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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Exo-Melt: A commercially viable process  

SciTech Connect

Nickel and iron aluminides are new classes of advanced materials that exhibit excellent oxidation resistance up to 1,100 C (2,000 F). Oxidation resistance and other attributes (see sidebar) make nickel and iron aluminides attractive for many applications. However, a lack of both knowledge and willingness by vendors to prepare high-aluminum-content aluminides prevented these materials from becoming commercial until recently. Now, a major breakthrough has been made with the patented ExoMelt process, which utilizes heat released between the transition metal and aluminum. Over 100 heats of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al-base alloy compositions have been melted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, producing several thousand pounds of nickel and iron aluminides. The process is discussed here along with some applications.

Sikka, V.K.; Deevi, S.C.; Vought, J.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.

1995-06-01

2

Commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

3

Prototype to product—developing a commercially viable neural prosthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cochlear implant or 'Bionic ear' is a device that enables people who do not get sufficient benefit from a hearing aid to communicate with the hearing world. The Cochlear implant is not an amplifier, but a device that electrically stimulates the auditory nerve in a way that crudely mimics normal hearing, thus providing a hearing percept. Many recipients are able to understand running speech without the help of lipreading. Cochlear implants have reached a stage of maturity where there are now 170 000 recipients implanted worldwide. The commercial development of these devices has occurred over the last 30 years. This development has been multidisciplinary, including audiologists, engineers, both mechanical and electrical, histologists, materials scientists, physiologists, surgeons and speech pathologists. This paper will trace the development of the device we have today, from the engineering perspective. The special challenges of designing an active device that will work in the human body for a lifetime will be outlined. These challenges include biocompatibility, extreme reliability, safety, patient fitting and surgical issues. It is emphasized that the successful development of a neural prosthesis requires the partnership of academia and industry.

Seligman, Peter

2009-12-01

4

An Architecture and Business Model for Making Software Agents Commercially Viable  

Microsoft Academic Search

While several research projects have been proposed to use software agents to deal with information overload, their results are not applicable in the existing Web infrastructure mainly because no Web sites are agent-enabled. There are two main reasons why Web site operators are not willing to let agents run on them: (1) security issues; (2) many commercial Web sites make

Qusay H. Mahmoud; Leslie Yu

2005-01-01

5

Commercialization of New Beam Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercialization of electron processing applications is driven by demonstrated technical advantages over current practice. Mature and reliable accelerator technology has permitted more consistent product quality and the development of new processes. However, the barriers to commercial adoption are often not amenable to solution within the laboratory alone. Aspects of the base accelerator technology, plant engineering, production, project management, financing,

Joseph McKeown

1996-01-01

6

Commercial applications for COIL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is a high power, fiber deliverable tool, which can be used for a number of different industrial applications. COIL is of particular interest because of its short fiber deliverable wavelength, high scaleable continuous wave power, and excellent material interaction properties. In past research the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign identified and decommissioning and decontamination (DD) of nuclear facilities as a primary focus for COIL technology. DD will be a major challenge in the coming decades. The use of a robotically driven fiber delivered cutting/ablation tool in contaminated areas promises to lower risks to workers for the DD mission. Further, the high cutting speed of COIL will significantly reduce the time required to cut contaminated equipment, reducing costs. The high power of COIL will permit the dismantling of thick stacks of piping and equipment as well as reactor vessels. COIL is very promising for the removal of material from contaminated surfaces, perhaps to depths thicker than an inch. Laser cutting and ablation minimizes dust and fumes, which reduces the required number of high efficiency particulate accumulator filters, thus reducing costly waste disposal. Other potential industrial applications for COIL are shipbuilding, automotive manufacturing, heavy machinery manufacturing, tasks requiring underwater cutting or welding, and there appear to be very promising applications for high powers lasers in the oil industry.

Solomon, Wayne C.; Carroll, David L.; King, D. M.; Fockler, L.; Stromberg, D.; Sexauer, M.; Milmoe, A.; Sentman, Lee H.

2000-01-01

7

Advanced Compound Semiconductor Technologies for Commercial Wireless Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compound semiconductor transistors are emerging as one of the mainstream technologies for commercial wireless applications. Compound semiconductors have demonstrated themselves as a viable production tec hnology for both high-volume and niche markets in recent years. In t his paper, we attempt to give an overview of the ge neral device and process technology trends of compound semiconductors for next generation

Kuei Shan Hsiang; Tao Yuan Shien

8

Towards a viable hydrogen storage system for transportation application.  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogen energy may provide the means to an environmentally friendly future. One of the problems related to its application for transportation is 'on-board' storage. Hydrogen storage in solids has long been recognized as one of the most practical approaches for this purpose. The H-capacity in interstitial hydrides of most metals and alloys is limited to below 2.5% by weight and this is unsatisfactory for on-board transportation applications. Magnesium hydride is an exception with hydrogen capacity of -8.2 wt.%, however, its operating temperature, above 350 C, is too high for practical use. Sodium alanate (NaAlH{sub 4}) absorbs hydrogen up to 5.6 wt.% theoretically; however, its reaction kinetics and partial reversibility do not completely meet the new target for transportation application. Recently Chen et al. [1] reported that (Li{sub 3}N+2H{sub 2} {leftrightarrow} LiNH{sub 2} + 2LiH) provides a storage material with a possible high capacity, up to 11.5 wt.%, although this material is still too stable to meet the operating pressure/temperature requirement. Here we report a new approach to destabilize lithium imide system by partial substitution of lithium by magnesium in the (LiNH{sub 2} + LiH {leftrightarrow} Li{sub 2}NH + H{sub 2}) system with a minimal capacity loss. This Mg-substituted material can reversibly absorb 5.2 wt.% hydrogen at pressure of 30 bar at 200 C. This is a very promising material for on-board hydrogen storage applications. It is interesting to observe that the starting material (2LiNH{sub 2} + MgH{sub 2}) converts to (Mg(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} + 2LiH) after a desorption/re-absorption cycle.

Ronnebro, Ewa; Stewart, Kenneth D.; Luo, Weifang; Gross, Karl J.; Spangler, Scott W.; Wang, James C. F.

2004-10-01

9

Commercial applications of superplastic forming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Japanese commercial superplastic forming of Ti, Al alloys and duplex stainless steels started in 1989 by a joint venture. This was several years behind Europe and USA. The joint venture, however, found some unique applications which could not be seen in other countries, owing greatly to information available nowadays and also to excellent superplastic alloys having been developed in Japan.

Kuniaki Osada

1997-01-01

10

Power system requirements and concepts for a commercially viable lunar base architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, space exploration has been the province of governments and major agencies within those governmental entities. Recent advances in the state-of-the-art in many subsystem technology areas and the revealed inadequacies of governments to singlehandedly underwrite major exploration ventures present the potential to expand the venue of space exploration to the commercial sector. Further, major international projects such as the International

Roger X. Lenard; Alan B. Binder

1999-01-01

11

Power system requirements and concepts for a commercially viable lunar base architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, space exploration has been the province of governments and major agencies within those governmental entities. Recent advances in the state-of-the-art in many subsystem technology areas and the revealed inadequacies of governments to singlehandedly underwrite major exploration ventures present the potential to expand the venue of space exploration to the commercial sector. Further, major international projects such as the International Space Station have revealed weaknesses in both international financing and management of such projects. Cost overruns are the rule and significant schedule slips and/or failures to deliver have resulted in an enormously costly and delayed program. The exorbitant costs have stymied exploration ventures beyond Earth orbit. There are many potential advantages to a commercial operation including cost, schedule and a distinct customer orientation to services. The objective of this paper is to describe the first phase of a phased strawman commercial lunar base concept which operates as a user facility for governmental entities, corporations and companies. The paper will discuss the power system options and conditions under which such a base can be made to become profitable.

Lenard, Roger X.; Binder, Alan B.

1999-01-01

12

Application and commercialization of nematodes.  

PubMed

While nematodes are most commonly known for their negative impact on plants, animals, and humans, there are a number of species which are commercially explored. This review highlights some of the most important success stories for the application of nematodes. They are used as bioindicators in ecological and toxicity studies, as model organisms for elucidating fundamental biological questions and for high throughput screening of drugs. Besides these indirect uses, direct applications include the use of Beddingia siricidicola against a major forest pest and the commercialization of Steinernema, Heterorhabditis, and Phasmarhabditis as biological pest control products. New directions for the commercialization of nematodes are the use as living food, specifically loaded with essential nutrients for various fish and shrimp larvae. Even human parasites or closely related species have been successfully used for curing autoimmune disorders and are currently in the process of being developed as drugs. With the striving development of life sciences, we are likely to see more applications for nematodes in the future. A prerequisite is that we continue to explore the vast number of yet undiscovered nematode species. PMID:23780582

Peters, Arne

2013-06-19

13

The use of Flex as a viable toolkit for astronomy software applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenges facing the developers of user interfaces for astronomy applications has never been greater. Astronomers and engineers often use well-designed commercial and web applications outside their work environment and have come to expect a similar user experience with applications developed for their work tasks. The connectivity provided by the Internet and the ability to work from anywhere can improve

Kim Gillies; Alberto Conti; Anthony Rogers

2010-01-01

14

Present and future commercial applications of biohydrometallurgy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern commercial application of biohydrometallurgy for processing ores became reality in the 1950s with the advent of copper bioleaching at the Kennecott Copper Bingham Mine. Early application entailed dump leaching of low-grade, low-value, run-of-mine material. Dump bioleaching has evolved into a commercially accepted option for bioheap copper leaching of higher-grade, higher value ores. This commercial practice is exemplified by at

J. A Brierley; C. L Brierley

2001-01-01

15

Design of commercial applications of EPAM technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electroactive Polymer Artificial Muscle (EPAM[R]) technology is becoming a robust, high performance, cost effective solution for commercial applications in many sectors. Since its inception in 2004, Artificial Muscle, Inc. (AMI), a spinout company from SRI International, has rigorously pursued the commercialization of this form of artificial muscle technology through innovative designs and fabrication processes, dramatically increasing performance, reliability and manufacturability

N. Bonwit; J. Heim; M. Rosenthal; C. Duncheon; A. Beavers

2006-01-01

16

The use of Flex as a viable toolkit for astronomy software applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The challenges facing the developers of user interfaces for astronomy applications has never been greater. Astronomers and engineers often use well-designed commercial and web applications outside their work environment and have come to expect a similar user experience with applications developed for their work tasks. The connectivity provided by the Internet and the ability to work from anywhere can improve user productivity, but it is a challenge to provide the kind of interactivity and responsiveness needed for astronomical applications to web based projects. It is fair to say that browserbased applications have not been adequate for many kinds of workhorse astronomy applications. The Flex/Actionscript framework from Adobe has been used successfully at the Space Telescope Science Institute in a variety of situations that were not possible with other technologies. In this paper, the Flex framework and technology is briefly introduced followed by a discussion of its advantages and disadvantages and how it addresses user expectations. Three astronomy applications will be presented demonstrating the technology capabilities with useful performance data. Flex/Actionscript is not well known within the astronomy development community, and our goal is to demonstrate that it can be the right choice for many astronomy applications.

Gillies, Kim; Conti, Alberto; Rogers, Anthony

2010-07-01

17

Carbon Nanotubes: Present and Future Commercial Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Worldwide commercial interest in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is reflected in a production capacity that presently exceeds several thousand tons per year. Currently, bulk CNT powders are incorporated in diverse commercial products ranging from rechargeable batteries, automotive parts, and sporting goods to boat hulls and water filters. Advances in CNT synthesis, purification, and chemical modification are enabling integration of CNTs in thin-film electronics and large-area coatings. Although not yet providing compelling mechanical strength or electrical or thermal conductivities for many applications, CNT yarns and sheets already have promising performance for applications including supercapacitors, actuators, and lightweight electromagnetic shields.

