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1

Commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on commercial applications of fuzzy logic in Japan are presented. Topics covered include: suitable application area of fuzzy theory; characteristics of fuzzy control; fuzzy closed-loop controller; Mitsubishi heavy air conditioner; predictive fuzzy control; the Sendai subway system; automatic transmission; fuzzy logic-based command system for antilock braking system; fuzzy feed-forward controller; and fuzzy auto-tuning system.

Togai, Masaki

1990-01-01

2

Commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

3

Prototype to product—developing a commercially viable neural prosthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cochlear implant or 'Bionic ear' is a device that enables people who do not get sufficient benefit from a hearing aid to communicate with the hearing world. The Cochlear implant is not an amplifier, but a device that electrically stimulates the auditory nerve in a way that crudely mimics normal hearing, thus providing a hearing percept. Many recipients are able to understand running speech without the help of lipreading. Cochlear implants have reached a stage of maturity where there are now 170 000 recipients implanted worldwide. The commercial development of these devices has occurred over the last 30 years. This development has been multidisciplinary, including audiologists, engineers, both mechanical and electrical, histologists, materials scientists, physiologists, surgeons and speech pathologists. This paper will trace the development of the device we have today, from the engineering perspective. The special challenges of designing an active device that will work in the human body for a lifetime will be outlined. These challenges include biocompatibility, extreme reliability, safety, patient fitting and surgical issues. It is emphasized that the successful development of a neural prosthesis requires the partnership of academia and industry.

Seligman, Peter

2009-12-01

4

Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

1994-01-01

5

Commercially viable process for in vitro mass culture of Jatropha curcas  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a commercially viable process for in vitro mass culture of Jatropha curcas. The process for in vitro mass culture of Jatropha curcas is simple, faster, and suitable for production of disease-free root tubers of uniform quality and employs media with a reduced concentration of phytohormones.

2011-04-26

6

The Viable System Model and Its Application to Complex Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stafford Beer’s Viable System Model is the best known of the many cybernetic models he constructed over a career spanning\\u000a more than 50 years. He explored the necessary conditions for viability in any complex system whether an organism, an organization\\u000a or a country. Although the model was first applied in his work in the steel industry, many further applications were made

Allenna Leonard

2009-01-01

7

Commercial Water Heating Applications Handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

To specifically address the need for improved information on commercial applications of high-efficiency electric water heating, EPRI and the Empire State Electric Energy Research Corporation have worked together on a two-part project. The results of that collaboration include this Commercial Water Heating Applications Handbook and HOTCALC 1.0, microcomputer software for evaluating the performance of commercial water heating systems. This handbook

D. W. Abrams; A. C. Shedd

1992-01-01

8

Is there a commercially viable market for crop insurance in rural Bangladesh?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims to assess the commercial viability of a potential crop insurance market in Bangladesh. In a large scale household\\u000a survey, agricultural farm households were asked for their preferences for a hypothetical crop insurance scheme using double\\u000a bounded (DB) contingent valuation (CV) method. Both revenue and production cost based indemnity payment approaches were applied\\u000a to assess the commercial viability

Sonia Akter; Roy Brouwer; Saria Choudhury; Salina Aziz

2009-01-01

9

Commercial applications of Metal Rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the commercial applications of Metal Rubber, the first material of its kind, a self-assembled free-standing electrically conductive elastomer in biomedical, aerospace and microelectronic areas. Metal Rubber is a novel nanocomposite formed via the self-assembly processing of metal nanoparticles and elastomeric polyectrolytes. This type of processing allows for control over bulk mechanical and electrical properties and requires only

Jennifer H. Lalli; Richard O. Claus; Andrea B. Hill; Jeffrey B. Mecham; Bradley A. Davis; Sumitra Subramanayan; Richard M. Goff

2005-01-01

10

Application and commercialization of nematodes.  

PubMed

While nematodes are most commonly known for their negative impact on plants, animals, and humans, there are a number of species which are commercially explored. This review highlights some of the most important success stories for the application of nematodes. They are used as bioindicators in ecological and toxicity studies, as model organisms for elucidating fundamental biological questions and for high throughput screening of drugs. Besides these indirect uses, direct applications include the use of Beddingia siricidicola against a major forest pest and the commercialization of Steinernema, Heterorhabditis, and Phasmarhabditis as biological pest control products. New directions for the commercialization of nematodes are the use as living food, specifically loaded with essential nutrients for various fish and shrimp larvae. Even human parasites or closely related species have been successfully used for curing autoimmune disorders and are currently in the process of being developed as drugs. With the striving development of life sciences, we are likely to see more applications for nematodes in the future. A prerequisite is that we continue to explore the vast number of yet undiscovered nematode species. PMID:23780582

Peters, Arne

2013-07-01

11

Assessment of Viable Tumour Tissue Attached to Needle Applicators after Local Ablation of Liver Tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: Local recurrence and needle track seeding are serious complications after local ablation for liver malignancies and potentially affect long-term survival. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of viable tissue adherent to the needle applicators after ablation to gain insight into the possible mechanisms of local recurrence and needle track seeding. Methods: A total of 40

Nikol Snoeren; Maarten C. Jansen; Arjen M. Rijken; Richard van Hillegersberg; Gerrit Slooter; Joost Klaase; Petrousjka M. van den Tol; Edwin van der Linden; Fibo J. W. Ten Kate; Thomas M. van Gulik

2009-01-01

12

Reliable commercial HTS wire for power applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production of HTS wire for power applications is increasingly maturing into industrial dimensions. The most widely considered manufacturing method for this conductor is the BSCCO-2223-OPIT route, used internationally by many organizations, including American Superconductor. Significant advances in HTS wire technology have been made in the past years, with currently a guaranteed minimum critical current performance of 115 A at 77 K over commercial long length. For the HTS wire itself this is equivalent to an engineering current density of 13.5 kA/cm 2. During the past 18 months, American Superconductor increased its HTS wire manufacturing capacity in its Westborough operations from 250 to 500 km/year to meet the increased demand for development and demonstration purposes. While this level of quality and quantity is sufficient to demonstrate technical feasibility and reliability of prototype power applications, it cannot satisfy fully commercial requirements for economic viability. To address broader markets with a commercially viable product, a price level of $50/(kA m) is possible with BSCCO-2223-OPIT when manufactured in much larger quantities. Therefore, American Superconductor is currently siting a new facility dedicated solely to the manufacturing of BSCCO-OPIT-2223 wire in quantities of 10,000 km/year. Key initial applications for this wire are power transmission cables, industrial motors and electrical generators. This paper will report on the performance and reliability testing of BSCCO-2223 wires. We will discuss the electrical, bending, tensile, and fatigue testing results of wires manufactured for applications such as American Superconductor's 5000 hp ultra-compact motor. Due to their compactness, these motors will be less expensive to manufacture compared with conventional motors and will be more energy efficient. We will also review the stringent electrical, mechanical, and environmental testing developed jointly by American Superconductor and Pirelli Cables and Systems for simulating the behavior of HTS wires under the actual operating conditions for an underground power cable. Also, we will give an update of the status of our new manufacturing plant which is planned to be operational in 2002.

Kellers, Jürgen; Masur, Lawrence J.

2002-08-01

13

The use of Flex as a viable toolkit for astronomy software applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges facing the developers of user interfaces for astronomy applications has never been greater. Astronomers and engineers often use well-designed commercial and web applications outside their work environment and have come to expect a similar user experience with applications developed for their work tasks. The connectivity provided by the Internet and the ability to work from anywhere can improve

Kim Gillies; Alberto Conti; Anthony Rogers

2010-01-01

14

The use of Flex as a viable toolkit for astronomy software applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenges facing the developers of user interfaces for astronomy applications has never been greater. Astronomers and engineers often use well-designed commercial and web applications outside their work environment and have come to expect a similar user experience with applications developed for their work tasks. The connectivity provided by the Internet and the ability to work from anywhere can improve user productivity, but it is a challenge to provide the kind of interactivity and responsiveness needed for astronomical applications to web based projects. It is fair to say that browserbased applications have not been adequate for many kinds of workhorse astronomy applications. The Flex/Actionscript framework from Adobe has been used successfully at the Space Telescope Science Institute in a variety of situations that were not possible with other technologies. In this paper, the Flex framework and technology is briefly introduced followed by a discussion of its advantages and disadvantages and how it addresses user expectations. Three astronomy applications will be presented demonstrating the technology capabilities with useful performance data. Flex/Actionscript is not well known within the astronomy development community, and our goal is to demonstrate that it can be the right choice for many astronomy applications.

Gillies, Kim; Conti, Alberto; Rogers, Anthony

2010-07-01

15

Commercial applications of ion linac technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion linear accelerators (Linacs) have been utilized for research applications for many years in scientific laboratories worldwide. However, the size and cost of these conventional ion Linacs have precluded their use in widespread commercial applications. Revolutionary developments in radio-frequency (rf) Linac technology during this decade, most of it in response to the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) requirements for space-based neutral

1989-01-01

16

Properties and Applications of Commercial Magnetorheological Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheological and magnetic properties of several commercial magnetorheological (MR) fluids are presented and discussed. These fluids are compared using appropriate figures of merit based on conventional design paradigms. Some contemporary applications of MR fluids are discussed. These applications illustrate how various material properties may be balanced to provide optimal performance.

MARK R. JOLLY; JONATHAN W. BENDER; J. DAVID CARLSON

1999-01-01

17

Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

1971-01-01

18

Carbon Nanotubes: Present and Future Commercial Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worldwide commercial interest in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is reflected in a production capacity that presently exceeds several thousand tons per year. Currently, bulk CNT powders are incorporated in diverse commercial products ranging from rechargeable batteries, automotive parts, and sporting goods to boat hulls and water filters. Advances in CNT synthesis, purification, and chemical modification are enabling integration of CNTs in thin-film electronics and large-area coatings. Although not yet providing compelling mechanical strength or electrical or thermal conductivities for many applications, CNT yarns and sheets already have promising performance for applications including supercapacitors, actuators, and lightweight electromagnetic shields.

De Volder, Michael F. L.; Tawfick, Sameh H.; Baughman, Ray H.; Hart, A. John

2013-02-01

19

Organization from a systemic perspective : Application of the viable system model to the Swiss Youth Hostel Association  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper's aim is to provide the reader with an example of the application of Beer's viable system model (VSM), to present the crucial steps of analyzing and improving a complex organization on the basis of Beer's approach, and thereby to demonstrate the value of viewing an organization cybernetically for managerial purposes. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Based on Beer's VSM,

Benjamin Gmür; Andreas Bartelt; Ramon Kissling

2010-01-01

20

Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)

Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

21

Commercial heat pump water heaters: Applications handbook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applications handbook offers a single source of useful information for understanding and successfully applying commercial air-source heat pump water heater (HPWH) technology. A competitive water-heating alternative, HPWHs generate cooling output without additional energy or cost. The handbook, written for a diverse user audience, covers HPWH hardware, function, and performance. It provides guidelines and checklists for site selection, design, and

A. C. Shedd; D. W. Abrams

1990-01-01

22

Commercial applications for military laser radars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline in military funding of laser radar\\/light detection and ranging (LADAR\\/LIDAR) work has caused many companies to consider commercial applications for this technology. To be successful, these companies need to find niche markets in which the unique capabilities of LADARs and LIDARs can be utilized in a cost effective manner. This paper summarizes the results of a study which

Jon Grossman

1993-01-01

23

Guide for commercial water-heating applications  

SciTech Connect

This document provides technical guidance on methods for reducing water heating costs for small to medium commercial operations. It contains an assessment of three options: conservation measures, waste heat recovery, and solar energy systems. Particular attention is given to solar energy systems, including their installation, economics, and performance monitoring. The material presented is directed toward the commercial owner or user and does not require that he be familiar with the design of equipment. it is applicable to those concerned with laundries, food processing, hotels, motels, and many other users of large volumes of hot water.

Not Available

1983-06-01

24

Compare the Effcacy of Two Commercially Available Mouthrinses in reducing Viable Bacterial Count in Dental Aerosol produced during Ultrasonic Scaling when used as a Preprocedural Rinse.  

PubMed

Aim: To evaluate and compare the effcacy of preprocedural mouthrinses (chlorhexidine digluconate and tea tree oil) in reducing microbial content of aerosol product during ultrasonic scaling procedures by viable bacterial count. Settings and design: It was a randomized single blind, placebo-controlled parallel group study. Materials and methods: Sixty subjects were randomly assigned to rinse 10 ml of any one of the mouthrinses (chlorhexidine digluconate or tea tree oil or distilled water). Ultrasonic scaling was done for a period of 10 minutes in presence of trypticase soy agar plates placed at standardized distance. Plates were then sent for microbiological evaluation for the aerosol produced. Results: This study showed that all the antiseptic mouthwashes signifcantly reduced the bacterial colony forming units (CFUs) in aerosol samples. Chlorhexidine rinses were found to be superior to tea tree when used preprocedurally in reducing aerolized bacteria. Conclusion: This study advocates preprocedural dural rinsing with an effective antimicrobial mouthrinse during any dental treatment which generates aerosols, reduces the risk of cross-contamination with infectious agents in the dental operatory. Clinical significance: The aerolization of oral microbes occurring during dental procedures can potentially result in cross-contamination in the dental operatory and transmission of infectious agents to both dental professionals and patient. It is reasonable to assume therefore, that any stratagem for reducing the viable bacterial content of these aerosols could lower the risk of cross-contamination. Keywords: Chlorhexidine digluconate, Tea tree oil, Aerosol, Colony forming unit. How to cite this article: Shetty SK, Sharath K, Shenoy S, Sreekumar C, Shetty RN, Biju T. Compare the Effcacy of Two Commercially Available Mouthrinses in reducing Viable Bacterial Count in Dental Aerosol produced during Ultrasonic Scaling when used as a Preprocedural Rinse. J Contemp Dent Pract 2013;14(5):848-851. Source of support: Nil Confict of interest: None. PMID:24685786

Shetty, Shamila K; Sharath, Karanth; Shenoy, Santhosh; Sreekumar, Chandini; Shetty, Rashmi N; Biju, Thomas

2013-01-01

25

Enhancing organisational resilience: application of viable system model and MCDA in a small Hong Kong company  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to combine the use of the viable system model (VSM) and a multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) based on Superiority and Inferiority Ranking methodology for enhancing organisational resilience. VSM is applied to capture the cybernetic strengths and weaknesses of an organisation. The structural arrangements and cybernetic criteria, related to organisational resilience, are identified. In order

Joseph W. K. Chan

2011-01-01

26

Design of commercial applications of EPAM technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle (EPAM[R]) technology is becoming a robust, high performance, cost effective solution for commercial applications in many sectors. Since its inception in 2004, Artificial Muscle, Inc. (AMI), a spinout company from SRI International, has rigorously pursued the commercialization of this form of artificial muscle technology through innovative designs and fabrication processes, dramatically increasing performance, reliability and manufacturability across a wide variety of applications. Scaleable solutions developed by AMI include air and liquid pumps, valves, linear and angular positioners, rotary motors, sensors and generators. Innovative device designs demonstrating the ability to meet the specifications of demanding applications across broad operating environments and combining practical levels of power densities and actuation lifetimes will be discussed. Integrated electronics control modules allow the freedom to design artificial muscles directly into new or existing product lines while effectively managing the transition from conventional technologies. Simple modular, versatile designs, coupled with low cost industrial materials and flexible automated manufacturing processes, provide a cost effective solution for products serving such diverse industries as consumer electronics, medical devices, and automobiles. Several case examples are presented to illustrate the commercial viability of EPAM[R]-based devices.

Bonwit, N.; Heim, J.; Rosenthal, M.; Duncheon, C.; Beavers, A.

2006-04-01

27

Advanced thermal control technology for commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of the technologies previously developed for the thermal control of spacecraft have found their way into commercial application. Specialized coatings and heat pipes are but two examples. The thermal control of current and future spacecraft is becoming increasingly more demanding, and a variety of new technologies are being developed to meet these needs. Closed two-phase loops are perceived to be the answer to many of the new requirements. All of these technologies are discussed, and their spacecraft and current terrestrial applications are summarized.

Swanson, Theodore D.

1991-01-01

28

ERAST: Scientific Applications and Technology Commercialization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a conference publication for an event designed to inform potential contractors and appropriate personnel in various scientific disciplines that the ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) vehicles have reached a certain level of maturity and are available to perform a variety of missions ranging from data gathering to telecommunications. There are multiple applications of the technology and a great many potential commercial and governmental markets. As high altitude platforms, the ERAST vehicles can gather data at higher resolution than satellites and can do so continuously, whereas satellites pass over a particular area only once each orbit. Formal addresses are given by Rich Christiansen, (Director of Programs, NASA Aerospace Technology Ent.), Larry Roeder, (Senior Policy Advisor, U.S. Dept. of State), and Dr. Marianne McCarthy, (DFRC Education Dept.). The Commercialization Workshop is chaired by Dale Tietz (President, New Vista International) and the Science Workshop is chaired by Steve Wegener, (Deputy Manager of NASA ERAST, NASA Ames Research Center.

Hunley, John D. (Compiler); Kellogg, Yvonne (Compiler)

2000-01-01

29

Commercially viable resolution of ibuprofen.  

PubMed

Ibuprofen belongs to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) family known as profens. Studies demonstrate that (S-ibuprofen is 160 times more potent than (R-ibuprofen in vitro, while the accumulation of (R-ibuprofen can cause serious side effects such as gastrointestinal pain. Candida rugosa lipase was used to enantioselectively esterify racemic ibuprofen with decan-1-ol and butan-1-ol in cyclohexane with an enantiomeric ratio (E) of 130 and 46, respectively, in up to 46% conversion. Separation by bulb-to-bulb distillation of (R)-ibuprofen and unreacted alcohol from the corresponding (S)-alkyl ibuprofen ester was possible for the decyl but not the butyl case. The enantioselective hydrolysis of (S)-alkyl ibuprofen esters with the same biocatalyst in aqueous phosphate buffer was twice as slow for the decyl alcohol versus the butyl example. The combined environmentally friendly enantioselective esterification and hydrolysis of ibuprofen insured the isolation of (S)-ibuprofen with a greater than 99% enantiomeric excess. PMID:19455529

Chávez-Flores, David; Salvador, James M

2009-08-01

30

Potential commercial applications of microbial surfactants.  

PubMed

Surfactants are surface-active compounds capable of reducing surface and interfacial tension at the interfaces between liquids, solids and gases, thereby allowing them to mix or disperse readily as emulsions in water or other liquids. The enormous market demand for surfactants is currently met by numerous synthetic, mainly petroleum-based, chemical surfactants. These compounds are usually toxic to the environment and non-biodegradable. They may bio-accumulate and their production, processes and by-products can be environmentally hazardous. Tightening environmental regulations and increasing awareness for the need to protect the ecosystem have effectively resulted in an increasing interest in biosurfactants as possible alternatives to chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic compounds of microbial origin with considerable potential in commercial applications within various industries. They have advantages over their chemical counterparts in biodegradability and effectiveness at extreme temperature or pH and in having lower toxicity. Biosurfactants are beginning to acquire a status as potential performance-effective molecules in various fields. At present biosurfactants are mainly used in studies on enhanced oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation. The solubilization and emulsification of toxic chemicals by biosurfactants have also been reported. Biosurfactants also have potential applications in agriculture, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, detergents, personal care products, food processing, textile manufacturing, laundry supplies, metal treatment and processing, pulp and paper processing and paint industries. Their uses and potential commercial applications in these fields are reviewed. PMID:10855707

Banat, I M; Makkar, R S; Cameotra, S S

2000-05-01

31

Commercial applications of perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology  

SciTech Connect

Tracer technology can be successfully applied to many leak-checking and monitoring evaluations of operating systems (e.g., building HVACs), manufacturing processes and products (e.g., air conditioners), and subsurface components and systems (e.g., underground storage tanks). Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology is the most sensitive of all tracer technologies because the ambient background levels of the five (5) routinely-used PFTs are in the range of parts per 10{sup 15} parts of air (i.e., parts per quadrillion-ppq) and this technology's instrumentation can measure down to those levels. The effectiveness of this technology is achieved both in terms of cost (very little PFT need to be used) and detectability; for example, very small leaks can be rapidly detected. The PFT compounds, which are environmentally and biologically safe to use, are commercially available as are the sampling and analysis instrumentation. This presentation concerns (1) the steps being taken to commercialize this technology, (2) new applications of processes currently under study, and (3) applications in areas of use that will be particularly beneficial to the environment. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Dietz, R.N.

1991-06-01

32

Viable Tumor Tissue Adherent to Needle Applicators after Local Ablation: A Risk Factor for Local Tumor Progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Local tumor progression (LTP) is a serious complication after local ablation of malignant liver tumors, negatively influencing\\u000a patient survival. LTP may be the result of incomplete ablation of the treated tumor. In this study, we determined whether\\u000a viable tumor cells attached to the needle applicator after ablation was associated with LTP and disease-free survival.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this prospective study, tissue was

Nikol Snoeren; Joost Huiskens; Arjen M. Rijken; Richard van Hillegersberg; Arian R. van Erkel; Gerrit D. Slooter; Joost M. Klaase; Petrousjka M. van den Tol; Fibo J. W. Ten Kate; Maarten C. Jansen; Thomas M. van Gulik

2011-01-01

33

Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications  

PubMed Central

Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon.

Vilchez, Carlos; Forjan, Eduardo; Cuaresma, Maria; Bedmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Ines; Vega, Jose M.

2011-01-01

34

Commercial gasifier for IGCC applications study report  

SciTech Connect

This was a scoping-level study to identify and characterize the design features of fixed-bed gasifiers appearing most important for a gasifier that was to be (1) potentially commercially attractive, and (2) specifically intended for us in integrated coal gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) applications. It also performed comparative analyses on the impact or value of these design features and on performance characteristics options of the whole IGCC system since cost, efficiency, environmental traits, and operability -- on a system basis -- are what is really important. The study also reviewed and evaluated existing gasifier designs, produced a conceptual-level gasifier design, and generated a moderately advanced system configuration that was utilized as the reference framework for the comparative analyses. In addition, technical issues and knowledge gaps were defined. 70 figs., 31 tabs.

Notestein, J.E.

1990-06-01

35

Lawn and Turf Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed for use in training commercial pesticide applicators. It gives identification and control information for common lawn and turf diseases, insects, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrate pests. It also discusses phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and application methods. (BB)

Khan, M. S.

36

Guide for Commercial Water-Heating Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document provides technical guidance on methods for reducing water heating costs for small to medium commercial operations. It contains an assessment of three options: conservation measures, waste heat recovery, and solar energy systems. Particular a...

1983-01-01

37

NASA's Earth Observations Commercialization Applications Program: A model for government promotion of commercial space opportunities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of government in promoting space commerce is a topic of discussion in every spacefaring nation. This article describes a new approach to government intervention which, based on its five-year track record, appears to have met with success. The approach, developed in NASA's Earth Observations Commercialization Application Program (EOCAP), offer several lessons for effective government sponsorship of commercial space development in general and of commercial remote sensing in particular.

Macauley, Molly K.

1995-01-01

38

NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies, that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. The RTI Team has been successful in the development of NASA/industry partnerships and commercialization of NASA technologies. RTI ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed and implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs. (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology. And (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

1994-01-01

39

NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is pleased to report the results of NASA contract NASW-4367, 'Operation of a Technology Applications Team'. Through a period of significant change within NASA, the RTI Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. RTI's ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed an implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs; (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology; and (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

1994-01-01

40

Microgravity materials processing for commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation is made of the development status of materials processing techniques in microgravity environments; the classes of materials treated to date encompass glasses, ceramics, crystals, semiconductors, metals and their alloys, polymers, composites, and such biological substances as pharmaceuticals. Attention is given to the commercial development of composite and mixed-phase materials with substantially improved properties as a result of microgravity processing, as well as to current research into catalysts and Type II-VI semiconductor crystals such as CdTe.

Kohli, R.; Brusky, P. L.; Diamond, S.; Markworth, A. J.; Mcginniss, V. D.

1987-01-01

41

Small commercial neutron sources and applications  

SciTech Connect

In the past, the primary application for small, accelerator-based neutron sources has been laboratory neutron activation analysis (NAA). Continued development of conventional NAA has been inhibited by the lack of availability of high-yield, low-cost neutron generators. New applications of small accelerator-based neutron sources have shifted to a broad range of applications involving in situ analysis. These applications were pioneered in the oil field service industry but are now spreading to diverse fields ranging from detection of buried land mines to in vivo analysis of body composition. This paper reviews some of these applications and discusses the characteristics of the small neutron generators that are suitable for use in in situ analysis.

Reichardt, J.; Frey, M. [MF Physics Corp., Colorado Springs, CO (United States)

1997-12-01

42

Commercial aerospace and terrestrial applications of nickel-hydrogen batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nickel-hydrogen battery system, used extensively in the aerospace industry to supply electrical power to earth-orbital satellites for communications, observation, and military applications, is being developed for commercial, terrestrial applications. Low-cost components, electrodes, cell designs, and battery designs are currently being tested. Catalytic hydrogen electrodes have been developed which are compatible with commercial nickel battery cost. Prismatic and spiral-wound cell

Dwight B. Caldwell; Dwaine K. Coates; Chris L. Fox; Lee E. Miller

1996-01-01

43

Commercial Thermoelectric Cooling Systems for Military Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research examines current thermoelectric cooling (TEC) systems for possible microclimate cooling applications. TEC systems offer simplicity, but have some drawbacks. Although TEC systems have few moving parts, the power required for operation and the...

M. W. Wolfson, R. Masadi

1993-01-01

44

Optical intersatellite links - Application to commercial satellite communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of optical intersatellite links for commercial satellite communications services is addressed in this paper. The feasibility of commercialization centers around basic issues such as the need and derived benefits, implementation complexity and overall cost. In this paper, commercialization of optical ISLs is assessed in terms of the services provided, systems requirements and feasibility of appropriate technology. Both long- and short-range ISLs for GEO-GEO, GEO-LEO and LEO applications are considered. Impact of systems requirements on the payload design and use of advanced technology in reducing its mass, power, and volume requirements are discussed.

Paul, D.; Faris, F.; Garlow, R.; Inukai, T.; Pontano, B.; Razdan, R.; Ganz, Aura; Caudill, L.

1992-01-01

45

Cryogenic applications of commercial electronic components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2 K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electronics include finding components that can function usefully in the cold and possess low enough power dissipation so as not to heat the systems they are designed to measure. From design, test, and integration perspectives it is useful for components to operate similarly at room and cryogenic temperatures; however this is not a necessity. Some of the circuits presented here have been used successfully in the MUSTANG [1] and in the GISMO [2] camera to build a complete digital to analog multiplexer (which will be referred to as the Cryogenic Address Driver board). Many of the circuit elements described are of a more general nature rather than specific to the Cryogenic Address Driver board, and were studied as a part of a more comprehensive approach to addressing a larger set of cryogenic electronic needs.

Buchanan, Ernest D.; Benford, Dominic J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Harvey Moseley, S.; Wollack, Edward J.

2012-10-01

46

Cryogenic Applications of Commercial Electronic Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electronics include finding components that can function usefully in the cold and possess low enough power dissipation so as not to heat the systems they are designed to measure. From design, test, and integration perspectives it is useful for components to operate similarly at room and cryogenic temperatures; however this is not a necessity. Some of the circuits presented here have been used successfully in the MUSTANG and in the GISMO camera to build a complete digital to analog multiplexer (which will be referred to as the Cryogenic Address Driver board). Many of the circuit elements described are of a more general nature rather than specific to the Cryogenic Address Driver board, and were studied as a part of a more comprehensive approach to addressing a larger set of cryogenic electronic needs.

Buchanan, Ernest D.; Benford, Dominic J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

2012-01-01

47

Intersatellite link application to commercial communications satellites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental characteristics of intersatellite link (ISL) systems, and their application to domestic, regional, and global satellite communications, are described. The quantitative advantages of using ISLs to improve orbit utilization, spectrum occupancy, transmission delay (compared to multi-hop links), coverage, and connectivity, and to reduce the number of earth station antennas, are also presented. Cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits of using ISLs are identified, and the technical and systems planning aspects of ISL systems implementation are addressed.

Lee, Young S.; Atia, Ali E.; Ponchak, Denise S.

1988-01-01

48

Rocket engine heat transfer and material technology for commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Liquid fueled rocket engine combustion, heat transfer, and material technology have been utilized in the design and development of compact combustion and heat exchange equipment intended for application in the commercial field. An initial application of the concepts to the design of a compact steam generator to be utilized by electrical utilities for the production of peaking power is described.

Hiltabiddle, J.; Campbell, J.

1974-01-01

49

Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tremendous advances in remote sensing technology and computing power over the last few decades are now providing scientists with the opportunity to investigate, measure, and model environmental patterns and processes with increasing confidence. Such advances are being pursued by the Nebraska Remote Sensing Facility, which consists of approximately 30 faculty members and is very competitive with other institutions in the depth of the work that is accomplished. The development of this facility targeted at applications, commercialization, and education programs in the area of precision agriculture provides a unique opportunity. This critical area is within the scope of NASA goals and objectives of NASA s Applications, Technology Transfer, Commercialization, and Education Division and the Earth Science Enterprise. This innovative integration of Aerospace (Aeronautics) Technology Enterprise applications with other NASA enterprises serves as a model of cross-enterprise transfer of science with specific commercial applications.

Narayanan, Ram; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

2002-01-01

50

Space Commercial Opportunities for Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity research at NASA has been an undertaking that has included both science and commercial approaches since the late 80s and early 90s. The Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community has been developed, through NASA's science grants, into a valuable base of expertise in microgravity science. This was achieved through both ground and flight scientific research. Commercial microgravity research has been primarily promoted thorough NASA sponsored Centers for Space Commercialization which develop cost sharing partnerships with industry. As an example, the Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP)at Northeastern University has been working with cost sharing industry partners in developing Zeolites and zeo-type materials as an efficient storage medium for hydrogen fuel. Greater commercial interest is emerging. The U.S. Congress has passed the Commercial Space Act of 1998 to encourage the development of a commercial space industry in the United States. The Act has provisions for the commercialization of the International Space Station (ISS). Increased efforts have been made by NASA to enable industrial ventures on-board the ISS. A Web site has been established at http://commercial/nasa/gov which includes two important special announcements. One is an open request for entrepreneurial offers related to the commercial development and use of the ISS. The second is a price structure and schedule for U.S. resources and accommodations. The purpose of the presentation is to make the Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community, which understands the importance of microgravity experimentation, aware of important aspects of ISS commercial development. It is a desire that this awareness will be translated into a recognition of Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena application opportunities coordinated through the broad contacts of this community with industry.

Gavert, R.

2000-01-01

51

Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further sub-divided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.

1987-01-01

52

A Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for commercial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies leading to the design specifications and subsequent development of a SAR built solely for commercial applications are described. Background searches were made of potential users and their requirements and the corresponding technology. The system developed is called STAR 1 (for Sea-Ice and Terrain Assessment Radar); it is an X-band system installed in a light turboprop aircraft. The data are

B. L. Bullock; A. Kozma

1985-01-01

53

Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications University of Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications grant was funded by NASA's Kennedy Space Center in FY 2002 to provide dedicated biotechnology and agricultural research focused on the regeneration of space flight environments with direct parallels in Earth-based applications for solving problems in the environment, advances in agricultural science, and other human support issues amenable to targeted biotechnology solutions. This grant had three project areas, each with multiple tasks. They are: 1) Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education, 2) Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications, and 3) Commercial Applications. The Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education (SABRE) Center emphasized the fundamental biology of organisms involved in space flight applications, including those involved in advanced life support environments because of their critical role in the long-term exploration of space. The SABRE Center supports research at the University of Florida and at the Space Life Sciences Laboratory (SLSL) at the Kennedy Space Center. The Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications component focused on developing and applying sensor technologies to space environments and agricultural systems. The research activities in nanosensors were coordinated with the SABRE portions of this grant and with the research sponsored by the NASA Environmental Systems Commercial Space Technology Center located in the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. Initial sensor efforts have focused on air and water quality monitoring essential to humans for living and working permanently in space, an important goal identified in NASA's strategic plan. The closed environment of a spacecraft or planetary base accentuates cause and effect relationships and environmental impacts. The limited available air and water resources emphasize the need for reuse, recycling, and system monitoring. It is essential to collect real-time information from these systems to ensure crew safety. This new class of nanosensors will be critical to monitoring the space flight environment in future NASA space systems. The Commercial Applications component of this program pursued industry partnerships to develop products for terrestrial use of NASA sponsored technologies, and in turn to stimulate growth in the biotechnology industry. For technologies demonstrating near term commercial potential, the objective is to include industry partners on or about the time of proof of concept that will not only co-invest in the technology but also take the resultant technology to the commercial market.

Phillips, Winfred; Evanich, Peggy L.

2004-01-01

54

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aerial Application.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the calibration of dry and liquid pesticide systems for aerial application. Additionally, dispersal equipment is discussed with considerations for environmental and safety factors. (CS)

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

55

Tests of commercial colour CMOS cameras for astronomical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results of testing commercial colour CMOS cameras for astronomical applications. Colour CMOS sensors allow to perform photometry in three filters simultaneously that gives a great advantage compared with monochrome CCD detectors. The Bayer BGR colour system realized in colour CMOS sensors is close to the astronomical Johnson BVR system. The basic camera characteristics: read noise (e^{-}/pix), thermal noise (e^{-}/pix/sec) and electronic gain (e^{-}/ADU) for the commercial digital camera Canon 5D MarkIII are presented. We give the same characteristics for the scientific high performance cooled CCD camera system ALTA E47. Comparing results for tests of Canon 5D MarkIII and CCD ALTA E47 show that present-day commercial colour CMOS cameras can seriously compete with the scientific CCD cameras in deep astronomical imaging.

Pokhvala, S. M.; Reshetnyk, V. M.; Zhilyaev, B. E.

2013-12-01

56

The venture space alliance commercial application of microgravity research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Venture Space Alliance is a Canadian commercial enterprise formed to develop a successful sustainable business, providing industrial and institutional clients with cost effective timely access to space and microgravity facilities for commercial and scientific benefit. The goal is to offer users a comprehensive and reliable set of products and services from the early stages of research, where access to short duration microgravity such as drop towers, aircraft and sub-orbital rockets is required, to more complex missions requiring free flyers, shuttle or Space Station. The service is designed to relieve the researcher from having to be concerned with the special processes associated with space flight, and to assist in the commercial application of their research through the development of business plans and investment strategy. Much of this research could lead to new and better medicines, high disease tolerant and more prolific agricultural products, new materials and alloys, and improvements in fundamental human health. This paper will describe the commercial successes derived from microgravity research, and the anticipated growth of this segment particularly with the completion of the International Space Station.

Whitton, Dave

1999-01-01

57

Robust Low-Cost Cathode for Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Under funding from the NASA Commercial Technology Office, a cathode assembly was designed, developed, fabricated, and tested for use in plasma sources for ground-based materials processing applications. The cathode development activity relied on the large prior NASA investment and successful development of high-current, high-efficiency, long-life hollow cathodes for use on the International Space Station Plasma Contactor System. The hollow cathode was designed and fabricated based on known engineering criteria and manufacturing processes for compatibility with the requirements of the plasma source. The transfer of NASA GRC-developed hollow cathode technology for use as an electron emitter in the commercial plasma source is anticipated to yield a significant increase in process control, while eliminating the present issues of electron emitter lifetime and contamination.

Patterson, Michael J.

2007-01-01

58

Nonacid meat decontamination technologies: model studies and commercial applications.  

PubMed

Increased consumer awareness and concern about microbial foodborne diseases has resulted in intensified efforts to reduce contamination of raw meat, as evidenced by new meat and poultry inspection regulations being implemented in the United States. In addition to requiring operation of meat and poultry slaughtering and processing plants under the principles of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system, the new regulations have established microbiological testing criteria for Escherichia coli and Salmonella, as a means of evaluating plant performance. These developments have renewed and intensified interest in the development and commercial application of meat and poultry decontamination procedures. Technologies developed and evaluated for decontamination include live animal cleaning/washing, chemical dehairing, carcass knife-trimming to remove physical contaminants, steam/hot water-vacuuming for spot-cleaning/decontamination of carcasses, spray washing/rinsing of carcasses with water of low or high pressures and temperatures or chemical solutions, and exposure of carcass sides to pressurized steam. Under appropriate conditions, the technologies applied to carcasses may reduce mean microbiological counts by approximately one-three log colony forming units (cfu)/cm2, and some of them have been approved and are employed in commercial applications (i.e., steam-vacuuming; carcass spray-washing with water, chlorine, organic acid or trisodium phosphate solutions; hot water deluging/spraying/rinsing, and pressurized steam). The contribution of these decontamination technologies to the enhancement of food safety will be determined over the long term, as surveillance data on microbial foodborne illness are collected. This review examines carcass decontamination technologies, other than organic acids, with emphasis placed on recent advances and commercial applications. PMID:9851598

Sofos, J N; Smith, G C

1998-11-10

59

Commercial applications of nuclear transfer cloning: three examples.  

PubMed

Potential applications of cloning go well beyond the popularly envisioned replication of valuable animals. This is because targeted genetic modifications can be made in donor cells before nuclear transfer. Applications that are currently being pursued include therapeutic protein production in the milk and blood of transgenic cloned animals, the use of cells, tissues and organs from gene-modified animals for transplantation into humans and genetically modified livestock that produce healthier and safer products in an environmentally friendly manner. Commercial and social acceptance of one or more of these early cloning applications will lead to yet unimagined applications of nuclear transfer technology. The present paper summarises progress on three additional applications of nuclear transfer, namely the development of male livestock that produce single-sex sperm, the transfer of immune responses from animals to their clones to permit the production of unlimited supplies of unique polyclonal antibodies, and the generation of genetically modified animals that accurately mimic human diseases for the purpose of developing new therapies. However, the myriad applications of cloning will require appropriate safeguards to ensure safe, humane and responsible outcomes of the technology. PMID:15745632

Forsberg, Erik J

2005-01-01

60

Extended Evaluations of the Commercial Spectrometer Systems for Safeguards Applications  

SciTech Connect

Safeguards applications require the best of the spectrometer system with excellent resolution, stability, and throughput. Instruments must perform well in all situations and environments. Data communication to the computer should be convenient, fast, and reliable. The software should have all the necessary tools and be easy to use. Portable systems should be small in size, lightweight, and have a long battery life. Nine commercially available spectrometer systems are tested with five different germanium detectors. Considering the performance of the Digital Signal Processors (DSP), digital-based spectroscope y may become the way of future gamma-ray spectroscopy.

Duc T. Vo

1999-08-01

61

The Viable System Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Viable System Model (VSM) is a conceptual model which is built from the axioms, principles, and laws of viable organisation.\\u000a It is concerned with the dynamic structure that determines the adaptive connectivity of the parts of the organisation or organism;\\u000a what it is that enables it to adapt and survive in a changing environment. It can be used as

Patrick Hoverstadt

2010-01-01

62

Novel PCM Thermal Management Makes Li-ion Batteries a Viable Option for High Power and High Temperature Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal Management of Li-ion batteries plays a significant role in large power applications by addressing the thermal safety in addition to improving the performance and extending the cycle life. The electrochemical performance of the Li-ion battery chemistry, charge acceptance, power and energy capability, cycle life and cost are very much affected by the operating temperature. One of the side effects

Peter Tamburrino; Alan ElShafei; Riza Kizilel; Abdul Lateef; Mohammed M. Farid; Said Al-Hallaj

63

Potential Commercial Applications from Combustion and Fire Research in Space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The near-zero (microgravity) environment of orbiting spacecraft minimizes buoyant flows, greatly simplifying combustion processes and isolating important phenomena ordinarily concealed by the overwhelming gravity-driven forces and flows. Fundamental combustion understanding - the focus to date of the NASA microgravity-combustion program - has greatly benefited from analyses and experiments conducted in the microgravity environment. Because of the economic and commercial importance of combustion in practice, there is strong motivation to seek wider applications for the microgravity-combustion findings. This paper reviews selected technology developments to illustrate some emerging applications. Topics cover improved fire-safety technology in spacecraft and terrestrial systems, innovative combustor designs for aerospace and ground propulsion, applied sensors and controls for combustion processes, and self-sustaining synthesis techniques for advanced materials.

Friedman, Robert; Lyons, Valerie J.

