Science.gov

Sample records for viable commercial applications

  1. Neuroscience: viable applications in education?

    PubMed

    Devonshire, Ian M; Dommett, Eleanor J

    2010-08-01

    As a relatively young science, neuroscience is still finding its feet in potential collaborations with other disciplines. One such discipline is education, with the field of neuroeducation being on the horizon since the 1960s. However, although its achievements are now growing, the partnership has not been as successful as first hopes suggested it should be. Here the authors discuss the theoretical barriers and potential solutions to this, which have been suggested previously, with particular focus on levels of research in neuroscience and their applicability to education. Moreover, they propose that these theoretical barriers are driven and maintained by practical barriers surrounding common language and research literacy. They propose that by overcoming these practical barriers through appropriate training and shared experience, neuroeducation can reach its full potential. PMID:20817916

  2. Commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Togai, Masaki

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on commercial applications of fuzzy logic in Japan are presented. Topics covered include: suitable application area of fuzzy theory; characteristics of fuzzy control; fuzzy closed-loop controller; Mitsubishi heavy air conditioner; predictive fuzzy control; the Sendai subway system; automatic transmission; fuzzy logic-based command system for antilock braking system; fuzzy feed-forward controller; and fuzzy auto-tuning system.

  3. Commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  4. Prototype to productdeveloping a commercially viable neural prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligman, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The Cochlear implant or 'Bionic ear' is a device that enables people who do not get sufficient benefit from a hearing aid to communicate with the hearing world. The Cochlear implant is not an amplifier, but a device that electrically stimulates the auditory nerve in a way that crudely mimics normal hearing, thus providing a hearing percept. Many recipients are able to understand running speech without the help of lipreading. Cochlear implants have reached a stage of maturity where there are now 170 000 recipients implanted worldwide. The commercial development of these devices has occurred over the last 30 years. This development has been multidisciplinary, including audiologists, engineers, both mechanical and electrical, histologists, materials scientists, physiologists, surgeons and speech pathologists. This paper will trace the development of the device we have today, from the engineering perspective. The special challenges of designing an active device that will work in the human body for a lifetime will be outlined. These challenges include biocompatibility, extreme reliability, safety, patient fitting and surgical issues. It is emphasized that the successful development of a neural prosthesis requires the partnership of academia and industry.

  5. Development of a Commercially Viable, Modular Autonomous Robotic Systems for Converting any Vehicle to Autonomous Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parish, David W.; Grabbe, Robert D.; Marzwell, Neville I.

    1994-01-01

    A Modular Autonomous Robotic System (MARS), consisting of a modular autonomous vehicle control system that can be retrofit on to any vehicle to convert it to autonomous control and support a modular payload for multiple applications is being developed. The MARS design is scalable, reconfigurable, and cost effective due to the use of modern open system architecture design methodologies, including serial control bus technology to simplify system wiring and enhance scalability. The design is augmented with modular, object oriented (C++) software implementing a hierarchy of five levels of control including teleoperated, continuous guidepath following, periodic guidepath following, absolute position autonomous navigation, and relative position autonomous navigation. The present effort is focused on producing a system that is commercially viable for routine autonomous patrolling of known, semistructured environments, like environmental monitoring of chemical and petroleum refineries, exterior physical security and surveillance, perimeter patrolling, and intrafacility transport applications.

  6. Commercial applications of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Spolaore, Pauline; Joannis-Cassan, Claire; Duran, Elie; Isambert, Arsne

    2006-02-01

    The first use of microalgae by humans dates back 2000 years to the Chinese, who used Nostoc to survive during famine. However, microalgal biotechnology only really began to develop in the middle of the last century. Nowadays, there are numerous commercial applications of microalgae. For example, (i) microalgae can be used to enhance the nutritional value of food and animal feed owing to their chemical composition, (ii) they play a crucial role in aquaculture and (iii) they can be incorporated into cosmetics. Moreover, they are cultivated as a source of highly valuable molecules. For example, polyunsaturated fatty acid oils are added to infant formulas and nutritional supplements and pigments are important as natural dyes. Stable isotope biochemicals help in structural determination and metabolic studies. Future research should focus on the improvement of production systems and the genetic modification of strains. Microalgal products would in that way become even more diversified and economically competitive. PMID:16569602

  7. Commercial applications of telemedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natiello, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    Telemedicine Systems Corporation was established in 1976 and is a private commercial supplier of telemedicine systems. These systems are various combinations of communications and diagnostic technology, designed to allow the delivery of health care services to remote facilities. The technology and the health care services are paid for by the remote facilities, such as prisons.

  8. Commercial applications for COIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Wayne C.; Carroll, David L.; King, D. M.; Fockler, L. A.; Stromberg, D. S.; Sexauer, M.; Milmoe, A.; Sentman, Lee H.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is a high power, fiber deliverable tool, which can be used for a number of different industrial applications. COIL is of particular interest because of its short fiber deliverable wavelength, high scaleable continuous wave power, and excellent material interaction properties. In past research the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign identified and decommissioning and decontamination (DD) of nuclear facilities as a primary focus for COIL technology. DD will be a major challenge in the coming decades. The use of a robotically driven fiber delivered cutting/ablation tool in contaminated areas promises to lower risks to workers for the DD mission. Further, the high cutting speed of COIL will significantly reduce the time required to cut contaminated equipment, reducing costs. The high power of COIL will permit the dismantling of thick stacks of piping and equipment as well as reactor vessels. COIL is very promising for the removal of material from contaminated surfaces, perhaps to depths thicker than an inch. Laser cutting and ablation minimizes dust and fumes, which reduces the required number of high efficiency particulate accumulator filters, thus reducing costly waste disposal. Other potential industrial applications for COIL are shipbuilding, automotive manufacturing, heavy machinery manufacturing, tasks requiring underwater cutting or welding, and there appear to be very promising applications for high powers lasers in the oil industry.

  9. Fuel cells are a commercially viable alternative for the production of "clean" energy.

    PubMed

    Niakolas, Dimitris K; Daletou, Maria; Neophytides, Stylianos G; Vayenas, Constantinos G

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells present a highly efficient and environmentally friendly alternative technology for decentralized energy production. The scope of the present study is to provide an overview of the technological and commercialization readiness level of fuel cells. Specifically, there is a brief description of their general advantages and weaknesses in correlation with various technological actions and political strategies, which are adopted towards their proper positioning in the global market. Some of the most important key performance indicators are also discussed, alongside with a few examples of broad commercialization. It is concluded that the increasing number of companies which utilize and invest on this technology, in combination with the supply chain improvements and the concomitant technological maturity and recognition, reinforce the fuel cell industry so as to become well-aligned for global success. PMID:26667058

  10. The GeoSAR program: Development of a commercially viable 3-D radar terrain mapping system

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, R.G.; Davis, M.

    1996-11-01

    GeoSAR is joint development between the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA) and the California Department of Conservation (CA DOC) to determine the technical and economic viability of an airborne interferometric and foliage penetration synthetic aperture radar for mapping terrain and man made objects in geographical areas obscured by foliage, urban buildings, and other concealments. The two core technology elements of this program are Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) and Foliage Penetration Radar (FOPEN). These technologies have been developed by NASA and ARPA, principally for defense applications.

  11. Commercial Applications Multispectral Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birk, Ronald J.; Spiering, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is funding a multispectral sensor system to be used in the development of remote sensing applications. The Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) is designed to provide versatility in acquiring spectral and spatial information. The ATLAS system will be a test bed for the development of specifications for airborne and spaceborne remote sensing instrumentation for dedicated applications. This objective requires spectral coverage from the visible through thermal infrared wavelengths, variable spatial resolution from 2-25 meters; high geometric and geo-location accuracy; on-board radiometric calibration; digital recording; and optimized performance for minimized cost, size, and weight. ATLAS is scheduled to be available in 3rd quarter 1992 for acquisition of data for applications such as environmental monitoring, facilities management, geographic information systems data base development, and mineral exploration.

  12. [Quality of commercial inoculants for soybean crop in Argentina: concentration of viable rhizobia and presence of contaminants].

    PubMed

    Benintende, S

    2010-01-01

    In view of the inoculant production technology available, quality control is a necessary tool to improve soybean inoculants commercialized in Argentina. In 1988, the Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias de la Universidad Nacional de Entre Ros (Argentina) created a quality control service for soybean crop inoculants to offer to farmers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of soybean crop inoculants for seven cropping seasons and to contrast these results with those from previous investigations conducted in our country. This work was developed using 128 inoculant samples from 30 different trade names. The analyzed variables were: inoculant label information, number of viable rhizobia and presence of contaminants. Twenty per cent of the labels showed defects that did not comply with the Argentine legislation. The detected problems in inoculant labels were related to lot numbers or the expiry date, which lacked, was easy to remove or not visible. Eighty seven per cent of the analyzed inoculants were formulated in liquid carriers. Seventy six per cent of the samples had a number of rhizobia above 10(8) CFU/g or ml, the minimum quantity required by the legislation. Thirty per cent of the analyzed inoculants had contaminants and their presence was related to low rhizobia counts, as shown in a correspondence analysis. The relationship between liquid inoculants and the absence of contaminants was expressed. It can be concluded from the comparison of results found in this investigation with those in previous works published on Argentinean inoculants, that inoculant quality has been improved, although the situation is far from ideal. Adequate manufacturing and commercialization controls are necessary to ensure product quality. PMID:20589336

  13. How Close We Are to Achieving Commercially Viable Large-Scale Photobiological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria: A Review of the Biological Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  14. How close we are to achieving commercially viable large-scale photobiological hydrogen production by cyanobacteria: a review of the biological aspects.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Hidehiro; Masukawa, Hajime; Kitashima, Masaharu; Inoue, Kazuhito

    2015-01-01

    Photobiological production of H2 by cyanobacteria is considered to be an ideal source of renewable energy because the inputs, water and sunlight, are abundant. The products of photobiological systems are H2 and O2; the H2 can be used as the energy source of fuel cells, etc., which generate electricity at high efficiencies and minimal pollution, as the waste product is H2O. Overall, production of commercially viable algal fuels in any form, including biomass and biodiesel, is challenging, and the very few systems that are operational have yet to be evaluated. In this paper we will: briefly review some of the necessary conditions for economical production, summarize the reports of photobiological H2 production by cyanobacteria, present our schemes for future production, and discuss the necessity for further progress in the research needed to achieve commercially viable large-scale H2 production. PMID:25793279

  15. Commercial application of rainfall simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Rob J.

    2010-05-01

    Landloch Pty Ltd is a commercial consulting firm, providing advice on a range of land management issues to the mining and construction industries in Australia. As part of the company's day-to-day operations, rainfall simulation is used to assess material erodibility and to investigate a range of site attributes. (Landloch does carry out research projects, though such are not its core business.) When treated as an everyday working tool, several aspects of rainfall simulation practice are distinctively modified. Firstly, the equipment used is regularly maintained, and regularly upgraded with a primary focus on ease, safety, and efficiency of use and on reliability of function. As well, trained and experienced technical support is considered essential. Landloch's chief technician has over 10 years experience in running rainfall simulators at locations across Australia and in Africa and the Pacific. Secondly, the specific experimental conditions established for each set of rainfall simulator runs are carefully considered to ensure that they accurately represent the field conditions to which the data will be subsequently applied. Considerations here include: wetting and drying cycles to ensure material consolidation and/or cementation if appropriate; careful attention to water quality if dealing with clay soils or with amendments such as gypsum; strong focus on ensuring that the erosion processes considered are those of greatest importance to the field situation of concern; and detailed description of both material and plot properties, to increase the potential for data to be applicable to a wider range of projects and investigations. Other important company procedures include: For each project, the scientist or engineer responsible for analysing and reporting rainfall simulator data is present during the running of all field plots, as it is essential that they be aware of any specific conditions that may have developed when the plots were subjected to rain; and Regular calibration of all equipment. In general, typical errors when rainfall simulation is carried out by inexperienced researchers include: Failure to accurately measure rainfall rates (the most common error); Inappropriate initial conditions, including wetting treatments; Use of inappropriately small plots - relating to our concern at the erosion processes considered be those of genuine field relevance; Inappropriate rainfall kinetic energies; and Failure to observe critical processes operating on the study plots, such as saturation excess or the presence of impeding layers at shallow depths. Landloch regularly uses erodibility data to design stable batter profiles for minesite waste dumps. Subsequent monitoring of designed dumps has confirmed that modelled erosion rates are consistent with those subsequently measured under field conditions.

  16. Commercial applications of satellite oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that in the next decade the oceans' commercial users will require an operational oceanographic satellite system or systems capable of maximizing real-time coverage over all ocean areas. Seasat studies suggest that three spacecraft are required to achieve this. Here, the sensor suite would measure surface winds, wave heights (and spectral energy distribution), ice characteristics, sea-surface temperature, ocean colorimetry, height of the geoid, salinity, and subsurface thermal structure. The importance of oceanographic data being distributed to commercial users within two hours of observation time is stressed. Also emphasized is the importance of creating a responsive oceanographic satellite data archive. An estimate of the potential dollar benefits of such an operational oceanographic satellite system is given.

  17. Commercial application of SCR technology

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, D.; Glatch, L.; Rund, J.; Snyder, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) has been applied as a No/sub x/ abatement technique for stationary sources of nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) in Japan since the early 1970's. To date, there are over 100 SCR installations operating in Japan. During the 1980's a number of SCR systems have been installed in the United States, primarily in California. Among these applications are fired heater, boiler, and gas turbine/heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) installations. They are discussed in detail by the authors.

  18. Database tomography for commercial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostoff, Ronald N.; Eberhart, Henry J.

    1994-01-01

    Database tomography is a method for extracting themes and their relationships from text. The algorithms, employed begin with word frequency and word proximity analysis and build upon these results. When the word 'database' is used, think of medical or police records, patents, journals, or papers, etc. (any text information that can be computer stored). Database tomography features a full text, user interactive technique enabling the user to identify areas of interest, establish relationships, and map trends for a deeper understanding of an area of interest. Database tomography concepts and applications have been reported in journals and presented at conferences. One important feature of the database tomography algorithm is that it can be used on a database of any size, and will facilitate the users ability to understand the volume of content therein. While employing the process to identify research opportunities it became obvious that this promising technology has potential applications for business, science, engineering, law, and academe. Examples include evaluating marketing trends, strategies, relationships and associations. Also, the database tomography process would be a powerful component in the area of competitive intelligence, national security intelligence and patent analysis. User interests and involvement cannot be overemphasized.

  19. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety

  20. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

  1. Aerospace management techniques: Commercial and governmental applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milliken, J. G.; Morrison, E. J.

    1971-01-01

    A guidebook for managers and administrators is presented as a source of useful information on new management methods in business, industry, and government. The major topics discussed include: actual and potential applications of aerospace management techniques to commercial and governmental organizations; aerospace management techniques and their use within the aerospace sector; and the aerospace sector's application of innovative management techniques.

  2. Wood energy-commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  3. JPL - Small Power Systems Applications Project. [for solar thermal power plant development and commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.; Marriott, A. T.; Truscello, V.

    1978-01-01

    The Small Power Systems Applications (SPSA) Project has been established to develop and commercialize small solar thermal power plants. The technologies of interest include all distributed and central receiver technologies which are potentially economically viable in power plant sizes of one to 10 MWe. The paper presents an overview of the SPSA Project and briefly discusses electric utility involvement in the Project.

  4. Can CO-tolerant Anodes be Economically Viable for PEMFC Applications with Reformates?

    SciTech Connect

    He, P.; Zhang, Y.; Ye., S.; Wang, J. X.

    2014-10-05

    Several years ago, the answer to this question was negative based on the criteria for an anode with <0.1 mg cm-2 of platinum group metals to perform similarly without and with 50 ppm CO in hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Now, with the amount of CO impurities reduced to 10 ppm in reformates, a <1% performance loss with a 1.5% air-bleed has become a reasonable target. The CO-tolerant catalyst also needs to be dissolution resistant up to 0.93 V, viz., the potential experienced at the anode during startup and shutdown of the fuel cells. We recently demonstrated our ability to simultaneously enhance activity and stability by using single crystalline Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts. Here, we report that the performance target with reformates was met using bilayer-thick Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts with 0.047 mg cm-2 Pt and 0.024 mg cm-2 Ru loading, supporting a positive prognosis for the economically viable use of reformates in PEMFC applications.

  5. Can CO-tolerant Anodes be Economically Viable for PEMFC Applications with Reformates?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    He, P.; Zhang, Y.; Ye., S.; Wang, J. X.

    2014-10-05

    Several years ago, the answer to this question was negative based on the criteria for an anode with <0.1 mg cm-2 of platinum group metals to perform similarly without and with 50 ppm CO in hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Now, with the amount of CO impurities reduced to 10 ppm in reformates, a <1% performance loss with a 1.5% air-bleed has become a reasonable target. The CO-tolerant catalyst also needs to be dissolution resistant up to 0.93 V, viz., the potential experienced at the anode during startup and shutdown of the fuel cells. We recently demonstrated ourmore » ability to simultaneously enhance activity and stability by using single crystalline Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts. Here, we report that the performance target with reformates was met using bilayer-thick Ru@Pt core-shell nanocatalysts with 0.047 mg cm-2 Pt and 0.024 mg cm-2 Ru loading, supporting a positive prognosis for the economically viable use of reformates in PEMFC applications.« less

  6. Carbon Nanotubes: Present and Future Commercial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Volder, Michael F. L.; Tawfick, Sameh H.; Baughman, Ray H.; Hart, A. John

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide commercial interest in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is reflected in a production capacity that presently exceeds several thousand tons per year. Currently, bulk CNT powders are incorporated in diverse commercial products ranging from rechargeable batteries, automotive parts, and sporting goods to boat hulls and water filters. Advances in CNT synthesis, purification, and chemical modification are enabling integration of CNTs in thin-film electronics and large-area coatings. Although not yet providing compelling mechanical strength or electrical or thermal conductivities for many applications, CNT yarns and sheets already have promising performance for applications including supercapacitors, actuators, and lightweight electromagnetic shields.

  7. Carbon nanotubes: present and future commercial applications.

    PubMed

    De Volder, Michael F L; Tawfick, Sameh H; Baughman, Ray H; Hart, A John

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide commercial interest in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is reflected in a production capacity that presently exceeds several thousand tons per year. Currently, bulk CNT powders are incorporated in diverse commercial products ranging from rechargeable batteries, automotive parts, and sporting goods to boat hulls and water filters. Advances in CNT synthesis, purification, and chemical modification are enabling integration of CNTs in thin-film electronics and large-area coatings. Although not yet providing compelling mechanical strength or electrical or thermal conductivities for many applications, CNT yarns and sheets already have promising performance for applications including supercapacitors, actuators, and lightweight electromagnetic shields. PMID:23372006

  8. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)

  9. Design of commercial applications of EPAM technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonwit, N.; Heim, J.; Rosenthal, M.; Duncheon, C.; Beavers, A.

    2006-03-01

    Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle (EPAM[R]) technology is becoming a robust, high performance, cost effective solution for commercial applications in many sectors. Since its inception in 2004, Artificial Muscle, Inc. (AMI), a spinout company from SRI International, has rigorously pursued the commercialization of this form of artificial muscle technology through innovative designs and fabrication processes, dramatically increasing performance, reliability and manufacturability across a wide variety of applications. Scaleable solutions developed by AMI include air and liquid pumps, valves, linear and angular positioners, rotary motors, sensors and generators. Innovative device designs demonstrating the ability to meet the specifications of demanding applications across broad operating environments and combining practical levels of power densities and actuation lifetimes will be discussed. Integrated electronics control modules allow the freedom to design artificial muscles directly into new or existing product lines while effectively managing the transition from conventional technologies. Simple modular, versatile designs, coupled with low cost industrial materials and flexible automated manufacturing processes, provide a cost effective solution for products serving such diverse industries as consumer electronics, medical devices, and automobiles. Several case examples are presented to illustrate the commercial viability of EPAM[R]-based devices.

  10. ERAST: Scientific Applications and Technology Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunley, John D. (Compiler); Kellogg, Yvonne (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    This is a conference publication for an event designed to inform potential contractors and appropriate personnel in various scientific disciplines that the ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) vehicles have reached a certain level of maturity and are available to perform a variety of missions ranging from data gathering to telecommunications. There are multiple applications of the technology and a great many potential commercial and governmental markets. As high altitude platforms, the ERAST vehicles can gather data at higher resolution than satellites and can do so continuously, whereas satellites pass over a particular area only once each orbit. Formal addresses are given by Rich Christiansen, (Director of Programs, NASA Aerospace Technology Ent.), Larry Roeder, (Senior Policy Advisor, U.S. Dept. of State), and Dr. Marianne McCarthy, (DFRC Education Dept.). The Commercialization Workshop is chaired by Dale Tietz (President, New Vista International) and the Science Workshop is chaired by Steve Wegener, (Deputy Manager of NASA ERAST, NASA Ames Research Center.

  11. Potential commercial applications of microbial surfactants.

    PubMed

    Banat, I M; Makkar, R S; Cameotra, S S

    2000-05-01

    Surfactants are surface-active compounds capable of reducing surface and interfacial tension at the interfaces between liquids, solids and gases, thereby allowing them to mix or disperse readily as emulsions in water or other liquids. The enormous market demand for surfactants is currently met by numerous synthetic, mainly petroleum-based, chemical surfactants. These compounds are usually toxic to the environment and non-biodegradable. They may bio-accumulate and their production, processes and by-products can be environmentally hazardous. Tightening environmental regulations and increasing awareness for the need to protect the ecosystem have effectively resulted in an increasing interest in biosurfactants as possible alternatives to chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic compounds of microbial origin with considerable potential in commercial applications within various industries. They have advantages over their chemical counterparts in biodegradability and effectiveness at extreme temperature or pH and in having lower toxicity. Biosurfactants are beginning to acquire a status as potential performance-effective molecules in various fields. At present biosurfactants are mainly used in studies on enhanced oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation. The solubilization and emulsification of toxic chemicals by biosurfactants have also been reported. Biosurfactants also have potential applications in agriculture, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, detergents, personal care products, food processing, textile manufacturing, laundry supplies, metal treatment and processing, pulp and paper processing and paint industries. Their uses and potential commercial applications in these fields are reviewed. PMID:10855707

  12. Commercial applications of perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.

    1991-06-01

    Tracer technology can be successfully applied to many leak-checking and monitoring evaluations of operating systems (e.g., building HVACs), manufacturing processes and products (e.g., air conditioners), and subsurface components and systems (e.g., underground storage tanks). Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology is the most sensitive of all tracer technologies because the ambient background levels of the five (5) routinely-used PFTs are in the range of parts per 10{sup 15} parts of air (i.e., parts per quadrillion-ppq) and this technology's instrumentation can measure down to those levels. The effectiveness of this technology is achieved both in terms of cost (very little PFT need to be used) and detectability; for example, very small leaks can be rapidly detected. The PFT compounds, which are environmentally and biologically safe to use, are commercially available as are the sampling and analysis instrumentation. This presentation concerns (1) the steps being taken to commercialize this technology, (2) new applications of processes currently under study, and (3) applications in areas of use that will be particularly beneficial to the environment. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Commercial applications of new photovoltaic technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcconnell, R.

    1991-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has directed and managed photovoltaic (PV) research and development (R&D) activities for the Department of Energy for more than 13 years. The NREL budget for these activities is almost $33 million for FY 1991. With the world's increasing concern for the environment and the United States' renewed apprehension over secure and adequate energy supplies, the use of semiconducting materials for the direct conversion of sunlight to electricity - photovoltaics - is an excellent example of government-supported high technology ready for further development by U.S. companies. Some new PV technologies and their research progress, some commercial applications of PV, and NREL's technology transfer activities for helping U.S. industry in its efforts to bring new products or services to the marketplace are described.

  14. Commercial gasifier for IGCC applications study report

    SciTech Connect

    Notestein, J.E.

    1990-06-01

    This was a scoping-level study to identify and characterize the design features of fixed-bed gasifiers appearing most important for a gasifier that was to be (1) potentially commercially attractive, and (2) specifically intended for us in integrated coal gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) applications. It also performed comparative analyses on the impact or value of these design features and on performance characteristics options of the whole IGCC system since cost, efficiency, environmental traits, and operability -- on a system basis -- are what is really important. The study also reviewed and evaluated existing gasifier designs, produced a conceptual-level gasifier design, and generated a moderately advanced system configuration that was utilized as the reference framework for the comparative analyses. In addition, technical issues and knowledge gaps were defined. 70 figs., 31 tabs.

  15. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    PubMed Central

    Vlchez, Carlos; Forjn, Eduardo; Cuaresma, Mara; Bdmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Ins; Vega, Jos M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon. PMID:21556162

  16. NASA's Earth Observations Commercialization Applications Program: A model for government promotion of commercial space opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1995-01-01

    The role of government in promoting space commerce is a topic of discussion in every spacefaring nation. This article describes a new approach to government intervention which, based on its five-year track record, appears to have met with success. The approach, developed in NASA's Earth Observations Commercialization Application Program (EOCAP), offer several lessons for effective government sponsorship of commercial space development in general and of commercial remote sensing in particular.

  17. Lawn and Turf Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, M. S.

    This manual is designed for use in training commercial pesticide applicators. It gives identification and control information for common lawn and turf diseases, insects, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrate pests. It also discusses phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and application methods. (BB)

  18. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides: A Manual for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This publication is a certification manual for the commercial pesticide applicator's permit of the Michigan Department of Agriculture. The information presented in this manual is designed to assist prospective commercial pesticide applicators to meet certification requirements under federal guidelines. The first of the eight sections deals with

  19. NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies, that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. The RTI Team has been successful in the development of NASA/industry partnerships and commercialization of NASA technologies. RTI ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed and implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs. (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology. And (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

  20. NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) is pleased to report the results of NASA contract NASW-4367, 'Operation of a Technology Applications Team'. Through a period of significant change within NASA, the RTI Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. RTI's ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed an implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs; (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology; and (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

  1. Commercial applications of electron beam advanced oxidation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Randy D.; Bosma, John T.

    1995-03-01

    Emerging commercial applications of electron-beam advanced oxidation technology offer a significant advancement in the treatment of waste steams. Both electron beam and X-ray (Brehmsstrahlung) advanced oxidation processes have been shown to be effective in the destruction of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Emerging commercial applications, however, far exceed in scope current applications of oxidation technologies for the destruction of simple semivolatile and volatile organic compounds in water. Emerging applications include direct treatment of contaminated soil, removal of metal ions from water and sterilization of water, sludges, and food. Application of electron beam advanced oxidation technologies are reviewed, along with electron- beam-generated X-ray (Brehmsstrahlung) advanced oxidation processes. Advantages of each technology are discussed along with advanced accelerator technologies which are applicable for commercial processing of waste streams. An overview of the U.S. companies and laboratories participating in this research area are included in this discussion.

  2. Cryogenic Applications of Commercial Electronic Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, Ernest D.; Benford, Dominic J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electronics include finding components that can function usefully in the cold and possess low enough power dissipation so as not to heat the systems they are designed to measure. From design, test, and integration perspectives it is useful for components to operate similarly at room and cryogenic temperatures; however this is not a necessity. Some of the circuits presented here have been used successfully in the MUSTANG and in the GISMO camera to build a complete digital to analog multiplexer (which will be referred to as the Cryogenic Address Driver board). Many of the circuit elements described are of a more general nature rather than specific to the Cryogenic Address Driver board, and were studied as a part of a more comprehensive approach to addressing a larger set of cryogenic electronic needs.

  3. Cryogenic applications of commercial electronic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchanan, Ernest D.; Benford, Dominic J.; Forgione, Joshua B.; Harvey Moseley, S.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2 K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electronics include finding components that can function usefully in the cold and possess low enough power dissipation so as not to heat the systems they are designed to measure. From design, test, and integration perspectives it is useful for components to operate similarly at room and cryogenic temperatures; however this is not a necessity. Some of the circuits presented here have been used successfully in the MUSTANG [1] and in the GISMO [2] camera to build a complete digital to analog multiplexer (which will be referred to as the Cryogenic Address Driver board). Many of the circuit elements described are of a more general nature rather than specific to the Cryogenic Address Driver board, and were studied as a part of a more comprehensive approach to addressing a larger set of cryogenic electronic needs.

  4. Intersatellite link application to commercial communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young S.; Atia, Ali E.; Ponchak, Denise S.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental characteristics of intersatellite link (ISL) systems, and their application to domestic, regional, and global satellite communications, are described. The quantitative advantages of using ISLs to improve orbit utilization, spectrum occupancy, transmission delay (compared to multi-hop links), coverage, and connectivity, and to reduce the number of earth station antennas, are also presented. Cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits of using ISLs are identified, and the technical and systems planning aspects of ISL systems implementation are addressed.

  5. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This document provides practical information needed by commercial pesticide applicators to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of various pesticides. The text and accompanying illustrations cover the seven major topics of pests, pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, using pesticides safely, application equipment,

  6. Rocket engine heat transfer and material technology for commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiltabiddle, J.; Campbell, J.

    1974-01-01

    Liquid fueled rocket engine combustion, heat transfer, and material technology have been utilized in the design and development of compact combustion and heat exchange equipment intended for application in the commercial field. An initial application of the concepts to the design of a compact steam generator to be utilized by electrical utilities for the production of peaking power is described.

  7. Airborne Remote Sensing (ARS) for Agricultural Research and Commercialization Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, Ram; Bowen, Brent D.; Nickerson, Jocelyn S.

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous advances in remote sensing technology and computing power over the last few decades are now providing scientists with the opportunity to investigate, measure, and model environmental patterns and processes with increasing confidence. Such advances are being pursued by the Nebraska Remote Sensing Facility, which consists of approximately 30 faculty members and is very competitive with other institutions in the depth of the work that is accomplished. The development of this facility targeted at applications, commercialization, and education programs in the area of precision agriculture provides a unique opportunity. This critical area is within the scope of NASA goals and objectives of NASA s Applications, Technology Transfer, Commercialization, and Education Division and the Earth Science Enterprise. This innovative integration of Aerospace (Aeronautics) Technology Enterprise applications with other NASA enterprises serves as a model of cross-enterprise transfer of science with specific commercial applications.

  8. Space Commercial Opportunities for Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavert, R.

    2000-01-01

    Microgravity research at NASA has been an undertaking that has included both science and commercial approaches since the late 80s and early 90s. The Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community has been developed, through NASA's science grants, into a valuable base of expertise in microgravity science. This was achieved through both ground and flight scientific research. Commercial microgravity research has been primarily promoted thorough NASA sponsored Centers for Space Commercialization which develop cost sharing partnerships with industry. As an example, the Center for Advanced Microgravity Materials Processing (CAMMP)at Northeastern University has been working with cost sharing industry partners in developing Zeolites and zeo-type materials as an efficient storage medium for hydrogen fuel. Greater commercial interest is emerging. The U.S. Congress has passed the Commercial Space Act of 1998 to encourage the development of a commercial space industry in the United States. The Act has provisions for the commercialization of the International Space Station (ISS). Increased efforts have been made by NASA to enable industrial ventures on-board the ISS. A Web site has been established at http://commercial/nasa/gov which includes two important special announcements. One is an open request for entrepreneurial offers related to the commercial development and use of the ISS. The second is a price structure and schedule for U.S. resources and accommodations. The purpose of the presentation is to make the Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena community, which understands the importance of microgravity experimentation, aware of important aspects of ISS commercial development. It is a desire that this awareness will be translated into a recognition of Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena application opportunities coordinated through the broad contacts of this community with industry.

  9. Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further sub-divided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

  10. A Framework for Effective Commercial Web Application Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Ming-te; Yeung, Wing-lok

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a framework for commercial Web application development based on prior research in hypermedia and human-computer interfaces. First, its social acceptability is investigated. Next, economic, technical, operational, and organizational viability are examined. For Web-page design, the functionality and usability of Web pages are considered.

  11. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Renes, Robert

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the industrial, institutional, structural and health related pest control category. The text discusses the use and safety of applying pesticides to control invertebrate and vertebrate pests such as ants,

  12. SONOS technology for commercial and military nonvolatile memory applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Farrell, P.; Jacunski, M.; Williams, D.; Jakubczak, J.; Knoll, M.; Murray, J.

    Silicon Oxide Nitride Oxide Semiconductor (SONOS) technology is well suited for military and commercial nonvolatile memory applications. Excellent long term memory retention, radiation hardness, and endurance has been demonstrated with this technology. This paper summarizes our data in these areas for SONOS technology.

  13. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzwater, William D.; Renes, Robert

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the industrial, institutional, structural and health related pest control category. The text discusses the use and safety of applying pesticides to control invertebrate and vertebrate pests such as ants,…

  14. Layered Thermal Insulation Systems for Industrial and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2015-01-01

    From the high performance arena of cryogenic equipment, several different layered thermal insulation systems have been developed for industrial and commercial applications. In addition to the proven areas in cold-work applications for piping and tanks, the new Layered Composite Insulation for Extreme Environments (LCX) has potential for broader industrial use as well as for commercial applications. The LCX technology provides a unique combination of thermal, mechanical, and weathering performance capability that is both cost-effective and enabling. Industry applications may include, for example, liquid nitrogen (LN2) systems for food processing, liquefied natural gas (LNG) systems for transportation or power, and chilled water cooling facilities. Example commercial applications may include commercial residential building construction, hot water piping, HVAC systems, refrigerated trucks, cold chain shipping containers, and a various consumer products. The LCX system is highly tailorable to the end-use application and can be pre-fabricated or field assembled as needed. Product forms of LCX include rigid sheets, semi-flexible sheets, cylindrical clam-shells, removable covers, or flexible strips for wrapping. With increasing system control and reliability requirements as well as demands for higher energy efficiencies, thermal insulation in harsh environments is a growing challenge. The LCX technology grew out of solving problems in the insulation of mechanically complex cryogenic systems that must operate in outdoor, humid conditions. Insulation for cold work includes equipment for everything from liquid helium to chilled water. And in the middle are systems for LNG, LN2, liquid oxygen (LO2), liquid hydrogen (LH2) that must operate in the ambient environment. Different LCX systems have been demonstrated for sub-ambient conditions but are capable of moderately high temperature applications as well.

  15. Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications University of Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Winfred; Evanich, Peggy L.

    2004-01-01

    The Space Biotechnology and Commercial Applications grant was funded by NASA's Kennedy Space Center in FY 2002 to provide dedicated biotechnology and agricultural research focused on the regeneration of space flight environments with direct parallels in Earth-based applications for solving problems in the environment, advances in agricultural science, and other human support issues amenable to targeted biotechnology solutions. This grant had three project areas, each with multiple tasks. They are: 1) Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education, 2) Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications, and 3) Commercial Applications. The Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and Education (SABRE) Center emphasized the fundamental biology of organisms involved in space flight applications, including those involved in advanced life support environments because of their critical role in the long-term exploration of space. The SABRE Center supports research at the University of Florida and at the Space Life Sciences Laboratory (SLSL) at the Kennedy Space Center. The Integrated Smart Nanosensors for Space Biotechnology Applications component focused on developing and applying sensor technologies to space environments and agricultural systems. The research activities in nanosensors were coordinated with the SABRE portions of this grant and with the research sponsored by the NASA Environmental Systems Commercial Space Technology Center located in the Department of Environmental Engineering Sciences. Initial sensor efforts have focused on air and water quality monitoring essential to humans for living and working permanently in space, an important goal identified in NASA's strategic plan. The closed environment of a spacecraft or planetary base accentuates cause and effect relationships and environmental impacts. The limited available air and water resources emphasize the need for reuse, recycling, and system monitoring. It is essential to collect real-time information from these systems to ensure crew safety. This new class of nanosensors will be critical to monitoring the space flight environment in future NASA space systems. The Commercial Applications component of this program pursued industry partnerships to develop products for terrestrial use of NASA sponsored technologies, and in turn to stimulate growth in the biotechnology industry. For technologies demonstrating near term commercial potential, the objective is to include industry partners on or about the time of proof of concept that will not only co-invest in the technology but also take the resultant technology to the commercial market.

  16. Tests of commercial colour CMOS cameras for astronomical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhvala, S. M.; Reshetnyk, V. M.; Zhilyaev, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    We present some results of testing commercial colour CMOS cameras for astronomical applications. Colour CMOS sensors allow to perform photometry in three filters simultaneously that gives a great advantage compared with monochrome CCD detectors. The Bayer BGR colour system realized in colour CMOS sensors is close to the astronomical Johnson BVR system. The basic camera characteristics: read noise (e^{-}/pix), thermal noise (e^{-}/pix/sec) and electronic gain (e^{-}/ADU) for the commercial digital camera Canon 5D MarkIII are presented. We give the same characteristics for the scientific high performance cooled CCD camera system ALTA E47. Comparing results for tests of Canon 5D MarkIII and CCD ALTA E47 show that present-day commercial colour CMOS cameras can seriously compete with the scientific CCD cameras in deep astronomical imaging.

  17. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aerial Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the calibration of dry and liquid pesticide systems for aerial application. Additionally, dispersal equipment is discussed with considerations for environmental and safety factors. (CS)

  18. Application of the airborne ocean color imager for commercial fishing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wrigley, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the investigation was to develop a commercial remote sensing system for providing near-real-time data (within one day) in support of commercial fishing operations. The Airborne Ocean Color Imager (AOCI) had been built for NASA by Daedalus Enterprises, Inc., but it needed certain improvements, data processing software, and a delivery system to make it into a commercial system for fisheries. Two products were developed to support this effort: the AOCI with its associated processing system and an information service for both commercial and recreational fisheries to be created by Spectro Scan, Inc. The investigation achieved all technical objectives: improving the AOCI, creating software for atmospheric correction and bio-optical output products, georeferencing the output products, and creating a delivery system to get those products into the hands of commercial and recreational fishermen in near-real-time. The first set of business objectives involved Daedalus Enterprises and also were achieved: they have an improved AOCI and new data processing software with a set of example data products for fisheries applications to show their customers. Daedalus' marketing activities showed the need for simplification of the product for fisheries, but they successfully marketed the current version to an Italian consortium. The second set of business objectives tasked Spectro Scan to provide an information service and they could not be achieved because Spectro Scan was unable to obtain necessary venture capital to start up operations.

  19. Applications of pectinases in the commercial sector: a review.

    PubMed

    Kashyap, D R; Vohra, P K; Chopra, S; Tewari, R

    2001-05-01

    Pectinases are one of the upcoming enzymes of fruit and textile industries. These enzymes break down complex polysaccharides of plant tissues into simpler molecules like galacturonic acids. The role of acidic pectinases in bringing down the cloudiness and bitterness of fruit juices is well established. Recently, there has been a good number of reports on the application of alkaline pectinases in the textile industry for the retting and degumming of fiber crops, production of good quality paper, fermentation of coffee and tea, oil extractions and treatment of pectic waste water. This review discusses various types of pectinases and their applications in the commercial sector. PMID:11272008

  20. A Hazardous Gas Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L.-Y.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Knight, D.

    1998-01-01

    The detection of explosive conditions in aerospace propulsion applications is important for safety and economic reasons. Microfabricated hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbon sensors as well as the accompanying hardware and software are being, developed for a range of aerospace safety applications. The development of these sensors is being done using MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) based technology and SiC-based semiconductor technology. The hardware and software allows control and interrocation of each sensor head and reduces accompanying cabling through multiplexing. These systems are being, applied on the X-33 and on an upcoming STS-95 Shuttle mission. A number of commercial applications are also being pursued. It is concluded that this MEMS-based technology has significant potential to reduce costs and increase safety in a variety of aerospace applications.

  1. A Hazardous Gas Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L. - Y.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Knight, D.

    1998-01-01

    The detection of explosive conditions in aerospace propulsion applications is important for safety and economic reasons. Microfabricated hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrocarbon sensors as well as the accompanying hardware and software are being developed for a range of aerospace safety applications. The development of these sensors is being done using MEMS (Micro ElectroMechanical Systems) based technology and SiC-based semiconductor technology. The hardware and software allows control and interrogation of each sensor head and reduces accompanying cabling through multiplexing. These systems are being applied on the X-33 and on an upcoming STS-95 Shuttle mission. A number of commercial applications are also being pursued. It is concluded that this MEMS-based technology has significant potential to reduce costs and increase safety in a variety of aerospace applications.

  2. 77 FR 14535 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP... collection requirement concerning the Application to Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This... Commercial Environment (ACE) is a trade processing system that will eventually replace the...

  3. The venture space alliance commercial application of microgravity research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitton, Dave

    1999-01-01

    The Venture Space Alliance is a Canadian commercial enterprise formed to develop a successful sustainable business, providing industrial and institutional clients with cost effective timely access to space and microgravity facilities for commercial and scientific benefit. The goal is to offer users a comprehensive and reliable set of products and services from the early stages of research, where access to short duration microgravity such as drop towers, aircraft and sub-orbital rockets is required, to more complex missions requiring free flyers, shuttle or Space Station. The service is designed to relieve the researcher from having to be concerned with the special processes associated with space flight, and to assist in the commercial application of their research through the development of business plans and investment strategy. Much of this research could lead to new and better medicines, high disease tolerant and more prolific agricultural products, new materials and alloys, and improvements in fundamental human health. This paper will describe the commercial successes derived from microgravity research, and the anticipated growth of this segment particularly with the completion of the International Space Station.

  4. Robust Low-Cost Cathode for Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Under funding from the NASA Commercial Technology Office, a cathode assembly was designed, developed, fabricated, and tested for use in plasma sources for ground-based materials processing applications. The cathode development activity relied on the large prior NASA investment and successful development of high-current, high-efficiency, long-life hollow cathodes for use on the International Space Station Plasma Contactor System. The hollow cathode was designed and fabricated based on known engineering criteria and manufacturing processes for compatibility with the requirements of the plasma source. The transfer of NASA GRC-developed hollow cathode technology for use as an electron emitter in the commercial plasma source is anticipated to yield a significant increase in process control, while eliminating the present issues of electron emitter lifetime and contamination.

  5. Nonacid meat decontamination technologies: model studies and commercial applications.

    PubMed

    Sofos, J N; Smith, G C

    1998-11-10

    Increased consumer awareness and concern about microbial foodborne diseases has resulted in intensified efforts to reduce contamination of raw meat, as evidenced by new meat and poultry inspection regulations being implemented in the United States. In addition to requiring operation of meat and poultry slaughtering and processing plants under the principles of the hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) system, the new regulations have established microbiological testing criteria for Escherichia coli and Salmonella, as a means of evaluating plant performance. These developments have renewed and intensified interest in the development and commercial application of meat and poultry decontamination procedures. Technologies developed and evaluated for decontamination include live animal cleaning/washing, chemical dehairing, carcass knife-trimming to remove physical contaminants, steam/hot water-vacuuming for spot-cleaning/decontamination of carcasses, spray washing/rinsing of carcasses with water of low or high pressures and temperatures or chemical solutions, and exposure of carcass sides to pressurized steam. Under appropriate conditions, the technologies applied to carcasses may reduce mean microbiological counts by approximately one-three log colony forming units (cfu)/cm2, and some of them have been approved and are employed in commercial applications (i.e., steam-vacuuming; carcass spray-washing with water, chlorine, organic acid or trisodium phosphate solutions; hot water deluging/spraying/rinsing, and pressurized steam). The contribution of these decontamination technologies to the enhancement of food safety will be determined over the long term, as surveillance data on microbial foodborne illness are collected. This review examines carcass decontamination technologies, other than organic acids, with emphasis placed on recent advances and commercial applications. PMID:9851598

  6. Extended Evaluations of the Commercial Spectrometer Systems for Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Duc T. Vo

    1999-08-01

    Safeguards applications require the best of the spectrometer system with excellent resolution, stability, and throughput. Instruments must perform well in all situations and environments. Data communication to the computer should be convenient, fast, and reliable. The software should have all the necessary tools and be easy to use. Portable systems should be small in size, lightweight, and have a long battery life. Nine commercially available spectrometer systems are tested with five different germanium detectors. Considering the performance of the Digital Signal Processors (DSP), digital-based spectroscope y may become the way of future gamma-ray spectroscopy.