De Volder, Michael F. L.; Tawfick, Sameh H.; Baughman, Ray H.; Hart, A. John

2013-02-01

18

Commercial application of rocket engine technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology developed to produce rocket engine propulsion system for space satellites and moon landings has been applied to the design of compact combustion and heat exchange equipment intended for use in the commercial field. An initial application of this technology to the design of a steam generating system to be used by electric utilities in the production of peaking

A. D. Lucci; D. R. Hodson

1975-01-01

19

Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)|

Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

20

Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)

Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

21

Dispersal of viable row-crop seeds of commercial agriculture by farmland birds: implication for genetically modified crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

To address some concerns about the expansion of genetically engineered pharmaceutical and industrial crops to outdoor plantings and potential impacts on the human food supply, we determined whether commercial agriculture seeds of maize or corn Zea mays L., barley Hordeum vulgare L., safflower Carthamus tinctorius L. and rice Oryza sativa L. are digested or pass viably through the digestive tract,

John L. Cummings; Levis W. Handley; Bruce Macbryde; Shelagh K. Tupper; Scott J. Werner; Zachary J. Byram

2008-01-01

22

Guide for commercial water-heating applications  

SciTech Connect

This document provides technical guidance on methods for reducing water heating costs for small to medium commercial operations. It contains an assessment of three options: conservation measures, waste heat recovery, and solar energy systems. Particular attention is given to solar energy systems, including their installation, economics, and performance monitoring. The material presented is directed toward the commercial owner or user and does not require that he be familiar with the design of equipment. it is applicable to those concerned with laundries, food processing, hotels, motels, and many other users of large volumes of hot water.

Not Available

1983-06-01

23

Enhancing organisational resilience: application of viable system model and MCDA in a small Hong Kong company  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to combine the use of the viable system model (VSM) and a multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) based on Superiority and Inferiority Ranking methodology for enhancing organisational resilience. VSM is applied to capture the cybernetic strengths and weaknesses of an organisation. The structural arrangements and cybernetic criteria, related to organisational resilience, are identified. In order

Joseph W. K. Chan

2011-01-01

24

Potential commercial applications of microbial surfactants.  

PubMed

Surfactants are surface-active compounds capable of reducing surface and interfacial tension at the interfaces between liquids, solids and gases, thereby allowing them to mix or disperse readily as emulsions in water or other liquids. The enormous market demand for surfactants is currently met by numerous synthetic, mainly petroleum-based, chemical surfactants. These compounds are usually toxic to the environment and non-biodegradable. They may bio-accumulate and their production, processes and by-products can be environmentally hazardous. Tightening environmental regulations and increasing awareness for the need to protect the ecosystem have effectively resulted in an increasing interest in biosurfactants as possible alternatives to chemical surfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic compounds of microbial origin with considerable potential in commercial applications within various industries. They have advantages over their chemical counterparts in biodegradability and effectiveness at extreme temperature or pH and in having lower toxicity. Biosurfactants are beginning to acquire a status as potential performance-effective molecules in various fields. At present biosurfactants are mainly used in studies on enhanced oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation. The solubilization and emulsification of toxic chemicals by biosurfactants have also been reported. Biosurfactants also have potential applications in agriculture, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, detergents, personal care products, food processing, textile manufacturing, laundry supplies, metal treatment and processing, pulp and paper processing and paint industries. Their uses and potential commercial applications in these fields are reviewed. PMID:10855707

Banat, I M; Makkar, R S; Cameotra, S S

2000-05-01

25

Commercial application of geothermal direct heat wave  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on low temperature direct heat applications, such as district heating, agricultural process heating, and space and water heating in commercial structures. The economic feasibility of replacing conventional energy sources with geothermal is determined by a discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis. DCF results are presented in terms of a constant real unit cost. Three sponsor types--private, non-profit, and local government--are considered. The results show that the economics are relatively favorable. But the development is discouraged by technical limitations, and the long lead time needed to get through redundant approval process.

Hederman, W.F.

1982-06-01

26

Commercial gasifier for IGCC applications study report  

SciTech Connect

This was a scoping-level study to identify and characterize the design features of fixed-bed gasifiers appearing most important for a gasifier that was to be (1) potentially commercially attractive, and (2) specifically intended for us in integrated coal gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) applications. It also performed comparative analyses on the impact or value of these design features and on performance characteristics options of the whole IGCC system since cost, efficiency, environmental traits, and operability -- on a system basis -- are what is really important. The study also reviewed and evaluated existing gasifier designs, produced a conceptual-level gasifier design, and generated a moderately advanced system configuration that was utilized as the reference framework for the comparative analyses. In addition, technical issues and knowledge gaps were defined. 70 figs., 31 tabs.

Notestein, J.E.

1990-06-01

27

A rapid, two-hour method for the enumeration of total viable bacteria in samples from commercial milk powder and whey protein concentrate powder manufacturing plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new protocol specifically designed to enumerate total viable bacteria in milk powder using flow cytometry was validated against aerobic plate counts using 178 samples of whole milk powder. Viable counts, as measured using flow cytometry, correlated well (r2>0.80) with plate counts across the range of powders with counts of 102–108cfug?1. The protocol was then used to enumerate total viable

Steve Flint; Jean-Louis Drocourt; Kylie Walker; Barbara Stevenson; Michelle Dwyer; Ian Clarke; Desmond McGill

2006-01-01

28

Oyster Genetics: Research and Commercial Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report outlines the oyster genetics and breeding program at the Milford Biological Laboratory almost exclusively concerned presently with the commercial American oyster, Crassostrea virginica. At the same time is summarized the background information...

A. C. Longwell

1969-01-01

29

Cryogenic Applications of Commercial Electronic Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have developed a range of techniques useful for constructing analog and digital circuits for operation in a liquid Helium environment (4.2K), using commercially available low power components. The challenges encountered in designing cryogenic electroni...

D. J. Benford E. D. Buchanan E. J. Wollack J. B. Forgione S. H. Moseley

2012-01-01

30

Commercial quartz crystal microbalances – theory and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tutorial review article on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. Following an introduction to the theory and commercial aspects of the QCM the authors present a summary of recent and important prior research in each of the different areas of analytical interest in the QCM.

C. K. O’Sullivan; G. G. Guilbault

1999-01-01

31

Ion sources for commercial ion implanter applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review some of the history as well as recent developments in the implanter ion source field. It is noted that ion sources for implantation have changed considerably since implantation was first used commercially. Dramatic increases in beam output have been sustained with each new generation of ion implanters. In addition to the drive for improved beam currents, the

S. R. Walther; B. O. Pedersen; C. M. McKenna

1991-01-01

32

Commercial applications of millimeterwaves: history, present status, and future trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility to apply millimeterwaves for various applications in the commercial arena has a long history, as the advantages being offered by such systems have been known for more than three decades. Within the last five years the necessity of turning their attention away from the military sector towards commercial products has caused more and more companies to look at

Holger H. Meinel

1995-01-01

33

Commercial aerospace and terrestrial applications of nickel-hydrogen batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nickel-hydrogen battery system, used extensively in the aerospace industry to supply electrical power to earth-orbital satellites for communications, observation, and military applications, is being developed for commercial, terrestrial applications. Low-cost components, electrodes, cell designs, and battery designs are currently being tested. Catalytic hydrogen electrodes have been developed which are compatible with commercial nickel battery cost. Prismatic and spiral-wound cell

Dwight B. Caldwell; Dwaine K. Coates; Chris L. Fox; Lee E. Miller

1996-01-01

34

OZONE APPLICATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL CATFISH PROCESSING  

Microsoft Academic Search

lntroductlon Current methods of operation in Fish\\/Seafood\\/ Poultry processing plants include the application of large quantities of chlorine in an aqueous solution, contacting the product directly by spray or submersion, in an effort to control bacterial growth in and on the meat during processing, and subsequently in the fresh meat marketplace; such bacterial content limiting the shelf life of the

Gladden M. Brooks; Stephen W. Pierce

35

Biomedical Applications of a Commercial Capacitance Transducer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A capacitive displacement transducer with a linear response and constant sensitivity for a frequency range of 0-1,000 Hz is described. Its application to measurement of chest wall motions was verified using static displacements from flat and curved surfac...

E. Podolak J. B. Kinn E. E. Westura

1968-01-01

36

Detailed designs for photovoltaic\\/thermal systems for commercial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed photovoltaic\\/thermal (PVT) system design studies were performed for three commercial site applications which require both electrical and thermal energy. The applications, which were selected based on low life cycle cost ratios (LCCR), consisted of a meat packing plant, a public school and a hospital. The system sizing was obtained from SOLCEL analyses by minimizing the LCCR. Electrical power ratings

T. J. Lambarski; W. E. Schwinkendorf

1984-01-01

37

A Simple Software Application for Simulating Commercially Available Solar Panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addresses the formulation and validation of a simple PC based software application developed for simulating commercially available solar panels. The important feature of this application is its capability to produce speedy results in the form of solar panel output characteristics at given environmental conditions by using minimal input data. Besides, it is able to deliver critical information about

Nalika Ulapane; Sunil Abeyratne; Prabath Binduhewa; Chamari Dhanapala; Nimal Rathnayake; Shyama M. Wickramasinghe

2012-01-01

38

Commercialization of terrestrial applications of aerospace power technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review is conducted of the current strengths and weaknesses of the U.S. aerospace industry in taking advantage of its expertise in power technology to design and commercialize that technology's terrestrial applications. The energy technologies encompass MHD, turbogenerators, fuel cells, photovoltaic cells, superconducting magnets, flywheels, magnetic levitation systems, and advanced batteries. The environmentally benign character of most of these technologies is stressed as a basis for effective commercialization.

Landsberg, Dennis R.

39

14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...certificate application requirements for commercial operators. 119.36 Section 119...OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Certification, Operations...certificate application requirements for commercial operators. (a) Each...

2013-01-01

40

40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...categories of certified commercial applicators. (1) All commercial applicators shall...toxicity and hazard to man and common exposure...wildlife and other non-target organisms; and...each category of commercial...

2009-07-01

41

40 CFR 171.4 - Standards for certification of commercial applicators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...categories of certified commercial applicators. (1) All commercial applicators shall...toxicity and hazard to man and common exposure...wildlife and other non-target organisms; and...each category of commercial...

2010-07-01

42

OPTIMIZATION OF SUGARCANE FACTORY APPLICATION OF COMMERCIAL DEXTRANASES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The application of commercial dextranases to breakdown dextran in U.S. sugar manufacture is still not optimized, partly because of misinformation about where to add the enzyme and which enzyme to use. In this study, a simple titration method to determine the relative activity of dextranases was id...

43

Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the industrial, institutional, structural and health related pest control category. The text discusses the use and safety of applying pesticides to control invertebrate and vertebrate pests such as ants,…

Fitzwater, William D.; Renes, Robert

44

Assessment of cool storage in commercial building applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of its storage assessment program, Argonne National Laboratory is evaluating cool storage technologies for electric load leveling in commercial building applications. Analysis of conventional chilled water and ice storage systems indicate that paybacks of less than four years are available under the partial storage, or load leveling, mode of operation. Storage systems with sufficient capacity to eliminate on-peak chiller operations entail larger initial capital outlays and longer paybacks under existing commercial-class electric rate schedules. Improved performance and lower costs could be achieved through R&D to improve the match between the storage and the chiller systems and through development of improved latent heat systems.

Asbury, J. G.; Calm, J. M.; Giese, R. F.