1996-01-01

64

Commercial applications of perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology. Revision  

SciTech Connect

Tracer technology can be successfully applied to many leak-checking and monitoring evaluations of operating systems (e.g., building HVACs), manufacturing processes and products (e.g., air conditioners), and subsurface components and systems (e.g., underground storage tanks). Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology is the most sensitive of all tracer technologies because the ambient background levels of the five (5) routinely-used PFTs are in the range of parts per 10{sup 15} parts of air (i.e., parts per quadrillion-ppq) and this technology`s instrumentation can measure down to those levels. The effectiveness of this technology is achieved both in terms of cost (very little PFT need to be used) and detectability; for example, very small leaks can be rapidly detected. The PFT compounds, which are environmentally and biologically safe to use, are commercially available as are the sampling and analysis instrumentation. This presentation concerns (1) the steps being taken to commercialize this technology, (2) new applications of processes currently under study, and (3) applications in areas of use that will be particularly beneficial to the environment. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Dietz, R.N.

1991-06-01

65

Integration of commercial video motion detection into USAF flightline applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A short duration evaluation of a variety of commercially available Video Motion Detection products served to demonstrate application in detecting intrusion into protected areas of a military flightline. To be effective on a military flightline requires coverage over wide areas, adaptability to thermal imagery and ease of operator use. Opportunities exist to incorporate panning cameras with video motion detection to expand the awareness of Air Force Security Police. The interest in maximizing the utilization of relatively expensive and highly capable thermal imager cameras makes this a high interest priority. In the evaluation, the available products demonstrated an ability to perform intrusion detection, but flexibility in set-up and operation were seen as areas where improvement will be welcome.

Reis, John M.; Resca, Philip J.

1997-02-01

66

Electrical properties of commercial sheet insulation materials for cryogenic applications  

SciTech Connect

Dielectric properties of electrical insulation materials are needed for low-temperature power applications. Performance of materials and their compatibility determine the size of the electrical insulation in power equipment. In this work we report the dielectric properties of some commercially available materials in sheet form. The selected materials are polypropylene laminated paper from Sumitomo Electric U.S.A., Inc., porous polyethylene (Tyvek\\texttrademark) from Dupont, and polyamide paper (Nomex\\texttrademark) from Dupont. The dielectric properties are characterized with an electrical impedance analyzer in the frequency domain. The impedances are recorded in a cryocooler in the temperature range from 50 to 300 K. The dielectric breakdown characteristics of the materials are measured in a liquid nitrogen bath at atmospheric pressure.

Tuncer, Enis [ORNL; Sauers, Isidor [ORNL; James, David Randy [ORNL; Ellis, Alvin R [ORNL; Pace, Marshall O [ORNL

2008-01-01

67

On-Chip Dielectrophoretic Separation and Concentration of Viable, Non-Viable and Viable but Not Culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

Although bacterial culture remains the gold standard for detection of viable bacteria in environmental specimens, the typical time requirement of twenty-four hours can delay and even jeopardize appropriate public health intervention. In addition, culture is incapable of detecting viable but not culturable (VBNC) species. Conversely, nucleic acid and antibody-based methods greatly decrease time to detection but rarely characterize viability of the bacteria detected. Through selection by membrane permeability, the method described in this work employs positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for separation and purification of viable and VBNC species from water and allows concentration of bacteria for downstream applications.

Packard, M M; Shusteff, M; Alocilja, E C

2012-04-12

68

Microfabricated hydrogen sensor technology for aerospace and commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leaks on the Space Shuttle while on the Launch Pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. An effective leak monitoring system requires reliable hydrogen sensors, hardware, and software to monitor the sensors. The system should process the sensor outputs and provide real-time leak monitoring information to the operator. This paper discusses the progress in developing such a complete leak monitoring system. Advanced microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and Gencorp Aerojet (Aerojet). Changes in the hydrogen concentrations are detected using a PdAg on silicon Schottky diode structure. Sensor temperature control is achieved with a temperature sensor and heater fabricated onto the sensor chip. Results of the characterization of these sensors are presented. These sensors can detect low concentrations of hydrogen in inert environments with high sensitivity and quick response time. Aerojet is developing the hardware and software for a multipoint leak monitoring system designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Work has commenced on integrating the NASA LeRC-CWRU hydrogen sensors with the Aerojet designed monitoring system. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. Possible commercialization of the system will also be discussed.

Hunter, Gary W.; Bickford, R. L.; Jansa, E. D.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

1994-01-01

69

The venture space alliance commercial application of microgravity research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Venture Space Alliance is a Canadian commercial enterprise formed to develop a successful sustainable business, providing industrial and institutional clients with cost effective timely access to space and microgravity facilities for commercial and scientific benefit. The goal is to offer users a comprehensive and reliable set of products and services from the early stages of research, where access to

Dave Whitton

1999-01-01

70

The Viable System Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Viable System Model (VSM) is a conceptual model which is built from the axioms, principles, and laws of viable organisation. It is concerned with the dynamic structure that determines the adaptive connectivity of the parts of the organisation or organism; what it is that enables it to adapt and survive in a changing environment. It can be used as a comparison against an actual organisation in order to identify weaknesses, mismatches or missing elements in diagnosing a problem and then as a framework for organisation design to resolve a diagnosed problem. Also it can be used for purposes of design from a clean-sheet. At the foundation of the model is the concept of variety, the number of possible activities of the parts and the necessity to limit these to those required for survival. The breakthrough in developing the model was the understanding that this could only be achieved with a fractal (recursive) layered structure. Furthermore at each level the pattern of the regulation of the variety of possible activities must be fractal. The chapter takes the reader through the development of the model and shows how the VSM supports autonomy and adaptablility.

Hoverstadt, Patrick

71

Ornamental and Shade Tree Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a training manual for commercial pesticide applicators. It gives information for identification and control of diseases, insects, mites, weeds, and vertebrate pests of shade and ornamental trees. Phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and pesticide application information is also given. (BB)

Khan, M. S.

72

State-of-the-art of membrane bioreactors: Worldwide research and commercial applications in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is advancing rapidly around the world both in research and commercial applications. Despite the increasing number of studies and full-scale applications of MBR systems, directions and trends in academic research as well as commercial developments require further analysis. This paper aims to critically characterize and review worldwide academic research efforts in the area of MBRs as

Wenbo Yang; Nazim Cicek; John Ilg

2006-01-01

73

Five experiences with the viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper is a call and an invitation to more application research on the viable system model (VSM). It aims to share five empirical findings from the practical application of the VSM in a mainly economic environment. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – An experiential report from the practice of more than 100 VSM consulting and schooling projects that the author together

Martin Pfiffner

2010-01-01

74

Phased array antenna systems for commercial applications in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will review research-level phased array activities and developed phased array systems in Japan. Two basic technologies for the beamforming networks are discussed, one is microwave processing technology using MMICs and the other is optical processing. Optically controlled phased array antennas utilizing optical components are described. As the commercial available systems, the airborne phased array antenna for INMARSAT-M, and

Shuichi Samejima

1996-01-01

75

Transcritical carbon dioxide small commercial cooling applications analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a project to develop an R744 commercial single door bottle cooler that is cost competitive and matches the performance of typical cost optimised R404A and R134a systems. Compressors with different displacement and efficiency values are evaluated for refrigerating systems with fin and tube and steel wire-on-tube gas coolers. Capillary tubes are tested. A methodology to properly sizing

Luca Cecchinato; Marco Corradi

2011-01-01

76

Methodology for validating technical tools to assess customer Demand Response: Application to a commercial customer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a methodology, which is demonstrated with some applications to the commercial sector, in order to validate a Demand Response (DR) evaluation method previously developed and applied to a wide range of industrial and commercial segments, whose flexibility was evaluated by modeling. DR is playing a more and more important role in the framework of electricity systems management

Manuel Alcázar-Ortega; Guillermo Escrivá-Escrivá; Isidoro Segura-Heras

77

LIVE\\/DEAD ® BacLight™: application of a new rapid staining method for direct enumeration of viable and total bacteria in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid epifluorescence staining method using the LIVE\\/DEAD® Bacterial Viability Kit (BacLight™) was applied to estimate both viable and total counts of bacteria in drinking water. BacLight is composed of two nucleic acid-binding stains: SYTO 9™ and propidium iodide. SYTO 9™ penetrates all bacterial membranes and stains the cells green, while propidium iodide only penetrates cells with damaged membranes, and

Lina Boulos; Michèle Prévost; Benoit Barbeau; Josée Coallier; Raymond Desjardins

1999-01-01

78

A Set of Conventions, a Model: An Application of Stafford Beer’s Viable Systems Model to the Strategic Planning Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contemplating better ways to manage, Stafford Beer says the big problem is that you are not determining absolute facts:\\u000a you are establishing a set of conventions. Hence his view, that a model is neither true nor false: it is more or less useful.\\u000a And while this paper suggests Beer’s Viable Systems Model (VSM) is overwhelmingly more, rather than less

John Stephens; Tim Haslett

79

Physical Properties and Durability of New Materials for Space and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To develop and test new materials for use in space power systems and related space and commercial applications, to assist industry in the application of these materials, and to achieve an adequate understanding of the mechanisms by which the materials perform in their intended applications.

Hambourger, Paul D.

2003-01-01

80

47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...part 97 of this chapter. (b) Application filing procedures for commercial radio operator licenses are set forth in part 13 of this chapter. [47 FR 53378, Nov. 26, 1982, as amended at 78 FR 23151, Apr. 18,...

2013-10-01

81

Intelligent Herbicide Application System For Reduced Herbicide Vegetation Control Phase II - Commercialization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development of a commercial prototype intelligent herbicide application system (IHAS). The improved design incorporates a parallel add-on type fluid handling system to allow existing variable-rate herbicide injection systems curr...

C. Gliever D. Downey D. C. Slaughter D. K. Giles E. Staab F. Vanucci J. Schlottman K. Gillis M. Shaffi P. Fontes R. Zarghami

2006-01-01

82

Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this calculation report, Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, is to validate the computational method used to perform postclosure criticality calculations. The validatio...

D. Mueller D. F. Hollenbach G. Radulescu P. B. Fox S. Goluoglu

2007-01-01

83

Recent Breakthroughs in Superconductivity Lead to Rush for Commercial Applicants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The excitement and intense competition surrounding the search for new applications of superconductors resembles the entrepreneurial atmosphere of the early 1970s, when faculty were launching profitable companies based on developments in biotechnology and semiconductors. (MSE)

McDonald, Kim

1987-01-01

84

Protocol Support for Commercial Access to Complex Database Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the problems involved in developing applications for the Web which require complex and stateful dialogues between a user and a service. The application-layer Z39.50 protocol is shown to satisfy most of the requirements for text-style databases. We describe proposed modifications to the protocol to support access to structured (SQL) databases, and a prototype implementation of the client

Robert M. Colomb; Sonya Finnigan

1997-01-01

85

Bovine somatotropin and lactation: from basic science to commercial application.  

PubMed

Bovine somatotropin (bST) results in increased milk yield and an unprecedented improvement in efficiency. Beginning in the 1930s to present day, investigations have examined animal-related factors such as nutrition, bioenergetics, metabolism, health and well being and consumer-related factors such as milk quality, manufacturing characteristics, and product safety. Overall, bST is a homeorhetic control involved in orchestrating many physiological processes. Direct effects involve adaptations in many tissues and the metabolism of all nutrient classes--carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and minerals. Mechanisms include alterations in key enzymes, intracellular signal transduction systems, and tissue response to homeostatic signals. Indirect effects involve the mammary gland and are thought to be mediated by the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system. Specific changes include increased cellular rates of milk synthesis and enhanced maintenance of secretory cells. Indirect effects are modulated by environment and management factors, especially nutritional status. This modulation is a central component in allowing ST to play a key role in regulating nutrient utilization across a range of physiological situations. U.S. commercial use began in 1994, and adoption has been extensive. From a consumer perspective, bST was unique, and special interest groups loudly predicted dire consequences. However, introduction of bST had no impact on milk consumption, and milk labeled as recombinant bST-free occupies a minor niche market. From a producer perspective, commercial use verified scientific studies and enhanced net farm income. Overall, ST is a key homeorhetic control regulating nutrient partitioning, and the ST/IGF system plays a key role in animal performance and well being across a range of physiological situations. PMID:10527114

Bauman, D E

1999-10-01

86

Information Transmission in Viable Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the process of information transmission in adaptive, viable organizational systems. Beer's viable system model is used to explain a system's information requirement at each time of the adaptation process, the source of this information, and the effect of information transmission on a system's cohesion. Four hypotheses are stated and…

de Raadt, J. D. R.

1990-01-01

87

Risk and safety analysis for Florida commercial aerial application operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to determine self-reported perceptions in the areas of agroterrorism, bioterrorism, chemical exposure and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight. The aerial application industry has been in existence since the 1920's with a gamut of issues ranging from pesticide drift to counterterrorism. The attacks of September 11th, 2001, caused a paradigm shift in the way the United States views security and, more importantly, the prevention of malicious activity. Through the proper implementation and dissemination of educational materials dealing with industry specific concerns, it is imperative that everyone has the proper level of resources and training to effectively manage terrorist threats. This research study was designed to interpret how aerial applicators view these topics of concern and how they perceive the current threat level of terrorism in the industry. Research results were consistent, indicating that a high number of aerial applicators in the state of Florida are concerned with these topics. As a result, modifications need to be made with respect to certain variables. The aerial application industry works day in and day out to provide a professional service that helps maintain the integrity of the food and commodities that we need to survive. They are a small percentage of the aviation community that we all owe a great deal for the vital and necessary services they provide.

Robbins, John Michael

88

Hybrid soft computing systems: industrial and commercial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft computing (SC) is an association of computing methodologies that includes as its principal members fuzzy logic, neurocomputing, evolutionary computing and probabilistic computing. We present a collection of methods and tools that can be used to perform diagnostics, estimation, and control. These tools are a great match for real-world applications that are characterized by imprecise, uncertain data and incomplete domain

Piero P. Bonissone; Yu-To Chen; Kai Goebel; Pratap S. Khedkar

1999-01-01

89

A Hydrogen Leak Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Leaks on the space shuttle while on the launch pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. Microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). These sensors have been integrated into hardware and software designed by Aerojet. This complete system allows for multipoint leak monitoring designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. This system is in operation in an automotive application which requires high sensitivity to hydrogen.

Hunter, Gary W.; Makel, D. B.; Jansa, E. D.; Patterson, G.; Cova, P. J.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

1995-01-01

90

Habitation Concepts and Tools for Asteroid Missions and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 2009 studies were initiated in response to the Augustine Commission s review of the Human Spaceflight Program to examine the feasibility of additional options for space exploration beyond the lunar missions planned in the Constellation Program. One approach called a Flexible Path option included possible human missions to near-Earth asteroids. This paper presents an overview of possible asteroid missions with emphasis on the habitation options and vehicle configurations conceived for the crew excursion vehicles. One launch vehicle concept investigated for the Flexible Path option was to use a dual launch architecture that could serve a wide variety of exploration goals. The dual launch concept used two medium sized heavy lift launch vehicles for lunar missions as opposed to the single Saturn V architecture used for the Apollo Program, or the one-and-a-half vehicle Ares I / Ares V architecture proposed for the Constellation Program. This dual launch approach was studied as a Flexible Path option for lunar missions and for possible excursions to other destinations like geosynchronous earth orbiting satellites, Lagrange points, and as presented in this paper, asteroid rendezvous. New habitation and exploration systems for the crew are presented that permit crew sizes from 2 to 4, and mission durations from 100 to 360 days. Vehicle configurations are presented that include habitation systems and tools derived from International Space Station (ISS) experience and new extra-vehicular activity tools for asteroid exploration, Figure 1. Findings from these studies and as presented in this paper indicate that missions to near-Earth asteroids appear feasible in the near future using the dual launch architecture, the technologies under development from the Constellation Program, and systems derived from the current ISS Program. In addition, the capabilities derived from this approach that are particularly beneficial to the commercial sector include human access to geosynchronous orbit and the Lagrange points with new tools for satellite servicing and in-space assembly.

Smitherman, David

2010-01-01

91

Composites: A viable option  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

While it sounded great to be asked to talk about composites, I found it difficult to select subject areas that would be of real interest. My choice is based on saying some things about where the maturity of the composite aircraft structures is today and what that means in terms of future criteria for application. This focus was the basis for my title selection. The other issue that will be addressed was requested by NASA and focuses on composites structures cost. This fits well with the state-of-the-art interpretations I will discuss first, since the cost issue must be viewed from both the current status and future points of view. The difficulty in presenting something in these areas is not in the subjects themselves but in trying to present a real world viewpoint to an audience of composite experts. So, with recognition of the expertise of the audience, I hope you will see something in this presentation about how to view composite aircraft structure.

Mccarty, John E.

1991-01-01

92

Non-flammable polyimide materials for commercial application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermally-stable, fire-resistant polyimide foams developed for use as fire protection in aircraft, spacecraft and ground applications are presented. Polyimide precursors, synthesized by the reaction of 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride with a mixture of two diamines, can be processed into foams by indirect or direct heating techniques. Flexible resilient foams and thermal acoustical foams produced by the microwave heating of polyimide precursors are shown to conform to requirements for aircraft seating foams and thermal and acoustical insulation materials, respectively. Rigid polyimide foams reinforced by carbon mat, chopped carbon mat and chopped glass strand fillers and prepared by the microwave heating of a continuous mat, followed by its compression, or by filling a honeycomb structure with low density foam, are found to exhibit outstanding fire resistance and have mechanical properties approaching those desired for structural materials.

Gagliani, J.; Supkis, D. E.

1979-01-01

93

Investigation into the commercial application of first generation MHD power plants to the aluminum industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States has embarked on an ambitious program to develop open-cycle, coal-fired MHD-topped steam power generation plants to commercialization by the end of this century. The results of a study on the commercial application of the first generation MHD power plants to the aluminum industry are reported. The basic processes and energy requirements of the aluminium industry are reviewed,

M. T. Dooley; L. D. Carter

1978-01-01

94

Development of Commodity Grade, Lower Cost Carbon Fiber - Commercial Applications  

SciTech Connect

In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fiber reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fiber composites in transportation is the high cost of the fiber when compared to other candidate materials. As part of the United States Department of Energy s FreedomCAR initiative, significant research is being conducted to develop lower cost, high volume technologies for producing carbon fiber. This paper will highlight the on-going research in this area. Through Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and its partners have been working with the US Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to develop technologies that would enable the production of carbon fiber at 5-7 dollars per pound. Achievement of this cost goal would allow the introduction of carbon fiber based composites into a greater number of applications for future vehicles. The approach has necessitated the development of both alternative precursors and more efficient production methods. Alternative precursors under investigation include textile grade polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers and fibers from lignin-based feedstocks. Previously, as part of the research program, Hexcel Corporation developed the science necessary to allow textile grade PAN to be used as a precursor rather than typical carbon fiber grade precursors. Efforts are also underway to develop carbon fiber precursors from lignin-based feedstocks. ORNL and its partners are working on this effort with domestic pulp and paper producers. In terms of alternative production methods, ORNL has developed a microwave-based carbonization unit that can process pre-oxidized fiber at over 200 inches per minute. ORNL has also developed a new method of high speed oxidation and a new method for precursor stabilization. Additionally, novel methods of activating carbon fiber surfaces have been developed which allow atomic oxygen concentrations as high as 25-30% to be achieved rather than the more typical 4-8% achieved by the standard industrial ozone treatment.

Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix L [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

2009-01-01

95

Broadband laser light sources for commercial and biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel optical components enable the generation of the shortest pulses and broadest spectra from Kerr-Lens mode-locked laser oscillators without extracavity spectral broadening, namely 20-fs-pulses from Cr4+:YAG around 1.5?m, 14-fs-pulses from Cr:forsterite around 1.3?m, 5-fs-pulses from Ti:sapphire around 0.8?m, and 10-fs-Pulses from Cr3+:LiCAF around 0.8?m. Key components are well adapted phase correcting mirrors ("double-chirped mirrors") which allow for high reflectivity and dispersion compensation in bandwidths up to one octave. In parallel to the development of new broadband light sources based on femtosecond technology micron resolution imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography using theses sources has been achieved. The availability of the high resolution OCT technology for future clinical applications will depend on the development of low cost, compact sources of ultrabroad bandwidth light. Especially Cr3+:LiCAF is a very promising material for femtosecond laser sources as compact replacements for Ti:sapphire oscillators because of its low quantum defect, a broadband emission range around 800 nm, and an absorption band in a spectral range where high-brightness laser diodes are available.

Morgner, Uwe; Wagenblast, P.; Ell, R.; Seitz, Wolfgang; Ippen, Erich P.; Fujimoto, James G.; Kärtner, Franz X.

2003-06-01

96

Using commercial AMLCD panels for a wide range of dual-use applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the application of commercially available, active matrix liquid crystal panels to a wide variety of environments both commercial and military. Such environments include the dashboard of a city transportation bus and agricultural vehicle, the cockpit of a commercial jet airliner, and hard mounted on a howitzer field artillery piece. Each environment will be discussed and then a comparison will be made between the environments and how they relate to the display design. The application of finite element analysis to the design methodology will also be discussed. Test results will then be presented for the various applications as well as results of usage in the field. Design techniques of ruggedization for utilization of the same panels in other severe environments such as Army tanks will also be discussed.

Seinfeld, Robert D.; Herman, Robert

1999-08-01

97

77 FR 40142 - Applications for Exemption: Commercial Driver's License (CDL) and Hours-of-Service (HOS) of Drivers  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...behalf of their commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers. The Agency reviewed each application...exemption from certain FMCSRs on behalf of their CMV drivers. Guardian and Redding, under common...FMCSA-2008-0078... CMV drivers must possess a commercial...

2012-07-06

98

40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory. 457.30 Section 457... Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants Subcategory § 457.30 Applicability...commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory. The provisions of...

2013-07-01

99

Computational fluid dynamics in ventilation. 4: Commercial application of CFD in ventilation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In considering the commercial applications of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in ventilation, the following are addressed: typical markets (airport centers, large theaters, atria, shopping malls, etc.); typical problems to be solved (energy flow, draft, ventilation effectiveness, pressure distribution, etc.); and high priority areas, activities and quantities (fast preprocessing, effective visualization software, etc.). It is stated that the commercial application of CFD may be looked upon as an advanced 'zonal' model. The 'zonal' model concept is outlined and CFD with large control volumes is considered. An illustrated example of air flow simulation in a theater is given.

Nielsen, Peter V.

100

Application of the iron-enriched basalt waste form for immobilizing commercial transuranic waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal sources of commercial transuranic (TRU) waste in the United States are identified. The physical and chemical nature of the wastes from these sources are discussed. The fabrication technique and properties of iron enriched basalt, a rock-like waste from developd for immobilizing defense TRU wastes, are discussed. The application of iron enriched basalt to commercial TRU wastes is discussed. Commercial TRU wastes from mixed oxide fuel fabrication, light water reactor fuel reprocessing, and miscellaneous medical, research, and industrial sources are reviewed. These indicate that iron enriched basalt is suitable for most types of commercial TRU wastes. Noncombustible TRU wastes are dissolved in the high temperature, oxidizing iron enriched basalt melt. Combustible TRU wastes are immobilized in iron enriched basalt by incinerating the wastes and adding the TRU bearing ash to the melt. Casting and controlled cooling of the melt produces a devitrified, rock like iron enriched basalt monolith.

Owen, D. E.

1981-08-01

101

Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communications. Executive summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further subdivided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.

1987-01-01

102

Evaluation of commercially available SiC MESFETs for phased array radar applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon carbide MESFETs supplied by a commercial vendor were evaluated for their suitability for phased array radar applications. The results showed superior performance over traditional III-V semiconductors in respect of pulse droop, and demonstrated the increasing maturity of these wide bandgap devices.

M. G. Walden; M. Knight

2002-01-01

103

Trace metal concentration in durum wheat from application of sewage sludge and commercial fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive application of commercial fertilizer continually introduces potentially toxic trace metals to the soil. Such metallic elements are not biodegradable, accumulate in the soil, and are subsequently taken up by food crops. Sewage sludge, often disposed of in landfills, contains high nutrient and organic contents and is now being recycled and beneficially applied to agricultural land worldwide in increasing amounts.

Heather L Frost; Lloyd H Ketchum

2000-01-01

104

Low-cost integrated inverted stripline antennas with solid-state devices for commercial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated and active integrated antennas are currently increasing in popularity for many system applications. They can meet many commercial system specifications while maintaining antenna performance to produce compact, low-cost products. The inverted stripline configuration was developed to integrate with different solid-state devices like PIN, varactor and Gunn diodes (or transistor devices) for switching, tuning modulation, amplification and oscillating functions in

Julio Navarro; Kai Chang

1994-01-01

105

Commercial Application of Plasma Mass Separation in the Archimedes Filter Plant.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the commercial application of an innovative plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter to a pre-treatment plant that can be integrated into the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford and Savannah River Sites to significantly ...

C. E. Ahlfeld J. G. Gilleland J. D. Wagoner

2003-01-01

106

A remote sensing applications update: Results of interviews with Earth Observations Commercialization Program (EOCAP) participants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Earth remote sensing is a uniquely valuable tool for large-scale resource management, a task whose importance will likely increase world-wide through the foreseeable future. NASA research and engineering have virtually created the existing U.S. system, and will continue to push the frontiers, primarily through Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, research, and data and information systems. It is the researchers' view that the near-term health of remote sensing applications also deserves attention; it seems important not to abandon the system or its clients. The researchers suggest that, like its Landsat predecessor, a successful Earth Observing System program is likely to reinforce pressure to 'manage' natural resources, and consequently, to create more pressure for Earth Observations Commercialization (EOCAP) type applications. The current applications programs, though small, are valuable because of their technical and commercial results, and also because they support a community whose contributions will increase along with our ability to observe the Earth from space.

Mcvey, Sally

1991-01-01

107

Commercial applications and scientific research requirements for thermal-infrared observations of terrestrial surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the spring of 1986 the EOSAT Company and NASA Headquarters organized a workshop to consider: (1) the potential value of space-acquired multiband thermal remote sensing in terrestrial research and commercial applications, and (2) the scientific and technological requirements for conducting such observations from the LANDSAT platform. The workshop defined the instrument characteristics of three types of sensors that would be needed to expand the use of thermal information for Earth observation and new commercial opportunities. The panels from two disciplines, geology and evapotranspiration/botany, along with the instrument panel, presented their recommendations to the workshop. The findings of these meetings are presented.

Goward, Samuel N.; Taranik, James V.; Laporte, Daniel; Putnam, Evelyn S. (editor)

1986-01-01

108

A CASE STUDY DEMONSTRATING USE OF BEER'S CYBERNETIC MODEL OF VIABLE SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of Beer's cybernetic model of viable systems for the diagnosis of organizational deficiencies in the trade training network in New Zealand is described. Application of the model shows that none of the levels of recursion are viable: the highest level being the least viable. The model enables the authors to determine the factors preventing viability and to propose

G. A. BRITTON; H. McCALLION

1985-01-01

109

Corneal alterations induced by topical application of commercial latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost in rabbit.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin (PG) analogs, including latanoprost, travoprost, and bimatoprost, are currently the most commonly used topical ocular hypotensive medications. The purpose of this study was to investigate the corneal alterations in rabbits following exposure to commercial solution of latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost. A total of 64 New Zealand albino rabbits were used and four groups of treatments were constituted. Commercial latanoprost, travoprost, bimatoprost or 0.02% benzalkonium chloride (BAK) was applied once daily to one eye each of rabbits for 30 days. The contralateral untreated eyes used as controls. Schirmer test, tear break-up time (BUT), rose Bengal and fluorescein staining were performed on days 5, 10, 20, and 30. Central corneal changes were analyzed by in vivo confocal microscopy, and the corneal barrier function was evaluated by measurement of corneal transepithelial electrical resistance on day 5. Whole mount corneas were analyzed by using fluorescence confocal microscopy for the presence of tight-junction (ZO-1, occludin) and adherens-junction (E-cadherin, ?-catenin) proteins, actin cytoskeleton, proliferative marker Ki67 and cell apoptosis in the epithelium. Topical application of commercial PG analogs resulted in significant corneal epithelial and stromal defects while no significant changes in aqueous tear production, BUT, rose bengal and fluorescein staining scores on day 5. Commercial PG analogs induced dislocation of ZO-1 and occludin from their normal locus, disorganization of cortical actin cytoskeleton at the superficial layer, and disruption of epithelial barrier function. The eyes treated with 0.02% BAK and latanoprost exhibited significantly reduced Schirmer scores, BUT, and increased fluorescein staining scores on days 10 and 30, respectively. Topical application of commercial PG analogs can quickly impair the corneal epithelium and stroma without tear deficiency. Commercial PG analogs break down the barrier integrity of corneal epithelium, concomitant with the disruption of cell junction and actin cytoskeleton between superficial cells in the corneal epithelium in vivo. PMID:24632558

Chen, Wensheng; Dong, Nuo; Huang, Caihong; Zhang, Zhenhao; Hu, Jiaoyue; Xie, Hui; Pan, Juxin; Liu, Zuguo

2014-01-01

110

High-energy radiation and polymers: A review of commercial processes and emerging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation has been found to be widely applicable in modifying the structure and properties of polymers, and can be used to tailor the performance of either bulk materials or surfaces. Fifty years of research in polymer radiation chemistry has led to numerous applications of commercial and economic importance, and work remains active in the application of radiation to practical uses involving polymeric materials. This paper provides a survey of radiation-processing methods of industrial interest, ranging from technologies already commercially well established, through innovations in the active R&D stage which show exceptional promise for future commercial use. Radiation-processing technologies are discussed under the following categories: cross-linking of plastics and rubbers, curing of coatings and inks, heat-shrink products, fiber-matrix composites, chain-scission for processing control, surface modification, grafting, hydrogels, sterilization, natural product enhancement, plastics recycling, ceramic precursors, electronic property materials, ion-track membranes and lithography for microdevice production. In addition to new technological innovations utilizing conventional gamma and e-beam sources, a number of promising new applications make use of novel radiation types which include ion beams (heavy ions, light ions, highly focused microscopic beams and high-intensity pulses), soft X-rays which are focused, coherent X-rays (from a synchrotron) and e-beams which undergo scattering to generate patterns.

Clough, R. L.

2001-12-01

111

Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

Kenyon, Chase H.

1995-01-01

112

Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

Brunner, Robert

2014-04-01

113

Preparation of immobilized glucose oxidase and its application in improving breadmaking quality of commercial wheat flour.  

PubMed

Preparation of immobilized glucose oxidase (GO) on chitosan (CS)-sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and its application in improving breadmaking quality of commercial wheat flour were investigated. The optimum conditions for GO immobilization were: viscosity of CS: 700cP, ratio of CS to TPP (w/w): 5 to 1, and GO concentration 100U/mL. The obtained CSTPP-GO was 5?m-diameter particle with a pseudo-spherical shape. By addition of CSTPP-GO (400U/kg flour) and fungal ?-amylase (62.5U/kg flour), bread springiness slightly increased from 0.923 to 0.940, specific volume of crumb increased by 13.48% and hardness decreased by 19.22%, compared to addition of KBrO3 (60mg/kg flour). It could be concluded that CSTPP-GO combined with fungal ?-amylase had potential application in improving breadmaking quality of commercial wheat flour. PMID:24837914

Tang, Lele; Yang, Ruijin; Hua, Xiao; Yu, Chaohua; Zhang, Wenbin; Zhao, Wei

2014-10-15

114

Commercial applications of the ACTS mobile terminal millimeter-wave antennas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT), which will provide voice, data, and video communications to and from a vehicle (van, truck, or car) via NASA's geostationary ACTS satellite using the K- and K(sub a)-band frequency bands. The AMT is already planned to demonstrate a variety of communications from within the mobile vehicular environment, and within this paper a summary of foreseen commercial application opportunities is given. A critical component of the AMT is its antenna system, which must establish and maintain the basic RF link with the satellite. Two versions of the antenna are under development, each incorporating different technologies and offering different commercial applications.

Densmore, Arthur C.; Crist, Rick A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Tulintseff, Ann N.

1991-01-01

115

A modified commercial scanner as an image plate for table-top optical applications  

SciTech Connect

A reliable, accurate, and inexpensive optical detector for table-top applications is described here. Based on a commercial high resolution office scanner coupled to a projection on plate, it enables a large image plate surface, allowing recording of large images without systematic errors associated to coupling optics' aberrations. Several tests on distance-dependent and steady interference patterns will be presented and discussed. The extension to other types of optical measurement by substituting the projection on plate is proposed.

Casado-Rojo, S; Lorenzana, H E; Baonza, V G

2008-12-09

116

A compact manufacturable 76-77GHz radar module for commercial ACC applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design and measured results of a single-substrate transceiver module suitable for 76-77-GHz pulsed-Doppler radar applications are presented. Emphasis on ease of manufacture and cost reduction of commercial millimeter-wave systems is employed throughout as a design parameter. The importance of using predictive modeling techniques in understanding the robustness of the circuit design is stressed. Manufacturing techniques that conform to standard

I. Gresham; N. Jain; T. Budka; A. Alexanian; N. Kinayman; B. Ziegner; S. Brown; P. Staecker

2001-01-01

117

Biological Monitoring of Commercial Pesticide Applicators fro Urine Metabolites of the Herbicide Alachlor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alachlor (2-chloro-2?,6?-diethyl-N-[methoxymethyl] acetanilide), the active ingredient in several trade name herbicides, is absorbed through the skin and readily excreted in the urine as conjugated metabolites. This paper presents the results of a study to measure alachlor metabolites in the urine of commercial pesticide applicators who were applying alachlor to corn and soybean crops under normal work conditions. Three spot urine

Wayne T. Sanderson; Raymond Biagini; William Tolos; Gerry Henningsen; Barbara MacKenzie

1995-01-01

118

DEVELOPMENT OF CMOS ACTIVE PIXEL IMAGE SENSORS FOR LOW COST COMMERCIAL APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, under sponsorship from the NASA Oflice of Advanced Cmeepts and Technology, has been developing a second-generat ion scdid-state image sensor technology. Charge-coupled devices (CCDS) are a well-establish ed first generation image sensor technology. For both commercial and NASA applications, CCDS have numerous short comings. In response, the active phcl sensor (APS) technology has been under research,

Russell C. Gee; Sabrina E. Kcmcny; Quicsup Kim; Junichi Nakamura; Robert H. Nixon; Monico A. Ortiz; Craig Staller; Zhimin Zhou; Eric R Fossum

2004-01-01

119

Application of narrow-band television to industrial and commercial communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of narrow-band systems for use in space systems is presented. Applications of the technology to future spacecraft requirements are discussed along with narrow-band television's influence in stimulating development within the industry. The transferral of the technology into industrial and commercial communications is described. Major areas included are: (1) medicine; (2) education; (3) remote sensing for traffic control; and (5) weather observation. Applications in data processing, image enhancement, and information retrieval are provided by the combination of the TV camera and the computer.

Embrey, B. C., Jr.; Southworth, G. R.

1974-01-01

120

Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to further develop an incubation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs by characterizing the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determining the specificity of the method, and testing the method with viable and inactivated larvated eggs. The number of template copies per cell was determined by amplifying DNA from known numbers of eggs at different development stages; the value was estimated to be 32 copies. The specificity of the method was tested against a panel of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths, and no amplification was found with non-target DNA. Finally, fully larvated eggs were inactivated by four different treatments: 254 nm ultraviolet light, 2,000 ppm NH(3)-N at pH 9, moderate heat (48 °C) and high heat (70 °C). Concentrations of treated eggs were measured by direct microscopy and incubation-qPCR. The qPCR signal decreased following all four treatments, and was in general agreement with the decrease in viable eggs determined by microscopy. The incubation-qPCR method for enumerating viable Ascaris eggs is a promising approach that can produce results faster than direct microscopy, and may have benefits for applications such as assessing biosolids. PMID:23165716

Raynal, Maria; Villegas, Eric N; Nelson, Kara L

2012-12-01

121

A commercially viable solar wood drying kiln system  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study was to create a totally passive solar wood drying kiln that would dry lumber to 9% moisture content in a reasonable amount of time. A series of modifications led to a kiln design that dried freshly-cut lumber to 8% in a 29-day period with no case hardening or cracking. Air speed, internal and external temperatures and relative humidity levels were measured at 5-minute intervals. The average temperature inside the kiln was 12% higher with relative humidity levels 19% lower than outside the kiln. It is hypothesized that the daily cycles of heating and cooling permitted the interior moisture of the wood to reach the surface through diffusion, thus lessening stress and speeding drying of the lumber.

Vore, J.B. de; Denny, G.S.; Harper, T.S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States)

1999-01-01

122

Mobile clinical decision support systems and applications: a literature and commercial review.  

PubMed

The latest advances in eHealth and mHealth have propitiated the rapidly creation and expansion of mobile applications for health care. One of these types of applications are the clinical decision support systems, which nowadays are being implemented in mobile apps to facilitate the access to health care professionals in their daily clinical decisions. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to make a review of the current systems available in the literature and in commercial stores. Secondly, to analyze a sample of applications in order to obtain some conclusions and recommendations. Two reviews have been done: a literature review on Scopus, IEEE Xplore, Web of Knowledge and PubMed and a commercial review on Google play and the App Store. Five applications from each review have been selected to develop an in-depth analysis and to obtain more information about the mobile clinical decision support systems. Ninety-two relevant papers and 192 commercial apps were found. Forty-four papers were focused only on mobile clinical decision support systems. One hundred seventy-one apps were available on Google play and 21 on the App Store. The apps are designed for general medicine and 37 different specialties, with some features common in all of them despite of the different medical fields objective. The number of mobile clinical decision support applications and their inclusion in clinical practices has risen in the last years. However, developers must be careful with their interface or the easiness of use, which can impoverish the experience of the users. PMID:24399281

Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Sainz-de-Abajo, Beatriz; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan Miguel

2014-01-01

123

Algal chemodiversity and bioactivity: sources of natural variability and implications for commercial application.  

PubMed

There has been significant recent interest in the commercial utilisation of algae based on their valuable chemical constituents many of which exhibit multiple bioactivities with applications in the food, cosmetic, agri- and horticultural sectors and in human health. Compounds of particular commercial interest include pigments, lipids and fatty acids, proteins, polysaccharides and phenolics which all display considerable diversity between and within taxa. The chemical composition of natural algal populations is further influenced by spatial and temporal changes in environmental parameters including light, temperature, nutrients and salinity, as well as biotic interactions. As reported bioactivities are closely linked to specific compounds it is important to understand, and be able to quantify, existing chemical diversity and variability. This review outlines the taxonomic, ecological and chemical diversity between, and within, different algal groups and the implications for commercial utilisation of algae from natural populations. The biochemical diversity and complexity of commercially important types of compounds and their environmental and developmental control are addressed. Such knowledge is likely to help achieve higher and more consistent levels of bioactivity in natural samples and may allow selective harvesting according to algal species and local environmental conditions for different groups of compounds. PMID:21672617

Stengel, Dagmar B; Connan, Solène; Popper, Zoë A

2011-01-01

124

Current state of commercial radiation detection equipment for homeland security applications.  

SciTech Connect

With the creation of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) came the increased concern that terrorist groups would attempt to manufacture and use an improvised nuclear device or radiological dispersal device. As such, a primary mission of DHS is to protect the public against the use of these devices and to assist state and local responders in finding, locating, and identifying these types of devices and materials used to manufacture these devices. This assistance from DHS to state and local responders comes in the form of grant money to procure radiation detection equipment. In addition to this grant program, DHS has supported the development of American National Standards Institute standards for radiation detection equipment and has conducted testing of commercially available instruments. This paper identifies the types and kinds of commercially available equipment that can be used to detect and identify radiological material - for use in traditional search applications as well as primary and secondary screening of personnel, vehicles, and cargo containers. In doing so, key considerations for the conduct of operations are described as well as critical features of the instruments for specific applications. The current state of commercial instruments is described for different categories of detection equipment including personal radiation detectors, radioisotope identifiers, man-portable detection equipment, and radiation portal monitors. In addition, emerging technologies are also discussed, such as spectroscopic detectors and advanced spectroscopic portal monitors.

Klann, R. T.; Shergur, J.; Mattesich, G.; Nuclear Engineering Division; DHS

2009-10-01

125

Astaxanthin: Sources, Extraction, Stability, Biological Activities and Its Commercial Applications--A Review  

PubMed Central

There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3?-dihydroxy-?, ??-carotene-4,4?-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications.

Ambati, Ranga Rao; Siew Moi, Phang; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

2014-01-01

126

Effect of Bacteriophage Application on Campylobacter jejuni Loads in Commercial Broiler Flocks  

PubMed Central

Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent food-borne human enteritis. The major source for infection with Campylobacter spp. is broiler meat. Risk assessments consider the reduction of Campylobacter in primary production to be most beneficial for human health. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a bacteriophage application under commercial conditions which had proved to be effective in previous noncommercial studies under controlled experimental conditions. A phage cocktail for Campylobacter reduction was tested on three commercial broiler farms each with a control and an experimental group. Colonization of Campylobacter was confirmed prior to phage application in fecal samples. Subsequently, a phage cocktail was applied via drinking water in the experimental group (log10 5.8 to 7.5 PFU/bird). One day after phage application, Campylobacter counts of one experimental group were reduced under the detection limit (<50 CFU/g, P = 0.0140) in fecal samples. At slaughter, a significant reduction of >log10 3.2 CFU/g cecal content compared to the control was still detected (P = 0.0011). No significant reduction was observed in the experimental groups of the other trials. However, a significant drop in cecal Campylobacter counts occurred in a phage-contaminated control. These results suggest that maximum reduction of Campylobacter at the slaughterhouse might be achieved by phage application 1 to 4 days prior to slaughter.