  7. Film forming microbial biopolymers for commercial applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Vijayendra, S V N; Shamala, T R

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms synthesize intracellular, structural and extracellular polymers also referred to as biopolymers for their function and survival. These biopolymers play specific roles as energy reserve materials, protective agents, aid in cell functioning, the establishment of symbiosis, osmotic adaptation and support the microbial genera to function, adapt, multiply and survive efficiently under changing environmental conditions. Viscosifying, gelling and film forming properties of these have been exploited for specific significant applications in food and allied industries. Intensive research activities and recent achievements in relevant and important research fields of global interest regarding film forming microbial biopolymers is the subject of this review. Microbial polymers such as pullulan, kefiran, bacterial cellulose (BC), gellan and levan are placed under the category of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and have several other functional properties including film formation, which can be used for various applications in food and allied industries. In addition to EPS, innumerable bacterial genera are found to synthesis carbon energy reserves in their cells known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), microbial polyesters, which can be extruded into films with excellent moisture and oxygen barrier properties. Blow moldable biopolymers like PHA along with polylactic acid (PLA) synthesized chemically in vitro using lactic acid (LA), which is produced by LA bacteria through fermentation, are projected as biodegradable polymers of the future for packaging applications. Designing and creating of new property based on requirements through controlled synthesis can lead to improvement in properties of existing polysaccharides and create novel biopolymers of great commercial interest and value for wider applications. Incorporation of antimicrobials such as bacteriocins or silver and copper nanoparticles can enhance the functionality of polymer films especially in food packaging applications either in the form of coatings or wrappings. Use of EPS in combinations to obtain desired properties can be evaluated to increase the application range. Controlled release of active compounds, bioactive protection and resistance to water can be investigated while developing new technologies to improve the film properties of active packaging and coatings. An holistic approach may be adopted in developing an economical and biodegradable packaging material with acceptable properties. An interdisciplinary approach with new innovations can lead to the development of new composites of these biopolymers to enhance the application range. This current review focuses on linking and consolidation of recent research activities on the production and applications of film forming microbial polymers like EPS, PHA and PLA for commercial applications. PMID:23919238

  8. Potential Commercial Applications from Combustion and Fire Research in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Lyons, Valerie J.

    1996-01-01

    The near-zero (microgravity) environment of orbiting spacecraft minimizes buoyant flows, greatly simplifying combustion processes and isolating important phenomena ordinarily concealed by the overwhelming gravity-driven forces and flows. Fundamental combustion understanding - the focus to date of the NASA microgravity-combustion program - has greatly benefited from analyses and experiments conducted in the microgravity environment. Because of the economic and commercial importance of combustion in practice, there is strong motivation to seek wider applications for the microgravity-combustion findings. This paper reviews selected technology developments to illustrate some emerging applications. Topics cover improved fire-safety technology in spacecraft and terrestrial systems, innovative combustor designs for aerospace and ground propulsion, applied sensors and controls for combustion processes, and self-sustaining synthesis techniques for advanced materials.

  9. Commercial applications of perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.

    1991-06-01

    Tracer technology can be successfully applied to many leak-checking and monitoring evaluations of operating systems (e.g., building HVACs), manufacturing processes and products (e.g., air conditioners), and subsurface components and systems (e.g., underground storage tanks). Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology is the most sensitive of all tracer technologies because the ambient background levels of the five (5) routinely-used PFTs are in the range of parts per 10{sup 15} parts of air (i.e., parts per quadrillion-ppq) and this technology`s instrumentation can measure down to those levels. The effectiveness of this technology is achieved both in terms of cost (very little PFT need to be used) and detectability; for example, very small leaks can be rapidly detected. The PFT compounds, which are environmentally and biologically safe to use, are commercially available as are the sampling and analysis instrumentation. This presentation concerns (1) the steps being taken to commercialize this technology, (2) new applications of processes currently under study, and (3) applications in areas of use that will be particularly beneficial to the environment. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Development of Commercial Applications of a FAPY Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, VK

    2001-08-24

    The Fe-16 at. (8.5 wt) % Al alloy, known as FAPY, has been identified as a superior material for heating element applications. However, while the 15-lb heats melted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) could be processed into wire, the large heat melted at Hoskins Manufacturing Company (Hoskins) could not be processed under commercial processing conditions. The primary objective of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to demonstrate that wire of the FAPY alloy could be produced under commercial conditions from air-induction-melted (AIM) heats. The specific aspects of this CRADA included: (1) Melting 15-lb heats by AIM or vacuum-induction melting (VIM) at ORNL. (2) Development of detailed processing steps including warm drawing and annealing temperature and time during cold-drawing steps. (3) Melting of 1400-lb heats at Hoskins by the Exo-Melt{trademark} process and their chemical analysis and microstructural characterization. (4) Development of tensile properties of sections of ingots from the large heats in the ascast, hot-worked, and hot- and cold-worked conditions. (5) Microstructural characterization of cast and wrought structures and the fractured specimens. (6) Successful demonstration of processing of AIM heats at Hoskins to heating element wire. The aspects of this CRADA listed above have demonstrated that the FAPY alloy of the desired composition can be commercially produced by AIM by the use of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process. Furthermore, it also demonstrated that the wire processing steps developed for 15-lb heats at ORNL can be successfully applied to the production of wire from the large AIM heats.

  11. 43 CFR 3274.12 - How will BLM review my commercial use permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will BLM review my commercial use... RESOURCE LEASING Applying for and Obtaining a Commercial Use Permit 3274.12 How will BLM review my commercial use permit application? (a) When BLM receives your completed and signed commercial use...

  12. Electrical properties of commercial sheet insulation materials for cryogenic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tuncer, Enis; Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Pace, Marshall O

    2008-01-01

    Dielectric properties of electrical insulation materials are needed for low-temperature power applications. Performance of materials and their compatibility determine the size of the electrical insulation in power equipment. In this work we report the dielectric properties of some commercially available materials in sheet form. The selected materials are polypropylene laminated paper from Sumitomo Electric U.S.A., Inc., porous polyethylene (Tyvek\\texttrademark) from Dupont, and polyamide paper (Nomex\\texttrademark) from Dupont. The dielectric properties are characterized with an electrical impedance analyzer in the frequency domain. The impedances are recorded in a cryocooler in the temperature range from 50 to 300 K. The dielectric breakdown characteristics of the materials are measured in a liquid nitrogen bath at atmospheric pressure.

  13. A lightweight, high strength dexterous manipulator for commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzwell, Neville I.; Schena, Bruce M.; Cohan, Steve M.

    1991-01-01

    The concept, design, and features are described of a lightweight, high strength, modular robot manipulator being developed for space and commercial applications. The manipulator has seven fully active degrees of freedom and is fully operational in 1 G. Each of the seven joints incorporates a unique drivetrain design which provides zero backlash operation, is insensitive to wear, and is single fault tolerant to motor or servo amplifier failure. Feedback sensors provide position, velocity, torque, and motor winding temperature information at each joint. This sensing system is also designed to be single fault tolerant. The manipulator consists of five modules (not including gripper). These modules join via simple quick-disconnect couplings and self-mating connectors which allow rapid assembly and/or disassembly for reconfiguration, transport, or servicing. The manipulator is a completely enclosed assembly, with no exposed components or wires. Although the initial prototype will not be space qualified, the design is well suited to meeting space requirements. The control system provides dexterous motion by controlling the endpoint location and arm pose simultaneously. Potential applications are discussed.

  14. On-Chip Dielectrophoretic Separation and Concentration of Viable, Non-Viable and Viable but Not Culturable (VBNC) Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Packard, M M; Shusteff, M; Alocilja, E C

    2012-04-12

    Although bacterial culture remains the gold standard for detection of viable bacteria in environmental specimens, the typical time requirement of twenty-four hours can delay and even jeopardize appropriate public health intervention. In addition, culture is incapable of detecting viable but not culturable (VBNC) species. Conversely, nucleic acid and antibody-based methods greatly decrease time to detection but rarely characterize viability of the bacteria detected. Through selection by membrane permeability, the method described in this work employs positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for separation and purification of viable and VBNC species from water and allows concentration of bacteria for downstream applications.

  15. Microfabricated Hydrogen Sensor Technology for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Bickford, R. L.; Jansa, E. D.; Makel, D. B.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

    1994-01-01

    Leaks on the Space Shuttle while on the Launch Pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. An effective leak monitoring system requires reliable hydrogen sensors, hardware, and software to monitor the sensors. The system should process the sensor outputs and provide real-time leak monitoring information to the operator. This paper discusses the progress in developing such a complete leak monitoring system. Advanced microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and Gencorp Aerojet (Aerojet). Changes in the hydrogen concentrations are detected using a PdAg on silicon Schottky diode structure. Sensor temperature control is achieved with a temperature sensor and heater fabricated onto the sensor chip. Results of the characterization of these sensors are presented. These sensors can detect low concentrations of hydrogen in inert environments with high sensitivity and quick response time. Aerojet is developing the hardware and software for a multipoint leak monitoring system designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Work has commenced on integrating the NASA LeRC-CWRU hydrogen sensors with the Aerojet designed monitoring system. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. Possible commercialization of the system will also be discussed.

  16. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  17. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  18. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  19. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  20. 47 CFR 0.483 - Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applications for amateur or commercial radio..., and for Taking Examinations § 0.483 Applications for amateur or commercial radio operator licenses. (a) Application filing procedures for amateur radio operator licenses are set forth in part 97 of this chapter....

  1. Application of ethidium bromide monoazide for quantification of viable and dead cells of Salmonella enterica by real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo Ping; Chen, Su Hua; Levin, Robert E

    2015-10-01

    A rapid and efficient method for quantification and discrimination of Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis between viable and dead cells killed by heat was developed using ethidium bromide monoazide (EMA) in combination with a real-time loop amplified (Rti-LAMP) DNA assay. The use of 8.0 μg/ml or less of EMA did not inhibit DNA amplification in Rti-LAMP assays derived from viable cells. However, 8.0 μg/ml of EMA notably inhibited DNA amplification and significantly increased the Tp values with dead cells. When the DNA from 2000 viable CFU was subjected to EMA-Rti-LAMP the resulting Tp value was 13 min. In contrast, the DNA from 2000 CFU completely heat destroyed CFU still yielded a Tp value, which was greatly increased to 33.1 min. When the DNA from viable plus heat killed CFU at a ratio of 7:1993 was subjected to EMA-Rti-LAMP, the resulting Tp value was 19.3 min, which was statistically identical (P<0.05) to the Tp value of 19.9 min. obtained with the DNA from only 7 viable CFU. These results indicate that even though 2000 dead cells yielded a Tp value of 33.1 min., low numbers of viable cells in the presence of much higher numbers of dead cells still yielded a linear plot for enumerating viable CFU from Tp values. In addition, propidium monoazide (PMA) was found to be ineffective in distinguishing between low numbers of viable and heat killed cells of S. enterica. PMID:26187777

  2. Application of text mining for customer evaluations in commercial banking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Jing; Du, Xiaojiang; Hao, Pengpeng; Wang, Yanbo J.

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays customer attrition is increasingly serious in commercial banks. To combat this problem roundly, mining customer evaluation texts is as important as mining customer structured data. In order to extract hidden information from customer evaluations, Textual Feature Selection, Classification and Association Rule Mining are necessary techniques. This paper presents all three techniques by using Chinese Word Segmentation, C5.0 and Apriori, and a set of experiments were run based on a collection of real textual data that includes 823 customer evaluations taken from a Chinese commercial bank. Results, consequent solutions, some advice for the commercial bank are given in this paper.

  3. Laboratory Connections. Commercial Interfacing Packages: Part II: Software and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael H.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the titration of a weak base with a strong acid and subsequent treatment of experimental data using commercially available software. Provides a BASIC program for determining first and second derivatives of data input. Lists 6 references. (YP)

  4. Ornamental and Shade Tree Pest Control: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, M. S.

    This is a training manual for commercial pesticide applicators. It gives information for identification and control of diseases, insects, mites, weeds, and vertebrate pests of shade and ornamental trees. Phytotoxicity, environmental concerns, and pesticide application information is also given. (BB)

  5. 36 CFR 28.13 - Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... industrial application procedures. 28.13 Section 28.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Approval of Local Ordinances § 28.13 Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures. (a) The..., special permits, and permits for commercial and industrial uses submitted to the zoning authority...

  6. 36 CFR 28.13 - Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... industrial application procedures. 28.13 Section 28.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Approval of Local Ordinances § 28.13 Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures. (a) The..., special permits, and permits for commercial and industrial uses submitted to the zoning authority...

  7. 36 CFR 28.13 - Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... industrial application procedures. 28.13 Section 28.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Approval of Local Ordinances § 28.13 Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures. (a) The..., special permits, and permits for commercial and industrial uses submitted to the zoning authority...

  8. 36 CFR 28.13 - Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... industrial application procedures. 28.13 Section 28.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Approval of Local Ordinances § 28.13 Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures. (a) The..., special permits, and permits for commercial and industrial uses submitted to the zoning authority...

  9. 36 CFR 28.13 - Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... industrial application procedures. 28.13 Section 28.13 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... Approval of Local Ordinances § 28.13 Variance, commercial and industrial application procedures. (a) The..., special permits, and permits for commercial and industrial uses submitted to the zoning authority...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1142 - Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... commercial fishing lifetime access permit application? 13.1142 Section 13.1142 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing 13.1142 Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application? YesIf an applicant's request for a commercial...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1142 - Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... commercial fishing lifetime access permit application? 13.1142 Section 13.1142 Parks, Forests, and Public... Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve Commercial Fishing 13.1142 Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application? YesIf an applicant's request for a commercial...

  12. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or...

  13. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or...

  14. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or...

  15. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. (a) Procedure. Categories of applicators (other than private) using or...

  16. Facility overview for commercial application of selected Rocky Flats facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this Facility Overview is to support the Rocky Flats Local Impacts Initiative`s Request for Interest, to solicit interest from commercial corporations for utilizing buildings 865 and 883, and the equipment contained within each building, for a commercial venture. In the following sections, this document describes the Rocky Flats Site, the buildings available for lease, the equipment within these buildings, the site services available to a tenant, the human resources available to support operations in buildings 865 and 883, and the environmental condition of the buildings and property. In addition, a brief description is provided of the work performed to date to explore the potential products that might be manufactured in Buildings 865 and 883, and the markets for these products.

  17. 78 FR 50139 - Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for Exemption; Miami Nice Tours

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License Standards: Application for... (Miami) has applied for an exemption from the commercial driver's license (CDL) provisions of part 383 of... public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public...

  18. Adapting a commercial shear rheometer for applications in cartilage research.

    PubMed

    Boettcher, K; Grumbein, S; Winkler, U; Nachtsheim, J; Lieleg, O

    2014-09-01

    Cartilage research typically requires a broad range of experimental characterization techniques and thus various testing setups. Here, we describe how several of those tests can be performed with a single experimental platform, i.e. a commercial shear rheometer. Although primarily designed for shear experiments, such a rheometer can be equipped with different adapters to perform indentation and creep measurements, quantify alterations in the sample thickness, and conduct friction measurements in addition to shear rheology. Beyond combining four distinct experimental methods into one setup, the modified rheometer allows for performing material characterizations over a broad range of time scales, frequencies, and normal loads. PMID:25273735

  19. Adapting a commercial shear rheometer for applications in cartilage research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, K.; Grumbein, S.; Winkler, U.; Nachtsheim, J.; Lieleg, O.

    2014-09-01

    Cartilage research typically requires a broad range of experimental characterization techniques and thus various testing setups. Here, we describe how several of those tests can be performed with a single experimental platform, i.e. a commercial shear rheometer. Although primarily designed for shear experiments, such a rheometer can be equipped with different adapters to perform indentation and creep measurements, quantify alterations in the sample thickness, and conduct friction measurements in addition to shear rheology. Beyond combining four distinct experimental methods into one setup, the modified rheometer allows for performing material characterizations over a broad range of time scales, frequencies, and normal loads.

  20. Application of thermophilic enzymes in commercial biotransformation processes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, I N; Brown, R C; Bycroft, M; King, G; Littlechild, J A; Lloyd, M C; Praquin, C; Toogood, H S; Taylor, S J C

    2004-04-01

    Biocatalysis is a useful tool in the provision of chiral technology and extremophilic enzymes are just one component in that toolbox. Their role is not always attributable to their extremophilic properties; as with any biocatalyst certain other criteria should be satisfied. Those requirements for a useful biocatalyst will be discussed including issues of selectivity, volume efficiency, security of supply, technology integration, intellectual property and regulatory compliance. Here we discuss the discovery and commercialization of an L-aminoacylase from Thermococcus litoralis, the product of a LINK project between Chirotech Technology and the University of Exeter. The enzyme was cloned into Escherichia coli to aid production via established mesophilic fermentation protocols. A simple downstream process was then developed to assist in the production of the enzyme as a genetically modified-organism-free reagent. The fermentation and downstream processes are operated at the 500 litre scale. Characterization of the enzyme demonstrated a substrate preference for N-benzoyl groups over N-acetyl groups. The operational parameters have been defined in part by substrate-concentration tolerances and also thermostability. Several examples of commercial biotransformations will be discussed including a process that is successful by virtue of the enzyme's thermotolerance. PMID:15046591

  1. Adaptation of commercial microscopes for advanced imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brideau, Craig; Poon, Kelvin; Stys, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Today's commercially available microscopes offer a wide array of options to accommodate common imaging experiments. Occasionally, an experimental goal will require an unusual light source, filter, or even irregular sample that is not compatible with existing equipment. In these situations the ability to modify an existing microscopy platform with custom accessories can greatly extend its utility and allow for experiments not possible with stock equipment. Light source conditioning/manipulation such as polarization, beam diameter or even custom source filtering can easily be added with bulk components. Custom and after-market detectors can be added to external ports using optical construction hardware and adapters. This paper will present various examples of modifications carried out on commercial microscopes to address both atypical imaging modalities and research needs. Violet and near-ultraviolet source adaptation, custom detection filtering, and laser beam conditioning and control modifications will be demonstrated. The availability of basic `building block' parts will be discussed with respect to user safety, construction strategies, and ease of use.

  2. Physical Properties and Durability of New Materials for Space and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambourger, Paul D.

    2003-01-01

    To develop and test new materials for use in space power systems and related space and commercial applications, to assist industry in the application of these materials, and to achieve an adequate understanding of the mechanisms by which the materials perform in their intended applications.

  3. Recent Breakthroughs in Superconductivity Lead to Rush for Commercial Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Kim

    1987-01-01

    The excitement and intense competition surrounding the search for new applications of superconductors resembles the entrepreneurial atmosphere of the early 1970s, when faculty were launching profitable companies based on developments in biotechnology and semiconductors. (MSE)

  4. Recent Progress in Engine Noise Reduction for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the past ten years developing technologies for reducing aircraft noise. Engine noise continues to be a dominate source, particularly for aircraft departing from airports. Research efforts have concentrated on developing noise prediction methods, experimental validation, and developing noise reduction concepts that have been verified through model scale and static engine tests. Most of the work has concentrated on fan and jet components for commercial turbofan engines. In this seminar, an overview of the engine noise reduction work that was sponsored by NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program will be given, along with background information on turbofan noise sources and certification procedures. Concepts like "chevron" nozzles for jet noise reduction and swept stators for fan noise reduction will be highlighted. A preliminary assessment on how the new technologies will impact future engines will be given.

  5. Scalable fabrication of triboelectric nanogenerators for commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakar, Lokesh; Shan, Xuechuan; Wang, Zhiping; Yang, Bin; Eng Hock Tay, Francis; Heng, Chun-Huat; Lee, Chengkuo

    2015-12-01

    Harvesting mechanical energy from irregular sources is a potential way to charge batteries for devices and sensor nodes. Triboelectric effect has been extensively utilized in energy harvesting devices as a method to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. As triboelectric nanogenerators have immense potential to be commercialized, it is important to develop scalable fabrication methods to manufacture these devices. This paper presents scalable fabrication steps to realize large scale triboelectric nanogenerators. Roll-to-roll UV embossing and lamination techniques are used to fabricate different components of large scale triboelectric nanogenerators. The device generated a peak-to-peak voltage and current of 486 V and 21.2 μA, respectively at a frequency of 5 Hz.

  6. Composites: A viable option

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, John E.

    1991-01-01

    While it sounded great to be asked to talk about composites, I found it difficult to select subject areas that would be of real interest. My choice is based on saying some things about where the maturity of the composite aircraft structures is today and what that means in terms of future criteria for application. This focus was the basis for my title selection. The other issue that will be addressed was requested by NASA and focuses on composites structures cost. This fits well with the state-of-the-art interpretations I will discuss first, since the cost issue must be viewed from both the current status and future points of view. The difficulty in presenting something in these areas is not in the subjects themselves but in trying to present a real world viewpoint to an audience of composite experts. So, with recognition of the expertise of the audience, I hope you will see something in this presentation about how to view composite aircraft structure.

  7. Risk and safety analysis for Florida commercial aerial application operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, John Michael

    The purpose of this study was to determine self-reported perceptions in the areas of agroterrorism, bioterrorism, chemical exposure and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) oversight. The aerial application industry has been in existence since the 1920's with a gamut of issues ranging from pesticide drift to counterterrorism. The attacks of September 11th, 2001, caused a paradigm shift in the way the United States views security and, more importantly, the prevention of malicious activity. Through the proper implementation and dissemination of educational materials dealing with industry specific concerns, it is imperative that everyone has the proper level of resources and training to effectively manage terrorist threats. This research study was designed to interpret how aerial applicators view these topics of concern and how they perceive the current threat level of terrorism in the industry. Research results were consistent, indicating that a high number of aerial applicators in the state of Florida are concerned with these topics. As a result, modifications need to be made with respect to certain variables. The aerial application industry works day in and day out to provide a professional service that helps maintain the integrity of the food and commodities that we need to survive. They are a small percentage of the aviation community that we all owe a great deal for the vital and necessary services they provide.

  8. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Seed Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the types of seeds that require chemical protection against pests. Methods of treatment and labeling requirements for such seeds as rye, wheat, soybeans, peas, and grass hybrids are discussed. Safety and environmental precautions…

  9. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Seed Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the types of seeds that require chemical protection against pests. Methods of treatment and labeling requirements for such seeds as rye, wheat, soybeans, peas, and grass hybrids are discussed. Safety and environmental precautions

  10. Very high responsivity fiber optic hydrophones for commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. C.; Dandridge, Anthony D.; Tveten, Alan B.; Yurek, A. M.

    1994-09-01

    The design and performance of single element fiber optic hydrophones for shallow water applications is described. Hydrophone responsivities up to -113.8 dB re rad/(mu) Pa were measured while maintaining a usable depth capability. A system with this design of hydrophone is being used to monitor the deterioration of water carrying siphons in Arizona.

  11. A Hydrogen Leak Detection System for Aerospace and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Makel, D. B.; Jansa, E. D.; Patterson, G.; Cova, P. J.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

    1995-01-01

    Leaks on the space shuttle while on the launch pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. Microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). These sensors have been integrated into hardware and software designed by Aerojet. This complete system allows for multipoint leak monitoring designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. This system is in operation in an automotive application which requires high sensitivity to hydrogen.

  12. Hybrid soft computing systems: Industrial and commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bonissone, P.P.; Chen, Y.T.; Goebel, K.; Khedkar, P.S.

    1999-09-01

    Soft computing (SC) is an association of computing methodologies that includes as its principal members fuzzy logic, neurocomputing, evolutionary computing and probabilistic computing. The authors present a collection of methods and tools that can be used to perform diagnostics, estimation, and control. These tools are a great match for real-world applications that are characterized by imprecise, uncertain data and incomplete domain knowledge. The authors outline the advantages of applying SC techniques and in particular the synergy derived from the use of hybrid SC systems. They illustrate some combinations of hybrid SC systems, such as fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's) tuned by neural networks (NN's) and evolutionary computing (EC), NN's tuned by EC or FLC's, and EC controlled by FLC's. The authors discuss three successful real-world examples of SC applications to industrial equipment diagnostics, freight train control, and residential property valuation.

  13. Recruitment services: a viable option.

    PubMed

    Brackin, P; Good, J

    1988-01-01

    Medical recruiters are quickly becoming a viable option in the search for qualified imaging technologists. The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the manager with the services offered by a recruiting agency. PMID:10288308

  14. Dye Sensitized Solar Cells for Economically Viable Photovoltaic Systems.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2013-05-16

    TiO2 nanoparticle-based dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have attracted a significant level of scientific and technological interest for their potential as economically viable photovoltaic devices. While DSSCs have multiple benefits such as material abundance, a short energy payback period, constant power output, and compatibility with flexible applications, there are still several challenges that hold back large scale commercialization. Critical factors determining the future of DSSCs involve energy conversion efficiency, long-term stability, and production cost. Continuous advancement of their long-term stability suggests that state-of-the-art DSSCs will operate for over 20 years without a significant decrease in performance. Nevertheless, key questions remain in regards to energy conversion efficiency improvements and material cost reduction. In this Perspective, the present state of the field and the ongoing efforts to address the requirements of DSSCs are summarized with views on the future of DSSCs. PMID:26282979

  15. 40 CFR 171.6 - Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified private and commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified private and commercial applicators. 171.6 Section 171.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF...

  16. 40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.4 Standards for certification of commercial applicators. (a) Determination of competency. Competence in the use and handling of pesticides... pesticides. Testing shall be based on examples of problems and situations appropriate to the...

  17. 40 CFR 171.6 - Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified private and commercial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified private and commercial applicators. 171.6 Section 171.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF...

  18. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of...

  19. Center for commercial applications of combustion in space (CCACS); A partnership for space commercialization at the Colorado School of Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.; Kee, Bob; Linne, Mark; McKinnon, Tom; Moore, John; Parker, Terry; Readey, Dennis; Tilton, John E.; Helble, Joe

    1997-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is a NASA/Industry/University consortium at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM). The mission of the Center is to assist industry in developing commercial products by conducting combustion research which takes advantage of the unique properties of space. By conducting experiments in near-zero gravity, convection and buoyancy effects can be minimized and new fundamental design-related knowledge can be gained which can be used to improve combustion-related products and processes on earth. Companies, government laboratories and universities most actively involved in CCACS at present include ABB Combustion, ADA Technologies, Advanced Refractory Technologies, Golden Technologies, Lockheed-Martin, Southwest Sciences, Space Systems/Lora, NASA-Lewis, JPL, the Baylor Dental School and the University of Connecticut. Products and processes of interest to the Center participants include industrial process combustors; catalytic combustion; Halon replacements; ceramic powders, whiskers and fibers; metal-matrix composites; NiTi for bone replacement; diamond coatings for oil-well drill bits; zeolites; imaging sensor arrays and other instrumentation for flame and particulate diagnostics. The center also assists member companies in marketing the resulting products and processes.

  20. Commercial applications in biomedical processing in the microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Terry C.; Taub, Floyd

    1995-01-01

    A series of studies have shown that a purified cell regulatory sialoglycopeptide (CeReS) that arrests cell division and induces cellular differentiation is fully capable of functionally interacting with target insect and mammalian cells in the microgravity environment. Data from several shuttle missions suggest that the signal transduction events that are known to be associated with CeReS action function as well in microgravity as in ground-based experiments. The molecular events known to be associated with CeReS include an ability to interfere with Ca2+ metabolism, the subsequent alkalinization of cell cytosol, and the inhibition of the phosphorylation of the nuclear protein product encoded by the retinoblastoma (RB) gene. The ability of CeReS to function in microgravity opens a wide variety of applications in space life sciences.

  1. Development of Commodity Grade, Lower Cost Carbon Fiber - Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, Charles David; Paulauskas, Felix L; Baker, Frederick S; Eberle, Cliff; Naskar, Amit K

    2009-01-01

    In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fiber reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fiber composites in transportation is the high cost of the fiber when compared to other candidate materials. As part of the United States Department of Energy s FreedomCAR initiative, significant research is being conducted to develop lower cost, high volume technologies for producing carbon fiber. This paper will highlight the on-going research in this area. Through Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and its partners have been working with the US Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to develop technologies that would enable the production of carbon fiber at 5-7 dollars per pound. Achievement of this cost goal would allow the introduction of carbon fiber based composites into a greater number of applications for future vehicles. The approach has necessitated the development of both alternative precursors and more efficient production methods. Alternative precursors under investigation include textile grade polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers and fibers from lignin-based feedstocks. Previously, as part of the research program, Hexcel Corporation developed the science necessary to allow textile grade PAN to be used as a precursor rather than typical carbon fiber grade precursors. Efforts are also underway to develop carbon fiber precursors from lignin-based feedstocks. ORNL and its partners are working on this effort with domestic pulp and paper producers. In terms of alternative production methods, ORNL has developed a microwave-based carbonization unit that can process pre-oxidized fiber at over 200 inches per minute. ORNL has also developed a new method of high speed oxidation and a new method for precursor stabilization. Additionally, novel methods of activating carbon fiber surfaces have been developed which allow atomic oxygen concentrations as high as 25-30% to be achieved rather than the more typical 4-8% achieved by the standard industrial ozone treatment.

  2. Commercial agrochemical applications in vineyards do not influence ant communities.

    PubMed

    Chong, Chee Seng; Hoffmann, Ary A; Thomson, Linda J

    2007-12-01

    Ants have been widely used as bioindicators for various terrestrial monitoring and assessment programs but are seldom considered in evaluation of nontarget pesticide effect. Much chemical assessment has been biased toward laboratory and bioassay testing for control of specific pest ant species. Several field studies that did explore the nontarget impacts of pesticides on ants have reported contradictory findings. To address the impact of chemical applications on ants, we tested the response of epigeal ant assemblages and community structure to three pesticide gradients (cumulative International Organization for Biological and Integrated Control toxicity rating, chlorpyrifos use rate, and sulfur use rate) in 19 vineyards. Ordination analyses using nonmetric multidimensional scaling detected community structures at species and genus levels, but the structures were not explained by any pesticide variables. There was no consistent pattern in species and genus percentage complementarities and ant assemblages along pesticide gradients. In contrast, ant community structure was influenced by the presence of shelterbelts near the sampling area. Reasons for the resilience of ants to pesticides are given and assessment at the colony level instead of workers abundance is suggested. The presence of Linepithema humile (Mayr) is emphasized. PMID:18284765

  3. Commercial Clinical Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-09-03

    CRADA No. 95-CR-09 among the LITCO--now Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC; a private company, Neutron Therapies Limited Liability Company, NTL formerly Ionix Corporation; and Washington State University was established in 1996 to further the development of BNCT. NTL has established a laboratory for the synthesis, under US FDA approved current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) guidelines, of key boron intermediates and final boron agents for BNCT. The company has focused initially on the development of the compound GB-10 (Na{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 10}) as the first boron agent of interest. An Investigational New Drug (IND) application for GB-10 has been filed and approved by the FDA for a Phase I human biodistribution trial in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and glioblastoma multiforme at UW under the direction of Professor Keith Stelzer, Principal Investigator (PI). These trials are funded by NTL under a contract with the UW, Department of Radiation Oncology, and the initial phases are nearing completion. Initial results show that boron-10 concentrations on the order of 100 micrograms per gram (100 ppm) can be achieved and maintained in blood with no indication of toxicity.

  4. Space Environment Stability and Physical Properties of New Materials for Space Power and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambourger, Paul D.

    1997-01-01

    To test and evaluate suitability of materials for use in space power systems and related space and commercial applications, and to achieve sufficient understanding of the mechanisms by which, the materials perform in their intended applications. Materials and proposed applications included but were not limited to: Improved anodes for lithium ion batteries, highly-transparent arc-proof solar array coatings, and improved surface materials for solar dynamic concentrators and receivers. Cooperation and interchange of data with industrial companies as appropriate.

  5. Two new advanced forms of spectrometry for space and commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlager, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    Reagentless ultraviolet absorption spectrometry (UVAS) and Liquid Atomic Emission Spectrometry (LAES) represent new forms of spectrometry with extensive potential in both space and commercial applications. Originally developed under KSC sponsorship for monitoring nutrient solutions for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), both UVAS and LAES have extensive analytical capabilities for both organic and inorganic chemical compounds. Both forms of instrumentation involve the use of remote fiber optic probes and real-time measurements for on-line process monitoring. Commercial applications exist primarily in environmental analysis and for process control in the chemical, pulp and paper, food processing, metal plating, and water/wastewater treatment industries.

  6. Commercially applicable, solution-processed organic TFT and its backplane application in electrophoretic displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang Bum; Lee, Jung Eun; Na, HyungIl; Kim, Kyung Min; Yoo, Soon Sung; Yang, Myoung Su

    2015-09-01

    We report a video graphics array (VGA) electrophoretic display (EPD) that adopts commercially applicable process technologies for its solution-processed organic thin-film transistor (OTFT). For source/drain (S/D) engineering, a copper (Cu) electrode was employed instead of high-work-function materials and to obtain a low-resistance signal line on the array that is functionalized by self-assembled monolayer (SAM) treatment on the electrode surface. For gate engineering, a gate electrode with Cu was successfully formed onto the organic gate insulator (OGI) by using sputter deposition, thus providing an industrially suitable technology to replace evaporation processes even on frail organic material. Competitive device performance driving the electrophoretic display was obtained on a TFT derived from anthradithiophene that was fabricated at low temperatures of less than 140 C and that has the stable electrical feature of ?VT of 3 V for induced bias stress with a long time span. Up until now, electrode engineering using low-cost and low-work-function materials has been too problematic for practical use of OTFT backplanes, but we have successfully applied it to produce a 6-in. electrophoretic display based on a large substrate of 370 470 mm2 for the backplane process. Thus, as far as mass production is concerned, the solution-processed organic transistor shows promise as a backplane unit with low-temperature processing.

  7. Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communications. Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further subdivided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

  8. 14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators. 119.36 Section 119.36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...— (i) Sale of property or flight equipment (explain); (ii) New debt (explain); (iii) New...

  9. 14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators. 119.36 Section 119.36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...— (i) Sale of property or flight equipment (explain); (ii) New debt (explain); (iii) New...

  10. 14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators. 119.36 Section 119.36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...— (i) Sale of property or flight equipment (explain); (ii) New debt (explain); (iii) New...

  11. 14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators. 119.36 Section 119.36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...— (i) Sale of property or flight equipment (explain); (ii) New debt (explain); (iii) New...

  12. 77 FR 5773 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application for Commercial Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ...; Application for Commercial Fisheries Authorization Under the Marine Mammal Protection Act AGENCY: National.... Abstract This request is for extension of a current information collection. The Marine Mammal Protection... certificate of authorization that will allow the fisher to take marine mammals incidental to...

  13. Optimizatin of sugarcane factory application of Commercial Dextranases in the U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the use of commercial dextranases to break down dextran in sugar manufacture was pioneered by Australian researchers in the 1970s, applications in the U.S. sugar industry are still not optimized. This is partly because of misinformation about where to add the enzyme and which enzyme to use....

  14. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Terrani, Kurt A.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew; Robb, Kevin R.; Snead, Mary A.

    2015-04-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  15. 40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for certification of commercial applicators. 171.4 Section 171.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...) Environment. The potential environmental consequences of the use and misuse of pesticides as may be...

  16. Modification of a commercial microwave oven for applications in the chemical laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pougnet, M. A. B.

    1993-02-01

    A commercial microwave oven has been modified for laboratory applications. The modifications include the lining of the cavity with polypropylene, the use of a polypropylene turntable, incorporation of inlet and outlet ports, and the use of an extraction system to purge the oven's cavity.

  17. 48 CFR 212.570 - Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to.... 2533b, Requirement to buy strategic materials critical to national security from American sources,...

  18. 77 FR 40142 - Applications for Exemption: Commercial Driver's License (CDL) and Hours-of-Service (HOS) of Drivers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...-2011-0084, FMCSA-2009-0010] Applications for Exemption: Commercial Driver's License (CDL) and Hours-of... sought Rotel FMCSA-2008-0078... CMV drivers must possess a commercial driver's license. 49 CFR part 383... the commercial driver's license (CDL) requirements for 22 of its drivers who do not hold a CDL...

  19. 48 CFR 212.570 - Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially available off-the-shelf items... subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially available off-the-shelf items. Paragraph (a)(1) of 10 U.S.C... not applicable to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially available...

  20. 48 CFR 212.570 - Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially available off-the-shelf items... subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially available off-the-shelf items. Paragraph (a)(1) of 10 U.S.C... not applicable to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially available...

  1. 48 CFR 212.570 - Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially available off-the-shelf items... subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially available off-the-shelf items. Paragraph (a)(1) of 10 U.S.C... not applicable to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially available...

  2. 48 CFR 212.570 - Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially available off-the-shelf items... subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially available off-the-shelf items. Paragraph (a)(1) of 10 U.S.C... not applicable to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially available...

  3. Illinois Pesticide Applicator Study Guide. A Training Manual for Private and Commercial Pesticide Applicators and Operators. Special Publication 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bever, Wayne; And Others

    This study guide is designed to provide the necessary information to prepare for certification as a private or commercial pesticide applicator. In addition to providing basic information covering the various sections of the amended Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, it contains a glossary of common pesticide terms, a list of…

  4. Illinois Pesticide Applicator Study Guide. A Training Manual for Private and Commercial Pesticide Applicators and Operators. Special Publication 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bever, Wayne; And Others

    This study guide is designed to provide the necessary information to prepare for certification as a private or commercial pesticide applicator. In addition to providing basic information covering the various sections of the amended Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, it contains a glossary of common pesticide terms, a list of

  5. Commercial applications and scientific research requirements for thermal-infrared observations of terrestrial surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goward, Samuel N.; Taranik, James V.; Laporte, Daniel; Putnam, Evelyn S. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    In the spring of 1986 the EOSAT Company and NASA Headquarters organized a workshop to consider: (1) the potential value of space-acquired multiband thermal remote sensing in terrestrial research and commercial applications, and (2) the scientific and technological requirements for conducting such observations from the LANDSAT platform. The workshop defined the instrument characteristics of three types of sensors that would be needed to expand the use of thermal information for Earth observation and new commercial opportunities. The panels from two disciplines, geology and evapotranspiration/botany, along with the instrument panel, presented their recommendations to the workshop. The findings of these meetings are presented.

  6. A remote sensing applications update: Results of interviews with Earth Observations Commercialization Program (EOCAP) participants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, Sally

    1991-01-01

    Earth remote sensing is a uniquely valuable tool for large-scale resource management, a task whose importance will likely increase world-wide through the foreseeable future. NASA research and engineering have virtually created the existing U.S. system, and will continue to push the frontiers, primarily through Earth Observing System (EOS) instruments, research, and data and information systems. It is the researchers' view that the near-term health of remote sensing applications also deserves attention; it seems important not to abandon the system or its clients. The researchers suggest that, like its Landsat predecessor, a successful Earth Observing System program is likely to reinforce pressure to 'manage' natural resources, and consequently, to create more pressure for Earth Observations Commercialization (EOCAP) type applications. The current applications programs, though small, are valuable because of their technical and commercial results, and also because they support a community whose contributions will increase along with our ability to observe the Earth from space.

  7. High-energy radiation and polymers: A review of commercial processes and emerging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clough, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    Ionizing radiation has been found to be widely applicable in modifying the structure and properties of polymers, and can be used to tailor the performance of either bulk materials or surfaces. Fifty years of research in polymer radiation chemistry has led to numerous applications of commercial and economic importance, and work remains active in the application of radiation to practical uses involving polymeric materials. This paper provides a survey of radiation-processing methods of industrial interest, ranging from technologies already commercially well established, through innovations in the active R&D stage which show exceptional promise for future commercial use. Radiation-processing technologies are discussed under the following categories: cross-linking of plastics and rubbers, curing of coatings and inks, heat-shrink products, fiber-matrix composites, chain-scission for processing control, surface modification, grafting, hydrogels, sterilization, natural product enhancement, plastics recycling, ceramic precursors, electronic property materials, ion-track membranes and lithography for microdevice production. In addition to new technological innovations utilizing conventional gamma and e-beam sources, a number of promising new applications make use of novel radiation types which include ion beams (heavy ions, light ions, highly focused microscopic beams and high-intensity pulses), soft X-rays which are focused, coherent X-rays (from a synchrotron) and e-beams which undergo scattering to generate patterns.

  8. 48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.503 Section 212.503... Commercial Items 212.503 Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition...

  9. 48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.504 Section 212.504 Federal... Items 212.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. (a) The following laws are not applicable to subcontracts at any tier for the acquisition of...

  10. 48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.504 Section 212.504 Federal... Items 212.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. (a) The following laws are not applicable to subcontracts at any tier for the acquisition of...

  11. 48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.504 Section 212.504 Federal... Items 212.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. (a) The following laws are not applicable to subcontracts at any tier for the acquisition of...

  12. 48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.504 Section 212.504 Federal... Items 212.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. (a) The following laws are not applicable to subcontracts at any tier for the acquisition of...

  13. 48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.504 Section 212.504 Federal... Items 212.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. (a) The following laws are not applicable to subcontracts at any tier for the acquisition of...

  14. Commercialization of New Carbon Fiber Materials Based on Sustainable Resources for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Eberle, Cliff; Webb, Daniel C; Albers, Tracy; Chen, Chong

    2013-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and GrafTech International have collaborated to develop and demonstrate the performance of high temperature thermal insulation prototypes made from lignin-based carbon fibers. This project will potentially lead to the first commercial application of lignin-based carbon fibers (LBCF). The goal of the commercial application is to replace expensive, Chinese-sourced isotropic pitch carbon fibers with lower cost carbon fibers made from a domestically sourced, bio-derived (renewable) feedstock. LBCF can help recapture jobs that were previously exported to China while resolving a supply chain vulnerability and reducing the production cost for GrafTech s high temperature thermal insulation. The performance of the LBCF prototypes was measured and found to be comparable to that of the current commercial product. During production of the insulation prototypes, ORNL and GrafTech demonstrated lignin compounding/pelletization, fiber production, heat treatment, and compositing at scales far surpassing those previously demonstrated in LBCF R&D or production. A plan was developed for the commercialization of LBCF thermal insulation, with key milestones including qualification of multiple scalable lignin sources in 2013, tons-scale production and field testing by customers in 2014, and product launch as soon thereafter as production capabilities can be constructed and commissioned.

  15. Progress toward achieving a commercially viable solar reflective material

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.E.; Smilgys, R.V. |

    1998-06-01

    Solar thermal technologies use large mirrors to concentrate sunlight for renewable power generation. The development of advanced reflector materials is important to the viability of electricity production by solar thermal energy systems. The reflector materials must be low in cost and maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under severe outdoor environments. Production processes associated with candidate materials must be scalable to mass production techniques. A promising low-cost construction uses a stainless steel foil substrate with a silver reflective layer protected by an optically transparent oxide topcoat. Thick (2 to 4 micron), dense alumina coatings provide durable protective layers. The excellent performance of alumina-coated reflector materials in outdoor and accelerated testing suggests that a larger field trial of the material is warranted. The key to producing a greater quantity of material for field deployment and testing without incurring substantial capital is the use of a chilled drum coater. An existing chamber is being modified, and the deposition rate will be increased prior to the installation of a drum coater to produce 1-ft wide by 10-ft long strips of solar reflector material. The production and performance of these materials are discussed.

  16. Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenyon, Chase H.

