa Cristina Rodrigues; Andreescu, Silvana; Marty, Jean-Louis

2004-11-01

424

Commercial Magneto-Rheological Fluid Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid devices have reached the stage where they are in commercial production. Such devices are finding application in a variety of real world situations ranging from active vibration control to aerobic exercise equipment. Examples of several, commercial MR fluid devices are described and the comparative ability of MR and ER fluids to meet the needs of practical

D. M. Catanzarite; K. A. St. Clair

1996-01-01

425

Re-engineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along with the Red and Blue Teams commissioned by the NASA Administrator in 1992, NASA's Associate Administrator for Space Communications commissioned a Blue Team to review the Office of Space Communications (Code O) Core Program and determine how the program could be conducted faster, better, and cheaper. Since there was no corresponding Red Team for the Code O Blue Team, the Blue Team assumed a Red Team independent attitude and challenged the status quo, including current work processes, functional distinctions, interfaces, and information flow, as well as traditional management and system development practices. The Blue Team's unconstrained, non-parochial, and imaginative look at NASA's space communications program produced a simplified representation of the space communications infrastructure that transcends organizational and functional boundaries, in addition to existing systems and facilities. Further, the Blue Team adapted the 'faster, better, cheaper' charter to be relevant to the multi-mission, continuous nature of the space communications program and to serve as a gauge for improving customer services concurrent with achieving more efficient operations and infrastructure life cycle economies. This simplified representation, together with the adapted metrics, offers a future view and process model for reengineering NASA's space communications to remain viable in a constrained fiscal environment. Code O remains firm in its commitment to improve productivity, effectiveness, and efficiency. In October 1992, the Associate Administrator reconstituted the Blue Team as the Code O Success Team (COST) to serve as a catalyst for change. In this paper, the COST presents the chronicle and significance of the simplified representation and adapted metrics, and their application during the FY 1993-1994 activities.

Hornstein, Rhoda Shaller; Hei, Donald J., Jr.; Kelly, Angelita C.; Lightfoot, Patricia C.; Bell, Holland T.; Cureton-Snead, Izeller E.; Hurd, William J.; Scales, Charles H.

1994-11-01

426

Successful Cloning of the Yucatan Minipig Using Commercial/Occidental Breeds as Oocyte Donors and Embryo Recipients  

PubMed Central

Abstract The widespread application of porcine SCNT to biomedical research is being hampered by the large adult size (300–600 lbs) of the commercial breeds commonly used for SCNT. The Yucatan minipig, in contrast, has an adult weight of 140–150 lbs and a long history of utility in biomedical research. In order to combine the wide availability of commercial swine with the biomedical value of the Yucatan minipig, we utilized SCNT using the Yucatan as nuclear donors and commercial swine as both oocyte donors and recipients. Of six recipient gilts receiving 631 SCNT embryos, three went to term and delivered seven piglets, four of which survived to adulthood. Additionally, we obtained fetal fibroblasts from a cloned Yucatan and used them for a second round of SCNT. Of three recipients receiving 315 reconstructed embryos, one went to term and delivered three piglets, one of which survived to adulthood. Both microsatellite and D-loop sequence analysis confirmed that all of the piglets generated were nuclear-mitochondrial hybrids carrying Yucatan nuclear DNA and commercial breed mitochondrial DNA. This report shows that it is possible to produce viable Yucatan SCNT clones and opens up the possibility of developing valuable biomedical models in this porcine breed. PMID:18373474

Estrada, Jose L.; Collins, Bruce; York, Abby; Bischoff, Steve; Sommer, Jeff; Tsai, Shengdar; Petters, Robert M.