1982-02-01

45

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aerial Application.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the calibration of dry and liquid pesticide systems for aerial application. Additionally, dispersal equipment is discussed with considerations for environmental and safety factors. (CS)

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

46

Performance of commercial analog multiplexers for spaceborne applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial CMOS analog\\/digital processes are considered for spaceborne applications. Total dose hardness of three processes is compared by the testing of analog multiplexers. Parts were irradiated at 18 and 1.8 rad(Si) per sec. The total dose results are then compared with the requirements for a low Earth and a geosynchronous orbital design. Shielding thicknesses for each of the orbital designs

G. K. Lum; D. K. Kinell; R. J. May; L. E. Robinette

1996-01-01

47

Proposal of a Viable Commercial Space Infrastructure Scenario Introducing Robotic Vehicles in an Earth Orbit Environment and its Interfaces to the SPS-Programme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The German Space Programme with respect to automation and robotics (A&R) is focussing on the development of on-orbit-servicing (OOS) technologies and the demonstration of their capabilities. The utilization of OOS-technologies could gradually lead to a complete restructuring of the way how we usually do space today. The proposed future infrastructure scenario VERSICA (VERsatile Space Infrastructure Concept for Applications in space) encloses many elements which are inevitable if it comes to the mounting and the operation of huge solar power plants in space. As a consequence the realization of the vision will come along with the qualification and verification of key technologies needed for any SPS infrastructure concept. Vice versa a profound SPS scenario will be a major driver for the requirements which future OOS elements will have to meet. On that score it is recommended to start a dialog between the supporters of SPS and OOS technologies. Thus the inherent synergies can be utilized to better meet the respective objectives.

Dittmann, R.; Sommer, B.

2004-12-01

48

Commercial applications of nuclear transfer cloning: three examples.  

PubMed

Potential applications of cloning go well beyond the popularly envisioned replication of valuable animals. This is because targeted genetic modifications can be made in donor cells before nuclear transfer. Applications that are currently being pursued include therapeutic protein production in the milk and blood of transgenic cloned animals, the use of cells, tissues and organs from gene-modified animals for transplantation into humans and genetically modified livestock that produce healthier and safer products in an environmentally friendly manner. Commercial and social acceptance of one or more of these early cloning applications will lead to yet unimagined applications of nuclear transfer technology. The present paper summarises progress on three additional applications of nuclear transfer, namely the development of male livestock that produce single-sex sperm, the transfer of immune responses from animals to their clones to permit the production of unlimited supplies of unique polyclonal antibodies, and the generation of genetically modified animals that accurately mimic human diseases for the purpose of developing new therapies. However, the myriad applications of cloning will require appropriate safeguards to ensure safe, humane and responsible outcomes of the technology. PMID:15745632

Forsberg, Erik J

2005-01-01

49

Review of Compact Commercial Accelerator Products and Applications.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, particle accelerators were developed initially for nuclear, then for particle physics research. From this research resulted applications of accelerators in the field of medicine and industry. These application-oriented accelerators are generally built commercially, and they often emphasize other qualities than the accelerators for research. The research applications frequently require energies or beam qualities at the limit of the existing technologies. They offer the largest flexibility in term of particles and beam properties, but are more complex, more expensive and often require large and highly qualified staff to operate and maintain them. In contrast, most applications are done with low to moderate energy protons or electrons, but often with large average beam power. The accelerators are generally specialized for a specific application, and are therefore very simple and inexpensive to operate. The author will review some applications in the field of medicine, such as the production of radio-isotopes for medical diagnostic or the production of electrons, protons or fast neutron beams for cancer therapy. In the industrial field, high power electron beam are used for sterilization and for the modification of materials. Log No. 1001

Jongen, Y.

1997-05-01

50

Extended Evaluations of the Commercial Spectrometer Systems for Safeguards Applications  

SciTech Connect

Safeguards applications require the best of the spectrometer system with excellent resolution, stability, and throughput. Instruments must perform well in all situations and environments. Data communication to the computer should be convenient, fast, and reliable. The software should have all the necessary tools and be easy to use. Portable systems should be small in size, lightweight, and have a long battery life. Nine commercially available spectrometer systems are tested with five different germanium detectors. Considering the performance of the Digital Signal Processors (DSP), digital-based spectroscope y may become the way of future gamma-ray spectroscopy.

Duc T. Vo

1999-08-01

51

Marriage of military and commercial RECCE products for surveillance applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During recent years, in order to meet increased demands for aerial surveillance data and due to decreased availability of support from military tactical reconnaissance organizations, many state and federal agencies have begun to expand their organic reconnaissance capabilities. Agencies have attempted to minimize system costs by procuring excess military sensors, only to find that adaptation of existing military sensor control and data annotation systems, or development of application specific systems, is cost prohibitive. One proposed solution to this dilemma, as presented within this paper, is user integrated reconnaissance systems which can include excess military sensors, but which also make extensive use of cost effective commercially procurable reconnaissance management system (RMS) components.

Regan, Brendan P.

1994-10-01

52

Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator System (CAPVC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The BDM Corporation has completed the installation of its photovoltaic concentrator application experiment denoted as the Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator (CAPVC). The system was dedicated in July of 1982. This is a nominal 50 kilowatt peak system located on the roof of the BDM facilities in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The photovoltaic concentrating array is a single-axis linear parabolic trough utilizing single crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells under 41.56 suns of net solar concentration. A total of 7,560 square feet of aperture is provided by 54 Solar Kinetics T-700 7-foot aperture mirrors configured in nine north-south oriented rows. A two-piece 90 deg V-shape receiver places the cells at the focal point of the mirror and provides cooling utilizing an ethelyne glycol/water mixture. The photovoltaic array is designed to operate in parallel with the local utility in an augmentary load sharing mode. A portion of the thermal energy resulting from the cell cooling is used for building heating during winter months.

Kauffman, W. R.

53

Study on Agent-Based Parts Resource Application System for Commercial Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective way of retrieving components is needed in order to make the implementation of product commercial development activity. In this paper, the components resource application method based on the software agent is proposed first. Then, on the base of comparison to the product commercial design components resources application system and the traditional supply chain system, three kind of application

Yan-tao Wang; Jia-guang Liu; Bin Zhu; Yi-fei Xing

2006-01-01

54

Pulsed thermographic inspection and application in commercial aircraft repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulsed infrared thermographic inspection has proven to be a fast, accurate, reliable and cost effective NDE alternative to traditional ultrasonic NDE of commercial aircraft structures. Accurate damage assessment and verification of proper repair is of utmost importance to the commercial aircraft operator today. Pulsed infrared thermographic inspection can be utilized on a wide variety of aircraft structures with a high

Robert J. Ducar

1999-01-01

55

Commercialization of interferometric interrogation techniques for fiber sensing applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optiphase Inc. develops and manufactures fiber optic interferometric sensing and measurement systems. Principal activities involve the commercialization of this technology in two distinct categories: (1) interferometric demodulation; and (2) white-light coherence domain systems. Instead of focusing on specific end-use sensing systems, we have targeted commercialization of the elements of these systems involved with the interrogation of the sensors and accurate

J. Bush; A. Cekorich

2002-01-01

56

State-of-the-art of membrane bioreactors: Worldwide research and commercial applications in North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology is advancing rapidly around the world both in research and commercial applications. Despite the increasing number of studies and full-scale applications of MBR systems, directions and trends in academic research as well as commercial developments require further analysis. This paper aims to critically characterize and review worldwide academic research efforts in the area of MBRs as

Wenbo Yang; Nazim Cicek; John Ilg

2006-01-01

57

Application of a Peptide-Mediated Magnetic Separation-Phage Assay for Detection of Viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis to Bovine Bulk Tank Milk and Feces Samples?†  

PubMed Central

Naturally contaminated bovine bulk tank milk (n = 44) and feces (n = 39) were tested for the presence of viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by a novel peptide-mediated magnetic separation-phage (PMS-phage) assay. Counts of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cells ranging from 1 to 110 PFU/50 ml of milk and 6 to 41,111 PFU/g of feces were indicated by the PMS-phage assay.

Foddai, Antonio; Strain, Samuel; Whitlock, Robert H.; Elliott, Christopher T.; Grant, Irene R.

2011-01-01

58

Pulsed thermographic inspection and application in commercial aircraft repair  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed infrared thermographic inspection has proven to be a fast, accurate, reliable and cost effective NDE alternative to traditional ultrasonic NDE of commercial aircraft structures. Accurate damage assessment and verification of proper repair is of utmost importance to the commercial aircraft operator today. Pulsed infrared thermographic inspection can be utilized on a wide variety of aircraft structures with a high degree of accuracy. Acoustical structures that previously could not be scanned with traditional ultrasonic methods can be evaluated using pulsed infrared thermographic inspection.

Ducar, Robert J.

1999-03-01

59

Transcritical carbon dioxide small commercial cooling applications analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a project to develop an R744 commercial single door bottle cooler that is cost competitive and matches the performance of typical cost optimised R404A and R134a systems. Compressors with different displacement and efficiency values are evaluated for refrigerating systems with fin and tube and steel wire-on-tube gas coolers. Capillary tubes are tested. A methodology to properly sizing

Luca Cecchinato; Marco Corradi

2011-01-01

60

Compound parabolic concentrator technology development to commercial solar detoxification applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

An EC-DGXII BRITE-EURAM-III-financed project called ‘Solar detoxification technology in the treatment of persistent non-biodegradable chlorinated industrial water contaminants’ is described. The objectives are to develop a simple, efficient and commercially competitive solar water treatment technology based on compound parabolic collectors (CPC) enabling design and erection of turnkey installations. A European industrial consortium, SOLARDETOX, representing industry and research in Spain, Portugal,

J Blanco; S Malato; P Fernández; A Vidal; A Morales; P Trincado; J. C Oliveira; C Minero; M Musci; C Casalle; M Brunotte; S Tratzky; N Dischinger; K.-H Funken; C Sattler; M Vincent; M Collares-Pereira; J. F Mendes; C. M Rangel

1999-01-01

61

Technology for emerging commercial applications at millimeter-wave frequencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 60 GHz band has emerged as an international spectrum opportunity for short-range wireless communication networks. In this paper, technology trends that can impact the commercial deployment of systems utilizing millimeterwave frequency bands is discussed. Millimeter-wave frequency bands have historically been costly to utilize and traditionally used almost exclusively for government and non-consumer products. Recent and ongoing advances in semiconductor

Rudy Emrick; Steve Franson; John Holmes; Bruce Bosco; Steve Rockwell

2005-01-01

62

40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Categories â(1) Agricultural pest control â(i) Plant. This category includes commercial applicators using...or in which animals are confined. Doctors of Veterinary Medicine engaged in the business of applying pesticides for...

2013-07-01

63

Gallium nitride (GaN) HEMT's: progress and potential for commercial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the development of 100 mm gallium nitride HEMT technology at RF Micro Devices and the utilization of GaN transistors for commercial applications such as power amplifiers, power switches and low-noise power oscillators.

J. Shealy; J. Smart; M. Poulton; R. Sadler; D. Grider; S. Gibb; B. Hosse; B. Sousa; D. Halchin; V. Steel; P. Garber; P. Wilkerson; B. Zaroff; J. Dick; T. Mercier; J. Bonaker; C. Greer; M. Isenhour

2002-01-01

64

Intelligent Herbicide Application System For Reduced Herbicide Vegetation Control Phase II - Commercialization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the development of a commercial prototype intelligent herbicide application system (IHAS). The improved design incorporates a parallel add-on type fluid handling system to allow existing variable-rate herbicide injection systems curr...

C. Gliever D. Downey D. C. Slaughter D. K. Giles E. Staab F. Vanucci J. Schlottman K. Gillis M. Shaffi P. Fontes R. Zarghami

2006-01-01

65

Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this calculation report, Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, is to validate the computational method used to perform postclosure criticality calculations. The validatio...