    1995-01-01

    While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

  17. Trends in genetic patent applications: the commercialization of academic intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Kers, Jannigje G; Van Burg, Elco; Stoop, Tom; Cornel, Martina C

    2014-10-01

    We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications data from the PATSTAT database from 1990 until 2009 were analyzed for time trends and regional distribution. Overall, the number of patent applications has been growing. In 2009, 152?000 patent applications were submitted under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and within the EP (European Patent) system of the European Patent Office (EPO). The number of genetic patent applications increased until a peak was reached in the year 2000, with >8000 applications, after which it declined by almost 50%. Continents show different patterns over time, with the global peak in 2000 mainly explained by the USA and Europe, while Asia shows a stable number of >1000 per year. Nine countries together account for 98.9% of the total number of genetic patent applications. In The Netherlands, 26.7% of the genetic patent applications originate from public research institutions. After the year 2000, the number of genetic patent applications dropped significantly. Academic leadership and policy as well as patent regulations seem to have an important role in the trend differences. The ongoing investment in genetic research in the past decade is not reflected by an increase of patent applications. PMID:24448546

  18. Trends in genetic patent applications: the commercialization of academic intellectual property

    PubMed Central

    Kers, Jannigje G; Van Burg, Elco; Stoop, Tom; Cornel, Martina C

    2014-01-01

    We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications data from the PATSTAT database from 1990 until 2009 were analyzed for time trends and regional distribution. Overall, the number of patent applications has been growing. In 2009, 152?000 patent applications were submitted under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and within the EP (European Patent) system of the European Patent Office (EPO). The number of genetic patent applications increased until a peak was reached in the year 2000, with >8000 applications, after which it declined by almost 50%. Continents show different patterns over time, with the global peak in 2000 mainly explained by the USA and Europe, while Asia shows a stable number of >1000 per year. Nine countries together account for 98.9% of the total number of genetic patent applications. In The Netherlands, 26.7% of the genetic patent applications originate from public research institutions. After the year 2000, the number of genetic patent applications dropped significantly. Academic leadership and policy as well as patent regulations seem to have an important role in the trend differences. The ongoing investment in genetic research in the past decade is not reflected by an increase of patent applications. PMID:24448546

  19. Development and Application of an Enzymatic and Cell Flotation Treatment for the Recovery of Viable Microbial Cells from Environmental Matrices Such as Anaerobic Sludge?

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Florence; Hamelin, Jrme; Gvaudan, Galle; Patureau, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Efficient dissociation of microorganisms from their aggregate matrix is required to study the microorganisms without interaction with their native environment (e.g., biofilms, flocs, granules, etc.) and to assess their community composition through the application of molecular or microscopy techniques. To this end, we combined enzymatic treatments and a cell extraction by density gradient to efficiently recover anaerobic microorganisms from urban wastewater treatment plant sludge. The enzymes employed (amylase, cellulase, DNase, and pectinase) as a pretreatment softly disintegrated the extrapolymeric substances (EPS) interlocked with the microorganisms. The potential damaging effects of the applied procedure on bacterial and archaeal communities were assessed by studying the variations in density (using quantitative PCR), diversity (using capillary electrophoresis single-strand conformation polymorphism fingerprinting [CE-SSCP]), and activity (using a standard anaerobic activity test) of the extracted microorganisms. The protocol preserved the general capacity of the microbial community to produce methane under anaerobic conditions and its diversity; particularly the archaeal community was not affected in terms of either density or structure. This cell extraction procedure from the matrix materials offers interesting perspectives for metabolic, microscopic, and molecular assays of microbial communities present in complex matrices constituted by bioaggregates or biofilms. PMID:22003005

  20. Commercial applications of the ACTS mobile terminal millimeter-wave antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Densmore, Arthur C.; Crist, Rick A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Tulintseff, Ann N.

    1991-12-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT), which will provide voice, data, and video communications to and from a vehicle (van, truck, or car) via NASA's geostationary ACTS satellite using the K- and K(sub a)-band frequency bands. The AMT is already planned to demonstrate a variety of communications from within the mobile vehicular environment, and within this paper a summary of foreseen commercial application opportunities is given. A critical component of the AMT is its antenna system, which must establish and maintain the basic RF link with the satellite. Two versions of the antenna are under development, each incorporating different technologies and offering different commercial applications.

  1. Commercial applications of the ACTS mobile terminal millimeter-wave antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Densmore, Arthur C.; Crist, Rick A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Tulintseff, Ann N.

    1991-01-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is currently developing the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Mobile Terminal (AMT), which will provide voice, data, and video communications to and from a vehicle (van, truck, or car) via NASA's geostationary ACTS satellite using the K- and K(sub a)-band frequency bands. The AMT is already planned to demonstrate a variety of communications from within the mobile vehicular environment, and within this paper a summary of foreseen commercial application opportunities is given. A critical component of the AMT is its antenna system, which must establish and maintain the basic RF link with the satellite. Two versions of the antenna are under development, each incorporating different technologies and offering different commercial applications.

  2. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  3. Cost/benefit assessment of the application of composite materials to subsonic commercial transport engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.; Signorelli, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Results from a number of studies concerned with the cost and benefits of applying advanced composite materials to commercial turbofan engines are summarized. For each application area the optimistic and pessimistic benefit projections were averaged to arrive at a projected yearly percentage fuel savings for a commercial fleet of advanced technology transport aircraft. Engine components included in the summary are the fan section which includes fan blades, fan frame/case, and the blade containment ring; the nacelle; and the high pressure turbine blades and vanes. The projected fuel savings resulting from the application of composites are 1.85 percent for the fan section, 1.75 percent for the nacelle, and 2.35 percent for the high pressure turbine.

  4. A modified commercial scanner as an image plate for table-top optical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Casado-Rojo, S; Lorenzana, H E; Baonza, V G

    2008-12-09

    A reliable, accurate, and inexpensive optical detector for table-top applications is described here. Based on a commercial high resolution office scanner coupled to a projection on plate, it enables a large image plate surface, allowing recording of large images without systematic errors associated to coupling optics' aberrations. Several tests on distance-dependent and steady interference patterns will be presented and discussed. The extension to other types of optical measurement by substituting the projection on plate is proposed.

  5. Economic Recovery Act of 1981 and tax policies for commercial solar-energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D. E.

    1981-12-01

    Key tax policies relevant to commercial solar energy applications are outlined. Included are certain changes in depreciation rules and small business federal income tax percentages that were part of the recently enacted Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981. Also, the regulations for business investment and energy tax credits are explained. An example of the effects of the new depreciation schedule on a solar industrial process heat system is given.

  6. [Viable non-culturable bacteria].

    PubMed

    Năşcuţiu, Alexandra-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Viable but non-culturable cells (VBNC) are defined as live bacteria, but which do not either grow or divide. Such bacteria cannot be cultivated on conventional media (they do not form colonies on solid media, they do not change broth appearance), but their existence can be proved using other methods. The switch to the VBNC stage has been described and documented for several bacterial species: Vibrio spp. (cholerae, vulnificus and other species), Escherichia coli (including EHEC), Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolytica, Shigella spp., Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Providencia spp., Morganella spp., Pseudomonas spp., Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Enterococcus spp. The capacity of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria to enter the VBNC stage started to concern microbiologists in the field of food industry (food and water safety) and pharmaceutical industry. Many studies have shown that processes meant to achieve bactericidal effects can favour bacterial switch to VBNC. Viable but non-culturable stage is reversible. Concerns are due to the capacity of VBNC, especially of potentially pathogen cells, to switch to the infectious stage once in the host organism. PMID:21038700

  7. Study of potential photovoltaic/thermal applications in the commercial sector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, C.D.; Whisnant, R.A.; Ferrell, G.C.; Hamlin, R.V.

    1981-07-01

    To identify the most promising applications for photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) systems, a procedure has been evolved for ranking applications in the service, commercial, and institutional (SCI) sectors by using FEA's Energy Consumption Data Base, which tabulates energy use by sector, region, fuel type, and end use. Ranking takes into account such factors as temperature requirements of end-use, effects of temperature on efficiencies, cost of fuels replaced, and thermal and electrical loads. The electrical load and the temperature requirement of the thermal load determine size of the array, which meets the requirements of the entire electrical load. Hospitals and nursing homes, public office buildings, and schools rank high as potential applications. The rankings also indicate the PV/T arrays are more cost-effective than PV-only arrays for most commercial applications. Heating and cooling load profiles are determined for a hospital, a high school, and a shopping center, each in a different location; absorption cooling can usually be substituted for vapor-compression cooling. The high school load profiles are used as a case study of a PV/T array application in several energy cost scenarios. The analysis shows the PV/T array can be used advantageously in each scenario considered.

  8. Developing Viable Financing Models for Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilingsfeld, F.; Schaetzler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing commercialization of space services and the impending release of government's control of space access promise to make space ventures more attractive. Still, many investors shy away from going into the space tourism market as long as they do not feel secure that their return expectations will be met. First and foremost, attracting investors from the capital markets requires qualifying financing models. Based on earlier research on the cost of capital for space tourism, this paper gives a brief run-through of commercial, technical and financial due diligence aspects. After that, a closer look is taken at different valuation techniques as well as alternative ways of streamlining financials. Experience from earlier ventures has shown that the high cost of capital represents a significant challenge. Thus, the sophistication and professionalism of business plans and financial models needs to be very high. Special emphasis is given to the optimization of the debt-to-equity ratio over time. The different roles of equity and debt over a venture's life cycle are explained. Based on the latter, guidelines for the design of an optimized loan structure are given. These are then applied to simulating the financial performance of a typical space tourism venture over time, including the calculation of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and Net Present Value (NPV). Based on a concluding sensitivity analysis, the lessons learned are presented. If applied properly, these will help to make space tourism economically viable.

  9. Mobile clinical decision support systems and applications: a literature and commercial review.

    PubMed

    Martnez-Prez, Borja; de la Torre-Dez, Isabel; Lpez-Coronado, Miguel; Sainz-de-Abajo, Beatriz; Robles, Montserrat; Garca-Gmez, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The latest advances in eHealth and mHealth have propitiated the rapidly creation and expansion of mobile applications for health care. One of these types of applications are the clinical decision support systems, which nowadays are being implemented in mobile apps to facilitate the access to health care professionals in their daily clinical decisions. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to make a review of the current systems available in the literature and in commercial stores. Secondly, to analyze a sample of applications in order to obtain some conclusions and recommendations. Two reviews have been done: a literature review on Scopus, IEEE Xplore, Web of Knowledge and PubMed and a commercial review on Google play and the App Store. Five applications from each review have been selected to develop an in-depth analysis and to obtain more information about the mobile clinical decision support systems. Ninety-two relevant papers and 192 commercial apps were found. Forty-four papers were focused only on mobile clinical decision support systems. One hundred seventy-one apps were available on Google play and 21 on the App Store. The apps are designed for general medicine and 37 different specialties, with some features common in all of them despite of the different medical fields objective. The number of mobile clinical decision support applications and their inclusion in clinical practices has risen in the last years. However, developers must be careful with their interface or the easiness of use, which can impoverish the experience of the users. PMID:24399281

  10. Present and Future Applications of Digital Electronics in Nuclear Science - a Commercial Prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Hui

    2011-10-01

    Digital readout electronics instrumenting radiation detectors have experienced significant advancements in the last decade or so. This on one hand can be attributed to the steady improvements in commercial digital processing components such as analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), digital-to-analog converters (DACs), field-programmable-gate-arrays (FPGAs), and digital-signal-processors (DSPs), and on the other hand can also be attributed to the increasing needs for improved time, position, and energy resolution in nuclear physics experiments, which have spurred the rapid development of commercial off-the-shelf high speed, high resolution digitizers or spectrometers. Absent from conventional analog electronics, the capability to record fast decaying pulses from radiation detectors in digital readout electronics has profoundly benefited nuclear physics researchers since they now can perform detailed pulse processing for applications such as gamma-ray tracking and decay-event selection and reconstruction. In this talk, present state-of-the-art digital readout electronics and its applications in a variety of nuclear science fields will be discussed, and future directions in hardware development for digital electronics will also be outlined, all from the prospective of a commercial manufacturer of digital electronics.

  11. Effect of Bacteriophage Application on Campylobacter jejuni Loads in Commercial Broiler Flocks

    PubMed Central

    Kittler, Sophie; Fischer, Samuel; Abdulmawjood, Amir; Glünder, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequent food-borne human enteritis. The major source for infection with Campylobacter spp. is broiler meat. Risk assessments consider the reduction of Campylobacter in primary production to be most beneficial for human health. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a bacteriophage application under commercial conditions which had proved to be effective in previous noncommercial studies under controlled experimental conditions. A phage cocktail for Campylobacter reduction was tested on three commercial broiler farms each with a control and an experimental group. Colonization of Campylobacter was confirmed prior to phage application in fecal samples. Subsequently, a phage cocktail was applied via drinking water in the experimental group (log10 5.8 to 7.5 PFU/bird). One day after phage application, Campylobacter counts of one experimental group were reduced under the detection limit (<50 CFU/g, P = 0.0140) in fecal samples. At slaughter, a significant reduction of >log10 3.2 CFU/g cecal content compared to the control was still detected (P = 0.0011). No significant reduction was observed in the experimental groups of the other trials. However, a significant drop in cecal Campylobacter counts occurred in a phage-contaminated control. These results suggest that maximum reduction of Campylobacter at the slaughterhouse might be achieved by phage application 1 to 4 days prior to slaughter. PMID:24077703

  12. Astaxanthin: sources, extraction, stability, biological activities and its commercial applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Ambati, Ranga Rao; Phang, Siew Moi; Ravi, Sarada; Aswathanarayana, Ravishankar Gokare

    2014-01-01

    There is currently much interest in biological active compounds derived from natural resources, especially compounds that can efficiently act on molecular targets, which are involved in various diseases. Astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-β, β'-carotene-4,4'-dione) is a xanthophyll carotenoid, contained in Haematococcus pluvialis, Chlorella zofingiensis, Chlorococcum, and Phaffia rhodozyma. It accumulates up to 3.8% on the dry weight basis in H. pluvialis. Our recent published data on astaxanthin extraction, analysis, stability studies, and its biological activities results were added to this review paper. Based on our results and current literature, astaxanthin showed potential biological activity in in vitro and in vivo models. These studies emphasize the influence of astaxanthin and its beneficial effects on the metabolism in animals and humans. Bioavailability of astaxanthin in animals was enhanced after feeding Haematococcus biomass as a source of astaxanthin. Astaxanthin, used as a nutritional supplement, antioxidant and anticancer agent, prevents diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders, and also stimulates immunization. Astaxanthin products are used for commercial applications in the dosage forms as tablets, capsules, syrups, oils, soft gels, creams, biomass and granulated powders. Astaxanthin patent applications are available in food, feed and nutraceutical applications. The current review provides up-to-date information on astaxanthin sources, extraction, analysis, stability, biological activities, health benefits and special attention paid to its commercial applications. PMID:24402174

  13. A spreadsheet-based microcomputer application for determining cost-effectiveness of commercial lighting retrofit opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Spain, T.K. . Kenneth E. Johnson Environmental and Energy Center)

    1992-01-01

    Lighting accounts for 20-25% of electricity use in the United States. With estimates of 50-70% potential reductions being made by energy engineers, lighting is a promising area for cost-effective energy conservation projects in commercial buildings. With an extensive array of alternatives available to replace or modify existing lighting systems, simple but effective calculation tools are needed to help energy auditors evaluate lighting retrofits. This paper describes a spreadsheet-based microcomputer application for determining the cost-effectiveness of commercial lighting retrofits. Developed to support walk-through energy audits conducted by the Industrial Energy Advisory Service (IdEAS), the spreadsheet provides essential comparative data for evaluating the payback of alternatives. The impact of alternatives on environmental emissions is calculated to help communicate external costs and sell the project, if appropriate. The methodology and calculations are fully documented to allow the user to duplicate the spreadsheet and modify it as needed.

  14. Tokamaks with high-performance resistive magnets: advanced test reactors and prospects for commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Williams, J.E.C.; Becker, H.; Leclaire, R.; Yang, T.

    1981-10-01

    Scoping studies have been made of tokamak reactors with high performance resistive magnets which maximize advantages gained from high field operation and reduced shielding requirements, and minimize resistive power requirements. High field operation can provide very high values of fusion power density and n tau/sub e/ while the resistive power losses can be kept relatively small. Relatively high values of Q' = Fusion Power/Magnet Resistive Power can be obtained. The use of high field also facilitates operation in the DD-DT advanced fuel mode. The general engineering and operational features of machines with high performance magnets are discussed. Illustrative parameters are given for advanced test reactors and for possible commercial reactors. Commercial applications that are discussed are the production of fissile fuel, electricity generation with and without fissioning blankets and synthetic fuel production.

  15. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 11: Aerial Applicators. CS-26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the calibration and application of pesticides/herbicides by aircraft. Special attention is given to the field flight patterns and safety precautions which must be considered for the pilot, ground crews and the…

  16. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 11: Aerial Applicators. CS-26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the calibration and application of pesticides/herbicides by aircraft. Special attention is given to the field flight patterns and safety precautions which must be considered for the pilot, ground crews and the

  17. Pressure measurement with fiber-optic sensors: commercial technologies and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinet, ric

    2011-05-01

    Mainly three technologies are presently commercially available for pressure measurement with fiber-optic sensors: intensity-based, fiber Bragg gratings and Fabry-Prot. The first one is probably the simplest and the cheapest but it is limited to applications where having 2 fixed or up to 4 flexible fibers is not an issue, whereas the two other technologies require only one fiber. With generally low sensitivity to pressure and prohibitive cost for non multiplexed measurements, fiber Bragg grating pressure sensors are still limited to marginal applications. Fabry-Prot technology is the best compromise offering at affordable price a great flexibility in terms of pressure ranges, high sensitivity and miniature size suitable for most applications including disposable medical devices.

  18. Application study of filamentary composites in a commercial jet aircraft fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; June, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    A study of applications of filamentary composite materials to aircraft fuselage structure was performed. General design criteria were established and material studies conducted using the 727-200 forebody as the primary structural component. Three design approaches to the use of composites were investigated: uniaxial reinforcement of metal structure, uniaxial and biaxial reinforcement of metal structure, and an all-composite design. Materials application studies for all three concepts were conducted on fuselage shell panels, keel beam, floor beams, floor panels, body frames, fail-safe straps, and window frames. Cost benefit studies were conducted and developmental program costs estimated. On the basis of weight savings, cost effectiveness, developmental program costs, and potential for early application on commercial aircraft, the unaxial design is recommended for a 5-year flight service evaluation program.

  19. Commercialization of NASA's High Strength Cast Aluminum Alloy for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the commercialization of a new high strength cast aluminum alloy, invented by NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center, for high temperature applications will be presented. Originally developed to meet U.S. automotive legislation requiring low- exhaust emission, the novel NASA aluminum alloy offers dramatic improvement in tensile and fatigue strengths at elevated temperatures (450 F-750 F), which can lead to reducing part weight and cost as well as improving performance for automotive engine applications. It is an ideal low cost material for cast components such as pistons, cylinder heads, cylinder liners, connecting rods, turbo chargers, impellers, actuators, brake calipers and rotors. NASA alloy also offers greater wear resistance, dimensional stability, and lower thermal expansion compared to conventional aluminum alloys, and the new alloy can be produced economically from sand, permanent mold and investment casting. Since 2001, this technology was licensed to several companies for automotive and marine internal combustion engines applications.

  20. Examination of the technical potential of near-infrared switching thermochromic windows for commercial building applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, Sabine; Lee, Eleanor S.; Clavero, Cesar

    2013-12-01

    Current thermochromic windows modulate solar transmission primarily within the visible range, resulting in reduced space-conditioning energy use but also reduced daylight, thereby increasing lighting energy use compared to conventional static, near-infrared selective, low-emittance windows. To better understand the energy savings potential of improved thermochromic devices, a hypothetical near-infrared switching thermochromic glazing was defined based on guidelines provided by the material science community. EnergyPlus simulations were conducted on a prototypical large office building and a detailed analysis was performed showing the progression from switching characteristics to net window heat flow and perimeter zone loads and then to perimeter zone heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting energy use for a mixed hot/cold climate and a hot, humid climate in the US. When a relatively high daylight transmission is maintained when switched (Tsol = 0.10-0.50, Tvis = 0.30-0.60) and if coupled with a low-e inboard glazing layer (e = 0.04), the hypothetical thermochromic window with a low critical switching temperature range (14-20°C) achieved reductions in total site annual energy use of 14.0-21.1 kWh/m2-floor-yr or 12-14%2 for moderate- to large-area windows (WWR≥0.30) in Chicago and 9.8-18.6 kWh/m2-floor-yr or 10-17%3 for WWR≥0.45 in Houston compared to an unshaded spectrally-selective, low-e window (window E1) in south-, east-, and west-facing perimeter zones. If this hypothetical thermochromic window can be offered at costs that are competitive to conventional low-e windows and meet aesthetic requirements defined by the building industry and end users, then the technology is likely to be a viable energy-efficiency option for internal load dominated commercial buildings.

  1. 48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Cost Accounting Standards (48 CFR chapter 99) (see 12.214). ... laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.504 Section 12.504 Federal Acquisition... Items 12.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items....

  2. 48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Cost Accounting Standards (48 CFR chapter 99) (see 12.214). ... laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.504 Section 12.504 Federal Acquisition... Items 12.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items....

  3. 48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Truth in Negotiations (see subpart 15.4). (3) 41 U.S.C. chapter 15, Cost Accounting Standards (48 CFR... laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.504 Section 12.504 Federal Acquisition... Items 12.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items....

  4. 48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Cost Accounting Standards (48 CFR chapter 99) (see 12.214). ... laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.504 Section 12.504 Federal Acquisition... Items 12.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items....

  5. 48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Cost Accounting Standards (48 CFR chapter 99) (see 12.214). ... laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.504 Section 12.504 Federal Acquisition... Items 12.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items....

  6. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the fundamental Intersatellite Link (ISL) systems characteristics, potential applications of ISLs to domestic, regional, and global commercial satellite communications were identified, and their cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits quantified wherever possible. Implementation scenarios for the cost-effective communications satellite systems employing ISLs were developed for the first launch in 1993 to 1994 and widespread use of ISLs in the early 2000's. Critical technology requirements for both the microwave (60 GHz) and optical (0.85 micron) ISL implementations were identified, and their technology development programs, including schedule and cost estimates, were derived.

  7. Evaluations of the commercial spectrometer systems for safeguards applications using the germanium detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, D.T.

    1998-12-31

    Safeguards applications require the best spectrometer systems with excellent resolution, stability, and throughput. Instruments must perform well in all the situations and environments. Data communication to the computer should be convenient, fast, and reliable. The software should have all the necessary tools and be ease to use. Portable systems should be small in size, lightweight, and have a long battery life. Nine commercially available spectrometer systems are tested with both the planar and coaxial germanium detectors. Considering the performance of the Digital Signal Processors (DSP), digital-based spectroscopy may be the future of gamma-ray spectroscopy.

  8. Safety Evaluation of Two Commercial Lithium-ion Batteries for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Collins, Jacob; Cook, Joseph S.

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have been used for applications on the Shuttle and Station for the past six years. A majority of the li-ion batteries flown are Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) varieties. The COTS batteries and cells were tested under nominal and abusive conditions for performance and safety characterization. Within the past six months two batteries have been certified for flight and use on the Space Station. The first one is a Hand Spring PDA battery that had a single prismatic li-ion cell and the second is an Iridium satellite phone that had a two-cell pack with prismatic li-ion cells.

  9. Development of CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensors for Low Cost Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gee, R.; Kemeny, S.; Kim, Q.; Mendis, S.; Nakamura, J.; Nixon, R.; Ortiz, M.; Pain, B.; Staller, C.; Zhou, Z; Fossum, E.

    1994-01-01

    JPL, under sponsorship from the NASA Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology, has been developing a second-generation solid-state image sensor technology. Charge-coupled devices (CCD) are a well-established first generation image sensor technology. For both commercial and NASA applications, CCDs have numerous shortcomings. In response, the active pixel sensor (APS) technology has been under research. The major advantages of APS technology are the ability to integrate on-chip timing, control, signal-processing and analog-to-digital converter functions, reduced sensitivity to radiation effects, low power operation, and random access readout.

  10. Development of CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensors for Low Cost Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, E.; Gee, R.; Kemeny, S.; Kim, Q.; Mendis, S.; Nakamura, J.; Nixon, R.; Ortiz, M.; Pain, B.; Zhou, Z.; Ackland, B.; Dickinson, A.; Eid, E.; Inglis, D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes ongoing research and development of CMOS active pixel image sensors for low cost commercial applications. A number of sensor designs have been fabricated and tested in both p-well and n-well technologies. Major elements in the development of the sensor include on-chip analog signal processing circuits for the reduction of fixed pattern noise, on-chip timing and control circuits and on-chip analog-to-digital conversion (ADC). Recent results and continuing efforts in these areas will be presented.

  11. Evaluation and qualification of environmentally conscious manufacturing processes for commercial and military applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.J.; Cranwell, R.M.; Iman, R.; Van Buren, P.D.

    1995-03-01

    Environmental regulations are encouraging the development of new environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECNP processes. However, the quality and reliability of these processes and hardware produced must be understood prior to implementing these new technologies in factories. Furthermore, military hardware fabrication is governed by standards and specifications that frequently mandate the use of older, less environmentally friendly processes or materials, or prohibit the use of new ECM processes without advance military approvaL Sandia National Laboratories, with industrial and military partners, have developed methodologies for evaluating and qualifying new ECM processes for military and commercial applications, and have piloted these methodologies in qualifying new, low-residue soldering technologies and materials.

  12. A proposed acceptance process for commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software in reactor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Preckshot, G.G.; Scott, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper proposes a process for acceptance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software products for use in reactor systems important to safety. An initial set of four criteria establishes COTS software product identification and its safety category. Based on safety category, three sets of additional criteria, graded in rigor, are applied to approve/disapprove the product. These criteria fall roughly into three areas: product assurance, verification of safety function and safety impact, and examination of usage experience of the COTS product in circumstances similar to the proposed application. A report addressing the testing of existing software is included as an appendix.

  13. Aerial thermography for district heating systems application: an evaluation of commercial thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1990-03-01

    For district heating networks, practical applications of aerial thermography involve problems usually neglected in the process of research and methodological development. This process is usually initiated by first examining physical conditions for the specific application. Then is developed a method designed for the application. However, there should also be a test of the thermographic method in practice, including both an operational and economical evaluation of different stages of the application, suggesting feasible changes of the method and of the operational organisation. Experience from thermographic studies performed in the Scandinavian countries implies that follow-up studies are necessaiy when introducing high tech methods for practical applications. This kind of studies gives experience in major problems connected to different operational conditions, and makes it possible to avoid failures and to optimise the use of the information of the thermographic method. This paper deals mainly with the evaluation of aerial thermography for district heating networks applications. The main conclusions are that aerial thermography can contribute to an efficient operation of district heating systems, and the method is sufficiently developed for commercial use. However, the method could be improved by ensuring a feedback from the utility to the thermography consultant, so that analysis and interpretation routines, and presentation of results, may be further adjusted to user requirements. Also, increasing the knowledge possessed by the consultant and maintenance personnel regarding technical properties of culvert systems and thermographic methods, would result in more efficient procedures.

  14. The NASA LeRC regenerative fuel cell system testbed program for goverment and commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Thomas M.; Prokopius, Paul R.; Voecks, Gerald E.

    1995-01-01

    The Electrochemical Technology Branch of the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has initiated a program to develop a renewable energy system testbed to evaluate, characterize, and demonstrate fully integrated regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system for space, military, and commercial applications. A multi-agency management team, led by NASA LeRC, is implementing the program through a unique international coalition which encompasses both government and industry participants. This open-ended teaming strategy optimizes the development for space, military, and commercial RFC system technologies. Program activities to date include system design and analysis, and reactant storage sub-system design, with a major emphasis centered upon testbed fabrication and installation and testing of two key RFC system components, namely, the fuel cells and electrolyzers. Construction of the LeRC 25 kW RFC system testbed at the NASA-Jet Propulsion Labortory (JPL) facility at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) is nearly complete and some sub-system components have already been installed. Furthermore, planning for the first commercial RFC system demonstration is underway.

  15. The NASA LeRC regenerative fuel cell system testbed program for goverment and commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Maloney, T.M.; Voecks, G.E.

    1995-01-25

    The Electrochemical Technology Branch of the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has initiated a program to develop a renewable energy system testbed to evaluate, characterize, and demonstrate fully integrated regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system for space, military, and commercial applications. A multi-agency management team, led by NASA LeRC, is implementing the program through a unique international coalition which encompasses both government and industry participants. This open-ended teaming strategy optimizes the development for space, military, and commercial RFC system technologies. Program activities to date include system design and analysis, and reactant storage sub-system design, with a major emphasis centered upon testbed fabrication and installation and testing of two key RFC system components, namely, the fuel cells and electrolyzers. Construction of the LeRC 25 kW RFC system testbed at the NASA-Jet Propulsion Labortory (JPL) facility at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) is nearly complete and some sub-system components have already been installed. Furthermore, planning for the first commercial RFC system demonstration is underway. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  16. Application of transcriptomic analyses to reproductive studies in contemporary commercial sows.

    PubMed

    Foxcroft, G R; Silva, P V; Paradis, F

    2016-01-01

    Genetic selection in sows has substantially increased the total number of pigs born, but there has been an associated decrease in litter birth weight. Furthermore, irrespective of the total number of pigs born, a repeatable low litter birth weight phenotype has evolved in a subpopulation of mature sows, in which a high ovulation rate drives extremes of intrauterine crowding in early gestation and limits placental development: placental development continues to be compromised in later gestation and is associated with intrauterine growth restriction and a low litter birth weight. Furthermore, although contemporary commercial sows are increasingly resilient to the challenges of lactational catabolism in terms of the traditional measures of reproductive performance, gender-specific effects on early embryonic development of the subsequent litter are apparent and are likely linked to effects of sow catabolism on folliculogenesis and oocyte maturation. Recent transcriptomic studies that have helped elucidate some of the regulatory mechanisms mediating the evolving changes in the reproductive biology of contemporary commercial sows are summarized in the present review. However, the lack of clearly differentiated reproductive phenotypes among commercial sow populations is a problem for ongoing studies. Access to an unselected "wild-type" population with which to make comparisons, or the application of more standardized experimental approaches to mechanistic studies, may help advance the field of sow reproductive biology. PMID:26515280

  17. A decade of experience from commercial 3D laser range sensors for ground applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Hkan

    2012-09-01

    For use in the development of synthetic environment models, the Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI) bought two laser scanners in the beginning of this millennium, one from the Austrian company Riegl and one from the Canadian Optech. This was the start for over a decade of use of commercial laser range sensors at FOI. The laser scanners have so far been used for different applications such as point cloud algorithm development (detection, classification and reconnaissance of targets), phenomenology studies, reflectance measurements and environment and ground truth measurements. This paper presents different laser scanner technologies (pulsed Time of Flight, Continues Wave (CW), Flash and distributed light) and compare advantages and limitations of the technologies. The paper also include some examples of the use of laser scanning in applications and presents methods for laser range sensors performance evaluation used and developed at FOI.

  18. Commercial applications of speech interface technology: an industry at the threshold.

    PubMed Central

    Oberteuffer, J A

    1995-01-01

    Speech interface technology, which includes automatic speech recognition, synthetic speech, and natural language processing, is beginning to have a significant impact on business and personal computer use. Today, powerful and inexpensive microprocessors and improved algorithms are driving commercial applications in computer command, consumer, data entry, speech-to-text, telephone, and voice verification. Robust speaker-independent recognition systems for command and navigation in personal computers are now available; telephone-based transaction and database inquiry systems using both speech synthesis and recognition are coming into use. Large-vocabulary speech interface systems for document creation and read-aloud proofing are expanding beyond niche markets. Today's applications represent a small preview of a rich future for speech interface technology that will eventually replace keyboards with microphones and loud-speakers to give easy accessibility to increasingly intelligent machines. PMID:7479717

  19. SP-100 nuclear space power systems with application to space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the Space Commercialization Community with the status and characteristics of the SP-100 space nuclear power system. The program is a joint undertaking by the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy and NASA. The goal of the program is to develop, validate, and demonstrate the technology for space nuclear power systems in the range of 10 to 1000 kWe electric for use in the future civilian and military space missions. Also discussed are mission applications which are enhanced and/or enabled by SP-100 technology and how this technology compares to that of more familiar solar power systems. The mission applications include earth orbiting platforms and lunar/Mars surface power.

  20. Determinants of atrazine contamination in the homes of commercial pesticide applicators across time.

    PubMed

    Lozier, Matthew J; Curwin, Brian; Nishioka, Marcia G; Sanderson, Wayne

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-nine commercial pesticide applicator households in eastern Iowa were enrolled to investigate in-home contamination of atrazine, the most commonly used corn herbicide in the Unites States. From each home, four vacuum dust samples were collected during atrazine application season (Visit 1) and again 6 months later during winter months (Visit 2). Samples were taken from the following locations: primary entryway for pesticide applicator, living room, master bedroom, and kitchen. The applicator completed an atrazine handling log and household questionnaire with spouse. Of the 230 dust samples, only 2 were below the level of detection, 2 ng of atrazine per gram (ng/g) of fine dust (dust particle size 5-150 ?m). Dust levels were standardized to chemical loading. During application season the entryway (2.68 ng/cm(2)) and kitchen (0.47 ng/cm(2)) had the highest geometric mean atrazine chemical loading. The entryway chemical loading during Visit 2 was the second highest aggregate (0.55 ng/cm(2)). Aggregate concentrations were significantly higher at Visit 1 compared with Visit 2 when paired by location (p?0.02). Analysis showed that job (application, mixing/loading, or both) was not associated with in-home atrazine contamination. Linear regression showed a strong positive association between atrazine handling (number of acres applied with atrazine, number of days atrazine handled, and pounds of atrazine handled) and aggregate dust chemical loading from both visits (p = 0.06, 0.03, and 0.10, respectively). Frequency of vacuuming was inversely associated with Visit 2 concentrations (p = 0.10) and showed a weaker association with Visit 1 (p = 0.30). Removing shoes outside the home was associated with lower atrazine chemical loading (p = 0.03), and applicators changing work clothes in the master bedroom had significantly increased atrazine chemical loading in master bedrooms (p = 0.01). Changes in hygiene practices for commercial pesticide applicators could significantly reduce atrazine and, likely, other pesticide contaminations in the home. PMID:22506545

  1. MOSES: a modular sensor electronics system for space science and commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaelis, Harald; Behnke, Thomas; Tschentscher, Matthias; Mottola, Stefano; Neukum, Gerhard

    1999-10-01

    The camera group of the DLR--Institute of Space Sensor Technology and Planetary Exploration is developing imaging instruments for scientific and space applications. One example is the ROLIS imaging system of the ESA scientific space mission `Rosetta', which consists of a descent/downlooking and a close-up imager. Both are parts of the Rosetta-Lander payload and will operate in the extreme environment of a cometary nucleus. The Rosetta Lander Imaging System (ROLIS) will introduce a new concept for the sensor electronics, which is referred to as MOSES (Modula Sensor Electronics System). MOSES is a 3D miniaturized CCD- sensor-electronics which is based on single modules. Each of the modules has some flexibility and enables a simple adaptation to specific application requirements. MOSES is mainly designed for space applications where high performance and high reliability are required. This concept, however, can also be used in other science or commercial applications. This paper describes the concept of MOSES, its characteristics, performance and applications.

  2. Coordinated Fuel Cell System Programs for Government and Commercial Applications: Are We in a New Era?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, Marvin; Prokopius, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Though the fuel cell was invented in 1839, it was not until the early 1960's that the fuel cell power system was developed and used for a real application, for the NASA Space Mission Gemini. Unfortunately, fuel cell power systems did not, as a result, become in widespread use. Nevertheless, a great deal of progress has been made by both government and industry, culminating in many successful fuel cell power system demonstrations. Initially, each government agency and each private organization went its own way. Later, it became evident that coordination among programs was essential. An overview is presented of the current coordinated efforts by government and industry in fuel cells, with a sufficient historical background. The primary barriers to coordination of programs were institutional and differing application requirements. Initially, in the institutional area, it was the energy crisis and the formation of DOE which fostered close working relationships among government, manufacturers, and users. The authors discuss the fuel cell power system programs (of NASA, DOE, DOT, DOC, EPRI, GRI, industry, and universities), including missions and applications, technology advances, and demonstrations. The discussion covers the new Solar Regenerative Fuel Cell (RFC) program which has space, defense, and commercial terrestrial applications, and which is an excellent example of both program coordination and the Clinton Administration's dual-use application policy.

  3. Rhinitis Associated with Pesticide Exposure among Commercial Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Slager, Rebecca E.; Poole, Jill A.; LeVan, Tricia D.; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Rhinitis is common, but the risk factors are not well described. To investigate the association between current rhinitis and pesticide use, we used data from 2,245 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Methods Using logistic regression models adjusted for age, education, and growing up on a farm, we evaluated the association between current rhinitis and 34 pesticides used in the past year. Results Seventy-four percent of commercial pesticide applicators reported at least one episode of rhinitis in the past year (current rhinitis). Five pesticides used in the past year were significantly positively associated with current rhinitis: the herbicides 2,4-D, glyphosate and petroleum oil, the insecticide diazinon and the fungicide benomyl. The association for 2,4-D and glyphosate was limited to individuals who used both in the past year (Odds Ratio = 1.42, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.14, 1.77). Both petroleum oil and diazinon showed consistent evidence of an association with rhinitis, based on both current use and exposure-response models. We saw no evidence of confounding by common agricultural rhinitis triggers such as handling grain or hay. Conclusions Exposure to pesticides may increase the risk of rhinitis. PMID:19289390

  4. Overview of cell-free protein synthesis: historic landmarks, commercial systems, and expanding applications.

    PubMed

    Chong, Shaorong

    2014-01-01

    During the early days of molecular biology, cell-free protein synthesis played an essential role in deciphering the genetic code and contributed to our understanding of translation of protein from messenger RNA. Owing to several decades of major and incremental improvements, modern cell-free systems have achieved higher protein synthesis yields at lower production costs. Commercial cell-free systems are now available from a variety of material sources, ranging from "traditional" E. coli, rabbit reticulocyte lysate, and wheat germ extracts, to recent insect and human cell extracts, to defined systems reconstituted from purified recombinant components. Although each cell-free system has certain advantages and disadvantages, the diversity of the cell-free systems allows in vitro synthesis of a wide range of proteins for a variety of downstream applications. In the post-genomic era, cell-free protein synthesis has rapidly become the preferred approach for high-throughput functional and structural studies of proteins and a versatile tool for in vitro protein evolution and synthetic biology. This unit provides a brief history of cell-free protein synthesis and describes key advances in modern cell-free systems, practical differences between widely used commercial cell-free systems, and applications of this important technology. Curr. Protoc. Mol. Biol. 108:16.30.1-16.30.11. 2014 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25271714

  5. Overview of Cell-Free Protein Synthesis: Historic Landmarks, Commercial Systems, and Expanding Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Shaorong

    2014-01-01

    During early days of molecular biology, cell-free protein synthesis played an essential role in deciphering the genetic code and contributed to our understanding of translation of protein from messenger RNA. Owning to several decades of major and incremental improvements, modern cell-free systems have achieved higher protein synthesis yields at lower production costs. Commercial cell-free systems are now available from a variety of material sources, ranging from “traditional” E. coli, rabbit reticulocyte lysate and wheat germ extracts to recent insect and human cell extracts to defined systems reconstituted from purified recombinant components. Though each cell-free system has certain advantages and disadvantages, the diversity of the cell-free systems allows in vitro synthesis of a wide range of proteins for a variety of downstream applications. In the post-genomic era, cell-free protein synthesis has rapidly become the preferred approach for high throughput functional and structural studies of proteins and a versatile tool for in vitro protein evolution and synthetic biology. This article provides a brief history of cell-free protein synthesis and describes key advances in modern cell-free systems, practical differences between widely used commercial cell-free systems, and applications of this important technology. PMID:25271714

  6. Commercial Smartphone-Based Devices and Smart Applications for Personalized Healthcare Monitoring and Management

    PubMed Central

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Schneider, E. Marion; Luong, John H.T.

    2014-01-01

    Smartphone-based devices and applications (SBDAs) with cost effectiveness and remote sensing are the most promising and effective means of delivering mobile healthcare (mHealthcare). Several SBDAs have been commercialized for the personalized monitoring and/or management of basic physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, weight, body analysis, pulse rate, electrocardiograph, blood glucose, blood glucose saturation, sleeping and physical activity. With advances in Bluetooth technology, software, cloud computing and remote sensing, SBDAs provide real-time on-site analysis and telemedicine opportunities in remote areas. This scenario is of utmost importance for developing countries, where the number of smartphone users is about 70% of 6.8 billion cell phone subscribers worldwide with limited access to basic healthcare service. The technology platform facilitates patient-doctor communication and the patients to effectively manage and keep track of their medical conditions. Besides tremendous healthcare cost savings, SBDAs are very critical for the monitoring and effective management of emerging epidemics and food contamination outbreaks. The next decade will witness pioneering advances and increasing applications of SBDAs in this exponentially growing field of mHealthcare. This article provides a critical review of commercial SBDAs that are being widely used for personalized healthcare monitoring and management. PMID:26852680

  7. Commercial Smartphone-Based Devices and Smart Applications for Personalized Healthcare Monitoring and Management.

    PubMed

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Schneider, E Marion; Luong, John H T

    2014-01-01

    Smartphone-based devices and applications (SBDAs) with cost effectiveness and remote sensing are the most promising and effective means of delivering mobile healthcare (mHealthcare). Several SBDAs have been commercialized for the personalized monitoring and/or management of basic physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, weight, body analysis, pulse rate, electrocardiograph, blood glucose, blood glucose saturation, sleeping and physical activity. With advances in Bluetooth technology, software, cloud computing and remote sensing, SBDAs provide real-time on-site analysis and telemedicine opportunities in remote areas. This scenario is of utmost importance for developing countries, where the number of smartphone users is about 70% of 6.8 billion cell phone subscribers worldwide with limited access to basic healthcare service. The technology platform facilitates patient-doctor communication and the patients to effectively manage and keep track of their medical conditions. Besides tremendous healthcare cost savings, SBDAs are very critical for the monitoring and effective management of emerging epidemics and food contamination outbreaks. The next decade will witness pioneering advances and increasing applications of SBDAs in this exponentially growing field of mHealthcare. This article provides a critical review of commercial SBDAs that are being widely used for personalized healthcare monitoring and management. PMID:26852680

  8. Development, characterization and commercial application of palm based dihydroxystearic acid and its derivatives: an overview.

    PubMed

    Koay, Gregory F L; Chuah, Teong-Guan; Zainal-Abidin, Sumaiya; Ahmad, Salmiah; Choong, Thomas S Y

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyl fatty acids and their derivatives are of high value due to their wide range of industrial application, including cosmetic, food, personal care and pharmaceutical products. Realizing the importance of hydroxyl fatty acids, and yet due to the absence of the conventional starting raw materials, Malaysia has developed 9,10-dihydroxystearic acid (9,10-DHSA) and its derivatives from locally abundant palm based oils. The aim of this article is to provide a general description of the works that have thus far being done on palm based 9,10-DHSA: starting from its conception and production from commercial grade palm based crude oleic acid via epoxidation and hydrolysis, purification through solvent crystallization and characterization through wet and analytical chemistry, moving on to developmental works done on producing its derivatives through blending, esterification, amidation and polymerization, and completing with applications of 9,10-DHSA and its derivatives, e.g. DHSA-stearates and DHSA-estolides, in commercial products such as soaps, deodorant sticks and shampoos. This article incorporates some of the patent filed technological knowhow on 9,10-DHSA and its derivatives, and will also point out some of the shortcomings in previously published documents and provide some recommendations for future research works in mitigating these shortcomings. PMID:21502724

  9. Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Mueller, Don; Goluoglu, Sedat; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Fox, Patricia B

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this calculation report, Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, is to validate the computational method used to perform postclosure criticality calculations. The validation process applies the criticality analysis methodology approach documented in Section 3.5 of the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report. The application systems for this validation consist of waste packages containing transport, aging, and disposal canisters (TAD) loaded with commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) of varying assembly types, initial enrichments, and burnup values that are expected from the waste stream and of varying degree of internal component degradation that may occur over the 10,000-year regulatory time period. The criticality computational tool being evaluated is the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The nuclear cross-section data distributed with MCNP 5.1.40 and used to model the various physical processes are based primarily on the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version VI (ENDF/B-VI) library. Criticality calculation bias and bias uncertainty and lower bound tolerance limit (LBTL) functions for CSNF waste packages are determined based on the guidance in ANSI/ANS 8.1-1998 (Ref. 4) and ANSI/ANS 8.17-2004 (Ref. 5), as described in Section 3.5.3 of Ref. 1. The development of this report is consistent with Test Plan for: Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality. This calculation report has been developed in support of licensing activities for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the results of the calculation may be used in the criticality evaluation for CSNF waste packages based on a conceptual TAD canister.