2008-01-01

427

Commercial users panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discussions of motives and requirements for telerobotics application demonstrated that, in many cases, lack of progress was a result not of limited opportunities but of inadequate mechanisms and resources for promoting opportunities. Support for this conclusion came from Telerobotics, Inc., one of the few companies devoted primarily to telerobot systems. They have produced units for such diverse applications as nuclear fusion research, particle accelerators, cryogenics, firefighting, marine biology/undersea systems and nuclear mobile robotics. Mr. Flatau offered evidence that telerobotics research is only rarely supported by the private sector and that it often presents a difficult market. Questions on the mechanisms contained within the NASA technology transfer process for promoting commercial opportunities were fielded by Ray Gilbert and Tom Walters. A few points deserve emphasis: (1) NASA/industry technology transfer occurs in both directions and NASA recognizes the opportunity to learn a great deal from industry in the fields of automation and robotics; (2) promotion of technology transfer projects takes a demand side approach, with requests to industry for specific problem identification. NASA then proposes possible solutions; and (3) comittment ofmotivated and technically qualified people on each end of a technology transfer is essential.

Byrd, Joseph S.; Flatau, Carl; Hodge, David C.; Hollis, Ralph; Leach, Eugene F.; Gilbert, Ray; Cleland, John; Leifer, Larry; Naser, Joseph; Schmuter, Samson D.

1987-01-01

428

THE IDEA IS TO USEMODIS IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE CURRENT LIMITED LANDSAT CAPABILITY, COMMERCIAL SATELLITES, ANDUNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV), IN A MULTI-STAGE APPROACH TO MEET EPA INFORMATION NEEDS.REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW: EPA CAPABILITIES, PRIORITY AGENCY APPLICATIONS, SENSOR/AIRCRAFT CAPABILITIES, COST CONSIDERATIONS, SPECTRAL AND SPATIAL RESOLUTIONS, AND TEMPORAL CONSIDERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA remote sensing capabilities include applied research for priority applications and technology support for operational assistance to clients across the Agency. The idea is to use MODIS in conjunction with the current limited Landsat capability, commercial satellites, and Unma...

429

Commercialization and Startup Primer  

E-print Network

Technology Commercialization and Startup Primer Office of Technology Licensing (OTL) and UF Tech Connect® Where Science Meets Business #12;Table of Contents page Overview 1 Technology Commercialization and assistance to faculty, staff, and entrepreneurs who may be interested in commercializing University

Jawitz, James W.

430

Pennsylvania Commercial Vegetable  

E-print Network

Pennsylvania Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations #12;NOT TO BE USED BY HOME GARDENERS This copy of the Pennsylvania Commercial Vegetable Production Recommendations for 2014 replaces all previous production guide is intended for the commercial vegetable grower who has to make numerous managerial

Guiltinan, Mark

431

Nanotechnology Commercialization in Oregon  

E-print Network

Nanotechnology Commercialization in Oregon February 27, 2012 Portland State University Physics Seminar Robert D. "Skip" Rung President and Executive Director #12;2 Nanotechnology Commercialization the transfer of new technologies into products for commercial and public benefit; To develop and sustain

Moeck, Peter

432

PHOTOVOLTAICS AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS--  

E-print Network

PHOTOVOLTAICS AND COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS-- A NATURAL MATCH A study highlighting strategic? Business owners and commercial users are uniquely positioned to capitalize on other important factors: · PV's electrical output matches well with patterns of energy use in commercial buildings, promoting effective

Perez, Richard R.

433

The effect of different characteristics of the diluent on the viable count of certain psychrophilic bacteria  

E-print Network

OF CUI TURE P 10 1. The effect of length of contact ( ~ 15, ~ 30, a 60 min) between culture P-10 and various diluents (SMB Standard Methods buffer, DW Distilled water, PII Peptone water) on the viable count at 32oC. 18 100 25 C SKIM'MILK 7 C z 0... OF CULTURE F-11 FIGIIILE 2. The effect of length of contact ( ~ 15, ~ 30, a60 min) between culture F-11 and various diluents (SMB Standard Methods buffer, DW Distilled water, PW Peptone water) on the viable count at 3loC. 19 Z 0 O ILI m ct IJI Eh...