Kittler, Sophie; Fischer, Samuel; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Glunder, Gerhard

2013-01-01

127

A spreadsheet-based microcomputer application for determining cost-effectiveness of commercial lighting retrofit opportunities  

SciTech Connect

Lighting accounts for 20-25% of electricity use in the United States. With estimates of 50-70% potential reductions being made by energy engineers, lighting is a promising area for cost-effective energy conservation projects in commercial buildings. With an extensive array of alternatives available to replace or modify existing lighting systems, simple but effective calculation tools are needed to help energy auditors evaluate lighting retrofits. This paper describes a spreadsheet-based microcomputer application for determining the cost-effectiveness of commercial lighting retrofits. Developed to support walk-through energy audits conducted by the Industrial Energy Advisory Service (IdEAS), the spreadsheet provides essential comparative data for evaluating the payback of alternatives. The impact of alternatives on environmental emissions is calculated to help communicate external costs and sell the project, if appropriate. The methodology and calculations are fully documented to allow the user to duplicate the spreadsheet and modify it as needed.

Spain, T.K. (Alabama Univ., Huntsville, AL (United States). Kenneth E. Johnson Environmental and Energy Center)

1992-01-01

128

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aerial Application of Pesticides.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist aerial pesticide applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. An introduction with the explanation of requirements of effective aerial application is presented. The six topics included describe: (1) Dispersal equipment; (2) Calibration; (3) Pattern testing; (4)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

129

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 11: Aerial Applicators. CS-26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the calibration and application of pesticides/herbicides by aircraft. Special attention is given to the field flight patterns and safety precautions which must be considered for the pilot, ground crews and the…

DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

130

Application study of filamentary composites in a commercial jet aircraft fuselage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study of applications of filamentary composite materials to aircraft fuselage structure was performed. General design criteria were established and material studies conducted using the 727-200 forebody as the primary structural component. Three design approaches to the use of composites were investigated: uniaxial reinforcement of metal structure, uniaxial and biaxial reinforcement of metal structure, and an all-composite design. Materials application studies for all three concepts were conducted on fuselage shell panels, keel beam, floor beams, floor panels, body frames, fail-safe straps, and window frames. Cost benefit studies were conducted and developmental program costs estimated. On the basis of weight savings, cost effectiveness, developmental program costs, and potential for early application on commercial aircraft, the unaxial design is recommended for a 5-year flight service evaluation program.

Johnson, R. W.; June, R. R.

1972-01-01

131

Commercialization of NASA's High Strength Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, the commercialization of a new high strength cast aluminum alloy, invented by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, for high temperature applications will be presented. Originally developed to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low- exhaust emission, the novel NASA aluminum alloy offers dramatic improvement in tensile and fatigue strengths at elevated temperatures (450 F-750 F), which can lead to reducing part weight and cost as well as improving performance for automotive engine applications. It is an ideal low cost material for cast components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. NASA alloy also offers greater wear resistance, dimensional stability, and lower thermal expansion compared to conventional aluminum alloys, and the new alloy can be produced economically from sand, permanent mold and investment casting. Since 2001, this technology was licensed to several companies for automotive and marine internal combustion engines applications.

Lee, Jonathan A.

2003-01-01

132

Regenerative Fuel Cell System Testbed Program for Government and Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Lewis Research Center's Electrochemical Technology Branch has led a multiagency effort to design, fabricate, and operate a regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system testbed. Key objectives of this program are to evaluate, characterize, and demonstrate fully integrated RFC's for space, military, and commercial applications. The Lewis-led team is implementing the program through a unique international coalition that encompasses both Government and industry participants. Construction of the 25-kW RFC testbed at the NASA facility at Edwards Air Force Base was completed in January 1995, and the system has been operational since that time.

1996-01-01

133

Development of CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensors for Low Cost Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes ongoing research and development of CMOS active pixel image sensors for low cost commercial applications. A number of sensor designs have been fabricated and tested in both p-well and n-well technologies. Major elements in the development of the sensor include on-chip analog signal processing circuits for the reduction of fixed pattern noise, on-chip timing and control circuits and on-chip analog-to-digital conversion (ADC). Recent results and continuing efforts in these areas will be presented.

Fossum, E.; Gee, R.; Kemeny, S.; Kim, Q.; Mendis, S.; Nakamura, J.; Nixon, R.; Ortiz, M.; Pain, B.; Zhou, Z.; Ackland, B.; Dickinson, A.; Eid, E.; Inglis, D.

1994-01-01

134

Tools and Data Services from the NASA Earth Satellite Observations for Remote Sensing Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several commercial applications of remote sensing data, such as water resources management, environmental monitoring, climate prediction, agriculture, forestry, preparation for and migration of extreme weather events, require access to vast amounts of archived high quality data, software tools and services for data manipulation and information extraction. These on the other hand require gaining detailed understanding of the data's internal structure and physical implementation of data reduction, combination and data product production. The time-consuming task must be undertaken before the core investigation can begin and is an especially difficult challenge when science objectives require users to deal with large multi-sensor data sets of different formats, structures, and resolutions.

Vicente, Gilberto

2005-01-01

135

Evaluation and qualification of environmentally conscious manufacturing processes for commercial and military applications  

SciTech Connect

Environmental regulations are encouraging the development of new environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECNP processes. However, the quality and reliability of these processes and hardware produced must be understood prior to implementing these new technologies in factories. Furthermore, military hardware fabrication is governed by standards and specifications that frequently mandate the use of older, less environmentally friendly processes or materials, or prohibit the use of new ECM processes without advance military approvaL Sandia National Laboratories, with industrial and military partners, have developed methodologies for evaluating and qualifying new ECM processes for military and commercial applications, and have piloted these methodologies in qualifying new, low-residue soldering technologies and materials.

Anderson, D.J.; Cranwell, R.M.; Iman, R.; Van Buren, P.D.

1995-03-01

136

Evaluations of the commercial spectrometer systems for safeguards applications using the germanium detectors  

SciTech Connect

Safeguards applications require the best spectrometer systems with excellent resolution, stability, and throughput. Instruments must perform well in all the situations and environments. Data communication to the computer should be convenient, fast, and reliable. The software should have all the necessary tools and be ease to use. Portable systems should be small in size, lightweight, and have a long battery life. Nine commercially available spectrometer systems are tested with both the planar and coaxial germanium detectors. Considering the performance of the Digital Signal Processors (DSP), digital-based spectroscopy may be the future of gamma-ray spectroscopy.

Vo, D.T.

1998-12-31

137

Safety Evaluation of Two Commercial Lithium-ion Batteries for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lithium-ion batteries have been used for applications on the Shuttle and Station for the past six years. A majority of the li-ion batteries flown are Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) varieties. The COTS batteries and cells were tested under nominal and abusive conditions for performance and safety characterization. Within the past six months two batteries have been certified for flight and use on the Space Station. The first one is a Hand Spring PDA battery that had a single prismatic li-ion cell and the second is an Iridium satellite phone that had a two-cell pack with prismatic li-ion cells.

Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Collins, Jacob; Cook, Joseph S.

2004-01-01

138

A proposed acceptance process for commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software in reactor applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a process for acceptance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software products for use in reactor systems important to safety. An initial set of four criteria establishes COTS software product identification and its safety category. Based on safety category, three sets of additional criteria, graded in rigor, are applied to approve/disapprove the product. These criteria fall roughly into three areas: product assurance, verification of safety function and safety impact, and examination of usage experience of the COTS product in circumstances similar to the proposed application. A report addressing the testing of existing software is included as an appendix.

Preckshot, G.G.; Scott, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-03-01

139

Development of CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensors for Low Cost Commercial Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

JPL, under sponsorship from the NASA Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology, has been developing a second-generation solid-state image sensor technology. Charge-coupled devices (CCD) are a well-established first generation image sensor technology. For both commercial and NASA applications, CCDs have numerous shortcomings. In response, the active pixel sensor (APS) technology has been under research. The major advantages of APS technology are the ability to integrate on-chip timing, control, signal-processing and analog-to-digital converter functions, reduced sensitivity to radiation effects, low power operation, and random access readout.

Gee, R.; Kemeny, S.; Kim, Q.; Mendis, S.; Nakamura, J.; Nixon, R.; Ortiz, M.; Pain, B.; Staller, C.; Zhou, Z; Fossum, E.

1994-01-01

140

Organizations as systems: the viable systems model (VSM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looks at some key features of the viable systems model (VSM) and its application, which has been extensively applied to the diagnosis and design of organizations for management purposes. Uses highlighted boxes explaining: cybernetics; VSM; and application. Spotlights a Figure of the VSM model as identified by cybernetics expert Stafford Beer.

B Gould

1999-01-01

141

Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator System. Phase I. Final Report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the design and analysis of the BDM CAPVC (Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator) system. The preliminary design, prototype test and evaluation, system analysis, and final design of a large-scale concentrating photovol...

D. J. Anderson E. R. Anderson K. M. Bardwell

1980-01-01

142

The NASA LeRC regenerative fuel cell system testbed program for goverment and commercial applications  

SciTech Connect

The Electrochemical Technology Branch of the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has initiated a program to develop a renewable energy system testbed to evaluate, characterize, and demonstrate fully integrated regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system for space, military, and commercial applications. A multi-agency management team, led by NASA LeRC, is implementing the program through a unique international coalition which encompasses both government and industry participants. This open-ended teaming strategy optimizes the development for space, military, and commercial RFC system technologies. Program activities to date include system design and analysis, and reactant storage sub-system design, with a major emphasis centered upon testbed fabrication and installation and testing of two key RFC system components, namely, the fuel cells and electrolyzers. Construction of the LeRC 25 kW RFC system testbed at the NASA-Jet Propulsion Labortory (JPL) facility at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) is nearly complete and some sub-system components have already been installed. Furthermore, planning for the first commercial RFC system demonstration is underway. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

Maloney, T.M. [NYMA Inc./NASA LeRC Group, 21000 Brookpark Rd., M.S. 309-1, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Prokopius, P.R. [NASA LeRC, 21000 Brookpark Rd., M.S. 309-1, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Voecks, G.E. [Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., M.S. 125/224, Pasadena, California 91109-8099 (United States)

1995-01-25

143

Commercial applications of speech interface technology: an industry at the threshold.  

PubMed

Speech interface technology, which includes automatic speech recognition, synthetic speech, and natural language processing, is beginning to have a significant impact on business and personal computer use. Today, powerful and inexpensive microprocessors and improved algorithms are driving commercial applications in computer command, consumer, data entry, speech-to-text, telephone, and voice verification. Robust speaker-independent recognition systems for command and navigation in personal computers are now available; telephone-based transaction and database inquiry systems using both speech synthesis and recognition are coming into use. Large-vocabulary speech interface systems for document creation and read-aloud proofing are expanding beyond niche markets. Today's applications represent a small preview of a rich future for speech interface technology that will eventually replace keyboards with microphones and loud-speakers to give easy accessibility to increasingly intelligent machines. PMID:7479717

Oberteuffer, J A

1995-10-24

144

Commercial applications of speech interface technology: an industry at the threshold.  

PubMed Central

Speech interface technology, which includes automatic speech recognition, synthetic speech, and natural language processing, is beginning to have a significant impact on business and personal computer use. Today, powerful and inexpensive microprocessors and improved algorithms are driving commercial applications in computer command, consumer, data entry, speech-to-text, telephone, and voice verification. Robust speaker-independent recognition systems for command and navigation in personal computers are now available; telephone-based transaction and database inquiry systems using both speech synthesis and recognition are coming into use. Large-vocabulary speech interface systems for document creation and read-aloud proofing are expanding beyond niche markets. Today's applications represent a small preview of a rich future for speech interface technology that will eventually replace keyboards with microphones and loud-speakers to give easy accessibility to increasingly intelligent machines.

Oberteuffer, J A

1995-01-01

145

A test-based comparison between technologies implemented in commercial cameras for high contrast imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LAM is developing a high-contrast imaging testbeds for in-lab demonstration of new instrumental concepts requiring high contrast imaging: in particular, for solar and stellar coronagraphy applications. In such applications, a faint target has to be detected close to a very bright source. For these test-benches, a high-dynamic range detector is required to characterize and/or to determine the performance of a new concept. Beyond the capability to detect the target, an imaging detector has to be accurate, reliable and provide reproducible performances. In order to identify a commercial camera for the development of laboratory demonstrators working with high contrast scenes, we carried out a test campaign at the Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) evaluating several cameras implementing different detector technologies. This paper presents the results of the test campaign, carried out at LAM, providing a quantitative comparison between the investigated technologies

Pancrazzi, M.; Landini, F.; Vives, S.; Escolle, C.; N'Diaye, M.; Focardi, M.; Guillon, C.

2012-07-01

146

A decade of experience from commercial 3D laser range sensors for ground applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For use in the development of synthetic environment models, the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) bought two laser scanners in the beginning of this millennium, one from the Austrian company Riegl and one from the Canadian Optech. This was the start for over a decade of use of commercial laser range sensors at FOI. The laser scanners have so far been used for different applications such as point cloud algorithm development (detection, classification and reconnaissance of targets), phenomenology studies, reflectance measurements and environment and ground truth measurements. This paper presents different laser scanner technologies (pulsed Time of Flight, Continues Wave (CW), Flash and distributed light) and compare advantages and limitations of the technologies. The paper also include some examples of the use of laser scanning in applications and presents methods for laser range sensors performance evaluation used and developed at FOI.

Larsson, Hâkan

2012-09-01

147

High-power ultrasonic TERFENOL-D transducers enable commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic technology applications have been researched in a wide range of fields, from sonochemistry and industrial cleaning to medical tools and agriculture. However, the largest limitation in many of these applications is the inability of existing technology to provide a single transducer with sufficient power to make important laboratory sonochemical processes commercially successful. TERFENOL-D magnetostrictive material technology enables a next-generation high power ultrasonic transducer. Until very recently, generating high power at high frequency has been unexplored territory for giant magnetostrictive materials. But the unique attributes of these materials, such as energy density and thermal handling capabilities, are being used to develop a wide variety of transducers, devices and systems for existing as well as new ultrasonic applications. These unique material attributes combine with novel magnetic field generation, transducer, acoustic transmission and coupling concepts to meet the challenges of power, size, thermal, efficiency and reliability requirements of transducers and system for many ultrasonic applications. Polymer processing and curing, enhanced oil and gas recovery, seed sonication, surgical tools, and beer foaming are just some of the many applications where ultrasonic magnetostrictive technologies are overcoming barriers to provide improved solutions.

Weisensel, G. N.; Hansen, T. Toby; Hrbek, William D.

1998-06-01

148

Coordinated Fuel Cell System Programs for Government and Commercial Applications: Are We in a New Era?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Though the fuel cell was invented in 1839, it was not until the early 1960's that the fuel cell power system was developed and used for a real application, for the NASA Space Mission Gemini. Unfortunately, fuel cell power systems did not, as a result, become in widespread use. Nevertheless, a great deal of progress has been made by both government and industry, culminating in many successful fuel cell power system demonstrations. Initially, each government agency and each private organization went its own way. Later, it became evident that coordination among programs was essential. An overview is presented of the current coordinated efforts by government and industry in fuel cells, with a sufficient historical background. The primary barriers to coordination of programs were institutional and differing application requirements. Initially, in the institutional area, it was the energy crisis and the formation of DOE which fostered close working relationships among government, manufacturers, and users. The authors discuss the fuel cell power system programs (of NASA, DOE, DOT, DOC, EPRI, GRI, industry, and universities), including missions and applications, technology advances, and demonstrations. The discussion covers the new Solar Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) program which has space, defense, and commercial terrestrial applications, and which is an excellent example of both program coordination and the Clinton Administration's dual-use application policy.

Warshay, Marvin; Prokopius, Paul

1996-01-01

149

Determinants of atrazine contamination in the homes of commercial pesticide applicators across time.  

PubMed

Twenty-nine commercial pesticide applicator households in eastern Iowa were enrolled to investigate in-home contamination of atrazine, the most commonly used corn herbicide in the Unites States. From each home, four vacuum dust samples were collected during atrazine application season (Visit 1) and again 6 months later during winter months (Visit 2). Samples were taken from the following locations: primary entryway for pesticide applicator, living room, master bedroom, and kitchen. The applicator completed an atrazine handling log and household questionnaire with spouse. Of the 230 dust samples, only 2 were below the level of detection, 2 ng of atrazine per gram (ng/g) of fine dust (dust particle size 5-150 ?m). Dust levels were standardized to chemical loading. During application season the entryway (2.68 ng/cm(2)) and kitchen (0.47 ng/cm(2)) had the highest geometric mean atrazine chemical loading. The entryway chemical loading during Visit 2 was the second highest aggregate (0.55 ng/cm(2)). Aggregate concentrations were significantly higher at Visit 1 compared with Visit 2 when paired by location (p?0.02). Analysis showed that job (application, mixing/loading, or both) was not associated with in-home atrazine contamination. Linear regression showed a strong positive association between atrazine handling (number of acres applied with atrazine, number of days atrazine handled, and pounds of atrazine handled) and aggregate dust chemical loading from both visits (p = 0.06, 0.03, and 0.10, respectively). Frequency of vacuuming was inversely associated with Visit 2 concentrations (p = 0.10) and showed a weaker association with Visit 1 (p = 0.30). Removing shoes outside the home was associated with lower atrazine chemical loading (p = 0.03), and applicators changing work clothes in the master bedroom had significantly increased atrazine chemical loading in master bedrooms (p = 0.01). Changes in hygiene practices for commercial pesticide applicators could significantly reduce atrazine and, likely, other pesticide contaminations in the home. PMID:22506545

Lozier, Matthew J; Curwin, Brian; Nishioka, Marcia G; Sanderson, Wayne

2012-01-01

150

Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation report, Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, is to validate the computational method used to perform postclosure criticality calculations. The validation process applies the criticality analysis methodology approach documented in Section 3.5 of the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report. The application systems for this validation consist of waste packages containing transport, aging, and disposal canisters (TAD) loaded with commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) of varying assembly types, initial enrichments, and burnup values that are expected from the waste stream and of varying degree of internal component degradation that may occur over the 10,000-year regulatory time period. The criticality computational tool being evaluated is the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The nuclear cross-section data distributed with MCNP 5.1.40 and used to model the various physical processes are based primarily on the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version VI (ENDF/B-VI) library. Criticality calculation bias and bias uncertainty and lower bound tolerance limit (LBTL) functions for CSNF waste packages are determined based on the guidance in ANSI/ANS 8.1-1998 (Ref. 4) and ANSI/ANS 8.17-2004 (Ref. 5), as described in Section 3.5.3 of Ref. 1. The development of this report is consistent with Test Plan for: Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality. This calculation report has been developed in support of licensing activities for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the results of the calculation may be used in the criticality evaluation for CSNF waste packages based on a conceptual TAD canister.

Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL; Mueller, Don [ORNL; Goluoglu, Sedat [ORNL; Hollenbach, Daniel F [ORNL; Fox, Patricia B [ORNL

2007-10-01

151

Computers for Manned Space Applications Base on Commercial Off-the-Shelf Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Similar to the consumer markets there has been an ever increasing demand in processing power, signal processing capabilities and memory space also for computers used for science data processing in space. An important driver of this development have been the payload developers for the International Space Station, requesting high-speed data acquisition and fast control loops in increasingly complex systems. Current experiments now even perform video processing and compression with their payload controllers. Nowadays the requirements for a space qualified computer are often far beyond the capabilities of, for example, the classic SPARC architecture that is found in ERC32 or LEON CPUs. An increase in performance usually demands costly and power consuming application specific solutions. Continuous developments over the last few years have now led to an alternative approach that is based on complete electronics modules manufactured for commercial and industrial customers. Computer modules used in industrial environments with a high demand for reliability under harsh environmental conditions like chemical reactors, electrical power plants or on manufacturing lines are entered into a selection procedure. Promising candidates then undergo a detailed characterisation process developed by Astrium Space Transportation. After thorough analysis and some modifications, these modules can replace fully qualified custom built electronics in specific, although not safety critical applications in manned space. This paper focuses on the benefits of COTS1 based electronics modules and the necessary analyses and modifications for their utilisation in manned space applications on the ISS. Some considerations regarding overall systems architecture will also be included. Furthermore this paper will also pinpoint issues that render such modules unsuitable for specific tasks, and justify the reasons. Finally, the conclusion of this paper will advocate the implementation of COTS based electronics for a range of applications within specifically adapted systems. The findings in this paper are extrapolated from two reference computer systems, both having been launched in 2008. One of those was a LEON-2 based computer installed onboard the Columbus Orbital Facility while the other system consisted mainly of a commercial Power-PC module that was modified for a launch mounted on the ICC pallet in the Space Shuttle's cargo bay. Both systems are currently upgraded and extended for future applications.

Vogel, T.; Gronowski, M.

2009-05-01

152

Research and test facilities for development of technologies and experiments with commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of NASA'S agency-wide goals is the commercial development of space. To further this goal NASA is implementing a policy whereby U.S. firms are encouraged to utilize NASA facilities to develop and test concepts having commercial potential. Goddard, in keeping with this policy, will make the facilities and capabilities described in this document available to private entities at a reduced cost and on a noninterference basis with internal NASA programs. Some of these facilities include: (1) the Vibration Test Facility; (2) the Battery Test Facility; (3) the Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator Facility; (4) the High Voltage Testing Facility; (5) the Magnetic Field Component Test Facility; (6) the Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility; (7) the High Capacity Centrifuge Facility; (8) the Acoustic Test Facility; (9) the Electromagnetic Interference Test Facility; (10) the Space Simulation Test Facility; (11) the Static/Dynamic Balance Facility; (12) the High Speed Centrifuge Facility; (13) the Optical Thin Film Deposition Facility; (14) the Gold Plating Facility; (15) the Paint Formulation and Application Laboratory; (16) the Propulsion Research Laboratory; (17) the Wallops Range Facility; (18) the Optical Instrument Assembly and Test Facility; (19) the Massively Parallel Processor Facility; (20) the X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Auger Microscopy/Spectroscopy Laboratory; (21) the Parts Analysis Laboratory; (22) the Radiation Test Facility; (23) the Ainsworth Vacuum Balance Facility; (24) the Metallography Laboratory; (25) the Scanning Electron Microscope Laboratory; (26) the Organic Analysis Laboratory; (27) the Outgassing Test Facility; and (28) the Fatigue, Fracture Mechanics and Mechanical Testing Laboratory.

1989-01-01

153

Large Scale Application of Vibration Sensors for Fan Monitoring at Commercial Layer Hen Houses  

PubMed Central

Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable.

Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A.; Heber, Albert J.; Bogan, Bill W.; Chai, Li-Long

2010-01-01

154

InfraCAM (trade mark): A Hand-Held Commercial Infrared Camera Modified for Spaceborne Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In 1994, Inframetrics introduced the InfraCAM(TM), a high resolution hand-held thermal imager. As the world's smallest, lightest and lowest power PtSi based infrared camera, the InfraCAM is ideal for a wise range of industrial, non destructive testing, surveillance and scientific applications. In addition to numerous commercial applications, the light weight and low power consumption of the InfraCAM make it extremely valuable for adaptation to space borne applications. Consequently, the InfraCAM has been selected by NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for use as part of the DARTFire (Diffusive and Radiative Transport in Fires) space borne experiment. In this experiment, a solid fuel is ignited in a low gravity environment. The combustion period is recorded by both visible and infrared cameras. The infrared camera measures the emission from polymethyl methacrylate, (PMMA) and combustion products in six distinct narrow spectral bands. Four cameras successfully completed all qualification tests at Inframetrics and at NASA Lewis. They are presently being used for ground based testing in preparation for space flight in the fall of 1995.

Manitakos, Daniel; Jones, Jeffrey; Melikian, Simon

1996-01-01

155

Prototype rigid polyimide components. [application of Apollo technology to commercial nonflammable materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The activity is reported which was conducted for utilizing spin-off Apollo base technology to fabricate a variety of commercial and aerospace related parts that are nonflammable and resistant to high-temperature degradation. Manufacturing techniques and the tooling used to fabricate each of the polyimide/glass structures is discussed. A brief history, tracing the development of high-temperature polyimide resins, is presented along with a discussion of the properties of DuPont's PI 2501/glass material (later redesignated PI 4701/glass). Mechanical and flammability properties of DuPont's PI 2501/glass laminates are compared with epoxy, phenolic, and silicone high-temperature resin/glass material systems. Offgassing characteristics are also presented. A discussion is included of the current developments in polyimide materials technology and the potential civilian and government applications of polyimide materials to reduce fire hazards and increase the survivability of men and equipment.

Wykes, D. H.

1975-01-01

156

The viable system model and the Viplan software  

Microsoft Academic Search

The software Viplan learning system is an aid to learn about Beer’s viable system model (VSM) and its application. This is done with the support of the Viplan method. The five activities of this method are explained with examples. First, it offers an approach to understand and discuss organisational identity through analysis of stakeholders. Second, it describes structural modelling of

Raul Espejo; Diane Bowling; Patrick Hoverstadt

1999-01-01

157

Technology data characterizing water heating in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial-sector conservation analyses have traditionally focused on lighting and space conditioning because of their relatively-large shares of electricity and fuel consumption in commercial buildings. In this report we focus on water heating, which is one of the neglected end uses in the commercial sector. The share of the water-heating end use in commercial-sector electricity consumption is 3%, which corresponds to

Osman Sezgen; Jonathan G. Koomey

1995-01-01

158

Symbiosis and the viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to suggest symbiosis could be a metaphor for finding ways to help countries that are challenged to become economically and socially viable. Beer's viable system model (VSM), which also has biological roots could be applied to look for gaps in the conditions for viability and to seek to fill them through collaborative

Allenna Leonard

2007-01-01

159

Peri-viable birth: legal considerations.  

PubMed

Peri-viable birth raises an array of complex moral and legal concerns. This article discusses the problem with defining viability, touches on its relationship to abortion jurisprudence, and analyzes a few interesting normative implications of current medical practice at the time of peri-viable birth. PMID:24468570

Sayeed, Sadath A

2014-02-01

160

World Market for Commercial China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first objective of this study was to identify and define any viable export markets and evaluate significant competitive factors or other barriers to entry facing domestic commercial chinaware producers in their efforts to export. This report presents ...

1981-01-01

161

The New Anechoic Shielded Chambers Designed for Space and Commercial Applications at LIT  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The main objective of this paper is to present the capabilities of the new anechoic shielded rooms designed for space and commercial applications as part of the Integration and Testing Laboratory (LIT, Laboratorio de Integracao e Testes) in Brazil. A new anechoic shielded room named CBA2 has been in full operation since March 2007 and a remodeled chamber CBA1 is planned to be ready by the end of 2008, replacing an old facility which was in operation for the last 18 years. The Brazilian Space Program started with very small and simple satellites and the old CBA1 chamber was conceived in 1987 to accomplish the EMI/EMC tests not requiring significant volumes. Since the very beginning this facility was also used by the private sector for other applications mainly due to the absorption of digital electronics in all kind of products. The intense use of this facility during the last years, operating three shifts a day, caused a normal degradation and imposed several limitations. Therefore, a new totally remodeled chamber was designed considering the state of the art in terms of absorbers and associated instrumentation. On the other hand the facility CBA2 was conceived, designed and implemented to test large satellites taking into account the advance of the technology in terms of RF frequencies, power level, testing methodologies and several other factors. A very interesting and unique aspect of this project was the partnership between the private sector and governmental institution. As a result, the total investment was shared between several companies and consequently a time-sharing use of the facility as well.

da Silva, Benjamim; Galvao, M. C.; Pereira, Clovis Solano

2008-01-01

162

Hole filling and library optimization: application to commercially available fragment libraries.  

PubMed

Compound libraries comprise an integral component of drug discovery in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. While in-house libraries often contain millions of molecules, this number pales in comparison to the accessible space of drug-like molecules. Therefore, care must be taken when adding new compounds to an existing library in order to ensure that unexplored regions in the chemical space are filled efficiently while not needlessly increasing the library size. In this work, we present an automated method to fill holes in an existing library using compounds from an external source and apply it to commercially available fragment libraries. The method, called Canvas HF, uses distances computed from 2D chemical fingerprints and selects compounds that fill vacuous regions while not suffering from the problem of selecting only compounds at the edge of the chemical space. We show that the method is robust with respect to different databases and the number of requested compounds to retrieve. We also present an extension of the method where chemical properties can be considered simultaneously with the selection process to bias the compounds toward a desired property space without imposing hard property cutoffs. We compare the results of Canvas HF to those obtained with a standard sphere exclusion method and with random compound selection and find that Canvas HF performs favorably. Overall, the method presented here offers an efficient and effective hole-filling strategy to augment compound libraries with compounds from external sources. The method does not have any fit parameters and therefore it should be applicable in most hole-filling applications. PMID:22503740

An, Yuling; Sherman, Woody; Dixon, Steven L

2012-09-15

163

Caltech/JPL Conference on Image Processing Technology, Data Sources and Software for Commercial and Scientific Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent advances in image processing and new applications are presented to the user community to stimulate the development and transfer of this technology to industrial and commercial applications. The Proceedings contains 37 papers and abstracts, including many illustrations (some in color) and provides a single reference source for the user community regarding the ordering and obtaining of NASA-developed image-processing software and science data.

Redmann, G. H.

1976-01-01

164

Process heat in California: Applications and potential for solar energy in the industrial, agricultural and commercial sectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the results of a survey of potential applications of solar energy for supplying process heat requirements in the industrial, agricultural, and commercial sectors of California is presented. Technical, economic, and institutional characteristics of the three sectors are examined. Specific applications for solar energy are then discussed. Finally, implications for California energy policy are discussed along with recommendations for possible actions by the State of California.

Barbieri, R. H.; Bartera, R. E.; Davis, E. S.; Hlavka, G. E.; Pivirotto, D. S.; Yanow, G.

1978-01-01

165

A viable systems perspective to knowledge management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To provide the knowledge structure for an effective knowledge-based organization which integrates knowledge into organizational goals. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The structure, function, and process of a viable organization were discussed which provided a basis to construct a knowledge management (KM) framework and demonstrate knowledge structure in a knowledge-based organization. Based on systems view and viable systems model (VSM), a

Chyan Yang; Hsueh-Chuan Yen

2007-01-01

166

Tools and Data Services From the NASA Earth Satellite Observations for Remote Sensing Commercial Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several commercial applications of remote sensing data, such as water resources management, environmental monitoring, climate prediction, agriculture, forestry, and preparation for and mitigation of extreme weather events, require access to vast amounts of archived high quality data, and software tools and services for data manipulation and information extraction. Using these data requires detailed understanding of the their internal structure and physical implementation for data reduction, combination, and production. This time-consuming task must be undertaken before the core investigation can begin and is an especially difficult challenge when science objectives require users to deal with large multi-sensor data sets of different formats, structures, and resolutions. In addressing these issues, the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences (GES), Data and Information Service Center (DISC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) has made great progress in facilitating science and applications research, by developing innovative tools and data services applied to the Earth sciences atmospheric and climate data. The GES/DISC/DAAC has successfully implemented and maintained a long-term climate satellite data archive and developed tools and services for a variety of atmospheric science missions, including instruments from AIRS, AVHRR, MODIS, SeaWiFS, SORCE, TOMS, TOVS, TRMM, and UARS and Aura, providing researchers with excellent opportunities to acquire accurate and continuous atmospheric measurements. Because these various missions generate an ever increasing amount of data and products as a result of more sophisticated sensors and new science algorithms, the main challenge for data centers like the GES/DISC/DAAC is to guide users through the variety of data sets and products, provide tools to visualize and reduce the volume of the data, and secure uninterrupted and reliable access to the data and related products. This presentation will describe the effort at the GES/DISC/DAAC to build a bridge between multi-sensor data and the effective scientific use of the data, with an emphasis on the heritage satellite observations and science products for climate applications. The intent is to inform users of the existence of this large collection of data and products, suggest starting points for cross-platform science projects and data mining activities, and provide data services and tools information. More information is available through the GES/DISC/DAAC site http://disc.gsfc.nasa.gov.

Vicente, G. A.; Support Team, G.

2005-05-01

167

Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

1996-07-01

168

An Application of SVM on Stakeholders? Influence of Capital Allocation in Commercial Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, by using support vector machine (SVM) regression, the simulation model of the influences of stakeholders on capital management in commercial banks is established. The results are tested by utilizing the samples of Chinese joint-stock commercial banks during the period of 1999-2006 and compared with results of PLS regression and BP neural network. The result is gotten that

Haiqing Hu; Dan Zhang; Duo Huang

2008-01-01

169

Research and Test Facilities for Development of Technologies and Experiments with Commercial Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of NASA'S agency-wide goals is the commercial development of space. To further this goal NASA is implementing a policy whereby U.S. firms are encouraged to utilize NASA facilities to develop and test concepts having commercial potential. Goddard, in k...

1989-01-01

170

Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2E: Commercial equipment utility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examination of commercial equipment technologies revealed that the functional performance requirements of space processing equipment could generally be met by state-of-the-art design practices. Thus, an apparatus could be evolved from a standard item or derived by custom design using present technologies. About 15 percent of the equipment needed has no analogous commercial base of derivation and requires special development. This equipment is involved primarily with contactless heating and position control. The derivation of payloads using commercial equipment sources provides a broad and potentially cost-effective base upon which to draw. The derivation of payload equipment from commercial technologies poses other issues beyond that of the identifiable functional performance, but preliminary results on testing of selected equipment testing appear quite favorable. During this phase of the SPA study, several aspects of commercial equipment utility were assessed and considered. These included safety, packaging and structural, power conditioning (electrical/electronic), thermal and materials of construction.

Smith, A. G. (editor)

1974-01-01

171

Application of Commercial Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Sensors for Sub-Ambient Carbon Dioxide Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration within a spacecraft or spacesuit is critically important to ensuring the safety of the crew. Carbon dioxide uniquely absorbs light at wavelengths of 3.95 micrometers and 4.26 micrometers. As a result, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy can be employed as a reliable and inexpensive method for the quantification of CO2 within the atmosphere. A multitude of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) NDIR sensors exist for CO2 quantification. The COTS sensors provide reasonable accuracy so long as the measurements are attained under conditions close to the calibration conditions of the sensor (typically 21.1 C and 1 atm). However, as pressure deviates from atmospheric to the pressures associated with a spacecraft (8.0-10.2 PSIA) or spacesuit (4.1-8.0 PSIA), the error in the measurement grows increasingly large. In addition to pressure and temperature dependencies, the infrared transmissivity through a volume of gas also depends on the composition of the gas. As the composition is not known a priori, accurate sub-ambient detection must rely on iterative sensor compensation techniques. This manuscript describes the development of recursive compensation algorithms for sub-ambient detection of CO2 with COTS NDIR sensors. In addition, the basis of the exponential loss in accuracy is developed theoretically considering thermal, Doppler, and Lorentz broadening effects which arise as a result of the temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas mixture under analysis. As a result, this manuscript provides an approach to employing COTS sensors at sub-ambient conditions and may also lend insight into designing future NDIR sensors for aerospace application.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Boerman, Craig

2011-01-01

172

Application of Commercial Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Sensors for Sub-Ambient Carbon Dioxide Detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration within a spacecraft or spacesuit is critically important to ensuring the safety of the crew. Carbon dioxide uniquely absorbs light at wavelengths of 3.95 micrometers and 4.26 micrometers. As a result, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy can be employed as a reliable and inexpensive method for the quantification of CO2 within the atmosphere. A multitude of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) NDIR sensors exist for CO2 quantification. The COTS sensors provide reasonable accuracy as long as the measurements are attained under conditions close to the calibration conditions of the sensor (typically 21.1 C (70.0 F) and 1 atmosphere). However, as pressure deviates from atmospheric to the pressures associated with a spacecraft (8.0{10.2 pounds per square inch absolute (psia)) or spacesuit (4.1{8.0 psia), the error in the measurement grows increasingly large. In addition to pressure and temperature dependencies, the infrared transmissivity through a volume of gas also depends on the composition of the gas. As the composition is not known a priori, accurate sub-ambient detection must rely on iterative sensor compensation techniques. This manuscript describes the development of recursive compensation algorithms for sub-ambient detection of CO2 with COTS NDIR sensors. In addition, the source of the exponential loss in accuracy is developed theoretically. The basis of the loss can be explained through thermal, Doppler, and Lorentz broadening effects that arise as a result of the temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas mixture under analysis. This manuscript provides an approach to employing COTS sensors at sub-ambient conditions and may also lend insight into designing future NDIR sensors for aerospace application.

Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

2012-01-01

173

Geothermal potential for commercial and industrial direct heat applications in Salida, Colorado. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Salida Geothermal Prospect (Poncha Hot Springs) was evaluated for industrial and commercial direct heat applications at Salida, Colorado, which is located approximately five miles east of Poncha Hot Springs. Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd., holds the geothermal leases on the prospect and the right-of-way for the main pipeline to Salida. The Poncha Hot Springs are located at the intersection of two major structural trends, immediately between the Upper Arkansas graben and the Sangre de Cristo uplift. Prominent east-west faulting occurs at the actual location of the hot springs. Preliminary exploration indicates that 1600 gpm of geothermal fluid as hot as 250/sup 0/F is likely to be found at around 1500 feet in depth. The prospective existing endusers were estimated to require 5.02 x 10/sup 10/ Btu per year, but the total annual amount of geothermal energy available for existing and future endusers is 28.14 x 10/sup 10/ Btu. The engineering design for the study assumed that the 1600 gpm would be fully utilized. Some users would be cascaded and the spent fluid would be cooled and discharged to nearby rivers. The economic analysis assumes that two separate businesses, the energy producer and the energy distributor, are participants in the geothermal project. The producer would be an existing limited partnership, with Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd. as one of the partners; the distributor would be a new Colorado corporation without additional income sources. Economic evaluations were performed in full for four cases: the Base Case and three alternate scenarios. Alternate 1 assumes a three-year delay in realizing full production relative to the Base Case; Alternate 2 assumes that the geothermal reservoir is of a higher quality than is assumed for the Base Case; and Alternate 3 assumes a lower quality reservoir. 11 refs., 34 figs., 40 tabs.

Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.; Galloway, M.J.; Gross, J.T.; Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

1982-10-01

174

Thermoluminescent characteristics of new pre-calibrated dosimeters (TLD) in commercially available readers for selected applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the performance of newly developed pre-calibrated Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLD) with a description and performance results for two commercially available TLD readers. Introduced for use in basic research, medical diagnostics and therapy applications, the Harshaw Model 5500 Automatic TLD Reader evaluates up to 50 dosimeters (rods, chips, disks, ?-cubes) per loading; the Harshaw Model 3500 Manual TLD Reader evaluates single dosimeters and powder. Tests were conducted using the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) guidelines for TLD readers to determine system performance and compliance. Both instruments passed the compliance standards in all tests established by the IEC: detection thresholds for both instruments were less than 10?Gy, reproducibility was better than 0.7%, sensitivity to ambient light was less than 0.2 Hmax (where Hmax is the maximum detection threshold), TL residue was less than 1% of the total integral charge, stability less than 1% deviation after a 24 hour warm-up period, linearity was within specification, test light stability was under 1%, and power leakage requirements set forth by UL-544 (less than 500 ?A AC RMS leakage) was less than 42 ?A AC RMS in all cases. The characteristics of newly introduced, factory calibrated, extruded TLD-100 rods were investigated by studying the consistency of the Element Correction Coefficients (ECCs) under a variety of conditions. The ECC (< x> / xi) relates an individual dosimeter's response, xi, to the mean response, < x>, of the group. Supralinearity effects and the validity of ECCs generated at 1 cGy for use in the 50-900 cGy dose range were characterized and reported. The results for two specific applications, phantom studies with 60Co and at four Orthovoltage energies are also reported. Portability of Element Correction Coefficients from reader to reader was achieved with a relative standard deviation of less than 1.7%. The relative standard deviation of five TLDs exposed to various doses in the range of 50-900 cGy, with ECCs applied using a 1 cGy dose, yielded results under 2%. At Orthovoltage energies ranging from 100 kV p to 300 kV p, the corresponding relative standard deviations were less than 3%.

Tawil, R. A.; Pontikos, P.; Szalanczy, A.; Velbeck, K.; Bruml, W.; Rotunda, J. E.

1994-12-01

175

Coscheduling in Clusters: Is It a Viable Alternative?  