  10. Research and test facilities for development of technologies and experiments with commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    One of NASA'S agency-wide goals is the commercial development of space. To further this goal NASA is implementing a policy whereby U.S. firms are encouraged to utilize NASA facilities to develop and test concepts having commercial potential. Goddard, in keeping with this policy, will make the facilities and capabilities described in this document available to private entities at a reduced cost and on a noninterference basis with internal NASA programs. Some of these facilities include: (1) the Vibration Test Facility; (2) the Battery Test Facility; (3) the Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator Facility; (4) the High Voltage Testing Facility; (5) the Magnetic Field Component Test Facility; (6) the Spacecraft Magnetic Test Facility; (7) the High Capacity Centrifuge Facility; (8) the Acoustic Test Facility; (9) the Electromagnetic Interference Test Facility; (10) the Space Simulation Test Facility; (11) the Static/Dynamic Balance Facility; (12) the High Speed Centrifuge Facility; (13) the Optical Thin Film Deposition Facility; (14) the Gold Plating Facility; (15) the Paint Formulation and Application Laboratory; (16) the Propulsion Research Laboratory; (17) the Wallops Range Facility; (18) the Optical Instrument Assembly and Test Facility; (19) the Massively Parallel Processor Facility; (20) the X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Auger Microscopy/Spectroscopy Laboratory; (21) the Parts Analysis Laboratory; (22) the Radiation Test Facility; (23) the Ainsworth Vacuum Balance Facility; (24) the Metallography Laboratory; (25) the Scanning Electron Microscope Laboratory; (26) the Organic Analysis Laboratory; (27) the Outgassing Test Facility; and (28) the Fatigue, Fracture Mechanics and Mechanical Testing Laboratory.

  11. Advances in commercial application of gamma radiation in tropical fruits at Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabato, S. F.; Silva, J. M.; Cruz, J. N.; Broisler, P. O.; Rela, P. R.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.

    2009-07-01

    All regions of Brazil are potential areas for growing tropical fruits. As this country is already a great producer and exporter of tropical fruits, ionizing radiation has been the subject of studies in many commodities. An important project has been carried out to increase the commercial use of gamma radiation in our country. Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN)-CNEN/SP together with field producers in northeast region and partners like International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), CIC, Empresa Brasileira Pesquisa na Agricultura (EMBRAPA) joined to demonstrate this technology, its application and commercial feasibility. The objective of this study is to show advances in feasibility demonstrate the quality of the irradiated fruits in an international consignment from Brazil to Canada. In this work, Tommy Atkins mangoes harvested in northeast region of Brazil were sent to Canada. The fruits were treated in a gamma irradiation facility at doses 0.4 and 1.0 kGy. The control group was submitted to hydrothermal treatment (46 °C for 110 min). The fruits were stored at 11 °C for 10 days until the international transportation and kept at an environmental condition (22 °C) for 12 days, where their physical-chemical and sensorial properties were evaluated. The financial part of the feasibility study covers the scope of the investment, including the net working capital and production costs.

  12. Commercial and industrial applications of color ink jet: a technological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunand, Alain

    1996-03-01

    In just 5 years, color ink-jet has become the dominant technology for printing color images and graphics in the office and home markets. In commercial printing, the traditional printing processes are being influenced by new digital techniques. Color ink-jet proofing, and concepts such as computer to film/plate or digital processes are contributing to the evolution of the industry. In industrial color printing, the penetration of digital techniques is just beginning. All widely used conventional contact printing technologies involve mechanical printing forms including plates, screens or engraved cylinders. Such forms, which need to be newly created and set up for each job, increase costs. In our era of fast changing customer demands, growing needs for customization, and increasing use of digital exchange of information, the commercial and industrial printing markets represent an enormous potential for digital printing technologies. The adoption characteristics for the use of color ink-jet in these industries are discussed. Examples of color ink-jet applications in the fields of billboard printing, floor/wall covering decoration, and textile printing are described. The requirements on print quality, productivity, reliability, substrate compatibility, and color lead to the consideration of various types of ink-jet technologies. Key technical enabling factors and directions for future improvements are presented.

  13. Computers for Manned Space Applications Base on Commercial Off-the-Shelf Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, T.; Gronowski, M.

    2009-05-01

    Similar to the consumer markets there has been an ever increasing demand in processing power, signal processing capabilities and memory space also for computers used for science data processing in space. An important driver of this development have been the payload developers for the International Space Station, requesting high-speed data acquisition and fast control loops in increasingly complex systems. Current experiments now even perform video processing and compression with their payload controllers. Nowadays the requirements for a space qualified computer are often far beyond the capabilities of, for example, the classic SPARC architecture that is found in ERC32 or LEON CPUs. An increase in performance usually demands costly and power consuming application specific solutions. Continuous developments over the last few years have now led to an alternative approach that is based on complete electronics modules manufactured for commercial and industrial customers. Computer modules used in industrial environments with a high demand for reliability under harsh environmental conditions like chemical reactors, electrical power plants or on manufacturing lines are entered into a selection procedure. Promising candidates then undergo a detailed characterisation process developed by Astrium Space Transportation. After thorough analysis and some modifications, these modules can replace fully qualified custom built electronics in specific, although not safety critical applications in manned space. This paper focuses on the benefits of COTS1 based electronics modules and the necessary analyses and modifications for their utilisation in manned space applications on the ISS. Some considerations regarding overall systems architecture will also be included. Furthermore this paper will also pinpoint issues that render such modules unsuitable for specific tasks, and justify the reasons. Finally, the conclusion of this paper will advocate the implementation of COTS based electronics for a range of applications within specifically adapted systems. The findings in this paper are extrapolated from two reference computer systems, both having been launched in 2008. One of those was a LEON-2 based computer installed onboard the Columbus Orbital Facility while the other system consisted mainly of a commercial Power-PC module that was modified for a launch mounted on the ICC pallet in the Space Shuttle's cargo bay. Both systems are currently upgraded and extended for future applications.

  14. 40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for certification of commercial and private applicators of restricted use pesticides. 171.7 Section 171.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.7 Submission and approval of State plans for certification...

  15. 40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for certification of commercial and private applicators of restricted use pesticides. 171.7 Section 171.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.7 Submission and approval of State plans for certification...

  16. 40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for certification of commercial and private applicators of restricted use pesticides. 171.7 Section 171.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.7 Submission and approval of State plans for certification...

  17. 40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for certification of commercial and private applicators of restricted use pesticides. 171.7 Section 171.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.7 Submission and approval of State plans for certification...

  18. Irradiation of commercial, high-Tc superconducting tape for potential fusion applications: electromagnetic transport properties

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga; Gapud, Albert A.; List III, Frederick Alyious; Leonard, Keith J; Rupich, Marty; Zhang, Yanwen; Greenwood, N T; Alexander, J A; Khan, A

    2015-01-01

    Effects of low dose irradiation on the electrical transport current properties of commercially available high-temperature superconducting, coated-conductor tapes were investigated, in view of potential applications in the irradiative environment of fusion reactors. Three different tapes, each with unique as-grown flux-pinning structures, were irradiated with Au and Ni ions at energies that provide a range of damage effects, with accumulated damage levels near that expected for conductors in a fusion reactor environment. Measurements using transport current determined the pre- and post-irradiation resistivity, critical current density, and pinning force density, yielding critical temperatures, irreversibility lines, and inferred vortex creep rates. Results show that at the irradiation damage levels tested, any detriment to as-grown pre-irradiation properties is modest; indeed in one case already-superior pinning forces are enhanced, leading to higher critical currents.

  19. KrF laser cost/performance model for ICF commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, D.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Simple expressions suitable for use in commercial-applications plant parameter studies for the direct capital cost plus indirect field costs and for the efficiency as a function of repetition rate were developed for pure-optical-compression KrF laser fusion drivers. These simple expressions summarize estimates obtained from detailed cost-performance studies incorporating recent results of ongoing physics, design, and cost studies. Contributions of KrF laser capital charges and D and M costs to total levelized constant-dollar (1984) unit ICF power generation cost are estimated as a function of plant size and driver pulse energy using a published gain for short-wavelength lasers and representative values of plant parameters.

  20. Digimarc MediaBridge: the birth of a consumer product from concept to commercial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Burt; MacIntosh, Brian; Cushman, David

    2002-04-01

    This paper examines the issues encountered in the development and commercial deployment of a system based on digital watermarking technology. The paper provides an overview of the development of digital watermarking technology and the first applications to use the technology. It also looks at how we took the concept of digital watermarking as a communications channel within a digital environment and applied it to the physical print world to produce the Digimarc MediaBridge product. We describe the engineering tradeoffs that were made to balance competing requirements of watermark robustness, image quality, embedding process, detection speed and end user ease of use. Today, the Digimarc MediaBridge product links printed materials to auxiliary information about the content, via the Internet, to provide enhanced informational marketing, promotion, advertising and commerce opportunities.

  1. Prototype rigid polyimide components. [application of Apollo technology to commercial nonflammable materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wykes, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    The activity is reported which was conducted for utilizing spin-off Apollo base technology to fabricate a variety of commercial and aerospace related parts that are nonflammable and resistant to high-temperature degradation. Manufacturing techniques and the tooling used to fabricate each of the polyimide/glass structures is discussed. A brief history, tracing the development of high-temperature polyimide resins, is presented along with a discussion of the properties of DuPont's PI 2501/glass material (later redesignated PI 4701/glass). Mechanical and flammability properties of DuPont's PI 2501/glass laminates are compared with epoxy, phenolic, and silicone high-temperature resin/glass material systems. Offgassing characteristics are also presented. A discussion is included of the current developments in polyimide materials technology and the potential civilian and government applications of polyimide materials to reduce fire hazards and increase the survivability of men and equipment.

  2. InfraCAM (trade mark): A Hand-Held Commercial Infrared Camera Modified for Spaceborne Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manitakos, Daniel; Jones, Jeffrey; Melikian, Simon

    1996-01-01

    In 1994, Inframetrics introduced the InfraCAM(TM), a high resolution hand-held thermal imager. As the world's smallest, lightest and lowest power PtSi based infrared camera, the InfraCAM is ideal for a wise range of industrial, non destructive testing, surveillance and scientific applications. In addition to numerous commercial applications, the light weight and low power consumption of the InfraCAM make it extremely valuable for adaptation to space borne applications. Consequently, the InfraCAM has been selected by NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) in Cleveland, Ohio, for use as part of the DARTFire (Diffusive and Radiative Transport in Fires) space borne experiment. In this experiment, a solid fuel is ignited in a low gravity environment. The combustion period is recorded by both visible and infrared cameras. The infrared camera measures the emission from polymethyl methacrylate, (PMMA) and combustion products in six distinct narrow spectral bands. Four cameras successfully completed all qualification tests at Inframetrics and at NASA Lewis. They are presently being used for ground based testing in preparation for space flight in the fall of 1995.

  3. Establishing viable task domains for telerobot demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, Wayne

    1989-01-01

    A suite of telerobotic tasks has been compiled and assessed for the purpose of selecting viable tasks for near and far term laboratory demonstrations. The primary intent of developing the task is to provide some technical guidelines, with supporting data, for focusing laboratory demonstrations toward application domains that address a wide array of potential telerobot tasks and required technologies. This wide application would then result in a rich technology development environment to meet the broad task requirements of a system such as the Flight Telerobot Servicer. The methodology and results of the telerobot task assessment are described, including a ranking of the final select suite of major tasks. The presented along with guidelines for both interpreting the task ranking results and setting programmatic objectives based on these results. Detailed data about the task candidates and their respective levels of complexity, task primitive actions, and the actual relative measures of task worth as associated with key tradeoff variables such as cost, available research resources, technology availability, and importance to the user community are also presented.

  4. Fluorogenic Substrate Detection of Viable Intracellular and Extracellular Pathogenic Protozoa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Peter R.; Pappas, Michael G.; Hansen, Brian D.

    1985-01-01

    Viable Leishmania promastigotes and amastigotes were detected by epifluorescence microscopy with fluorescein diacetate being used to mark living parasites and the nucleic acid-binding compound ethidium bromide to stain dead cells. This procedure is superior to other assays because it is faster and detects viable intracellular as well as extracellular Leishmania. Furthermore, destruction of intracellular pathogens by macrophages is more accurately determined with fluorescein diacetate than with other stains. The procedure may have applications in programs to develop drugs and vaccines against protozoa responsible for human and animal disease.

  5. COTS low-cost 622-Mb/s free-space laser communications link for short-distance commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Kenneth A.

    2000-05-01

    The results from a low cost 622 Mb/s, free-space laser communication link operating at 850 nm for short distance commercial applications is presented. The test results demonstrate the use of a free-space laser communications transceiver for building to building applications such as LAN, WAN and ATM operations, etc. This illustrates the potential for wide-use commercial computer network applications. The transceiver is constructed of commercial off-the-shelf materials for the development of a low-cost laser communications data link. The test system configuration utilizes standard Personal Computers with network cards and signal conversion cards for the copper to optical medical conversion. These tests precede the development of an increased data rate device operating at 2.5 Gb/s.

  6. Image Analysis via Soft Computing: Prototype Applications at NASA KSC and Product Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of "soft computing" which differs from "hard computing" in that it is more tolerant of imprecision, partial truth, uncertainty, and approximation and its use in image analysis. Soft computing provides flexible information processing to handle real life ambiguous situations and achieve tractability, robustness low solution cost, and a closer resemblance to human decision making. Several systems are or have been developed: Fuzzy Reasoning Edge Detection (FRED), Fuzzy Reasoning Adaptive Thresholding (FRAT), Image enhancement techniques, and visual/pattern recognition. These systems are compared with examples that show the effectiveness of each. NASA applications that are reviewed are: Real-Time (RT) Anomaly Detection, Real-Time (RT) Moving Debris Detection and the Columbia Investigation. The RT anomaly detection reviewed the case of a damaged cable for the emergency egress system. The use of these techniques is further illustrated in the Columbia investigation with the location and detection of Foam debris. There are several applications in commercial usage: image enhancement, human screening and privacy protection, visual inspection, 3D heart visualization, tumor detections and x ray image enhancement.

  7. Application of Best Industry Practices to the Design of Commercial Refrigerators

    SciTech Connect

    2002-06-30

    The substantial efficiency improvements which have been realized in residential refrigerators over the last twenty years due to implementation of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act and changing consumer reactions to energy savings give an indication of the potential for improvement in the commercial sector, where few such efficiency improvements have been made to date. The purchase decision for commercial refrigerators is still focused primarily on first cost and product performance issues such as maximizing storage capacity, quick pulldown, durability, and reliability. The project applied techniques used extensively to reduce energy use in residential refrigeration to a commercial reach-in refrigerator. The results will also be applicable to other commercial refrigeration equipment, such as refrigerated vending machines, reach-in freezers, beverage merchandisers, etc. The project described in this paper was a collaboration involving the Appliance and Building Technology Sector of TIAX, the Delfield Company, and the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies. Funding was provided by DOE through Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT41000. The program plan and schedule were structured to assure successful integration of the TIAX work on development of efficient design concepts into Delfield's simultaneous development of the Vantage product line. The energy-saving design options evaluated as part of the development included brushless DC and PSC fan motors, high-efficiency compressors, variable-speed compressor technology, cabinet thermal improvement (particularly in the face frame area), increased insulation thickness, a trap for the condensate line, improved insulation, reduced-wattage antisweat heaters, non-electric antisweat heating, off-cycle defrost termination, rifled heat exchanger tubing, and system optimization (selection of heat exchangers, fans, and subcooling, superheat, and suction temperatures for efficient operation). The project started with a thorough evaluation of the baseline Delfield Model 6051 two-door reach-in refrigerator. Performance testing was done to establish a performance baseline which, to meet end-users requirements, would have to be met or exceeded by the high-efficiency refrigerator design. Energy testing was done to establish the baseline energy use. Diagnostic testing such as reverse heat leak testing and insulation conductivity testing was done to evaluate factors contributing to the cabinet load and energy use. Modeling was done to assess the energy savings potential of the energy saving design options. Discussion with vendors and cost modeling was done to assess the manufacturing cost impact of the options. Based on this work, the following group of design options was selected for incorporation in the final refrigerator design: (1) Brushless DC evaporator fans; (2) Improved face frame design; (3) Reduced antisweat heater wattage; (4) Condensate line trap; and (5) Optimized refrigeration system. There was no net cost premium associated with these design changes, leading to a high-efficiency design requiring no payback of any initial additional investment. Delfield incorporated these design options in the Vantage line design and built a first prototype, which was tested at TIAX. Additional design changes were implemented in the transition to manufacturing, based in part on results of initial prototype testing, and a pilot production unit was sent to TIAX for final testing. The energy use of the pilot production unit was 68% less than that of the baseline refrigerator when tested according to the ASHRAE 117 Energy Test Standard. The energy test results for the baseline refrigerator and the two new-design units is shown in Figure ES-1 below. The resulting energy consumption is well below Energy Star and proposed Canadian and California standards levels. Delfield has successfully transitioned the design to production and is manufacturing all configurations of the energy efficient reach-ins at a rate greater than 7,000 per year, with production quantities projected to double within a year.

  8. Application of analytical techniques to stress relaxation experiments in commercial zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medrano, Ricardo Enrique; Gillis, Peter P.

    1991-10-01

    Stress relaxation is a simple test which offers the means for evaluating the deformation dynamics of materials. The main shortcoming of this test is that it requires a highly stable testing machine having small relaxation effects. In this article, stress relaxation tests are reported that were performed on commercial zinc at room temperature. The results were analyzed using Harts method and Lis equation. Harts method shows that it is not possible to find a unique family of curves of stress as a function of the strain rate and, therefore, a mechanical equation of state. It is also shown that application of Lis method always gives a straight line in the logarithm of stress-rate vs logarithm of time, even though a mechanical equation of state does not exist. The occurrence of parameters with physically unreal values when applying Lis equation is shown to be a consequence of an inadequate range of data. A formula is given for the experimental time required to satisfactorily apply Lis method.

  9. Real time data acquisition of commercial microwave link networks for hydrometeorological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwala, C.; Keis, F.; Kunstmann, H.

    2015-11-01

    The usage of data from commercial microwave link (CML) networks for scientific purposes is becoming increasingly popular, in particular for rain rate estimation. However, data acquisition and availability is still a crucial problem and limits research possibilities. To overcome this issue, we have developed an open source data acquisition system based on the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). It is able to record transmitted- and received signal levels of a large number of CMLs simultaneously with a temporal resolution of up to one second. We operate this system at Ericsson Germany, acquiring data from 450 CMLs with minutely real time transfer to our data base. Our data acquisition system is not limited to a particular CML hardware model or manufacturer, though. We demonstrate this by running the same system for CMLs of a different manufacturer, operated by an alpine skiing resort in Germany. There, the data acquisition is running simultaneously for four CMLs with a temporal resolution of one second. We present an overview of our system, describe the details of the necessary SNMP requests and show results from its operational application.

  10. Real-time data acquisition of commercial microwave link networks for hydrometeorological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chwala, Christian; Keis, Felix; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-03-01

    The usage of data from commercial microwave link (CML) networks for scientific purposes is becoming increasingly popular, in particular for rain rate estimation. However, data acquisition and availability is still a crucial problem and limits research possibilities. To overcome this issue, we have developed an open-source data acquisition system based on the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). It is able to record transmitted and received signal levels of a large number of CMLs simultaneously with a temporal resolution of up to 1 s. We operate this system at Ericsson Germany, acquiring data from 450 CMLs with minutely real-time transfer to our database. Our data acquisition system is not limited to a particular CML hardware model or manufacturer, though. We demonstrate this by running the same system for CMLs of a different manufacturer, operated by an alpine ski resort in Germany. There, the data acquisition is running simultaneously for four CMLs with a temporal resolution of 1 s. We present an overview of our system, describe the details of the necessary SNMP requests and show results from its operational application.

  11. Commercial application of steamflooding in an oilfield comprising multiple thin sand reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.L.; Dodson, C.J.; Ghassemi, F.; Moore, J.S.

    1985-09-01

    This paper documents the successful application of steamflooding in the multiple thin-sand reservoirs of the Loco Unit, Stephens County, OK. These reservoirs occur at depths from 50 to 1,200 ft (15 to 366 m) and range in thickness to 40 ft (12 m). Porosities of the productive zones vary from 20 to more than 30%, and permeabilities range from 100 to more than 4,000 md. Oil gravities of the various zones range from 16 to 24/sup 0/ API (0.96 to 0.91 g/cm/sup 3/). Reservoirs that occur at depths above approximately 700 ft (213 m) have little or no natural reservoir energy and generally contain viscous oils, ranging up to 10,000 cp (10 Pa X s). Consequently, there was no primary production from these reservoirs, and potential for waterflooding was marginal. Steamflooding has been the only recovery process applied successfully to these zones, except for one isolated instance. Reservoirs at depths greater than 700 ft (213 m) normally contain lower-viscosity oils. Six of these zones were produced by solution gas drive and were later waterflooded successfully. After 23 years of waterflooding, two of these six zones have been tested and have proved to support commercial steamflooding operations.

  12. The New Anechoic Shielded Chambers Designed for Space and Commercial Applications at LIT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Benjamim; Galvao, M. C.; Pereira, Clovis Solano

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the capabilities of the new anechoic shielded rooms designed for space and commercial applications as part of the Integration and Testing Laboratory (LIT, Laboratorio de Integracao e Testes) in Brazil. A new anechoic shielded room named CBA2 has been in full operation since March 2007 and a remodeled chamber CBA1 is planned to be ready by the end of 2008, replacing an old facility which was in operation for the last 18 years. The Brazilian Space Program started with very small and simple satellites and the old CBA1 chamber was conceived in 1987 to accomplish the EMI/EMC tests not requiring significant volumes. Since the very beginning this facility was also used by the private sector for other applications mainly due to the absorption of digital electronics in all kind of products. The intense use of this facility during the last years, operating three shifts a day, caused a normal degradation and imposed several limitations. Therefore, a new totally remodeled chamber was designed considering the state of the art in terms of absorbers and associated instrumentation. On the other hand the facility CBA2 was conceived, designed and implemented to test large satellites taking into account the advance of the technology in terms of RF frequencies, power level, testing methodologies and several other factors. A very interesting and unique aspect of this project was the partnership between the private sector and governmental institution. As a result, the total investment was shared between several companies and consequently a time-sharing use of the facility as well.

  13. 48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (see 48 CFR chapter 99) (see 12.214). ... laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.503 Section 12.503... Available Off-The-Shelf Items 12.503 Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for...

  14. 40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of restricted use pesticides. 171.7 Section 171.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE...

  15. Caltech/JPL Conference on Image Processing Technology, Data Sources and Software for Commercial and Scientific Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmann, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    Recent advances in image processing and new applications are presented to the user community to stimulate the development and transfer of this technology to industrial and commercial applications. The Proceedings contains 37 papers and abstracts, including many illustrations (some in color) and provides a single reference source for the user community regarding the ordering and obtaining of NASA-developed image-processing software and science data.

  16. Process heat in California: Applications and potential for solar energy in the industrial, agricultural and commercial sectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbieri, R. H.; Bartera, R. E.; Davis, E. S.; Hlavka, G. E.; Pivirotto, D. S.; Yanow, G.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the results of a survey of potential applications of solar energy for supplying process heat requirements in the industrial, agricultural, and commercial sectors of California is presented. Technical, economic, and institutional characteristics of the three sectors are examined. Specific applications for solar energy are then discussed. Finally, implications for California energy policy are discussed along with recommendations for possible actions by the State of California.

  17. 77 FR 30021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... collection was previously published in the Federal Register (77 FR 14535) on March 12, 2012, allowing for a... the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... Commercial Environment (ACE). This is a proposed extension of an information collection that was...

  18. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2E: Commercial equipment utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. G. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Examination of commercial equipment technologies revealed that the functional performance requirements of space processing equipment could generally be met by state-of-the-art design practices. Thus, an apparatus could be evolved from a standard item or derived by custom design using present technologies. About 15 percent of the equipment needed has no analogous commercial base of derivation and requires special development. This equipment is involved primarily with contactless heating and position control. The derivation of payloads using commercial equipment sources provides a broad and potentially cost-effective base upon which to draw. The derivation of payload equipment from commercial technologies poses other issues beyond that of the identifiable functional performance, but preliminary results on testing of selected equipment testing appear quite favorable. During this phase of the SPA study, several aspects of commercial equipment utility were assessed and considered. These included safety, packaging and structural, power conditioning (electrical/electronic), thermal and materials of construction.

  19. Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

    2013-10-30

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative technologies. As the technology gains a foothold in its target markets and demand increases, the costs will decline in response to improved manufacturing efficiencies, similar to trends seen with other technologies. Transparency Market Research forecasts suggest that the CHP-FCS market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of greater than 27 percent over the next 5 years. These production level increases, coupled with the expected low price of natural gas, indicate the economic payback period will move to less than 5 years over the course of the next 5 years. To better understand the benefits of micro-CHP-FCSs, The U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe fuel cells in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is evaluating these systems in terms of economics, operations, and their environmental impact in real-world applications. As expected, the economic analysis has indicated that the high capital cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than typically is acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, a payback period of less than 3 years may be expected as increased production brings system cost down, and CHP incentives are maintained or improved.

  20. Application of Commercial Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Sensors for Sub-Ambient Carbon Dioxide Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Boerman, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration within a spacecraft or spacesuit is critically important to ensuring the safety of the crew. Carbon dioxide uniquely absorbs light at wavelengths of 3.95 micrometers and 4.26 micrometers. As a result, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy can be employed as a reliable and inexpensive method for the quantification of CO2 within the atmosphere. A multitude of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) NDIR sensors exist for CO2 quantification. The COTS sensors provide reasonable accuracy so long as the measurements are attained under conditions close to the calibration conditions of the sensor (typically 21.1 C and 1 atm). However, as pressure deviates from atmospheric to the pressures associated with a spacecraft (8.0-10.2 PSIA) or spacesuit (4.1-8.0 PSIA), the error in the measurement grows increasingly large. In addition to pressure and temperature dependencies, the infrared transmissivity through a volume of gas also depends on the composition of the gas. As the composition is not known a priori, accurate sub-ambient detection must rely on iterative sensor compensation techniques. This manuscript describes the development of recursive compensation algorithms for sub-ambient detection of CO2 with COTS NDIR sensors. In addition, the basis of the exponential loss in accuracy is developed theoretically considering thermal, Doppler, and Lorentz broadening effects which arise as a result of the temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas mixture under analysis. As a result, this manuscript provides an approach to employing COTS sensors at sub-ambient conditions and may also lend insight into designing future NDIR sensors for aerospace application.

  1. Application and enhancement of the standard test method for the performance of commercial kitchen ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, V.A.; Swierczyna, R.T.; Claar, C.N.

    1995-12-31

    This paper reports on the interlab application of the proposed Standard Test Method for the Performance of Commercial Kitchen Ventilation Systems (ASTM 1995) and resulting refinements to the test method. The purpose of the standard test method is to provide the industry with a uniform protocol to evaluate the capture and containment of cooking effluent as well as measure the radiant heat gain to space from the cooking process. The test method includes an overall energy balance as well as visual inspection methods for determining the capture and containment of exhaust air and cooking effluent. The areas of refinement discussed are determination of boundary conditions for energy balance, accuracy of temperature measurement, appliance calibration, and measurement of appliance energy consumption. Investigation of these refinements required consideration of thermocouple tree placement with respect to hood/appliance airflow patterns, treatment of the laboratory space as a calorimeter room, and temperature stratification and mixing of the air in the laboratory room and accurate measurement of appliance energy use. The validation study demonstrated that the energy balance protocol may be applied to a hood/appliance system operating over a range of exhaust airflow rates with an appliance being used in an idle (i.e., ready-to-cook) or cooking mode. The interlab initiative also demonstrated for the equipment combinations tested that repeatable results can be obtained between two research facilities when rigorous attention is focused on the test method specifications for both the physical setup and operation of the hood/appliance system, test instrumentation, and associated laboratory procedures.

  2. Application of Commercial Non-Dispersive Infrared Spectroscopy Sensors for Sub-Ambient Carbon Dioxide Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swickrath, Michael J.; Anderson, Molly; McMillin, Summer; Broerman, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration within a spacecraft or spacesuit is critically important to ensuring the safety of the crew. Carbon dioxide uniquely absorbs light at wavelengths of 3.95 micrometers and 4.26 micrometers. As a result, non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy can be employed as a reliable and inexpensive method for the quantification of CO2 within the atmosphere. A multitude of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) NDIR sensors exist for CO2 quantification. The COTS sensors provide reasonable accuracy as long as the measurements are attained under conditions close to the calibration conditions of the sensor (typically 21.1 C (70.0 F) and 1 atmosphere). However, as pressure deviates from atmospheric to the pressures associated with a spacecraft (8.0{10.2 pounds per square inch absolute (psia)) or spacesuit (4.1{8.0 psia), the error in the measurement grows increasingly large. In addition to pressure and temperature dependencies, the infrared transmissivity through a volume of gas also depends on the composition of the gas. As the composition is not known a priori, accurate sub-ambient detection must rely on iterative sensor compensation techniques. This manuscript describes the development of recursive compensation algorithms for sub-ambient detection of CO2 with COTS NDIR sensors. In addition, the source of the exponential loss in accuracy is developed theoretically. The basis of the loss can be explained through thermal, Doppler, and Lorentz broadening effects that arise as a result of the temperature, pressure, and composition of the gas mixture under analysis. This manuscript provides an approach to employing COTS sensors at sub-ambient conditions and may also lend insight into designing future NDIR sensors for aerospace application.

  3. Update on the safety and efficacy of commercial ultrasound contrast agents in cardiac applications

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Melissa J; Feinstein, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are currently used throughout the world in both clinical and research settings. The concept of contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging originated in the late 1960s, and the first commercially available agents were initially developed in the 1980s. Today's microbubbles are designed for greater utility and are used for both approved and off-label indications. In October 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) imposed additional product label warnings that included serious cardiopulmonary reactions, several new disease-state contraindications, and a mandated 30 min post-procedure monitoring period for the agents Optison and Definity. These additional warnings were prompted by reports of cardiopulmonary reactions that were temporally related but were not clearly attributable to these UCAs. Subsequent published reports over the following months established not only the safety but also the improved efficacy of clinical ultrasound applications with UCAs. The FDA consequently updated the product labeling in June 2008 and reduced contraindications, although it continued to monitor select patients. In addition, a post-marketing program was proposed to the sponsors for a series of safety studies to further assess the risk of UCAs. Then in October 2011, the FDA leadership further downgraded the warnings after hearing the results of the post-marketing data, which revealed continued safety and improved efficacy. The present review focuses on the use of UCAs in today's clinical practice, including the approved indications, a variety of off-label uses, and the most recent data, which affirms the safety and efficacy of UCAs. PMID:26693339

  4. Geothermal potential for commercial and industrial direct heat applications in Salida, Colorado. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.; Galloway, M.J.; Gross, J.T.; Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

    1982-10-01

    The Salida Geothermal Prospect (Poncha Hot Springs) was evaluated for industrial and commercial direct heat applications at Salida, Colorado, which is located approximately five miles east of Poncha Hot Springs. Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd., holds the geothermal leases on the prospect and the right-of-way for the main pipeline to Salida. The Poncha Hot Springs are located at the intersection of two major structural trends, immediately between the Upper Arkansas graben and the Sangre de Cristo uplift. Prominent east-west faulting occurs at the actual location of the hot springs. Preliminary exploration indicates that 1600 gpm of geothermal fluid as hot as 250/sup 0/F is likely to be found at around 1500 feet in depth. The prospective existing endusers were estimated to require 5.02 x 10/sup 10/ Btu per year, but the total annual amount of geothermal energy available for existing and future endusers is 28.14 x 10/sup 10/ Btu. The engineering design for the study assumed that the 1600 gpm would be fully utilized. Some users would be cascaded and the spent fluid would be cooled and discharged to nearby rivers. The economic analysis assumes that two separate businesses, the energy producer and the energy distributor, are participants in the geothermal project. The producer would be an existing limited partnership, with Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd. as one of the partners; the distributor would be a new Colorado corporation without additional income sources. Economic evaluations were performed in full for four cases: the Base Case and three alternate scenarios. Alternate 1 assumes a three-year delay in realizing full production relative to the Base Case; Alternate 2 assumes that the geothermal reservoir is of a higher quality than is assumed for the Base Case; and Alternate 3 assumes a lower quality reservoir. 11 refs., 34 figs., 40 tabs.

  5. Commercial application of steamflooding in an oil field comprised of multiple thin-sand reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.L.; Dosdon, C.J.; Ghassemi, F.; Moore, J.S.

    1984-09-01

    Steamfloods conducted in thin reservoirs generally provide marginal economics because of relatively high field development costs per barrel of oil-in-place and excessive heat losses from the productive zone. Techniques are being employed which include the utilization of induced horizontal fractures to circumvent these detriments attributed to thin zones, as well as the problems of steam distribution and confinement inherent in any steamflood. This paper documents the successful application of steamflooding in the multiple thin-sand reservoirs of the Loco Unit, Stephens County, Oklahoma. These reservoirs occur at depths from 50 ft (15 m) to 1,200 ft (366 m), and range in thickness up to 40 ft (12 m). Porosities of the productive zones vary from 20 percent to over 30 percent, and permeabilities range from 100 md to over 4,000 md. Oil gravities of the various zones range from 16 degrees to 24 degrees API. Reservoirs that occur at depths above approximately 700 ft (213 m) had little or no natural reservoir energy and generally contain viscous oils, ranging up to 10,000 cp. Consequently, there was no primary production from these reservoirs and potential for waterflooding was marginal. Steamflooding has been the only recovery process successfully applied to these zones, except for one isolated instance. Reservoirs of depths greater than 700 ft (213 m) normally contain lower viscosity oils. Six of these zones were produced by solution gas drive and were later successfully waterflooded. To date two of these six zones have been tested and have proven to support commercial steamflooding operations, after 23 years of waterflooding.

  6. Damage tolerance assessment of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft applications

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.

    1998-08-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration has sponsored a project at its Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to validate the use of bonded composite doublers on commercial aircraft. A specific application was chosen in order to provide a proof-of-concept driving force behind this test and analysis project. However, the data stemming from this study serves as a comprehensive evaluation of bonded composite doublers for general use. The associated documentation package provides guidance regarding the design, analysis, installation, damage tolerance, and nondestructive inspection of these doublers. This report describes a series of fatigue and strength tests which were conducted to study the damage tolerance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Tension-tension fatigue and ultimate strength tests attempted to grow engineered flaws in coupons with composite doublers bonded to aluminum skin. An array of design parameters, including various flaw scenarios, the effects of surface impact, and other off-design conditions, were studied. The structural tests were used to: (1) assess the potential for interply delaminations and disbonds between the aluminum and the laminate, and (2) determine the load transfer and crack mitigation capabilities of composite doublers in the presence of severe defects. A series of specimens were subjected to ultimate tension tests in order to determine strength values and failure modes. It was demonstrated that even in the presence of extensive damage in the original structure (cracks, material loss) and in spite of non-optimum installations (adhesive disbonds), the composite doubler allowed the structure to survive more than 144,000 cycles of fatigue loading. Installation flaws in the composite laminate did not propagate over 216,000 fatigue cycles. Furthermore, the added impediments of impact--severe enough to deform the parent aluminum skin--and hot-wet exposure did not effect the doubler`s performance. Since the tests were conducting using extreme combinations of flaw scenarios (sizes and collocation) and excessive fatigue load spectrums, the performance parameters were arrived at in a conservative manner.

  7. Applications of commercial biosensors in clinical, food, environmental, and biothreat/biowarfare analyses.

    PubMed

    Bahad?r, Elif Burcu; Sezgintrk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-01

    The lack of specific, low-cost, rapid, sensitive, and easy detection of biomolecules has resulted in the development of biosensor technology. Innovations in biosensor technology have enabled many biosensors to be commercialized and have enabled biomolecules to be detected onsite. Moreover, the emerging technologies of lab-on-a-chip microdevices and nanosensors offer opportunities for the development of new biosensors with much better performance. Biosensors were first introduced into the laboratory by Clark and Lyons. They developed the first glucose biosensor for laboratory conditions. Then in 1973, a glucose biosensor was commercialized by Yellow Springs Instruments. The commercial biosensors have small size and simple construction and they are ideal for point-of-care biosensing. In addition to glucose, a wide variety of metabolites such as lactate, cholesterol, and creatinine can be detected by using commercial biosensors. Like the glucose biosensors (tests) other commercial tests such as for pregnancy (hCG), Escherichia coli O157, influenza A and B viruses, Helicobacter pylori, human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis, and malaria have achieved success. Apart from their use in clinical analysis, commercial tests are also used in environmental (such as biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate, pesticide), food (such as glutamate, glutamine, sucrose, lactose, alcohol, ascorbic acid), and biothreat/biowarfare (Bacillus anthracis, Salmonella, Botulinum toxin) analysis. In this review, commercial biosensors in clinical, environmental, food, and biowarfare analysis are summarized and the commercial biosensors are compared in terms of their important characteristics. This is the first review in which all the commercially available tests are compiled together. PMID:25790902

  8. Technology data characterizing water heating in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    Commercial-sector conservation analyses have traditionally focused on lighting and space conditioning because of their relatively-large shares of electricity and fuel consumption in commercial buildings. In this report we focus on water heating, which is one of the neglected end uses in the commercial sector. The share of the water-heating end use in commercial-sector electricity consumption is 3%, which corresponds to 0.3 quadrillion Btu (quads) of primary energy consumption. Water heating accounts for 15% of commercial-sector fuel use, which corresponds to 1.6 quads of primary energy consumption. Although smaller in absolute size than the savings associated with lighting and space conditioning, the potential cost-effective energy savings from water heaters are large enough in percentage terms to warrant closer attention. In addition, water heating is much more important in particular building types than in the commercial sector as a whole. Fuel consumption for water heating is highest in lodging establishments, hospitals, and restaurants (0.27, 0.22, and 0.19 quads, respectively); water heating`s share of fuel consumption for these building types is 35%, 18% and 32%, respectively. At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and refined a base-year data set characterizing water heating technologies in commercial buildings as well as a modeling framework. We present the data and modeling framework in this report. The present commercial floorstock is characterized in terms of water heating requirements and technology saturations. Cost-efficiency data for water heating technologies are also developed. These data are intended to support models used for forecasting energy use of water heating in the commercial sector.

  9. Thermoluminescent characteristics of new pre-calibrated dosimeters (TLD) in commercially available readers for selected applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawil, R. A.; Pontikos, P.; Szalanczy, A.; Velbeck, K.; Bruml, W.; Rotunda, J. E.

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the performance of newly developed pre-calibrated Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLD) with a description and performance results for two commercially available TLD readers. Introduced for use in basic research, medical diagnostics and therapy applications, the Harshaw Model 5500 Automatic TLD Reader evaluates up to 50 dosimeters (rods, chips, disks, μ-cubes) per loading; the Harshaw Model 3500 Manual TLD Reader evaluates single dosimeters and powder. Tests were conducted using the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) guidelines for TLD readers to determine system performance and compliance. Both instruments passed the compliance standards in all tests established by the IEC: detection thresholds for both instruments were less than 10μGy, reproducibility was better than 0.7%, sensitivity to ambient light was less than 0.2 Hmax (where Hmax is the maximum detection threshold), TL residue was less than 1% of the total integral charge, stability less than 1% deviation after a 24 hour warm-up period, linearity was within specification, test light stability was under 1%, and power leakage requirements set forth by UL-544 (less than 500 μA AC RMS leakage) was less than 42 μA AC RMS in all cases. The characteristics of newly introduced, factory calibrated, extruded TLD-100 rods were investigated by studying the consistency of the Element Correction Coefficients (ECCs) under a variety of conditions. The ECC (< x> / xi) relates an individual dosimeter's response, xi, to the mean response, < x>, of the group. Supralinearity effects and the validity of ECCs generated at 1 cGy for use in the 50-900 cGy dose range were characterized and reported. The results for two specific applications, phantom studies with 60Co and at four Orthovoltage energies are also reported. Portability of Element Correction Coefficients from reader to reader was achieved with a relative standard deviation of less than 1.7%. The relative standard deviation of five TLDs exposed to various doses in the range of 50-900 cGy, with ECCs applied using a 1 cGy dose, yielded results under 2%. At Orthovoltage energies ranging from 100 kV p to 300 kV p, the corresponding relative standard deviations were less than 3%.

  10. Generic requirements specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ostenso, A.; May, R.

    1996-12-01

    This is a specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for application to safety systems in nuclear power plants. The specifications are suitable for evaluating a particular PLC product line as a platform for safety-related applications, establishing a suitable qualification test program, and confirming that the manufacturer has a quality assurance program that is adequate for safety-related applications or is sufficiently complete that, with a reasonable set of compensatory actions, it can be brought into conformance. The specification includes requirements for: (1) quality assurance measures applied to the qualification activities, (2) documentation to support the qualification, and (3) documentation to provide the information needed for applying the qualified PLC platform to a specific application. The specifications are designed to encompass a broad range of safety applications; however, qualifying a particular platform for a different range of applications can be accomplished by appropriate adjustments to the requirements.

  11. NASA's human system risk management approach and its applicability to commercial spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Law, Jennifer; Mathers, Charles H; Fondy, Susan R E; Vanderploeg, James M; Kerstman, Eric L

    2013-01-01

    As planning continues for commercial spaceflight, attention is turned to NASA to assess whether its human system risk management approach can be applied to mitigate the risks associated with commercial suborbital and orbital flights. NASA uses a variety of methods to assess the risks to the human system based on their likelihood and consequences. In this article, we review these methods and categorize the risks in the system as "definite," "possible," or "least" concern for commercial spaceflight. As with career astronauts, these risks will be primarily mitigated by screening and environmental control. Despite its focus on long-duration exploration missions, NASA's human system risk management approach can serve as a preliminary knowledge base to help medical planners prepare for commercial spaceflights. PMID:23305003

  12. Estimating commercial property prices: an application of cokriging with housing prices as ancillary information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero-Lorenzo, José-María; Larraz-Iribas, Beatriz; Páez, Antonio

    2009-12-01

    A vast majority of the recent literature on spatial hedonic analysis has been concerned with residential property values, with only very few examples of studies focused on commercial property prices. The dearth of studies can be attributed to some of the challenges faced in the analysis of commercial properties, in particular the scarcity of information compared to residential transactions. In order to address this issue, in this paper we propose the use of cokriging and housing prices as ancillary information to estimate commercial property prices. Cokriging takes into account the spatial autocorrelation structure of property prices, and the use of more abundant information on housing prices helps to improve the accuracy of property value estimates. A case study of Toledo in Spain, a city for which commercial activity stemming from tourism is one of the key elements of the economy in the city, demonstrates that substantial accuracy and precision gains can be obtained from the use of cokriging.

  13. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a separation of functions between stack convention and fuel processing, i.e. external reforming using low-cost, non-catalytic under-oxidized burners. Even for fuel cell technologies capable of internal reforming, the separation of functions offers the advantage of separate optimization of the fuel cell stack and fuel processor, leading to fuel flexibility and lower systems costs. The combination of small size fuel cells, high market values, low development and demonstration costs, low market entry costs, and availability of off-the-shelf balance-of-system components, provides a low financial and technical risk scenario for fuel cell commercialization.