Patel, Sudhir Desaibhai

2012-06-07

434

A simple way to identify non-viable cells within living plant tissue using confocal microscopy  

E-print Network

not stained. Non-viable cells are stained selectively The root cap, consisting of columella and lateral root cap, gation zone of the root (Figure 2) [6]. Cells at the end of the lateral root cap die, thus exposing the root epidermis [6]. The enhancer-trap line... Figure 2 SYTOX orange staining of non-viable lateral root cap cells. (A) to (D) Enhancer-trap line Q0171 expressing GFP (green) in the columella (c) and lateral root cap (lrc). (A), (C) Overlay projection image of Q0171 stained with propidium iodide...

Truernit, Elisabeth; Haseloff, Jim

2008-06-23

435

Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae.  

PubMed

Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR), Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN), Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR), and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR). The colour removal was evaluated by considering dye concentration, reaction time, absence or presence of the mediator ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and the source of laccase. The presence of ABTS was essential for decolourisation of DMR (80-90%, 1?h) and RBBR (80-90%, 24?h) with both laccases. The use of ABTS was not necessary in reactions containing DMBLR (85-97%, 1?h) and DMBBLN (63-84%, 24?h). The decolourisation of DMBBLN by commercial laccase showed levels near 60% while the crude extract presented 80% in 24?h. PMID:21052547

Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina S; Pereira, Patrícia Maia; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana S

2010-01-01

436

Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae  

PubMed Central

Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR), Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN), Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR), and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR). The colour removal was evaluated by considering dye concentration, reaction time, absence or presence of the mediator ABTS (2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and the source of laccase. The presence of ABTS was essential for decolourisation of DMR (80–90%, 1?h) and RBBR (80–90%, 24?h) with both laccases. The use of ABTS was not necessary in reactions containing DMBLR (85–97%, 1?h) and DMBBLN (63–84%, 24?h). The decolourisation of DMBBLN by commercial laccase showed levels near 60% while the crude extract presented 80% in 24?h. PMID:21052547

Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina S.; Pereira, Patricia Maia; Ferreira-Leitao, Viridiana S.

2010-01-01

437

Fluidics: Basic components and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its discovery at Harry Diamond Lab. in 1959, fluidics has gradually been developed into a viable technology. This report describes fluidic components and systems now in use or ready for use in many applications. The fluidic technology provides sensing, computing, and controlling functions with fluid power through interaction of fluid streams. Since fluidics can perform these functions without mechanical moving parts that will wear out, it has the advantages of simplicity and reliability. Other advantages are the low cost, environmental insensitivity, and safety of fluidic systems. Commercial applications of fluidics in the aerospace industry, include medicine, and personal-use items. The first aerospace application in production in the United States was for the thrust-reverser control for a DC-10 airplane. In industry, fluidics has been applied to air-conditioning controls, machine controls, process controls, and production-line controls. One of the first commercial applications of fluidics was for life-support medical equipment. For military use, fluidics has been successfully applied to a fluidic generator to convert pneumatic energy into electrical energy, a fluidic stability augmentation system for helicopters, and a pressure-regulating system for aircraft. Under development are rate sensing circuits for roll rate control of cannon-launched guided projectiles and missiles, and a fluidic capillary pyrometer for continuous temperature measurements in high-temperature process control.

Joyce, J. W.

1983-08-01

438

Superconductors; Slowly moving to commercialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports that, although progress continues in high-temperature superconductors (HTS), as reported at the Washington Materials forum and the 93rd Annual Meeting of the American Ceramic Society earlier this year, the ceramics community has realized that many problems must be solved before commercialization is possible. For large-scale applications such as high-field magnetic coils, the materials must be fabricated in

Sheppard

1991-01-01

439

Comparative Analysis and Limitations of Ethidium Monoazide and Propidium Monoazide Treatments for the Differentiation of Viable and Nonviable Campylobacter Cells  