SciTech Connect

As clusters are widely accepted as cost-effective infrastructures for many scientific and commercial applications, improving the deliverable performance and reducing the energy consumption of such systems has become a pressing issue. In this paper, we exploit the feasibility of achieving these objectives through efficiently scheduling the communicating processes of parallel applications. In this context, we conduct an in-depth evaluation of a broad spectrum of scheduling alternatives for clusters. These include the widely used batch scheduling, local scheduling, gang scheduling, all prior communication-driven coscheduling algorithms, and a newly proposed HYBRID coscheduling algorithm. In order to provide ease of implementation and portability across many cluster platforms, we propose a generic framework for deploying any coscheduling algorithm. We have implemented four prior coscheduling algorithms (Dynamic Coscheduling (DCS), Spin Block (SB), Periodic Boost (PB), and Co-ordinated Coscheduling (CC)) and the HYBRID coscheduling using this framework on a 16-node, Myrinet connected Linux cluster that uses GM as the communication layer. In addition, we use PBS as the batch scheduler and a previously proposed gang scheduler (SCore) to analyze all classes of scheduling techniques. Performance and energy measurements using several NAS and LLNL benchmarks on the Linux cluster provide several interesting conclusions. First, although batch scheduling is currently used in most clusters, all blocking-based coscheduling techniques such as SB, CC and HYBRID and the gang scheduling can provide much better performance even in a dedicated cluster platform. Under high system load, these coscheduling schemes can provide orders of magnitude reduction in average response time and much better performance-energy behavior compared to the PBS scheme. Second, in contrast to some of the prior studies, we observe that blocking-based schemes like SB and HYBRID can provide better performance than spin-based techniques like PB on a Linux platform. Third, the proposed HYBRID scheduling provides the best performance-energy behavior and can be implemented on any cluster with little effort. All these results suggest that blocking-based coscheduling techniques are viable candidates to be used instead of batching scheme for significant performance-energy benefits.

Choi, G S; Kim, J H; Ersoz, D; Yoo, A B; Das, C R

2003-11-10

176

40 CFR 457.10 - Applicability; description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the commercial manufacture of explosives subcategory. 457.10 Section 457...GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS (CONTINUED) EXPLOSIVES MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Explosives Subcategory § 457.10...

2013-07-01

177

78 FR 50139 - Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Miami Nice Tours  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...commercial driver's license (CDL) provisions of part 383 of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations (FMCSRs) (49 CFR 350-399) for itself and 50 European drivers. Miami, a motor carrier, would employ the 50 European drivers to conduct...

2013-08-16

178

Investigation and Modification of a Commercially Available Tactile Sensor Suited for Robotic Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Active (dynamic) tactile sensing was explored using a commercially available tactile array sensor. This task requires the redesign of the sensor interface and a full understanding of the old sensor hardware implementation. There were different stages to t...

C. Creus

1991-01-01

179

Development of zinc-bromine batteries for utility applications: Commercialization task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been working on two complementary, concurrent zinc-bromine battery contracts directed at the use of this technology in utility load leveling operations. The Department of Energy contract is concerned with technology development while the Electric Power Research Institute contract RR2123-3 is centered around those studies necessary for commercialization to take place. The commercialization program reported herein

C. Chi; P. R. Voyentzie

1990-01-01

180

Estimating commercial property prices: an application of cokriging with housing prices as ancillary information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vast majority of the recent literature on spatial hedonic analysis has been concerned with residential property values,\\u000a with only very few examples of studies focused on commercial property prices. The dearth of studies can be attributed to some\\u000a of the challenges faced in the analysis of commercial properties, in particular the scarcity of information compared to residential\\u000a transactions. In

José-María Montero-Lorenzo; Beatriz Larraz-Iribas; Antonio Páez

2009-01-01

181

Flat Conductor Cable systems - Originally developed for space flight, useful for commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flat Conductor Cable (FCC) technology has now reached a level of development where it is being considered for, and used in, numerous interconnection projects. First developed for aerospace use, FCC is becoming a major contender for commercial wiring tasks as well. This presentation is designed to show why and how FCC has been able to make the transition from the aerospace to the commercial field.

Angele, W.

1973-01-01

182

Commercial application in high-efficiency FGD of sorbent injection with flue gas humidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper updates the commercial progress in the recent development of a low-capital-cost method of achieving high efficiency (85--90%) removal of SO from high-sulfur fossil fuel combustion. The results of the successful performance of a proof-of-concept, field pilot plant operation in Izmir, Turkey are presented. In addition, details of the design of the first commercial scale, high-performance installation of dry

W. Ellison; W. A. Walsh; S. Serinken

1999-01-01

183

Application of commercial biochemical oxygen demand inocula for biodegradable dissolved organic carbon determination.  

PubMed

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) measure the amount of biodegradable organics in water samples using mixed culture seeds. The BOD method relies on the dissolved oxygen reduction while the BDOC procedure, which is more novel, is based on the dissolved organic carbon decrease during the incubation. In this study, three commercial BOD seeds, namely BOD Seed, Bi-Chem and Polyseed, were tested as inocula for BDOC measurement. Standard solutions, secondary effluent and raw surface water samples were used. BDOC exertions provided by the commercial seeds were compared with those obtained from two existing BDOC inocula, indigenous and mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) seeds. The commercial and indigenous inocula provided similar exertion trends and BDOC results that were not significantly different for surface water samples while the results for secondary effluent samples were inconclusive. The MLSS inoculum tend to provide slightly higher BDOC values and faster exertion kinetics than the commercial and indigenous inocula. The exertions by all five inocula could be expressed well with first-order kinetics for all cases that enough data were available for kinetics evaluation. The commercial seeds were similar in terms of BDOC determination accuracy and precision, and exertion kinetics. It is possible to use the commercial BOD inocula as seeds for BDOC determination but the results might not be statistically the same as those of the indigenous inoculum for certain types of samples. PMID:16278006

Khan, Eakalak; Sy-Savane, Ousmane; Jittawattanarat, Rungrod

2005-11-01

184

Moving research to patient applications through commercialization: understanding and evaluating the role of intellectual property.  

PubMed

The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization, and 5) the role of intellectual property and commercialization in the advancement of healthcare. PMID:20353687

Patino, Robert M

2010-03-01

185

Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8B: Mosquito Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the mimimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the mosquito control category. The text discusses the aspects of mosquito biology and control by biological, mechanical, and integrated measures. A study guide with sample and study questions is included.…

Schulze, Terry L., Ed.; Kriner, Ray R., Ed.

186

Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7B: Termites and Other Wood Destroying Pests. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite and wood destroying pest control category. The text discusses the importance, description, biology, and control of termites, powderpost beetles, house and warf borers, carpenter ants, and…

Schmitt, John B.

187

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION OF PLASMA MASS SEPARATION IN THE ARCHIMEDES FILTER PLANT  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the commercial application of an innovative plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter to a pre-treatment plant that can be integrated into the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford and Savannah River Sites to significantly enhance the treatment of radioactive high-level waste. The output of the Archimedes Filter is completely compatible with existing waste immobilization processes such as vitrification and requires no new waste form to be developed. A full-geometric-scale Demonstration Filter Unit (DEMO) has been constructed and is undergoing initial testing at the Archimedes Technology Group Development Facilities in San Diego. Some of the technology and engineering development is being performed by other organizations in collaboration with Archimedes. The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing the plasma calcination technology and all of the associated systems for AFP feed preparation. Two Russian institutes are involved in the development of the ICP torch and injector system. The Remote System Group (UT-Battelle) at ORNL is developing the remote maintenance system for the filter units. Conceptual design of the Archimedes Filter Plant (AFP) is being developed concurrently with the DEMO testing program. The AFP mission is to significantly reduce the cost and accelerate the rate of vitrification of high-level waste by separating low activity waste from the sludge removed from underground storage tanks. Mass separation is accomplished by vaporizing the sludge feed and injecting it into a partially ionized, neutral plasma. In a single pass, heavy ions are deposited near the center of the filter and light mass ions are transported by the plasma to the ends of the cylindrically-shaped vacuum vessel. Responding to the DOE programs for cost reduction and cleanup acceleration, the AFP Project is planned on an expeditious schedule that executes all phases of the project with private sector funding. The initial AFP implementation is targeted for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site. Hot commissioning is scheduled for late 2007 with design throughput and availability achieved by end of 2008. It is anticipated that AFP revenues will be based on a shared cost savings model, thus providing first revenues by late 2007. Preliminary safety studies have shown that AFP process hazards are similar to or less hazardous than those in a radio-chemical pre-treatment plant for high-level waste. Conservative criticality evaluations indicate very large margins from criticality. Development of a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report will begin in mid 2003 to support licensing activities. A detailed permitting plan has been developed which, when combined with other activities, support a start of construction in 2005.

Ahlfeld, C.E.; Gilleland, J.G.; Wagoner, J.D.

2003-02-27

188

A low-cost BLDC motor drive using buck-boost converter for residential and commercial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel low-cost, highly efficient, reliable and compact motor drive topology for residential and commercial applications, such as building air conditioning, appliances, etc. The drives consist of a three-phase permanent magnet brushless DC (BLDC) motor, an AC-DC converter and a three-phase inverter containing six silicon-controlled rectifiers (SCRs). A microcontroller or a digital signal processor (DSP) is used

Rahul Khopkar; S. M. Madmi; Masoud HaJiaghajani; H. A. Tohya

2003-01-01

189

Photoelectrochemical characterization of TiO 2 coatings derived from commercial sol solution for cathodic protection applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary photoelectrochemical characterization of TiO2 coatings made using a commercial sol solution on indium–tin oxide glass substrates was carried out under aerated conditions. The sample with TiO2 coating without heat treatment yielded the most negative open-circuit potential on ultraviolet illumination, while the 400°C heat-treated sample gave the maximum photocurrent. Both properties are desirable for photocathodic protection applications. A TiO2 coating,

Raghavan Subasri; Tadashi Shinohara

2005-01-01

190

Civil tiltrotor missions and applications. Phase 2: The commercial passenger market  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The commercial passenger market for the civil tiltrotor was examined in phase 2. A market responsive commercial tiltrotor was found to be technically feasible, and a significant worldwide market potential was found to exist for such an aircraft, especially for relieving congestion in urban area-to-urban area service and for providing cost effective hub airport feeder service. Potential technical obstacles of community noise, vertiport area navigation, surveillance, and control, and the pilot/aircraft interface were determined to be surmountable. Nontechnical obstacles relating to national commitment and leadership and development of ground and air infrastructure were determined to be more difficult to resolve; an innovative public/private partnership is suggested to allow coordinated development of an initial commercial tiltrotor network to relieve congestion in the crowded US Northeast corridor by the year 2000.

Thompson, P.; Neir, R.; Reber, R.; Scholes, R.; Alexander, H.; Sweet, D.; Berry, D. (editor)

1991-01-01

191

Models for residential-and commercial-sector energy conservation analysis: Applications, limitations, and future potential  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four of the major models used by DOE for energy conservation analyses in the residential and commercial building sectors are reviewed and critically analyzed to determine how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. The most effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy conservation policy and analysis is assessed. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

Cole, H. E.; Fuller, R. E.

1980-09-01

192

Technology data characterizing refrigeration in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with COMMEND 4.0  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, energy consumption is increasing most rapidly in the commercial sector. Consequently, the commercial sector is becoming an increasingly important target for state and federal energy policies and also for utility-sponsored demand side management (DSM) programs. The rapid growth in commercial-sector energy consumption also makes it important for analysts working on energy policy and DSM issues to have access to energy end-use forecasting models that include more detailed representations of energy-using technologies in the commercial sector. These new forecasting models disaggregate energy consumption not only by fuel type, end use, and building type, but also by specific technology. The disaggregation of the refrigeration end use in terms of specific technologies, however, is complicated by several factors. First, the number of configurations of refrigeration cases and systems is quite large. Also, energy use is a complex function of the refrigeration-case properties and the refrigeration-system properties. The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Commercial End-Use Planning System (COMMEND 4.0) and the associated data development presented in this report attempt to address the above complications and create a consistent forecasting framework. Expanding end-use forecasting models so that they address individual technology options requires characterization of the present floorstock in terms of service requirements, energy technologies used, and cost-efficiency attributes of the energy technologies that consumers may choose for new buildings and retrofits. This report describes the process by which we collected refrigeration technology data. The data were generated for COMMEND 4.0 but are also generally applicable to other end-use forecasting frameworks for the commercial sector.

Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

1995-12-01

193

Space Commercialization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

Martin, Gary L.

2011-01-01

194

The soul of the viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functionalist interpretation of how to employ the Viable System Model (VSM), which sees it being used to identify systems in the world, clarify their objectives, and rearrange their subunits according to some idealized structure, cannot be justified from a reading of Beer's works and is sensibly rejected by sophisticated users of the model. Taking that as given, what this

Michael C. Jackson

1992-01-01

195

Mediation and Counseling Services: A Viable Partnership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mediation has become common in many areas of society, including marital dissolution, community disputes, governmental agencies, and business and industry. Though higher education has been slower than society to adopt mediation services, campus mediation is becoming increasingly more common. This article explains why mediation is a viable

Hodges, Shannon

2009-01-01

196

Energy use and conservation in the commercial sector: Volume 2, An application of the NBECS (Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey) commercial conditional demand model to a test case utility, San Diego Gas and Electric Company: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an investigation into the application of an enhanced conditional demand analysis (CDA) technique to the estimation and forecasting of commercial sector energy demand. The report consists of two volumes. This volume, the second, describes the application of the technique to a particular utility service area. 5 refs., 4 figs., 27 tabs.

Parti, M.; Sebald, A.V.; Farber, M.

1988-02-01

197

Models for residential-and commercial-sector energy conservation analysis: Applications, limitations, and future potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four of the major models used by DOE for energy conservation analyses in the residential and commercial building sectors are reviewed and critically analyzed to determine how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. The most effective role for each model in addressing future issues

H. E. Cole; R. E. Fuller

1980-01-01

198

Application of the Iron-Enriched Basalt Waste Form for Immobilizing Commercial Transuranic Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The principal sources of commercial transuranic (TRU) waste in the United States are identified. The physical and chemical nature of the wastes from these sources are discussed. The fabrication technique and properties of iron-enriched basalt, a rock-like...

D. E. Owen

1981-01-01

199

Thin-Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization, Critical Issues and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report here on the major commercialization aspects of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies based on CIGS and CdTe (a-Si and thin-Si are also reported for completeness on the status of thin-film PV). Worldwide silicon (Si) based PV technologies cont...

B. von Roedern H. S. Ullal

2007-01-01

200

Application of reactors for testing neutron-induced upsets in commercial SRAMs  

SciTech Connect

Reactor neutron environments can be used to test/screen the sensitivity of unhardened commercial SRAMs to low-LET neutron-induced upset. Tests indicate both thermal/epithermal (< 1 keV) and fast neutrons can cause upsets in unhardened parts. Measured upset rates in reactor environments can be used to model the upset rate for arbitrary neutron spectra.

Griffin, P.J.; Luera, T.F.; Sexton, F.W.; Cooper, P.J.; Karr, S.G.; Hash, G.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fuller, E. [Novus Technology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-08-01

201

Application of Fault-Tolerant Computing For Spacecraft Using Commercial- Off-The-Shelf Microprocessors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Low availability, high cost, and poor performance of radiation hardened (rad-hard) equipment has driven the market to rely on commercial-off- the-shelf (COTS) equipment for the computing needs of today's spacecraft. This thesis describes the tailoring of ...

S. E. Groening K. Davenport-Whitehouse

2000-01-01

202

Commercial and industrial applications getting ready for direct-current power distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes design trends in several classes of power-electronic appliances that will increase the appeal for distributing DC power in buildings. In the commercial sector information technology (IT) power conversion architectures are moving from multi to single-voltage supplies, initially 12 Vdc and evolving toward 48 Vdc. These changes apply to both data processing and Internet server equipment. For motor

D. Crudele; A. Mansoor; F. Khan

2004-01-01

203

77 FR 4881 - Commercial Driver's license (CDL) Standards; Rotel North American Tours, LLC; Application for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...drivers employed by Rotel and possessing German CDLs, to operate commercial motor vehicles...non-residents of the U.S. and holders of German CDLs. Rotel asks that the current exemption...same purpose to 22 Rotel drivers with German CDLs (75 FR 45200). Further...

2012-01-31

204

Short communication: Application of an N-acetyl-l-cysteine-NaOH decontamination method for the recovery of viable Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis from milk of naturally infected cows.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is shed into the milk of cattle affected by Johne's disease and, therefore, is a route of transmission for infection in young stock in dairy herds. The objective of this study was to validate a decontamination and culture protocol for the recovery of MAP from individual bovine milk samples from known infected herds. Decontamination of milk samples (n=17) with either 0.75% hexadecylpyridinium chloride for 5h or N-acetyl-l-cysteine-1.5% sodium hydroxide (NALC-1.5% NaOH) for 15min before culture in BACTEC 12B (Becton Dickinson, Franklin, NJ), para-JEM [Thermo Fisher Scientific (TREK Diagnostic Systems, Inc.), Cleveland, OH], and Herrold's egg yolk (HEY; Becton Dickinson) media was compared. Treatment with NALC-NaOH resulted in a lower percentage (6%) of contaminated samples than did treatment with hexadecylpyridinium chloride (47%), regardless of culture medium. The decontamination protocol (NALC-1.5% NaOH) was then applied to milk samples (n=144) collected from cows at 7 US dairies. Recovery of viable MAP from the milk samples was low, regardless of culture medium, with recovery from 2 samples cultured in BACTEC 12B medium, 1 sample cultured in para-JEM medium, and no viable MAP recovered on HEY medium. However, 32 cows were fecal culture positive and 13 milk samples were positive by direct PCR, suggesting that several cows were actively shedding MAP at the time of milk collection. Contamination rates were similar across media, with 39.6, 34.7, and 41.7% of samples contaminated after culture in BACTEC 12B, para-JEM, and HEY media, respectively. Herd-to-herd variation had a major effect on sample contamination, with the percentage of contaminated samples ranging from 4 to 83%. It was concluded that decontamination of milk with NALC-1.5% NaOH before culture in BACTEC 12B medium was the most efficacious method for the recovery of viable MAP from milk, although the ability to suppress the growth of contaminating microorganisms varied greatly between herds. PMID:24657082

Bradner, L; Robbe-Austerman, S; Beitz, D C; Stabel, J R

2014-06-01

205

36 CFR 28.13 - Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...application procedures. (a) The zoning authority shall send the Superintendent...industrial uses submitted to the zoning authority within five calendar days of...the applicant. (b) The zoning authority shall send the...

2010-07-01

206

36 CFR 28.13 - Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...application procedures. (a) The zoning authority shall send the Superintendent...industrial uses submitted to the zoning authority within five calendar days of...the applicant. (b) The zoning authority shall send the...

2009-07-01

207

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Forest Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Common forest pests and their control are discussed. Special attention is given to the effectiveness of different application techniques and potential human and environmental hazards. (CS)

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

208

Effects of postchill application of acidified sodium chlorite to control Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli on commercial broiler carcasses.  

PubMed

Experiments were performed to assess the reduction of Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli in commercial broiler carcasses by postchill dip applications of acidified sodium chlorite. Carcass rinses were collected before the inside-outside-bird washer (IOBW), post-IOBW, postchill, and after the postchill application of acidified sodium chlorite. Prevalence and counts of Campylobacter spp. and E. coli were determined. The mean values for Campylobacter spp. and E. coli counts differed significantly at sampling sites. The IOBW reduced the bacterial counts significantly in only one experiment. The chiller reduced Campylobacter counts significantly in both experiments but failed to significantly reduce the counts of E. coli in one experiment. No major reduction in the prevalence after enrichment for Campylobacter spp. was detected post-IOBW or postchill. However, a significant reduction in Campylobacter spp. and in E. coli counts and Campylobacter spp. prevalence was seen after the postchill application of acidified sodium chlorite. These results demonstrate that the antimicrobial effect of acidified sodium chlorite applied postchill may be used to significantly reduce Campylobacter spp. and E. coli in commercial broiler carcasses. Postchill systems may eventually be used in different applications, such as mist, spray, or bath, which could be applied closer to the final stages in processing. PMID:15508645

Oyarzabal, Omar A; Hawk, Christopher; Bilgili, Sacit F; Warf, C Cayce; Kemp, G Kere

2004-10-01

209

A downstream process for production of a viable and stable Bacillus cereus aquaculture biological agent.  

PubMed

Biological products offer advantages over chemotherapeutics in aquaculture. Adoption in commercial application is lacking due to limitations in process and product development that address key end user product requirements such as cost, efficacy, shelf life and convenience. In previous studies, we have reported on the efficacy, physiological robustness and low-cost spore production of a Bacillus cereus isolate (NRRL 100132). This study examines the development of suitable spore recovery, drying, formulation and tablet production from the fermentation product. Key criteria used for such downstream process unit evaluation included spore viability, recovery, spore balance, spore re-germination, product intermediate stability, end product stability and efficacy. A process flow sheet comprising vertical tube centrifugation, fluidised bed agglomeration and tablet pressing yielded a suitable product. The formulation included corn steep liquor and glucose to enhance subsequent spore regermination. Viable spore recovery and spore balance closure across each of the process units was high (>70% and >99% respectively), with improvement in recovery possible by adoption of continuous processing at large scale. Spore regermination was 97%, whilst a product half-life in excess of 5 years was estimated based on thermal resistance curves. The process resulted in a commercially attractive product and suitable variable cost of production. PMID:19921182

Lalloo, Rajesh; Maharajh, Dheepak; Görgens, Johann; Gardiner, Neil

2010-03-01

210

A Pulse Power Modulator System for Commercial High Power Ion Beam Surface Treatment Applications  

SciTech Connect

The Ion Beam Surface Treatment (lBESTrM) process utilizes high energy pulsed ion beams to deposit energy onto the surface of a material allowing near instantaneous melting of the surface layer. The melted layer typically re-solidifies at a very rapid rate which forms a homogeneous, fine- grained structure on the surface of the material resulting in significantly improved surface characteristics. In order to commercialize the IBESTTM process, a reliable and easy-to-operate modulator system has been developed. The QM-I modulator is a thyratron-switched five-stage magnetic pulse compression network which drives a two-stage linear induction adder. The adder provides 400 kV, 150 ns FWHM pulses at a maximum repetition rate of 10 pps for the acceleration of the ion beam. Special emphasis has been placed upon developing the modulator system to be consistent with long-life commercial service.

Barrett, D.M.; Cockreham, B.D.; Dragt, A.J.; Ives, H.C.; Neau, E.L.; Reed, K.W.; White, F.E.

1999-05-24

211

Application of commercial glasses for high gamma dose measurement using optical densitometric technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial glass plates have been studied for their optical density (OD) changes following 60Co gamma radiation exposure in the dose range 0.10–100kGy. These glasses have responded linearly upto 15kGy gamma doses; thereafter, the OD response became slower and reached to saturation level at 80kGy. No further increments in the optical densities of the glasses have been observed beyond 80kGy gamma

Pradeep Narayan; S. G. Vaijapurkar; K. R. Senwar; D. Kumar; P. K. Bhatnagar

2008-01-01

212

A closed loop wireless power transmission system using a commercial RFID transceiver for biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a standalone closed loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (MLX90121) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop fashion. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power

Mehdi Kiani; Maysam Ghovanloo

2009-01-01

213

Surface characterization of commercial fibers for solid-phase microextraction and related problems in their application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surfaces of commercially available polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Carboxen-PDMS fibers for solid-phase microextraction\\u000a (SPME) were investigated by optical and electron microscopy. Damage to the coating as well as contamination of new fibers\\u000a and a highly variable number of pores in Carboxen-PDMS coatings were observed. Together with the contamination of the fibers\\u000a during their use with metallic particles originating from the

C. Haberhauer-Troyer; M. Crnoja; E. Rosenberg; M. Grasserbauer

2000-01-01

214

In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot Potential Commercial and Exploration Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The key goals and objectives for an In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot are to support a safe, reliable, affordable and effective future human and robotic space exploration initiative. Previous studies have been conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to determine technical requirements and feasibility for exploration and commercial potential of an in-space cryogenic propellant depot in low-Earth-orbit (LEO), low-Lunar orbit (LLO) and/or on the lunar surface. Results indicate that in-space cryogenic propellant depots are technically feasible given continued technology development and that there is a substantial growing market that depots could support. Systems studies showed that the most expensive part of transferring payloads to geo-synchronous-orbit (GEO) is the fuel. A cryogenic propellant production and storage depot stationed in LEO could lower the cost of missions to GEO and beyond. Propellant production separates water into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis. This process requires large amounts of power which is enabled by Space Solar Power technologies. Recent analysis indicate that in the coming decades there could be a significant demand for water-based propellants from Earth, moon, or asteroid resources if in-space transfer vehicles (upper stages) transitioned to reusable systems using water based propellants. This type of strategic planning move could create a substantial commercial market for space resources development, and ultimately lead toward significant commercial infrastructure development within the Earth-Moon system.

Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; Henley, Mark W.

2006-01-01

215

Determination of Total, Viable Cells and Enterobacteraceae in Categorized Milk Powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was conducted to examine the microbiological quality of commercial milk powders. A total of 30 dried milk powders, 10 each of Skim Milk Powder (SMP), Semi Skim Milk Powder (SSMP) and Full Cream Milk Powder (FCMP) purchased from market of Hyderabad, Sindh were evaluated for microbiological quality characteristics, like Total Viable Count (TVC), thermoduric count and Enterobacteraceae

Imran Rashid Rajput; M. Khaskheli; H. A. Kaleri; S. A. Fazlani; K. Devi; G. B. Khaskheli

2009-01-01

216

The transfer of viable microorganisms between planets.  

PubMed

There is increasing acceptance that catastrophic cosmic impacts have played an important role in shaping the history of terrestrial life. Large asteroid and cometary impacts are also capable of displacing substantial quantities of planetary surface material into space. The discovery of Martian rocks on Earth suggests that viable microorganisms within such ejecta could be exchanged between planets. If this conjecture is correct, it will have profound implications for the origin and evolution of life in the solar system. PMID:9243022

Davies, P C

1996-01-01

217

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1C: Agricultural Crop Disease Control. CS-11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. It summarizes the economically important diseases of field and forage crops such as corn, soybeans and alfalfa. Special attention is given to pesticide application methods and safety. (CS)

Nyvall, Robert F.; Ryan, Stephen O.

218

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 6: Right-of-Way Pest Control. CS-18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses important right-of-way weeds and unwanted woody plants and provides suggestions for both long- and short-term control. Attention is also given to special problems associated with application of right-of-way herbicides.…

Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephan O.

219

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the recognition of weeds and methods of their control in rights-of-way. Different types of application equipment both airborne and ground are discussed with precautions for the safe and effective use of herbicides. (CS)

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

220

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 5: Aquatic Pest Control. CS-17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the control of aquatic weeds in a variety of water use situations, i.e. static water, limited-flow impoundments and moving water. Also discussed are the principles of limited area application such as surface or…

Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

221

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Food Processing Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Characteristics, life cycles and habits of pests such as roaches, beetles, flies, ants and rodents are discussed. Additionally, pest control measures, especially by application of aerosols, dusts, baits, fumigants or vapors, is presented. (CS)

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

222

Evaluation of commercial adsorbents and their application for desulfurization of model fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of dibenzothiophene from model fuel was carried out by adsorption on commercially available adsorbents including\\u000a an activated carbon, aluminum oxide, 13X and Y zeolite. Activated carbon was SOLCARBTM C3 which was grinded from its original particle size 1.0–2.0 mm to the 0.40–0.80 mm, while aluminum oxide Selexsorb CDX,\\u000a 13X zeolite MSE 13X and Y zeolite HSZ-320NAA were used in their

Marko Muzic; Katica Sertic-Bionda; Tamara Adzamic

223

Investigation and modification of a commercially available tactile sensor suited for robotic applications. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Active (dynamic) tactile sensing was explored using a commercially available tactile array sensor. This task requires the redesign of the sensor interface and a full understanding of the old sensor hardware implementation. There were different stages to this research; the first stage involved the reverse engineering of the old tactile sensor. The second stage had to do with the exploration of the characteristics and behavior of the tactile sensor pad. The next stage dealt with the redesign of the sensor interface using the knowledge gained from the previous two stages. Finally, in the last stage, software to control the tactile sensor was developed to aid in the data acquisition process.

Creus, Carolina

1991-01-01

224

Process to Selectively Distinguish Viable from Non-Viable Bacterial Cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The combination of ethidium monoazide (EMA) and post-fragmentation, randomly primed DNA amplification technologies will enhance the analytical capability to discern viable from non-viable bacterial cells in spacecraft-related samples. Intercalating agents have been widely used since the inception of molecular biology to stain and visualize nucleic acids. Only recently, intercalating agents such as EMA have been exploited to selectively distinguish viable from dead bacterial cells. Intercalating dyes can only penetrate the membranes of dead cells. Once through the membrane and actually inside the cell, they intercalate DNA and, upon photolysis with visible light, produce stable DNA monoadducts. Once the DNA is crosslinked, it becomes insoluble and unable to be fragmented for post-fragmentation, randomly primed DNA library formation. Viable organisms DNA remains unaffected by the intercalating agents, allowing for amplification via post-fragmentation, randomly primed technologies. This results in the ability to carry out downstream nucleic acid-based analyses on viable microbes to the exclusion of all non-viable cells.

LaDuc, Myron T.; Bernardini, Jame N.; Stam, Christina N.

2010-01-01

225

Thin agar layer- versus most probable number-PCR to enumerate viable and stressed Escherichia coli O157:H7 and application in a traditional raw milk pasta filata cheese.  

PubMed

A mid-log phase broth culture of Escherichia (E.) coli O157:H7 381 (final concentration 10(4) cfu/mL) was monitored by conventional liquid- and solid-based enumeration techniques combined with PCR while it was subjected to thermal stress in gradually more complex systems (i.e., Tryptone Soya Broth, pasteurized milk and during lab-scale productions of a pasta filata fior di latte cheese obtained from raw or pasteurized milk). Our results highlighted: i) the incapability of the selective medium, ii) the effectiveness of the thin agar layer-PCR method, and iii) the effectiveness of the most probable number (MPN)-PCR method (in comparison with both plating-based methods) in recovering and selectively counting viable and stressed or injured E. coli O157:H7. Moreover, MPN-PCR was superior to both plating-based methods in terms of speed and easiness to get results. The thermal stresses herein applied (heating at 55 °C for 5 and 8 min) were less effective on the pasteurized milk than on the Tryptone Soya Broth and the pathogen was more protected in the raw milk-based matrices than in the pasteurized ones. Moreover, given the contamination level (10(4) cfu/mL of milk) of the strain, the temperature/time of stretching and the hardening and brining conditions herein used, the complete inactivation of the pathogen is not achievable. PMID:22906600

Fusco, Vincenzina; Riccardi, Maria; Quero, Grazia Marina

2012-09-17

226

Targeting biological sensing with commercial SERS substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing need for rapid and accurate detection, identification, and quantification of chemical, biological, and energetic hazards in many fields of interest. To meet these challenges, researchers are combining spectroscopy with nanoscale platforms to create technologies that offer viable and novel solutions for today's sensing needs. One technology that has gained increasing popularity to meet these needs is surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). For ideal SERS sensing, commercially available uniform and reproducible nanoscale surface demonstrating high sensitivity are desirable. If these surfaces can be modified for the selective sensing of hazard materials, an ideal sensor platform for dynamic in field measurements can be imagined. In this proceedings paper, preliminary efforts towards the characterization and application of commercially available next generation Klarite substrates will be demonstrated and efforts towards selective sensing will be discussed.

Farrell, Mikella E.; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Pellegrino, Paul M.

2012-05-01

227

Hydrogen venting characteristics of commercial carbon-composite filters and applications to TRU waste  

SciTech Connect

The generation of hydrogen (by radiolysis) and of other potentially flammable gases in radioactive wastes which are in contact with hydrogenous materials is a source of concern, both from transportation and on-site storage considerations. Because very little experimental data on the generation and accumulation of hydrogen was available in actual waste materials, work was initiated to experimentally determine factors affecting the concentration of hydrogen in the waste containers, such as the hydrogen generation rate, (G-values) and the rate of loss of hydrogen through packaging and commercial filter-vents, including a new design suitable for plastic bags. This report deals only with the venting aspect of the problem. Hydrogen venting characteristics of two types of commercial carbon-composite filter-vents, and two types of PVC bag closures (heat-sealed and twist-and-tape) were measured. Techniques and equipment were developed to permit measurement of the hydrogen concentration in various layers of actual transuranic (TRU) waste packages, both with and without filter-vents. A test barrel was assembled containing known configuration and amounts of TRU wastes. Measurements of the hydrogen in the headspace verified a hydrogen release model developed by Benchmark Environmental Corporation. These data were used to calculate revised wattage Emits for TRU waste packages incorporating the new bag filter-vent.

Callis, E.L.; Marshall, R.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Cappis, J.H. [DOE, International Safeguards Div., Washington, DC (United States)] [and others

1997-04-01

228

The law applicable to the use of space for commercial activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The general principles of space law that have an impact on commercial space activities are discussed. The Outer Space Treaty guaranteed the right of private enterprise in space, with jurisdiction over the participating parties residing in the country of origin. The liability for damages caused to a third party is also assigned to the country of origin. Government consent is necessary in the U.S. before a private firm is permitted to launch an object into space, with the relevant statute sections being part of the Arms Export Control Act; launches are legally treated as exports. FAA regulations define the safe area and flight conditions that must be satisfied for a private launch, although NASA, in the 1958 act which formed the agency, potentialy has the power to regulate space launch activities. The DoD must be notified of any launches in order to notify the U.S.S.R., filings must be made with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, and fees must be paid to the IRS. It is presently U.S. government policy to encourage and facilitate private sector development of commercial launch services.

Hosenball, S. N.

1983-01-01

229

Being everything to anyone: Applicability of thermoacoustic technology in the commercial refrigeration market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This talk will compare electrodynamically driven thermoacoustic refrigeration technology to some common implementations of low-lift vapor-compression technology. A rudimentary explanation of vapor-compression refrigeration will be presented along with some of the implementation problems faced by refrigeration engineers using compressor-based systems. These problems include oil management, compressor slugging, refrigerant leaks and the environmental impact of refrigerants. Recently, the method of evaluating this environmental impact has been codified to include the direct effects of the refrigerants on global warming as well as the so-called ``indirect'' warming impact of the carbon dioxide released during the generation (at the power plant) of the electrical power consumed by the refrigeration equipment. It is issues like these that generate commercial interest in an alternative refrigeration technology. However, the requirements of a candidate technology for adoption in a mature and risk-averse commercial refrigeration industry are as hard to divine as they are to meet. Also mentioned will be the state of other alternative refrigeration technologies like free-piston Stirling, thermoelectric and magnetocaloric as well as progress using vapor compression technology with alternative refrigerants like hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide.

Poese, Matthew E.; Smith, Robert W. M.; Garrett, Steven L.

2005-09-01

230

Comparison of selected physicochemical characteristics of commercial phytases relevant to their application in phosphate pollution abatement.  

PubMed

The enzyme phytase catalyses the dephosphorylation of phytic acid and it's salts, phytates. Supplementation of monogastric animal feed with microbial-derived phytase increases the bioavailability of phytic acid bound phosphate. This facilitates a reduction in the addition of inorganic phosphate to the feed and reduces phosphorus excretion. To achieve maximum efficacy in terms of phosphate pollution abatement, supplemental phytases added to animal feed must survive thermal processing of the feed, resist inactivation by the proteolytic enzymes encountered in the animal's digestive tract and display high activity at physiological temperature and pH. A series of in vitro experiments were carried out to determine the relative suitability of four major commercial phytase products for use in animal feed. The enzymes assessed lost between 14% and 72% of their original activities after heating to 80 degrees C for 5 minutes. After exposure to simulated upper digestive tract conditions, the phytases assessed retained between 0 and 28% of their original activities. The commercial phytases displayed between 98% and 67% of their maximum activities at 39 degrees C and all phytases assessed had an optimum pH between pH 4 and pH 5. None of the phytases assessed satisfied all of the criteria of an ideal phytase for use in animal feed. PMID:16702059

Boyce, A; Walsh, G

2006-01-01

231

Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 2: Technical final report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Intersatellite Link (ISL) applications can improve and expand communication satellite services in a number of ways. As the demand for orbital slots within prime regions of the geostationary arc increases, attention is being focused on ISLs as a method to utilize this resource more efficiently and circumvent saturation. Various GEO-to-GEO applications were determined that provide potential benefits over existing communication systems. A set of criteria was developed to assess the potential applications. Intersatellite link models, network system architectures, and payload configurations were developed. For each of the chosen ISL applications, ISL versus non-ISL satellite systems architectures were derived. Both microwave and optical ISL implementation approaches were evaluated for payload sizing and cost analysis. The technological availability for ISL implementations was assessed. Critical subsystems technology areas were identified, and an estamate of the schedule and cost to advance the technology to the requiered state of readiness was made.

Young, S. Lee

1987-01-01

232

40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...meteorological factors and adjacent land use. (3) Ornamental and turf pest control. Applicators shall demonstrate practical knowledge...and maintenance of ornamental trees, shrubs, plantings, and turf, including cognizance of potential phytotoxicity due...

2010-07-01

233

Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Animal. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Chapter one deals with the safety problems of pesticide use to humans, livestock and the environment. The second chapter is concerned with the types of application equipment and their utilization. Specific pests of livestock and poultry…

Pendleton, R. F., Ed.; Schmidtmann, E. T., Ed.

234

Challenges of International Programs in Commercial Wireless Power Trasmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proposition is offered that only by forming international alliances will econmically viable commercial wireless poer transmission (WPT) result. Radio emissions from commercial WPT will likely extend beyond the borders of a single nation.

Dickinson, Richard M.

1993-01-01

235

On the Use of Thermoelectric (TE) Applications Based on Commercial Modules: The Case of TE Generator and TE Cooler  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, thermoelectricity sees rapidly increasing usages in applications like portable refrigerators, beverage coolers, electronic component coolers etc. when used as Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC), and Thermoelectric Generators (TEG) which make use of the Seebeck effect in semiconductors for the direct conversion of heat into electrical energy and is of particular interest for systems of highest reliability or for waste heat recovery. In this work, we examine the performance of commercially available TEC and TEG. A prototype TEC-refrigerator has been designed, modeled and constructed for in-car applications. Additionally, a TEG was made, in order to measure the gained power and efficiency. Furthermore, a TEG module was tested on a small size car (Toyota Starlet, 1300 cc), in order to measure the gained power and efficiency for various engine loads. With the use of a modeling approach, we evaluated the thermal contact resistances and their influence on the final device efficiency.

Zorbas, K.; Hatzikraniotis, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Kyratsi, Th.

2010-01-01

236

Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part I - progress in the patent landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last 20 years, diffractive optics experienced a strong research interest and was in the center of many development projects in applied optics. To offer a side view for optical engineers, here, we discuss selected, business-related aspects of the current status of the transfer process to bring diffractive optics into commercial products. The contribution is divided into two parts. Here, in part I, we focus on the patent landscape of diffractive optics with a closer look on the temporal development and the distribution over main players. As an important result, currently, new strong patent activities are observed especially in the context of imaging systems. In the second part, the business volumes of selected market segments are discussed.

Brunner, Robert

2013-12-01

237

DOE Commercial Building Asset Rating: An Application of Centralized Modeling Tools  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a novel approach used to develop the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Asset Rating, which is intended to help building owners better understand the installed system performance and the total energy use. A simplified data collection and energy-modeling method is employed to disaggregate building energy information. Furthermore, the approach outlined will also include a mechanism for identifying energy improvement opportunities. A detailed modeling approach to formulate an Asset Rating would most likely provide the greatest flexibility and accuracy. Such an approach would, however, require a substantial amount of user investment for collecting the energy audit, data and hiring a professional to perform energy modeling and analysis. A simplified model approach requires fewer input combinations, which could reduce opportunities for error and allow an inexperienced user to quickly develop energy models. However, the accuracy of the results is often questionable. To address the above issue, the method presented in this paper separates model inputs into categories based on overall energy impact, difficulty to obtain, and variability among buildings. We outline an approach that will allow great flexibility in terms of how many and which of the different categories of variables must be found to produce an accurate energy model. The approach will allow all key variables to be inferred from some minimum set of variables while at the same time allowing a user to enter many more variables if he or she has reliable values for them. The approach outlined will also provide constant values for some variables and algorithms for finding those which are very difficult to determine in the field. The whole of this approach will reduce modeling time and expertise required while maintaining accuracy and the ability to support the variability and complexity that exist in buildings. Therefore, the goals of facilitating cost-effective investment in energy efficiency and reducing energy use in the commercial building sector are met.