D. Mueller D. F. Hollenbach G. Radulescu P. B. Fox S. Goluoglu

2007-01-01

66

Recent Breakthroughs in Superconductivity Lead to Rush for Commercial Applicants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The excitement and intense competition surrounding the search for new applications of superconductors resembles the entrepreneurial atmosphere of the early 1970s, when faculty were launching profitable companies based on developments in biotechnology and semiconductors. (MSE)|

McDonald, Kim

1987-01-01

67

LIVE\\/DEAD ® BacLight™: application of a new rapid staining method for direct enumeration of viable and total bacteria in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid epifluorescence staining method using the LIVE\\/DEAD® Bacterial Viability Kit (BacLight™) was applied to estimate both viable and total counts of bacteria in drinking water. BacLight is composed of two nucleic acid-binding stains: SYTO 9™ and propidium iodide. SYTO 9™ penetrates all bacterial membranes and stains the cells green, while propidium iodide only penetrates cells with damaged membranes, and

Lina Boulos; Michèle Prévost; Benoit Barbeau; Josée Coallier; Raymond Desjardins

1999-01-01

68

Hybrid soft computing systems: industrial and commercial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soft computing (SC) is an association of computing methodologies that includes as its principal members fuzzy logic, neurocomputing, evolutionary computing and probabilistic computing. We present a collection of methods and tools that can be used to perform diagnostics, estimation, and control. These tools are a great match for real-world applications that are characterized by imprecise, uncertain data and incomplete domain

Piero P. Bonissone; Yu-To Chen; Kai Goebel; Pratap S. Khedkar

1999-01-01

69

Applications of pectinases in the commercial sector: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pectinases are one of the upcoming enzymes of fruit and textile industries. These enzymes break down complex polysaccharides of plant tissues into simpler molecules like galacturonic acids. The role of acidic pectinases in bringing down the cloudiness and bitterness of fruit juices is well established. Recently, there has been a good number of reports on the application of alkaline pectinases

D. R Kashyap; P. K Vohra; S Chopra; R Tewari

2001-01-01

70

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Seed Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the types of seeds that require chemical protection against pests. Methods of treatment and labeling requirements for such seeds as rye, wheat, soybeans, peas, and grass hybrids are discussed. Safety and environmental precautions…

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

71

High-Performance Commercial Data Mining: A Multistrategy Machine Learning Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an application of inductive concept learning and interactive visualization techniques to a large-scale commercial data mining project. This paper focuses on design and configuration of high-level optimization systems (wrappers) for relevance determination and constructive induction, and on integrating these wrappers with elicited knowledge on attribute relevance and synthesis. In particular, we discuss decision support issues for the application

William H. Hsu; Michael Welge; Tom Redman; David Clutter

2002-01-01

72

DICTIONARIES USED IN AN APPLICATION OF AIDING IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE TRANSLATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

An application of aiding in international commercial correspondence translation has needed no end of databases and dictionaries. This paper introduces the application dictionaries and the specific problems. a. The polyglot dictionary When a polyglot dictionary is drawn up, problems that do not exist when bilingual dictionaries are drawn up occur. These problems are connected with the existence of synonyms and

Emil Olteanu

73

Bridging the gap between vision and commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a large gap between academic vision research and industrial machine vision applications. A cross-fertilization between academic and industrial researchers is of mutual benefit: it leads to practical applications of benefits to industry as well as offering real-world challenges that deepen research understanding. A cross-disciplinary atmosphere between academia and industry should be encourages by appropriate funding sources in government, academia, and industry should be encouraged by appropriate funding sources in government, academia, and industry. Three real-life projects in the author's experience at General Motors demonstrate the potential payoffs of such an approach. An understanding of human hyperacuity mechanisms led to a subpixel method for finding circuit board locations to extremely high accuracy using a low-cost machine vision system. Research on the neural basis of primate color vision led to a proposed new type of color display, based on opponent mechanisms, that should be cheaper than conventional RGB displays. Also, a study of primate motion vision led to machines on the plant floor, and the sensor and display devices needed for vehicles of the 21st century, will greatly benefit from closer interaction between academic and industrial researchers.

Young, Richard A.

1995-04-01

74

Commercial application of microalgae other than as biofuels: a brief review  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable discussion in recent years about the potential of micro-algae for the production of sustainable\\u000a and renewable biofuels, but there may be other more readily exploitable commercial opportunities for microalgae. This paper\\u000a briefly reviews the current and potential situation for the commercial application of the growth of microalgae for products\\u000a other than biofuels.

John J. Milledge

2011-01-01

75

Potential application of the bumblebee foraging recruitment pheromone for commercial greenhouse pollination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial bumblebee colonies are important crop pollinators. Here we assess whether application of artificial foraging recruitment\\u000a pheromone can increase foraging activity in Bombus terrestris colonies on a relevant timescale for commercial pollination. We measured bee traffic from the nest to a foraging arena, which\\u000a is correlated with foraging activity under natural recruitment conditions. During continuous pheromone exposure bee traffic\\u000a increased

Mathieu Molet; Lars Chittka; Nigel E. Raine

2009-01-01

76

Center for commercial applications of combustion in space (CCACS); A partnership for space commercialization at the Colorado School of Mines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is a NASA/Industry/University consortium at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM). The mission of the Center is to assist industry in developing commercial products by conducting combustion research which takes advantage of the unique properties of space. By conducting experiments in near-zero gravity, convection and buoyancy effects can be minimized and new fundamental design-related knowledge can be gained which can be used to improve combustion-related products and processes on earth. Companies, government laboratories and universities most actively involved in CCACS at present include ABB Combustion, ADA Technologies, Advanced Refractory Technologies, Golden Technologies, Lockheed-Martin, Southwest Sciences, Space Systems/Lora, NASA-Lewis, JPL, the Baylor Dental School and the University of Connecticut. Products and processes of interest to the Center participants include industrial process combustors; catalytic combustion; Halon replacements; ceramic powders, whiskers and fibers; metal-matrix composites; NiTi for bone replacement; diamond coatings for oil-well drill bits; zeolites; imaging sensor arrays and other instrumentation for flame and particulate diagnostics. The center also assists member companies in marketing the resulting products and processes.

Schowengerdt, F. D.; Kee, Bob; Linne, Mark; McKinnon, Tom; Moore, John; Parker, Terry; Readey, Dennis; Tilton, John E.; Helble, Joe

1997-01-01

77

Development of Commodity Grade, Lower Cost Carbon Fiber - Commercial Applications  

SciTech Connect

In pursuit of the goal to produce ultra-lightweight fuel efficient vehicles, there has been great excitement during the last few years about the potential for using carbon fiber reinforced composites in high volume applications. Currently, the greatest hurdle that inhibits wider implementation of carbon fiber composites in transportation is the high cost of the fiber when compared to other candidate materials. As part of the United States Department of Energy s FreedomCAR initiative, significant research is being conducted to develop lower cost, high volume technologies for producing carbon fiber. This paper will highlight the on-going research in this area. Through Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and its partners have been working with the US Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) to develop technologies that would enable the production of carbon fiber at 5-7 dollars per pound. Achievement of this cost goal would allow the introduction of carbon fiber based composites into a greater number of applications for future vehicles. The approach has necessitated the development of both alternative precursors and more efficient production methods. Alternative precursors under investigation include textile grade polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers and fibers from lignin-based feedstocks. Previously, as part of the research program, Hexcel Corporation developed the science necessary to allow textile grade PAN to be used as a precursor rather than typical carbon fiber grade precursors. Efforts are also underway to develop carbon fiber precursors from lignin-based feedstocks. ORNL and its partners are working on this effort with domestic pulp and paper producers. In terms of alternative production methods, ORNL has developed a microwave-based carbonization unit that can process pre-oxidized fiber at over 200 inches per minute. ORNL has also developed a new method of high speed oxidation and a new method for precursor stabilization. Additionally, novel methods of activating carbon fiber surfaces have been developed which allow atomic oxygen concentrations as high as 25-30% to be achieved rather than the more typical 4-8% achieved by the standard industrial ozone treatment.

Warren, Charles David [ORNL; Paulauskas, Felix L [ORNL; Baker, Frederick S [ORNL; Eberle, Cliff [ORNL; Naskar, Amit K [ORNL

2009-01-01

78

Commercial Clinical Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy  

SciTech Connect

CRADA No. 95-CR-09 among the LITCO--now Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC; a private company, Neutron Therapies Limited Liability Company, NTL formerly Ionix Corporation; and Washington State University was established in 1996 to further the development of BNCT. NTL has established a laboratory for the synthesis, under US FDA approved current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) guidelines, of key boron intermediates and final boron agents for BNCT. The company has focused initially on the development of the compound GB-10 (Na{sub 2}B{sub 10}H{sub 10}) as the first boron agent of interest. An Investigational New Drug (IND) application for GB-10 has been filed and approved by the FDA for a Phase I human biodistribution trial in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and glioblastoma multiforme at UW under the direction of Professor Keith Stelzer, Principal Investigator (PI). These trials are funded by NTL under a contract with the UW, Department of Radiation Oncology, and the initial phases are nearing completion. Initial results show that boron-10 concentrations on the order of 100 micrograms per gram (100 ppm) can be achieved and maintained in blood with no indication of toxicity.

N /A

1999-09-03

79

40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory. 457.30 Section 457... Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants Subcategory § 457.30 Applicability...commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory. The provisions of...

2011-07-01

80

40 CFR 457.30 - Applicability; description of the commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory. 457.30 Section 457... Explosives Load, Assemble, and Pack Plants Subcategory § 457.30 Applicability...commercial explosives load, assemble and pack plants subcategory. The provisions of...

2013-07-01

81

48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.503 Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the...

2010-10-01

82

48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.503 Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...

2009-10-01

83

48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items...Items 12.503 Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the...

2009-10-01

84

Zn(II)-cyclam based chromogenic sensors for recognition of ATP in aqueous solution under physiological conditions and their application as viable staining agents for microorganism.  

PubMed

Two chromogenic complexes, L.Zn (where L is (E)-4-((4-(1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecan-1-ylsulfonyl)phenyl)diazenyl)-N,N-dimethylaniline) and its [2]pseudorotaxane form (?-CD.L.Zn), were found to bind preferentially to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), among all other common anions and biologically important phosphate (AMP, ADP, pyrophosphate, and phosphate) ions in aqueous HEPES buffer medium of pH 7.2. Studies with live cell cultures of prokaryotic microbes revealed that binding of these two reagents to intercellular ATP, produced in situ, could be used in delineating the gram-positive and the gram-negative bacteria. More importantly, these dyes were found to be nontoxic to living microbes (eukaryotes and prokaryotes) and could be used for studying the cell growth dynamics. Binding to these two viable staining agents to intercellular ATP was also confirmed by spectroscopic studies on cell growth in the presence of different respiratory inhibitors that influence the intercellular ATP generation. PMID:21449545

Mahato, Prasenjit; Ghosh, Amrita; Mishra, Sanjiv K; Shrivastav, Anupama; Mishra, Sandhya; Das, Amitava

2011-03-30

85

Low-cost integrated inverted stripline antennas with solid-state devices for commercial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated and active integrated antennas are currently increasing in popularity for many system applications. They can meet many commercial system specifications while maintaining antenna performance to produce compact, low-cost products. The inverted stripline configuration was developed to integrate with different solid-state devices like PIN, varactor and Gunn diodes (or transistor devices) for switching, tuning modulation, amplification and oscillating functions in

Julio Navarro; Kai Chang

1994-01-01

86

Practicality of evaluating soft errors in commercial sub-90 nm CMOS for space applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inclusion of commercial technologies in civil spaceflight applications is reality. These technologies enable higher performance, reduce power consumption, and ultimately yield better science. However, the benefits do not come without cost, and radiation-induced soft errors in advanced, sub-90 nm CMOS technologies present new challenges. These challenges include sensitivity to proton direct ionization, memory technology evaluation, as well as testing and

Jonathan A. Pellish; Kenneth A. LaBel

2010-01-01

87

Thermoluminescent characteristics of new pre-calibrated dosimeters (TLD) in commercially available readers for selected applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the performance of newly developed pre-calibrated Thermoluminescent Dosimeters (TLD) with a description and performance results for two commercially available TLD readers. Introduced for use in basic research, medical diagnostics and therapy applications, the Harshaw Model 5500 Automatic TLD Reader evaluates up to 50 dosimeters (rods, chips, disks, mu-cubes) per loading; the Harshaw Model 3500 Manual TLD Reader

R. A. Tawil; P. Pontikos; A. Szalanczy; K. Velbeck; W. Bruml; J. E. Rotunda

1994-01-01

88

Commercial grade item (CGI) dedication of MDR relays for nuclear safety related applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

MDR relays manufactured by Potter and Brumfield (P&B) have been used in various safety related applications in commercial nuclear power plants. These include emergency safety features (ESF) actuation systems, emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) actuation, and reactor protection systems. The MDR relays manufactured prior to May 1990 showed signs of generic failure due to corrosion and outgassing of coil varnish.