PubMed Central

The lack of differentiation between viable and nonviable bacterial cells limits the implementation of PCR-based methods for routine diagnostic approaches. Recently, the combination of a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and ethidium monoazide (EMA) or propidium monoazide (PMA) pretreatment has been described to circumvent this disadvantage. In regard to the suitability of this approach for Campylobacter spp., conflicting results have been reported. Thus, we compared the suitabilities of EMA and PMA in various concentrations for a Campylobacter viability qPCR method. The presence of either intercalating dye, EMA or PMA, leads to concentration-dependent shifts toward higher threshold cycle (CT) values, especially after EMA treatment. However, regression analysis resulted in high correlation coefficient (R2) values of 0.99 (EMA) and 0.98 (PMA) between Campylobacter counts determined by qPCR and culture-based enumeration. EMA (10 ?g/ml) and PMA (51.10 ?g/ml) removed DNA selectively from nonviable cells in mixed samples at viable/nonviable ratios of up to 1:1,000. The optimized EMA protocol was successfully applied to 16 Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli field isolates from poultry and indicated the applicability for field isolates as well. EMA-qPCR and culture-based enumeration of Campylobacter spiked chicken leg quarters resulted in comparable bacterial cell counts. The correlation coefficient between the two analytical methods was 0.95. Nevertheless, larger amounts of nonviable cells (>104) resulted in an incomplete qPCR signal reduction, representing a serious methodological limitation, but double staining with EMA considerably improved the signal inhibition. Hence, the proposed Campylobacter viability EMA-qPCR provides a promising rapid method for diagnostic applications, but further research is needed to circumvent the limitation. PMID:24487529

Seinige, Diana; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Gunter

2014-01-01

440

Comparative analysis and limitations of ethidium monoazide and propidium monoazide treatments for the differentiation of viable and nonviable campylobacter cells.  

PubMed

The lack of differentiation between viable and nonviable bacterial cells limits the implementation of PCR-based methods for routine diagnostic approaches. Recently, the combination of a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and ethidium monoazide (EMA) or propidium monoazide (PMA) pretreatment has been described to circumvent this disadvantage. In regard to the suitability of this approach for Campylobacter spp., conflicting results have been reported. Thus, we compared the suitabilities of EMA and PMA in various concentrations for a Campylobacter viability qPCR method. The presence of either intercalating dye, EMA or PMA, leads to concentration-dependent shifts toward higher threshold cycle (CT) values, especially after EMA treatment. However, regression analysis resulted in high correlation coefficient (R(2)) values of 0.99 (EMA) and 0.98 (PMA) between Campylobacter counts determined by qPCR and culture-based enumeration. EMA (10 ?g/ml) and PMA (51.10 ?g/ml) removed DNA selectively from nonviable cells in mixed samples at viable/nonviable ratios of up to 1:1,000. The optimized EMA protocol was successfully applied to 16 Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli field isolates from poultry and indicated the applicability for field isolates as well. EMA-qPCR and culture-based enumeration of Campylobacter spiked chicken leg quarters resulted in comparable bacterial cell counts. The correlation coefficient between the two analytical methods was 0.95. Nevertheless, larger amounts of nonviable cells (>10(4)) resulted in an incomplete qPCR signal reduction, representing a serious methodological limitation, but double staining with EMA considerably improved the signal inhibition. Hence, the proposed Campylobacter viability EMA-qPCR provides a promising rapid method for diagnostic applications, but further research is needed to circumvent the limitation. PMID:24487529

Seinige, Diana; Krischek, Carsten; Klein, Günter; Kehrenberg, Corinna

2014-04-01

441

Application technology progress report: Evaluation of PM-10 commercial inlets and development of an inlet for new Rocky Flats Plant surveillance air sampler, January 1986-December 1986  

SciTech Connect

Work during 1986 was concerned with developing a new PM-10 inlet for use at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), Golden, Colorado. The commercial units that we evaluated did not allow for recovery of the >10-..mu..m dust fraction as may be required by EPA and DOE for nuclear installations. One of them, the Wedding PM-10 Inlet, did not meet the PM-10 cut-point requirement, because of the build-up of vegetative fibers in the cyclone type separator. Therefore, we developed a new PM-10 inlet (patent applied for) to meet our needs, and especially one that is adaptable to our existing 60 surveillance air samplers at minimum cost. The inlet utilizes a modified slotted impactor design. This device is directly adaptable to existing EPA high-volume samplers. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Langer, G.; Deitesfeld, C.A. (ed.0