  14. Environmental attitudes and drift reduction behavior among commercial pesticide applicators in a U.S. agricultural landscape.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Adam P; Prokopy, Linda S

    2012-12-30

    Pesticide drift is a significant environmental problem in rural regions, and can result in losses to certain non-target crops and livestock, water and air pollution, and threats to human health. While state agencies seek to control the harmful effects of pesticides through licensing and certificate programs, the adoption rates of drift-reducing practices by commercial applicators remain highly variable. In order to effectively target outreach efforts to commercial applicators, managers need to better understand current use patterns and the motivations behind the adoption and non-adoption of preferred practices. Using a web and mail survey, this study explored environmental attitudes, awareness and concern for pesticide drift, and current practice adoption for drift reduction by commercial pesticide applicators in Indiana. Researchers surveyed three distinct applicator types: industrial weed management (utility right-of-way), agriculture, and aerial (which are mostly spraying in an agricultural setting). Overall, applicators exhibited positive environmental attitudes, but low concern for pesticide drift in the geographic areas where they operate. Adoption rates for several drift reduction technologies were high, particularly for equipment and spray modifications such as low-drift spray nozzles (88%) and increased spray droplet size (92%). Applicators were less familiar with specialty equipment (such as band sprayers, 13% adoption rate) and methods for identifying sensitive sites such as bee colonies and organic crops. Among the three groups, industrial weed management applicators had the lowest adoption rates. Applicators were motivated to adopt drift-reduction practices by the desire to be a good neighbor and a desire to be a good land steward. There is potential for use of more innovative, voluntary approaches to raise awareness of sites sensitive to pesticide drift in rural landscapes. PMID:23062271

  15. Viable cosmological solutions in massive bimetric gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Koennig, Frank; Amendola, Luca; Patil, Aashay E-mail: aashay@students.iiserpune.ac.in

    2014-03-01

    We find the general conditions for viable cosmological solution at the background level in bigravity models. Furthermore, we constrain the parameters by comparing to the Union 2.1 supernovae catalog and identify, in some cases analytically, the best fit parameter or the degeneracy curve among pairs of parameters. We point out that a bimetric model with a single free parameter predicts a simple relation between the equation of state and the density parameter, fits well the supernovae data and is a valid and testable alternative to ΛCDM. Additionally, we identify the conditions for a phantom behavior and show that viable bimetric cosmologies cannot cross the phantom divide.

  16. Moving research to patient applications through commercialization: understanding and evaluating the role of intellectual property.

    PubMed

    Patino, Robert M

    2010-03-01

    The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization, and 5) the role of intellectual property and commercialization in the advancement of healthcare. PMID:20353687

  17. Moving Research to Patient Applications through Commercialization: Understanding and Evaluating the Role of Intellectual Property

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization, and 5) the role of intellectual property and commercialization in the advancement of healthcare. PMID:20353687

  18. Technology data characterizing space conditioning in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with COMMEND 4.0

    SciTech Connect

    Sezgen, O.; Franconi, E.M.; Koomey, J.G.; Greenberg, S.E.; Afzal, A.; Shown, L.

    1995-12-01

    In the US, energy consumption is increasing most rapidly in the commercial sector. Consequently, the commercial sector is becoming an increasingly important target for state and federal energy policies and also for utility-sponsored demand side management (DSM) programs. The rapid growth in commercial-sector energy consumption also makes it important for analysts working on energy policy and DSM issues to have access to energy end-use forecasting models that include more detailed representations of energy-using technologies in the commercial sector. These new forecasting models disaggregate energy consumption not only by fuel type, end use, and building type, but also by specific technology. The disaggregation of space conditioning end uses in terms of specific technologies is complicated by several factors. First, the number of configurations of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and heating and cooling plants is very large. Second, the properties of the building envelope are an integral part of a building`s HVAC energy consumption characteristics. Third, the characteristics of commercial buildings vary greatly by building type. The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Commercial End-Use Planning System (COMMEND 4.0) and the associated data development presented in this report attempt to address the above complications and create a consistent forecasting framework. This report describes the process by which the authors collected space-conditioning technology data and then mapped it into the COMMEND 4.0 input format. The data are also generally applicable to other end-use forecasting frameworks for the commercial sector.

  19. SMA actuators: a viable practical technology (Presentation Video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, Alan L.; Brown, Jeffrey; Hodgson, Darel E.

    2015-04-01

    Diverse products either based solely on or incorporating Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) have and are being made in a wide range of industries, and IP is being captured. Why then compared to SE (superelastic) Nitinol, and especially conventional technology, do so few ideas reach production? This presentation delves deeply into this topic in reaching the final assessment that SMA actuators are indeed now a viable practical technology. The presentation begins with an introduction to and description of the fundamental basis of SMA actuator technology. Examples of multiple commercially available geometric forms of SMA actuators are given and the functionalities that they provide are described. This is followed by examples of multiple commercial products incorporating such SMA actuators. Given that there are literally millions of commercial products incorporating conventional actuator technologies, indications are given as to why there are their less than 1000 that utilize SMA. Experience based challenges to the commercial use of SMA actuators are described. Besides having to compete with existing non-SMA technology which is quite mature additional challenges that are unique to SM actuators are indicated these including a wider than expected set of technical engineering problems and challenges and that a broader scope of dynamics is required.

  20. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8B: Mosquito Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L., Ed.; Kriner, Ray R., Ed.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the mimimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the mosquito control category. The text discusses the aspects of mosquito biology and control by biological, mechanical, and integrated measures. A study guide with sample and study questions is included.…

  1. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7B: Termites and Other Wood Destroying Pests. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, John B.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite and wood destroying pest control category. The text discusses the importance, description, biology, and control of termites, powderpost beetles, house and warf borers, carpenter ants, and…

  2. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8A: General Public Health Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests such as cockroaches, lice, fleas, and mites, vertebrate pests; and plant pests such as poison ivy and ragweed. A study guide

  3. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general and household pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests that effect health, stored products, grain, fabric, or the household; and vertebrate pests such as rats, mice, and

  4. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7B: Termites and Other Wood Destroying Pests. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, John B.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite and wood destroying pest control category. The text discusses the importance, description, biology, and control of termites, powderpost beetles, house and warf borers, carpenter ants, and

  5. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8B: Mosquito Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L., Ed.; Kriner, Ray R., Ed.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the mimimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the mosquito control category. The text discusses the aspects of mosquito biology and control by biological, mechanical, and integrated measures. A study guide with sample and study questions is included.

  6. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8A: General Public Health Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests such as cockroaches, lice, fleas, and mites, vertebrate pests; and plant pests such as poison ivy and ragweed. A study guide…

  7. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general and household pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests that effect health, stored products, grain, fabric, or the household; and vertebrate pests such as rats, mice, and…

  8. COMMERCIAL APPLICATION OF PLASMA MASS SEPARATION IN THE ARCHIMEDES FILTER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlfeld, C.E.; Gilleland, J.G.; Wagoner, J.D.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the commercial application of an innovative plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter to a pre-treatment plant that can be integrated into the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford and Savannah River Sites to significantly enhance the treatment of radioactive high-level waste. The output of the Archimedes Filter is completely compatible with existing waste immobilization processes such as vitrification and requires no new waste form to be developed. A full-geometric-scale Demonstration Filter Unit (DEMO) has been constructed and is undergoing initial testing at the Archimedes Technology Group Development Facilities in San Diego. Some of the technology and engineering development is being performed by other organizations in collaboration with Archimedes. The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing the plasma calcination technology and all of the associated systems for AFP feed preparation. Two Russian institutes are involved in the development of the ICP torch and injector system. The Remote System Group (UT-Battelle) at ORNL is developing the remote maintenance system for the filter units. Conceptual design of the Archimedes Filter Plant (AFP) is being developed concurrently with the DEMO testing program. The AFP mission is to significantly reduce the cost and accelerate the rate of vitrification of high-level waste by separating low activity waste from the sludge removed from underground storage tanks. Mass separation is accomplished by vaporizing the sludge feed and injecting it into a partially ionized, neutral plasma. In a single pass, heavy ions are deposited near the center of the filter and light mass ions are transported by the plasma to the ends of the cylindrically-shaped vacuum vessel. Responding to the DOE programs for cost reduction and cleanup acceleration, the AFP Project is planned on an expeditious schedule that executes all phases of the project with private sector funding. The initial AFP implementation is targeted for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site. Hot commissioning is scheduled for late 2007 with design throughput and availability achieved by end of 2008. It is anticipated that AFP revenues will be based on a shared cost savings model, thus providing first revenues by late 2007. Preliminary safety studies have shown that AFP process hazards are similar to or less hazardous than those in a radio-chemical pre-treatment plant for high-level waste. Conservative criticality evaluations indicate very large margins from criticality. Development of a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report will begin in mid 2003 to support licensing activities. A detailed permitting plan has been developed which, when combined with other activities, support a start of construction in 2005.

  9. Mediation and Counseling Services: A Viable Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    Mediation has become common in many areas of society, including marital dissolution, community disputes, governmental agencies, and business and industry. Though higher education has been slower than society to adopt mediation services, campus mediation is becoming increasingly more common. This article explains why mediation is a viable

  10. A Viable Partnership for School Renewal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, J. Foster

    1993-01-01

    In a foreword introducing a book edited by Carson and Smith (1993), the position is taken that a viable partnership in school renewal should be considered by the principal and the library media specialist. Key elements are discussed in the foreword, and developed further in the book, that must be considered in developing such a team approach. The…

  11. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  12. Civil tiltrotor missions and applications. Phase 2: The commercial passenger market

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P.; Neir, R.; Reber, R.; Scholes, R.; Alexander, H.; Sweet, D.; Berry, D. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The commercial passenger market for the civil tiltrotor was examined in phase 2. A market responsive commercial tiltrotor was found to be technically feasible, and a significant worldwide market potential was found to exist for such an aircraft, especially for relieving congestion in urban area-to-urban area service and for providing cost effective hub airport feeder service. Potential technical obstacles of community noise, vertiport area navigation, surveillance, and control, and the pilot/aircraft interface were determined to be surmountable. Nontechnical obstacles relating to national commitment and leadership and development of ground and air infrastructure were determined to be more difficult to resolve; an innovative public/private partnership is suggested to allow coordinated development of an initial commercial tiltrotor network to relieve congestion in the crowded US Northeast corridor by the year 2000.

  13. Models for residential-and commercial-sector energy conservation analysis: Applications, limitations, and future potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, H. E.; Fuller, R. E.

    1980-09-01

    Four of the major models used by DOE for energy conservation analyses in the residential and commercial building sectors are reviewed and critically analyzed to determine how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. The most effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy conservation policy and analysis is assessed. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  14. Accelerating the commercialization of university technologies for military healthcare applications: the role of the proof of concept process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Rosibel; DeLong, Hal; Kenyon, Jessica; Wilson, Eli

    2011-06-01

    The von Liebig Center for Entrepreneurism and Technology Advancement at UC San Diego (vonliebig.ucsd.edu) is focused on accelerating technology transfer and commercialization through programs and education on entrepreneurism. Technology Acceleration Projects (TAPs) that offer pre-venture grants and extensive mentoring on technology commercialization are a key component of its model which has been developed over the past ten years with the support of a grant from the von Liebig Foundation. In 2010, the von Liebig Entrepreneurism Center partnered with the U.S. Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), to develop a regional model of Technology Acceleration Program initially focused on military research to be deployed across the nation to increase awareness of military medical needs and to accelerate the commercialization of novel technologies to treat the patient. Participants to these challenges are multi-disciplinary teams of graduate students and faculty in engineering, medicine and business representing universities and research institutes in a region, selected via a competitive process, who receive commercialization assistance and funding grants to support translation of their research discoveries into products or services. To validate this model, a pilot program focused on commercialization of wireless healthcare technologies targeting campuses in Southern California has been conducted with the additional support of Qualcomm, Inc. Three projects representing three different universities in Southern California were selected out of forty five applications from ten different universities and research institutes. Over the next twelve months, these teams will conduct proof of concept studies, technology development and preliminary market research to determine the commercial feasibility of their technologies. This first regional program will help build the needed tools and processes to adapt and replicate this model across other regions in the Country.

  15. Technology data characterizing refrigeration in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with COMMEND 4.0

    SciTech Connect

    Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    In the United States, energy consumption is increasing most rapidly in the commercial sector. Consequently, the commercial sector is becoming an increasingly important target for state and federal energy policies and also for utility-sponsored demand side management (DSM) programs. The rapid growth in commercial-sector energy consumption also makes it important for analysts working on energy policy and DSM issues to have access to energy end-use forecasting models that include more detailed representations of energy-using technologies in the commercial sector. These new forecasting models disaggregate energy consumption not only by fuel type, end use, and building type, but also by specific technology. The disaggregation of the refrigeration end use in terms of specific technologies, however, is complicated by several factors. First, the number of configurations of refrigeration cases and systems is quite large. Also, energy use is a complex function of the refrigeration-case properties and the refrigeration-system properties. The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Commercial End-Use Planning System (COMMEND 4.0) and the associated data development presented in this report attempt to address the above complications and create a consistent forecasting framework. Expanding end-use forecasting models so that they address individual technology options requires characterization of the present floorstock in terms of service requirements, energy technologies used, and cost-efficiency attributes of the energy technologies that consumers may choose for new buildings and retrofits. This report describes the process by which we collected refrigeration technology data. The data were generated for COMMEND 4.0 but are also generally applicable to other end-use forecasting frameworks for the commercial sector.

  16. Application of Eimeria-specific plymerase chain reaction to study coccidiosis on commercial broiler operations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the species distribution and drug sensitivity of Eimeria oocysts isolated from different types of commercial broiler operations. In the first study, litter samples were collected from two groups of broiler farms that differed by means of coccidiosis ...

  17. Bioculture System Expanding ISS Capabilities for Space Biosciences Research and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Kevin Y.

    2013-01-01

    Oral presentation at the ASGSR 2013 Annual Meeting. The presentation describes the NASA Bioculture System hardware design, capabilities, enabling science research capabilities, and flight concept of operations. The presentation is part of the Enabling Technologies special session and will be presented to perspective users in both academics and commercial communities.

  18. Operational characteristics of commercial crop canopy sensors for nitrogen application in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop canopy reflectance sensing can be used to assess in-season nitrogen (N) health for automatic control of N fertilization, and several systems are commercially available. Because data comparing the performance of the different sensor designs is lacking, the objective of this research was to evalu...

  19. Optimization of Amylase Application in Raw Sugar Manufacture. Part I: Characterization of Commercial Alpha-Amylases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years there have been warnings by some U.S. refineries that there may be a penalty for high starch concentrations in raw sugar if starch control is not improved. Most commercial amylases used by the U.S. sugar industry to control starch have intermediate temperature stability (up to 85 de...

  20. Nanomanufacturing Portfolio: Manufacturing Processes and Applications to Accelerate Commercial Use of Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Industrial Technologies Program

    2011-01-05

    This brochure describes the 31 R&D projects that AMO supports to accelerate the commercial manufacture and use of nanomaterials for enhanced energy efficiency. These cost-shared projects seek to exploit the unique properties of nanomaterials to improve the functionality of industrial processes and products.

  1. Application of reactors for testing neutron-induced upsets in commercial SRAMs

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Luera, T.F.; Sexton, F.W.; Cooper, P.J.; Karr, S.G.; Hash, G.L.; Fuller, E.

    1997-08-01

    Reactor neutron environments can be used to test/screen the sensitivity of unhardened commercial SRAMs to low-LET neutron-induced upset. Tests indicate both thermal/epithermal (< 1 keV) and fast neutrons can cause upsets in unhardened parts. Measured upset rates in reactor environments can be used to model the upset rate for arbitrary neutron spectra.

  2. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, ?) = { f( t, ?, u)} u?U is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function ? and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  3. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Forest Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Common forest pests and their control are discussed. Special attention is given to the effectiveness of different application techniques and potential human and environmental hazards. (CS)

  4. Effects of postchill application of acidified sodium chlorite to control Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli on commercial broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Oyarzabal, Omar A; Hawk, Christopher; Bilgili, Sacit F; Warf, C Cayce; Kemp, G Kere

    2004-10-01

    Experiments were performed to assess the reduction of Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli in commercial broiler carcasses by postchill dip applications of acidified sodium chlorite. Carcass rinses were collected before the inside-outside-bird washer (IOBW), post-IOBW, postchill, and after the postchill application of acidified sodium chlorite. Prevalence and counts of Campylobacter spp. and E. coli were determined. The mean values for Campylobacter spp. and E. coli counts differed significantly at sampling sites. The IOBW reduced the bacterial counts significantly in only one experiment. The chiller reduced Campylobacter counts significantly in both experiments but failed to significantly reduce the counts of E. coli in one experiment. No major reduction in the prevalence after enrichment for Campylobacter spp. was detected post-IOBW or postchill. However, a significant reduction in Campylobacter spp. and in E. coli counts and Campylobacter spp. prevalence was seen after the postchill application of acidified sodium chlorite. These results demonstrate that the antimicrobial effect of acidified sodium chlorite applied postchill may be used to significantly reduce Campylobacter spp. and E. coli in commercial broiler carcasses. Postchill systems may eventually be used in different applications, such as mist, spray, or bath, which could be applied closer to the final stages in processing. PMID:15508645

  5. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 2: Forest Pest Control. CS-14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The pamphlet discusses the recognition and control of forest pests such as weeds, insects, disease and vertebrates by application of pesticides. Special attention is given to application methods and precautions to minimize human and

  6. The BioDyn facility on ISS: Advancing biomaterial production in microgravity for commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Niki; Wessling, Francis; Deuser, Mark; Anderson, C. D.; Lewis, Marian

    1999-01-01

    The primary goals of the BioDyn program are to foster use of the microgravity environment for commercial production of bio-materials from cells, and to develop services and processes for obtaining these materials through space processing. The scope of products includes commercial bio-molecules such as cytokines, other cell growth regulatory proteins, hormones, monoclonal antibodies and enzymes; transplantable cells or tissues which can be improved by low-G processes, or which cannot be obtained through standard processes in earth gravity; agriculture biotechnology products from plant cells; microencapsulation for diabetes treatment; and factors regulating cellular aging. To facilitate BioDyn's commercial science driven goals, hardware designed for ISS incorporates the flexibility for interchange between the different ISS facilities including the glovebox, various thermal units and centrifuges. By providing a permanent research facility, ISS is the critical space-based platform required by scientists for carrying out the long-term experiments necessary for developing bio-molecules and tissues using several cell culture modalities including suspension and anchorage-dependent cell types.

  7. In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot Potential Commercial and Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Joe T.; Fikes, John C.; Henley, Mark W.

    2006-01-01

    The key goals and objectives for an In-Space Cryogenic Propellant Depot are to support a safe, reliable, affordable and effective future human and robotic space exploration initiative. Previous studies have been conducted at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to determine technical requirements and feasibility for exploration and commercial potential of an in-space cryogenic propellant depot in low-Earth-orbit (LEO), low-Lunar orbit (LLO) and/or on the lunar surface. Results indicate that in-space cryogenic propellant depots are technically feasible given continued technology development and that there is a substantial growing market that depots could support. Systems studies showed that the most expensive part of transferring payloads to geo-synchronous-orbit (GEO) is the fuel. A cryogenic propellant production and storage depot stationed in LEO could lower the cost of missions to GEO and beyond. Propellant production separates water into hydrogen and oxygen through electrolysis. This process requires large amounts of power which is enabled by Space Solar Power technologies. Recent analysis indicate that in the coming decades there could be a significant demand for water-based propellants from Earth, moon, or asteroid resources if in-space transfer vehicles (upper stages) transitioned to reusable systems using water based propellants. This type of strategic planning move could create a substantial commercial market for space resources development, and ultimately lead toward significant commercial infrastructure development within the Earth-Moon system.

  8. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  9. Process to Selectively Distinguish Viable from Non-Viable Bacterial Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaDuc, Myron T.; Bernardini, Jame N.; Stam, Christina N.

    2010-01-01

    The combination of ethidium monoazide (EMA) and post-fragmentation, randomly primed DNA amplification technologies will enhance the analytical capability to discern viable from non-viable bacterial cells in spacecraft-related samples. Intercalating agents have been widely used since the inception of molecular biology to stain and visualize nucleic acids. Only recently, intercalating agents such as EMA have been exploited to selectively distinguish viable from dead bacterial cells. Intercalating dyes can only penetrate the membranes of dead cells. Once through the membrane and actually inside the cell, they intercalate DNA and, upon photolysis with visible light, produce stable DNA monoadducts. Once the DNA is crosslinked, it becomes insoluble and unable to be fragmented for post-fragmentation, randomly primed DNA library formation. Viable organisms DNA remains unaffected by the intercalating agents, allowing for amplification via post-fragmentation, randomly primed technologies. This results in the ability to carry out downstream nucleic acid-based analyses on viable microbes to the exclusion of all non-viable cells.

  10. Taxol commercial supply strategy.

    PubMed

    DeFuria, M D; Horovitz, Z

    1993-01-01

    Evidence of Taxol's safety and efficacy for treatment of refractory ovarian cancer convinced the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to seek a pharmaceutical partner and approval. After an open competition, NCI entered a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (BMS) to obtain approval of a New Drug Application (NDA) so that Taxol could be marketed as well as to provide supplies for clinical trials and compassionate use. To assure a successful commercialization of Taxol, BMS developed a strategic plan for expanding drug supplies. The strategy included immediately increasing the amount of Taxol derived from yew bark and establishing a broad research program to evaluate alternative sourcing options and their commercial feasibility. The options included precursor isolation and semisynthesis, yew plantations for biomass production, plant cell culture, and total synthesis. A number of both academic and industrial investigators, already interested in various Taxol supply issues, were enlisted for collaborations with the company. Progress on this research during the first 18 months has enabled BMS to do the following: 1) double the yield of Taxol from bark extraction; 2) exceed NCI's request for drug supplies in 1991, permitting establishment of an ovarian cancer treatment referral center (TRC) with a national network of comprehensive cancer centers; 3) increase NCI supplies from 5000 to 50,000 vials/month in 1992, permitting establishment of TRC protocol for breast cancer; 4) identify several potentially viable alternative sources; 5) schedule production of large amounts of Taxol by precursor conversion during 1993; and 6) ensure that sufficient quantities of the product will be available for treatment and continued clinical research.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7912526

  11. Commercial applicability of cell microancapsulation: a review of intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    Meier, Stephan M

    2010-01-01

    Maturity and applicability of a distinct field of science can be estimated, using a review of current filing statistics of patent applications. Therefore, hereby a search based on international classifications has been directed to the world intellectual property organization (WIPO) to determine the amount and content of patent applications related to the field of cell microencapsulation. The search was evaluated with regard to the distinct indications envisaged and an evaluation of possible technology gaps for fostering further progress was conducted. PMID:20384224

  12. Investigation and modification of a commercially available tactile sensor suited for robotic applications. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creus, Carolina

    1991-01-01

    Active (dynamic) tactile sensing was explored using a commercially available tactile array sensor. This task requires the redesign of the sensor interface and a full understanding of the old sensor hardware implementation. There were different stages to this research; the first stage involved the reverse engineering of the old tactile sensor. The second stage had to do with the exploration of the characteristics and behavior of the tactile sensor pad. The next stage dealt with the redesign of the sensor interface using the knowledge gained from the previous two stages. Finally, in the last stage, software to control the tactile sensor was developed to aid in the data acquisition process.

  13. Characteristics of multi-layer coating formed on commercially pure titanium for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Teker, Dilek; Muhaffel, Faiz; Menekse, Meryem; Karaguler, Nevin Gul; Baydogan, Murat; Cimenoglu, Huseyin

    2015-03-01

    An innovative multi-layer coating comprising a bioactive compound layer (consisting of hydroxyapatite and calcium titanate) with an underlying titanium oxide layer (in the form of anatase and rutile) has been developed on Grade 4 quality commercially pure titanium via a single step micro-arc oxidation process. Deposition of a multi-layer coating on titanium enhanced the bioactivity, while providing antibacterial characteristics as compared its untreated state. Furthermore, introduction of silver (4.6wt.%) into the multi-layer coating during micro-arc oxidation process imposed superior antibacterial efficiency without sacrificing the bioactivity. PMID:25579960

  14. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 6: Right-of-Way Pest Control. CS-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephan O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses important right-of-way weeds and unwanted woody plants and provides suggestions for both long- and short-term control. Attention is also given to special problems associated with application of right-of-way herbicides.…

  15. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 5: Aquatic Pest Control. CS-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the control of aquatic weeds in a variety of water use situations, i.e. static water, limited-flow impoundments and moving water. Also discussed are the principles of limited area application such as surface or…

  16. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the recognition of weeds and methods of their control in rights-of-way. Different types of application equipment both airborne and ground are discussed with precautions for the safe and effective use of herbicides. (CS)

  17. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1A: Agricultural Weed Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Weeds, their effects, and control in relation to crop production are presented. Pre- and post-emergence treatments are discussed for row crops such as corn and soybeans. Problems with herbicide application to grass pastures, small grains, and…

  18. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1C: Agricultural Crop Disease Control. CS-11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyvall, Robert F.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. It summarizes the economically important diseases of field and forage crops such as corn, soybeans and alfalfa. Special attention is given to pesticide application methods and safety. (CS)

  19. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1A: Agricultural Weed Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Weeds, their effects, and control in relation to crop production are presented. Pre- and post-emergence treatments are discussed for row crops such as corn and soybeans. Problems with herbicide application to grass pastures, small grains, and

  20. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 6: Right-of-Way Pest Control. CS-18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephan O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses important right-of-way weeds and unwanted woody plants and provides suggestions for both long- and short-term control. Attention is also given to special problems associated with application of right-of-way herbicides.

  1. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 5: Aquatic Pest Control. CS-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the control of aquatic weeds in a variety of water use situations, i.e. static water, limited-flow impoundments and moving water. Also discussed are the principles of limited area application such as surface or

  2. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Food Processing Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Characteristics, life cycles and habits of pests such as roaches, beetles, flies, ants and rodents are discussed. Additionally, pest control measures, especially by application of aerosols, dusts, baits, fumigants or vapors, is presented. (CS)

  3. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Forest Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiligmann, R. B.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The primary focus of this publication is on forest pest control. An introduction with the explanation of pesticide applications in forestry is presented. The ten sections included describe: (1) Principal

  4. Natural transfer of viable microbes in space.

    PubMed

    Mileikowsky, C; Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W; Gladman, B; Horneck, G; Lindegren, L; Melosh, J; Rickman, H; Valtonen, M; Zheng, J Q

    2000-06-01

    The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency. PMID:11543506

  5. Natural transfer of viable microbes in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mileikowsky, C.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Gladman, B.; Horneck, G.; Lindegren, L.; Melosh, J.; Rickman, H.; Valtonen, M.; Zheng, J. Q.

    2000-01-01

    The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency.

  6. The application of electrodialysis to extend the lifetime of commercial electroplating baths

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, G.; Zawodzinski, C.; Smith, B.; Smith, W.H.

    1993-12-31

    Electrodialysis has been investigated as a method to extend the lifetime of industrial electroplating solutions via the selective removal of inert electrolyte salts that build up during electroplating operations. The electrodialysis measurements were made using a commercially available plate-and frame-type cell and various combinations of Nafion cation ``change and either Tosflex or Neosepta anion exchange membranes. Two commercial plating solutions were studied: a zinc-tin bath in which there is a buildup of excess potassium hydroxide and a nickel-tungsten bath characterized by a buildup of excess sodium sulfate. Potassium hydroxide was effectively removed from the zinc-tin bath with very little loss of the heavy metals. Two configurations were investigated: a three compartment configuration with potassium hydroxide in the anolyte strip and sulfuric acid in the catholyte strip, and a two compartment configuration with sulfuric acid in the catholyte strip and the anode placed directly in the plating solution. In both cases potassium hydroxide was stripped from the plating solution at greater than 94% current efficiency, but at a slightly greater voltage in the three compartment cell due to increased resistance caused by the extra membrane. A three compartment configuration was used to remove sodium sulfate from the nickel-tungsten bath, with acid solution in the catholyte and alkaline solution in the anolyte. Current efficiencies for salt removal were high but with appreciable loss of tungsten and nickel to the strip solutions.

  7. Being everything to anyone: Applicability of thermoacoustic technology in the commercial refrigeration market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poese, Matthew E.; Smith, Robert W. M.; Garrett, Steven L.

    2005-09-01

    This talk will compare electrodynamically driven thermoacoustic refrigeration technology to some common implementations of low-lift vapor-compression technology. A rudimentary explanation of vapor-compression refrigeration will be presented along with some of the implementation problems faced by refrigeration engineers using compressor-based systems. These problems include oil management, compressor slugging, refrigerant leaks and the environmental impact of refrigerants. Recently, the method of evaluating this environmental impact has been codified to include the direct effects of the refrigerants on global warming as well as the so-called ``indirect'' warming impact of the carbon dioxide released during the generation (at the power plant) of the electrical power consumed by the refrigeration equipment. It is issues like these that generate commercial interest in an alternative refrigeration technology. However, the requirements of a candidate technology for adoption in a mature and risk-averse commercial refrigeration industry are as hard to divine as they are to meet. Also mentioned will be the state of other alternative refrigeration technologies like free-piston Stirling, thermoelectric and magnetocaloric as well as progress using vapor compression technology with alternative refrigerants like hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide.

  8. Progress on an ion diode system for commercial surface treatment applications

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, M.T.; Lockner, T.R.; Johnson, D.J.

    1998-12-31

    Quantum Manufacturing Technologies (QMT) is a private company pursuing the goal of providing commercial surface treatment technologies using intense pulsed ion beams. The requirements for commercial/industrial implementation are: greater than 1 Hz continuous operation, very long lifetimes (>10,000 pulses between maintenance and >100,000 pulses between part replacement), a high level of reliability and reproducibility of the beam parameters, moderate energy densities (1--6 J/cm{sup 2}), a fairly large beam footprint (>50 cm{sup 2} at the required energy density), and no particulate debris in the beam. The first system developed at QMT for use as an industrial surface treatment facility is referred to as QM1. QM1 consists of a pulsed power modulator capable of the generation of 400 kV, 150 ns wide pulsed delivering over 2 kJ/pulse and a repetitively pulsed ion diode which efficiently converts this power into an ion beam. The system is designed to operate at a sustained rate of 5 Hz. The control systems are industrial quality with touch screen input and automated control programming. This paper will detail the results of using the QM1 system to provide surface treatment for industrial customers. The beam parameters and the expected lifetimes for both the modulator and the ion diode system will be presented.

  9. The law applicable to the use of space for commercial activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    The general principles of space law that have an impact on commercial space activities are discussed. The Outer Space Treaty guaranteed the right of private enterprise in space, with jurisdiction over the participating parties residing in the country of origin. The liability for damages caused to a third party is also assigned to the country of origin. Government consent is necessary in the U.S. before a private firm is permitted to launch an object into space, with the relevant statute sections being part of the Arms Export Control Act; launches are legally treated as exports. FAA regulations define the safe area and flight conditions that must be satisfied for a private launch, although NASA, in the 1958 act which formed the agency, potentialy has the power to regulate space launch activities. The DoD must be notified of any launches in order to notify the U.S.S.R., filings must be made with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, and fees must be paid to the IRS. It is presently U.S. government policy to encourage and facilitate private sector development of commercial launch services.

  10. Phosphine fumigation and residues in dry-cured ham in commercial applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y; Abbar, S; Phillips, T W; Schilling, M W

    2015-09-01

    Dry-cured hams often become infested with ham mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae) during the aging process. Methyl bromide has been used to fumigate dry cured ham plants and is the only available fumigant that is effective at controlling ham mite infestations. However, methyl bromide will eventually be phased out of all industries. This research was designed to determine the efficacy of phosphine fumigation at controlling ham mites and red-legged beetles and any impact of phosphine fumigation on the sensory quality and safety of dry cured hams. Fumigation trials were conducted in simulated ham aging houses and commercial ham aging houses. Mite postembryonic mortality was 99.8% in the simulated aging houses and >99.9% in commercial aging houses three weeks post fumigation. Sensory tests with trained panelists indicated that there were no detectable differences (P > 0.05) between phosphine fumigated and control hams. In addition, residual phosphine concentration was below the legal limit of 0.01 ppm in ham slices that were taken from phosphine fumigated hams. PMID:25951409

  11. Degradation of free tryptophan in a cookie model system and its application in commercial samples.

    PubMed

    Morales, Francisco J; Aar, Ozge C; Serpen, Arda; Arribas-Lorenzo, Gema; Gkmen, Vural

    2007-08-01

    The stability of free tryptophan (Trp) was examined in five cookie-resembling models at varying baking temperatures and durations. Trp was measured by HPLC coupled with a fluorescent detector. Trp degradation was significantly greater in cookies formulated with glucose compared with sucrose, regardless of the temperatures and durations of baking. A lag period was clearly observed in cookies formulated with sucrose. The type of sugar used in the dough formulation affected not only the thermal destruction kinetics but also the degree of degradation of free Trp. However, the type of leavening agent (ammonium bicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate) did not affect the rate of Trp destruction as happens in Maillard-driven reactions. In addition, the free Trp content was analyzed in nine different flours and sixty-two commercial cookies, and it was found that free Trp varied from 0.4 to 1287.9 mg/kg for rice and wheat bran, respectively. It was found that free Trp was significantly higher in dietetic commercial samples formulated with wheat bran compared with other flours. PMID:17630767

  12. Hydrogen venting characteristics of commercial carbon-composite filters and applications to TRU waste

    SciTech Connect

    Callis, E.L.; Marshall, R.S.; Cappis, J.H.

    1997-04-01

    The generation of hydrogen (by radiolysis) and of other potentially flammable gases in radioactive wastes which are in contact with hydrogenous materials is a source of concern, both from transportation and on-site storage considerations. Because very little experimental data on the generation and accumulation of hydrogen was available in actual waste materials, work was initiated to experimentally determine factors affecting the concentration of hydrogen in the waste containers, such as the hydrogen generation rate, (G-values) and the rate of loss of hydrogen through packaging and commercial filter-vents, including a new design suitable for plastic bags. This report deals only with the venting aspect of the problem. Hydrogen venting characteristics of two types of commercial carbon-composite filter-vents, and two types of PVC bag closures (heat-sealed and twist-and-tape) were measured. Techniques and equipment were developed to permit measurement of the hydrogen concentration in various layers of actual transuranic (TRU) waste packages, both with and without filter-vents. A test barrel was assembled containing known configuration and amounts of TRU wastes. Measurements of the hydrogen in the headspace verified a hydrogen release model developed by Benchmark Environmental Corporation. These data were used to calculate revised wattage Emits for TRU waste packages incorporating the new bag filter-vent.

  13. CO2 heat pumps for commercial building applications with simultaneous heating and cooling demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharkar, Supriya

    Many commercial buildings, including data centers, hotels and hospitals, have a simultaneous heating and cooling demand depending on the season, occupation and auxiliary equipment. A data center on the Purdue University, West Lafayette campus is used as a case study. The electrical equipment in data centers produce heat, which must be removed to prevent the equipment temperature from rising to a certain level. With proper integration, this heat has the potential to be used as a cost-effective energy source for heating the building in which the data center resides or the near-by buildings. The proposed heat pump system utilizes carbon dioxide with global warming potential of 1, as the refrigerant. System simulations are carried out to determine the feasibility of the system for a 12-month period. In addition, energy, environmental and economic analyses are carried out to show the benefits of this alternative technology when compared to the conventional system currently installed in the facility. Primary energy savings of ~28% to ~61%, a payback period of 3 to 4.5 years and a decrease in the environmental impact value by ~36% makes this system an attractive option. The results are then extended to other commercial buildings.

  14. More viable parameter space for leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbrecht, Bjrn

    2014-09-01

    Lepton flavor asymmetries generated at the onset of the oscillations of sterile neutrinos with masses above the electroweak scale can be large enough to partly survive washout and to explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. This opens up new regions of parameter space, where leptogenesis is viable within the type-I seesaw framework. In particular, we find it possible that the sterile neutrino masses are substantially below 109 GeV, while not being degenerate. However, the required reheat temperature that is determined by the beginning of the oscillations lies some orders of magnitude above the sterile neutrino mass scale.

  15. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,

  16. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  17. 75 FR 12561 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... issues relating to enhanced border and cargo supply chain security, CBP modernization and automation..., Department of Homeland Security (DHS). ACTION: Committee Management; request for applicants for appointment... Management Analyst, Office of Trade Relations, Customs and Border Protection, 1300 Pennsylvania Avenue,...

  18. Commercial success of slurry pipelines creates opportunities for new applications in the '80s

    SciTech Connect

    Snoek, P.E.

    1982-03-15

    This work reviews the state of the art for existing slurry systems and considers the prospects for future pipelines transporting coal and other minerals. New potential applications are discussed and areas of particular interest are identified.

  19. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 2: Technical final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Intersatellite Link (ISL) applications can improve and expand communication satellite services in a number of ways. As the demand for orbital slots within prime regions of the geostationary arc increases, attention is being focused on ISLs as a method to utilize this resource more efficiently and circumvent saturation. Various GEO-to-GEO applications were determined that provide potential benefits over existing communication systems. A set of criteria was developed to assess the potential applications. Intersatellite link models, network system architectures, and payload configurations were developed. For each of the chosen ISL applications, ISL versus non-ISL satellite systems architectures were derived. Both microwave and optical ISL implementation approaches were evaluated for payload sizing and cost analysis. The technological availability for ISL implementations was assessed. Critical subsystems technology areas were identified, and an estamate of the schedule and cost to advance the technology to the requiered state of readiness was made.

  20. 77 FR 34971 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Protection; Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: Committee Management; Request for Applicants for... may be affiliated with the same political party. It is expected that, during its upcoming thirteenth... address; Political affiliation in order to ensure balanced representation. (Required by COAC's...

  1. Trans-Aortic Counterpulsation: A Viable Alternative?

    PubMed Central

    Datt, Bharat; Hutchison, Lisa; Peniston, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Transthoracic intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) insertion has been a relatively rare and uncommon procedure. However, it is an established beneficial option in patients with severe peripheral vascular disease (PVD) accompanied with bi-lateral femoral arterial occlusion. There are several viable alternatives to trans-aortic IABP insertion, including trans-axillary or in abdominal aorta (requiring a laparotomy). Cardiac surgery has the advantage of an open sternum, facilitating effortless direct intraaortic balloon (IAB) insertion into the aorta. The IAB can be inserted either through a 9-mm graft or directly into the ascending aorta. During cardiac surgery, direct insertion into the ascending aorta with the balloon tip lying distally in the abdominal aorta is facilitated with an open sternum. The base of the balloon lies ?2 cm below the left subclavian and can be confirmed through a trans-esophageal echocardiogram (TEE). Elimination of a graft insertion saves the team from time-consuming maneuvers and additional hemorrhagic complications. In our experience, postoperative vasoplegic syndrome coupled with myocardial edema contributed to patent instability and was treated with vasopressin and transthoracic IAB insertion. The CS 100 (Datascope Corp., Mahwah, NJ) console allowed the ability to time the balloon accurately. This case report details our experience with one such patient and establishes trans-aortic counter-pulsation as a safe and viable option in patients with severe PVD, where percutaneous insertion is precluded or has failed. PMID:17672190

  2. Economic modeling of fault tolerant flight control systems in commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finelli, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the current development of a comprehensive model which will supply the assessment and analysis capability to investigate the economic viability of Fault Tolerant Flight Control Systems (FTFCS) for commercial aircraft of the 1990's and beyond. An introduction to the unique attributes of fault tolerance and how they will influence aircraft operations and consequent airline costs and benefits is presented. Specific modeling issues and elements necessary for accurate assessment of all costs affected by ownership and operation of FTFCS are delineated. Trade-off factors are presented, aimed at exposing economically optimal realizations of system implementations, resource allocation, and operating policies. A trade-off example is furnished to graphically display some of the analysis capabilities of the comprehensive simulation model now being developed.

  3. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part I - progress in the patent landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Robert

    2013-12-01

    In the last 20 years, diffractive optics experienced a strong research interest and was in the center of many development projects in applied optics. To offer a side view for optical engineers, here, we discuss selected, business-related aspects of the current status of the transfer process to bring diffractive optics into commercial products. The contribution is divided into two parts. Here, in part I, we focus on the patent landscape of diffractive optics with a closer look on the temporal development and the distribution over main players. As an important result, currently, new strong patent activities are observed especially in the context of imaging systems. In the second part, the business volumes of selected market segments are discussed.

  4. DOE Commercial Building Asset Rating: An Application of Centralized Modeling Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Na; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Srivastava, Viraj; Taylor, Cody

    2012-06-26

    This paper presents a novel approach used to develop the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Building Asset Rating, which is intended to help building owners better understand the installed system performance and the total energy use. A simplified data collection and energy-modeling method is employed to disaggregate building energy information. Furthermore, the approach outlined will also include a mechanism for identifying energy improvement opportunities. A detailed modeling approach to formulate an Asset Rating would most likely provide the greatest flexibility and accuracy. Such an approach would, however, require a substantial amount of user investment for collecting the energy audit, data and hiring a professional to perform energy modeling and analysis. A simplified model approach requires fewer input combinations, which could reduce opportunities for error and allow an inexperienced user to quickly develop energy models. However, the accuracy of the results is often questionable. To address the above issue, the method presented in this paper separates model inputs into categories based on overall energy impact, difficulty to obtain, and variability among buildings. We outline an approach that will allow great flexibility in terms of how many and which of the different categories of variables must be found to produce an accurate energy model. The approach will allow all key variables to be inferred from some minimum set of variables while at the same time allowing a user to enter many more variables if he or she has reliable values for them. The approach outlined will also provide constant values for some variables and algorithms for finding those which are very difficult to determine in the field. The whole of this approach will reduce modeling time and expertise required while maintaining accuracy and the ability to support the variability and complexity that exist in buildings. Therefore, the goals of facilitating cost-effective investment in energy efficiency and reducing energy use in the commercial building sector are met.

  5. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Animal. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, R. F., Ed.; Schmidtmann, E. T., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Chapter one deals with the safety problems of pesticide use to humans, livestock and the environment. The second chapter is concerned with the types of application equipment and their utilization. Specific pests of livestock and poultry…

  6. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Animal. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendleton, R. F., Ed.; Schmidtmann, E. T., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Chapter one deals with the safety problems of pesticide use to humans, livestock and the environment. The second chapter is concerned with the types of application equipment and their utilization. Specific pests of livestock and poultry

  7. Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator system. Phase I. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.J.; Anderson, E.R.; Bardwell, K.M.

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the design and analysis of the BDM CAPVC (Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator) system. The preliminary design, prototype test and evaluation, system analysis, and final design of a large-scale concentrating photovoltaic system are described. The application is on an attractive new office building which represents a large potential market. The photovoltaic concentrating array is a roof-mounted, single-axis linear parabolic trough, using single crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells. A total of 6720 square feet of aperture is focussed on 13,944 PV cells. The photovoltaic system operates in parallel with the local utility in an augmentary loadsharing operating mode. The array is actively cooled and the thermal energy utilized for building heat during winter months. (WHK)

  8. On the Use of Thermoelectric (TE) Applications Based on Commercial Modules: The Case of TE Generator and TE Cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, K.; Hatzikraniotis, E.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.; Kyratsi, Th.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, thermoelectricity sees rapidly increasing usages in applications like portable refrigerators, beverage coolers, electronic component coolers etc. when used as Thermoelectric Cooler (TEC), and Thermoelectric Generators (TEG) which make use of the Seebeck effect in semiconductors for the direct conversion of heat into electrical energy and is of particular interest for systems of highest reliability or for waste heat recovery. In this work, we examine the performance of commercially available TEC and TEG. A prototype TEC-refrigerator has been designed, modeled and constructed for in-car applications. Additionally, a TEG was made, in order to measure the gained power and efficiency. Furthermore, a TEG module was tested on a small size car (Toyota Starlet, 1300 cc), in order to measure the gained power and efficiency for various engine loads. With the use of a modeling approach, we evaluated the thermal contact resistances and their influence on the final device efficiency.

  9. Thermographic-phosphor temperature measurements: Commercial and defense-related applications

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Turley, W.D.; Allison, S.W.