Ranjit K. Das; Anil Julka; Govind Modi

1994-01-01

89

Application uniformity of a commercial center pivot variable rate irrigation system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

With the advent of commercial variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems, there is a great interest in using them to improve water use efficiency, implement deficit irrigation strategies in water limited regions and manage water applications for many other important objectives. Multiple catch can trials...

90

Economic Recovery Act of 1981 and tax policies for commercial solar-energy applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key tax policies relevant to commercial solar energy applications are outlined. Included are certain changes in depreciation rules and small business federal income tax percentages that were part of the recently enacted Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981. Also, the regulations for business investment and energy tax credits are explained. An example of the effects of the new depreciation schedule

Ball

1981-01-01

91

Safety Evaluation of Two Commercial Lithium-ion Batteries for Space Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lithium-ion batteries have been used for applications on the Shuttle and Station for the past six years. A majority of the li-ion batteries flown are Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) varieties. The COTS batteries and cells were tested under nominal and abu...

J. A. Jeevarajan J. Collins J. S. Cook

2004-01-01

92

Tools and Data Services From the NASA Earth Satellite Observations for Remote Sensing Commercial Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several commercial applications of remote sensing data, such as water resources management, environmental monitoring, climate prediction, agriculture, forestry, and preparation for and mitigation of extreme weather events, require access to vast amounts of archived high quality data, and software tools and services for data manipulation and information extraction. Using these data requires detailed understanding of the their internal structure and

G. A. Vicente

2005-01-01

93

Illinois Pesticide Applicator Study Guide. A Training Manual for Private and Commercial Pesticide Applicators and Operators. Special Publication 39.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study guide is designed to provide the necessary information to prepare for certification as a private or commercial pesticide applicator. In addition to providing basic information covering the various sections of the amended Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, it contains a glossary of common pesticide terms, a list of…

Bever, Wayne; And Others

94

Soil attributes as viable agents in red spruce mortality along the southern Appalachian highlands with applications as field and laboratory exercises for community college science courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern Appalachian highlands displaying peaks above 1500m frequently support a northern boreal forest. These highland forests sustain both red spruce and Fraser fir trees, which are typically aboriginal to the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada. Within the past century, these forests have declined at an unusual rate. Past studies have focused on the impacts of acid deposition and similar atmospheric pollutants. However, the scientific community found difficulty in establishing a cause-and-effect relationship between the decline and these atmospheric pollutants. This dissertation focuses on a heavily neglected and often overlooked factor, which creates restrictions in growth patterns and overall health of these boreal trees. That overlooked factor deals primarily with soil nutrients within a selected spruce-fir stand of the southern Appalachians. The research quantitatively analyzes soils for specific chemical and physical properties, with comparisons made to soils from the New England region where the spruces and firs grow indigenously. A fundamental part of understanding ecosystems is the environmental interrelationships within those ecosystems. This document organizes a series of laboratory exercises, which target community college science courses so student exploration of these interrelationships becomes an integral part of the laboratory procedures. By completing these various exercises, students become more aware of the connective character of nature as well as develop an appreciation of geography, the original environmental science. Although atmospheric pollutants should continue to be scrutinized, findings of this research document show that the natural characteristics of soils are clearly a limiting factor in the overall health and vitality of the southern boreal forests. Therefore, future research, regardless of the focus, should include soil characteristics as a viable factor in the health of these delicate forest-types.

Ashbrook, Craig Monday

95

Good collaterals predict viable myocardium.  

PubMed

The authors undertook this study to see whether highly developed coronary collaterals at an area shed by a totally occluded coronary artery predicts myocardial viability. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of a totally occluded coronary artery has been debated since its introduction. It is recommended to search for viable myocardium before opening a totally occluded coronary artery; however, there is no practical yet sensitive method of assessing myocardial viability in the catheterization laboratory. Forty-seven consecutive patients (12 women, 25.5%; 35 men, 74.5%), each with 1 totally occluded coronary artery, were prospectively enrolled to the study. After the diagnostic coronary angiography, all patients underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography to determine viable myocardium at the territory of the totally occluded coronary artery, and the status of angiographic coronary collaterals was assessed. Patients were then divided into 2 groups according to the presence (Group A) or absence (Group B) of viable myocardium by stress echocardiography. Eighteen patients (38.3%) had viable myocardium (Group A) in the area shed by the totally occluded coronary artery and 29 patients (61.7%) had nonviable myocardium (Group B). The incidences of significant coronary collateral circulation to the viable (Group A) and nonviable (Group B) areas were 66.7% (12 patients) and 20.7% (6 patients), respectively (p = 0.002). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the independent factors for viable myocardium, and only significant coronary collateral circulation was found to be an independent factor for the detection of viable myocardium (p = 0.006, OR 16.7, 95% CI 2.25 to 124.4). The sensitivity and specificity of good collateral circulation for the detection of viable myocardium were 75% and 65.7%, respectively. The positive predictive and negative predictive values of the good coronary collateral circulation in detecting viable myocardium were 75% and 79%, respectively. The authors conclude that good coronary collaterals have a high sensitivity and positive predictive value for the prediction of viability as shown by dobutamine echocardiography, and only by assessing the coronary collateral circulation can one decide for percutaneous coronary revascularization, if not for coronary artery bypass surgery. PMID:18024937

Kumbasar, Deniz; Akyürek, Omer; Dincer, Irem; Atmaca, Yusuf; Kiliçkap, Mustafa; Erol, Cetin; Oral, Dervis

96

40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...commercial and private applicators of restricted use pesticides. 171.7 Section 171.7 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.7 Submission...

2013-07-01

97

Good Collaterals Predict Viable Myocardium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors undertook this study to see whether highly developed coronary collaterals at an area shed by a totally occluded coronary artery predicts myocardial viability. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of a totally occluded coronary artery has been debated since its introduction. It is recommended to search for viable myocardium before opening a totally occluded coronary artery; however, there is no

Deniz Kumbasar; Ömer Akyürek; Irem Dincer; Yusuf Atmaca; Mustafa K?l?çkap; Çetin Erol

2007-01-01

98

Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

Kenyon, Chase H.

1995-01-01

99

The NASA LeRC regenerative fuel cell system testbed program for goverment and commercial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Electrochemical Technology Branch of the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has initiated a program to develop a renewable energy system testbed to evaluate, characterize, and demonstrate fully integrated regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system for space, military, and commercial applications. A multi-agency management team, led by NASA LeRC, is implementing the program through a unique international coalition which encompasses both

Thomas M. Maloney; Paul R. Prokopius; Gerald E. Voecks

1995-01-01

100

A modified commercial scanner as an image plate for table-top optical applications  

SciTech Connect

A reliable, accurate, and inexpensive optical detector for table-top applications is described here. Based on a commercial high resolution office scanner coupled to a projection on plate, it enables a large image plate surface, allowing recording of large images without systematic errors associated to coupling optics' aberrations. Several tests on distance-dependent and steady interference patterns will be presented and discussed. The extension to other types of optical measurement by substituting the projection on plate is proposed.

Casado-Rojo, S; Lorenzana, H E; Baonza, V G

2008-12-09

101

Pulse combustion: Commercial, industrial, and residential applications. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning the evolution of pulse combustion, the types of pulse combustion burners and their applications, and selected fuels utilized. Topics include fuel combustion efficiency, energy conversion and utilization technologies, modeling of chemical kinetics, and dynamics and thermal characteristics of pulse combustors. Pulse combustion systems for water heaters, gas furnaces, industrial and residential boilers, commercial cooking equipment, and space heating devices are presented. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-10-01

102

Economic Recovery Act of 1981 and tax policies for commercial solar-energy applications  

SciTech Connect

Key tax policies relevant to commercial solar energy applications are outlined. Included are certain changes in depreciation rules and small business federal income tax percentages that were part of the recently enacted Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981. Also, the regulations for business investment and energy tax credits are explained. An example of the effects of the new depreciation schedule on a solar industrial process heat system is given.

Ball, D.E.

1981-12-01

103

Optimization of Gallium nitride high power technology for commercial and military applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next generation commercial and military systems require high power amplifiers (HPAs) with superior performance such as higher efficiency, improved thermal performance, wider bandwidth and higher output power. Using an optimized 0.5 um, 48 V GaN-on-SiC process, a family of GaN power amplifiers are developed for applications in the frequency range of 30 MHz to 4 GHz and output power ranging

J. B. Shealy; M. Lefevre; B. Anderson; D. Runton; M. J. Poulton; J. Martin

2009-01-01

104

High Reliability and Low Cost Uncooled Microbolometer IR Focal Plane Array Technology for Commercial Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a LETI LIR has been involved in Amorphous Silicon uncooled microbolometer development since 1993. This silicon IR detection\\u000a technology is now well mastered and very fast industrial transfer has been performed toward Sofradir. After a short description\\u000a of the technology and the readout circuit architecture, we focus on device reliability which is a key point for uncooled IRFPA\\u000a commercial application. Methodology

J. L. Tissot; E. Mottin; J. L. Ouvrier-Buffet; M. Vilain; J. J. Yon; J. P. Chatard

105

Commercial grade item (CGI) dedication of MDR relays for nuclear safety related applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MDR relays manufactured by Potter & Brumfield (P&B) have been used in various safety related applications in commercial nuclear power plants. These include emergency safety features (ESF) actuation systems, emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) actuation, and reactor protection systems. The MDR relays manufactured prior to May 1990 showed signs of generic failure due to corrosion and outgassing of coil varnish. P&B has made design changes to correct these problems in relays manufactured after May 1990. However, P&B does not manufacture the relays under any 10CFR50 Appendix B quality assurance (QA) program. They manufacture the relays under their commercial QA program and supply these as commercial grade items. This necessitates CGI Dedication of these relays for use in nuclear-safety-related applications. This paper presents a CGI dedication program that has been used to dedicate the MDR relays manufactured after been used to dedicate the MDR relays manufactured after May 1990. The program is in compliance with current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) guidelines and applicable industry standards; it specifies the critical characteristics of the relays, provides the tests and analysis required to verify the critical characteristics, the acceptance criteria for the test results, performs source verification to quality P&B for its control of the critical characteristics, and provides documentation. The program provides reasonable assurance that the new MDR relays will perform their intended safety functions.