Wang, Na; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Srivastava, Viraj; Taylor, Cody

2012-06-26

238

Natural transfer of viable microbes in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency.

Mileikowsky, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Gladman, B.; Horneck, G.; Lindegren, L.; Melosh, J.; Rickman, H.; Valtonen, M.; Zheng, J. Q.

2000-01-01

239

Natural transfer of viable microbes in space.  

PubMed

The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency. PMID:11543506

Mileikowsky, C; Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W; Gladman, B; Horneck, G; Lindegren, L; Melosh, J; Rickman, H; Valtonen, M; Zheng, J Q

2000-06-01

240

In vitro maturation of viable islets from partially digested young pig pancreas.  

PubMed

Isolation of islets from market-sized pigs is costly, with considerable islet losses from fragmentation occurring during isolation and tissue culture. Fetal and neonatal pigs yield insulin unresponsive islet-like cell clusters that become glucose-responsive after extended periods of time. Both issues impact clinical applicability and commercial scale-up. We have focused our efforts on a cost-effective scalable method of isolating viable insulin-responsive islets. Young Yorkshire pigs (mean age 20 days, range 4-30 days) underwent rapid pancreatectomy (<5 min) and partial digestion using low-dose collagenase, followed by in vitro culture at 37°C and 5% CO2 for up to 14 days. Islet viability was assessed using FDA/PI or Newport Green, and function was assessed using a glucose-stimulated insulin release (GSIR) assay. Islet yield was performed using enumeration of dithizone-stained aliquots. The young porcine (YP) islet yield at dissociation was 12.6 ± 2.1 × 10(3) IEQ (mean ± SEM) per organ and increased to 33.3 ± 6.4 × 10(3) IEQ after 7 days of in vitro culture. Viability was 97.3 ± 7% at dissociation and remained over 90% viable after 11 days in tissue culture (n = ns). Glucose responsiveness increased throughout maturation in culture. The stimulation index (SI) of the islets increased from 1.7 ± 2 on culture day 3 to 2.58 ± 0.5 on culture day 7. These results suggest that this method is both efficient and scalable for isolating and maturing insulin-responsive porcine islets in culture. PMID:23394130

Lamb, Morgan; Laugenour, Kelly; Liang, Ouwen; Alexander, Michael; Foster, Clarence E; Lakey, Jonathan R T

2014-03-01

241

Study of fuel cell on-site, integrated energy systems in residential/commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three building applications were selected for a detailed study: a low rise apartment building; a retail store, and a hospital. Building design data were then specified for each application, based on the design and construction of typical, actual buildings. Finally, a computerized building loads analysis program was used to estimate hourly end use load profiles for each building. Conventional and fuel cell based energy systems were designed and simulated for each building in each location. Based on the results of a computer simulation of each energy system, levelized annual costs and annual energy consumptions were calculated for all systems.

Wakefield, R. A.; Karamchetty, S.; Rand, R. H.; Ku, W. S.; Tekumalla, V.

1980-10-01

242

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

243

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Control of Wood Destroying Pests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist pesticide applicators in the category of wood destroying organisms to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of the Agriculture for certification. The 10 sections included describe: (1) Subterranean termites; (2) Dampwood termites; (3) Drywood termites; (4) Powder-post beetles; (5) Old house borer; (6)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

244

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1B: Agricultural Insect Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the control of economic insect pests on field and forage crops, especially corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Full color photographs of the more destructive pests are provided to aid in identification of problems. Precautions and…

Stockdale, Harold J.; Ryan, Stephen O.

245

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 3: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. CS-15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section serves as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of common problems on some of the more common ornamental plants. Recommended control measures are suggested. The second section provides color photographs of common lawn…

Cott, A. E.; And Others

246

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 10: Demonstration and Research. CS-25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is directed to individuals working in demonstration and research pest control who evaluate, provide and disseminate information on pest control procedures. Guidelines for designing and conducting a research experiment in…

DeWitt, Jerald R.

247

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Field Crop Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators to meet the requirements for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on field crop pest control. The five sections presented describe: (1) Field crop pests; (2) Using pesticides in field crops; (3) Weed pests of field crops; (4)…

Erdmann, M. H.; And Others

248

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and…

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

249

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of aquatic pest control meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aquatic Pest Control Guide served as a basis for this manual. The six sections presented describe: (1) Aquatic pest control; (2)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

250

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

Brunner, J.; And Others

251

Hydronic heat pumps for residential and light-commercial applications: Volume 2, Appendixes: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The technical and economic potential of hydronic heat pump heating systems was investigated. The work included review of the status of current hydronic and hydronic heat pump technology in the US and Europe, development of candidate design concepts and performance parameters for air-to-water, water-to-water and backup systems, development of control strategies to minimize costs and electrical demand, analysis of transient and seasonal performance for a wide range of applications, and preliminary investigation of the financial attractiveness and market potential of hydronic heat pump systems. The status review uncovered only a few suppliers of hydronic heat pumps in the United States. Hydronic heat pumps in Europe are technologically mature, but the market expansion is impeded by high initial and installation costs. Steady-state and transient performance of a candidate hydronic heat pump was computed using available models adapted for the hydronic application. Design and application features explored included refrigerant type, source temperature, convector sizing, compressor type, condenser and evaporator sizing, optimum charge, frosting/defrosting losses, control strategy, effect of day and night rates, thermostat setback and electrical demand, and thermal energy storage. Based on life-cycle cost savings, a number of hydronic heat-pump systems appear financially attractive in selective applications. Consumer awareness and education are considered essential to market growth.

Fischer, D.; Ball, D.; Talbert, S.; Broehl, J.; Buhr, A.; Martineau, T.

1987-03-01

252

MOA2—an R&D paradigm buster enabling space propulsion by commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 60 years after the late Nobel laureate Hannes Alfvén had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfvén waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. Consequently improved since then, the name of the latest concept, relying on magneto-acoustic waves to accelerate electric conductive matter, is MOA2—Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified Accelerator. Based on computer simulations, which were undertaken to get a first estimate on the performance of the system, MOA2 is a corrosion free and highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted in operation, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable of delivering a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. First tests—that are further described in this paper—have been conducted successfully with a 400 W prototype system at an ambient pressure of 0.20 Pa, delivered 9.24 mN of thrust at 1472 s ISP, thereby underlining the feasibility of the concept. Based on these results, space propulsion is expected to be a prime application for MOA2—a claim that is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion. However, MOA2 has so far seen most of its R&D impetus from terrestrial applications, like coating, semiconductor implantation and manufacturing as well as steel cutting. Based on this observation, MOA2 resembles an R&D paradigm buster, as it is the first space propulsion system, whose R&D is driven primarily by its terrestrial applications. Different terrestrial applications exist, but the most successful scenarios so far revolve around MOA2's unique features with respect to high throughput/low target temperature coatings on sensitive materials. In combination with its intrinsic high flexibility, MOA2 is highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. This paper presents the recent developments of the MOA2 R&D activities at Q2 Technologie(s), the company in Vienna, Austria, which has been set up to further develop and test the magneto-acoustic wave technology and its applications.

Frischauf, Norbert; Hettmer, Manfred; Koudelka, Otto; Löb, Horst

2012-04-01

253

Response of Nigerian farmers to a questionnaire on chloramphenicol application in commercial layers.  

PubMed

The authors assessed the occurrence of chloramphenicol (CAP) residues in commercial eggs. Of the 105 farmers surveyed for the use of CAP, 35 (33.3%) and 70 (66.7%) responded regarding their awareness or complete lack of awareness of the legislation that stipulates the use of CAP in food animals, including poultry, respectively. Only 28 (26.7%) of respondent farmers were aware that CAP was one of the drugs that is not recommended for use in food animals. Amongst the farms surveyed in the preliminary phase of this study, 24 were randomly sampled for further investigation, of which 21 (20.0%) admitted the use of CAP in forms of human and veterinary preparations, while 15 (62.5%) admitted the use of human CAP preparation only. The presence of antimicrobial residues was confirmed using specific thin-layer chromatography (STLC) in 8 out of 144 pooled egg samples (10 eggs per sample). The only positive CAP sample was identified on a farm that adopted the use of a human CAP preparation. PMID:22485005

Omeiza, Gabriel K; Kabir, Junaidu; Mamman, Mohammed; Ibrahim, Hajara; Fagbamila, Idowu O

2012-01-01

254

Application of high temperature ceramic superconductors (CSC) to commercial tokamak reactors  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic superconductors operating near liquid nitrogen temperature may experience higher heating rates without losing stability, compared conventional superconductors. This will permit cable design with less stabilizer, reducing fabrication costs for large fusion magnets. Magnet performance is studied for different operating current densities in the superconductor, and cost benefits to commercial tokamak reactors are estimated. It appears that 10 kA /center dot/ cm/sup /minus/2/ (at 77 K and /approximately/10 T) is a target current density which must be achieved in order for the ceramic superconductors to compete with conventional materials. At current densities around 50 kA /center dot/ cm/sup /minus/2/ most potential benefits have already been gained, as magnet structural steel begins to dominate the cost at this point. For a steady state reactor reductions of /approximately/7% are forecast for the overall capital cost of the power plant in the best case. An additional /approximately/3% cost saving is possible for pulsed tokamaks. 9 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Ehst, D.A.; Kim, S.; Gohar, Y.; Turner, L.; Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.

1988-08-01

255

Thin Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization, Critical Issues, and Applications; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

We report here on the major commercialization aspects of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies based on CIGS and CdTe (a-Si and thin-Si are also reported for completeness on the status of thin-film PV). Worldwide silicon (Si) based PV technologies continues to dominate at more than 94% of the market share, with the share of thin-film PV at less than 6%. However, the market share for thin-film PV in the United States continues to grow rapidly over the past several years and in CY 2006, they had a substantial contribution of about 44%, compared to less than 10% in CY 2003. In CY 2007, thin-film PV market share is expected to surpass that of Si technology in the United States. Worldwide estimated projections for CY 2010 are that thin-film PV production capacity will be more than 3700 MW. A 40-MW thin-film CdTe solar field is currently being installed in Saxony, Germany, and will be completed in early CY 2009. The total project cost is Euro 130 million, which equates to an installed PV system price of Euro 3.25/-watt averaged over the entire solar project. This is the lowest price for any installed PV system in the world today. Critical research, development, and technology issues for thin-film CIGS and CdTe are also elucidated in this paper.

Ullal, H. S.; von Roedern, B.

2007-09-01

256

A closed loop wireless power transmission system using a commercial RFID transceiver for biomedical applications.  

PubMed

This paper presents a standalone closed loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (MLX90121) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop fashion. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID transceivers are often used open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 1.48 mW over a range of 6 to 12 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 0.3 W to 1.21 W. The closed loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in load current. PMID:19963595

Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

2009-01-01

257

Evaluating the Performance and Economics of Transpired Solar Collectors for Commercial Applications: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Using transpired solar collectors to preheat ventilation air has recently become recognized as an economic alternative for integrating renewable energy into commercial buildings in heating climates. The collectors have relatively low installed costs and operate on simple principles. Theory and performance testing have shown that solar collection efficiency can exceed 70% of incident solar. However, implementation and current absorber designs have adversely affected the efficiency and associated economics from this initial analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has actively studied this technology and monitored performance at several installations. A calibrated model that uses typical meteorological weather data to determine absorber plate efficiency resulted from this work. With this model, an economic analysis across heating climates was done to show the effects of collector size, tilt, azimuth, and absorptivity. The analysis relates the internal rate of return of a system based on the cost of the installed absorber area. In general, colder and higher latitude climates return a higher rate of return because the heating season extends into months with good solar resource.

Kozubal, E.; Deru, M.; Slayzak, S.; Norton, P.; Barker, G.; McClendon, J,

2008-07-01

258

Application of high temperature ceramic superconductors (CSC) to commercial tokamak reactors  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic superconductors operating near liquid nitrogen temperature may experience higher heating rates without losing stability, compared to conventional superconductors. This will permit cable design with less stabilizer, reducing fabrication costs for large fusion magnets. Magnet performance is studied for different operating current densities in the superconductor, and cost benefits to commercial tokamak reactors are estimated. It appears that 10 kA . cm/sup -2/ (at 77 K and approx.10 T) is a target current density which must be achieved in order for the ceramic superconductors to compete with conventional materials. At current densities around 50 kA . cm/sup -2/ most potential benefits have already been gained, as magnet structural steel begins to dominate the cost at this point. For a steady state reactor reductions of approx.7% are forecast for the overall capital cost of the power plant in the best case. An additional approx.3% cost saving is possible for pulsed tokamaks. 9 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

Ehst, D.A.; Kim, S.; Gohar, Y.; Turner, L.; Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.

1987-10-01

259

A Closed Loop Wireless Power Transmission System Using a Commercial RFID Transceiver for Biomedical Applications  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a standalone closed loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (MLX90121) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop fashion. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID transceivers are often used open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 1.48 mW over a range of 6 to 12 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 0.3 W to 1.21 W. The closed loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in load current.

Kiani, Mehdi

2010-01-01

260

BAE Systems' 17?m LWIR camera core for civil, commercial, and military applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventeen (17) µm pixel Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Sensors based on vanadium oxide (VOx) micro-bolometers have been in full rate production at BAE Systems' Night Vision Sensors facility in Lexington, MA for the past five years.[1] We introduce here a commercial camera core product, the Airia-MTM imaging module, in a VGA format that reads out in 30 and 60Hz progressive modes. The camera core is architected to conserve power with all digital interfaces from the readout integrated circuit through video output. The architecture enables a variety of input/output interfaces including Camera Link, USB 2.0, micro-display drivers and optional RS-170 analog output supporting legacy systems. The modular board architecture of the electronics facilitates hardware upgrades allow us to capitalize on the latest high performance low power electronics developed for the mobile phones. Software and firmware is field upgradeable through a USB 2.0 port. The USB port also gives users access to up to 100 digitally stored (lossless) images.

Lee, Jeffrey; Rodriguez, Christian; Blackwell, Richard

2013-06-01

261

Super high-performance MEMS fiber optic variable optical attenuator (VOA) for aerospace and commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber-optic variable optical attenuators (VOAs) are required for light power control in numerous applications such as test and instrumentation, optical fiber telecommunications, industrial fiber-optic sensing, biomedical imaging and sensing, and photonic signal processing for antennas and radar systems. The requirements for the VOA, such as dynamic range and resolution, vary depending on the application. A VOA can demonstrate high end performance when it possesses critical attributes like super resolution precision and high dynamic range. Reported in this paper is the demonstration of a hybrid analog-digital fiber-optic VOA design that employs microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The VOA demonstrates simultaneously a super high controlled dynamic range of 81 dB as well as super 0.1 dB resolution attenuation controls. Proof-of-concept experiments exhibit an optical loss of 2.5 dB and C-band operations.

Ghauri, Farzan N.; Riza, Nabeel A.

2005-05-01

262

An advanced infrared thermal imaging module for military and commercial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-cost day and night imaging capability of uncooled infrared imagers significantly enhances the situational awareness capability of an unattended ground sensor. BAE Systems has leveraged its Standard Camera Core 500 product to develop an advanced imager, the MIM500TM, for use in unattended ground sensors and other military applications. Key improvements implemented in the MIM500TM include reduced operating power, pixel

Kevin Grealish; Tom Kacir; Brian Backer; Peter Norton

2005-01-01

263

First commercial application of NbTi superconductor employing artificial pinning centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercon has applied its artificial pinning center (APC) technology to develop a multifilamentary NbTi superconductor for MRI application. This technology is particularly well suited to large filament, low field use. The conductor microstructure and performance (e.g., critical current) are presented. The influence of conductor geometry (e.g., filament placement, spacing to diameter ratio) on filament quality is discussed. The conductor has

C. Renaud; M. Rudziak; J. Seuntjens; T. Wong; J. Wong; P. Eckels; C. King; T. Havens; D. Mantone; B. Myers; S. Wong

1995-01-01

264

Use of G1.2\\/G2.2 media for commercial bovine embryo culture: equivalent development and pregnancy rates compared to co-culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expanded application of commercial bovine IVM, IVF, and IVC systems is dependent on the ability to produce embryos in culture that are capable of producing normal pregnancies. Because serum containing culture systems can induce neonatal and fetal problems there exists a definite need for a serum-free culture system that produces viable blastocysts. This study demonstrated that the physiological sequential

David K. Gardner; Marilyn J. Hasler; John F. Hasler

2003-01-01

265

Characterization of a commercialized SERS-active substrate and its application to the identification of intact Bacillus endospores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-enhanced-Raman-spectroscopy (SERS) can be made an attractive approach for the identification of Raman-active compounds and biological materials (i.e., toxins, viruses, or intact bacterial cells or spores) through development of reproducible, spatially uniform SERS-active substrates. Recently, reproducible (from substrate to substrate), spatially homogeneous (over large areas) SERS-active substrates have been commercialized and are now available in the marketplace. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution, tapping-mode atomic force microscopy have been used to analyze these novel plasmonic surfaces for topographical consistency. Additionally, we have assessed, by wavelength-tunable microreflectance spectrometry, the spatial distribution of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) across a single substrate surface as well as the LSPR ?MAX variance from substrate to substrate. These analyses reveal that these surfaces are topologically uniform with small LSPR variance from substrate to substrate. Further, we have utilized these patterned surfaces to acquire SERS spectral signatures of four intact, genetically distinct Bacillus spore species cultivated under identical growth conditions. Salient spectral signature features make it possible to discriminate among these genetically distinct spores. Additionally, partial least squares, a multivariate calibration method, has been used to develop personal-computer-borne algorithms useful for classification of unknown spore samples based solely on SERS spectral signatures. To our knowledge, this is the first report detailing application of these commercially available SERS-active substrates to identification of intact Bacillus spores.

Alexander, Troy A.; Le, Dianna M.

2007-06-01

266

Risk mitigation process for utilization of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts in CCD camera for military applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the lessons learned during the design and development of a high performance cooled CCD camera for military applications utilizing common commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts. Our experience showed that concurrent evaluation and testing of high risk COTS must be performed to assess their performance over the required temperature range and other special product requirements such as fuel vapor compatibility, EMI and shock susceptibility, etc. Technical, cost and schedule risks for COTS parts must also be carefully evaluated. The customer must be involved in the selection and evaluation of such parts so that the performance limitations of the selected parts are clearly understood. It is equally important to check with vendors on the availability and obsolescence of the COTS parts being considered since the electronic components are often replaced by newer, better and cheaper models in a couple of years. In summary, this paper addresses the major benefits and risks associated with using commercial and industrial parts in military products, and suggests a risk mitigation approach to ensure a smooth development phase, and predictable performance from the end product.

Ahmad, Anees; Batcheldor, Scott; Cannon, Steven C.; Roberts, Thomas E.

2002-09-01

267

Gravitational Waves in Viable Modified Gravity Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review our recent work [1] on gravitational waves in viable f(R) models. We concentrate on the exponential gravity and Starobinsky models. We show that in both cases, the mass of the scalar mode is order of 10-33eV when it propagates in vacuum. In the presence of matter density, such as galaxy, the scalar mode can be heavy. In particular, it becomes almost infinity so that the scalar mode of gravitational wave for the exponential model disappears like the ACDM, whereas it can be as low as 10-24eV in the Starobinsky model, corresponding to the lowest frequency of 10-9 Hz, which may be detected by the current and future gravitational wave probes in space.

Geng, C. Q.

2012-09-01

268

Comparison of epifluorescent viable bacterial count methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two methods, the 2-(4-Iodophenyl) 3-(4-nitrophenyl) 5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) method and the direct viable count (DVC), were tested and compared for their efficiency for the determination of the viability of bacterial populations. Use of the INT method results in the formation of a dark spot within each respiring cell. The DVC method results in elongation or swelling of growing cells that are rendered incapable of cell division. Although both methods are subjective and can result in false positive results, the DVC method is best suited to analysis of waters in which the number of different types of organisms present in the same sample is assumed to be small, such as processed waters. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

Rodgers, E. B.; Huff, T. L.

1992-01-01

269

[PAH Cations as Viable Carriers of DIBs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report is intended to fill in the blanks in NASA's file system for our lab astro study of molecular ions of astrophysical interest. In order to give NASA what it needs for its files, I attach below the text of the section from our recent proposal to continue this work, in which we describe progress to date, including a large number of publications. Our initial studies were focused on PAH cations, which appear to be viable candidates as the carriers of the DIBs, an idea that has been supported by laboratory spectroscopy of PAH cations in inert matrices. Beginning with the simplest aromatic (benzene; C6H6) and moving progressively to larger species (naphthalene, C10OH8; pyrene, C16H10; and most recently chrysene, C18H12), we have been able to derive rate coefficients for reactions with neutral spices that are abundant in the diffuse interstellar medium.

Snow, Ted

1998-01-01

270

NASA commercial programs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

1988-01-01

271

Design for viable organizations : The diagnostic power of the viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper attempts to underpin the theoretical claim of the viable system model to specify the necessary and sufficient preconditions of organizations for viability. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A number of case studies are explored. Findings – The evidence documented in the paper both corroborates the model's claim and provides evidence of its enormous diagnostic power. Originality\\/value – The cases

Markus Schwaninger

2006-01-01

272

Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR  

EPA Science Inventory

Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

273

Consort and Joust sounding rocket missions. [dedicated to investigations of materials processing in microgravity for commercial applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The two suborbital rocket programs are described in terms of their common objective of examining commercial applications of materials processing under microgravitational conditions. The sounding rocket programs have unique launch-service capabilities but provide essentially interchangeable payload accommodations. Major differences include longer low gravity times and larger payload volume for the Joust rocket, spin stabilization and land recovery for the Consort rocket, and faster ascent and reentry accelerations for the Joust rocket. A summary of previous and planned experiments for the rocket programs is given which includes studies of the morphology and strength of elastomer-modified epoxy resins, electrodeposition studies, the demixing of immiscible polymers, foam formation, and polymer experiments. These and other experiments can be facilitated by the microgravity time available on flights of the two sounding rockets.

Wessling, Francis C.; Maybee, George W.

1991-01-01

274

A novel arterial constitutive model in a commercial finite element package: Application to balloon angioplasty.  

PubMed

Recently, a novel linearized constitutive model with a new strain measure that absorbs the material nonlinearity was validated for arteries. In this study, the linearized arterial stress-strain relationship is implemented into a finite element method package, ANSYS, via the user subroutine USERMAT. The reference configuration is chosen to be the closed cylindrical tube (no-load state) rather than the open sector (zero-stress state). The residual strain is taken into account by analytic calculation and the incompressibility condition is enforced with Lagrange penalty method. Axisymmetric finite element analyses are conducted to demonstrate potential applications of this approach in a complex boundary value problem where angioplasty balloon interacts with the vessel wall. The model predictions of transmural circumferential and compressive radial stress distributions were also validated against an exponential-type Fung model, and the mean error was found to be within 6%. PMID:21689665

Zhao, Xuefeng; Liu, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Chong; Kassab, Ghassan S

2011-10-01

275

The Pattern of the Viable System and its Language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Viable System Model tries to capture the essential pattern of living systems: both natural organisms and human organizations. A Viable system is one that can survive in its environment. Survival in a dynamic environment requires adaptation. The Viable System Model specifies a supervisory-adaptive-control or \\

Charles Herring

276

Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling risks and costs. This procedure enables a timely, efficient and accurate data access and exchange among the rig site data acquisition system, office-based software applications and data storage. The loading of real-time data has to be quick and efficient in order to refine the model and learn the lessons for the next drilling operations.

Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

2013-04-01

277

Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

US DOE mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 181,000 cubic meters (about 2,000 waste streams). Treatability studies may be used as part of DOE`s mixed waste management program. Commercial treatability study suppliers have been identified that either have current capability in their own facilities or have access to licensed facilities. Numerous federal and state regulations, as well as DOE Order 5820.2A, impact the performance of treatability studies. Generators, transporters, and treatability study facilities are subject to regulation. From a mixed- waste standpoint, a key requirement is that the treatability study facility must have an NRC or state license that allows it to possess radioactive materials. From a RCRA perspective, the facility must support treatability study activities with the applicable plans, reports, and documentation. If PCBs are present in the waste, TSCA will also be an issue. CERCLA requirements may apply, and both DOE and NRC regulations will impact the transportation of DOE mixed waste to an off-site treatment facility. DOE waste managers will need to be cognizant of all applicable regulations as mixed-waste treatability study programs are initiated.

NONE

1996-09-01

278

Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice  

SciTech Connect

Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

2007-07-15

279

Biocatalytically active silCoat-composites entrapping viable Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Application of whole cells in industrial processes requires high catalytic activity, manageability, and viability under technical conditions, which can in principle be accomplished by appropriate immobilization. Here, we report the identification of carrier material allowing exceptionally efficient adsorptive binding of Escherichia coli whole cells hosting catalytically active carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CPCR2). With the immobilizates, composite formation with both hydrophobic and hydrophilized silicone was achieved, yielding advanced silCoat-material and HYsilCoat-material, respectively. HYsilCoat-whole cells were viable preparations with a cell loading up to 400 mg(E. coli)?·?g(-1)(carrier) and considerably lower leaching than native immobilizates. SilCoat-whole cells performed particularly well in neat substrate exhibiting distinctly increased catalytic activity. PMID:24257838

Findeisen, A; Thum, O; Ansorge-Schumacher, M B

2014-02-01

280

Commercial Capaciflector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

Vranish, John M.

1991-01-01

281

Practical application of DNA markers for high-throughput authentication of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius from commercial ginseng products  

PubMed Central

Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) are widely used medicinal plants with similar morphology but different medicinal efficacy. Roots, flowers, and processed products of Korean and American ginseng can be difficult to differentiate from each other, leading to illegal trade in which one species is sold as the other. This study was carried out to develop convenient and reliable chloroplast genome-derived DNA markers for authentication of Korean and American ginseng in commercial processed products. One codominant marker could reproducibly identify both species and intentional mixtures of the two species. We further developed a set of species-unique dominant DNA markers. Each species-specific dominant marker could detect 1% cross contamination with other species by low resolution agarose gel electrophoresis or quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Both markers were successfully applied to evaluate the original species from various processed ginseng products purchased from markets in Korea and China. We believe that high-throughput application of this marker system will eradicate illegal trade and promote confident marketing for both species to increase the value of Korean as well as American ginseng in Korea and worldwide.

Jung, Juyeon; Kim, Kyung Hee; Yang, Kiwoung; Bang, Kyong-Hwan; Yang, Tae-Jin

2013-01-01

282

Practical application of DNA markers for high-throughput authentication of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius from commercial ginseng products.  

PubMed

Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) are widely used medicinal plants with similar morphology but different medicinal efficacy. Roots, flowers, and processed products of Korean and American ginseng can be difficult to differentiate from each other, leading to illegal trade in which one species is sold as the other. This study was carried out to develop convenient and reliable chloroplast genome-derived DNA markers for authentication of Korean and American ginseng in commercial processed products. One codominant marker could reproducibly identify both species and intentional mixtures of the two species. We further developed a set of species-unique dominant DNA markers. Each species-specific dominant marker could detect 1% cross contamination with other species by low resolution agarose gel electrophoresis or quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Both markers were successfully applied to evaluate the original species from various processed ginseng products purchased from markets in Korea and China. We believe that high-throughput application of this marker system will eradicate illegal trade and promote confident marketing for both species to increase the value of Korean as well as American ginseng in Korea and worldwide. PMID:24748836

Jung, Juyeon; Kim, Kyung Hee; Yang, Kiwoung; Bang, Kyong-Hwan; Yang, Tae-Jin

2014-04-01

283

Do-It-Yourself: A Special Library's Approach to Creating Dynamic Web Pages Using Commercial Off-The-Shelf Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many librarians may feel that dynamic Web pages are out of their reach, financially and technically. Yet we are reminded in library and Web design literature that static home pages are a thing of the past. This paper describes how librarians at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) library developed a database-driven, dynamic intranet site using commercial off-the-shelf applications. Administrative issues include surveying a library users group for interest and needs evaluation; outlining metadata elements; and, committing resources from managing time to populate the database and training in Microsoft FrontPage and Web-to-database design. Technical issues covered include Microsoft Access database fundamentals, lessons learned in the Web-to-database process (including setting up Database Source Names (DSNs), redesigning queries to accommodate the Web interface, and understanding Access 97 query language vs. Standard Query Language (SQL)). This paper also offers tips on editing Active Server Pages (ASP) scripting to create desired results. A how-to annotated resource list closes out the paper.

Steeman, Gerald; Connell, Christopher

2000-01-01

284

Intestinal stem cells remain viable after prolonged tissue storage.  

PubMed

Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are responsible for renewal of the epithelium both during normal homeostasis and following injury. As such, they have significant therapeutic potential. However, whether ISCs can survive tissue storage is unknown. We hypothesize that, although the majority of epithelial cells might die, ISCs would remain viable for at least 24 h at 4 °C. To explore this hypothesis, jejuna of C57Bl6/J or Lgr5-LacZ mice were removed and either processed immediately or placed in phosphate-buffered saline at 4 °C. Delayed isolation of epithelium was performed after 24, 30, or 48 h storage. At the light microscope level, despite extensive apoptosis of villus epithelial cells, small intestinal crypts remained morphologically intact for 30 h and ISCs were identifiable via Lgr5-LacZ positivity. Electron microscopy showed that ISCs retained high integrity for 24 h. When assessed by flow cytometry, ISCs were more resistant to degeneration than the rest of the epithelium, including neighboring Paneth cells, with higher viability across all time points. Cultured isolated crypts showed no loss of capacity to form complex enteroids after 24 h tissue storage, with efficiencies after 7 days of culture remaining above 80 %. By 30 h storage, efficiencies declined but budding capability was retained. We conclude that, with delay in isolation, ISCs remain viable and retain their proliferative capacity. In contrast, the remainder of the epithelium, including the Paneth cells, exhibits degeneration and programmed cell death. If these findings are recapitulated in human tissue, storage at 4 °C might offer a valuable temporal window for the harvesting of crypts or ISCs for therapeutic application. PMID:23820734

Fuller, Megan K; Faulk, Denver M; Sundaram, Nambirajan; Mahe, Maxime M; Stout, Kara M; von Furstenberg, Richard J; Smith, Brian J; McNaughton, Kirk K; Shroyer, Noah F; Helmrath, Michael A; Henning, Susan J

2013-11-01

285

Rapid enumeration of viable bacteria by image analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A direct viable counting method for enumerating viable bacteria was modified and made compatible with image analysis. A comparison was made between viable cell counts determined by the spread plate method and direct viable counts obtained using epifluorescence microscopy either manually or by automatic image analysis. Cultures of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were incubated at 35 degrees C in a dilute nutrient medium containing nalidixic acid. Filtered samples were stained for epifluorescence microscopy and analysed manually as well as by image analysis. Cells enlarged after incubation were considered viable. The viable cell counts determined using image analysis were higher than those obtained by either the direct manual count of viable cells or spread plate methods. The volume of sample filtered or the number of cells in the original sample did not influence the efficiency of the method. However, the optimal concentration of nalidixic acid (2.5-20 micrograms ml-1) and length of incubation (4-8 h) varied with the culture tested. The results of this study showed that under optimal conditions, the modification of the direct viable count method in combination with image analysis microscopy provided an efficient and quantitative technique for counting viable bacteria in a short time.

Singh, A.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

1989-01-01

286

GUIDING PRINCIPLES IN COMBINING THE VIABLE SYSTEM MODEL AND TEAM SYNTEGRITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern organizations often suffer from internal communication difficulties. Stafford Beer (1979, 1981, 1993, 1994) has published several books, manuscripts and articles on the application of cybernetic thinking to complex organizational problems. This study presents a direction in which Beer's two models, the Viable System Model (VSM) and Team Syntegrity (TS) can be combined. An ongoing project in an actual American

Annika H. Andersson

287

Production of Liquid Synthetic Fuels from Carbon, Water and Nuclear Power on Ships and at Shore Bases for Military and Potential Commercial Applications  

SciTech Connect

It is demonstrable that synthetic fuels (jet/diesel/gasoline {approx_equal} (CH{sub 2}){sub n}) can be produced from carbon, water, and nuclear energy. What remains to be shown is that all system processes are scalable, integrable, and economical. Sources of carbon include but are not limited to CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere or seawater, CO{sub 2} from fossil-fired power plants, and elemental carbon from coal or biomass. For mobile defense (Navy) applications, the ubiquitous atmosphere is our chosen carbon source. For larger-scale sites such as Naval Advance Bases, the atmosphere may still be the choice should other sources not be readily available. However, at many locations suitable for defense and, potentially, commercial syn-fuel production, far higher concentrations of carbon may be available. The rationale for this study was manifold: fuel system security from terrorism and possible oil embargoes; rising demand and, eventually, peaking supply of conventional petroleum; and escalating costs and prices of fuels. For these reasons, the initial parts of the study were directed at Syn-fuel production for mobile Naval platforms and shore sites such as Rokkasho, Japan (as an exemplar). Nuclear reactors would provide the energy for H{sub 2} from water-splitting, Membrane Gas Absorption (MGA) would extract CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere, the Reverse Water-Gas Reaction (RWGR) would convert the CO{sub 2} to CO, and the resultant H{sub 2} and CO feeds would be converted to (CH{sub 2})n by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Many of these processes exist at commercial scale. Some, particularly MGA and RWGR, have been demonstrated at the bench-scale, requiring up-scaling. Likewise, the demonstration of an integrated system at some scale is yet to be done. For ship-based production, it has been shown that the system should be viable and, under reasonable assumptions, both scalable and economical for defense fuels. For the assumptions in the study, fuel cost estimates range from {approx} $2.55 to $4.75 per gallon with a nominal cost of {approx} $3.65 per gallon. For large installations and advanced nuclear power and hydrogen production systems (high temperature reactors and thermo-chemical hydrogen production), then fuel production might be produced at near-commercial fuel prices. For the H2-MHR and plausible assumptions and estimates of CO{sub 2} extraction and fuel synthesis capital and operating costs, such fuels might have nominal and low production costs ranging from {approx} $2.40 to $1.70 per gallon, respectively, for a Public Sector Fixed Charge Rate of 5%. Next, it was shown that for CO{sub 2} provided from a fossil-fired power plant, a CO{sub 2} 'disposal' fee of $30/tonne and a Fixed Charge Rate of 10%, then syn-fuel might be produced at {approx} $3.00 and $2.45 (nominal cost values) and $1.90 and $1.85 (low cost values) per gallon by LWRs and H2-MHRs, respectively. Last, it was shown that nuclear-produced H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} could convert coal to liquid fuels at very low cost. For a Fixed Charge Rate of 10% and nominal plant costs, fuel costs ranged from {approx} $1.60 (LWR) per gallon to {approx} $1.30 (H2-MHR) for an assumed CO{sub 2} avoidance credit of $30/Tonne. Our studies have shown that the addition of nuclear-produced hydrogen and oxygen to the coal syn-fuel process can greatly reduce CO{sub 2} production and, for modest CO{sub 2} credit, can further reduce the cost of the syn-fuel. Capturing CO{sub 2} from stack gas or even the air will further reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} that must be dealt with. This last case is independent of the price of fossil fuels and liquid fuel production costs and prices will have been capped. Of possibly even greater importance, the carbon fuel cycle will have been closed, thus minimizing or eliminating concerns with Global Climate Change. (authors)

Locke Bogart, S. [7982 Chaucer Drive, Weeki Wachee, FL 34607 (United States); Schultz, Ken; Brown, Lloyd; Russ, Ben [General Atomics 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

2006-07-01

288

Predictors of Speeding Behavior Among a Sample of Iranian Commercial Automobile Drivers: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Speeding has been reported as one of the most important public health issues worldwide. Using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), this study examined the self-reported behavior of driving within posted speed limits for a sample of commercial automobile drivers. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all commercial automobile drivers who were literate and who transported people to and from

Sedigheh Sadat Tavafian; Teamur Aghamolaei; Abdoulhossain Madani

2011-01-01

289

Study of Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOS) in Aviation Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Commercially available real-time operating systems (RTOS) are seen as candidates for use in airborne-embedded software systems by airframe and engine manufacturers, because of the perceived cost and time savings associated with using commercial off-the-sh...

V. Halwan J. Krodel

2002-01-01

290

Detection of Only Viable Bacterial Spores Using a Live/Dead Indicator in Mixed Populations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This method uses a photoaffinity label that recognizes DNA and can be used to distinguish populations of bacterial cells from bacterial spores without the use of heat shocking during conventional culture, and live from dead bacterial spores using molecular-based methods. Biological validation of commercial sterility using traditional and alternative technologies remains challenging. Recovery of viable spores is cumbersome, as the process requires substantial incubation time, and the extended time to results limits the ability to quickly evaluate the efficacy of existing technologies. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) have shown promise for improving time to detection for a wide range of applications. Recent real-time PCR methods are particularly promising, as these methods can be made at least semi-quantitative by correspondence to a standard curve. Nonetheless, PCR-based methods are rarely used for process validation, largely because the DNA from dead bacterial cells is highly stable and hence, DNA-based amplification methods fail to discriminate between live and inactivated microorganisms. Currently, no published method has been shown to effectively distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores. This technology uses a DNA binding photoaffinity label that can be used to distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores with detection limits ranging from 109 to 102 spores/mL. An environmental sample suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead vegetative cells and bacterial endospores is treated with a photoaffinity label. This step will eliminate any vegetative cells (live or dead) and dead endospores present in the sample. To further determine the bacterial spore viability, DNA is extracted from the spores and total population is quantified by real-time PCR. The current NASA standard assay takes 72 hours for results. Part of this procedure requires a heat shock step at 80 degC for 15 minutes before the sample can be plated. Using a photoaffinity label would remove this step from the current assay as the label readily penetrates both live and dead bacterial cells. Secondly, the photoaffinity label can only penetrate dead bacterial spores, leaving behind the viable spore population. This would allow for rapid bacterial spore detection in a matter of hours compared to the several days that it takes for the NASA standard assay.

Behar, Alberto E.; Stam, Christina N.; Smiley, Ronald

2013-01-01

291

Discrimination of viable from non-viable gram-negative bacterial pathogens in airborne particles using propidium monoazide-assisted qPCR.  

PubMed

The presence of bacterial pathogens in airborne particulate matter (PM) has been of considerable concern from the public health standpoint. Conventional culture-based methods are tedious, time consuming and are unable to quantify stressed viable but non-culturable (VBNC) populations of these pathogens. This study reports the optimization, validation and application of a new and rapid quantitative method for enumeration of four live potential Gram-negative bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila) in PM of biomass burning origin. This method makes use of an intercalating dye (propidium monoazide, PMA) in conjunction with real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis following DNA extraction from PM samples for distinguishing viable from non-viable potential bacterial pathogens. This method was not affected by the complex matrix of the environmental samples, nor by any PCR inhibition effects. The number of viable pathogens ranged from 0 to 8×10(4) gene copies/m(3) in PM. With the exception of A. hydrophilia, all the three pathogens were found to be present in PM. The correlation between the counts obtained using the PMA-qPCR (modified qPCR) and those from the culture-based method was very high with R(2)~1.0 and p value<0.0001. PMID:23428754

Kaushik, Rajni; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

2013-04-01

292

Viable capture and release of cancer cells in human whole blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present viable cancer cell isolation devices utilizing the physical properties of cells. The tapered slit structure is proposed to isolate cancer cells from blood cells and collect them by reversed flow. From the experimental study using the spiked cancer cells in human whole blood, we verified the capability of the present cancer cell isolation chip in terms of capture efficiency, viability, and release rate. The viable cancer cells obtained from the present chip can be used for the further applications of cancer diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and new target drug development for cancer stem cells.

Doh, Il; Yoo, Hwan-il; Cho, Young-Ho; Lee, Jinseon; Kwan Kim, Hong; Kim, Jhingook

2012-07-01

293

Desiccation induces viable but Non-Culturable cells in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021  

PubMed Central

Sinorhizobium meliloti is a microorganism commercially used in the production of e.g. Medicago sativa seed inocula. Many inocula are powder-based and production includes a drying step. Although S. meliloti survives drying well, the quality of the inocula is reduced during this process. In this study we determined survival during desiccation of the commercial strains 102F84 and 102F85 as well as the model strain USDA1021. The survival of S. meliloti 1021 was estimated during nine weeks at 22% relative humidity. We found that after an initial rapid decline of colony forming units, the decline slowed to a steady 10-fold reduction in colony forming units every 22 days. In spite of the reduction in colony forming units, the fraction of the population identified as viable (42-54%) based on the Baclight live/dead stain did not change significantly over time. This change in the ability of viable cells to form colonies shows (i) an underestimation of the survival of rhizobial cells using plating methods, and that (ii) in a part of the population desiccation induces a Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC)-like state, which has not been reported before. Resuscitation attempts did not lead to a higher recovery of colony forming units indicating the VBNC state is stable under the conditions tested. This observation has important consequences for the use of rhizobia. Finding methods to resuscitate this fraction may increase the quality of powder-based seed inocula.