    1994-06-01

    This paper is a review of a diverse set of applications of the thermographic-phosphor (TP) method for measuring temperatures remotely. The TP method is useful in hostile and/or inaccessible environments where no other known method works. It is highly accurate, nonintrusive, durable, conceptually simple, covers an unprecedented temperature range (0 K to >1200 K), can measure temperature at a single point or over an entire surface, and can make static, steady-state, or very high speed dynamic measurements. The TP method can also be used to make leadless, remotely interrogated heat-flux gauges that can nonintrusively measure spatial distributions of heat flux over arbitrarily large areas with high resolution. The applications described include measurements in gas centrifuges, motors, variable-area ejectors, rotors and stators in gas turbines, and others. The authors also briefly discuss heat-flux gauges and their applications.

  10. Study of fuel cell on-site, integrated energy systems in residential/commercial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, R. A.; Karamchetty, S.; Rand, R. H.; Ku, W. S.; Tekumalla, V.

    1980-01-01

    Three building applications were selected for a detailed study: a low rise apartment building; a retail store, and a hospital. Building design data were then specified for each application, based on the design and construction of typical, actual buildings. Finally, a computerized building loads analysis program was used to estimate hourly end use load profiles for each building. Conventional and fuel cell based energy systems were designed and simulated for each building in each location. Based on the results of a computer simulation of each energy system, levelized annual costs and annual energy consumptions were calculated for all systems.

  11. Study of fuel cell on-site, integrated energy systems in residential/commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakefield, R. A.; Karamchetty, S.; Rand, R. H.; Ku, W. S.; Tekumalla, V.

    1980-10-01

    Three building applications were selected for a detailed study: a low rise apartment building; a retail store, and a hospital. Building design data were then specified for each application, based on the design and construction of typical, actual buildings. Finally, a computerized building loads analysis program was used to estimate hourly end use load profiles for each building. Conventional and fuel cell based energy systems were designed and simulated for each building in each location. Based on the results of a computer simulation of each energy system, levelized annual costs and annual energy consumptions were calculated for all systems.

  12. Decision support systems and applications in ophthalmology: literature and commercial review focused on mobile apps.

    PubMed

    de la Torre-Dez, Isabel; Martnez-Prez, Borja; Lpez-Coronado, Miguel; Daz, Javier Rodrguez; Lpez, Miguel Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    The growing importance that mobile devices have in daily life has also reached health care and medicine. This is making the paradigm of health care change and the concept of mHealth or mobile health more relevant, whose main essence is the apps. This new reality makes it possible for doctors who are not specialist to have easy access to all the information generated in different corners of the world, making them potential keepers of that knowledge. However, the new daily information exceeds the limits of the human intellect, making Decision Support Systems (DSS) necessary for helping doctors to diagnose diseases and also help them to decide the attitude that has to be taken towards these diagnoses. These could improve the health care in remote areas and developing countries. All of this is even more important in diseases that are more prevalent in primary care and that directly affect the people's quality of life, this is the case in ophthalmological problems where in first patient care a specialist in ophthalmology is not involved. The goal of this paper is to analyse the state of the art of DSS in Ophthalmology. Many of them focused on diseases affecting the eye's posterior pole. For achieving the main purpose of this research work, a literature review and commercial apps analysis will be done. The used databases and systems will be IEEE Xplore, Web of Science (WoS), Scopus, and PubMed. The search is limited to articles published from 2000 until now. Later, different Mobile Decision Support System (MDSS) in Ophthalmology will be analyzed in the virtual stores for Android and iOS. 37 articles were selected according their thematic (posterior pole, anterior pole, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), cloud, data mining, algorithms and structures for DSS, and other) from a total of 600 found in the above cited databases. Very few mobile apps were found in the different stores. It can be concluded that almost all existing mobile apps are focused on the eye's posterior pole. Among them, the most intended are for diagnostic of diabetic retinopathy. The primary market niche of the commercial apps is the general physicians. PMID:25472731

  13. Hydronic heat pumps for residential and light-commercial applications: Volume 2, Appendixes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.; Ball, D.; Talbert, S.; Broehl, J.; Buhr, A.; Martineau, T.

    1987-03-01

    The technical and economic potential of hydronic heat pump heating systems was investigated. The work included review of the status of current hydronic and hydronic heat pump technology in the US and Europe, development of candidate design concepts and performance parameters for air-to-water, water-to-water and backup systems, development of control strategies to minimize costs and electrical demand, analysis of transient and seasonal performance for a wide range of applications, and preliminary investigation of the financial attractiveness and market potential of hydronic heat pump systems. The status review uncovered only a few suppliers of hydronic heat pumps in the United States. Hydronic heat pumps in Europe are technologically mature, but the market expansion is impeded by high initial and installation costs. Steady-state and transient performance of a candidate hydronic heat pump was computed using available models adapted for the hydronic application. Design and application features explored included refrigerant type, source temperature, convector sizing, compressor type, condenser and evaporator sizing, optimum charge, frosting/defrosting losses, control strategy, effect of day and night rates, thermostat setback and electrical demand, and thermal energy storage. Based on life-cycle cost savings, a number of hydronic heat-pump systems appear financially attractive in selective applications. Consumer awareness and education are considered essential to market growth.

  14. 77 FR 17105 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Rotel North American Tours, LLC; Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Register on January 31, 2012 (77 FR 4881), and June 14, 2010 (75 FR 33661), announcing that Rotel North... on January 31, 2012 (77 FR 4881), the following correction is made: On page 4881, in the third column... application for renewal of exemption published on June 14, 2010 (FR 75 33661), the following correction...

  15. 40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... had considerable formal education, training and experience in preparation for their positions. Their... possibility of secondary problems such is unintended effects on wildlife. Proper use of specialized equipment... control. Applicators shall demonstrate practical knowledge of the secondary effects which can be caused...

  16. 40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... had considerable formal education, training and experience in preparation for their positions. Their... possibility of secondary problems such is unintended effects on wildlife. Proper use of specialized equipment... control. Applicators shall demonstrate practical knowledge of the secondary effects which can be caused...

  17. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  18. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Regulatory Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesecher, Robert

    This manual is designed to assist regulatory pest control applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The guide discusses: (1) Factors influencing introduction and spread of pests and their population dynamics; (2) Methods and techniques used to suppress, control, or eradicate pests of

  19. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turfgrass Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition and control of ornamental and turfgrass pests such as leaf spot, scab, powdery mildew, galls, grubs and weeds. A section of the text is also devoted to environmental concerns to be considered when undertaking pest

  20. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 10: Demonstration and Research. CS-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is directed to individuals working in demonstration and research pest control who evaluate, provide and disseminate information on pest control procedures. Guidelines for designing and conducting a research experiment in

  1. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Field Crop Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdmann, M. H.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators to meet the requirements for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on field crop pest control. The five sections presented describe: (1) Field crop pests; (2) Using pesticides in field crops; (3) Weed pests of field crops; (4)…

  2. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, J.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

  3. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Vegetable Pests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, D.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in vegetable crops prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on vegetable pest control. The three sections presented describe: (1) Insect pests of vegetable crops; (2) Weed pests of vegetable crops; and (3) Causes of…

  4. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and

  5. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition of pests and vectors such as lice, fleas, mosquitoes, flies and rodents. There is also discussion on methods of control without pesticides or in combination with pesticide treatment. Sections of the text are devoted to…

  6. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and…

  7. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1E: Animal Pest Control. CS-13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jerald R.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The areas discussed include the economic insect pests on livestock and control treatments; the toxicity and hazards of livestock pesticides; and special considerations when applying pesticides. (CS)

  8. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1B: Agricultural Insect Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This guide provides basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the control of economic insect pests on field and forage crops, especially corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Full color photographs of the more destructive pests are provided to aid in identification of problems. Precautions and…

  9. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 8: Public Health Pest Control. CS-23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses those pests which are agents in transmitting disease, cause injury or discomfort, and bite or sting. Control methods for each of these categories are provided. (CS)

  10. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 3: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. CS-15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cott, A. E.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section serves as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of common problems on some of the more common ornamental plants. Recommended control measures are suggested. The second section provides color photographs of common lawn

  11. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 4: Seed Treatment. CS-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the storage insects, soil insects and fungi which are the major kinds of seed pests. Chemical and nonchemical control measures and the labeling and coloring requirements for treated seed are also discussed.

  12. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 4: Seed Treatment. CS-16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the storage insects, soil insects and fungi which are the major kinds of seed pests. Chemical and nonchemical control measures and the labeling and coloring requirements for treated seed are also discussed.…

  13. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Control of Wood Destroying Pests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist pesticide applicators in the category of wood destroying organisms to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of the Agriculture for certification. The 10 sections included describe: (1) Subterranean termites; (2) Dampwood termites; (3) Drywood termites; (4) Powder-post beetles; (5) Old house borer; (6)…

  14. Teaching Farmers and Commercial Pesticide Applicators about Invasive Species in Pesticide Training Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gary J.; Herzfeld, Dean; Haugen-Brown, Tana

    2015-01-01

    Farmers and agricultural professionals who are aware of species likely to invade agricultural landscapes can be active participants in efforts to detect invasive species. To reach this audience we created a short invasive species program and added it to the existing and required pesticide applicator recertification workshops. We highlighted four…

  15. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of aquatic pest control meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aquatic Pest Control Guide served as a basis for this manual. The six sections presented describe: (1) Aquatic pest control; (2)…

  16. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

  17. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1B: Agricultural Insect Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This guide provides basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the control of economic insect pests on field and forage crops, especially corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Full color photographs of the more destructive pests are provided to aid in identification of problems. Precautions and

  18. Teaching Farmers and Commercial Pesticide Applicators about Invasive Species in Pesticide Training Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Gary J.; Herzfeld, Dean; Haugen-Brown, Tana

    2015-01-01

    Farmers and agricultural professionals who are aware of species likely to invade agricultural landscapes can be active participants in efforts to detect invasive species. To reach this audience we created a short invasive species program and added it to the existing and required pesticide applicator recertification workshops. We highlighted four

  19. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition of pests and vectors such as lice, fleas, mosquitoes, flies and rodents. There is also discussion on methods of control without pesticides or in combination with pesticide treatment. Sections of the text are devoted to

  20. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide presents information needed to meet the requirements for pesticide applicator certification. The first part deals with recognition and control of aquatic pests such as aquatic weeds, fish and other vertebrates. Environmental concerns in aquatic pest control are discussed in the second section. (CS)

  1. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of ornamental and turf pest control prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The three sections presented describe: (1) Ornamentals; (2) Turfgrass; and (3) Pest Control. Section one discusses the diagnostic chart for plant problems, non-pest

  2. Thin Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization, Critical Issues, and Applications; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Ullal, H. S.; von Roedern, B.

    2007-09-01

    We report here on the major commercialization aspects of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies based on CIGS and CdTe (a-Si and thin-Si are also reported for completeness on the status of thin-film PV). Worldwide silicon (Si) based PV technologies continues to dominate at more than 94% of the market share, with the share of thin-film PV at less than 6%. However, the market share for thin-film PV in the United States continues to grow rapidly over the past several years and in CY 2006, they had a substantial contribution of about 44%, compared to less than 10% in CY 2003. In CY 2007, thin-film PV market share is expected to surpass that of Si technology in the United States. Worldwide estimated projections for CY 2010 are that thin-film PV production capacity will be more than 3700 MW. A 40-MW thin-film CdTe solar field is currently being installed in Saxony, Germany, and will be completed in early CY 2009. The total project cost is Euro 130 million, which equates to an installed PV system price of Euro 3.25/-watt averaged over the entire solar project. This is the lowest price for any installed PV system in the world today. Critical research, development, and technology issues for thin-film CIGS and CdTe are also elucidated in this paper.

  3. Application of handheld and portable spectrometers for screening acrylamide content in commercial potato chips.

    PubMed

    Ayvaz, Huseyin; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2015-05-01

    The most common methods for acrylamide analysis in foods require the use of LC-MS/MS and GC-MS. Although these methods have great analytical performance, they need intensive sample preparation, highly specialised instrumentation, and are time consuming. In this study, portable and handheld infrared spectrometers were evaluated as rapid methods for screening acrylamide in potato chips and their performances were compared to those of benchtop infrared systems. The acrylamide content of 64 commercial potato chips (169-2453 μg/kg) was determined by LC-MS/MS. Spectral data were collected using mid-infrared (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) spectrometers. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) calibration models were developed to predict acrylamide levels. Overall, good linear correlation was found between the predicted acrylamide levels and actual measured acrylamide concentrations by LC-MS/MS (rPred > 0.90 and SEP < 100 μg/kg). Our results indicate that portable and handheld spectrometers can be used as simple and rapid alternatives for acrylamide analysis in potato chips. PMID:25529665

  4. Applicability of three commercially available kits for forensic identification of blood stains.

    PubMed

    Horjan, Ivana; Barbaric, Lucija; Mrsic, Gordan

    2016-02-01

    Various commercially available one-step immunoassays for detection of human (primate) blood have been developed. This study evaluated two hemoglobin tests, ABAcard() HemaTrace() and HemDirect Hemoglobin against glycophorin A test-RSID-Blood for following parameters: sensitivity, specificity, effectiveness using various substrates, stain remover and aged blood stains. The highest blood detection limit was observed if HemaTrace() was used. When compared with HemaTrace(), ten times lower sensitivity was observed for HemDirect Hemoglobin test. No false positives were obtained for HemDirect Hemoglobin while ABAcard() HemaTrace(), probably due to its extreme sensitivity, showed high percent of false positives with saliva. The lowest sensitivity and 40% of false positives with saliva was exhibited by RSID-Blood. In addition, this test encountered the lowest efficacy if aged blood-stains or blood treated with stain remover were used. As expected, none of the tested substrates (wood, metal, brick, and soil), influenced on blood testing, although soil substrate affected STR amplification. Conducted studies established HemDirect Hemoglobin test as more reliable for evaluated parameters than ABAcard() HemaTrace() and RSID-Blood. PMID:26748240

  5. Application of high temperature ceramic superconductors (CSC) to commercial tokamak reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, D.A.; Kim, S.; Gohar, Y.; Turner, L.; Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.

    1988-08-01

    Ceramic superconductors operating near liquid nitrogen temperature may experience higher heating rates without losing stability, compared conventional superconductors. This will permit cable design with less stabilizer, reducing fabrication costs for large fusion magnets. Magnet performance is studied for different operating current densities in the superconductor, and cost benefits to commercial tokamak reactors are estimated. It appears that 10 kA /center dot/ cm/sup /minus/2/ (at 77 K and /approximately/10 T) is a target current density which must be achieved in order for the ceramic superconductors to compete with conventional materials. At current densities around 50 kA /center dot/ cm/sup /minus/2/ most potential benefits have already been gained, as magnet structural steel begins to dominate the cost at this point. For a steady state reactor reductions of /approximately/7% are forecast for the overall capital cost of the power plant in the best case. An additional /approximately/3% cost saving is possible for pulsed tokamaks. 9 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography of lipophilic compounds with application to synthetic and commercial biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Yang, J; Rainville, P; Jones, M D; Fountain, K J; Isaac, G; Taylor, L T

    2015-03-01

    Ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) in combination with sub-2?m particles and either diode array ultraviolet (UV), evaporative light scattering, (ELSD), or mass spectrometric (MS) detection has been shown to be a valuable technique for the determination of acylglycerols in soybean, corn, sesame, and tobacco seed oils. Excellent resolution on an un-endcapped single C18 column (3.0mm150mm) with a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile and carbon dioxide in as little as 10min served greatly as an improvement on first generation packed column SFC instrumentation. Unlike high resolution gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, UHPSFC/MS was determined to be a superior analytical tool for both separation and detection of mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerols as well as free glycerol itself in biodiesel without derivatization. Baseline separation of residual tri-, di-, and mono-acylglycerols alongside glycerol at 0.05% (w/w) was easily obtained employing packed column SFC. The new analytical methodology was applied to both commercial B100 biodiesel (i.e. fatty acid methyl esters) derived from vegetable oil and to an "in-house" synthetic biodiesel (i.e. fatty acid ethyl esters) derived from tobacco seed oil and ethanol both before and after purification via column chromatography on bare silica. PMID:25635951

  7. The application of photovoltaic roof shingles to residential and commercial buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.; Sanchez, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    The recent development of a shingle-type solar-cell module makes it possible to incorporate easily photovoltaic power generation into the sloping roofs of residential or commercial buildings. These modules, which use a closely packed array of nineteen 53-mm-diameter circular solar cells, are capable of producing 101 watts/sq m of module area under standard operating conditions. This module performance is achievable by the use of solar cells with an average efficiency of 13.3 percent at 1 kW/sq m air-mass-1.5 insolation and at a cell temperature of 28 C. When these modules are mounted on a sloping south-facing roof which is insulated on the rear surface, the annual energy generated at the maximum power operating point will vary from 255.6 to 137.3 kWh/sq m of module area depending on the site location, with Albuquerque, NM, and Seattle, WA, representing the highest and lowest values of the thirteen sites considered.

  8. Applicability of commercial CFD tools for assessment of heavy vehicle aerodynamic characteristics.

    SciTech Connect

    Pointer, W. D.; Sofu, T.; Chang, J.; Weber, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-12-01

    In preliminary validation studies, computational predictions from the commercial CFD codes Star-CD were compared with detailed velocity, pressure and force balance data from experiments completed in the 7 ft. by 10 ft. wind tunnel at NASA Ames using a Generic Conventional Model (GCM) that is representative of typical current-generation tractor-trailer geometries. Lessons learned from this validation study were then applied to the prediction of aerodynamic drag impacts associated with various changes to the GCM geometry, including the addition of trailer based drag reduction devices and modifications to the radiator and hood configuration. Add-on device studies have focused on ogive boat tails, with initial results indicating that a seven percent reduction in drag coefficient is easily achievable. Radiator and hood reconfiguration studies have focused on changing only the size of the radiator and angle of the hood components without changes to radii of curvature between the radiator grill and hood components. Initial results indicate that such changes lead to only modest changes in drag coefficient.

  9. BAE Systems' 17?m LWIR camera core for civil, commercial, and military applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeffrey; Rodriguez, Christian; Blackwell, Richard

    2013-06-01

    Seventeen (17) m pixel Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Sensors based on vanadium oxide (VOx) micro-bolometers have been in full rate production at BAE Systems' Night Vision Sensors facility in Lexington, MA for the past five years.[1] We introduce here a commercial camera core product, the Airia-MTM imaging module, in a VGA format that reads out in 30 and 60Hz progressive modes. The camera core is architected to conserve power with all digital interfaces from the readout integrated circuit through video output. The architecture enables a variety of input/output interfaces including Camera Link, USB 2.0, micro-display drivers and optional RS-170 analog output supporting legacy systems. The modular board architecture of the electronics facilitates hardware upgrades allow us to capitalize on the latest high performance low power electronics developed for the mobile phones. Software and firmware is field upgradeable through a USB 2.0 port. The USB port also gives users access to up to 100 digitally stored (lossless) images.

  10. Evaluating the Performance and Economics of Transpired Solar Collectors for Commercial Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Deru, M.; Slayzak, S.; Norton, P.; Barker, G.; McClendon, J,

    2008-07-01

    Using transpired solar collectors to preheat ventilation air has recently become recognized as an economic alternative for integrating renewable energy into commercial buildings in heating climates. The collectors have relatively low installed costs and operate on simple principles. Theory and performance testing have shown that solar collection efficiency can exceed 70% of incident solar. However, implementation and current absorber designs have adversely affected the efficiency and associated economics from this initial analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has actively studied this technology and monitored performance at several installations. A calibrated model that uses typical meteorological weather data to determine absorber plate efficiency resulted from this work. With this model, an economic analysis across heating climates was done to show the effects of collector size, tilt, azimuth, and absorptivity. The analysis relates the internal rate of return of a system based on the cost of the installed absorber area. In general, colder and higher latitude climates return a higher rate of return because the heating season extends into months with good solar resource.

  11. Senior health clinics: are they financially viable?

    PubMed

    McAtee, Robin E; Crandall, Debra; Wright, Larry D; Beverly, Claudia J

    2009-07-01

    Are hospital-based outpatient interdisciplinary clinics a financially viable alternative for caring for our burgeoning population of older adults in America? Although highly popular, with high patient satisfaction rates among older adults and their families, senior health clinics (SHCs) can be expensive to operate, with limited quantifiable health outcomes. This study analyzed three geriatric hospital-based interdisciplinary clinics in rural Arkansas by examining their patient profiles, revenues, and expenses. It closely examined the effects of the downstream revenue using the multiplier effect and acknowledged other factors that weigh heavily on the success of SHCs and the care of older adults. The findings highlight the similarities and differences in the three clinics' operating and financial structures in addition to the clinics' and providers' productivity. The analysis presents an evidence-based illustration that SHCs can break even or lose large amounts of money. PMID:19558482

  12. Viable Supersymmetry and Leptogenesis with Anomaly Mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi; Yanagida, Tsutomu

    2005-01-13

    The seesaw mechanism that explains the small neutrino masses comes naturally with supersymmetric (SUSY) grand unification and leptogenesis. However, the framework suffers from the SUSY flavor and CP problems, and has a severe cosmological gravitino problem. We propose anomaly mediation as a simple solution to all these problems, which is viable once supplemented by the D-terms for U(1)_Y and U(1)_B-L. Even though the right-handed neutrino mass explicitly breaks U(1)_B-L and hence reintroduces the flavor problem, we show that it lacks the logarithmic enhancement and poses no threat to the framework. The thermal leptogenesis is then made easily consistent with the gravitino constraint.

  13. [PAH Cations as Viable Carriers of DIBs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Ted

    1998-01-01

    This report is intended to fill in the blanks in NASA's file system for our lab astro study of molecular ions of astrophysical interest. In order to give NASA what it needs for its files, I attach below the text of the section from our recent proposal to continue this work, in which we describe progress to date, including a large number of publications. Our initial studies were focused on PAH cations, which appear to be viable candidates as the carriers of the DIBs, an idea that has been supported by laboratory spectroscopy of PAH cations in inert matrices. Beginning with the simplest aromatic (benzene; C6H6) and moving progressively to larger species (naphthalene, C10OH8; pyrene, C16H10; and most recently chrysene, C18H12), we have been able to derive rate coefficients for reactions with neutral spices that are abundant in the diffuse interstellar medium.

  14. Comparison of epifluorescent viable bacterial count methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodgers, E. B.; Huff, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    Two methods, the 2-(4-Iodophenyl) 3-(4-nitrophenyl) 5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) method and the direct viable count (DVC), were tested and compared for their efficiency for the determination of the viability of bacterial populations. Use of the INT method results in the formation of a dark spot within each respiring cell. The DVC method results in elongation or swelling of growing cells that are rendered incapable of cell division. Although both methods are subjective and can result in false positive results, the DVC method is best suited to analysis of waters in which the number of different types of organisms present in the same sample is assumed to be small, such as processed waters. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed.

  15. Chlorpyrifos residue levels in avian food items following applications of a commercial EC formulation to alfalfa and citrus.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Larry W; McQuillen, Harry L; Mayes, Monte A; Stafford, Jennifer M; Tank, Susan L

    2003-11-01

    Two 10-day field residue studies were conducted to measure the amount of chlorpyrifos residue found in typical avian food following applications of a commercial 480 g liter(-1) EC (Lorsban 4E) at 1.1 kg AI ha(-1) (1 lb AI acre(-1)) to alfalfa and at 2.3 kg Al ha(-1) (2.0 lb AI acre(-1)) to citrus. Avian food items used in these studies included: crickets (Acheta domestica (L)), earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L), darkling ground beetle larvae (Tenebrio molitor L), seed heads (Triticum sp), and naturally occurring flying and ground-dwelling insects. The studies incorporated a design involving three main study plots placed within larger treated areas of an alfalfa crop and a mature orange grove. The three main study plots represented three replications and each contained four sub-plots. One sub-plot, on each study plot, was sampled on day 0 (2-h post-application), day 1, day 5 and day 10 post-application. Chlorpyrifos residues were present in all avian food sampled following the application; however, residue levels were lower than estimated residue values typically used by the US EPA to establish expected environmental concentration (EEC) used in screening assessments of risk to terrestrial wildlife. PMID:14620043

  16. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: The goal of the study was to further develop an incubation-qPCR method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs. The specific objectives were to characterize the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determine the specificity of the method, and test the method w...

  17. SP-100 nuclear space power systems with application to space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the SP-100 space nuclear power system program is compared to that of more familiar solar-power systems. The SP-100 program develops, validates, and demonstrates the technology for space nuclear power systems in the range of 10 to 1000 kilowatts electric for use in future military and civilian space missions. Mission applications, including earth orbiting platforms and lunar/Mars surface power, are enhanced or made possible by SP-100 technology. Attention is given to the SP-100 reference flight system design, the SP-100 nuclear reactor and nuclear-reactor shield, the platform-mounted, tethered, and free-flying reactors, and installation, operation, and disposal options, as well as lunar-Mars surface applications. The SP-100 is presented as one of the nuclear energy sources needed for long-life, compact, lightweight, continuous high power independent of solar orientation, specific orbits, or missions.

  18. The Commercial Application of Missile/Space Technology, Parts 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welles, John G.; Marts, Lloyd G.; Waterman, Robert H., Jr.; Gilmore, John S.; Venuti, Robert

    1963-01-01

    This report is concerned with the transfer of technology from missile and space programs to non-missile/space applications in the United States. It presents the findings of a University of Denver Research Institute study sponsored by a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) grant awarded in November 1961. Initial stimulation for the unsolicited proposal leading to this study came from a 1960 Brookings Institution report to NASA, Proposed Studies on the Implications of Peaceful Space Activities for Human Affairs.

  19. Effects of outgassing of loader chamber walls on hydriding of thin films for commercial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Provo, James L.

    2014-07-01

    An important aspect of understanding industrial processing is to know the characteristics of the materials used in such processes. A study was performed to determine the effects of hydriding chamber material on the degree of hydriding for the commercial production of thin film hydride targets for various research universities, commercial companies, and government national laboratories. The goal was to increase the degree of hydriding of various thin film hydrides and to study the vacuum environment during air-exposure hydriding. For this purpose, dynamic residual gas analysis during deuterium gas hydride processing was utilized with erbium thin films, employing a special set-up for direct dynamic hydride gas sampling during processing at elevated temperature and full loading gas pressure. Complete process data for (1) a copper–(1.83 wt. %)beryllium wet hydrogen fired passivated (600 °C–1 h) externally heated pipe hydriding chamber are reported. Dynamic residual gas analysis comparisons during hydriding are presented for hydriding chambers made from (2) alumina (99.8 wt. %), (3) copper (with an interior aluminum coating ∼10 k Å thick, and (4) for a stainless-steel air-fired passivated (900 °C–1 h) chamber. Dynamic data with deuterium gas in the chamber at the hydriding temperature (450 °C) showed the presence and growth of water vapor (D{sub 2}O) and related mixed ion species(H{sub 2}O{sup +}, HDO{sup +}, D{sub 2}O{sup +}, and OD{sup +}) from hydrogen isotope exchange reactions during the 1 h process time. Peaks at mass-to-charge ratios (i.e., m/e) of 12(C{sup +}), 16(CD{sub 2}{sup +}), 17(CHD{sub 2}{sup +}), and 18(CD{sub 3}{sup +}, OD{sup +}) increased for approximately the first half hour of a 1 h hydriding process and then approach steady state. Mass-to-charge peaks at 19(HDO{sup +}) and 20(D{sub 2}O{sup +}) continue to increase throughout the process cycle. Using the m/e = 20 (D{sub 2}O{sup +}) peak intensity from chamber (1)–Cu(1.83 wt. %)Be as a standard, the peak intensity from chamber (4)—stainless-steel (air-fired) was 7.1× higher, indicating that the surface of stainless-steel had a larger concentration of reactive oxygen and/or water than hydrogen. The (D{sub 2}O{sup +}) peak intensity from chamber (3)—Cu (interior Al coating) was 1.55× larger and chamber (2)—alumina(99.8%) was 1.33× higher than Cu(1.83 wt. %)Be. Thus copper–(1.83 wt. %)beryllium was the best hydriding chamber material studied followed closely by the alumina (99.8 wt. %) chamber. Gas take-up by Er occluder targets processed in Cu(1.83 wt. %)Be hydriding chambers (i.e., gas/metal atomic ratios) correlate with the dynamic RGA data.

  20. A new RF package suitable for aeronautical commercial and DSCS satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Robert J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Higher levels of integration through the use of GaAs and silicon MMIC devices, a die-cast housing, and the reduction of the number of subassemblies has enabled a large reduction of the size and weight of the electronics package for commercial and military satellite communications. This paper presents an electronics architecture and hardware that utilizes many new integrated circuits and design techniques, and allows flexibility for future satellite frequency changes and expansion. Key features of the radio are extended C-band, InSat, Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS), and Ku-band coverage options; 70 (or 140) MHz transponder bandwidth or L-band block bandwidth IFs; integrated RS-232 control through local handheld terminal or remote computer; remote control of crystal reference oscillator for aging and temperature compensation; integrated 2 or 5 watt solid-state power amplifiers (SSPA); optional integrated solid-state booster amplifiers to 40 watts; optional external amplifiers to 100 watts; integral beacon tracking with second integrated downcoverter for antenna positioning; radio, including low-noise block converter (LNB) and SSPA, weighs 8.5 kg and measures 32 x 23 x 16.5 cm; environmentally ruggedized for -40 to +60 C; O-ring sealed for waterproofing; passive (convection) cooling; and simple cabling and installation, with a single cable between radio and LNB, and two cables between radio and IF interface. The small size and light weight of the radio make it ideal for mounting on stabilized antenna platforms (gyroscopic or servo). Several input power options (110 or 220 VAC; +48, +12, or -24 VDC) facilitate operation on multiple platforms.

  1. NASA commercial programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    An expanded role for the U.S. private sector in America's space future has emerged as a key national objective, and NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is providing a focus for action. The Office supports new high technology commercial space ventures, the commercial application of existing aeronautics and space technology, and expanded commercial access to available NASA capabilities and services. The progress NASA has made in carrying out its new assignment is highlighted.

  2. MOA2—an R&D paradigm buster enabling space propulsion by commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hettmer, Manfred; Koudelka, Otto; Löb, Horst

    2012-04-01

    More than 60 years after the late Nobel laureate Hannes Alfvén had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfvén waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. Consequently improved since then, the name of the latest concept, relying on magneto-acoustic waves to accelerate electric conductive matter, is MOA2—Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified Accelerator. Based on computer simulations, which were undertaken to get a first estimate on the performance of the system, MOA2 is a corrosion free and highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted in operation, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable of delivering a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. First tests—that are further described in this paper—have been conducted successfully with a 400 W prototype system at an ambient pressure of 0.20 Pa, delivered 9.24 mN of thrust at 1472 s ISP, thereby underlining the feasibility of the concept. Based on these results, space propulsion is expected to be a prime application for MOA2—a claim that is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion. However, MOA2 has so far seen most of its R&D impetus from terrestrial applications, like coating, semiconductor implantation and manufacturing as well as steel cutting. Based on this observation, MOA2 resembles an R&D paradigm buster, as it is the first space propulsion system, whose R&D is driven primarily by its terrestrial applications. Different terrestrial applications exist, but the most successful scenarios so far revolve around MOA2's unique features with respect to high throughput/low target temperature coatings on sensitive materials. In combination with its intrinsic high flexibility, MOA2 is highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. This paper presents the recent developments of the MOA2 R&D activities at Q2 Technologie(s), the company in Vienna, Austria, which has been set up to further develop and test the magneto-acoustic wave technology and its applications.

  3. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 2 - Forest Pest Control. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, W. A., Comp.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use as it relates to safety of humans and the environment. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of…

  4. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Plant. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, J. E., Ed.; Pendleton, R. F., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use, particularly those associated with safety. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of insects…

  5. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 2 - Forest Pest Control. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, W. A., Comp.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use as it relates to safety of humans and the environment. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of

  6. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Plant. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, J. E., Ed.; Pendleton, R. F., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use, particularly those associated with safety. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of insects

  7. Application of submarine extended operating cycle programs to the enhancement of commercial nuclear power plant operation and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, J.H.; Livingston, B.K.; Clarke, E.J.

    1988-01-01

    During the past 10 yr, the US Navy has extended submarine operating cycles - the period between major ship overhauls - from 4 to > 15 yr. Major programs to extend submarine operating cycles have been the submarine extended operating cycle (SEOC) and the engineered SEOC programs. Currently, the navy is incorporating lessons learned from these programs, as well as new concepts, into its newest Seawolf (SSN-21) ship class. Major elements of these programs are a disciplined machinery condition assessment (MCA) program consisting of intrusive and nonintrusive elements, the use of rotatable equipment pools, and the engineering of maintenance periodicities to establish operating cycles. Many of the concepts and elements of these programs can be applied to two objectives for enhanced operation and maintenance: the increased availability of means of improved equipment performance and reduced outage durations and the extension of plant life. The objectives of this paper are to review the US Navy SEOC programs, to draw parallels between the US Navy programs and commercial nuclear power plant programs, and to suggest potential opportunities for application to commercial nuclear power plants.

  8. Small capacity, low cost (Ni-H2) design concept for commercial, military, and higher-volume aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, James R.; Cook, William D.; Smith, Ron

    1991-01-01

    Nickel Hydrogen (Ni/H2) batteries have become the technology of choice for both commercial and defense related satellites in geosynchronous orbits. Their use for low earth orbit (LEO) applications is not as advanced, but seems just as inevitable because of their inherent advantages over nickel cadmium batteries. These include superior energy density, longer cycle life, and better tolerance to over-charge and reversal. Ni/H2 cells have the added advantage in both construction and operation of not presenting the environmental possibility of cadmium pollution. Unfortunately, but necessarily, the design of these cells has been driven to high cost by the sophistication of the satellites and their uses. Now, using most of the same concepts but less costly materials and techniques, a low cost, small cell design was developed. Combined with the concept of the common pressure vessel, this new design promises to be ideal for the small-sat and commercial markets which, increasingly, are calling for large numbers of less expensive satellites.

  9. Application of commercial sensor manufacturing methods for NOx/NH3 mixed potential sensors for emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Brosha, Eric L; Mukundan, Rangachary; Nelson, Mark A; Sekhar, Praveen; Williamson, Todd; Garzon, Fernando H

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to develop a low cost on-board Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x})/Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) sensor that can not only be used for emissions control but has the potential to improve efficiency through better monitoring of the combustion process and feedback control in both vehicle and stationary systems. Over the past decade, Los AJamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a unique class of electrochemical gas sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen and nitrogen oxides. These sensors are based on the mixed-potential phenomenon and are a modification of the existing automotive lambda (oxygen) sensor and have the potential to meet the stringent sensitivity, selectivity and stability requirements of an on-board emissions/engine control sensor system. The current state of the art LANL technology is based on the stabilization of the electrochemical interfaces and relies on an externally heated, hand-made, tape cast device. We are now poised to apply our patented sensing principles in a mass production sensor platform that is more suitable for real world engine-out testing such as on dynamometers for vehicle applications and for exhaust-out testing in heavy boilers/SCR systems in power plants. In this present work, our goal is to advance towards commercialization of this technology by packaging the unique LANL sensor design in a standard automotive sensor-type platform. This work is being performed with the help of a leading US technical ceramics firm, utilizing commercial manufacturing techniques. Initial tape cast platforms with screen printed metal oxide and Pt sensor electrodes have shown promising results but also clearly show the need for us to optimize the electrode and electrolyte compositions/morphologies and interfaces of these devices in order to demonstrate a sensitive, selective, and stable NO{sub x} sensor. Our previous methods and routes to preparing stable and reproducible mixed potential sensors - in bulk, tape cast, and thin film variants - need to be adapted as a necessary adjunct to address materials challenges resulting from the implementation of commercial manufacturing methods. We also modified the electrodes to demonstrate a NH{sub 3} sensor that can be used in conjunction with the NO{sub x} sensor for feedback control of emissions systems. Once desirable properties are achieved, we will work closely with potential customers in order to dynamometer and boiler test these devices. Ultimately, this will accurately gauge the level of readiness of mixed potential sensor technology for commercialization and eventual use of this important electrochemical technology.

  10. DECREASE Final Technical Report: Development of a Commercial Ready Enzyme Application System for Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Teter, Sarah A

    2012-04-18

    Conversion of biomass to sugars plays a central in reducing our dependence on petroleum, as it allows production of a wide range of biobased fuels and chemicals, through fermentation of those sugars. The DECREASE project delivers an effective enzyme cocktail for this conversion, enabling reduced costs for producing advanced biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol. Benefits to the public contributed by growth of the advanced biofuels industry include job creation, economic growth, and energy security. The DECREASE primary project objective was to develop a two-fold improved enzyme cocktail, relative to an advanced cocktail (CZP00005) that had been developed previously (from 2000- 2007). While the final milestone was delivery of all enzyme components as an experimental mixture, a secondary objective was to deploy an improved cocktail within 3 years following the close of the project. In February 2012, Novozymes launched Cellic CTec3, a multi-enzyme cocktail derived in part from components developed under DECREASE. The externally validated performance of CTec3 and an additional component under project benchmarking conditions indicated a 1.8-fold dose reduction in enzyme dose required for 90% conversion (based on all available glucose and xylose sources) of NREL dilute acid pretreated PCS, relative to the starting advanced enzyme cocktail. While the ability to achieve 90% conversion is impressive, targeting such high levels of biomass digestion is likely not the most cost effective strategy. Novozymes techno economic modeling showed that for NREL's dilute acid pretreated corn stover (PCS), 80% target conversion enables a lower total production cost for cellulosic ethanol than for 90% conversion, and this was also found to be the case when cost assumptions were based on the NREL 2002 Design Report. A 1.8X dose-reduction was observed for 80% conversion in the small scale (50 g) DECREASE benchmark assay for CTec3 and an additional component. An upscaled experiment (in 0.5 kg kettle reactors) was performed to compare the starting enzyme mixture CZP00005 with CTec3 alone; these results indicated a 1.9X dose- reduction for 80% conversion. The CTec3 composition does not include the best available enzyme components from the DECREASE effort. While these components are not yet available in a commercial product, experimental mixtures were assayed in a smaller scale assay using DECREASE PCS, at high solids loadings (21.5% TS). The results indicated that the newer mixtures required 2.9X-less enzyme for 90% conversion, and 3.2X-less enzyme for 80% conversion, relative to the starting enzyme cocktail. In conclusion, CTec3 delivers a 1.8-1.9X dose reduction on NREL PCS at high solids loadings, and the next generation enzyme from Novozymes will continue to show dramatically improved biochemical performance. CTec3 allows reduced costs today, and the experimental cocktails point to continued biotechnological improvements that will further drive down costs for biorefineries of tomorrow.

  11. The Conceptual Mechanism for Viable Organizational Learning Based on Complex System Theory and the Viable System Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Dia; You, Yeongmahn; Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of viable learning organizations based on identifying viable organizational learning mechanisms. Two theoretical foundations, complex system theory and viable system theory, have been integrated to provide the rationale for building the sustainable organizational learning mechanism. The…

  12. An economically viable space power relay system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekey, Ivan; Boudreault, Richard

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the economics of a power relay system that takes advantage of recent technological advances to implement a system that is economically viable. A series of power relay systems are described and analyzed which transport power ranging from 1,250 megawatts to 5,000 megawatts, and distribute it to receiving sites at transcontinental distances. Two classes of systems are discussedthose with a single reflector and delivering all the power to a single rectenna, and a second type which has multiple reflectors and distributes it to 10 rectenna sites, sharing power among them. It is shown that when offering electricity at prices competitive to those prevalent in developed cities in the US that a low IRR is inevitable, and economic feasibility of a business is unlikely. However, when the target market is Japan where the prevalent electricity prices are much greater, that an IRR exceeding 65% is readily attainable. This is extremely attractive to potential investors, making capitalization of a venture likely. The paper shows that the capital investment required for the system can be less than 1 per installed watt, contributing less than 0.02 /KW-hr to the cost of energy provision. Since selling prices in feasible regions range from 0.18 to over 030 $/kW-hr, these costs are but a small fraction of the operating expenses. Thus a very large IRR is possible for such a business.

  13. Deletion of ultraconserved elements yields viable mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ahituv, Nadav; Zhu, Yiwen; Visel, Axel; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Pennacchio, Len A.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2007-07-15

    Ultraconserved elements have been suggested to retainextended perfect sequence identity between the human, mouse, and ratgenomes due to essential functional properties. To investigate thenecessities of these elements in vivo, we removed four non-codingultraconserved elements (ranging in length from 222 to 731 base pairs)from the mouse genome. To maximize the likelihood of observing aphenotype, we chose to delete elements that function as enhancers in amouse transgenic assay and that are near genes that exhibit markedphenotypes both when completely inactivated in the mouse as well as whentheir expression is altered due to other genomic modifications.Remarkably, all four resulting lines of mice lacking these ultraconservedelements were viable and fertile, and failed to reveal any criticalabnormalities when assayed for a variety of phenotypes including growth,longevity, pathology and metabolism. In addition more targeted screens,informed by the abnormalities observed in mice where genes in proximityto the investigated elements had been altered, also failed to revealnotable abnormalities. These results, while not inclusive of all thepossible phenotypic impact of the deleted sequences, indicate thatextreme sequence constraint does not necessarily reflect crucialfunctions required for viability.

  14. Optimization of a hybrid electric power system design for large commercial buildings: An application design guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keun

    Renewable energy in different forms has been used in various applications for survival since the beginning of human existence. However, there is a new dire need to reevaluate and recalibrate the overall energy issue both nationally and globally. This includes, but is not limited to, the finite availability of fossil fuel, energy sustainability with an increasing demand, escalating energy costs, environmental impact such as global warming and green-house gases, to name a few. This dissertation is primarily focused and related to the production and usage of electricity from non-hydro renewable sources. Among non-hydro renewable energy sources, electricity generation from wind and solar energy are the fastest-growing technologies in the United States and in the world. However, due to the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage devices are required to maintain proper operation of the grid system and in order to increase reliability. A hybrid system, as the name suggests, is a combination of different forms of non-renewable and renewable energy generation, with or without storage devices. Hybrid systems, when applied properly, are able to improve reliability and enhance stability, reduce emissions and noise pollution, provide continuous power, increase operation life, reduce cost, and efficiently use all available energy. In the United States (U.S.), buildings consume approximately 40% of the total primary energy and 74% of the total electricity. Therefore, reduction of energy consumption and improved energy efficiency in U.S. buildings will play a vital role in the overall energy picture. Electrical energy usage for any such building varies widely depending on age (construction technique), electricity and natural gas usage, appearance, location and climate. In this research, a hybrid system including non-renewable and renewable energy generation with storage devices specifically for building applications, is studied in detail. This research deals with the optimization of the hybrid system design (which consists of PV panels and/or wind turbines and/or storage devices for building applications) by developing an algorithm designed to make the system cost effective and energy efficient. Input data includes electrical load demand profile of the buildings, buildings' structural and geographical characteristics, real time pricing of electricity, and the costs of hybrid systems and storage devices. When the electrical load demand profile of a building that is being studied is available, a measured demand profile is directly used as input data. However, if that information is not available, a building's electric load demand is estimated using a developed algorithm based on three large data sources from a public domain, and used as input data. Using the acquired input data, the algorithm of this research is designed and programmed in order to determine the size of renewable components and to minimize the total yearly net cost. This dissertation also addresses the parametric sensitivity analysis to determine which factors are more significant and are expected to produce useful guidelines in the decision making process. An engineered and more practical, simplified solution has been provided for the optimized design process.

  15. Extensions to the Kodak Photo CD file format for commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Axman, Michael S.; Moghadam, Omid A.; Melnychuck, Paul W.