Das, Ranjit K.; Julka, Anil; Modi, Govind

1994-08-01

106

Study of potential photovoltaic/thermal applications in the commercial sector. Final report  

SciTech Connect

To identify the most promising applications for photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) systems, a procedure has been evolved for ranking applications in the service, commercial, and institutional (SCI) sectors by using FEA's Energy Consumption Data Base, which tabulates energy use by sector, region, fuel type, and end use. Ranking takes into account such factors as temperature requirements of end-use, effects of temperature on efficiencies, cost of fuels replaced, and thermal and electrical loads. The electrical load and the temperature requirement of the thermal load determine size of the array, which meets the requirements of the entire electrical load. Hospitals and nursing homes, public office buildings, and schools rank high as potential applications. The rankings also indicate the PV/T arrays are more cost-effective than PV-only arrays for most commercial applications. Heating and cooling load profiles are determined for a hospital, a high school, and a shopping center, each in a different location; absorption cooling can usually be substituted for vapor-compression cooling. The high school load profiles are used as a case study of a PV/T array application in several energy cost scenarios. The analysis shows the PV/T array can be used advantageously in each scenario considered.

Parker, C.D.; Whisnant, R.A.; Ferrell, G.C.; Hamlin, R.V.

1981-07-01

107

Current state of commercial radiation detection equipment for homeland security applications.  

SciTech Connect

With the creation of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) came the increased concern that terrorist groups would attempt to manufacture and use an improvised nuclear device or radiological dispersal device. As such, a primary mission of DHS is to protect the public against the use of these devices and to assist state and local responders in finding, locating, and identifying these types of devices and materials used to manufacture these devices. This assistance from DHS to state and local responders comes in the form of grant money to procure radiation detection equipment. In addition to this grant program, DHS has supported the development of American National Standards Institute standards for radiation detection equipment and has conducted testing of commercially available instruments. This paper identifies the types and kinds of commercially available equipment that can be used to detect and identify radiological material - for use in traditional search applications as well as primary and secondary screening of personnel, vehicles, and cargo containers. In doing so, key considerations for the conduct of operations are described as well as critical features of the instruments for specific applications. The current state of commercial instruments is described for different categories of detection equipment including personal radiation detectors, radioisotope identifiers, man-portable detection equipment, and radiation portal monitors. In addition, emerging technologies are also discussed, such as spectroscopic detectors and advanced spectroscopic portal monitors.

Klann, R. T.; Shergur, J.; Mattesich, G.; Nuclear Engineering Division; DHS

2009-10-01

108

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 11: Aerial Applicators. CS-26.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the calibration and application of pesticides/herbicides by aircraft. Special attention is given to the field flight patterns and safety precautions which must be considered for the pilot, ground crews and the…

DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

109

Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to further develop an incubation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs by characterizing the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determining the specificity of the method, and testing the method with viable and inactivated larvated eggs. The number of template copies per cell was determined by amplifying DNA from known numbers of eggs at different development stages; the value was estimated to be 32 copies. The specificity of the method was tested against a panel of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths, and no amplification was found with non-target DNA. Finally, fully larvated eggs were inactivated by four different treatments: 254 nm ultraviolet light, 2,000 ppm NH(3)-N at pH 9, moderate heat (48 °C) and high heat (70 °C). Concentrations of treated eggs were measured by direct microscopy and incubation-qPCR. The qPCR signal decreased following all four treatments, and was in general agreement with the decrease in viable eggs determined by microscopy. The incubation-qPCR method for enumerating viable Ascaris eggs is a promising approach that can produce results faster than direct microscopy, and may have benefits for applications such as assessing biosolids. PMID:23165716

Raynal, Maria; Villegas, Eric N; Nelson, Kara L

2012-12-01

110

Comparison of prices for conventional and advanced storage batteries for residential, commercial, and utility applications  

SciTech Connect

This study evaluated the technical and economic performance of ten battery technologies for use in residential, commercial, and utility size load leveling systems. The batteries chosen for detailed economic analysis were: the low-maintenance lead-acid battery; the maintenance-free lead-acid battery; the nickel-cadmium battery; the zinc-bromine battery; and the lithium-metal sulfide battery. Details of the costing methodology are presented. The results of this comparative life-cycle cost analysis indicate the future potential of the Zn-Br technology for all three system sizes and the near-term attractiveness of the maintenance-free lead-acid technology for the residential and commercial applications.

Ramsay, G.B.; Edgecomb, A.

1982-08-01

111

Progress toward achieving a commercially viable solar reflective material  

SciTech Connect

Solar thermal technologies use large mirrors to concentrate sunlight for renewable power generation. The development of advanced reflector materials is important to the viability of electricity production by solar thermal energy systems. The reflector materials must be low in cost and maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under severe outdoor environments. Production processes associated with candidate materials must be scalable to mass production techniques. A promising low-cost construction uses a stainless steel foil substrate with a silver reflective layer protected by an optically transparent oxide topcoat. Thick (2 to 4 micron), dense alumina coatings provide durable protective layers. The excellent performance of alumina-coated reflector materials in outdoor and accelerated testing suggests that a larger field trial of the material is warranted. The key to producing a greater quantity of material for field deployment and testing without incurring substantial capital is the use of a chilled drum coater. An existing chamber is being modified, and the deposition rate will be increased prior to the installation of a drum coater to produce 1-ft wide by 10-ft long strips of solar reflector material. The production and performance of these materials are discussed.

Kennedy, C.E.; Smilgys, R.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)]|[Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1998-06-01

112

Prototype to product---developing a commercially viable neural prosthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cochlear implant or 'Bionic ear' is a device that enables people who do not get sufficient benefit from a hearing aid to communicate with the hearing world. The Cochlear implant is not an amplifier, but a device that electrically stimulates the auditory nerve in a way that crudely mimics normal hearing, thus providing a hearing percept. Many recipients are

Peter Seligman

2009-01-01

113

A COMMERCIALLY VIABLE SOLAR WOOD DRYING KILN SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to create a totally passive solar wood drying kiln that would dry lumber to 9% moisture content in a reasonable amount of time. A series of modifications led to a kiln design that dried freshly-cut lumber to 8% in a 29-day period with no case hardening or cracking. Air speed, internal and external temperatures

Jack B. De Vore; George S. Denny; Tanny S. Harper

1999-01-01

114

A commercially viable solar wood drying kiln system  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study was to create a totally passive solar wood drying kiln that would dry lumber to 9% moisture content in a reasonable amount of time. A series of modifications led to a kiln design that dried freshly-cut lumber to 8% in a 29-day period with no case hardening or cracking. Air speed, internal and external temperatures and relative humidity levels were measured at 5-minute intervals. The average temperature inside the kiln was 12% higher with relative humidity levels 19% lower than outside the kiln. It is hypothesized that the daily cycles of heating and cooling permitted the interior moisture of the wood to reach the surface through diffusion, thus lessening stress and speeding drying of the lumber.

Vore, J.B. de; Denny, G.S.; Harper, T.S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States)

1999-01-01

115

Viable but Not Cultivable Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A well-studied, long-term survival mechanism employed by Gram-positive bacteria is formation of endospores. For Gram-negative\\u000a bacteria, the assumption has been that a survival state does not exist. However, a dormancy state has been described for Gram-negative\\u000a bacteria and designated as the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) strategy of nonspore-forming cells. A variety of environmental\\u000a factors are involved in induction of the

Rita Colwell

116

36 CFR 13.1142 - Can I appeal denial of my commercial fishing lifetime access permit application?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

YesâIf an applicant's request for a commercial fishing lifetime access permit is denied, the superintendent will provide the applicant with the reasons for the denial in writing within 15 days of the decision. The applicant may appeal to the Regional Director, Alaska Region, within 180...

2013-07-01

117

A proposed acceptance process for commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software in reactor applications  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a process for acceptance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software products for use in reactor systems important to safety. An initial set of four criteria establishes COTS software product identification and its safety category. Based on safety category, three sets of additional criteria, graded in rigor, are applied to approve/disapprove the product. These criteria fall roughly into three areas: product assurance, verification of safety function and safety impact, and examination of usage experience of the COTS product in circumstances similar to the proposed application. A report addressing the testing of existing software is included as an appendix.

Preckshot, G.G.; Scott, J.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-03-01

118

Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator System. Phase I. Final Report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the design and analysis of the BDM CAPVC (Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator) system. The preliminary design, prototype test and evaluation, system analysis, and final design of a large-scale concentrating photovol...

D. J. Anderson E. R. Anderson K. M. Bardwell

1980-01-01

119

Computer Program for Assessing the Economic Feasibility of Solar Energy for Single-Family Residences and Light Commercial Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The technical feasibility of utilizing solar energy to meet domestic space heating and hot water loads for single family residences and light commercial applications has been clearly demonstrated. However, the economic feasibility is a complex problem req...

J. A. Forney D. Walker M. Lanier

1979-01-01

120

The NASA LeRC regenerative fuel cell system testbed program for goverment and commercial applications  

SciTech Connect

The Electrochemical Technology Branch of the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has initiated a program to develop a renewable energy system testbed to evaluate, characterize, and demonstrate fully integrated regenerative fuel cell (RFC) system for space, military, and commercial applications. A multi-agency management team, led by NASA LeRC, is implementing the program through a unique international coalition which encompasses both government and industry participants. This open-ended teaming strategy optimizes the development for space, military, and commercial RFC system technologies. Program activities to date include system design and analysis, and reactant storage sub-system design, with a major emphasis centered upon testbed fabrication and installation and testing of two key RFC system components, namely, the fuel cells and electrolyzers. Construction of the LeRC 25 kW RFC system testbed at the NASA-Jet Propulsion Labortory (JPL) facility at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) is nearly complete and some sub-system components have already been installed. Furthermore, planning for the first commercial RFC system demonstration is underway. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

Maloney, T.M. [NYMA Inc./NASA LeRC Group, 21000 Brookpark Rd., M.S. 309-1, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Prokopius, P.R. [NASA LeRC, 21000 Brookpark Rd., M.S. 309-1, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Voecks, G.E. [Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr., M.S. 125/224, Pasadena, California 91109-8099 (United States)

1995-01-25

121

High-power ultrasonic TERFENOL-D transducers enable commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic technology applications have been researched in a wide range of fields, from sonochemistry and industrial cleaning to medical tools and agriculture. However, the largest limitation in many of these applications is the inability of existing technology to provide a single transducer with sufficient power to make important laboratory sonochemical processes commercially successful. TERFENOL-D magnetostrictive material technology enables a next-generation high power ultrasonic transducer. Until very recently, generating high power at high frequency has been unexplored territory for giant magnetostrictive materials. But the unique attributes of these materials, such as energy density and thermal handling capabilities, are being used to develop a wide variety of transducers, devices and systems for existing as well as new ultrasonic applications. These unique material attributes combine with novel magnetic field generation, transducer, acoustic transmission and coupling concepts to meet the challenges of power, size, thermal, efficiency and reliability requirements of transducers and system for many ultrasonic applications. Polymer processing and curing, enhanced oil and gas recovery, seed sonication, surgical tools, and beer foaming are just some of the many applications where ultrasonic magnetostrictive technologies are overcoming barriers to provide improved solutions.

Weisensel, G. N.; Hansen, T. Toby; Hrbek, William D.

1998-06-01

122

Determinants of atrazine contamination in the homes of commercial pesticide applicators across time.  