2012-01-01

294

Viable versus inactivated lactobacillus strain GG in acute rotavirus diarrhoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of viable or heat inactivated human Lactobacillus casei strain GG on rotavirus immune responses in patients with rotavirus diarrhoea was assessed. Rotavirus serum IgA enzyme immunoassay antibody responses were higher in infants treated with viable L casei strain GG than in those treated with inactivated L casei strain GG. There was a significant difference at convalescence with rotavirus

M Kaila; E Isolauri; M Saxelin; H Arvilommi; T Vesikari

1995-01-01

295

Method to Obtain Intact, Viable Protoplasts from Pollen Grains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to and has among its objects the provision of a novel method to obtain intact, viable plant protoplasts from within the cell walls of mature pollen grains. Intact, viable protoplasts are obtained readily and in good quantity ...

M. L. Weaver

1987-01-01

296

3D microfilter device for viable circulating tumor cell (CTC) enrichment from blood  

PubMed Central

Detection of circulating tumor cells has emerged as a promising minimally invasive diagnostic and prognostic tool for patients with metastatic cancers. We report a novel three dimensional microfilter device that can enrich viable circulating tumor cells from blood. This device consists of two layers of parylene membrane with pores and gap precisely defined with photolithography. The positions of the pores are shifted between the top and bottom membranes. The bottom membrane supports captured cells and minimize the stress concentration on cell membrane and sustain cell viability during filtration. Viable cell capture on device was investigated with scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and immunofluorescent staining using model systems of cultured tumor cells spiked in blood or saline. The paper presents and validates this new 3D microfiltration concept for circulation tumor cell enrichment application. The device provides a highly valuable tool for assessing and characterizing viable enriched circulating tumor cells in both research and clinical settings.

Lin, Henry K.; Lu, Bo; Williams, Anthony; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard J.; Tai, Yu-Chong

2013-01-01

297

Accelerating the commercialization of university technologies for military healthcare applications: the role of the proof of concept process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The von Liebig Center for Entrepreneurism and Technology Advancement at UC San Diego (vonliebig.ucsd.edu) is focused on accelerating technology transfer and commercialization through programs and education on entrepreneurism. Technology Acceleration Projects (TAPs) that offer pre-venture grants and extensive mentoring on technology commercialization are a key component of its model which has been developed over the past ten years with the

Rosibel Ochoa; Hal Delong; Jessica Kenyon; Eli Wilson

2011-01-01

298

Comparison of commercial supercapacitors and high-power lithium-ion batteries for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles. I. Initial characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, from Saft, Maxwell, Panasonic, CCR, Ness, EPCOS, and Power Systems were tested under constant current and constant power discharges to assess their applicability for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Commercial lithium-ion batteries from Saft and Shin-Kobe were also tested under similar conditions. Internal resistances were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), as well as by the " iR drop" method. Self discharge measurements were also recorded. Compared with earlier generations of supercapacitors, the cells showed improved current and power capability. However, their energy densities are still too low to meet goals set by Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) for HEV propulsion. Cells that use acetonitrile as the electrolyte solvent yield better performance, although safety issues need to be addressed. New high-power lithium-ion batteries show high energy densities, with high power capabilities.

Chu, Andrew; Braatz, Paul

299

Study of the effects of proline, phenylalanine, and urea foliar application to Tempranillo vineyards on grape amino acid content. Comparison with commercial nitrogen fertilisers.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application of different nitrogen sources on grape amino acid content. The nitrogen sources applied to Tempranillo grapevines were proline, phenylalanine, urea, and two commercial nitrogen fertilisers, both without and with amino acids in their formulations. All treatments were applied at veraison and one week later. Proline treatment did not affect the must nitrogen composition. However, phenylalanine and urea foliar application enhanced the plants' synthesis of most of the amino acids, producing similar effects. In addition, the spray of commercial nitrogen fertilisers over leaves also induced a rise in grape amino acid concentrations regardless of the presence or absence of amino acids in their formulation. The most effective treatments were phenylalanine and urea followed by nitrogen fertilisers. This finding is of oenological interest for improved must nitrogen composition, ensuring better fermentation kinetics and most likely enhancing wine quality. PMID:24912708

Garde-Cerdán, T; López, R; Portu, J; González-Arenzana, L; López-Alfaro, I; Santamaría, P

2014-11-15

300

Development of commercially viable high-[Tc] Bi-2223 superconductor tapes  

SciTech Connect

Long lengths of flexible Ag-clad Bi-2223 Superconductors have been fabricated by the powder-in-tube technique using prereacted, poly-phase, Pb-doped Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O powders. At liquid helium (4.2 K) temperature, improved process conditions yielded transport critical current density (J[sub c]) values greater than 10[sup 5] A/cm[sup 2] at zero field; at liquid nitrogen (77K) temperature, the J[sub c] values of short tape samples exceeded 4 [times] 10[sup 4] A/cm[sub 2]. Rolled tapes are cut into lengths up to 2 - meters long and are used in parallel to fabricate small superconducting pancake coils by the wind-and-react'' technique. The cots are characterized at 77K and 4.2 K. The J[sub c] of the coils are up to 80% of the short, rolled sample result at 77 K. The coils exhibited these results even after being cooled and warmed several times between ambient, 77 K and 4.2 K, indicating their stability following thermal cycling.

Balachandran, U.; Youngdahl, C.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials and Components Technology Div.); Haldar, P. (Intermagnetics General Corp., Guilderland, NY (United States)); Motowidlo, L.R. (IGC/Advanced Superconductors, Inc., Waterbury, CT (United States))

1993-02-01

301

Development of commercially viable high-{Tc} Bi-2223 superconductor tapes  

SciTech Connect

Long lengths of flexible Ag-clad Bi-2223 Superconductors have been fabricated by the powder-in-tube technique using prereacted, poly-phase, Pb-doped Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O powders. At liquid helium (4.2 K) temperature, improved process conditions yielded transport critical current density (J{sub c}) values greater than 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at zero field; at liquid nitrogen (77K) temperature, the J{sub c} values of short tape samples exceeded 4 {times} 10{sup 4} A/cm{sub 2}. Rolled tapes are cut into lengths up to 2 - meters long and are used in parallel to fabricate small superconducting pancake coils by the ``wind-and-react`` technique. The cots are characterized at 77K and 4.2 K. The J{sub c} of the coils are up to 80% of the short, rolled sample result at 77 K. The coils exhibited these results even after being cooled and warmed several times between ambient, 77 K and 4.2 K, indicating their stability following thermal cycling.

Balachandran, U.; Youngdahl, C.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials and Components Technology Div.; Haldar, P. [Intermagnetics General Corp., Guilderland, NY (United States); Motowidlo, L.R. [IGC/Advanced Superconductors, Inc., Waterbury, CT (United States)

1993-02-01

302

Developing and Commercializing Sustainable New Wood Products. A Process for Identifying Viable Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process was designed to evaluate the sustainability potential marketability of USDA Forest Service patented technologies. The process was designed and tested jointly by the University of North Carolina, the University of Michigan, Partners for Strategic...

G. A. Enk S. L. Hart

2003-01-01

303

On the feasibility of four-switch three-phase BLDC motor drives for low cost commercial applications: topology and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main purpose of this paper is to describe a low cost four-switch brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive for commercial applications. For effective utilization of the developed system, a novel direct current controlled PWM scheme is designed and implemented to produce the desired dynamic and static speed-torque characteristics. Also, the feasibility of the four-switch converter is extended to two-phase BLDC

Byoung-Kuk Lee; Tae-Hyung Kim; Mehrdad Ehsani

2003-01-01

304

Viable skin efficiently absorbs and metabolizes bisphenol A.  

PubMed

Skin contact has been hypothesized to contribute to human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA). We examined the diffusion and metabolism of BPA using viable skin models: human skin explants and short-term cultures of pig ear skin, an alternative model for the study of the fate of xenobiotics following contact exposure. 14C-BPA [50-800 nmol] was applied on the surface of skin models. Radioactivity distribution was measured in all skin compartments and in the diffusion cells of static cells diffusion systems. BPA and metabolites were further quantified by radio-HPLC. BPA was efficiently absorbed in short-term cultures, with no major difference between the models used in the study [viable pig ear skin: 65%; viable human explants: 46%; non-viable (previously frozen) pig skin: 58%]. BPA was extensively metabolized in viable systems only. Major BPA metabolites produced by the skin were BPA mono-glucuronide and BPA mono-sulfate, accounting together for 73% and 27% of the dose, in pig and human, respectively. In conclusion, experiments with viable skin models unequivocally demonstrate that BPA is readily absorbed and metabolized by the skin. The trans-dermal route is expected to contribute substantially to BPA exposure in human, when direct contact with BPA (free monomer) occurs. PMID:21030062

Zalko, Daniel; Jacques, Carine; Duplan, Hélène; Bruel, Sandrine; Perdu, Elisabeth

2011-01-01

305

Models for residential and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the

H. E. Cole; R. E. Fullen

1980-01-01

306

Immobilization of commercial laccase onto green coconut fiber by adsorption and its application for reactive textile dyes degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effort has been made to find a cheaper, easily available and simple alternative for the immobilization of enzymes and subsequent utilization at large scale in textile wastewater treatment. Commercial laccase was immobilized for the first time on an agroindustrial residue, green coconut fiber, by physical adsorption. The effect of the immobilization conditions (enzyme concentration, contact time and pH value)

Raquel O. Cristóvão; Ana P. M. Tavares; Ana Iraidy Brígida; José M. Loureiro; Rui A. R. Boaventura; Eugénia A. Macedo; Maria Alice Z. Coelho

2011-01-01

307

SIMULATION OF A COMBINED SPACE AND WATER HEATING SYSTEM FIRING PELLET FUEL FOR COMMERCIAL\\/RESIDENTIAL APPLICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of a real-time dynamic simulator that is configurable to simulate a variety of commercial \\/ residential combined space heating and domestic hot water systems. The simulation allows the designer the ability to test different physical configurations under various operating conditions and to optimize a system design for specific operating requirements. The simulator was built using

Bruce R. Clements; Bill Pearson; A. C. S. Hayden

308

Modular avionics: a commercial perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modular avionics are in the process of supplanting traditional LRU (line replaceable unit) based avionics on new military aircraft and will see initial applications on commercial transport aircraft in the mid to late 1990s. The author discusses the major considerations which must be addressed for modular avionics on commercial transport aircraft as well as the needs of commercial versus military

J. R. Todd

1991-01-01

309

Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.  

SciTech Connect

Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing further field testing as a prelude to improved and expanded commercialization.

Enslin, Johan (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Hamaoui, Ronald (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Rustom, Khalid (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Stuby, Rick (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Kuran, Mohammad (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Mark, Evlyn (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Amarin, Ruba (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Alatrash, Hussam (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

2012-03-01

310

Commercial space launches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the space shuttle is expected to be the principle Space Transportation System (STS) of the United States, the Reagan Administration is moving ahead with the President's declared space policy of encouraging private sector operation of expendable launch vehicles (ELV's). With the signing of the “Commercial Space Launch Law” on October 30, the administration hopes that it has opened up the door for commercial ventures into space by streamlining regulations and coordinating applications for launches. The administration considers the development and operation of private sector ELV's as an important part of an overall U.S. space policy, complementing the space shuttle and government ELV's. The law follows by nearly a year the creation of the Office of Commercial Space Transportation at the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), which will coordinate applications for commercial space launches.

Robb, David W.

1984-04-01

311

Viable quantitative PCR for assessing the response of Candida albicans to antifungal treatment.  

PubMed

Propidium monoazide (PMA) or ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) treatment has been used before nucleic acid detection methods, such as PCR, to distinguish between live and dead cells using membrane integrity as viability criterion. The performance of these DNA intercalating dyes was compared in many studies utilizing different microorganisms. These studies demonstrated that EMA and PMA differ in their abilities to identify nonviable cells from mixed cell populations, depending on the microorganism and the nature of the sample. Due to this heterogeneity, both dyes were used in the present study to specifically distinguish dead from live Candida albicans cells using viable quantitative PCR (qPCR). The viable qPCR was optimized, and the best results were obtained when pre-treating the cells for 10 min in the dark with 25 ?M EMA followed by continuous photoactivation for 15 min. The suitability of this technique to distinguish clotrimazole- and fluconazole-treated C. albicans cells from untreated cells was then assessed. Furthermore, the antifungal properties of two commercial essential oils (Thymus vulgaris and Matricaria chamomilla) were evaluated. The viable qPCR method was determined to be a feasible technique for assessing the viability of C. albicans after drug treatment and may help to provide a rapid diagnostic and susceptibility testing method for fungal infections, especially for patients treated with antifungal therapies. PMID:23132341

Agustí, Gemma; Fittipaldi, Mariana; Morató, Jordi; Codony, Francesc

2013-01-01

312

Rapid Method for Enumeration of Viable Legionella pneumophila and Other Legionella spp. in Water  

PubMed Central

A sensitive and specific method has been developed to enumerate viable L. pneumophila and other Legionella spp. in water by epifluorescence microscopy in a short period of time (a few hours). This method allows the quantification of L. pneumophila or other Legionella spp. as well as the discrimination between viable and nonviable Legionella. It simultaneously combines the specific detection of Legionella cells using antibodies and a bacterial viability marker (ChemChrome V6), the enumeration being achieved by epifluorescence microscopy. The performance of this immunological double-staining (IDS) method was investigated in 38 natural filterable water samples from different aquatic sources, and the viable Legionella counts were compared with those obtained by the standard culture method. The recovery rate of the IDS method is similar to, or higher than, that of the conventional culture method. Under our experimental conditions, the limit of detection of the IDS method was <176 Legionella cells per liter. The examination of several samples in duplicates for the presence of L. pneumophila and other Legionella spp. indicated that the IDS method exhibits an excellent intralaboratory reproducibility, better than that of the standard culture method. This immunological approach allows rapid measurements in emergency situations, such as monitoring the efficacy of disinfection shock treatments. Although its field of application is as yet limited to filterable waters, the double-staining method may be an interesting alternative (not equivalent) to the conventional standard culture methods for enumerating viable Legionella when rapid detection is required.

Delgado-Viscogliosi, Pilar; Simonart, Tristan; Parent, Virginie; Marchand, Gregory; Dobbelaere, Marie; Pierlot, Eric; Pierzo, Veronique; Menard-Szczebara, Florence; Gaudard-Ferveur, Elisabeth; Delabre, Karine; Delattre, Jean Marie

2005-01-01

313

In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activities of various commercial essential oils, oleoresin and pure compounds against food pathogens and application in ham.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the application of commercially available essential oils (EOs) and oleoresins to control bacterial pathogens for ready to eat food. In this study, sixty seven commercial EOs, oleoresins (ORs) and pure compounds were used to evaluate in vitro their antimicrobial activity against six food pathogens. These products were first screened for their antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion assay. Forty one products were then chosen for further analysis to determine their minimum inhibitory concentration against 6 different bacteria. There were 5 different products (allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamon Chinese cassia, cinnamon OR, oregano and red thyme) that showed high antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria. Further analysis examined the effect of four selected EOs on controlling the growth rate of mixed cultures of Listeria monocytogenes in ham. A reduction of the growth rate by 19 and 10% was observed when oregano and cinnamon cassia EOs were respectively added in ham at a concentration of 500 ppm. PMID:24012976

Dussault, Dominic; Vu, Khanh Dang; Lacroix, Monique

2014-01-01

314

Market Research Survey of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Portable MS Systems for IAEA Safeguards Applications  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results for the market research survey of mass spectrometers that are deemed pertinent to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) needs and strategic objectives. The focus of the report is on MS instruments that represent currently available (or soon to be) commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technology and weigh less than 400 pounds. A compilation of all available MS instruments (36 COTS and 2 R&D) is presented, along with pertinent information regarding each instrument.

Hart, Garret L.; Hager, George J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

2013-02-01

315

Diagnostic performance and application of two commercial cell viability assays in foot-and-mouth disease research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell-based assays are still used widely in foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) research, despite the existence of a wide variety of molecular techniques. The aim of this study was to validate an automated, quantitative spectrometric reading to replace the time-consuming and subjective microscopic (MIC) evaluation of the FMD virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE). Therefore, the diagnostic performance of two commercial cell viability assays

Tom Willems; David J. Lefebvre; Johan Neyts; Kris De Clercq

2011-01-01

316

State-of-the-art interior-piping-systems applications: Commercial buildings. Final report, June 1987June 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four types of commercial buildings were identified as candidates for the use of semi-rigid tubing: low-rise offices, low-rise motels, retail buildings, and high-rise residential buildings. For each building type, design documents were obtained for a specific building. The installation costs for a conventional low-pressure rigid steel piping system and elevated-pressure (2-5 psig) corrugated stainless steel tubing and copper tubing semi-rigid

A. J. Willman; D. Stanton-Hoyle

1990-01-01

317

Limitations of Commercializing Fuel Cell Technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuel cell is the technology that, nowadays, is deemed having a great potential to be used in supplying energy. Basically, fuel cells can be categorized particularly by the kind of employed electrolyte. Several fuel cells types which are currently identified having huge potential to be utilized, namely, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC), Polymer Electron Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). In general, each of these fuel cells types has their own characteristics and specifications which assign the capability and suitability of them to be utilized for any particular applications. Stationary power generations and transport applications are the two most significant applications currently aimed for the fuel cell market. It is generally accepted that there are lots of advantages if fuel cells can be excessively commercialized primarily in context of environmental concerns and energy security. Nevertheless, this is a demanding task to be accomplished, as there is some gap in fuel cells technology itself which needs a major enhancement. It can be concluded, from the previous study, cost, durability and performance are identified as the main limitations to be firstly overcome in enabling fuel cells technology become viable for the market.

Nordin, Normayati

2010-06-01

318

The status of commercial and developmental HTS wires  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper provides an update on the development, performance and application of first and second generation high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires fabricated at American Superconductor (AMSC). First generation, multifilamentary composite wire is available commercially today in different viable product forms. This conductor carries 140 × the current of copper of the same cross-section, and is robust enough to stand tough industrial requirements. Second generation HTS wires, having a coated conductor composite architecture, are under development today and achieved substantial progress recently. AMSC’s first generation wire will continue as the workhorse of the industry for the next 3-4 years while AMSC’s second generation coated conductor wire is on track to be reproducible, uniform, scalable, and low cost. This paper provides a product differentiation with a view on the application of HTS wire in the electric power sector. Basic engineering data is reviewed that shall aid the engineer in the selection of the HTS wire product.

Masur, L. J.; Buczek, D.; Harley, E.; Kodenkandath, T.; Li, X.; Lynch, J.; Nguyen, N.; Rupich, M.; Schoop, U.; Scudiere, J.; Siegal, E.; Thieme, C.; Verebelyi, D.; Zhang, W.; Kellers, J.

319

Technology data characterizing lighting in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with commend 4.0  

SciTech Connect

End-use forecasting models typically utilize technology tradeoff curves to represent technology options available to consumers. A tradeoff curve, in general terms, is a functional form which relates efficiency to capital cost. Each end-use is modeled by a single tradeoff curve. This type of representation is satisfactory in the analysis of many policy options. On the other hand, for policies addressing individual technology options or groups of technology options, because individual technology options are accessible to the analyst, representation in such reduced form is not satisfactory. To address this and other analysis needs, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has enhanced its Commercial End-Use Planning System (COMMEND) to allow modeling of specific lighting and space conditioning (HVAC) technology options. This report characterizes the present commercial floorstock in terms of lighting technologies and develops cost-efficiency data for these lighting technologies. This report also characterizes the interactions between the lighting and space conditioning end uses in commercial buildings in the US In general, lighting energy reductions increase the heating and decrease the cooling requirements. The net change in a building`s energy requirements, however, depends on the building characteristics, operating conditions, and the climate. Lighting/HVAC interactions data were generated through computer simulations using the DOE-2 building energy analysis program.

Sezgen, A.O.; Huang, Y.J.; Atkinson, B.A.; Eto, J.H.; Koomey, J.G.

1994-05-01

320

Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs  

PubMed Central

This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emilio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonca, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Leticia Rispoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

2014-01-01

321

Hoechst fluorescence intensity can be used to separate viable bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells from viable non-bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is a powerful compound to study the mitotic activity of a cell. Most techniques that identify BrdU-labeled cells require conditions that kill the cells. However, the fluorescence intensity of the membrane-permeable Hoechst dyes is reduced by the incorporation of BrdU into DNA, allowing the separation of viable BrdU positive (BrdU+) cells from viable BrdU negative (BrdU-) cells. METHODS: Cultures of proliferating cells were supplemented with BrdU for 48 h and other cultures of proliferating cells were maintained without BrdU. Mixtures of viable BrdU+ and viable BrdU- cells from the two proliferating cultures were stained with Hoechst 33342. The viable BrdU+ and BrdU- cells were sorted into different fractions from a mixture of BrdU+ and BrdU- cells based on Hoechst fluorescence intensity and the ability to exclude the vital dye, propidium iodide. Subsequently, samples from the original mixture, the sorted BrdU+ cell population, and the sorted BrdU- cell population were immunostained using an anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody and evaluated using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Two mixtures consisting of approximately 55% and 69% BrdU+ cells were sorted into fractions consisting of greater than 93% BrdU+ cells and 92% BrdU- cells. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. CONCLUSIONS: Hoechst fluorescence intensity in combination with cell sorting is an effective tool to separate viable BrdU+ from viable BrdU- cells for further study. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Mozdziak, P. E.; Pulvermacher, P. M.; Schultz, E.; Schell, K.

2000-01-01

322

Viable mononuclear cell stability study for implementation in a proficiency testing program: impact of shipment conditions.  

PubMed

The impact of shipping temperatures and preservation media used during transport of either peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or Jurkat cells was assessed, in view of implementing of a proficiency testing scheme on mononuclear cell viability. Samples were analyzed before and after shipment at different temperatures (ambient temperature, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen) and in different preservation media (serum with cryoprotectant, commercial cryopreservation solution, and room temperature transport medium). Sample quality was assessed by viability assays (Trypan Blue dye exclusion, flow cytometry, Cell Analysis System cell counting (CASY)), and by ELISpot functional assay. The liquid nitrogen storage and shipment were found to be the most stable conditions to preserve cell viability and functionality. However, we show that alternative high quality shipment conditions for viable cells are dry ice shipment and commercial cryopreservation solution. These were also cost-efficient shipment conditions, satisfying the requirements of a proficiency testing scheme for viable mononuclear cells. Room temperature transport medium dramatically and adversely affected the integrity of mononuclear cells. PMID:24955735

Kofanova, Olga A; Davis, Kristine; Glazer, Barbara; De Souza, Yvonne; Kessler, Joseph; Betsou, Fotini

2014-06-01

323

Safely Coupling Livestock and Crop Production Systems: How Rapidly Do Antibiotic Resistance Genes Dissipate in Soil following a Commercial Application of Swine or Dairy Manure?  

PubMed

Animal manures recycled onto crop production land carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated the fate in soil of selected genes associated with antibiotic resistance or genetic mobility in field plots cropped to vegetables and managed according to normal farming practice. Referenced to unmanured soil, fertilization with swine or dairy manure increased the relative abundance of the gene targets sul1, erm(B), str(B), int1, and IncW repA. Following manure application in the spring of 2012, gene copy number decayed exponentially, reaching background levels by the fall of 2012. In contrast, gene copy number following manure application in the fall of 2012 or spring of 2013 increased significantly in the weeks following application and then declined. In both cases, the relative abundance of gene copy numbers had not returned to background levels by the fall of 2013. Overall, these results suggest that under conditions characteristic of agriculture in a humid continental climate, a 1-year period following a commercial application of raw manure is sufficient to ensure that an additional soil burden of antibiotic resistance genes approaches background. The relative abundance of several gene targets exceeded background during the growing season following a spring application or an application done the previous fall. Results from the present study reinforce the advisability of treating manure prior to use in crop production systems. PMID:24632259

Marti, Romain; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Scott, Andrew; Sabourin, Lyne; Topp, Edward

2014-05-01

324

Viable Cyanobacteria and Green Algae from the Permafrost Darkness  

SciTech Connect

This review represents an overview of the existence, distribution and abundance of the photoautotrophic microorganisms in the deep subsurface permafrost of the Northeast Russia and McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The morphology, growth rate, spectral properties, phylogenetic position of the viable permafrost green algae and cyanobacteria have been studied. Viable photoautotrophs were represented by unicellular green algae and filamentous cyanobacteria with low growth rate. Spectral studies of ancient cyanobacteria and green algae did not reveal any significant differences between them and their contemporary relatives. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that permafrost photoautotrophs were closely related to strains and more often to uncultured environmental clones from cold regions.

Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A [ORNL

2009-01-01

325

Relationship of Total Viable and Culturable Cells in Epiphytic Populations of 'Pseudomonas syringae'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The direct viable count method, used to detect viable but nonculturable bacteria in aquatic systems, was modified to examine epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae. Viable-population sizes determined from the number of cells that elongated when inc...

M. Wilson S. E. Lindow

1992-01-01

326

CRITICAL FLAW SIZE REDUCTION IN COMMERCIAL Si3N4- TiN COMPOSITES FOR WEAR APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon nitride (Si3N4) based materials are used for engineering applications wear high performance in demanding environments is required. These applications included cutting tools and roller bearings. The addition of titanium nitride (TiN) particles into a Si3N4 matrix can lead to particle reinforcement behaviour resulting in improved mechanical properties including fracture toughness (KIc) and strength. Although the addition of TiN particles

G. BLUGAN; J. KUEBLER

327

Induction and Resuscitation of Viable Nonculturable Arcobacter butzleri Cells?  

PubMed Central

Two strains of Arcobacter butzleri, ATCC 49616 and an environmental isolate, became nonculturable in seawater microcosms at 4°C by 20 days and at room temperature by 14 days. Nonculturable cells were viable for up to 270 days of incubation in microcosms. Resuscitation of A. butzleri cells from microcosms at both temperatures was achieved 9 days after nutrient addition.

Fera, M. T.; Maugeri, T. L.; Gugliandolo, C.; La Camera, E.; Lentini, V.; Favaloro, A.; Bonanno, D.; Carbone, M.

2008-01-01

328

Characteristics of Viable and Sustainable Workers for the Year 2015.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-round Delphi study was conducted to identify the characteristics of viable and sustainable employees in northeastern Tennessee in 2015. The Delphi panel selected for the study consisted of 25 experts who represented a cross-section of the businesses and communities in the 10-county area of northeastern Tennessee served by Walters State…

Dean, Brenda Pennington; West, Russell

329

A METHOD TO DETECT VIABLE HELICOBACTER PYLORI BACTERIA IN GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The inability to detect the presence of viable Helicobacter pylori bacteria in environmental waters has hindered the public health community in assessing the role water may playin the transmission of this pathogen. This work describes a cultural enrichment method coupled with an...

330

Estimation of viable airborne microbes downwind from a point source.  

PubMed Central

Modification of the Pasquill atmospheric diffusion equations for estimating viable microbial airborne cell concentrations downwind form a continuous point source is presented. A graphical method is given to estimate the ground level cell concentration given (i) microbial death rate, (ii) mean wind speed, (iii) atmospheric stability class, (iv) downwind sample distance from the source, and (v) source height.

Lighthart, B; Frisch, A S

1976-01-01

331

An explication of the viable system model for project management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how to model proejct management using the Viable System Model. It gives a general overview of the model and explains in detail how to model System 4, Systems 3-2-1, the interactions between System 3 and System 4, and the interactions between management at different levels of recursion.

G. A. Britton; J. Parker

1993-01-01

332

Design Rules for Intranets According to the Viable System Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Viable System Model, VSM, by Stafford Beer is a model used for diagnosing and designing organizational structure and communication to facilitate necessary and sufficient conditions for viability. The model has been used for diagnosing different kinds of organizations at different levels where its use highlights existing or missing communication patterns and information flows in different communication channels and relates

Christina Amcoff Nyström

2006-01-01

333

A METHODOLOGY FOR USING BEER'S VIABLE SYSTEM MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper first briefly describes interactive planning, which consists of five interacting phases, which can be performed in any order: mess formulation, ends planning, means planning, resource planning, and implementation. The paper shows how interactive planning and the viable system model (VSM) can be combined to give a powerful methodology for studying and redesigning organizations. The essential skills to use

G. A. Britton

1989-01-01

334

Selective detection of viable bacteria using dielectrophoretic impedance measurement method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a selective detection technique of viable bacteria based on dielectrophoresis and electrical impedance measurements. The authors have previously proposed a detection technique of biological particles called dielectrophoretic impedance measurement (DEPIM) method using positive dielectrophoretic force to capture biological cells in suspension onto an interdigitated microelectrode array. By combining antigen-antibody reaction with the DEPIM, selective detection of a

Junya Suehiro; Ryo Hamada; Daisuke Noutomi; Masanori Shutou; Masanori Hara

2003-01-01

335

Lease/Purchase: A Viable Alternative for Financing Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lease-purchase finance is a viable alternative for school districts that cannot or do not want to employ traditional financing techniques. Outlines the advantages and disadvantages of lease-purchase financing compared to outright purchase; operating leasing, which is taxable; and traditional tax-exempt bond financing. (MLF)

Demers, Denise

1989-01-01

336

Are E-Readers Viable Instructional Delivery Systems?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study of e-readers, or electronic book readers, that investigated strategies adult users applied to reading in the new medium, kinds of texts users read, and text characteristics for e-reading. Discusses the process of reading, purposes of reading, and whether e-readers are viable instructional delivery systems. (Contains 63…

Schcolnik, Miriam

2002-01-01

337

Commercial Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in commercial art at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

Vassallo, Thomas

338

Commercial and Industrial Wiring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

339

Overview of thermostable DNA polymerases for classical PCR applications: from molecular and biochemical fundamentals to commercial systems.  

PubMed

During the genomics era, the use of thermostable DNA polymerases increased greatly. Many were identified and described-mainly of the genera Thermus, Thermococcus and Pyrococcus. Each polymerase has different features, resulting from origin and genetic modification. However, the rational choice of the adequate polymerase depends on the application itself. This review gives an overview of the most commonly used DNA polymerases used for PCR application: KOD, Pab (Isis™), Pfu, Pst (Deep Vent™), Pwo, Taq, Tbr, Tca, Tfi, Tfl, Tfu, Tgo, Tli (Vent™), Tma (UITma™), Tne, Tth and others. PMID:24177730

Terpe, Kay

2013-12-01

340

An Overview of Nuclear vs. Non-Nuclear Design Code Requirements for a Candidate Steam Supply System for Commercial Applications  

SciTech Connect

The objective is to identify (mostly for industrial end-users) the difference between a Section III nuclear steam generator (classified as Structures, Systems and Components (SSC)) and a Section VIII steam generator in the same general conditions, but used in a conventional application. Specifically, applicable temperature and pressure ranges and a more quantitative description of how materials change, design margins change and required design rigor changes are of interest. This overview focuses on the steam generator pressure boundary but the downstream piping will also be considered. Within the designations of Section III and Section VIII there are subcategories with their specific regions of applicability. Each of these subcategories has evolved their own unique features with respect to design rules and their implementation. A general overview of the various design codes will be provided in sufficient detail to illustrate the major differences; however, a detailed discussion of the various design requirements and their implementation is beyond the scope of this discussion. References (1) and (2) are sources of more detailed information. Also, example wall sizing calculations will be provided to illustrate the application of the relevant design codes under the candidate design conditions. The candidate steam supply Design Conditions are 600C (1112F) and 24MPa (3,480psi). The Operating Conditions or Service Levels will be somewhat lower and the difference shows up in some of the various design methodologies employed.

Robert Jetter

2011-04-01

341

Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based next generation commercially available substrate: physical characterization and biological application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a sensing platform capable of detecting and identifying hazards including biological, chemical, and energetic in nature is a long sought after goal of the Army and many other first responders. Surface enhanced Raman scatting (SERS) is one spectroscopic technique gaining popularity as a solution to many sensing needs due to its many advantages such as high sensitivity, little to no sample preparation required, and use in numerous environmental settings). Despite all the advantages of SERS, it still remains a marginalized sensing technique primarily due to the challenges in fabricating a reliable, highly sensitive and reproducible nanoscale surface. In this work, we show that many of these challenges have been overcome with a newly developed commercially available Klarite SERS substrate. These substrates are fabricated in a fashion similar to standard Klarite substrates, but due to changes in size and spacing of the inverted pyramidal structurethere is an overall increase of SERS sensing capabilities of up to 4 orders of magnitude. In this proceeding paper, the next generation Klarite (308 and 309) substrates are characterized, analyte sensitivity demonstrated at 633 nm and 785 nm, and a brief discussion of their biological sensing capabilities is presented.

Hankus, Mikella E.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

2011-09-01

342

State-of-the-art interior-piping-systems applications: Commercial buildings. Final report, June 1987-June 1989  

SciTech Connect

Four types of commercial buildings were identified as candidates for the use of semi-rigid tubing: low-rise offices, low-rise motels, retail buildings, and high-rise residential buildings. For each building type, design documents were obtained for a specific building. The installation costs for a conventional low-pressure rigid steel piping system and elevated-pressure (2-5 psig) corrugated stainless steel tubing and copper tubing semi-rigid systems were estimated. In addition, the installation cost of an all-electric HVAC system was estimated for each building. The results of these studies indicated that the semi-rigid tubing systems were more cost effective than the rigid steel piping system. Further, the installation cost of gas HVAC systems in the four buildings was nearly equivalent to the installation cost of all-electric HVAC systems. Field tests conducted at a strip shopping center and a three-story motel also indicated that the semi-rigid tubing was more cost effective than the rigid steel pipe system.

Willman, A.J.; Stanton-Hoyle, D.

1990-06-01

343

Material Characterization of Ge1- x Sn x Alloys Grown by a Commercial CVD System for Optoelectronic Device Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-quality compressive-strained Ge1- x Sn x /Ge films have been deposited on Si(001) substrate using a mainstream commercial chemical vapor deposition reactor. The growth temperature was kept below 450°C to be compatible with Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor processes. Germanium tin (Ge1- x Sn x ) layers were grown with different Sn composition ranging from 0.9% to 7%. Material characterizations, such as secondary-ion mass spectrometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and x-ray diffraction analysis, show stable Sn incorporation in the Ge lattice. Comparison of the Sn mole fractions obtained using these methods shows that the bowing factor of 0.166 nm (in Vegard's law) is in close agreement with other experimental data. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy results show that the films have started to relax through the formation of misfit and threading dislocations. Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and photoluminescence (PL) techniques are used to study the structural and optical properties of the films. Room-temperature PL of the films shows that 7% Sn incorporation in the Ge lattice results in a decrease in the direct bandgap of Ge from 0.8 eV to 0.56 eV.

Mosleh, Aboozar; Ghetmiri, Seyed Amir; Conley, Benjamin R.; Hawkridge, Michael; Benamara, Mourad; Nazzal, Amjad; Tolle, John; Yu, Shui-Qing; Naseem, Hameed A.

2014-04-01

344

Using the Viable Systems Model to Structure a System Dynamics Mapping and Modeling Project for the Australian Taxation Office  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a case study of a major System Dynamics (SD) intervention in policy design in the Australian Taxation Office. The project, which lasted two years, tested a number of hypotheses regarding the application of Stafford Beer's Viable Systems Model (VSM) to the structure and process of the project. The paper reports that the success of the VSM within

Tim Haslett; Rod Sarah

2006-01-01

345

Fluorescence particle detector for real-time quantification of viable organisms in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect viable organisms in air in real time is important in a number of applications. Detecting high levels of airborne organisms in hospitals can prevent post-operative infections and the spread of diseases. Monitoring levels of airborne viable organisms in pharmaceutical facilities can ensure safe production of drugs or vaccines. Monitoring airborne bacterial levels in meat processing plants can help to prevent contamination of food products. Monitoring the level of airborne organisms in bio-containment facilities can ensure that proper procedures are being followed. Finally, detecting viable organisms in real time is a key to defending against biological agent attacks. This presentation describes the development and performance of a detector, based on fluorescence particle counting technology, where an ultraviolet laser is used to count particles by light scattering and elicit fluorescence from specific biomolecules found only in living organisms. The resulting detector can specifically detect airborne particles containing living organisms from among the large majority of other particles normally present in air. Efforts to develop the core sensor technology, focusing on integrating an UV laser with a specially designed particle-counting cell will be highlighted. The hardware/software used to capture the information from the sensor, provide an alarm in the presence of an unusual biological aerosol content will also be described. Finally, results from experiments to test the performance of the detector will be presented.

Luoma, Greg; Cherrier, Pierre P.; Piccioni, Marc; Tanton, Carol; Herz, Steve; DeFreez, Richard K.; Potter, Michael; Girvin, Kenneth L.; Whitney, Ronald

2002-02-01

346

Viable Biomass Sensor integration in the MELiSSA CI and CIII compartments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, the biomass quantity and quality in complex substrate reactor (e.g. activated sludge, high density, fixed bed,..) is determined off-line in laboratories. Within this study, the VIAMASS Sensor System, which uses Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques, has been tested for MELiSSA compartment CI and C III, the liquefying and the nitrifying compartment respectively. This sensor is able to measure viable cells on basis of an impedance spectroscopy measurement. The fact that viable biomass can be detected, distinguishes the sensor from classical biomass sensors used in wastewater treatment plants. Detection of viable biomass and composition of the biomass can be very useful for calibration and validation of biological models. The sensor can be used to detect toxicity in system leading to die-off of organisms. The technology developed initially for space applications has been adapted and will be also able to give overall information on the population distribution of cells, distinguishing what type of biomass is dominant (for example, bacteria or protozoa).

Duatis Juarez, Jordi; Peiro, Enrique; Bragos, Ramon

347

PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the Viking missions in the mid-1970s, traditional culture-based methods have been used for microbial enumeration by various NASA programs. Viable microbes are of particular concern for spacecraft cleanliness, for forward contamination of extraterrestrial bodies (proliferation of microbes), and for crew health/safety (viable pathogenic microbes). However, a "true" estimation of viable microbial population and differentiation from their dead cells using the most sensitive molecular methods is a challenge, because of the stability of DNA from dead cells. The goal of this research is to evaluate a rapid and sensitive microbial detection concept that will selectively estimate viable microbes. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have shown promise for reducing time to detection for a wide range of applications. The proposed method is based on the use of a fluorescent DNA intercalating agent, propidium monoazide (PMA), which can only penetrate the membrane of dead cells. The PMA-quenched reaction mixtures can be screened, where only the DNA from live cells will be available for subsequent PCR reaction and microarray detection, and be identified as part of the viable microbial community. An additional advantage of the proposed rapid method is that it will detect viable microbes and differentiate from dead cells in only a few hours, as opposed to less comprehensive culture-based assays, which take days to complete. This novel combination approach is called the PMA-Microarray method. DNA intercalating agents such as PMA have previously been used to selectively distinguish between viable and dead bacterial cells. Once in the cell, the dye intercalates with the DNA and, upon photolysis under visible light, produces stable DNA adducts. DNA cross-linked in this way is unavailable for PCR. Environmental samples suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead microbial cells/spores will be treated with PMA, and then incubated in the dark. Thereafter, the sample is exposed to visible light for five minutes, so that the DNA from dead cells will be cross-linked. Following this PMA treatment step, the sample is concentrated by centrifugation and washed (to remove excessive PMA) before DNA is extracted. The 16S rRNA gene fragments will be amplified by PCR to screen the total microbial community using PhyloChip DNA microarray analysis. This approach will detect only the viable microbial community since the PMA intercalated DNA from dead cells would be unavailable for PCR amplification. The total detection time including PCR reaction for low biomass samples will be a few hours. Numerous markets may use this technology. The food industry uses spore detection to validate new alternative food processing technologies, sterility, and quality. Pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies also detect spores as a marker for sterility. This system can be used for validating sterilization processes, water treatment systems, and in various public health and homeland security applications.

Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

2011-01-01

348

Development of simultaneous analysis for marker constituents in Hwangryunhaedok-tang () and its application in commercial herbal formulas.  