    1993-08-01

    The Photo CD system provides an inexpensive means of participating in the information age with personal digital images. At the heart of the system is a 35 mm, 2000 pixels/inch scanner to acquire image data from a variety of photographic media. The raw data is then processed into a calibrated color metric, decomposed into a hierarchy of 5 resolution, compressed, encoded, and written to a compact disc using a high-speed CD writer. These discs can then be quickly displayed to a consumer television with a low-cost Photo CD player, that is also a high-quality CD-audio player. Additionally, Photo CD discs can be read into a computer using a CD-ROM XA drive, and manipulated on the desktop for importing into documents, or, for hard-copy printing to a variety of devices. The 35 mm-based system described above is only a part of a more generalized architecture. An add-on component capable of scanning larger format negatives and slides will soon be available, and will utilize extensions to the Photo CD format appropriate for these new image modalities. In particular, the formation of a 6th resolution and its relationship to the existing hierarchy will be discussed. Additionally, the structure of future extensions currently under development will be outlined in the context of the specific applications which they are designed to support.

  16. Versatile process recycles contaminated soil and other solid waste into construction material for commercial application

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, J.; King, L.; Reith, C.C.

    1998-12-31

    Many industrial sites along the gulf coast have soils, sediments and other solid wastes that are contaminated with metals and hydrocarbons. Depending on the concentration and mobility of contaminants, these may be classified as non-hazardous solid waste (NSW) or characteristic hazardous waste. Recycling and reuse (R and R) is an excellent alternative for mitigating the environmental hazards of the contaminated materials. R and R is faster and more effectively controlled than bioremediation, and it avoids the adverse potential environmental impacts associated with thermal technologies or land disposal. Properly stabilized R and R materials have no residual liability, and they provide an economic and environmental benefit by converting a noxious substance into a useful material. Environmental Recycling, LLC, (ER) uses its proprietary process to convert contaminated materials into engineered backfill or asphalt stabilized base. The process generates minimum air emissions, and produces materials with proven environmental and engineering properties. Numerous applications in Texas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Wyoming and Arkansas have shown the R and R process to be fast, reliable, and cost-effective in stabilizing contaminated soils, including NSW and characteristic hazardous waste. The R and R process has provided construction materials for roads, parking lots, dikes, and work areas. The process has proven effective even with clay-rich soils that have been especially difficult to remediate.

  17. Space Environment Stability and Physical Properties of New Materials for Space Power and Commercial Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambourger, Paul D.

    1997-01-01

    Useful and informative results were obtained on virtually all materials investigated. For example, the stability of ITO-based arc-proof transparent coatings was greatly improved by substitution of silicon oxide for magnesium fluoride as a dopant. Research on 'air-doped' ITO films has yielded new insight into their conduction mechanism which will help in further development of these coatings. Some air-doped films were found to be extremely pressure sensitive. This work may lead to improved, low-cost gas sensors and vacuum gauges. Work on another promising transparent arc-proof coating (titanium oxide) was initiated in collaboration with industry. Graphite oxide-like materials were synthesized and tested for possible use in high energy-density batteries and other applications. We also started a high-priority project to find the cause of unexpected environmental damage to the exterior of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) discovered on a recent Shuttle mission. Materials were characterized before and after exposure to soft x-rays and other threats in ground-based simulators.

  18. Progress and profit through microtechnologies: commercial applications of MEMS/MOEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrfeld, Ursula

    2001-09-01

    Micro technology deals with miniaturization and integration in all areas of technology outside of microelectronics like micro mechanics, micro optics, micro acoustics, micro fluid technology, micro reaction technology and further disciplines which are focused on technical components and systems with characteristic dimensions in the micrometer range. Within a period of about ten years a multi-billion dollar market has been set up with many products for daily life. The growth rate of the market of micro technology will remain on a high level for the years to come. Mega trends resulting from fundamental human wishes for health, information, mobility and sustainable development are creating a further growing basis for micro technical products. A broad spectrum of production processes and materials has been developed to meet the requirements of a strongly diversified range of applications. For the development of new components and systems the importance of software tools for simulation of functional properties, production processes and comprehensive optimization is growing rapidly. Micro devices are meanwhile used extensively in information, automotive, and medical technologies. In addition, micro technology is generating a completely novel basis for chemical engineering, life sciences, industrial automation and optical communication, to mention only a few disciplines where future innovation will be dominated by miniaturization.

  19. The potential for increasing the use of catalytic carbons in commercial applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kruse, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    A carbon catalyst, prepared either by oxidizing activated carbon with air at 500-700??C or by oxidizing activated carbon with boiling nitric acid followed by heating it to 500-700??C, is the subject of this paper. This catalyst, designated OAC500-700, catalyzes the removal of hydrogen chloride from alkyl halides. Because OAC500-700 retains adsorptive properties of an activated carbon it can be used both to adsorb pollutants from liquid or gaseous streams and to convert them to recyclable products. A highly-developed micropore structure is not required for all uses of activated carbon or a catalyst produced from it. A comparatively inexpensive ($325/ton projected) low surface area (<300 m2/g) carbon has been developed at the Illinois State Geological Survey (ISGS) for cleaning incinerator flue gas. This grade of activated carbon is widely used in Europe for flue gas cleaning and for other applications. Activated carbon adsorbers of some type are required by recently passed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations for municipal waste combustors to control emission of cadmium, mercury, lead, dioxins, furans and acid gases (U.S. EPA, 1995). Similar regulations are expected for hospital and hazardous waste incinerators. The marketing of less costly activated carbons of the type used widely in Europe is expected in the United States. Low cost OAC500-700 made from less expensive grades of activated carbon may become available for large scale adsorbent/catalyst systems designed to both remove and decompose toxic pollutants found in liquid and gaseous streams, chlorinated organic compounds in particular.

  20. Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

    2013-04-01

    The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling risks and costs. This procedure enables a timely, efficient and accurate data access and exchange among the rig site data acquisition system, office-based software applications and data storage. The loading of real-time data has to be quick and efficient in order to refine the model and learn the lessons for the next drilling operations.

  1. Commercial Capaciflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M.

    1991-01-01

    A capacitive proximity/tactile sensor with unique performance capabilities ('capaciflector' or capacitive reflector) is being developed by NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) for use on robots and payloads in space in the interests of safety, efficiency, and ease of operation. Specifically, this sensor will permit robots and their attached payloads to avoid collisions in space with humans and other objects and to dock these payloads in a cluttered environment. The sensor is simple, robust, and inexpensive to manufacture with obvious and recognized commercial possibilities. Accordingly, NASA/GSFC, in conjunction with industry, is embarking on an effort to 'spin' this technology off into the private sector. This effort includes prototypes aimed at commercial applications. The principles of operation of these prototypes are described along with hardware, software, modelling, and test results. The hardware description includes both the physical sensor in terms of a flexible printed circuit board and the electronic circuitry. The software description will include filtering and detection techniques. The modelling will involve finite element electric field analysis and will underline techniques used for design optimization.

  2. Scale-Up of CdTe Photovoltaic Device Processes for Commercial Application: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-06-196

    SciTech Connect

    Albin, D.

    2013-02-01

    Through this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, NREL and PrimeStar Solar will work together to scale up the NREL CdTe photovoltaic process from the laboratory to produce photovoltaic devices in a size that is commercially viable. The work in this phase will focus on the transference of NREL CdTe device fabrication techniques to PrimeStar Solar. NREL and PrimeStar Solar will engage in a series of technical exchange meetings and laboratory training sessions to transfer the knowledge of CdTe PV film growth from NREL to PrimeStar Solar. PrimeStar Solar will grow thin films on PrimeStar Solar equipment and interleave them with NREL-grown films in an effort to develop a commercial scale process on PrimeStar Solar equipment. Select NREL film growth equipment will be upgraded either by PrimeStar Solar or at PrimeStar Solar's expense to increase equipment reliability and throughput.

  3. Rapid enumeration of viable bacteria by image analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, A.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    A direct viable counting method for enumerating viable bacteria was modified and made compatible with image analysis. A comparison was made between viable cell counts determined by the spread plate method and direct viable counts obtained using epifluorescence microscopy either manually or by automatic image analysis. Cultures of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were incubated at 35 degrees C in a dilute nutrient medium containing nalidixic acid. Filtered samples were stained for epifluorescence microscopy and analysed manually as well as by image analysis. Cells enlarged after incubation were considered viable. The viable cell counts determined using image analysis were higher than those obtained by either the direct manual count of viable cells or spread plate methods. The volume of sample filtered or the number of cells in the original sample did not influence the efficiency of the method. However, the optimal concentration of nalidixic acid (2.5-20 micrograms ml-1) and length of incubation (4-8 h) varied with the culture tested. The results of this study showed that under optimal conditions, the modification of the direct viable count method in combination with image analysis microscopy provided an efficient and quantitative technique for counting viable bacteria in a short time.

  4. Do-It-Yourself: A Special Library's Approach to Creating Dynamic Web Pages Using Commercial Off-The-Shelf Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steeman, Gerald; Connell, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Many librarians may feel that dynamic Web pages are out of their reach, financially and technically. Yet we are reminded in library and Web design literature that static home pages are a thing of the past. This paper describes how librarians at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) library developed a database-driven, dynamic intranet site using commercial off-the-shelf applications. Administrative issues include surveying a library users group for interest and needs evaluation; outlining metadata elements; and, committing resources from managing time to populate the database and training in Microsoft FrontPage and Web-to-database design. Technical issues covered include Microsoft Access database fundamentals, lessons learned in the Web-to-database process (including setting up Database Source Names (DSNs), redesigning queries to accommodate the Web interface, and understanding Access 97 query language vs. Standard Query Language (SQL)). This paper also offers tips on editing Active Server Pages (ASP) scripting to create desired results. A how-to annotated resource list closes out the paper.

  5. Corrosion behavior of titanium boride composite coating fabricated on commercially pure titanium in Ringer's solution for bioimplant applications.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Bose; Singh, Raghuvir; Pathak, Lokesh Chandra

    2015-03-01

    The boriding of commercially pure titanium was performed at 850C, 910C, and 1050C for varied soaking periods (1, 3 and 5h) to enhance the surface properties desirable for bioimplant applications. The coating developed was characterized for the evolution of phases, microstructure and morphology, microhardness, and consequent corrosion behavior in the Ringer's solution. Formation of the TiB2 layer at the outermost surface followed by the TiB whiskers across the borided CpTi is unveiled. Total thickness of the composite layer on the substrates borided at 850, 910, and 1050C for 5h was found to be 19.1, 26.4, and 18.2?m respectively which includes <3?m thick TiB2 layer. The presence of TiB2 phase was attributed to the high hardness ~2968Hv15gf of the composite coating. The anodic polarization studies in the simulated body fluid unveiled a reduction in the pitting corrosion resistance after boriding the CpTi specimens. However, this value is >0.55VSCE (electrochemical potential in in-vivo physiological environment) and hence remains within the safe region. Both the untreated and borided CpTi specimens show two passive zones associated with different passivation current densities. Among the CpTi borided at various times and temperatures, a 3h treated shows better corrosion resistance. The corrosion of borided CpTi occurred through the dissolution of TiB2. PMID:25579920

  6. Practical application of DNA markers for high-throughput authentication of Panax ginseng and Panax quinquefolius from commercial ginseng products

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Juyeon; Kim, Kyung Hee; Yang, Kiwoung; Bang, Kyong-Hwan; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) are widely used medicinal plants with similar morphology but different medicinal efficacy. Roots, flowers, and processed products of Korean and American ginseng can be difficult to differentiate from each other, leading to illegal trade in which one species is sold as the other. This study was carried out to develop convenient and reliable chloroplast genome-derived DNA markers for authentication of Korean and American ginseng in commercial processed products. One codominant marker could reproducibly identify both species and intentional mixtures of the two species. We further developed a set of species-unique dominant DNA markers. Each species-specific dominant marker could detect 1% cross contamination with other species by low resolution agarose gel electrophoresis or quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Both markers were successfully applied to evaluate the original species from various processed ginseng products purchased from markets in Korea and China. We believe that high-throughput application of this marker system will eradicate illegal trade and promote confident marketing for both species to increase the value of Korean as well as American ginseng in Korea and worldwide. PMID:24748836

  7. Field approach to mining-dump revegetation by application of sewage sludge co-compost and a commercial biofertilizer.

    PubMed

    Sevilla-Perea, A; Mingorance, M D

    2015-08-01

    An approach was devised for revegetation of a mining dump soil, sited in a semiarid region, with basic pH as well as Fe and Mn enrichment. A field experiment was conducted involving the use of co-compost (a mixture of urban sewage sludge and plant remains) along with a commercial biofertilizer (a gel suspension which contains arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus) to reinforce the benefits of the former. Four treatments were studied: unamended soil; application of conditioners separately and in combination. Pistachio, caper, rosemary, thyme and juniper were planted. We evaluated the effects of the treatments using soil quality (physicochemical properties, total content of hazardous elements, nutrient availability, microbial biomass and enzyme activities) and plant establishment indicators (survival, growth, vigor, nutrient content in leaves, nutrient balances and mycorrhizal root colonization). Thyme and juniper did not show a suitable survival rate (<50%) whereas 70-100% of the pistachio, rosemary and caper survived for at least 27 months. In unamended soil, plant growth was severely hampered by P, N, K and Zn deficiencies as well as Fe and Mn excess. Overall, the treatments affected the soil and plant indicators as follows: biofertilizer + co-compost > co-compost > biofertilizer > unamended. The application of co-compost was therefore essential with regard to improving soil fertility; furthermore, it increased leaf N and P content, whereas leaf Fe and Mn concentrations showed a decrease. The combined treatment, however, provided the best results. The positive interaction between the two soil conditioners might be related to the capacity of the biofertilizer to increase nutrient uptake from the composted residue, and to protect plants against Fe and Mn toxicity. PMID:25979296

  8. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2

    SciTech Connect

    Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

  9. Detection of Only Viable Bacterial Spores Using a Live/Dead Indicator in Mixed Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto E.; Stam, Christina N.; Smiley, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This method uses a photoaffinity label that recognizes DNA and can be used to distinguish populations of bacterial cells from bacterial spores without the use of heat shocking during conventional culture, and live from dead bacterial spores using molecular-based methods. Biological validation of commercial sterility using traditional and alternative technologies remains challenging. Recovery of viable spores is cumbersome, as the process requires substantial incubation time, and the extended time to results limits the ability to quickly evaluate the efficacy of existing technologies. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction) have shown promise for improving time to detection for a wide range of applications. Recent real-time PCR methods are particularly promising, as these methods can be made at least semi-quantitative by correspondence to a standard curve. Nonetheless, PCR-based methods are rarely used for process validation, largely because the DNA from dead bacterial cells is highly stable and hence, DNA-based amplification methods fail to discriminate between live and inactivated microorganisms. Currently, no published method has been shown to effectively distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores. This technology uses a DNA binding photoaffinity label that can be used to distinguish between live and dead bacterial spores with detection limits ranging from 109 to 102 spores/mL. An environmental sample suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead vegetative cells and bacterial endospores is treated with a photoaffinity label. This step will eliminate any vegetative cells (live or dead) and dead endospores present in the sample. To further determine the bacterial spore viability, DNA is extracted from the spores and total population is quantified by real-time PCR. The current NASA standard assay takes 72 hours for results. Part of this procedure requires a heat shock step at 80 degC for 15 minutes before the sample can be plated. Using a photoaffinity label would remove this step from the current assay as the label readily penetrates both live and dead bacterial cells. Secondly, the photoaffinity label can only penetrate dead bacterial spores, leaving behind the viable spore population. This would allow for rapid bacterial spore detection in a matter of hours compared to the several days that it takes for the NASA standard assay.

  10. Viable Blastocystis Cysts in Scottish and Malaysian Sewage Samples

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, K.; Smith, H. V.; Tan, T. C.

    2005-01-01

    Blastocystis cysts were detected in 38% (47/123) (37 Scottish, 17 Malaysian) of sewage treatment works. Fifty percent of influents (29% Scottish, 76% Malaysian) and 28% of effluents (9% Scottish, 60% Malaysian) contained viable cysts. Viable cysts, discharged in effluent, provide further evidence for the potential for waterborne transmission of Blastocystis. PMID:16151162

  11. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Wildlife Management § 9266.4 Viable coral communities....

  12. Viable capture and release of cancer cells in human whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, Il; Yoo, Hwan-il; Cho, Young-Ho; Lee, Jinseon; Kwan Kim, Hong; Kim, Jhingook

    2012-07-01

    We present viable cancer cell isolation devices utilizing the physical properties of cells. The tapered slit structure is proposed to isolate cancer cells from blood cells and collect them by reversed flow. From the experimental study using the spiked cancer cells in human whole blood, we verified the capability of the present cancer cell isolation chip in terms of capture efficiency, viability, and release rate. The viable cancer cells obtained from the present chip can be used for the further applications of cancer diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and new target drug development for cancer stem cells.

  13. Desiccation induces viable but Non-Culturable cells in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti is a microorganism commercially used in the production of e.g. Medicago sativa seed inocula. Many inocula are powder-based and production includes a drying step. Although S. meliloti survives drying well, the quality of the inocula is reduced during this process. In this study we determined survival during desiccation of the commercial strains 102F84 and 102F85 as well as the model strain USDA1021. The survival of S. meliloti 1021 was estimated during nine weeks at 22% relative humidity. We found that after an initial rapid decline of colony forming units, the decline slowed to a steady 10-fold reduction in colony forming units every 22 days. In spite of the reduction in colony forming units, the fraction of the population identified as viable (42-54%) based on the Baclight live/dead stain did not change significantly over time. This change in the ability of viable cells to form colonies shows (i) an underestimation of the survival of rhizobial cells using plating methods, and that (ii) in a part of the population desiccation induces a Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC)-like state, which has not been reported before. Resuscitation attempts did not lead to a higher recovery of colony forming units indicating the VBNC state is stable under the conditions tested. This observation has important consequences for the use of rhizobia. Finding methods to resuscitate this fraction may increase the quality of powder-based seed inocula. PMID:22260437

  14. Acoustophoretic Sorting of Viable Mammalian Cells in a Microfluidic Device

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Allen H. J.; Soh, H. Tom

    2013-01-01

    We report the first use of ultrasonic acoustophoresis for the label-free separation of viable and nonviable mammalian cells within a microfluidic device. Cells that have undergone apoptosis are physically smaller than viable cells, and our device exploits this fact to achieve efficient sorting based on the strong size dependence of acoustic radiation forces within a microchannel. As a model, we have selectively enriched viable MCF-7 breast tumor cells from heterogeneous mixtures of viable and nonviable cells. We found that this mode of separation is gentle and enables efficient, label-free isolation of viable cells from mixed samples containing 106 cells/mL at flow rates of up to 12 mL/h. We have extensively characterized the device, and we report the effects of piezoelectric voltage and sample flow rate on device performance and describe how these parameters can be tuned to optimize recovery, purity, or throughput. PMID:23157478

  15. Bacteriocins - a viable alternative to antibiotics?

    PubMed

    Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

    2013-02-01

    Solutions are urgently required for the growing number of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Bacteriocins, which are antimicrobial peptides produced by certain bacteria, might warrant serious consideration as alternatives to traditional antibiotics. These molecules exhibit significant potency against other bacteria (including antibiotic-resistant strains), are stable and can have narrow or broad activity spectra. Bacteriocins can even be produced in situ in the gut by probiotic bacteria to combat intestinal infections. Although the application of specific bacteriocins might be curtailed by the development of resistance, an understanding of the mechanisms by which such resistance could emerge will enable researchers to develop strategies to minimize this potential problem. PMID:23268227

  16. Development of a high-efficiency, gas-fired, absorption heat pump for residential and small-commercial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, B. A.

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of the total project is to develop a gas fired absorption heat pump for residential and small commercial applications that will produce at least 1.6 Btu of heating and 0.7 Btu of cooling per Btu of heat content in the gas being burned. The primary technology advances that can be used to attain the new goals are higher efficiency cycles, increased flue efficiency, and better fluids. Flue efficiency technology is well developed, and fan assisted combustion systems with condensing heat exchangers can limit flue and insulation losses to the 10 pct range. If this 10 pct loss assumption is made, the resulting target cycle COPs are 1.78 in heating mode and 0.78 in cooling mode at the ARI rating conditions. The objective of Phase 1 was to analyze working fluids and absorption-cycle concepts that are capable of performing at the target COPs and are potentially competitive with existing space-conditioning products in cost, operating life, and reliability. Six advanced cycles were evaluated with ammonia/water as the fluid pair. Then additional analysis was performed with other fluid pairs to determine whether cycle ranking would change depending on which fluid was used. It was concluded that the preferred cycle/fluid was the generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) cycle using ammonia/water as the fluid pair. A cost estimate made by an independent manufacturing engineering firm for a residential heat pump based on the cycle/fluid combination determined that the GAX heat pump could be cost competitive with existing products.

  17. PossybliCom, a Commercially Viable Personal Navigator for Blind People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavaro, M.; Citterico, D.; Dionisio, C.; van Eijck, D.

    2007-08-01

    Disaps vof is a Dutch start-up Company which is born as spin-off from the Italian company Intecs S.p.A.. Disaps is working on a project called PossybliCom, which is the acronym of Positioning System for Blind, and it is developing wearable navigation equipment for visually impaired or in general people withself- localization problems. Other secondary markets could be thought of as well, such as peoplesuffering from Alzheimer or having temporary memory or consciousness losses. Even peoplehaving experienced problems like TIA (Transient Ischemic Attacks) or faints would need a highlyaccessible device knowing always the way home. PossybliCom is a contribution to further enhance these users' confidence in independent travelling by providing them with a more precise description of the surroundings they are in. A business feasibility study demonstrated how, under certain key restrictions on the system architecture,the product has a high potential for disabled people as well as for the others when specialenvironmental conditions apply. Main issues could be easily identified as accessibility, portability, ease of use, fast learning curve. The European Space Agency's business incubation facility ESI in Noordwijk is supporting the start-up project with physical incubation, which includes office space and shared facilities as well as access to services and the know-how of ESA staff. Once part of the business incubation programme, for aperiod of 6 months the company shall demonstrate the market feasibility and produce a detailed workplan for prototyping.

  18. Anti-cattle tick vaccines: Many candidate antigens, but will a commercially viable product emerge?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is an invited paper from the editor-in-chief of International Journal for Parasitology who requested a Current Opinion manuscript to discuss the status of anti-cattle tick vaccine research. Arguably the world's most significant arthropod pest of cattle, control of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus...

  19. Development and assessment of a clinically viable system for breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruszauskas, Nicholas Peter

    The chances of surviving a breast cancer diagnosis as well as the effectiveness of any potential treatments increase significantly with early detection of the disease. As such, a considerable amount of research is being conducted to augment the breast cancer detection and diagnosis process. One such area of research involves the investigation and application of sophisticated computer algorithms to assist clinicians in detecting and diagnosing breast cancer on medical images (termed generally as "computer-aided diagnosis" or CAD). This study investigated a previously-developed breast ultrasound CAD system with the intent of translating it into a clinically-viable system. While past studies have demonstrated that breast ultrasound CAD may be a beneficial aid during the diagnosis of breast cancer on ultrasound, there are no investigations concerning its potential clinical translation and there are currently no commercially-available implementations of such systems. This study "bridges the gap" between the laboratory-developed system and the steps necessary for clinical implementation. A novel observer study was conducted that mimicked the clinical use of the breast ultrasound CAD system in order to assess the impact it had on the diagnostic performance of the user. Several robustness studies were also performed: the sonographic features used by the system were evaluated and the databases used for calibration and testing were characterized, the effect of the user's input was assessed by evaluating the performance of the system with variations in lesion identification and image selection, and the performance of the system on different patient populations was investigated by evaluating its performance on a database consisting solely of patients with Asian ethnicity. The analyses performed here indicate that the breast ultrasound CAD system under investigation is robust and demonstrates only minor variability when subjected to "real-world" use. All of these results are critical to the success of a CAD system in a clinical environment, and they support the execution of a prospective clinical trial of the system.

  20. Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G.; Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian; Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

    2011-09-01

    Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

  1. Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Stephanie M.; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M.; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R.; Anderson, Amy C.

    2015-01-01

    Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure. PMID:25552560

  2. Generation of Viable Cell and Biomaterial Patterns by Laser Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringeisen, Bradley

    2001-03-01

    In order to fabricate and interface biological systems for next generation applications such as biosensors, protein recognition microarrays, and engineered tissues, it is imperative to have a method of accurately and rapidly depositing different active biomaterials in patterns or layered structures. Ideally, the biomaterial structures would also be compatible with many different substrates including technologically relevant platforms such as electronic circuits or various detection devices. We have developed a novel laser-based technique, termed matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation direct write (MAPLE DW), that is able to direct write patterns and three-dimensional structures of numerous biologically active species ranging from proteins and antibodies to living cells. Specifically, we have shown that MAPLE DW is capable of forming mesoscopic patterns of living prokaryotic cells (E. coli bacteria), living mammalian cells (Chinese hamster ovaries), active proteins (biotinylated bovine serum albumin, horse radish peroxidase), and antibodies specific to a variety of classes of cancer related proteins including intracellular and extracellular matrix proteins, signaling proteins, cell cycle proteins, growth factors, and growth factor receptors. In addition, patterns of viable cells and active biomolecules were deposited on different substrates including metals, semiconductors, nutrient agar, and functionalized glass slides. We will present an explanation of the laser-based transfer mechanism as well as results from our recent efforts to fabricate protein recognition microarrays and tissue-based microfluidic networks.

  3. Characterization of inulin hydrolyzing enzyme(s) in commercial glucoamylases and its application in lactic acid production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Jat).

    PubMed

    Dao, Thai Ha; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

    2013-11-01

    A high inulinase activity was found in three commercially available glucoamylase enzymes. Its origin was investigated and two proteins in the commercial glucoamylases were identified as the potential enzymes showing inulinase activity. One of the commercial glucoamylases, GA-L New from Genencor, was used for Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Jat) hydrolysis and a high hydrolysis yield of fructose was obtained. The simultaneous saccharification and lactic acid fermentation (SSF) of Jat was carried out using GA-L New as the inulinase and Pediococcus acidilactici DQ2 as the fermenting strain. A high lactic acid titer, yield, and productivity of 111.5 g/L, 0.46 g/g DM, and 1.55 g/L/h, respectively, were obtained within 72 h. The enzyme cost using the commercial glucoamylase as inulinase was compared to that using the typical inulinase and a large profit margin was identified. The results provided a practical way of Jat application for lactic acid production using cheap commercial glucoamylase enzyme. PMID:24050923

  4. Study of the effects of proline, phenylalanine, and urea foliar application to Tempranillo vineyards on grape amino acid content. Comparison with commercial nitrogen fertilisers.

    PubMed

    Garde-Cerdn, T; Lpez, R; Portu, J; Gonzlez-Arenzana, L; Lpez-Alfaro, I; Santamara, P

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application of different nitrogen sources on grape amino acid content. The nitrogen sources applied to Tempranillo grapevines were proline, phenylalanine, urea, and two commercial nitrogen fertilisers, both without and with amino acids in their formulations. All treatments were applied at veraison and one week later. Proline treatment did not affect the must nitrogen composition. However, phenylalanine and urea foliar application enhanced the plants' synthesis of most of the amino acids, producing similar effects. In addition, the spray of commercial nitrogen fertilisers over leaves also induced a rise in grape amino acid concentrations regardless of the presence or absence of amino acids in their formulation. The most effective treatments were phenylalanine and urea followed by nitrogen fertilisers. This finding is of oenological interest for improved must nitrogen composition, ensuring better fermentation kinetics and most likely enhancing wine quality. PMID:24912708

  5. Comparison of commercial supercapacitors and high-power lithium-ion batteries for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles. I. Initial characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Andrew; Braatz, Paul

    Commercial supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, from Saft, Maxwell, Panasonic, CCR, Ness, EPCOS, and Power Systems were tested under constant current and constant power discharges to assess their applicability for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Commercial lithium-ion batteries from Saft and Shin-Kobe were also tested under similar conditions. Internal resistances were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), as well as by the " iR drop" method. Self discharge measurements were also recorded. Compared with earlier generations of supercapacitors, the cells showed improved current and power capability. However, their energy densities are still too low to meet goals set by Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) for HEV propulsion. Cells that use acetonitrile as the electrolyte solvent yield better performance, although safety issues need to be addressed. New high-power lithium-ion batteries show high energy densities, with high power capabilities.

  6. Partial hydatidiform mole and coexisting viable twin pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tay, Ee Tein

    2013-12-01

    Twin partial hydatidiform molar pregnancy with a viable fetus is an uncommon occurrence. Presentations of molar pregnancies include vaginal bleeding, unusually elevated ?-human chorionic gonadotropin level, and preeclampsia. Previous descriptions of twin molar and fetus pregnancies in the literature have been described in the outpatient obstetric setting. We present a case of partial molar pregnancy with a viable fetus detected with emergency ultrasound in a pediatric emergency department. PMID:24300477

  7. Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.

    SciTech Connect

    Enslin, Johan; Hamaoui, Ronald; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith; Rustom, Khalid; Stuby, Rick; Kuran, Mohammad; Mark, Evlyn; Amarin, Ruba; Alatrash, Hussam; Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

    2012-03-01

    Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing further field testing as a prelude to improved and expanded commercialization.

  8. 43 CFR 3274.11 - What must I give BLM to approve my commercial use permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .../or utilization of geothermal resources; (d) A description and analysis of reservoir, production, and...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Applying for and Obtaining a Commercial Use Permit § 3274.11 What must I give BLM... calibration schedule of production, injection, and royalty meters; (b) A schematic diagram of the...

  9. 43 CFR 3274.11 - What must I give BLM to approve my commercial use permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .../or utilization of geothermal resources; (d) A description and analysis of reservoir, production, and...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Applying for and Obtaining a Commercial Use Permit § 3274.11 What must I give BLM... calibration schedule of production, injection, and royalty meters; (b) A schematic diagram of the...

  10. 43 CFR 3274.11 - What must I give BLM to approve my commercial use permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .../or utilization of geothermal resources; (d) A description and analysis of reservoir, production, and...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Applying for and Obtaining a Commercial Use Permit § 3274.11 What must I give BLM... calibration schedule of production, injection, and royalty meters; (b) A schematic diagram of the...

  11. 43 CFR 3274.11 - What must I give BLM to approve my commercial use permit application?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .../or utilization of geothermal resources; (d) A description and analysis of reservoir, production, and...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Applying for and Obtaining a Commercial Use Permit § 3274.11 What must I give BLM... calibration schedule of production, injection, and royalty meters; (b) A schematic diagram of the...

  12. Evaluation under commercial conditions of the application of continuous, low concentrations of ozone during the cold storage of table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis cinerea causes gray mold, a postharvest disease of table grapes. The ability of ozone (O3) in air to inhibit gray mold in stored grapes was reported in chamber studies, but O3 needed evaluation under commercial conditions. Ozone merits attention because it is pesticide-residue free and all...

  13. APPLICATION OF A FUNCTIONAL MATHEMATICAL QUALITY INDEX TO ASPARAGINE, FREE SUGAR AND PHENOLIC ACID CONTENT OF 20 COMMERCIAL POTATO VARIETIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this article, we apply a functional mathematical index (FMI), introduced in a previous publication, to 20 commercial potato varieties. The index allows evaluation of nutritional, safety and processing quality parameters of different potato cultivars. The main goal of the index is to link the q...

  14. Ecological studies of Legionella species. I. Viable counts of Legionella pneumophila in cooling tower water.

    PubMed

    Ikedo, M; Yabuuchi, E

    1986-01-01

    The occurrence and viable counts of Legionella pneumophila in acid-treated water samples of 62 cooling towers on the main island of Japan were determined by inoculating them onto plates of Wadowsky-Yee-Okuda (WYO) agar medium. WYO plate cultures of 39 (63%) of the samples yielded L. pneumophila with viable counts ranging from 10 to 10(4) colony-forming units per 100 ml. Of the L. pneumophila isolates, 157 were serologically identified as serogroup 1, and the remaining 21 were agglutinated by serogroup 3 (2 strains) and serogroup 6 (19 strains) antisera. In each culture-positive water sample, the pH and the number of other bacteria were found not be statistically significantly correlated with the viable counts of L. pneumophila. However, a higher rate of recovery of L. pneumophila was obtained with the water samples with a smaller number of other bacteria. Practical use of commercially available antialgal or antimicrobial agents was found not to be significantly effective for controlling the occurrence and growth of L. pneumophila in cooling tower water. PMID:3528766

  15. Abundance of culturable versus viable Escherichia coli in freshwater.

    PubMed

    Servais, Pierre; Prats, Josu; Passerat, Julien; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara

    2009-07-01

    Approved methods traditionally used for Escherichia coli enumeration in waters are culture-based. However, these methods can underestimate the E. coli abundance in aquatic systems because they do not take into account cells that remain viable but have lost the ability to grow in or on culture media. We investigated, in freshwater samples, the abundance of (i) culturable E. coli, enumerated by the most probable number microplate method and (ii) viable E. coli, estimated using a procedure called DVC-FISH, which couples fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and a viability testing technique (direct viable count (DVC)). The ratio of culturable to viable E. coli was close to 1 in highly contaminated waters (samples with a high concentration of culturable E. coli), but decreased drastically for weakly contaminated samples. This indicates a large fraction of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) E. coli in the latter samples. Microcosm experiments showed that some environmental factors, such as nutrient scarcity and solar irradiation, could lead to the presence of a high proportion of VBNC E. coli. PMID:19767865

  16. Market Research Survey of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Portable MS Systems for IAEA Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Garret L.; Hager, George J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes the results for the market research survey of mass spectrometers that are deemed pertinent to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) needs and strategic objectives. The focus of the report is on MS instruments that represent currently available (or soon to be) commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technology and weigh less than 400 pounds. A compilation of all available MS instruments (36 COTS and 2 R&D) is presented, along with pertinent information regarding each instrument.

  17. Hoechst fluorescence intensity can be used to separate viable bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells from viable non-bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mozdziak, P. E.; Pulvermacher, P. M.; Schultz, E.; Schell, K.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is a powerful compound to study the mitotic activity of a cell. Most techniques that identify BrdU-labeled cells require conditions that kill the cells. However, the fluorescence intensity of the membrane-permeable Hoechst dyes is reduced by the incorporation of BrdU into DNA, allowing the separation of viable BrdU positive (BrdU+) cells from viable BrdU negative (BrdU-) cells. METHODS: Cultures of proliferating cells were supplemented with BrdU for 48 h and other cultures of proliferating cells were maintained without BrdU. Mixtures of viable BrdU+ and viable BrdU- cells from the two proliferating cultures were stained with Hoechst 33342. The viable BrdU+ and BrdU- cells were sorted into different fractions from a mixture of BrdU+ and BrdU- cells based on Hoechst fluorescence intensity and the ability to exclude the vital dye, propidium iodide. Subsequently, samples from the original mixture, the sorted BrdU+ cell population, and the sorted BrdU- cell population were immunostained using an anti-BrdU monoclonal antibody and evaluated using flow cytometry. RESULTS: Two mixtures consisting of approximately 55% and 69% BrdU+ cells were sorted into fractions consisting of greater than 93% BrdU+ cells and 92% BrdU- cells. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. CONCLUSIONS: Hoechst fluorescence intensity in combination with cell sorting is an effective tool to separate viable BrdU+ from viable BrdU- cells for further study. The separated cell populations were maintained in vitro after sorting to demonstrate their viability. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Technology data characterizing lighting in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with commend 4.0

    SciTech Connect

    Sezgen, A.O.; Huang, Y.J.; Atkinson, B.A.; Eto, J.H.; Koomey, J.G.

    1994-05-01

    End-use forecasting models typically utilize technology tradeoff curves to represent technology options available to consumers. A tradeoff curve, in general terms, is a functional form which relates efficiency to capital cost. Each end-use is modeled by a single tradeoff curve. This type of representation is satisfactory in the analysis of many policy options. On the other hand, for policies addressing individual technology options or groups of technology options, because individual technology options are accessible to the analyst, representation in such reduced form is not satisfactory. To address this and other analysis needs, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has enhanced its Commercial End-Use Planning System (COMMEND) to allow modeling of specific lighting and space conditioning (HVAC) technology options. This report characterizes the present commercial floorstock in terms of lighting technologies and develops cost-efficiency data for these lighting technologies. This report also characterizes the interactions between the lighting and space conditioning end uses in commercial buildings in the US In general, lighting energy reductions increase the heating and decrease the cooling requirements. The net change in a building`s energy requirements, however, depends on the building characteristics, operating conditions, and the climate. Lighting/HVAC interactions data were generated through computer simulations using the DOE-2 building energy analysis program.

  19. Different analytical approaches in assessing antibacterial activity and the purity of commercial lysozyme preparations for dairy application.

    PubMed

    Brasca, Milena; Morandi, Stefano; Silvetti, Tiziana; Rosi, Veronica; Cattaneo, Stefano; Pellegrino, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Hen egg-white lysozyme (LSZ) is currently used in the food industry to limit the proliferation of lactic acid bacteria spoilage in the production of wine and beer, and to inhibit butyric acid fermentation in hard and extra hard cheeses (late blowing) caused by the outgrowth of clostridial spores. The aim of this work was to evaluate how the enzyme activity in commercial preparations correlates to the enzyme concentration and can be affected by the presence of process-related impurities. Different analytical approaches, including turbidimetric assay, SDS-PAGE and HPLC were used to analyse 17 commercial preparations of LSZ marketed in different countries. The HPLC method adopted by ISO allowed the true LSZ concentration to be determined with accuracy. The turbidimetric assay was the most suitable method to evaluate LSZ activity, whereas SDS-PAGE allowed the presence of other egg proteins, which are potential allergens, to be detected. The analytical results showed that the purity of commercially available enzyme preparations can vary significantly, and evidenced the effectiveness of combining different analytical approaches in this type of control. PMID:23698052

  20. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health. PMID:24948916

  1. 76 FR 30301 - Commercial Acquisition; Anchor Tenancy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ...: NASA proposes to revise the NASA FAR Supplement (NFS) to include guidance consistent with NASA's authority under Section 401 of the Commercial Space Competitiveness Act (CSCA) of 1992. NASA may enter into... made viable.'' DATES: Interested parties should submit comments to NASA at the address below on...

  2. Viable mononuclear cell stability study for implementation in a proficiency testing program: impact of shipment conditions.

    PubMed

    Kofanova, Olga A; Davis, Kristine; Glazer, Barbara; De Souza, Yvonne; Kessler, Joseph; Betsou, Fotini

    2014-06-01

    The impact of shipping temperatures and preservation media used during transport of either peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) or Jurkat cells was assessed, in view of implementing of a proficiency testing scheme on mononuclear cell viability. Samples were analyzed before and after shipment at different temperatures (ambient temperature, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen) and in different preservation media (serum with cryoprotectant, commercial cryopreservation solution, and room temperature transport medium). Sample quality was assessed by viability assays (Trypan Blue dye exclusion, flow cytometry, Cell Analysis System cell counting (CASY)), and by ELISpot functional assay. The liquid nitrogen storage and shipment were found to be the most stable conditions to preserve cell viability and functionality. However, we show that alternative high quality shipment conditions for viable cells are dry ice shipment and commercial cryopreservation solution. These were also cost-efficient shipment conditions, satisfying the requirements of a proficiency testing scheme for viable mononuclear cells. Room temperature transport medium dramatically and adversely affected the integrity of mononuclear cells. PMID:24955735

  3. Limitations of Commercializing Fuel Cell Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordin, Normayati

    2010-06-01

    Fuel cell is the technology that, nowadays, is deemed having a great potential to be used in supplying energy. Basically, fuel cells can be categorized particularly by the kind of employed electrolyte. Several fuel cells types which are currently identified having huge potential to be utilized, namely, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC), Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells (MCFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC), Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC), Polymer Electron Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC), Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC) and Regenerative Fuel Cells (RFC). In general, each of these fuel cells types has their own characteristics and specifications which assign the capability and suitability of them to be utilized for any particular applications. Stationary power generations and transport applications are the two most significant applications currently aimed for the fuel cell market. It is generally accepted that there are lots of advantages if fuel cells can be excessively commercialized primarily in context of environmental concerns and energy security. Nevertheless, this is a demanding task to be accomplished, as there is some gap in fuel cells technology itself which needs a major enhancement. It can be concluded, from the previous study, cost, durability and performance are identified as the main limitations to be firstly overcome in enabling fuel cells technology become viable for the market.

  4. Method for Evaluating the Astrometric and Photometric Characteristics of Commercial Scanners in their Application for the Scientific Purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protsyuk, Yu. I.; Andruk, V. N.; Muminov, M. M.; Yuldoshev, Q. X.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Eglitis, I.; Eglite, M.; Kovylianska, O. E.; Golovnya, V. V.; Kazantseva, L. V.; Kashuba, S. G.

    Method for estimating the accuracy of astrometric (rectangular coordinates) and photometric (diameters and magnitudes) characteristics of commercial scanners is proposed and applied. The method is demonstrated using an example of processing of sequential scans of plates, which were exposed with different telescopes and then digitized with resolution of 1200 dpi with several Epson scanners. Scanning operations were carried out in various observatories as part of development of the database of photographic observations for Virtual Observatories (Vavilova, 2012). Errors of studied scanners are equal to ?x, y = 0.02-0.06px and ?m = 0.015-0.024 mag for astrometry and photometry, respectively.

  5. Emerging commercial opportunities based on combined communication navigation services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Eberhard; Fox, Brian M.; Kreisel, Joerg

    2006-07-01

    Cost reduction pressure on companies and increasing regulatory and legislative demand together with rapid technological progress in space-based communication and navigation are opening up new and exciting commercial opportunities. In this framework, a novel service for maritime applications is presented using a two-way messaging system and the global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The system implements an end-to-end solution for asset tracking and fleet management, positioning and tracing, messaging and security for all types of sea-going vessels. The service applies a vessel-based terminal hosting a GNSS receiver which transmits the navigation status together with messages to a Service Center with a flexible return-link capability. A hybrid space segment is considered comprising the Inmarsat constellation of geostationary communications satellites augmented by two highly inclined low earth orbit satellites for truly global services. Services will be offered to commercial enterprises such as fishing companies as well as public entities such as National Coast Guards. A detailed market analysis has been performed to assess these markets and to determine their penetration. Commercial viability has been proven for business models purely based on Inmarsat and a hybrid space segment using Inmarsat and dedicated micro-satellites. Both cases represent viable businesses in the range of MEUR 100 p.a. Although tailored to a specific market, the approach can be extended to other commercial opportunities requiring space-based communication-navigation services.

  6. Commercial Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) at Stennis Space Center, Applied Analysis, Inc. developed a new tool for analyzing remotely sensed data. The Applied Analysis Spectral Analytical Process (AASAP) detects or classifies objects smaller than a pixel and removes the background. This significantly enhances the discrimination among surface features in imagery. ERDAS, Inc. offers the system as a modular addition to its ERDAS IMAGINE software package for remote sensing applications. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant. Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP), Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing (OCENS) developed SeaStation for marine users. SeaStation is a low-cost, portable, shipboard satellite groundstation integrated with vessel catch and product monitoring software. Linked to the Global Positioning System, SeaStation provides real time relationships between vessel position and data such as sea surface temperature, weather conditions and ice edge location. This allows the user to increase fishing productivity and improve vessel safety. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant.

  7. Fort Osage School District Works toward Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Administrators at Fort Osage School District in Independence, Missouri, feel it is their responsibility to provide students with a guaranteed and viable curriculum. Based on Dr. Robert Marzano's model, district leaders set out to alter their curriculum so that it could be taught adequately in the time allotted for instruction. They wanted to…

  8. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    DOEpatents

    Sasaki, Dennis T. (Mountain View, CA); Van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA); Buckie, Anne-Marie (Margate, GB)

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  9. Are E-Readers Viable Instructional Delivery Systems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schcolnik, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a study of e-readers, or electronic book readers, that investigated strategies adult users applied to reading in the new medium, kinds of texts users read, and text characteristics for e-reading. Discusses the process of reading, purposes of reading, and whether e-readers are viable instructional delivery systems. (Contains 63

  10. A METHOD TO DETECT VIABLE HELICOBACTER PYLORI BACTERIA IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inability to detect the presence of viable Helicobacter pylori bacteria in environmental waters has hindered the public health community in assessing the role water may playin the transmission of this pathogen. This work describes a cultural enrichment method coupled with an...