PubMed

Twenty-nine commercial pesticide applicator households in eastern Iowa were enrolled to investigate in-home contamination of atrazine, the most commonly used corn herbicide in the Unites States. From each home, four vacuum dust samples were collected during atrazine application season (Visit 1) and again 6 months later during winter months (Visit 2). Samples were taken from the following locations: primary entryway for pesticide applicator, living room, master bedroom, and kitchen. The applicator completed an atrazine handling log and household questionnaire with spouse. Of the 230 dust samples, only 2 were below the level of detection, 2 ng of atrazine per gram (ng/g) of fine dust (dust particle size 5-150 ?m). Dust levels were standardized to chemical loading. During application season the entryway (2.68 ng/cm(2)) and kitchen (0.47 ng/cm(2)) had the highest geometric mean atrazine chemical loading. The entryway chemical loading during Visit 2 was the second highest aggregate (0.55 ng/cm(2)). Aggregate concentrations were significantly higher at Visit 1 compared with Visit 2 when paired by location (p?0.02). Analysis showed that job (application, mixing/loading, or both) was not associated with in-home atrazine contamination. Linear regression showed a strong positive association between atrazine handling (number of acres applied with atrazine, number of days atrazine handled, and pounds of atrazine handled) and aggregate dust chemical loading from both visits (p = 0.06, 0.03, and 0.10, respectively). Frequency of vacuuming was inversely associated with Visit 2 concentrations (p = 0.10) and showed a weaker association with Visit 1 (p = 0.30). Removing shoes outside the home was associated with lower atrazine chemical loading (p = 0.03), and applicators changing work clothes in the master bedroom had significantly increased atrazine chemical loading in master bedrooms (p = 0.01). Changes in hygiene practices for commercial pesticide applicators could significantly reduce atrazine and, likely, other pesticide contaminations in the home. PMID:22506545

Lozier, Matthew J; Curwin, Brian; Nishioka, Marcia G; Sanderson, Wayne

2012-01-01

123

SP-100 nuclear space power systems with application to space commercialization  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the Space Commercialization Community with the status and characteristics of the SP-100 space nuclear power system. The program is a joint undertaking by the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy and NASA. The goal of the program is to develop, validate, and demonstrate the technology for space nuclear power systems in the range of 10 to 1000 kWe electric for use in the future civilian and military space missions. Also discussed are mission applications which are enhanced and/or enabled by SP-100 technology and how this technology compares to that of more familiar solar power systems. The mission applications include earth orbiting platforms and lunar/Mars surface power.

Smith, J.M.

1988-01-01

124

An Application for Monitoring Order Set Usage in a Commercial Electronic Health Record  

PubMed Central

Organizations that use electronic health records (EHRs) often maintain a considerable amount of clinical content in the form of order sets, documentation templates, and decision support rules. EHR vendors seldom provide analytic tools for customers to maintain such content and monitor its usage. We developed an application for tracking order sets, documentation templates and clinical alerts in a commercial electronic health record. Using the application, we compared trends in order set creation and usage at two academic medical centers over a three-year period. In January 2012, one medical center had 873 order sets available to clinicians; the other had 787. Approximately 50–75 new order sets were added each year at each medical center. We found that 46% of order sets at the first medical center and 39% at the second medical center were unused over the three-year period.

Cowansage, Cadran B.; Green, Robert A.; Kratz, Alexander; Vawdrey, David K.

2012-01-01

125

A test-based comparison between technologies implemented in commercial cameras for high contrast imaging applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LAM is developing a high-contrast imaging testbeds for in-lab demonstration of new instrumental concepts requiring high contrast imaging: in particular, for solar and stellar coronagraphy applications. In such applications, a faint target has to be detected close to a very bright source. For these test-benches, a high-dynamic range detector is required to characterize and/or to determine the performance of a new concept. Beyond the capability to detect the target, an imaging detector has to be accurate, reliable and provide reproducible performances. In order to identify a commercial camera for the development of laboratory demonstrators working with high contrast scenes, we carried out a test campaign at the Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) evaluating several cameras implementing different detector technologies. This paper presents the results of the test campaign, carried out at LAM, providing a quantitative comparison between the investigated technologies

Pancrazzi, M.; Landini, F.; Vives, S.; Escolle, C.; N'Diaye, M.; Focardi, M.; Guillon, C.

2012-07-01

126

Testing commercial variable fiber attenuators and lenslet arrays for equalized integral field spectroscopy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been testing at laboratory commercial variable attenuators commonly used in telecommunication applications for their used in astronomy. Such variable attenuators are going to be included in the central fibers of the integral field unit (IFU) of the prototype instrument EDiFiSE (Equalized and Diffraction-limited Field Spectrograph Experiment). The EDiFiSE IFU is conformed by a lenslet array of 331 lenses, 331 fibers and seven variable attenuators (inserted in the seven central fibers of the bundle). We present here the characterization of the attenuator devices tested for their use in astronomy and, in particular, to their application in the observation of object of large dynamic range using equalized integral field spectroscopy. We also present the optical tests we have carried out to characterize the performances of two lenslet arrays acquired in the framework of the EDiFiSE project.

Gracia-Temich, F.; García-Lorenzo, B.; Padilla-Michel, Y.; Escobar-Romero, J. F. M.; Fuensalida, J. J.; Rodríguez-Hernández, M. A. C.; Rasilla, J. L.; Kuckein, C.; López-Rodríguez, E.

2008-08-01

127

Development of zinc-bromine batteries for utility applications: Commercialization task  

SciTech Connect

Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been working on two complementary, concurrent zinc-bromine battery contracts directed at the use of this technology in utility load leveling operations. The Department of Energy contract is concerned with technology development while the Electric Power Research Institute contract RR2123-3 is centered around those studies necessary for commercialization to take place. The commercialization program reported herein was divided into four major sub-tasks. The first task, a product definition effort resulted in a 10-MW plant design. A financial and technical study of this 10-MW facility indicated that this size plant could be made available in production at a cost of $95/kWh with an overall efficiency in the range of 72--77%. In task 2 ERC developed a business plan which covered the construction of a manufacturing facility and full financial estimates for both utility and non-utility size power plants including 15 years of sales, cash flow and profits. The market size and needs were assessed for both utility and non-utility applications in Task 3. A total of 24 utilities were interviewed under this task to review this technology an its applicability in their systems. Finally, in Task 4, one utility case study was conducted which showed that the zinc-bromine battery could achieve substantial penetration into their load leveling requirements at the battery costs developed in Task 1.

Chi, C.; Voyentzie, P.R. (Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (USA))

1990-12-01

128

A comparison of vertical ground heat exchanger design software for commercial applications  

SciTech Connect

In previous work, the authors compared a number of commercially available programs for the design of vertical borehole heat exchangers (BHEx) in residential applications. The objective of this paper is to compare four BHEx design programs and a benchmark simulation for a commercial application. An energy use model of an elementary school served by geothermal heat pumps was calibrated with site-collected data to form the benchmark; the school's operation was then simulated for a typical meteorological year at the site, and the outputs from the simulation were used as inputs to the four design programs. Since loads at the school are dominated by heating, the programs were exercised to design borefields with minimum inlet water temperatures of 30 F ({minus}1.1 C), 35 F (1.7 C), and 40 F (4.4 C). On average, the depths predicted by the design programs agreed with the depths predicted by the benchmark program to within about {+-} 14%. Three of the programs were found to provide relatively consistent results: their design lengths varied from the benchmark lengths by {minus}7% to +12%, while designs from the other program varied by about 16% from the benchmark lengths. This is consistent with the results obtained for the residential comparison.

Shonder, J.A.; Baxter, V.D.; Hughes, P.J.; Thornton, J.W.

2000-07-01

129

Computers for Manned Space Applications Base on Commercial Off-the-Shelf Components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Similar to the consumer markets there has been an ever increasing demand in processing power, signal processing capabilities and memory space also for computers used for science data processing in space. An important driver of this development have been the payload developers for the International Space Station, requesting high-speed data acquisition and fast control loops in increasingly complex systems. Current experiments now even perform video processing and compression with their payload controllers. Nowadays the requirements for a space qualified computer are often far beyond the capabilities of, for example, the classic SPARC architecture that is found in ERC32 or LEON CPUs. An increase in performance usually demands costly and power consuming application specific solutions. Continuous developments over the last few years have now led to an alternative approach that is based on complete electronics modules manufactured for commercial and industrial customers. Computer modules used in industrial environments with a high demand for reliability under harsh environmental conditions like chemical reactors, electrical power plants or on manufacturing lines are entered into a selection procedure. Promising candidates then undergo a detailed characterisation process developed by Astrium Space Transportation. After thorough analysis and some modifications, these modules can replace fully qualified custom built electronics in specific, although not safety critical applications in manned space. This paper focuses on the benefits of COTS1 based electronics modules and the necessary analyses and modifications for their utilisation in manned space applications on the ISS. Some considerations regarding overall systems architecture will also be included. Furthermore this paper will also pinpoint issues that render such modules unsuitable for specific tasks, and justify the reasons. Finally, the conclusion of this paper will advocate the implementation of COTS based electronics for a range of applications within specifically adapted systems. The findings in this paper are extrapolated from two reference computer systems, both having been launched in 2008. One of those was a LEON-2 based computer installed onboard the Columbus Orbital Facility while the other system consisted mainly of a commercial Power-PC module that was modified for a launch mounted on the ICC pallet in the Space Shuttle's cargo bay. Both systems are currently upgraded and extended for future applications.

Vogel, T.; Gronowski, M.

2009-05-01

130

Development of the Two-Modulator Generalized Ellipsometer (2-MGE) for Commercial Application  

SciTech Connect

The two-modulator generalized ellipsometer (2-MGE) is an instrument that measures the change of light polarization upon interacting with a sample. The 2-MGE can operate in either reflection or transmission. In reflection, it acts as a generalized ellipsometer, measuring the standard ellipsometry parameters, as well as the cross-polarization parameters. In transmission, it measures all parameters associated with a general diattenuation and retarder. In this CRADA, Hinds and ORNL have explored the commercial possibilities of the 2-MGE. This exploration has taken two primary paths. First, prototypes were built at both ORNL and Hinds. Second, various scientific applications were explored, including characterization of Polaroid-like materials and various materials under electric field. The main purpose of this CRADA was to develop the two-modulator generalized ellipsometer (2-MGE) into a commercial product. The 2-MGE is an ORNL patented technology (U. S. Patent No. 5956147 (1999)). Associated with the 2-MGE is the computer program EllipsCalc, which is used to simulate spectroscopic ellipsometry data in order to determine useful parameters, such as film thickness, surface roughness, interface thickness, and spectroscopic refractive indices, from the 2-MGE data. To this end, the CRADA had several objectives contained in two phases.

Jellison, G.E., Jr.; Griffiths, C.O. (Hinds Instruments, Inc.)

2003-06-01

131

Advanced space-qualified downlink image compression ASIC for commercial remote sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastman Kodak Company developed a rate-controlled adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM) image compression algorithm for commercial remote sensing applications. This algorithm is currently being used in a space-qualified ASIC in the Space Imaging Incorporated IKONOS satellite and the soon- to-be-launched EarthWatch QuickBird satellite. This ASIC compresses the raw imagery data (before calibration) at a speed just under 4 Megapixels per second. Kodak has redesigned this ASIC to increase the functionality and throughput while maintaining the power and area. With advancements in ASIC design, the compression algorithm, and fabrication techniques, the new compression ASIC has achieved the operating rate of 22 Megapixels per second. A third option mode has also been added to increase the capability of the ASIC to achieve lossless compression ratios of 2:1 to lossy compression ratios of 5:1. This new ASIC is intended to meet the future commercial remote sensing requirements for increased resolution and greater area coverage.

Brower, Bernard V.; Cosgrove, Michael A.; Lewis, Donald H.; VanLare, Glenn R.; Fisher, Thomas J.; Charneski, David M.