PubMed

This study was performed to develop methods for the chromatographic determination of biomarkers in Hwangryunhaedok-tang (HHT) and the quantitative evaluation of commercial HHT. To develop an analytical method, an RP-amide column (2.7 ?m, 4.6 × 100 mm, Halo: Supelco, Bellefonte, PA) was used with a gradient solvent system of mixed acetonitrile and 0.1 % phosphoric acid/water and an ultra performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. The method was validated by specificity, linearity, accuracy (recovery) and precision tests (repeatability, intra and inter-day). The correlation coefficients (R (2)) of biomarkers were calculated as 0.9998-1.000 and their ranges were as follows: geniposide (62.5-1,000.0 ?g/ml), berberine (31.3-500.0 mg/ml), palmatine (31.3-500.0 ?g/ml), baicalin (125.0-1,500.0 ?g/ml), baicalein (15.6-250.0 ?g/ml) and wogonin (5.2-125.0 ?g/ml), respectively. The limit of detection was 0.34-4.01 ?g/ml, and the limit of quantification was 1.02-12.16 ?g/ml. The intra-day and inter-day precision of six components were revealed as 0.02-2.48 % as a relative standard deviation (RSD). The repeatability value of biomarkers in three different concentrations of HHT was 0.29-2.98 % (RSD value) and recovery was 95.72-104.90 %. Among several extraction methods tested, biomarker content was higher with the 20 times extraction (20TE) and mixture of extract powder (MEP) methods than with any other method, and some differences among diverse pharmaceutical medicines were revealed. The validation data indicated that the method developed is suited to the determination of six marker compounds in HHT. The content of biomarkers by simultaneous analysis was evaluated in 20TE, MEP, USA formula and Taiwan formula. PMID:22855402

Kim, Se Gun; Poudel, Amrit; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Jo, Hyung-Kwon; Jung, Hyun-Ju

2013-04-01

349

Airborne viable, non-viable, and allergenic fungi in a rural agricultural area of India: a 2-year study at five outdoor sampling stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The information on airborne allergenic fungal flora in rural agricultural areas is largely lacking. Adequate information is not available to the bioaerosol researchers regarding the choice of single versus multiple sampling stations for the monitoring of both viable and non-viable airborne fungi. There is no long-term study estimating the ratios of viable and non-viable fungi in the air and earlier

Atin Adhikari; Moon M. Sen; Swati Gupta-Bhattacharya; Sunirmal Chanda

2004-01-01

350

Evidence for viable, non-clonal but fatherless Boa constrictors.  

PubMed

Parthenogenesis in vertebrates is considered an evolutionary novelty. In snakes, all of which exhibit genetic sex determination with ZZ : ZW sex chromosomes, this rare form of asexual reproduction has failed to yield viable female WW offspring. Only through complex experimental manipulations have WW females been produced, and only in fish and amphibians. Through microsatellite DNA fingerprinting, we provide the first evidence of facultative parthenogenesis in a Boa constrictor, identifying multiple, viable, non-experimentally induced females for the first time in any vertebrate lineage. Although the elevated homozygosity of the offspring in relation to the mother suggests that the mechanism responsible may be terminal fusion automixis, no males were produced, potentially indicating maternal sex chromosome hemizygosity (WO). These findings provide the first evidence of parthenogenesis in the family Boidae (Boas), and suggest that WW females may be more common within basal reptilian lineages than previously assumed. PMID:21047849

Booth, Warren; Johnson, Daniel H; Moore, Sharon; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

2011-04-23

351

Characterization of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC) State in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC) state has been thoroughly studied in bacteria. In contrast, it has received much less attention in other microorganisms. However, it has been suggested that various yeast species occurring in wine may enter in VBNC following sulfite stress.In order to provide conclusive evidences for the existence of a VBNC state in yeast, the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enter into a VBNC state by applying sulfite stress was investigated. Viable populations were monitored by flow cytometry while culturable populations were followed by plating on culture medium. Twenty-four hours after the application of the stress, the comparison between the culturable population and the viable population demonstrated the presence of viable cells that were non culturable. In addition, removal of the stress by increasing the pH of the medium at different time intervals into the VBNC state allowed the VBNC S. cerevisiae cells to "resuscitate". The similarity between the cell cycle profiles of VBNC cells and cells exiting the VBNC state together with the generation rate of cells exiting VBNC state demonstrated the absence of cellular multiplication during the exit from the VBNC state. This provides evidence of a true VBNC state. To get further insight into the molecular mechanism pertaining to the VBNC state, we studied the involvement of the SSU1 gene, encoding a sulfite pump in S. cerevisiae. The physiological behavior of wild-type S. cerevisiae was compared to those of a recombinant strain overexpressing SSU1 and null ?ssu1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that the SSU1 gene is only implicated in the first stages of sulfite resistance but not per se in the VBNC phenotype. Our study clearly demonstrated the existence of an SO2-induced VBNC state in S. cerevisiae and that the stress removal allows the "resuscitation" of VBNC cells during the VBNC state. PMID:24204887

Salma, Mohammad; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Sequeira-Le Grand, Anabelle; Divol, Benoit; Alexandre, Hervé

2013-01-01

352

Formation and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable Salmonella typhi.  

PubMed

Salmonella typhi is a pathogen that causes the human disease of typhoid fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of S. typhi. Some samples were stimulated at 4°C or -20°C, while others were induced by different concentrations of CuSO4. Total cell counts remained constant throughout several days by acridine orange direct counting; however, plate counts declined to undetectable levels within 48 hours by plate counting at -20°C. The direct viable counts remained fairly constant at this level by direct viable counting. Carbon and nitrogen materials slowly decreased which indicated that a large population of cells existed in the VBNC state and entered the VBNC state in response to exposure to 0.01 or 0.015?mmol/L CuSO4 for more than 14 or 12 days, respectively. Adding 3% Tween 20 or 1% catalase enabled cells to become culturable again, with resuscitation times of 48?h and 24?h, respectively. The atomic force microscope results showed that cells gradually changed in shape from short rods to coccoids, and decreased in size when they entered the VBNC state. Further animal experiments suggested that resuscitated cells might regain pathogenicity. PMID:23509799

Zeng, Bin; Zhao, Guozhong; Cao, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua

2013-01-01

353

A theory-driven training programme in the use of emerging commercial technology: Application to an adolescent with severe memory impairment.  

PubMed

We describe a theory-driven memory intervention programme for training individuals with moderate to severe memory impairment in the use of emerging commercial technology. Here we demonstrate the application of the programme to training MK, an 18-year-old woman with severe memory impairment following treatment for a suprasellar germinoma, to autonomously use a smartphone to support her day-to-day memory. A within-subject A(1)B(1)A(2)B(2) single-case experimental design was used to evaluate the impact of smartphone use on MK's real-life functioning. Following intervention MK showed increased confidence in dealing with memory-demanding situations and generalised smartphone use across all aspects of her life as quantified by several and varied ecologically valid measures including a phone call schedule, behaviour memory observations and questionnaires. Moreover the intervention also benefited her family as indicated by a sustained reduction in caregiver strain and an increase in reported quality of life. These findings suggest that individuals with severe memory impairment, particularly young adults with potentially life-long dependence on their families, are able to capitalise on emerging commercial technology to function more autonomously. The findings also suggest that the gap between individuals with severe memory impairment and potent emerging technology can be closed by provision of a theory-driven structured training programme. PMID:20425664

Svoboda, Eva; Richards, Brian; Polsinelli, Angelina; Guger, Sharon

2010-08-01

354

Precast commercial polyacrylamide gels for separation of DNA amplificates by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis: application to clonality analysis of lymphomas.  

PubMed

The third complementary determining region (CDR-III) of the rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) genes represents a unique marker for a lymphocyte and its clonal descendants and can be amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. This approach has markedly enhanced the sensitivity for detection of clonal lymphocyte populations in patients with malignant B-lymphoid neoplasias. To monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) in tissue specimens during or after antineoplastic treatment, the problem of detecting the presence of a few clonal (malignant) lymphocytes in coexistence with a majority of polyclonal lymphocytes has to be addressed. Semi-nested PCR amplification of CDR-III rearrangements from specimen infiltrated by tumor cells generates clonal signals in front of a polyclonal background, and therefore high resolution electrophoretic techniques for separation of DNA fragments are required. Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) resolving DNA homo- and heteroduplexes according to their thermal stability has been successfully applied for this purpose using special electrophoretic equipment. We describe an adjustment to this technique by using a commercially available precast 0.5 mm thick polyacrylamide gel and by changing a standard horizontal electrophoretic device into a TGGE device. By this means we screened patients with B-cell lymphoma undergoing high-dosage radiochemotherapy followed by autologous transplantation for continuous presence of clonal (tumor-specific) CDR-III rearrangements. Specimens from blood and bone marrow were collected on diagnosis as well as before and after autologous transplantation. In addition, the autograft (bone marrow or peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells) was analyzed. Tumor cells were easily detected in the transplants and in specimens collected during follow-up examinations. The clinical value of these findings remains unclear as yet because the number of cases investigated was small and the follow-up time is still too short. However, we conclude that the technique of combining the sensitivity of PCR with the specificity of high resolution TGGE is easy to use, making it possible to handle, in a clinical routine, a great number of samples within a short time in order to monitor MRD in patients with B-cell neoplasias. PMID:8738325

Suttorp, M; von Neuhoff, N; Tiemann, M; Dreger, P; Schaub, J; Löffer, H; Parwaresch, R; Schmitz, N

1996-04-01

355

Evaluation of low-residue soldering for military and commercial applications: A report from the Low-Residue Soldering Task Force  

SciTech Connect

The LRSTF combined the efforts of industry, military, and government to evaluate low-residue soldering processes for military and commercial applications. These processes were selected for evaluation because they provide a means for the military to support the presidential mandate while producing reliable hardware at a lower cost. This report presents the complete details and results of a testing program conducted by the LRSTF to evaluate low-residue soldering for printed wiring assemblies. A previous informal document provided details of the test plan used in this evaluation. Many of the details of that test plan are contained in this report. The test data are too massive to include in this report, however, these data are available on disk as Excel spreadsheets upon request. The main purpose of low-residue soldering is to eliminate waste streams during the manufacturing process.

Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burress, R.V. [SEHO (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

356

Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new ...

W. D. Ivancic J. H. Griner R. Dimond B. D. Frantz B. Kachmar D. Shell

2000-01-01

357

Development of a commercial retinal scanning display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Human Interface Technology Laboratory at the University of Washington is developing a new display device, the Virtual Reality Display (VRD), in which a coherent light source is used to scan an image directly on the retina of the viewer's eye. Development work is funded by Micro Vision, Inc., Seattle, which holds an exclusive license to manufacture and distribute the VRD. Using the VRD technology it is possible to build a high resolution, wide field-of- view, full color personal display device that is light weight and will operate in a high brightness environment. Current work is aimed at developing the technologies that will make the VRD a commercially viable product from both a performance and cost standpoint. Prototypes produced to date include a full color, VGA resolution device based on a unique mechanical resonant scanner as the horizontal scanning element. This paper will briefly explain the VRD concept and discuss potential applications of the technology. It will also describe the current research and development efforts which are aimed at creating a high performance yet low cost display system.

Johnston, Richard S.; Willey, Stephen R.

1995-05-01

358

Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews published experimental and theoretical investigations of particle deposition from turbulent flows and considers the applicability of this body of work to the specific case of particle deposition from flows in the ducts of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Particle deposition can detrimentally affect the performance of HVAC systems and it influences the exposure of building occupants to a variety of air pollutants. The first section of this report describes the types of HVAC systems under consideration and discusses the components, materials and operating parameters commonly found in these systems. The second section reviews published experimental investigations of particle deposition rates from turbulent flows and considers the ramifications of the experimental evidence with respect to HVAC ducts. The third section considers the structure of turbulent airflows in ventilation ducts with a particular emphasis on turbulence investigations that have been used as a basis for particle deposition models. The final section reviews published literature on predicting particle deposition rates from turbulent flows.

Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

2002-06-01

359

Modulation of the endocannabinoid system in viable and non-viable first trimester pregnancies by pregnancy-related hormones  

PubMed Central

Background In early pregnancy, increased plasma levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) are associated with miscarriage through mechanisms that might affect the developing placenta or maternal decidua. Methods In this study, we compare AEA levels in failed and viable pregnancies with the levels of the trophoblastic hormones (beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG), progesterone (P4) and (pregnancy-associated placental protein-A (PAPP-A)) essential for early pregnancy success and relate that to the expression of the cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that modulate AEA levels. Results The median plasma AEA level in non-viable pregnancies (1.48 nM; n = 20) was higher than in viable pregnancies (1.21 nM; n = 25; P = 0.013), as were progesterone and beta-hCG levels (41.0 vs 51.5 ng/mL; P = 0.052 for P4 and 28,650 vs 6,560 mIU/L; P = 0.144 for beta-hCG, respectively, but were not statistically significant). Serum PAPP-A levels in the viable group were approximately 6.8 times lower than those in the non-viable group (1.82 vs 12.25 mg/L; P = 0.071), but again these differences were statistically insignificant. In the spontaneous miscarriage group, significant correlations between P4 and beta-hCG, P4 and PAPP-A and AEA and PAPP-A levels were observed. Simultaneously, immunohistochemical distributions of the two main cannabinoid receptors and the AEA-modifying enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), changed within both the decidua and trophoblast. Conclusions The association of higher AEA levels with early pregnancy failure and with beta-hCG and PAPP-A, but not with progesterone concentrations suggest that plasma AEA levels and pregnancy failure are linked via a mechanism that may involve trophoblastic beta-hCG, and PAPP-A, but not, progesterone production. Although the trophoblast, decidua and embryo contain receptors for AEA, the main AEA target in early pregnancy failure remains unknown.

2011-01-01

360

Sodium chloride affects propidium monoazide action to distinguish viable cells.  

PubMed

Propidium monoazide (PMA) is a DNA-intercalating agent used to selectively detect DNA from viable cells by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here, we report that high concentrations (>5%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) prevents PMA from inhibiting DNA amplification from dead cells. Moreover, Halobacterium salinarum was unable to maintain cell integrity in solutions containing less than 15% NaCl, indicating that extreme halophilic microorganisms may not resist the concentration range in which PMA fully acts. We conclude that NaCl, but not pH, directly affects the efficiency of PMA treatment, limiting its use for cell viability assessment of halophiles and in hypersaline samples. PMID:22728959

Barth, Valdir C; Cattani, Fernanda; Ferreira, Carlos A S; de Oliveira, Sílvia D

2012-09-15

361

Effects of sandblasting, H2SO4/HCl etching, and phosphate primer application on bond strength of veneering resin composite to commercially pure titanium grade 4.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of surface treatments on the bond strength of a resin composite to a commercially pure titanium. The bonding surfaces of all titanium specimens were ground with 1,000-grit silicon carbide paper and then subjected to one or more of these surface treatments: sandblasting with alumina (sand), etching with 45wt% H2SO4 and 15wt% HCl (SH-etchant) at 70°C for 10 min, and/or phosphate primer (MDP-primer) application. Specimens not subjected to any surface treatment were used as controls. After resin composite veneer placement and 24-h water immersion, the shear bond strengths of the specimens in descending order were: sand/SH-etchant/MDP-primer, sand/SH-etchant/no primer, no sand/SH-etchant/MDP-primer, sand/no etch/MDP-primer, no sand/SH-etchant/no primer, sand/no etch/no primer, no sand/no etch/MDP-primer, no sand/no etch/no primer. Scanning electron microscope observations revealed that sandblasting and SH-etchant created many micro- and nanoscale cavities on the titanium surface. Results showed that a combined use of sandblasting, SH-etchant, and MDP-primer application had a cooperative effect on titanium bonding. PMID:23538756

Egoshi, Takafumi; Taira, Yohsuke; Soeno, Kohyoh; Sawase, Takashi

2013-01-01

362

Army relevant Biological Hazards Detection with Commercial SERS substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing need and challenge for early rapid and accurate detection, identification, and quantification of chemical, biological, and energetic hazards in many fields of interest (e.g., medical, environmental, industrial, and defense applications). Increasingly to meet these challenges, researchers are turning to interdisciplinary approaches combining spectroscopy with nanoscale platforms to create technologies that offer viable and novel solutions for today's sensing needs. One technology that has gained increasing popularity to meet these needs is surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). SERS is particularly advantageous as it does not suffer from interferences from water, requires little to no sample preparation, is robust and can be used in numerous environments, is relatively insensitive to the wavelength of excitation employed and produces a narrow-band spectral signature unique to the molecular vibrations of the analyte. SERS enhancements (chemical and electromagnetic) are typically observed on metalized nanoscale roughened surfaces. For ideal SERS sensing, a commercially available uniform and reproducible nanoscale surface demonstrating high sensitivity are desirable. Additionally, if these surfaces can be modified for the selective sensing of hazard materials, an ideal sensor platform for dynamic in field measurements can be imagined. In this proceedings paper, preliminary efforts towards the characterization and application of commercially available next generation Klarite substrates will be demonstrated. Additionally, efforts toward chemical modification of these substrates, through peptide recognition elements, can be used for the targeted sensing of hazardous materials.

Farrell, Mikella E.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

363

Models with radiative neutrino masses and viable dark matter candidates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a list of particle physics models at the TeV-scale that are compatible with neutrino masses and dark matter. In these models, the Standard Model particle content is extended with a small number (? 4) of scalar and fermion fields transforming as singlets, doublets or triplets under SU(2), and neutrino masses are generated radiatively via 1-loop diagrams. The dark matter candidates are stabilized by a Z 2 symmetry and are in general mixtures of the neutral components of such new multiplets. We describe the particle content of each of these models and determine the conditions under which they are consistent with current data. We find a total of 35 viable models, most of which have not been previously studied in the literature. There is a great potential to test these models at the LHC not only due to the TeV-scale masses of the new fields but also because about half of the viable models contain particles with exotic electric charges, which give rise to background-free signals. Our results should serve as a first step for detailed analysis of models that can simultaneously account for dark matter and neutrino masses.

Restrepo, Diego; Zapata, Oscar; Yaguna, Carlos E.

2013-11-01

364

From formamide to purine: an energetically viable mechanistic reaction pathway.  

PubMed

A step-by-step mechanistic pathway following the transformation of formamide to purine through a five-membered ring intermediate has been explored by density functional theory computations. The highlight of the mechanistic route detailed here is that the proposed pathway represents the simplest reaction pathway. All necessary reactants are generated from a single starting compound, formamide, through energetically viable reactions. Several important reaction steps are involved in this mechanistic route: formylation-dehydration, Leuckart reduction, five- and six-membered ring-closure, and deamination. On the basis of the study of noncatalytic pathways, catalytic water has been found to provide energetically viable step-by-step mechanistic pathways. Among these reaction steps, five-member ring-closure is the rate-determining step. The energy barrier (ca. 42 kcal/mol) of this rate-control step is somewhat lower than the rate-determining step (ca. 44 kcal/mol) for a pyrimidine-based pathway reported previously. The mechanistic pathway reported herein is less energetically demanding than for previously proposed routes to adenine. PMID:23347082

Wang, Jing; Gu, Jiande; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Springsteen, Greg; Leszczynski, Jerzy

2013-02-28

365

Specific and rapid enumeration of viable but nonculturable and viable-culturable gram-negative bacteria by using flow cytometry.  

PubMed

An issue of critical concern in microbiology is the ability to detect viable but nonculturable (VBNC) and viable-culturable (VC) cells by methods other than existing approaches. Culture methods are selective and underestimate the real population, and other options (direct viable count and the double-staining method using epifluorescence microscopy and inhibitory substance-influenced molecular methods) are also biased and time-consuming. A rapid approach that reduces selectivity, decreases bias from sample storage and incubation, and reduces assay time is needed. Flow cytometry is a sensitive analytical technique that can rapidly monitor physiological states of bacteria. This report outlines a method to optimize staining protocols and the flow cytometer (FCM) instrument settings for the enumeration of VBNC and VC bacterial cells within 70 min. Experiments were performed using the FCM to quantify VBNC and VC Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas syringae, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cells after staining with different fluorescent probes: SYTO 9, SYTO 13, SYTO 17, SYTO 40, and propidium iodide (PI). The FCM data were compared with those for specific standard nutrient agar to enumerate the number of cells in different states. By comparing results from cultures at late log phase, 1 to 64% of cells were nonculturable, 40 to 98% were culturable, and 0.7 to 4.5% had damaged cell membranes and were therefore theoretically dead. Data obtained using four different gram-negative bacteria exposed to heat and stained with PI also illustrate the usefulness of the approach for the rapid and unbiased detection of dead versus live organisms. PMID:20543046

Khan, Mohiuddin M Taimur; Pyle, Barry H; Camper, Anne K

2010-08-01

366

Specific and Rapid Enumeration of Viable but Nonculturable and Viable-Culturable Gram-Negative Bacteria by Using Flow Cytometry ? †  

PubMed Central

An issue of critical concern in microbiology is the ability to detect viable but nonculturable (VBNC) and viable-culturable (VC) cells by methods other than existing approaches. Culture methods are selective and underestimate the real population, and other options (direct viable count and the double-staining method using epifluorescence microscopy and inhibitory substance-influenced molecular methods) are also biased and time-consuming. A rapid approach that reduces selectivity, decreases bias from sample storage and incubation, and reduces assay time is needed. Flow cytometry is a sensitive analytical technique that can rapidly monitor physiological states of bacteria. This report outlines a method to optimize staining protocols and the flow cytometer (FCM) instrument settings for the enumeration of VBNC and VC bacterial cells within 70 min. Experiments were performed using the FCM to quantify VBNC and VC Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas syringae, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium cells after staining with different fluorescent probes: SYTO 9, SYTO 13, SYTO 17, SYTO 40, and propidium iodide (PI). The FCM data were compared with those for specific standard nutrient agar to enumerate the number of cells in different states. By comparing results from cultures at late log phase, 1 to 64% of cells were nonculturable, 40 to 98% were culturable, and 0.7 to 4.5% had damaged cell membranes and were therefore theoretically dead. Data obtained using four different Gram-negative bacteria exposed to heat and stained with PI also illustrate the usefulness of the approach for the rapid and unbiased detection of dead versus live organisms.

Khan, Mohiuddin M. Taimur; Pyle, Barry H.; Camper, Anne K.

2010-01-01

367

Where is the café? The challenge of making retail uses viable in mixed-use suburban developments.  

PubMed

Contemporary planners see mixing residential, retail and other compatible uses as an essential planning principle. This paper explores the challenges that planners, developers and municipal councillors encounter in trying to implement retail uses as part of the mix in suburban areas in three Canadian cities. The study finds that planners employ evolutionary theories of urban development to naturalise their normative visions of walkable and sociable communities. By contrast, developers point to consumer behaviour to explain why planners' ideas on mix do not work. In a society where people shop at big-box outlets, making the local café or pub commercially viable proves increasingly challenging. PMID:21174898

Grant, Jill; Perrott, Katherine

2011-01-01

368

Monitoring and assessment of airborne fungi in Kolkata, India, by viable and non-viable air sampling methods.  

PubMed

The composition and variability of airborne fungal spores were studied using two complementary sampling methods in an outdoor environment in Kolkata suburb for 2 years, from November 2002 to October 2004. For monitoring the total fungal spore burden in the air, Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler was used, whereas Andersen two-sage viable sampler was used for isolating the cultivable airborne fungi. Among the 37 fungal spore types identified in the air samples, the predominant ones were Cladosporium, unidentified ascospores, unidentified basidiospores, Aspergilli/Penicilli, Nigrospora, Periconia, Chaetomium, Drechslera, Alternaria, Coprinus, Ganoderma, Pithomyces, and rust spores. Only six fungal spore types (Alternaria, Aspergilli/Penicilli, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Drechslera, and Nigrospora) were recovered in common by the two samplers. For Aspergilli/Penicilli, Drechslera, and Nigrospora, the spore concentration was underestimated in the non-viable sampling method (Burkard sampler). In general, higher spore count was recorded in winter. The highest fungal species variability was observed in early monsoon (June). Relative humidity could significantly predict the seasonal periodicity of the maximum number of airborne spores. The total airborne fungi concentration recorded in the study (15-16?×?10(3) spores m(-3) of air) was lower than the proposed threshold limit value for clinical significance, suggesting apparently no or less airborne-fungi-exposure-related health risk in the sampling area. Cladosporium cladosporioides was recorded beyond the proposed threshold limit value in January 2003 and March 2004; Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus nidulans in winter that might have posed considerable health risk to sensitized individuals. PMID:21915605

Das, Shaonli; Gupta-Bhattacharya, Swati

2012-08-01

369

15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Commercial recovery plan. 971.203 Section 971...Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery plan. (a) General. The application...must include a proposed commercial recovery plan which describes the...

2009-01-01

370

15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Commercial recovery plan. 971.203 Section 971...Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery plan. (a) General. The application...must include a proposed commercial recovery plan which describes the...

2010-01-01

371

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...180.1011 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...following specifications: (1) The microorganism shall be an authentic strain of...

2013-07-01

372

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis...From Tolerances § 180.1011 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis...Bacteriology, Eighth Edition. (2) Spore preparations of Bacillus...

2009-07-01

373

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis...From Tolerances § 180.1011 Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis...Bacteriology, Eighth Edition. (2) Spore preparations of Bacillus...

2010-07-01

374

Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

2010-12-01

375

Evaluations of lunar samples for the presence of viable organisms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Samples from the six successful Apollo lunar exploration missions were examined for the presence of biological formed elements and were used to inoculate a variety of culture media designed to promote growth of a broad spectrum of microorganisms. No evidence of viable organisms was obtained from any of these analyses. Following incubation of the lunar material-culture medium complexes, microbial growth dynamics studies were conducted with known test species to evaluate the possible presence of toxic factors. Only extracts of culture media which had been in contact with a mixture of lunar material from both Apollo 11 core tubes proved to be toxic to all species tested. Attempts to reproduce this toxic effect with individual Apollo 11 core samples obtained at other parts of the core and analyzed under somewhat different conditions were unsuccessful. In all, 48 different lunar samples were examined. These samples were collected at the lunar surface, in trenches, and in core samples to a depth of 297 cm.

Taylor, G. R.; Wooley, B. C.

1973-01-01

376

CASH 2021: commercial access and space habitation.  

PubMed

Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed. PMID:12583394

Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Feretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frederic; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

2002-01-01

377

CASH 2021: Commercial access and space habitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Ferretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frédéric; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J. Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

2002-07-01

378

Intracellular integration of synthetic nanostructures with viable cells for controlled biochemical manipulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the integration of vertically aligned carbon nanofibre (VACNF) elements with the intracellular domains of viable cells for controlled biochemical manipulation. Deterministically synthesized VACNFs were modified with either adsorbed or covalently-linked plasmid DNA and were subsequently inserted into cells. Post insertion viability of the cells was demonstrated by continued proliferation of the interfaced cells and long-term (> 22 day) expression of the introduced plasmid. Adsorbed plasmids were typically desorbed in the intracellular domain and segregated to progeny cells. Covalently bound plasmids remained tethered to nanofibres and were expressed in interfaced cells but were not partitioned into progeny, and gene expression ceased when the nanofibre was no longer retained. This provides a method for achieving a genetic modification that is non-inheritable and whose extent in time can be directly and precisely controlled. These results demonstrate the potential of VACNF arrays as an intracellular interface for monitoring and controlling subcellular and molecular phenomena within viable cells for applications including biosensors, in vivo diagnostics, and in vivo logic devices.

McKnight, Timothy E.; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Griffin, Guy D.; Guillorn, Michael A.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Serna, Francisco; Hensley, Dale K.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

2003-05-01

379

Treatment of common and plane warts in children with topical viable Bacillus Calmette-Guerin.  

PubMed

Treatment of verrucae in children is difficult and may be painful using traditional methods, especially if they are multiple or on the face. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical application of viable Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in a paste formula as a new immunotherapeutic modality in the treatment of common and plane warts in children. The present study included 80 children with common and plane warts at different sites on the body. They were divided into two groups. Group A (40 patients) received topical viable BCG and group B (40 patients) received topical saline as control. All patients and controls had received a previous vaccination of BCG. BCG was applied once weekly for six consecutive weeks. Patients who had partial or no response received another course of treatment for another 6 weeks. Follow-up was at 6 months to detect any recurrences. A highly significant difference was found between the therapeutic response of common and plane warts to BCG and saline (placebo) (p < 0.001). Complete response was achieved in 65% of children with common warts and 45% of patients with plane warts. No response was detected in the control group. No recurrences or side effects were observed in the BCG group. Topical immunotherapeutic BCG is a new, effective, safe treatment option for children with common and plane warts. PMID:22958215

Salem, Ahmed; Nofal, Ahmad; Hosny, Doaa

2013-01-01

380

Challenges of future aircraft propulsion: A review of distributed propulsion technology and its potential application for the all electric commercial aircraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper highlights the role of distributed propulsion technology for future commercial aircraft. After an initial historical perspective on the conceptual aspects of distributed propulsion technology and a glimpse at numerous aircraft that have taken distributed propulsion technology to flight, the focal point of the review is shifted towards a potential role this technology may entail for future commercial aircraft.

Amir S. Gohardani; Georgios Doulgeris; Riti Singh

2011-01-01

381

Going Commercial  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

while the conditions are more rigorous today for the ISS than they were in the very early days of space travel, opportunities still abound, and we just need to overcome the hurdles. As Pogo put it, "By gosh, we seem to be surrounded by an insurmountable opportunity here." This really is a great time in human spaceflight. We re doing marvelous things up there from an engineering standpoint. We now have to put them to good use. We need to optimize the 30 percent of the ISS that our federal government and the international partners have available in terms of the Station s power, volume, and crew time. Despite the recent issues with cost and schedule, as Mr. Goldin has said, this Agency will find a way. This country and the partners will find a way to restore the ISS s capability. We need help from this government, from our Congress, from our partners to do that, but it will be done, and then this facility is going to be world class--nah, it will out-of-this- world class. I m pleased to be a part of not only the history of spaceflight and the history of industry s participation in spaceflight, but I m also pleased to be a part of the future, the future applications, the future benefits that our spaceflight program is going to bring to our economy, to our careers, and to those of us that are both taxpayers and participants as well, to the great joy of seeing success as part of this country, as a part of our intellect, applied to the great beyond.

Walker, Charles

2005-01-01

382

Introduction to applications and industries for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS).  

SciTech Connect

Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) have gained acceptance as viable products for many commercial and government applications. MEMS are currently being used as displays for digital projection systems, sensors for airbag deployment systems, inkjet print head systems, and optical routers. This paper will discuss current and future MEMS applications. What are MEMS? MEMS are typically defined as microscopic devices designed, processed, and used to interact or produce changes within a local environment. A mechanical, electrical, or chemical stimulus can be used to create a mechanical, electrical, or chemical response in a local environment. These smaller, more sophisticated devices that think, act, sense, and communicate are replacing their bulk counterparts in many traditional applications.

Walraven, Jeremy Allen

2003-07-01

383

Is viability still viable after the STICH trial?  

PubMed

Stunning and hibernation represent two different forms of tissue viability identifiable in acute coronary syndromes and chronic ischaemic cardiomyopathy, respectively. Functional recovery occurs spontaneously with myocardial stunning, while it generally follows revascularization in case of hibernating myocardium. Low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography is an accurate modality for identifying myocardial stunning and provides important information on ventricular remodelling after both systemic thrombolysis and primary angioplasty. In patients with conservatively treated infarction, the prognostic significance of viability by dobutamine stress echocardiography correlates with residual pump function. Substantial contractile reserve is predictive of favourable outcome in patients with poor but not in those with preserved or slightly reduced left ventricular function. Non-invasive assessment of coronary flow reserve with transthoracic Doppler echocardiography of the left anterior descending coronary artery allows to distinguish between necrotic and stunned myocardium and predicts ventricular remodelling following primary angioplasty. Resting echocardiographic examination can provide information on hibernating myocardium. In particular, systolic thickening <7 mm, restrictive filling pattern, and high end-systolic volume are predictive of no viability. Compared with nuclear imaging, dobutamine stress echocardiography is more specific for predicting functional recovery, less expensive, more generally available and radiation-free. A large body of evidence collected over the years demonstrates the favourable prognostic impact of revascularizing extensive myocardial territories which are found viable at dobutamine stress echocardiography in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy. The prognostic implications of viability-guided revascularization have been clearly established in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. However, the prognostic value of myocardial viability has been questioned by the results of the STICH trial that did not demonstrate any advantage of survival in the patients with a large extent of myocardial viability undergoing revascularization. Is the end of a paradigm that deeply influenced clinical practice so far or just a neutral result that can be ignored due to the several limitations of study design? In the present review, we will address the main advantages and limitations of ultrasounds for the evaluation of myocardial viability and try to demonstrate that viability is still viable. PMID:22080451

Cortigiani, Lauro; Bigi, Riccardo; Sicari, Rosa

2012-03-01

384

Toward An Affordable Commercial Fuel Cell (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

SciTech Connect

Steve Visco, a materials scientist, has come up with a solid oxide fuel cell that promises to generate electricity as cheaply as the most efficient gas turbine engine. But there's a lot more work to do before commercially viable fuel cells and pollution-free power generators become reality.

Visco, Steve

2003-07-02

385

Toward An Affordable Commercial Fuel Cell (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)  

ScienceCinema

Steve Visco, a materials scientist, has come up with a solid oxide fuel cell that promises to generate electricity as cheaply as the most efficient gas turbine engine. But there's a lot more work to do before commercially viable fuel cells and pollution-free power generators become reality.

386

A Microscopic Multiphase Diffusion Model of Viable Epidermis Permeability  

PubMed Central

A microscopic model of passive transverse mass transport of small solutes in the viable epidermal layer of human skin is formulated on the basis of a hexagonal array of cells (i.e., keratinocytes) bounded by 4-nm-thick, anisotropic lipid bilayers and separated by 1-?m layers of extracellular fluid. Gap junctions and tight junctions with adjustable permeabilities are included to modulate the transport of solutes with low membrane permeabilities. Two keratinocyte aspect ratios are considered to represent basal and spinous cells (longer) and granular cells (more flattened). The diffusion problem is solved in a unit cell using a coordinate system conforming to the hexagonal cross section, and an efficient two-dimensional treatment is applied to describe transport in both the cell membranes and intercellular spaces, given their thinness. Results are presented in terms of an effective diffusion coefficient, D¯epi, and partition coefficient, K¯epi/w, for a homogenized representation of the microtransport problem. Representative calculations are carried out for three small solutes—water, L-glucose, and hydrocortisone—covering a wide range of membrane permeability. The effective transport parameters and their microscopic interpretation can be employed within the context of existing three-layer models of skin transport to provide more realistic estimates of the epidermal concentrations of topically applied solutes.

Nitsche, Johannes M.; Kasting, Gerald B.

2013-01-01

387

Megabase deletions of gene deserts result in viable mice.  

PubMed

The functional importance of the roughly 98% of mammalian genomes not corresponding to protein coding sequences remains largely undetermined. Here we show that some large-scale deletions of the non-coding DNA referred to as gene deserts can be well tolerated by an organism. We deleted two large non-coding intervals, 1,511 kilobases and 845 kilobases in length, from the mouse genome. Viable mice homozygous for the deletions were generated and were indistinguishable from wild-type littermates with regard to morphology, reproductive fitness, growth, longevity and a variety of parameters assaying general homeostasis. Further detailed analysis of the expression of multiple genes bracketing the deletions revealed only minor expression differences in homozygous deletion and wild-type mice. Together, the two deleted segments harbour 1,243 non-coding sequences conserved between humans and rodents (more than 100 base pairs, 70% identity). Some of the deleted sequences might encode for functions unidentified in our screen; nonetheless, these studies further support the existence of potentially 'disposable DNA' in the genomes of mammals. PMID:15496924

Nóbrega, Marcelo A; Zhu, Yiwen; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Afzal, Veena; Rubin, Edward M

2004-10-21

388

Megabase deletions of gene deserts result in viable mice  

SciTech Connect

The functional importance of the approximately 98 percent of mammalian genomes not corresponding to protein coding sequences remain largely un-scrutinized 1. To test experimentally whether some extensive regions of non-coding DNA, referred to as gene deserts 2-4, contain critical functions essential for the viability of the organism, we deleted two large non-coding intervals, 1,511 kb and 845 kb in length, from the mouse genome. Viable mice homozygous for the deletions were generated and were indistinguishable from wild-type litter mates with regards to morphology, reproductive fitness, growth, longevity and a variety of parameters assaying general homeostasis. Further in-depth analysis of the expression of genes bracketing the deletions revealed similar expression characteristics in homozygous deletion and wild-type mice. Together, the two deleted segments harbour 1,243 non-coding sequences conserved between humans and rodents (>100bp, 70 percent identity). These studies demonstrate that some large-scale deletions of non-coding DNA can be well tolerated by an organism, bringing into question the role of many human-mouse conserved sequences 5,6, and further supports the existence of potentially ''disposable DNAi'' in the genomes of mammals.

Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Zhu, Yiwen; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Afzal,Veena; Rubin, Edward M.

2004-05-01

389

Oral vitamin D, still a viable treatment option for psoriasis.  

PubMed

Vitamin D as a topical treatment has become one of the mainstays for treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. Oral vitamin D on the other hand has for the most part become a forgotten option. But a review of the literature on oral vitamin D as a treatment for psoriasis reveals that this treatment is efficacious. The main side effect of this therapy is hypercalcemia, which appears to be easily monitored and avoidable with proper dosing and monitoring. The literature also suggests a correlation between low levels of serum vitamin D in this patient population associated with increased severity of disease involvement. In addition, oral vitamin D improves psoriatic arthropathy. Moreover, vitamin D has been proven to have many health benefits such as prevention of cancer, improved cardiovascular health among many others. Psoriatic patients as a population are at increased risk of developing adverse health complications such as cardiovascular disease, and oral vitamin D may prove to be of benefit in this population. Oral vitamin D is inexpensive and easily available. It is still a viable option and should not be forgotten as a possible treatment for psoriasis. PMID:22103655

Kamangar, Faranak; Koo, John; Heller, Misha; Lee, Eric; Bhutani, Tina

2013-08-01

390

The Heating of the ICM: Energy Crisis and Viable Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray observations indicate that non-gravitational processes play a key role in the thermodynamics of the Intra Cluster Medium (ICM). The effect of non-gravitational processes is imprinted in the ICM as an entropy minimum, whose effects are visible in the Luminosity-Temperature relation and in the Entropy-Temperature relation. However, the X-ray emission alone cannot discriminate between different mechanisms and sources of heating. There are no answers at present to the following questions: how much non-gravitational energy per baryons is present in the ICM? When was this energy injected? Which are the sources of heating? The embarrassment in front of these questions is amplified by the fact that the most viable sources of heating, SNae and stellar winds, seem to be inefficient in bringing the ICM to the observed entropy level. We may call it the energy crisis. Here we review the main aspects of this crisis, listing possible solutions, including other sources, like AGNs and Radio Galaxies, or other mechanisms, like large scale shocks and selective cooling.

Tozzi, P.

391

A viable supersymmetric model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation  

SciTech Connect

We propose an electroweak model which is compatible with the UV insensitive anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. The model is an extension of the NMSSM by adding vector-like matter fields which can drive the soft scalar masses of the singlet Higgs field negative and the successful electroweak symmetry breaking is achieved. Viable parameter regions are found to preserve perturbativity of all the coupling constants up to the Planck scale. With this success, the model becomes a perfect candidate of physics beyond the standard model without the FCNC and CP problem. The cosmology is also quite interesting. The lightest neutralino is the wino which is a perfect cold dark matter candidate assuming the non-thermal production from the gravitino decay. There is no gravitino problem because it decays before the BBN era, and thus the thermal leptogenesis works. The cosmological domain wall problem inherent in the NMSSM is absent since the Z_3 symmetry is broken by the QCD instanton effect in the presence of the vector-like quarks. We also briefly comment on a possible solution to the strong CP problem a la the Nelson-Barr mechanism.

Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi

2004-12-14

392

Sialoendoscopy: a viable treatment for I(131) induced sialoadenitis.  

PubMed

To evaluate the viability, efficacy, and safety of sialoendoscopy for the diagnosis and management of radioiodine I(131-) related sialoadenitis, we retrospectively reviewed 30 patients referred between September 2007 and July 2013 from the Thyroid Surgery Unit to the Maxillofacial Unit of the Second University of Naples Hospital with persistent sialoadenitis after treatment with I(131). After the affected gland had been isolated, the endoscope was introduced into the duct under local anaesthesia with 2% lignocaine and continuous lavage with isotonic saline, and was advanced until it reached the ductal system. We studied 24 women and 6 men, mean (SD) age 52 (??) years. In 25 patients I(131) was given for papillary (83%), in 3 for medullary (10%), and in 2 for follicular thyroid carcinoma (7%). Stenosis alone was found in 30 glands (40%), mucous plugs alone in 35 (47%), and mucous plugs, stenosis, and kinks in 10 (13%). Of the 75 glands, dilatation of the ducts was successful in 70, and we completely removed all mucous plugs and kinks. We achieved symptomatic improvement in 23 patients (77%) during a follow-up ranging from 2 weeks to 84 months. Sialoendoscopy is a viable technique for the diagnosis of obstructive salivary disease, and is a safe and effective way to treat sialoadenitis, the most common complication of treatment with I(131). PMID:24894709

De Luca, R; Vicidomini, A; Trodella, M; Tartaro, G; Colella, G

2014-09-01

393

Potential virulence of viable but nonculturable Shigella dysenteriae type 1.  