1987-09-10

442

A Viable Microbial Community in a Subglacial Volcanic Crater Lake, Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a viable microbial community in a subglacial lake within the Grímsvötn volcanic caldera, Iceland. We used a hot water drill to penetrate the 300-m ice shelf and retrieved lake water and volcanic tephra sediments. We also acquired samples of borehole water before and after penetration to the lake, overlying glacial ice and snow, and water from a nearby

Eric Gaidos; Brian Lanoil; Thorsteinn Thorsteinsson; Andrew Graham; Mark Skidmore; Suk-Kyun Han; Terri Rust; Brian Popp

2004-01-01

443

Research Paper A Viable Microbial Community in a Subglacial Volcanic Crater Lake, Iceland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a viable microbial community in a subglacial lake within the Grímsvötn vol- canic caldera, Iceland. We used a hot water drill to penetrate the 300-m ice shelf and retrieved lake water and volcanic tephra sediments. We also acquired samples of borehole water be- fore and after penetration to the lake, overlying glacial ice and snow, and water from

ERIC GAIDOS; BRIAN LANOIL; THORSTEINN THORSTEINSSON; ANDREW GRAHAM; MARK SKIDMORE; SUK-KYUN HAN; TERRI RUST; BRIAN POPP

444

ESTIMATION OF DOWNWIND VIABLE AIRBORNE MICROBES FROM A WET COOLING TOWER - INCLUDING SETTLING  

EPA Science Inventory

In recent years, reuse of municipal waste water as the coolant in drift-producing cooling towers at electrical generating plants has become increasingly common. A hueristic model is presented that can be used to estimate the concentrations of viable airborne microbes in the drift...

445

The use of object based event driven simulation modelling to assess viable contractor support options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the use of an innovative object based support simulation modelling approach, that utilises an ODBC link to combine data generated for a logistic support analysis record (LSAR) with a flexible simulation software product, we are able to easily assess the complexity and content of viable support approaches early in the acquisition phase of the life cycle. Support concept modelling

I. Triplow; S. Crosby

2003-01-01

446

Waterbird-mediated passive dispersal is a viable process for crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)  

E-print Network

Waterbird-mediated passive dispersal is a viable process for crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) Pedro M and active dispersal of the red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) con- tribute to its rapid spread and should be considered when managing its invasions. Keywords Crayfish � Procambarus clarkii � Passive

Pereira, Henrique Miguel

447

Conversion of viable but nonculturable enteric bacteria to culturable by co-culture with eukaryotic cells.  

PubMed

Viable but nonculturable (VBNC) Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139, V. parahaemolyticus, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, Shigella flexneri, and Salmonella enterica were converted to the culturable state by co-culture with selected eukaryotic cells, e.g., HT-29, Caco-2, T84, HeLa, Intestine 407, and CHO cells. PMID:22537150

Senoh, Mitsutoshi; Ghosh-Banerjee, Jayeeta; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Colwell, Rita R; Miyoshi, Shin-Ichi; Nair, G Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi

2012-05-01

448

Evaluating most probable number method to count and isolate viable methylotrophs  

PubMed Central

Nine different receptacles were tested with the MPN method to determine which receptacle was most reliable and economical for MPN counts. Results showed that 96 well PCR plate were the best vessels for this type of analysis and facilitated the isolation of viable Methylotrophs. PMID:24031603

Kashyap, S.

2011-01-01

449

Minimum viable population and reserve sizes for naturally regulated grizzly bears in British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimating minimum viable population and reserve size is a fundamental cornerstone of conservation biology—but these estimates require representative demographic parameters. For example, “Benchmark” Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos) Management Units in British Columbia (BC) are defined as unhunted and naturally regulated populations that can serve as population sources to surrounding hunted areas and provide information on natural population processes. Such benchmarks

Robert B. Wielgus

2002-01-01

450