  11. Lease/Purchase: A Viable Alternative for Financing Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, Denise

    1989-01-01

    Lease-purchase finance is a viable alternative for school districts that cannot or do not want to employ traditional financing techniques. Outlines the advantages and disadvantages of lease-purchase financing compared to outright purchase; operating leasing, which is taxable; and traditional tax-exempt bond financing. (MLF)

  12. The Attempted Immunization of Turkey Hens with Viable Mycoplasma meleagridis

    PubMed Central

    Bigland, C. H.; Vlaovic, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    The attempted immunization of 53 female Broad Breasted White turkeys with five weekly 1.0 ml injections of viable Mycoplasma meleagridis, when combined with insemination with M. meleagridis infected semen, did not produce immunity but only imposed additional infection. This was detrimental to the offspring by increasing the incidence and severity of air sac lesions. PMID:4260949

  13. Characteristics of Viable and Sustainable Workers for the Year 2015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Brenda Pennington; West, Russell

    A two-round Delphi study was conducted to identify the characteristics of viable and sustainable employees in northeastern Tennessee in 2015. The Delphi panel selected for the study consisted of 25 experts who represented a cross-section of the businesses and communities in the 10-county area of northeastern Tennessee served by Walters State

  14. High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells

    DOEpatents

    Sasaki, D.T.; Van den Engh, G.J.; Buckie, A.M.

    1995-11-14

    Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

  15. Viable Influenza A Virus in Airborne Particles from Human Coughs

    PubMed Central

    Lindsley, William G.; Noti, John D.; Blachere, Francoise M.; Thewlis, Robert E.; Martin, Stephen B.; Othumpangat, Sreekumar; Noorbakhsh, Bahar; Goldsmith, William T.; Vishnu, Abhishek; Palmer, Jan E.; Clark, Karen E.; Beezhold, Donald H.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with influenza release aerosol particles containing the virus into their environment. However, the importance of airborne transmission in the spread of influenza is unclear, in part because of a lack of information about the infectivity of the airborne virus. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of viable influenza A virus that was expelled by patients in aerosol particles while coughing. Sixty-four symptomatic adult volunteer outpatients were asked to cough 6 times into a cough aerosol collection system. Seventeen of these participants tested positive for influenza A virus by viral plaque assay (VPA) with confirmation by viral replication assay (VRA). Viable influenza A virus was detected in the cough aerosol particles from 7 of these 17 test subjects (41%). Viable influenza A virus was found in the smallest particle size fraction (0.3 ?m to 8 ?m), with a mean of 142 plaque-forming units (SD 215) expelled during the 6 coughs in particles of this size. These results suggest that a significant proportion of patients with influenza A release small airborne particles containing viable virus into the environment. Although the amounts of influenza A detected in cough aerosol particles during our experiments were relatively low, larger quantities could be expelled by influenza patients during a pandemic when illnesses would be more severe. Our findings support the idea that airborne infectious particles could play an important role in the spread of influenza. PMID:25523206

  16. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Wildlife...

  17. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Wildlife...

  18. 43 CFR 9266.4 - Viable coral communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Viable coral communities. 9266.4 Section 9266.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TECHNICAL SERVICES (9000) LAW ENFORCEMENT-CRIMINAL Wildlife...

  19. Commercial Fishing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat

  20. Application of laboratory prepared and commercially available biochars to adsorption of cadmium, copper and zinc ions from water.

    PubMed

    Bogusz, Aleksandra; Oleszczuk, Patryk; Dobrowolski, Ryszard

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the presented work was the evaluation and comparison of two biochars (produced from Sida hermaphrodita - BCSH/laboratory produced and from wheatstraw - BCS/commercial available) to adsorb heavy metal ions (Cd(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II)) from water. Kinetics of the sorption as well as sorption isotherms, the influence of solution pH and interfering ions were investigated. Different physico-chemical properties of biochars had the great influence on adsorption capacity. The greater adsorption efficiency was observed for BCSH than for BCS in the case of all investigated metals. The adsorption efficiency of BCSH was correlated with higher content of carbon and oxygen, what is equal with higher content of polar-groups on the BCSH surface e.g., -COOH. Furthermore, the molar ratio of O/C as well as polarity index (which was higher for BCSH) was also important parameters. PMID:26295440

  1. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  2. Efficacy of several commercially formulated essential oils against caged female Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus when operationally applied via an automatic-timed insecticide application system.

    PubMed

    Cilek, J E; Hallmon, C F; Johnson, R

    2011-09-01

    The effectiveness of several commercially available products containing plant essential oils against caged female Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus was studied. Products operationally applied via an automatic-timed insecticide application system (MistAway) at maximum label rates were EcoExempt MC (9.0 ml/liter, rosemary oil [18% AI], cinnamon oil [2% AI], lemongrass oil [2% AI], plus 78% "other ingredients" in wintergreen oil). Misting System Concentrate (4 ml/liter, oil of Juniperus virginiana [85% AI]), Mosquito Barrier (31.1 ml/liter, garlic oil [99.3% AI], and citric acid [0.5% AI]), and No-See-Um Organic Repellent (99.5 ml/liter, lemongrass [4% AI], citronella [3% AI], castor oil [3% AI], sodium laurate [3%], and garlic oil [1% AI] in an 86% [AI] mixture of wintergreen oil, lecithin, and water). All products were compared with a commercial formulation of synergized pyrethrins, Riptide (9.0 ml/liter, pyrethrins [5% AI], piperonyl butoxide [25% AI]), as a standard. Mortality was the greatest for Riptide to both mosquito species with effectiveness influenced by distance from the nozzle (ranging from > 80% at 3 m to > 10% at 20 m). The essential oil products resulted in < 10% mortality for each species regardless of application exposure distance with the exception of EcoExempt, which gave approximately 13% mortality of caged female Ae. albopictus 6 m from the nozzles. PMID:22017089

  3. Viable tumor tissue detection in murine metastatic breast cancer by whole-body MRI and multispectral analysis.

    PubMed

    Barck, Kai H; Willis, Brandon; Ross, Jed; French, Dorothy M; Filvaroff, Ellen H; Carano, Richard A D

    2009-12-01

    Whole-body MRI combined with a semiautomated hierarchical multispectral image analysis technique was evaluated as a method for detecting viable tumor tissue in a murine model of metastatic breast cancer (4T1 cell line). Whole-body apparent diffusion coefficient, T(2), and proton density maps were acquired in this study. The viable tumor tissue segmentation included three-stage k-means clustering of the parametric maps, morphologic operations, application of a size threshold, and reader discrimination of the segmented objects. The segmentation results were validated by histologic evaluation, and the detection accuracy of the technique was evaluated at three size thresholds (15, 100, and 500 voxels). The accuracy was 88.9% for a 500-voxel size threshold, and the area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.84. The regions of segmented viable tumor tissue within the primary tumors were found mostly on the periphery of the tumors in agreement with the histologic findings. The presented technique was found capable of detecting metastases and segmenting the viable tumor from necrotic regions within tumors found in this model. It offers a noninvasive, whole-body, viable tumor tissue detection method for preclinical and potentially clinical applications such as tumor screening and evaluating therapeutic efficacy. PMID:19859948

  4. Evidence for viable, non-clonal but fatherless Boa constrictors

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Warren; Johnson, Daniel H.; Moore, Sharon; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Parthenogenesis in vertebrates is considered an evolutionary novelty. In snakes, all of which exhibit genetic sex determination with ZZ : ZW sex chromosomes, this rare form of asexual reproduction has failed to yield viable female WW offspring. Only through complex experimental manipulations have WW females been produced, and only in fish and amphibians. Through microsatellite DNA fingerprinting, we provide the first evidence of facultative parthenogenesis in a Boa constrictor, identifying multiple, viable, non-experimentally induced females for the first time in any vertebrate lineage. Although the elevated homozygosity of the offspring in relation to the mother suggests that the mechanism responsible may be terminal fusion automixis, no males were produced, potentially indicating maternal sex chromosome hemizygosity (WO). These findings provide the first evidence of parthenogenesis in the family Boidae (Boas), and suggest that WW females may be more common within basal reptilian lineages than previously assumed. PMID:21047849

  5. Evidence for viable, non-clonal but fatherless Boa constrictors.

    PubMed

    Booth, Warren; Johnson, Daniel H; Moore, Sharon; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L

    2011-04-23

    Parthenogenesis in vertebrates is considered an evolutionary novelty. In snakes, all of which exhibit genetic sex determination with ZZ : ZW sex chromosomes, this rare form of asexual reproduction has failed to yield viable female WW offspring. Only through complex experimental manipulations have WW females been produced, and only in fish and amphibians. Through microsatellite DNA fingerprinting, we provide the first evidence of facultative parthenogenesis in a Boa constrictor, identifying multiple, viable, non-experimentally induced females for the first time in any vertebrate lineage. Although the elevated homozygosity of the offspring in relation to the mother suggests that the mechanism responsible may be terminal fusion automixis, no males were produced, potentially indicating maternal sex chromosome hemizygosity (WO). These findings provide the first evidence of parthenogenesis in the family Boidae (Boas), and suggest that WW females may be more common within basal reptilian lineages than previously assumed. PMID:21047849

  6. Metabolism of the viable mammalian embryo: quietness revisited

    PubMed Central

    Leese, Henry J.; Baumann, Christoph G.; Brison, Daniel R.; McEvoy, Tom G.; Sturmey, Roger G.

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the Quiet Embryo Hypothesis which proposes that viable preimplantation embryos operate at metabolite or nutrient turnover rates distributed within lower ranges than those of their less viable counterparts. The quieter metabolism consistent with this hypothesis is considered in terms of (i) functional quietness; the contrasting levels of intrinsic metabolic activity in different cell types as a consequence of their specialized functions, (ii) inter-individual embryo/cell differences in metabolism and (iii) loss of quietness in response to environmental stress. Data are reviewed which indicate that gametes and early embryos function in vivo at a lower temperature than core body temperature, which could encourage the expression of a quiet metabolism. We call for research to determine the optimum temperature for mammalian gamete/embryo culture. The review concludes by examining the key role of reactive oxygen species, which can induce molecular damage, trigger a cellular stress response and lead to a loss of quietness. PMID:19019836

  7. Removal of viable bacteria and endotoxins by Electro Deionization (EDI).

    PubMed

    Harada, Norimitsu; Otomo, Teruo; Watabe, Tomoichi; Ase, Tomonobu; Takemura, Takuto; Sato, Toshio

    2011-09-01

    Viable bacteria and endotoxins in water sometimes cause problems for human health. Endotoxins are major components of the outer cell wall of gram-negative bacteria (lipopolysaccharides). In medical procedures, especially haemodialysis (HD) and related therapies (haemodiafiltration (HDF), haemofiltration (HF)), endotoxins in the water for haemodialysis can permeate through the haemodialysis membrane and cause microinflammation or various haemodialysis-related illnesses. To decrease such a biological risk, RO and UF membranes are generally used. Also, hot water disinfection or the chemical disinfection is regularly executed to kill bacteria which produce endotoxins. However, simple treatment methods and equipment may be able to decrease the biological risk more efficiently. In our experiments, we confirmed that viable bacteria and endotoxins were removed by Electro Deionization (EDI) technology and also clarified the desorption mechanisms. PMID:21946321

  8. Recent Experience of the Application of a Commercial Data Base Management System (ADABAS) to a Scientific Data Bank (ECDIN).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Town, William G.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the problems encountered and solutions adopted in application of the ADABAS database management system to the ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) data bank. SIMAS, the pilot system, and ADABAS are compared, and ECDIN ADABAS design features are described. Appendices provide additional facts about ADABAS and SIMAS.

  9. An Overview of Nuclear vs. Non-Nuclear Design Code Requirements for a Candidate Steam Supply System for Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Jetter

    2011-04-01

    The objective is to identify (mostly for industrial end-users) the difference between a Section III nuclear steam generator (classified as Structures, Systems and Components (SSC)) and a Section VIII steam generator in the same general conditions, but used in a conventional application. Specifically, applicable temperature and pressure ranges and a more quantitative description of how materials change, design margins change and required design rigor changes are of interest. This overview focuses on the steam generator pressure boundary but the downstream piping will also be considered. Within the designations of Section III and Section VIII there are subcategories with their specific regions of applicability. Each of these subcategories has evolved their own unique features with respect to design rules and their implementation. A general overview of the various design codes will be provided in sufficient detail to illustrate the major differences; however, a detailed discussion of the various design requirements and their implementation is beyond the scope of this discussion. References (1) and (2) are sources of more detailed information. Also, example wall sizing calculations will be provided to illustrate the application of the relevant design codes under the candidate design conditions. The candidate steam supply Design Conditions are 600C (1112F) and 24MPa (3,480psi). The Operating Conditions or Service Levels will be somewhat lower and the difference shows up in some of the various design methodologies employed.

  10. An adhesive conducting electrode material based on commercial mesoporous titanium dioxide as a support for Horseradish peroxidase for bioelectrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Rahemi, Vanoushe; Trashin, Stanislav; Meynen, Vera; De Wael, Karolien

    2016-01-01

    An adhesive conducting electrode material containing of graphite, biocompatible ion exchange polymer nafion() and commercial mesoporous TiO2 impregnated with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is prepared and characterized by amperometric, UV-vis and N2 sorption methods. The factors influencing the performance of the resulting biosensor are studied in detail. The optimal electrode material consists of 45% graphite, 50% impregnated HRP-TiO2 and 5% nafion(). The optimum conditions for H2O2 reduction are an applied potential of -0.3V and 0.1mM hydroquinone. Sensitivity and limit of detection in the optimum conditions are 1AM(-1) cm(-2) and 1M correspondingly. The N2 sorption results show that the pore volume of TiO2 decreases sharply upon adsorption of HRP. The preparation process of the proposed enzyme electrode is straightforward and potentially can be used for preparation of carbon paste electrodes for bioelectrochemical detections. PMID:26695318

  11. Hair follicles are viable after delayed FUE procedure.

    PubMed

    Mohebbipour Laran, Alireza; Mirmohammadi, Ramin; Rezaei Bana, Mohammadreza; Manoochehri, Shaghayegh

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, male pattern hair loss is usually managed with hair transplant. However, maintaining the hair follicle viability between extraction and implantation period is a great concern which restricts the hair transplantation period. However, it is possible that the hair follicles can be preserved and be viable for few days. Here, we report a case with delayed follicular unit extraction in three consecutive days with acceptable hair growth after a 5-month follow-up. PMID:25968165

  12. PMA-PhyloChip DNA Microarray to Elucidate Viable Microbial Community Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.; Stam, Christina N.; Andersen, Gary L.; DeSantis, Todd

    2011-01-01

    Since the Viking missions in the mid-1970s, traditional culture-based methods have been used for microbial enumeration by various NASA programs. Viable microbes are of particular concern for spacecraft cleanliness, for forward contamination of extraterrestrial bodies (proliferation of microbes), and for crew health/safety (viable pathogenic microbes). However, a "true" estimation of viable microbial population and differentiation from their dead cells using the most sensitive molecular methods is a challenge, because of the stability of DNA from dead cells. The goal of this research is to evaluate a rapid and sensitive microbial detection concept that will selectively estimate viable microbes. Nucleic acid amplification approaches such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have shown promise for reducing time to detection for a wide range of applications. The proposed method is based on the use of a fluorescent DNA intercalating agent, propidium monoazide (PMA), which can only penetrate the membrane of dead cells. The PMA-quenched reaction mixtures can be screened, where only the DNA from live cells will be available for subsequent PCR reaction and microarray detection, and be identified as part of the viable microbial community. An additional advantage of the proposed rapid method is that it will detect viable microbes and differentiate from dead cells in only a few hours, as opposed to less comprehensive culture-based assays, which take days to complete. This novel combination approach is called the PMA-Microarray method. DNA intercalating agents such as PMA have previously been used to selectively distinguish between viable and dead bacterial cells. Once in the cell, the dye intercalates with the DNA and, upon photolysis under visible light, produces stable DNA adducts. DNA cross-linked in this way is unavailable for PCR. Environmental samples suspected of containing a mixture of live and dead microbial cells/spores will be treated with PMA, and then incubated in the dark. Thereafter, the sample is exposed to visible light for five minutes, so that the DNA from dead cells will be cross-linked. Following this PMA treatment step, the sample is concentrated by centrifugation and washed (to remove excessive PMA) before DNA is extracted. The 16S rRNA gene fragments will be amplified by PCR to screen the total microbial community using PhyloChip DNA microarray analysis. This approach will detect only the viable microbial community since the PMA intercalated DNA from dead cells would be unavailable for PCR amplification. The total detection time including PCR reaction for low biomass samples will be a few hours. Numerous markets may use this technology. The food industry uses spore detection to validate new alternative food processing technologies, sterility, and quality. Pharmaceutical and medical equipment companies also detect spores as a marker for sterility. This system can be used for validating sterilization processes, water treatment systems, and in various public health and homeland security applications.

  13. Fluorescence particle detector for real-time quantification of viable organisms in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoma, Greg; Cherrier, Pierre P.; Piccioni, Marc; Tanton, Carol; Herz, Steve; DeFreez, Richard K.; Potter, Michael; Girvin, Kenneth L.; Whitney, Ronald

    2002-02-01

    The ability to detect viable organisms in air in real time is important in a number of applications. Detecting high levels of airborne organisms in hospitals can prevent post-operative infections and the spread of diseases. Monitoring levels of airborne viable organisms in pharmaceutical facilities can ensure safe production of drugs or vaccines. Monitoring airborne bacterial levels in meat processing plants can help to prevent contamination of food products. Monitoring the level of airborne organisms in bio-containment facilities can ensure that proper procedures are being followed. Finally, detecting viable organisms in real time is a key to defending against biological agent attacks. This presentation describes the development and performance of a detector, based on fluorescence particle counting technology, where an ultraviolet laser is used to count particles by light scattering and elicit fluorescence from specific biomolecules found only in living organisms. The resulting detector can specifically detect airborne particles containing living organisms from among the large majority of other particles normally present in air. Efforts to develop the core sensor technology, focusing on integrating an UV laser with a specially designed particle-counting cell will be highlighted. The hardware/software used to capture the information from the sensor, provide an alarm in the presence of an unusual biological aerosol content will also be described. Finally, results from experiments to test the performance of the detector will be presented.

  14. Real-time quantification of viable bacteria in liquid medium using infrared thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaimeh, Ahmad A.; Campion, Jeffrey J.; Gharaibeh, Belal Y.; Evans, Martin E.; Saito, Kozo

    2011-11-01

    Quantifying viable bacteria in liquids is important in environmental, food processing, manufacturing, and medical applications. Since vegetative bacteria generate heat as a result of biochemical reactions associated with cellular functions, thermal sensing techniques, including infrared thermography (IRT), have been used to detect viable cells in biologic samples. We developed a novel method that extends the dynamic range and improves the sensitivity of bacterial quantification by IRT. The approach uses IRT video, thermodynamics laws, and heat transfer mechanisms to directly measure, in real-time, the amount of energy lost as heat from the surface of a liquid sample containing bacteria when the specimen cools to a lower temperature over 2 min. We show that the Energy Content ( EC) of liquid media containing as few as 120 colony-forming units (CFU) of Escherichia coli per ml was significantly higher than that of sterile media ( P < 0.0001), and that EC and viable counts were strongly positively correlated ( r = 0.986) over a range of 120 to approximately 5 10 8 CFU/ml. Our IRT approach is a unique non-contact method that provides real-time bacterial enumeration over a wide dynamic range without the need for sample concentration, modification, or destruction. The approach could be adapted to quantify other living cells in a liquid milieu and has the potential for automation and high throughput.

  15. Viable Biomass Sensor integration in the MELiSSA CI and CIII compartments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duatis Juarez, Jordi; Peiro, Enrique; Bragos, Ramon

    Traditionally, the biomass quantity and quality in complex substrate reactor (e.g. activated sludge, high density, fixed bed,..) is determined off-line in laboratories. Within this study, the VIAMASS Sensor System, which uses Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) techniques, has been tested for MELiSSA compartment CI and C III, the liquefying and the nitrifying compartment respectively. This sensor is able to measure viable cells on basis of an impedance spectroscopy measurement. The fact that viable biomass can be detected, distinguishes the sensor from classical biomass sensors used in wastewater treatment plants. Detection of viable biomass and composition of the biomass can be very useful for calibration and validation of biological models. The sensor can be used to detect toxicity in system leading to die-off of organisms. The technology developed initially for space applications has been adapted and will be also able to give overall information on the population distribution of cells, distinguishing what type of biomass is dominant (for example, bacteria or protozoa).

  16. Gravitational waves in viable f(R) models

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Louis; Lee, Chung-Chi; Geng, Chao-Qiang E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2011-08-01

    We study gravitational waves in viable f(R) theories under a non-zero background curvature. In general, an f(R) theory contains an extra scalar degree of freedom corresponding to a massive scalar mode of gravitational wave. For viable f(R) models, since there always exits a de-Sitter point where the background curvature in vacuum is non-zero, the mass squared of the scalar mode of gravitational wave is about the de-Sitter point curvature R{sub d} ? 10{sup ?66}eV{sup 2}. We illustrate our results in two types of viable f(R) models: the exponential gravity and Starobinsky models. In both cases, the mass will be in the order of 10{sup ?33}eV when it propagates in vacuum. However, in the presence of matter density in galaxy, the scalar mode can be heavy. Explicitly, in the exponential gravity model, the mass becomes almost infinity, implying the disappearance of the scalar mode of gravitational wave, while the Starobinsky model gives the lowest mass around 10{sup ?24}eV, corresponding to the lowest frequency of 10{sup ?9} Hz, which may be detected by the current and future gravitational wave probes, such as LISA and ASTROD-GW.

  17. Formation and Resuscitation of Viable but Nonculturable Salmonella typhi

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Bin; Zhao, Guozhong; Cao, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella typhi is a pathogen that causes the human disease of typhoid fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of S. typhi. Some samples were stimulated at 4°C or −20°C, while others were induced by different concentrations of CuSO4. Total cell counts remained constant throughout several days by acridine orange direct counting; however, plate counts declined to undetectable levels within 48 hours by plate counting at −20°C. The direct viable counts remained fairly constant at this level by direct viable counting. Carbon and nitrogen materials slowly decreased which indicated that a large population of cells existed in the VBNC state and entered the VBNC state in response to exposure to 0.01 or 0.015 mmol/L CuSO4 for more than 14 or 12 days, respectively. Adding 3% Tween 20 or 1% catalase enabled cells to become culturable again, with resuscitation times of 48 h and 24 h, respectively. The atomic force microscope results showed that cells gradually changed in shape from short rods to coccoids, and decreased in size when they entered the VBNC state. Further animal experiments suggested that resuscitated cells might regain pathogenicity. PMID:23509799

  18. Effect of application rate of commercial lignite-derived amendments on early-stage growth of Medicago sativa and soil health, in acidic soil conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patti, Antonio; Little, Karen; Rose, Michael; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Tim

    2013-04-01

    Commercially available lignite-derived amendments, sold mainly as humate preparations, have been promoted as plant growth stimulants leading to higher crop yields. These products are also claimed to improve soil properties such as pH. This study investigated the effect of application rate of three lignite-derived amendments on the early-stage growth of a pasture legume, lucerne (Medicago sativa), and soil health in a soil type common to south eastern Australia, in a glasshouse setting. An organic-mineral humate product and 'run of mine' lignite coal did not improve shoot or root growth despite application at a range of rates at, and in excess of, the manufacturers recommendation. Application of soluble K-humate product at 20 kg/ha (9.5 kg/ha C equivalent) produced an observable positive effect in shoot growth. At this application rate, a significant delay in the appearance of chlorotic symptoms was observed along with an increase in soil pH concurrent with decreased availability of soil Mn and Al. Higher root dry weight was associated with lower microbial biomass carbon which may indicate an effect on allocation of resources between the microbial community and the plant. An assessment of the effectiveness of lignite-derived amendments on plant growth, as well as their potential to improve the health of an acidic soil will assist farmers in making decisions regarding the use of these products.

  19. Characterization of the Viable but Nonculturable (VBNC) State in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Salma, Mohammad; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Sequeira-Le Grand, Anabelle; Divol, Benoit; Alexandre, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    The Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC) state has been thoroughly studied in bacteria. In contrast, it has received much less attention in other microorganisms. However, it has been suggested that various yeast species occurring in wine may enter in VBNC following sulfite stress.In order to provide conclusive evidences for the existence of a VBNC state in yeast, the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enter into a VBNC state by applying sulfite stress was investigated. Viable populations were monitored by flow cytometry while culturable populations were followed by plating on culture medium. Twenty-four hours after the application of the stress, the comparison between the culturable population and the viable population demonstrated the presence of viable cells that were non culturable. In addition, removal of the stress by increasing the pH of the medium at different time intervals into the VBNC state allowed the VBNC S. cerevisiae cells to “resuscitate”. The similarity between the cell cycle profiles of VBNC cells and cells exiting the VBNC state together with the generation rate of cells exiting VBNC state demonstrated the absence of cellular multiplication during the exit from the VBNC state. This provides evidence of a true VBNC state. To get further insight into the molecular mechanism pertaining to the VBNC state, we studied the involvement of the SSU1 gene, encoding a sulfite pump in S. cerevisiae. The physiological behavior of wild-type S. cerevisiae was compared to those of a recombinant strain overexpressing SSU1 and null Δssu1 mutant. Our results demonstrated that the SSU1 gene is only implicated in the first stages of sulfite resistance but not per se in the VBNC phenotype. Our study clearly demonstrated the existence of an SO2-induced VBNC state in S. cerevisiae and that the stress removal allows the “resuscitation” of VBNC cells during the VBNC state. PMID:24204887

  20. The use of flow cytometry to accurately ascertain total and viable counts of Lactobacillus rhamnosus in chocolate.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Yves; Champagne, Claude P

    2015-04-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the precision and accuracy of flow cytometry (FC) methodologies in the evaluation of populations of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011) in two commercial dried forms, and ascertain the challenges in enumerating them in a chocolate matrix. FC analyses of total (FC(T)) and viable (FC(V)) counts in liquid or dried cultures were almost two times more precise (reproducible) than traditional direct microscopic counts (DCM) or colony forming units (CFU). With FC, it was possible to ascertain low levels of dead cells (FC(D)) in fresh cultures, which is not possible with traditional CFU and DMC methodologies. There was no interference of chocolate solids on FC counts of probiotics when inoculation was above 10(7) bacteria per g. Addition of probiotics in chocolate at 40 C resulted in a 37% loss in viable cells. Blending of the probiotic powder into chocolate was not uniform which raised a concern that the precision of viable counts could suffer. FCT data can serve to identify the correct inoculation level of a sample, and viable counts (FCV or CFU) can subsequently be better interpreted. PMID:25475282

  1. The commercialization of aluminum composites: Technical challenges and commercial realities

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, W.R.

    1993-12-31

    The establishment of a viable commercial business for the production and sale of aluminum composites has been a dream for at least twenty years. Unfortunately, the successful realization of this goal is very complex and frustrating. The development of a viable process for the commercial production of an aluminum composite with attractive physical/mechanical properties and price is only just the beginning, Substantial technical challenges of forming, casting, joining, machining and recycling must be faced along with a myriad of support technologies such as chemical analysis, quality standards and specifications. These technical challenges are complimented with a range of business issues such as price, product standardization, complex customer relationships, competition and product acceptance which often conflict with or influence the technical considerations. Duralcan USA has been working for more than five years to conquer these challenges and success appears to be within sight. A review of Duralcan USA`s technical and business experiences will provide insight into the issues and conflicts, a perspective into the size of the challenges and guidance to other emerging composites companies.

  2. Commercialization of fuel-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O'Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  3. Commercial free flyer satellites and orbital re-entry/recovery systems for low cost microgravity research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassanto, John M.; Hobbs, Robert B.; Bem, Michael B.

    2001-02-01

    Part of the next generation network of Space Transportation Systems will include unmanned, autonomous ``Free Flyer'' satellites with ground-controlled re-entry and recovery systems for low-cost biomedical and microgravity research. A commercial space requirement for the launch, LEO deployment and orbital recovery of low-cost research satellites will be an important function of spaceport operations and technology development in the next decade. Free flyer satellites will effectively complement the capabilities of intermittent manned Shuttle/SpaceHab missions and more sophisticated, long-duration, manned Mir and International Space Station missions. The USCORP initiative has been developed by ITA, Inc. to provide a commercially owned and operated orbital free flyer satellite and re-entry/recovery system to support microgravity, biomedical and life sciences research. The next generation low-cost, commercially viable orbital platform for microgravity research will depend on the application of existing technologies with flight-proven systems. This approach will ensure the operational reliability and low costs that will be required for commercial unmanned research missions. These commercial flight systems will be launched, remotely operated on orbit, and recovered from commercial spaceports utilizing next-generation advanced spaceport technologies and capabilities. .

  4. Evaluation of low-residue soldering for military and commercial applications: A report from the Low-Residue Soldering Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J.; Burress, R.V.

    1995-06-01

    The LRSTF combined the efforts of industry, military, and government to evaluate low-residue soldering processes for military and commercial applications. These processes were selected for evaluation because they provide a means for the military to support the presidential mandate while producing reliable hardware at a lower cost. This report presents the complete details and results of a testing program conducted by the LRSTF to evaluate low-residue soldering for printed wiring assemblies. A previous informal document provided details of the test plan used in this evaluation. Many of the details of that test plan are contained in this report. The test data are too massive to include in this report, however, these data are available on disk as Excel spreadsheets upon request. The main purpose of low-residue soldering is to eliminate waste streams during the manufacturing process.

  5. NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 6; NASA Space Applications, Aeronautics and Space Research and Technology, Tracking and Data Acquisition/Support Operations, Commercial Programs and

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumerman, Judy A.

    2000-01-01

    This sixth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of several critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the space applications effort, the development and operation of aeronautics and space research and technology programs, tracking and data acquisition/space operations, commercial programs, facilities and installations, personnel, and finances and procurement during this era. Special thanks are owed to the student research assistants who gathered and input much of the tabular material-a particularly tedious undertaking. There are numerous people at NASA associated with historical study, technical information, and the mechanics of publishing who helped in myriad ways in the preparation of this historical data book.

  6. Viable Palatini-f(R) cosmologies with generalized dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Koivisto, Tomi

    2007-08-15

    We study the formation of large-scale structure in universes dominated by dark matter and driven to accelerated expansion by f(R) gravity in the Palatini formalism. If the dark matter is cold, practically all of these models are ruled out because they fail to reproduce the observed matter power spectrum. We point out that if the assumption that dark matter is perfect and pressureless at all scales is relaxed, nontrivial alternatives to a cosmological constant become viable within this class of modified gravity models.

  7. Viable green algae and cyanobacteria within terrestrial permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Vorobyova, Elena A.; Gilichinsky, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Viable permafrost algae have preserved their morphological characteristics and photosynthetic apparatus for the longest documented period of time on Earth. Unicellular green algae of the order Chlorococcales and filamentous cyanobacteria of the orders Oscillatoriales and Nostocales were isolated from deep subsurface permafrost sediments. Both were discovered within Siberian permafrost from the Holocene up to the Early Pleistocene age. However, green algae were found to be predominant and also able to survive inside colder Antarctic sediments. These findings will have an important impact on astrobiology and the study of organisms that exist in extreme environments.

  8. Genetic algorithms and the search for viable string vacua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Steven; Rizos, John

    2014-08-01

    Genetic Algorithms are introduced as a search method for finding string vacua with viable phenomenological properties. It is shown, by testing them against a class of Free Fermionic models, that they are orders of magnitude more efficient than a randomised search. As an example, three generation, exophobic, Pati-Salam models with a top Yukawa occur once in every 1010 models, and yet a Genetic Algorithm can find them after constructing only 105 examples. Such non-deterministic search methods may be the only means to search for Standard Model string vacua with detailed phenomenological requirements.

  9. Laser Coating Technology; A Commercial Reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Andrew G.; Mangaly, A. A.; Everett, M. A.; Hammeke, A. H.

    1988-10-01

    Commercial acceptance of laser coating technology suffered for many years due to questions about its economic viability. During this period, however, many companies, universities, and government research groups were busy developing the technology to overcome these questions. Today, laser coating technology is having a major impact as a high quality, economical method of hardfacing for wear and corrosion resistance in several key industries. This has occurred because of advances in five key areas: 1. High power laser design 2. Method of alloy deposition, and associated hardware 3. In-process feed back control system hardware/software development 4. Alloy systems 5. Marketing/sales sophistication High power lasers have improved in mode stability, power conversion efficiency, and optical flexibility (reflective vs. transmissive materials). This has enabled the process engineer to increase deposition efficiency, and maintain flexibility on the use of optics specifically designed for a user application. Improvements in the method of alloy deposition have led to developments such as the DPF system with specialized nozzles developed for specific user applications. Another effective technique includes the use of pre-fabricated cast alloy chips that are welded to the component surface on the specific area requiring protection. The development of feedback control systems that integrate process control software with hard tooling, the laser, and the alloy delivery system are greatly improving process reliability and product quality. Because of this, "in-process" quality control is becoming a viable alternative to traditional methods of quality control. Metallurgical evaluations of some of the most widely used hardfacing alloys and base materials have been investigated by numerous researchers. Analysis has confirmed that laser applied coatings are of high metallurgical quality, extremely low in dilution, and distort less due to low heat input. The technology can also be used to apply. wear/corrosion resistant alloys heretofore considered unweldable. These technological advances, coupled with application experience have proven that laser coating technology is not only a viable alternative to conventional hardface and/or spray coatings; but in many cases significantly reduces the overall manufacturing costs of a coated product. Early marketing efforts focused on direct "coating process to coating process" comparisons with competing technologies.

  10. Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells for pure electric bus applications: Aging mechanism identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zeyu; Jiang, Jiuchun; Shi, Wei; Zhang, Weige; Mi, Chunting Chris

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing need to provide more realistic and accurate State of Health estimations for batteries in electric vehicles. Thus, it is necessary to research various lithium-ion cell aging processes, including cell degradation and related path dependence. This paper focuses on quantitative analyses of cell aging path dependence in a repeatable laboratory setting, considering the influence of duty cycles, depth of discharge (DOD), and the frequency and severity of the thermal cycle, as reflected in pure electric buses operated in Beijing. Incremental capacity analysis (ICA) and differential voltage analysis (DVA) are applied to infer cell degradation mechanisms and quantify the attributions to capacity fade. It was observed that the cells experienced a higher rate of aging at 80% DOD and an accelerated aging at 40 °C in the thermal cycling, as a result of possible loss of active material (LAM) in both electrodes, in addition to the loss of lithium inventory (LLI) and inhibited kinetics. The slight capacity fade from low-temperature extremes likely caused by LLI due to lithium plating, whereas the noticeable fade after the high-temperature excursion was likely caused by LAM and hindrance to kinetics. These results may lead to improved battery management in EV applications.

  11. Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-06-01

    This report reviews published experimental and theoretical investigations of particle deposition from turbulent flows and considers the applicability of this body of work to the specific case of particle deposition from flows in the ducts of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Particle deposition can detrimentally affect the performance of HVAC systems and it influences the exposure of building occupants to a variety of air pollutants. The first section of this report describes the types of HVAC systems under consideration and discusses the components, materials and operating parameters commonly found in these systems. The second section reviews published experimental investigations of particle deposition rates from turbulent flows and considers the ramifications of the experimental evidence with respect to HVAC ducts. The third section considers the structure of turbulent airflows in ventilation ducts with a particular emphasis on turbulence investigations that have been used as a basis for particle deposition models. The final section reviews published literature on predicting particle deposition rates from turbulent flows.

  12. Soluble Factors Released by Endogenous Viable Cells Enhance the Antioxidant and Chemoattractive Activities of Cryopreserved Amniotic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Duan-Arnold, Yi; Gyurdieva, Alexandra; Johnson, Amy; Jacobstein, Douglas A.; Danilkovitch, Alla

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Regulation of oxidative stress and recruitment of key cell types are activities of human amniotic membrane (hAM) that contribute to its benefits for wound treatment. Progress in tissue preservation has led to commercialization of hAM. The majority of hAM products are devitalized with various degrees of matrix alteration. Data show the importance of hAM matrix preservation, but little is known about the advantages of retaining viable endogenous cells. In this study, we compared the antioxidant and chemoattractive properties of viable intact cryopreserved hAM (int-hAM) and devitalized cryopreserved hAM (dev-hAM) to determine the benefits of cell preservation. Approach: We evaluated the ability of int-hAM and dev-hAM to protect fibroblasts from oxidant-induced cell damage, to suppress oxidants, and to recruit fibroblasts and keratinocytes in vitro. Results: Both the int-hAMderived conditioned medium (CM) and the int-hAM tissue rescued significantly more fibroblasts from oxidant-induced damage than dev-hAM (844% and 93% more, respectively). The int-hAM CM showed a 202% greater antioxidant capacity than dev-hAM. The int-hAM CM enhanced the recruitment of fibroblasts and normal and diseased keratinocytes to a greater extent than dev-hAM (1,555%, 315%, and 151% greater, respectively). Innovation and Conclusion: Int-hAM, in which all native components are preserved, including endogenous viable cells, demonstrated a significantly greater antioxidant and fibroblast and keratinocyte chemoattractive potential compared to dev-hAM, in which viable cells are destroyed. The release of soluble factors that protect fibroblasts from oxidative injury by hAM containing viable cells is a mechanism of hAM antioxidant activity, which is a novel finding of this study. PMID:26029483

  13. [Viable but non-culturable form of bacteria].

    PubMed

    Ozçakir, Olcay

    2007-07-01

    Viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria concept has been defined in 1982 when it has been shown that there exists bacteria whose metabolic activity continue and which can have the ability to reproduce in suitable conditions although they have lost their capability to reproduce in culture. Recent studies have shown that most of the human pathogens (Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, Francisella tularensis, Helicobacter pylori, Legionella pneumophila, Listeria monocytogenes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus) have VBNC form. The interest on this subject has increased due to the detection of some disinfection procedures such as pasteurization of milk and chlorinization of water, cause bacteria to switch to VBNC form. It is thought that, the bacteria in this form may have an important role in recurrent and drug resistant infections as well as infections of unknown origin. However, advanced studies should be done to clarify the role of VBNC bacteria in the setting of recurrent infections, together with their pathogenity and antibiotic resistance. In this review article, the importance of viable but non-culturable bacteria, their morphology, metabolic and genetic properties, pathogenity, resuscitation and identification have been discussed. PMID:17933263

  14. Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

    Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

  15. Metabolic activity of bacterial cells enumerated by direct viable count

    SciTech Connect

    Roszak, D.B.; Colwell, R.R.

    1987-12-01

    The direct viable count (DVC) method was modified by incorporating radiolabeled substrates in microautoradiographic analyses to assess bacterial survival in controlled laboratory microcosms. The DVC method, which permits enumeration of culturable and nonculturable cells, discriminates those cells that are responsive to added nutrients but in which division is inhibited by the addition of nalidixic acid. The resulting elongated cells represent all viable cells; this includes those that are culturable on routine media and those that are not. Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis were employed in the microcosm studies, and radiolabeled substrates included (methyl-tritium thymidine or (Uranium-Carbon 14) glutamic acid. Samples taken at selected intervals during the survival experiments were examined by epifluorescence microscopy to enumerate cells by the DVC and acridine orange direct count methods, as well as by culture methods. Good correlation was obtained for cell-associated metabolic activity, measured by microautoradiography and substrate responsiveness (by the DVC method) at various stages of survival. Of the cells responsive to nutrients by the DVC method, ca 90% were metabolically active by the microautoradiographic method. No significant difference was observed between DVC enumerations with or without added radiolabeled substrate.

  16. Substrata mechanical stiffness can regulate adhesion of viable bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lichter, Jenny A; Thompson, M Todd; Delgadillo, Maricela; Nishikawa, Takehiro; Rubner, Michael F; Van Vliet, Krystyn J

    2008-06-01

    The competing mechanisms that regulate adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and subsequent biofilm formation remain unclear, though nearly all studies have focused on the role of physical and chemical properties of the material surface. Given the large monetary and health costs of medical-device colonization and hospital-acquired infections due to bacteria, there is considerable interest in better understanding of material properties that can limit bacterial adhesion and viability. Here we employ weak polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) thin films comprised of poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), assembled over a range of conditions, to explore the physicochemical and mechanical characteristics of material surfaces controlling adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria and subsequent colony growth. Although it is increasingly appreciated that eukaryotic cells possess subcellular structures and biomolecular pathways to sense and respond to local chemomechanical environments, much less is known about mechanoselective adhesion of prokaryotes such as these bacteria. We find that adhesion of viable S. epidermidis correlates positively with the stiffness of these polymeric substrata, independently of the roughness, interaction energy, and charge density of these materials. Quantitatively similar trends observed for wild-type and actin analogue mutant Escherichia coli suggest that these results are not confined to only specific bacterial strains, shapes, or cell envelope types. These results indicate the plausibility of mechanoselective adhesion mechanisms in prokaryotes and suggest that mechanical stiffness of substrata materials represents an additional parameter that can regulate adhesion of and subsequent colonization by viable bacteria. PMID:18452330

  17. Viable but Nonculturable Bacteria: Food Safety and Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fakruddin, Md.; Mannan, Khanjada Shahnewaj Bin; Andrews, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state is a unique survival strategy of many bacteria in the environment in response to adverse environmental conditions. VBNC bacteria cannot be cultured on routine microbiological media, but they remain viable and retain virulence. The VBNC bacteria can be resuscitated when provided with appropriate conditions. A good number of bacteria including many human pathogens have been reported to enter the VBNC state. Though there have been disputes on the existence of VBNC in the past, extensive molecular studies have resolved most of them, and VBNC has been accepted as a distinct survival state. VBNC pathogenic bacteria are considered a threat to public health and food safety due to their nondetectability through conventional food and water testing methods. A number of disease outbreaks have been reported where VBNC bacteria have been implicated as the causative agent. Further molecular and combinatorial research is needed to tackle the threat posed by VBNC bacteria with regard to public health and food safety. PMID:24191231

  18. From formamide to purine: an energetically viable mechanistic reaction pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Jiande; Nguyen, Minh Tho; Springsteen, Greg; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2013-02-28

    A step-by-step mechanistic pathway following the transformation of formamide to purine through a five-membered ring intermediate has been explored by density functional theory computations. The highlight of the mechanistic route detailed here is that the proposed pathway represents the simplest reaction pathway. All necessary reactants are generated from a single starting compound, formamide, through energetically viable reactions. Several important reaction steps are involved in this mechanistic route: formylation-dehydration, Leuckart reduction, five- and six-membered ring-closure, and deamination. On the basis of the study of noncatalytic pathways, catalytic water has been found to provide energetically viable step-by-step mechanistic pathways. Among these reaction steps, five-member ring-closure is the rate-determining step. The energy barrier (ca. 42 kcal/mol) of this rate-control step is somewhat lower than the rate-determining step (ca. 44 kcal/mol) for a pyrimidine-based pathway reported previously. The mechanistic pathway reported herein is less energetically demanding than for previously proposed routes to adenine. PMID:23347082

  19. Commercial proteases: present and future.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Yi, Li; Marek, Peter; Iverson, Brent L

    2013-04-17

    This review presents a brief overview of the general categories of commercially used proteases, and critically surveys the successful strategies currently being used to improve the properties of proteases for various commercial purposes. We describe the broad application of proteases in laundry detergents, food processing, and the leather industry. The review also introduces the expanding development of proteases as a class of therapeutic agents, as well as highlighting recent progress in the field of protease engineering. The potential commercial applications of proteases are rapidly growing as recent technological advances are producing proteases with novel properties and substrate specificities. PMID:23318711

  20. 15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents... of commercial recovery. The plan must include sufficient information for the Administrator,...