PubMed Central

We examined a virulent strain of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 after induction into the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state for its ability to (i) maintain the Shiga toxin (stx) gene; (ii) maintain biologically active Shiga toxin (ShT); and (iii) adhere to intestinal epithelial cells (Henle 407 cell line). PCR was used to amplify the stx gene from VBNC cells of S. dysenteriae type 1, thereby establishing its presence even when cells are in the VBNC state. VBNC S. dysenteriae type 1 ShT was monitored by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with mouse monoclonal antibodies against the B subunit of ShT and affinity-purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies against ShT. We used the Henle 407 cell line to study the adhesive property of VBNC S. dysenteriae type 1 cells in a series of tissue culture experiments. Results showed that VBNC S. dysenteriae type 1 not only maintained the stx gene and biologically active ShT but also remained capable of adhering to Henle 407 cells. However, S. dysenteriae type 1 cells lost the ability to invade Henle 407 cells after entering the VBNC state. From results of the study, we conclude that VBNC cells of S. dysenteriae type 1 retain several virulence factors and remain potentially virulent, posing a public health problem.

Rahman, I; Shahamat, M; Chowdhury, M A; Colwell, R R

1996-01-01

394

Resuscitation of Vibrio vulnificus from the Viable but Nonculturable State  

PubMed Central

Like many other gram-negative bacteria, the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus is induced into a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state by incubation at low temperatures. The ability of any bacterium to resuscitate from this dormant state would appear to be essential if the VBNC state is truly a survival strategy. The question as to whether the culturable cells which appear following removal of the inducing stress are a result of true resuscitation or of regrowth of a few residual culturable cells has long been debated. V. vulnificus was examined for its ability to resuscitate from this state following a temperature upshift. Several lines of investigation, including dilution studies, determination of the time necessary for appearance of a culturable population, and the effects of nutrient on recovery, all indicated that, at least for V. vulnificus, true resuscitation does occur. Our studies further suggest that nutrient is in some way inhibitory to the resuscitation of cells in the VBNC state and that studies which add nutrient in an attempt to detect resuscitation are able to detect only residual culturable cells which might be present and which were not inhibited by the added nutrient.

Whitesides, M. D.; Oliver, J. D.

1997-01-01

395

A microscopic multiphase diffusion model of viable epidermis permeability.  

PubMed

A microscopic model of passive transverse mass transport of small solutes in the viable epidermal layer of human skin is formulated on the basis of a hexagonal array of cells (i.e., keratinocytes) bounded by 4-nm-thick, anisotropic lipid bilayers and separated by 1-?m layers of extracellular fluid. Gap junctions and tight junctions with adjustable permeabilities are included to modulate the transport of solutes with low membrane permeabilities. Two keratinocyte aspect ratios are considered to represent basal and spinous cells (longer) and granular cells (more flattened). The diffusion problem is solved in a unit cell using a coordinate system conforming to the hexagonal cross section, and an efficient two-dimensional treatment is applied to describe transport in both the cell membranes and intercellular spaces, given their thinness. Results are presented in terms of an effective diffusion coefficient, D¯(epi), and partition coefficient, K¯(epi/w), for a homogenized representation of the microtransport problem. Representative calculations are carried out for three small solutes-water, L-glucose, and hydrocortisone-covering a wide range of membrane permeability. The effective transport parameters and their microscopic interpretation can be employed within the context of existing three-layer models of skin transport to provide more realistic estimates of the epidermal concentrations of topically applied solutes. PMID:23708370

Nitsche, Johannes M; Kasting, Gerald B

2013-05-21

396

COMMERCIAL-OFF-THE-SHELF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) has shown a significant promise for a variety of commercial applications. For example, accelerometers are widely used for air bag in automobile, MEMS inkjet print heads are used for printers, gyroscopes for guidance and navigation and pressure sensors for various industrial applications. Some of the MEMS devices have potential to become the commercial-off-the-shelf

Rajeshuni Ramesham; Reza Ghaffarian

397

Challenges of future aircraft propulsion: A review of distributed propulsion technology and its potential application for the all electric commercial aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper highlights the role of distributed propulsion technology for future commercial aircraft. After an initial historical perspective on the conceptual aspects of distributed propulsion technology and a glimpse at numerous aircraft that have taken distributed propulsion technology to flight, the focal point of the review is shifted towards a potential role this technology may entail for future commercial aircraft. Technological limitations and challenges of this specific technology are also considered in combination with an all electric aircraft concept, as means of predicting the challenges associated with the design process of a next generation commercial aircraft.

Gohardani, Amir S.; Doulgeris, Georgios; Singh, Riti

2011-07-01

398

Monitoring the prevalence of viable and dead cariogenic bacteria in oral specimens and in vitro biofilms by qPCR combined with propidium monoazide  

PubMed Central

Background Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are associated with the development of dental caries in humans. However, previous diagnostic systems are unsuitable for monitoring viable cell numbers in oral specimens. Assessing the relationship between the numbers of viable and dead bacterial cells and oral status is important for understanding oral infectious diseases. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been reported to penetrate dead cells following membrane damage and to cross-link DNA, thereby inhibiting DNA amplification. In the present study, we established an assay for selective analysis of two viable human cariogenic pathogens, S. mutans and S. sobrinus, using PMA combined with real-time PCR (PMA-qPCR). Results We designed species-specific primer sets for S. mutans and S. sobrinus, generated standard curves for measuring cell numbers, and evaluated the dynamic range of the assay. To determine the effectiveness of the assay, PMA was added to viable and autoclave-killed cell mixtures. PMA treatment effectively prevented DNA amplification from dead cells. No amplification of DNA from dead cells was observed in these organisms. In addition, we applied this assay to analyze viable cell numbers in oral specimens. A significant correlation was found between the number of viable S. mutans cells in saliva and that in plaque among caries-free patients, whereas no correlation was observed between saliva and carious dentin. The total and viable cell numbers in caries-positive saliva were significantly higher than those in caries-free saliva. Finally, we analyzed the usefulness of this assay for in vitro oral biofilm analysis. We applied PMA-qPCR for monitoring viable S. mutans cell numbers in vitro in planktonic cells and oral biofilm treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In planktonic cells, the number of viable cells decreased significantly with increasing H2O2 concentration, whereas only a small decrease was observed in biofilm cell numbers. Conclusions PMA-qPCR is potentially useful for quantifying viable cariogenic pathogens in oral specimens and is applicable to oral biofilm experiments. This assay will help to elucidate the relationship between the number of viable cells in oral specimens and the oral status.

2013-01-01

399

The quantum cascade laser: A versatile high-power semiconductor laser for mid-infrared applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its invention at Bell Labs in the mid-nineties, the quantum cascade laser (QCL) has evolved rapidly to become a viable commercial alternative to other solid-state mid-infrared light sources. QCLs are compact, high-power, wavelength-agile laser devices that are ideally suited for mid-infrared applications such as chemical sensing and free-space telecommunications. This paper summarizes our recent progress in QCL technology, with

Oana Malis; Claire Gmachl; Deborah L. Sivco; Loren N. Pfeiffer; A. Michael Sergent; Kenneth W. West

2005-01-01

400

Is clamp and sew still viable for thoracic aortic resection?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The authors reviewed the morbidity and mortality of surgical resection of the descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aorta using the clamp-and-sew technique. BACKGROUND: Paraplegia remains a devastating complication after thoracoabdominal aortic resection, despite many strategies for spinal cord protection. Because of its simplicity, clamp and sew has been the preferred technique at the University of Virginia for the thoracoabdominal aortic resection when proximal control is possible. METHODS: Between 1987 and 1994, the authors reviewed 91 consecutive patients who underwent thoracic aortic resection using clamp-and-sew techniques without any additional adjuncts for spinal cord protection. RESULTS: The average age of patients was 60.8 years; 57.1% were male. No intraoperative deaths occurred. In-hospital mortality was 13% (12/91), with an overall incidence of postoperative spinal cord injury manifested as paraparesis or paraplegia of 9.9% (9/91). Eighty-nine percent (81/91) of all repairs were completed with aortic clamp times of 40 minutes or less, and nearly six out of ten were completed in 30 minutes or less (53/91). Cross-clamp times were not significantly different between those patients who sustained neurologic injury and those who had no deficits. CONCLUSIONS: The authors conclude that clamp and sew is still a viable technique for thoracoabdominal aortic resection. Nearly all resections can be completed within 40 minutes of aortic occlusion. However, the "safe" duration of thoracic aortic occlusion remains unknown, and spinal cord injury can occur even with short clamp times. Reproducible, safe, and technically simple means of spinal cord protection must be developed.

Mauney, M C; Tribble, C G; Cope, J T; Tribble, R W; Luctong, A; Spotnitz, W D; Kron, I L

1996-01-01

401

Lysis of Viable Rumen Bacteria in Bovine Rumen Fluid  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus bovis and Butyrivibrio sp. were labeled with thymidine-methyl-3H, washed, and resuspended in rumen fluid or rumen fluid fractions obtained from Holstein and Jersey cows fed alfalfa hay once daily. Factors affecting the lytic activity found in untreated rumen fluid were examined. Day to day variation and differences before and after feeding were observed for the same cow. There were also differences between cows on the same day. For a given rumen fluid, the rate of release of label was roughly proportional to the number of labeled cells present over a 100-fold range in concentration. Removal of protozoa largely abolished the lytic action of fresh rumen fluid for S. bovis, but some soluble lytic activity remained. Mixed rumen protozoa added to media containing labeled S. bovis caused label to appear in solution. In a sample of rumen fluid containing 4.3 × 104 protozoa/ml 5.2% of the S. bovis population were destroyed by protozoa per hr. The mean rate of destruction for 12 runs on whole rumen fluid was 8.7% per hr with a standard deviation of 6.05. Parallel experiments with Butyrivibrio indicated that soluble lytic factors were more important for this organism. They could be destroyed by autoclaving and were generated when viable rumen bacteria were resuspended in autoclaved rumen fluid. The lysis of S. bovis and Butyrivibrio, at equal cell densities, by mixed rumen protozoa was compared in 30% rumen fluid media, and Butyrivibrio appeared to be more readily lysed than S. bovis.

Jarvis, B. D. W.

1968-01-01

402

Inflation with stable anisotropic hair: is it cosmologically viable?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently an inflationary model with a vector field coupled to the inflaton was proposed and the phenomenology studied for the Bianchi type I spacetime. It was found that the model demonstrates a counter-example to the cosmic no-hair theorem since there exists a stable anisotropically inflationary fix-point. One of the great triumphs of inflation, however, is that it explains the observed flatness and isotropy of the universe today without requiring special initial conditions. Any acceptable model for inflation should thus explain these observations in a satisfactory way. To check whether the model meets this requirement, we introduce curvature to the background geometry and consider axisymmetric spacetimes of Bianchi type II,III and the Kantowski-Sachs metric. We show that the anisotropic Bianchi type I fix-point is an attractor for the entire family of such spacetimes. The model is predictive in the sense that the universe gets close to this fix-point after a few e-folds for a wide range of initial conditions. If inflation lasts for N e-folds, the curvature at the end of inflation is typically of order ~ e -2N . The anisotropy in the expansion rate at the end of inflation, on the other hand, while being small on the one-percent level, is highly significant. We show that after the end of inflation there will be a period of isotropization lasting for ˜ 2/3N e-folds. After that the shear scales as the curvature and becomes dominant around N e-folds after the end of inflation. For plausible bounds on the reheat temperature the minimum number of e-folds during inflation, required for consistency with the isotropy of the supernova Ia data, lays in the interval (21, 48). Thus the results obtained for our restricted class of spacetimes indicates that inflation with anisotropic hair is cosmologically viable.

Hervik, Sigbjørn; Mota, David F.; Thorsrud, Mikjel

2011-11-01

403

Viable cell sorting of dinoflagellates by multiparametric flow cytometry  

PubMed Central

Electronic cell sorting for isolation and culture of dinoflagellates and other marine eukaryotic phytoplankton was compared to the traditional method of manually picking cells using a micropipette. Trauma to electronically sorted cells was not a limiting factor, as fragile dinoflagellates, such as Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae), survived electronic cell sorting to yield viable cells. The rate of successful isolation of large-scale (> 4 litres) cultures was higher for manual picking than for electronic cell sorting (2% vs 0.5%, respectively). However, manual picking of cells is more labor intensive and time consuming. Most manually isolated cells required repicking, as the cultures were determined not to be unialgal after a single round of isolation; whereas, no cultures obtained in this study from electronic single-cell sorting required resorting. A broad flow cytometric gating logic was employed to enhance species diversity. The percentages of unique genotypes produced by manual picking or electronic cell sorting were similar (57% vs 54%, respectively), and each approach produced a variety of dinoflagellate or raphidophyte genera. Alternatively, a highly restrictive gating logic was successfully used to target K. brevis from a natural bloom sample. Direct electronic single-cell sorting was more successful than utilizing a pre-enrichment sort followed by electronic single-cell sorting. The appropriate recovery medium may enhance the rate of successful isolations. Seventy percent of isolated cells were recovered in a new medium (RE) reported here, which was optimized for axenic dinoflagellate cultures. The greatest limiting factor to the throughput of electronic cell sorting is the need for manual postsort culture maintenance and assessment of the large number of isolated cells. However, when combined with newly developed automated methods for growth screening, electronic single-cell sorting has the potential to accelerate the discovery of new algal strains.

Sinigalliano, Christopher D.; Winshell, Jamie; Guerrero, Maria A.; Scorzetti, Gloria; Fell, Jack W.; Eaton, Richard W.; Brand, Larry; Rein, Kathleen S.

2009-01-01

404

Ceramic Regenerators for Automobile Turbine Engines: New materials and design concepts may make these low-polluting engines commercially viable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. The development of gas-turbine engines for cars and trucks has been hampered by the tendency of ceramic material in regenerators to disintegrate after only a few hun...

1982-01-01

405

A downstream process for production of a viable and stable Bacillus cereus aquaculture biological agent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological products offer advantages over chemotherapeutics in aquaculture. Adoption in commercial application is lacking\\u000a due to limitations in process and product development that address key end user product requirements such as cost, efficacy,\\u000a shelf life and convenience. In previous studies, we have reported on the efficacy, physiological robustness and low-cost spore\\u000a production of a Bacillus cereus isolate (NRRL 100132). This

Rajesh Lalloo; Dheepak Maharajh; Johann Görgens; Neil Gardiner

2010-01-01

406

78 FR 760 - Potential Commercial Leasing for Wind Power on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Offshore New...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Offshore Wind Project'', is designed to generate at least 350 megawatts (MW) of electricity from offshore wind resources...proposal for a commercially viable wind power project of at least 350 MW nameplate capacity within the proposed lease area. Any...

2013-01-04

407

Kaluza-Klein models: Can we construct a viable example?  

SciTech Connect

In Kaluza-Klein models with toroidal compactification of the extra dimensions, we investigate soliton solutions of Einstein equation. The nonrelativistic gravitational potential of these solitons exactly coincides with the Newtonian one. We obtain the formulas for perihelion shift, deflection of light, time delay of radar echoes and post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters. Using the constraint on PPN parameter {gamma}, we find that the solitonic parameter k should be very big: |k|{>=}2.3x10{sup 4}. We define a soliton solution which corresponds to a pointlike mass source. In this case the soliton parameter k=2, which is clearly contrary to this restriction. A similar problem with the observations takes place for static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with the dustlike equation of state in all dimensions. The common for both of these models is the same (dustlike) equations of state in our three dimensions and in the extra dimensions. All dimensions are treated at equal footing. This is the crucial point. To be in agreement with observations, it is necessary to break the symmetry (in terms of equations of state) between the external/our and internal spaces. It takes place for black strings which are particular examples of solitons with k{yields}{infinity}. For such k, black strings are in concordance with the observations. Moreover, we show that they are the only solitons which are at the same level of agreement with the observations as in general relativity. Black strings can be treated as perfect fluid with dustlike equation of state p{sub 0}=0 in the external/our space and very specific equation of state p{sub 1}=-(1/2){epsilon} in the internal space. The latter equation is due to negative tension in the extra dimension. We also demonstrate that dimension 3 for the external space is a special one. Only in this case we get the latter equation of state. We show that the black string equations of state satisfy the necessary condition of the internal space stabilization. Therefore, black strings are good candidates for a viable model of astrophysical objects (e.g., Sun) if we can provide a satisfactory explanation of negative tension for particles constituting these objects.

Eingorn, Maxim [Astronomical Observatory and Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa National University, Street Dvoryanskaya 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine); Zhuk, Alexander [Astronomical Observatory and Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa National University, Street Dvoryanskaya 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine); Faculdade de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Para, 66075-110, Belem, PA (Brazil)

2011-02-15

408

Commercial researcher perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein crystallography--a research tool used to study the structure of the complex building blocks of living systems--has a lot to gain from space-based research. In order to know how a protein works in the human body, researchers must understand its molecular structure. Researchers have identified 150,000 different proteins in the body, but they now know the structure of less than a third of them. The only viable technique for analyzing the structure of these proteins is x-ray diffraction of the proteins in their crystal form. The better the quality of a protein crystal, the more useful it is to researchers who are trying to delineate its structure. The microgravity environment of space allows protein crystals to grow nearly undisturbed by convection and other gravity-driven forces that cause flaws to form in them on the ground. In space, lack of convection enables protein crystals to grow more slowly than they do on Earth, and the slower a protein crystal grows, the fewer flaws it will have. Protein crystal growth experiments have already flown on 14 Space Shuttle missions. This year's USML-1 Spacelab mission included protein crystal growth experiments conducted for commercial researchers. The results of protein crystal experiments flown thus far have been larger crystals with more uniform morphologies. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (A NASA-cosponsored CCDS) currently builds flight hardware to meet researchers' needs and handles sample loading and retrieval for flight experiments. Protein crystallography enables 'rational drug design': the development of drugs that bind only with the target protein and, hence, do not cause side effects. For example, pharmaceutical companies presently are interested in developing drugs that can inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a protein that plays a role in auto-immune diseases. To continue these kinds of investigations, researchers need a constant supply of protein crystals that are as free of flaws as possible. Space Station Freedom will provide the kind of research environment that will enable the production of such supplies. In addition, Freedom will provide the kind of long-duration facility required by protein crystal researchers: 40 percent of proteins require more than two weeks to crystallize.

Delucas, Larry

409

Commercial researcher perspective  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Protein crystallography--a research tool used to study the structure of the complex building blocks of living systems--has a lot to gain from space-based research. In order to know how a protein works in the human body, researchers must understand its molecular structure. Researchers have identified 150,000 different proteins in the body, but they now know the structure of less than a third of them. The only viable technique for analyzing the structure of these proteins is x-ray diffraction of the proteins in their crystal form. The better the quality of a protein crystal, the more useful it is to researchers who are trying to delineate its structure. The microgravity environment of space allows protein crystals to grow nearly undisturbed by convection and other gravity-driven forces that cause flaws to form in them on the ground. In space, lack of convection enables protein crystals to grow more slowly than they do on Earth, and the slower a protein crystal grows, the fewer flaws it will have. Protein crystal growth experiments have already flown on 14 Space Shuttle missions. This year's USML-1 Spacelab mission included protein crystal growth experiments conducted for commercial researchers. The results of protein crystal experiments flown thus far have been larger crystals with more uniform morphologies. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (A NASA-cosponsored CCDS) currently builds flight hardware to meet researchers' needs and handles sample loading and retrieval for flight experiments. Protein crystallography enables 'rational drug design': the development of drugs that bind only with the target protein and, hence, do not cause side effects. For example, pharmaceutical companies presently are interested in developing drugs that can inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a protein that plays a role in auto-immune diseases. To continue these kinds of investigations, researchers need a constant supply of protein crystals that are as free of flaws as possible. Space Station Freedom will provide the kind of research environment that will enable the production of such supplies. In addition, Freedom will provide the kind of long-duration facility required by protein crystal researchers: 40 percent of proteins require more than two weeks to crystallize.

Delucas, Larry

1992-01-01

410

Economic benefits of commercial space activities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space is not only an endless frontier for exploration, but also a potentially rich arena for profitable commerce to benefit all mankind. Access to the unique environment of space provides opportunities for unprecedented kinds of research to develop new products and services. This research can lead to commercially viable enterprises, which will become permanent businesses, which will provide good jobs for workers, pay taxes to their governments, and return dividends to their investors. Seeking superior products and processes is vital if the economy is to grow and prosper. This paper discusses the current and potential impact on the economy of selected private sector space activities.

Stone, Barbara A.

411

Commercial Zone Melting Ingots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bismuth telluride-based compounds have been extensively utilized for commercial application. However, thermoelectric materials must suffer numerous mechanical vibrations and thermal stresses while in service, making it equally important to discuss the mechanical properties, especially at high temperature. In this study, the compressive and bending strengths of Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 commercial zone melting (ZM) ingots were investigated at 25, 100, and 200 °C, respectively. Due to the obvious anisotropy of materials prepared by ZM method, the effect of anisotropy on the strengths was also explored. Two-parameter Weibull distribution was employed to fit a series of values acquired by a universal testing machine. And digital speckle photography was applied to record the strain field evolution, providing visual observation of surface strain. The compressive and bending strengths along ZM direction were approximately three times as large as those perpendicular to the ZM direction independent of the temperature, indicating a weak van der Waals bond along the c axis.

Zheng, Yun; Xie, Hongyao; Shu, Shengcheng; Yan, Yonggao; Li, Han; Tang, Xinfeng

2014-06-01

412

A technique for determining viable military logistics support alternatives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A look at today's US military will see them operating much beyond the scope of protecting and defending the United States. These operations now consist of, but are not limited to humanitarian aid, disaster relief, peace keeping, and conflict resolution. This broad spectrum of operational environments has necessitated a transformation of the individual military services to a hybrid force that is attempting to leverage the inherent and emerging capabilities and strengths of all those under the umbrella of the Department of Defense (DOD), this concept has been coined Joint Operations. Supporting Joint Operations requires a new approach to determining a viable military logistics support system. The logistics architecture for these operations has to accommodate scale, time, varied mission objectives, and imperfect information. Compounding the problem is the human in the loop (HITL) decision maker (DM) who is a necessary component for quickly assessing and planning logistics support activities. Past outcomes are not necessarily good indicators of future results, but they can provide a reasonable starting point for planning and prediction of specific needs for future requirements. Adequately forecasting the necessary logistical support structure and commodities needed for any resource intensive environment has progressed well beyond stable demand assumptions to one in which dynamic and nonlinear environments can be captured with some degree of fidelity and accuracy. While these advances are important, a holistic approach that allows exploration of the operational environment or design space does not exist to guide the military logistician in a methodical way to support military forecasting activities. To bridge this capability gap, a method called Adaptive Technique for Logistics Architecture Solutions (ATLAS) has been developed. This method provides a process that facilitates the use of techniques and tools that filter and provide relevant information to the DM. By doing so, a justifiable course of action (COA) can be determined based on a variety of quantitative and qualitative information available. This thesis describes and applies the ATLAS method to a notional military scenario that involves the Navy concept of Seabasing and the Marine Corps concept of Distributed Operations applied to a platoon sized element. The small force is tasked to conduct deterrence and combat operations over a seven day period. This work uses modeling and simulation to incorporate expert opinion and knowledge of military operations, dynamic reasoning methods, and certainty analysis to create a decisions support system (DSS) that can be used to provide the DM an enhanced view of the logistics environment and uses variables that impact specific measures of effectiveness. The results from applying the ATLAS method provide a better understanding and ability for the DM to conduct the logistics planning/execution more efficiently and quickly. This is accomplished by providing relevant data that can be applied to perform dynamic forecasting activities for the platoon and aids in determining the necessary support architecture to fulfill the forecasted need.

Hester, Jesse Stuart

413

Assessment of Cryogenic Thermography System Using Commercial Fluorescent Paints on Their Applicability to Visualization of Normal-Zone Propagation in YBCO Coated Conductor  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a stability criterion for YBCO coated conductors, it is required to clarify their transient thermal characteristics. In this study, we adopt a method for visualization of temperature distribution using fluorescent paints whose color changes depending on the temperature. In the visualization method, firstly, commercial fluorescent paints are coated on the surface of sample strips. And then, the sample

Atsushi Ishiyama; Motokazu Tsuchiya; Hiroshi Ueda; Yuh Shiohara

2007-01-01

414

A rapid and simple determination of protoberberine alkaloids in cortex phellodendri by 1H NMR and its application for quality control of commercial traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huangbai (cortex Phellodendri, the dried bark of Phellodendron amurense or Phellodendron chinense) is one of the important traditional Chinese medicines. Protoberberine alkaloids were reported to contribute to the biological activity of this species. A highly specific and sensitive method using 1H NMR has been developed for the quantitative determination of protoberberine alkaloids in Phellodendron species and their commercial traditional Chinese

Chia-Ying Li; Hsin-Jung Lu; Chung-Hua Lin; Tian-Shung Wu

2006-01-01

415

Why is IPSec a viable option for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many issues still remain to be addressed in order to achieve acceptable security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This necessity, together with the adoption of IPv6 on WSNs being defined at the 6lowpan working group of the IETF, motivates our investigation on the feasibility of the application of IPSec on sensor nodes. IPSec is already part of IPv6, which makes

Jorge Granjal; Ricardo Silva; Edmundo Monteiro; J. Sa Silva; F. Boavida

2008-01-01

416

Multilayer ceramic actuator commercialization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AVX is the largest US manufacturer of multilayer ceramic capacitors, producing 10's of millions per day. Multilayer ceramic actuators are manufactured using virtually identical fabrication methods. Fabrication from this ceramic tape allows tremendous latitude in device shape, size and material choice. This paper will discuss several different actuator configurations-including stacks, plates and chips- with respect to performance and cost tradeoffs. Virtually all developing smart material applications are 'technology driven,' however the widespread availability of devices at commercial scale relies on 'market pull' to achieve a balance of high annualized volumes and low cost. Given sufficient demand, devices can be produced such that the raw materials themselves dominate the unit cost. Generalized price-volume-performance relationships for the different actuator configurations can both guide system designers and focus long-term component development efforts.

Ritter, Andrew P.

1995-05-01

417

Industrial viable process of making nanoparticles of various shapes and interior structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 10 years, we attempted to develop industrial viable processes which were of significance in manufacturing the nanoparticles in good quality and large volume. Our effort relied on the self-assembly concepts of block macromolecules in solutions to prepare particles with a hard core made of crosslinked plastics and a soft shell made of low Tg elastomer. Depending on the type and microstructure of the copolymers, the solvent concentration and other process parameters chosen, a variety of shell-core nano-particles of different shapes (spheres, hollow spheres, ellipsoids, cylinders, linear and branched strings, disks and etc.) and sizes (5-100 nm diameter) were reproducibly synthesized. Scale-up studies led to an optimization of the manufacturing process and the production of nanoparticles in large quantities for various product application efforts. The unique performance of those nanoparticles as performance tuning additives and novel rubber reinforcing elements was explored in rubber compounds. This review describes the synthesis methods used to produce the polymer nanoparticles, the technology to modify the particles through functionalization, the means to optimize their performance for specific applications, and the methods to use those particles in rubber compounds. Collaborators: Victor J. Foltz, Kurasch Jessica, Chenchy J. Lin, Jeff Magestrelli, Sandra Warren, Alberto Scuratti, James E. Hall, Jim Krom, Mindaugas Rackaitis, Michael W. Hayes, Pat Sadhukhan, Georg G. A. Bohm

Wang, Xiaorong

2008-03-01

418

Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

2000-01-01

419

Supplementary steam - A viable hydrogen power generation concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical and economic aspects of a supplementary steam generation for peaking power applications are discussed. Preliminary designs of the hydrogen/oxygen combustors to be used for such applications are described. The integration of the hydrogen/oxygen steam-generating equipment into a typical coal-fired steam station is studied. The basic steam generation system was designed as a 20 MW supplementary system to be added to the existing 160 MW system. An analysis of the operating and design requirements of the supplementary system is conducted. Estimates were made for additional steam and fuel supply lines and for additional control required to operate the combustors and to integrate the combustor system into the facility.

Wright, D. E.; Lee, J. C.

1979-01-01

420

Rapid and direct quantitative detection of viable bifidobacteria in probiotic yogurt by combination of ethidium monoazide and real-time PCR using a molecular beacon approach.  

PubMed

The potential of ethidium monoazide (EMA) real-time PCR method based on molecular beacon probe for rapid detection of viable bifidobacteria present in probiotic yogurt was evaluated in this work. A real-time PCR with molecular beacon assay was developed to determine genus Bifidobacterium quantitatively in order to increase the sensitivity and specificity of assay. EMA was used to treat probiotic yogurt prior to DNA extraction and real-time PCR detection to allow detection of only viable bacteria. The primer set of Bif-F/Bif-R which is genus-specific for Bifid. was designed. The specificity of the probes ensures that no signal is generated by non-target amplicons. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a good correlation (R² = 0·9948) between the EMA real-time PCR results and the plate counting, and real-time quantitative PCR results correlated adequately with enumeration of bifidobacteria by culture for commercial probiotic yogurt. This culture-independent approach is promising for the direct and rapid detection of viable bifidobacteria in commercial probiotic yogurt, and the detection can be carried out within 4 h. The detection limit for this method is about 10? cell/ml. In conclusion, the direct quantitative EMA real-time PCR assay based on molecular beacon described in this research is a rapid and quantitative method. PMID:20822571

Meng, X C; Pang, R; Wang, C; Wang, L Q

2010-11-01

421

Cybernetically sound organizational structures II : Relating de Sitter's design theory to Beer's viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how the viable system model (VSM) and de Sitter's design theory can complement each other in the context of the diagnosis and design of viable organizations. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Key concepts from Beer's model and de Sitter's design theory are introduced and analyzed in order to show how they relate. Findings

J. M. I. M. Achterbergh; Dirk Vriens

2011-01-01

422

Cybernetics and Resilience Engineering: Can Cybernetics and the Viable System Model Advance Resilience Engineering?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cybernetics as the science of control in the animal and machine provides a para- digm for inquiry into organisational behaviour. Management cybernetics supplies comple- mentary perspectives on managing complexity and organisational performance. Using the Viable System Model (VSM) a qualitative diagnosis can be made of the communication structures in the viable organization. Viability is the ability to maintain the organisational

Arthur Dijkstra

423

Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the

Johan Enslin; Ronald Hamaoui; Sigifredo Gonzalez; Ghaith Haddad; Khalid Rustom; Rick Stuby; Mohammad Kuran; Evlyn Mark; Ruba Amarin; Hussam Alatrash; Ward Isaac Bower; Scott S. Kuszmaul; Lisa Sena-Henderson; Carolyn David; Abbas Ali Akhil

2012-01-01

424

Making TCP\\/IP Viable for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TCP\\/IP protocol suite, which has proven itself highly successful in wired networks, is often claimed to be unsuited for wireless micro-sensor networks. In this work, we question this conventional wisdom and present a number of mechanisms that are intended to enable the use of TCP\\/IP for wireless sensor networks: spatial IP address assignment, shared context header compression, application overlay

Adam Dunkels; Juan Alonso; Thiemo Voigt

2004-01-01

425

Commercial launch systems: A risky investment?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A myriad of evolutionary paths connect the current state of government-dominated space launch operations to true commercial access to space. Every potential path requires the investment of private capital sufficient to fund the commercial venture with a perceived risk/return ratio acceptable to the investors. What is the private sector willing to invest? Does government participation reduce financial risk? How viable is a commercial launch system without government participation and support? We examine the interplay between various forms of government participation in commercial launch system development, alternative launch system designs, life cycle cost estimates, and typical industry risk aversion levels. The boundaries of this n-dimensional envelope are examined with an ECON-developed business financial model which provides for the parametric assessment and interaction of SSTO design variables (including various operational scenarios with financial variables including debt/equity assumptions, and commercial enterprise burden rates on various functions. We overlay this structure with observations from previous ECON research which characterize financial risk aversion levels for selected industrial sectors in terms of acceptable initial lump-sum investments, cumulative investments, probability of failure, payback periods, and ROI. The financial model allows the construction of parametric tradeoffs based on ranges of variables which can be said to actually encompass the ``true'' cost of operations and determine what level of ``true'' costs can be tolerated by private capitalization.

Dupnick, Edwin; Skratt, John

1996-03-01

426

Short communication: appropriate and alternative methods to determine viable bacterial counts in cow milk samples.  

PubMed

Farm milk consumption is reported to be inversely related to the development of asthma and atopy in children and it has been hypothesized that microorganisms in milk might contribute to this protective effect. The GABRIEL study was designed to investigate this hypothesis in a large population of European children, calling for a rapid alternative to classical culture techniques to determine bacteriological properties of milk samples. One objective was to evaluate 2 different rapid methods to determine bacteriological properties in a large number of cow milk samples collected under field conditions. BactoScan (Foss Analytical, Hillerød, Denmark), an automated standard flow cytometric method utilized for routine testing of milk quality, and TEMPO (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France), an automated most-probable-number method, were used to assess the total viable bacterial count in farm and commercial milk samples. Both methods were compared with standard plate count method and each other. Measurements based on the TEMPO method were in good agreement with the standard plate count method and showed reliable results, whereas BactoScan results did not correlate with standard plate count measurements and yielded higher bacteria counts in heat-treated milk samples compared with raw milk samples. Most likely, these discrepant results were due to inferences with staining reactions and detection of bacteria in heat-treated milk samples. We conclude that, in contrast to the routinely used BactoScan method, the TEMPO method is an inexpensive and rapid alternative to standard culture methods suitable to assess total bacterial counts in processed and raw milk samples. PMID:22612929

Loss, G; Apprich, S; Kneifel, W; von Mutius, E; Genuneit, J; Braun-Fahrländer, C

2012-06-01

427

Applications of argentation solid phase extraction to the capsaicinoids: Purification of commercial standards and isolation of homodihydrocapsaicin (8-methyl) from ‘Bhut Jolokia’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argentation solid phase extraction was employed to purify commercial standards of capsaicin (6-ene-8-methyl) and dihydrocapsaicin (8-methyl). The purity was improved from 96.7% to 99.6% and from 89% to 96%, respectively, with 75% and 60% yield, respectively. Reversed phase solid phase extraction, argentation solid phase extraction, and preparative liquid chromatography with a C30 phase were used to isolate capsaicinoids from the

Robert Q. Thompson; Kathleen Loa

2011-01-01

428

Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in commercial yoghurt during refrigerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of five brands of commercial yoghurt were obtained directly from the processors and enumeration of viable Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum and determination of pH was carried out at three-day intervals over a five-week period. Three of the five products contained 107–108 g?1 viable cells of L. acidophilus, whereas the other two products contained ? 105 of this organism

Nagendra P. Shah; Warnakulasuriya E. V. Lankaputhra; Margaret L. Britz; William S. A. Kyle

1995-01-01

429

Commercial Magneto-Rheological Fluid Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid devices have reached the stage where they are in commercial production. Such devices are finding application in a variety of real world situations ranging from active vibration control to aerobic exercise equipment. Examples of several, commercial MR fluid devices are described and the comparative ability of MR and ER fluids to meet the needs of practical

D. M. Catanzarite; K. A. St. Clair

1996-01-01

430

Commercial Cooking Equipment Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the efforts of a project aimed at improving the thermal efficiency of gas-fired commercial cooking equipment, specifically the development of a commercial open top section employing powered burners and the development of means for ap...

R. L. Himmel

1983-01-01

431

Commercial users panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discussions of motives and requirements for telerobotics application demonstrated that, in many cases, lack of progress was a result not of limited opportunities but of inadequate mechanisms and resources for promoting opportunities. Support for this conclusion came from Telerobotics, Inc., one of the few companies devoted primarily to telerobot systems. They have produced units for such diverse applications as nuclear fusion research, particle accelerators, cryogenics, firefighting, marine biology/undersea systems and nuclear mobile robotics. Mr. Flatau offered evidence that telerobotics research is only rarely supported by the private sector and that it often presents a difficult market. Questions on the mechanisms contained within the NASA technology transfer process for promoting commercial opportunities were fielded by Ray Gilbert and Tom Walters. A few points deserve emphasis: (1) NASA/industry technology transfer occurs in both directions and NASA recognizes the opportunity to learn a great deal from industry in the fields of automation and robotics; (2) promotion of technology transfer projects takes a demand side approach, with requests to industry for specific problem identification. NASA then proposes possible solutions; and (3) comittment ofmotivated and technically qualified people on each end of a technology transfer is essential.

Byrd, Joseph S.; Flatau, Carl; Hodge, David C.; Hollis, Ralph; Leach, Eugene F.; Gilbert, Ray; Cleland, John; Leifer, Larry; Naser, Joseph; Schmuter, Samson D.

1987-01-01

432

Commercial Science and Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

NRAC was tasked by ASN(RD&A) to assess how the DON could leverage commercial S&T. The study objectives were to identify how the DON could capitalize on relevant R&D produced by international commercial industry; develop an understanding of the commercial ...

T. Brancati J. M. Cramer K. Hegmann C. Hensel S. Hostettler

2000-01-01

433

Relationship of total viable and culturable cells in epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae.  

PubMed Central

The direct viable count method, used to detect viable but nonculturable bacteria in aquatic systems, was modified to examine epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae. Viable-population sizes determined from the number of cells that elongated when incubated with yeast extract and nalidixic acid were compared with those determined by the conventional plate count method. The plate count method accurately determined the number of viable cells in epiphytic P. syringae populations in a state of active growth under conditions of high relative humidity. The plate count method also accurately determined the number of viable cells in P. syringae inoculum, or a growing P. syringae population, subject to desiccation stress under conditions of low relative humidity. In epiphytic populations of P. syringae older than 80 h, however, the plate count underestimated the viable-population size by about two- to fourfold, suggesting that up to 75% of the P. syringae population was nonculturable. These nonculturable cells may have entered a starvation-survival state, induced by low nutrient availability in the phyllosphere environment. Epiphytic P. syringae populations undergoing rapid size changes due to growth and death under fluctuating environmental conditions in the field should be accurately enumerated by the plate count method. However, the possible underestimation of viable-population size under some circumstances should be considered in epidemiological studies of phytopathogenic bacteria and when genetically engineered microorganisms in terrestrial ecosystems are monitored.

Wilson, M; Lindow, S E

1992-01-01

434

Lithium phthalocyanine: a probe for electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry in viable biological systems.  

PubMed Central

Lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) is a prototype of another generation of synthetic, metallic-organic, paramagnetic crystallites that appear very useful for in vitro and in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry. The peak-to-peak line width of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of LiPc is a linear function of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2); this linear relation is independent of the medium surrounding the LiPc. It has an extremely exchange-narrowed spectrum (peak-to-peak line width = 14 mG in the absence of O2). Physicochemically LiPc is very stable; its response to pO2 does not change with conditions and environments (e.g., pH, temperature, redox conditions) likely to occur in viable biological systems. These characteristics provide the sensitivity, accuracy, and range to measure physiologically and pathologically pertinent O2 tensions (0.1-50 mmHg; 1 mmHg = 133 Pa). The application of LiPc in biological systems is demonstrated in measurements of pO2 in vivo in the heart, brain, and kidney of rats.

Liu, K J; Gast, P; Moussavi, M; Norby, S W; Vahidi, N; Walczak, T; Wu, M; Swartz, H M

1993-01-01

435

A method of isolating viable chondrocytes with proliferative capacity from cryopreserved human articular cartilage.  

PubMed

This study aimed to optimise methods of cryopreserving human articular cartilage (AC) tissue for the isolation of late chondrocytes. Human AC specimens from osteoarthritis patients who had undergone total knee replacement were used to optimise the chondrocyte isolation process and the choice of cryoprotective agent (CPA). For AC tissue cryopreservation, intact cored cartilage discs (5 mm diameter) and diced cartilage (0.2-1 mm cubes) from the same sized discs were step cooled and stored in liquid nitrogen for up to 48 h before chondrocyte isolation and in vitro assay of cell viability and proliferative potential. The results showed that 10 % dimethyl sulphoxide in 90 % foetal bovine serum was a successful CPA for chondrocyte cryopreservation. Compared with intact cored discs, dicing of AC tissue into 0.2-1 mm cubes significantly increased the viability and proliferative capacity of surviving chondrocytes after cryopreservation. In situ cross-section imaging using focused ion beam microscopy revealed that dicing of cored AC discs into small cubes reduced the cryo-damage to cartilage tissue matrix. In conclusion, modification of appropriate factors, such as the size of the tissue, cryoprotective agent, and isolation protocol, can allow successful isolation of viable chondrocytes with high proliferative capacity from cryopreserved human articular cartilage tissue. Further studies are required to determine whether these cells may retain cartilage differentiation capacity and provide sufficient chondrocytes for use as implants in clinical applications. PMID:22802140

Xia, Zhidao; Duan, Xin; Murray, David; Triffitt, James T; Price, Andrew J

2013-06-01

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