2000-12-01

132

Advances in commercial application of gamma radiation in tropical fruits at Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All regions of Brazil are potential areas for growing tropical fruits. As this country is already a great producer and exporter of tropical fruits, ionizing radiation has been the subject of studies in many commodities. An important project has been carried out to increase the commercial use of gamma radiation in our country. Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN)-CNEN/SP together with field producers in northeast region and partners like International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), CIC, Empresa Brasileira Pesquisa na Agricultura (EMBRAPA) joined to demonstrate this technology, its application and commercial feasibility. The objective of this study is to show advances in feasibility demonstrate the quality of the irradiated fruits in an international consignment from Brazil to Canada. In this work, Tommy Atkins mangoes harvested in northeast region of Brazil were sent to Canada. The fruits were treated in a gamma irradiation facility at doses 0.4 and 1.0 kGy. The control group was submitted to hydrothermal treatment (46 °C for 110 min). The fruits were stored at 11 °C for 10 days until the international transportation and kept at an environmental condition (22 °C) for 12 days, where their physical-chemical and sensorial properties were evaluated. The financial part of the feasibility study covers the scope of the investment, including the net working capital and production costs.

Sabato, S. F.; Silva, J. M.; Cruz, J. N.; Broisler, P. O.; Rela, P. R.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.

2009-07-01

133

Digimarc MediaBridge: the birth of a consumer product from concept to commercial application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper examines the issues encountered in the development and commercial deployment of a system based on digital watermarking technology. The paper provides an overview of the development of digital watermarking technology and the first applications to use the technology. It also looks at how we took the concept of digital watermarking as a communications channel within a digital environment and applied it to the physical print world to produce the Digimarc MediaBridge product. We describe the engineering tradeoffs that were made to balance competing requirements of watermark robustness, image quality, embedding process, detection speed and end user ease of use. Today, the Digimarc MediaBridge product links printed materials to auxiliary information about the content, via the Internet, to provide enhanced informational marketing, promotion, advertising and commerce opportunities.

Perry, Burt; MacIntosh, Brian; Cushman, David

2002-04-01

134

Transparent insulation of building facades - Steps from research to commercial applications  

SciTech Connect

Transparent insulation materials (TIM) represent a class of new materials for application in solar thermal conversion systems. A U-value below 1 W/(m{sup 2}K) and an energy transmittance greater than 70% characterize TI materials. With these physical properties TI materials outperform all conventional glazing systems and further increase the efficiency of thermal conversion of solar radiation. In winter, low elevation solar irradiance on vertical surfaces can be used effectively. Experiments, simulation calculations and results from demonstration projects have shown the space heating potential of transparently insulated walls. A properly built passive TI element on a sun-facing massive building facade can save heating energy by up to 200 kWh/(m{sup 2} yr) each annual heating period. The paper describes the transparent insulation of building facades from the basic idea to the satisfying results of demonstration projects. Fundamental consideration for TIM and wall parameters, a list of projects, exact descriptions of TI wall constructions, the reduction of space heating demand and future developments form part of this paper. It is a summary of the work done in this specific field in the past 10 years giving examples of the dynamic developments in solar energy from the basic ideas to commercial systems. A Self-Sufficient Solar House, which is almost totally heated with transparently insulated walls, is an outstanding culmination of TI research and TI application.

Braun, P.O.; Goetzberger, A.; Schmid, J.; Stahl, W. (Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany))

1992-11-01

135

Collecting Commercial Vehicle Tour Data with Passive Global Positioning System Technology: Issues and Potential Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of strategies designed to manage the continued growth in road-based freight and associated externalities has been hampered by a paucity of disaggregate data on commercial vehicle movements. When disaggregated data are available, the analysis of commercial vehicle route and trip chain structure can provide insightful information about urban commercial vehicle tours, travel patterns, and congestion levels. Over the

Stephen P. Greaves; Miguel A. Figliozzi

2008-01-01

136

World Market for Commercial China.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first objective of this study was to identify and define any viable export markets and evaluate significant competitive factors or other barriers to entry facing domestic commercial chinaware producers in their efforts to export. This report presents ...

1981-01-01

137

Application of Best Industry Practices to the Design of Commercial Refrigerators  

SciTech Connect

The substantial efficiency improvements which have been realized in residential refrigerators over the last twenty years due to implementation of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act and changing consumer reactions to energy savings give an indication of the potential for improvement in the commercial sector, where few such efficiency improvements have been made to date. The purchase decision for commercial refrigerators is still focused primarily on first cost and product performance issues such as maximizing storage capacity, quick pulldown, durability, and reliability. The project applied techniques used extensively to reduce energy use in residential refrigeration to a commercial reach-in refrigerator. The results will also be applicable to other commercial refrigeration equipment, such as refrigerated vending machines, reach-in freezers, beverage merchandisers, etc. The project described in this paper was a collaboration involving the Appliance and Building Technology Sector of TIAX, the Delfield Company, and the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies. Funding was provided by DOE through Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT41000. The program plan and schedule were structured to assure successful integration of the TIAX work on development of efficient design concepts into Delfield's simultaneous development of the Vantage product line. The energy-saving design options evaluated as part of the development included brushless DC and PSC fan motors, high-efficiency compressors, variable-speed compressor technology, cabinet thermal improvement (particularly in the face frame area), increased insulation thickness, a trap for the condensate line, improved insulation, reduced-wattage antisweat heaters, non-electric antisweat heating, off-cycle defrost termination, rifled heat exchanger tubing, and system optimization (selection of heat exchangers, fans, and subcooling, superheat, and suction temperatures for efficient operation). The project started with a thorough evaluation of the baseline Delfield Model 6051 two-door reach-in refrigerator. Performance testing was done to establish a performance baseline which, to meet end-users requirements, would have to be met or exceeded by the high-efficiency refrigerator design. Energy testing was done to establish the baseline energy use. Diagnostic testing such as reverse heat leak testing and insulation conductivity testing was done to evaluate factors contributing to the cabinet load and energy use. Modeling was done to assess the energy savings potential of the energy saving design options. Discussion with vendors and cost modeling was done to assess the manufacturing cost impact of the options. Based on this work, the following group of design options was selected for incorporation in the final refrigerator design: (1) Brushless DC evaporator fans; (2) Improved face frame design; (3) Reduced antisweat heater wattage; (4) Condensate line trap; and (5) Optimized refrigeration system. There was no net cost premium associated with these design changes, leading to a high-efficiency design requiring no payback of any initial additional investment. Delfield incorporated these design options in the Vantage line design and built a first prototype, which was tested at TIAX. Additional design changes were implemented in the transition to manufacturing, based in part on results of initial prototype testing, and a pilot production unit was sent to TIAX for final testing. The energy use of the pilot production unit was 68% less than that of the baseline refrigerator when tested according to the ASHRAE 117 Energy Test Standard. The energy test results for the baseline refrigerator and the two new-design units is shown in Figure ES-1 below. The resulting energy consumption is well below Energy Star and proposed Canadian and California standards levels. Delfield has successfully transitioned the design to production and is manufacturing all configurations of the energy efficient reach-ins at a rate greater than 7,000 per year, with production quantities projec

None

2002-06-30

138

Conformal load-bearing antenna structures (CLAS): initiative for multiple military and commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Structures Division of the Air Force's Wright Laboratory is sponsoring the development and demonstration of a new high pay-off technology termed CLAS--Conformal Load Bearing Antenna Structures. Northrop Grumman Corporation and TRW/ASD are developing the technology under the `Smart-Skin Structure Technology Demonstration (S3D)' program, contract, No. F33615-93-C-3200. The program goal is to design, develop, fabricate, and test a CLAS component and lay the foundation for future work where potential benefits from structurally integrated antennas may be realized. Key issues will focus but are not limited to the design, structures, and manufacturing aspects of antenna embedment into load bearing aircraft structures. Results from Phase 1 of the program have been previously reported, where initial pay-offs in reducing overall airframe acquisition and support cost, weight, signature, and drag were quantitatively and qualitatively identified. A full-sized CLAS component, featuring a broadband multi-arm spiral embedded in sandwich stiffened structure, will be fabricated and tested for static strength, durability, and damage tolerance. Basic electrical performance, (e.g., radiation patterns, gain, and impedance) will also be verified; however, extensive electrical validation will be the subject of further work. Key aspects of the work and progress to date are detailed below. Also covered are future projections of CLAS technology expansion beyond tactical aircraft into other military products highlighting ships, army vehicles, and `spin-off' commercial applications to civil aircraft and the automotive industry.

Lockyer, Allen J.; Alt, Kevin H.; Kudva, Jayanth N.; Kinslow, Robert W.; Goetz, Allen C.

1997-06-01

139

MANAGEMENT OF MUSTY OFF-FLAVOR IN CHANNEL CATFISH FROM COMMERCIAL PONDS WITH WEEKLY APPLICATIONS OF COPPER SULFATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluated the effectiveness of weekly low-dose applications of copper sulfate (0.12 mg Cu/L) on the prevalence of off-flavor in catfish on commercial farms. The study was conducted over 3 years in ponds (3.2-8.4 ha) on two catfish farms in west Mississippi. Farm managers applied copper ...

140

Design and dosimetry characteristics of a commercial applicator system for intra-operative electron beam therapy utilizing ELEKTA Precise accelerator.  

PubMed

The design concept and dosimetric characteristics of a new applicator system for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) are presented in this work. A new hard-docking commercial system includes polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) applicators with different diameters and applicator end angles and a set of secondary lead collimators. A telescopic device allows changing of source-to-surface distance (SSD). All measurements were performed for 6, 9, 12 and 18 MeV electron energies. Output factors and percentage depth doses (PDD) were measured in a water phantom using a plane-parallel ion chamber. Isodose contours and radiation leakage were measured using a solid water phantom and radiographic films. The dependence of PDD on SSD was checked for the applicators with the smallest and the biggest diameters. SSD dependence of the output factors was measured. Hardcopies of PDD and isodose contours were prepared to help the team during the procedure on deciding applicator size and energy to be chosen. Applicator output factors are a function of energy, applicator size and applicator type. Dependence of SSD correction factors on applicator size and applicator type was found to be weak. The same SSD correction will be applied for all applicators in use for each energy. The radiation leakage through the applicators is clinically acceptable. The applicator system enables effective collimation of electron beams for IORT. The data presented are sufficient for applicator, energy and monitor unit selection for IORT treatment of a patient. PMID:21081880

Nevelsky, Alexander; Bernstein, Zvi; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Kuten, Abraham; Orion, Itzhak

2010-07-19

141

The application of electrodialysis to extend the lifetime of commercial electroplating baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrodialysis has been investigated as a method to extend the lifetime of industrial electroplating solutions via the selective removal of inert electrolyte salts that build up during electroplating operations. The electrodialysis measurements were made using a commercially available plate-and frame-type cell and various combinations of Nafion cation ``change and either Tosflex or Neosepta anion exchange membranes. Two commercial plating solutions

G. Purdy; C. Zawodzinski; B. Smith; W. H. Smith

1993-01-01

142

Pesticides associated with wheeze among commercial pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.  

PubMed

Pesticides are potential risk factors for respiratory disease among farmers, but farmers are also exposed to other respiratory toxicants. To explore the association of pesticides with wheeze in a population without other farming exposures, the authors analyzed data from 2,255 Iowa commercial pesticide applicators enrolled in the Agricultural Health Study. Controlling for age, smoking status, asthma and atopy history, and body mass index, the authors calculated odds ratios for the relationship between wheeze and 36 individual pesticides participants had used during the year before enrollment (1993-1997). Eight of 16 herbicides were associated with wheeze in single-agent models; however, the risk was almost exclusively associated with the herbicide chlorimuron-ethyl (odds ratio (OR) = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25, 2.10). Inclusion of chlorimuron-ethyl in models for the other herbicides virtually eliminated the associations. The odds ratios for four organophosphate insecticides (terbufos, fonofos, chlorpyrifos, and phorate) were elevated when these chemicals were modeled individually and remained elevated, though attenuated somewhat, when chlorimuron-ethyl was included. The association for dichlorvos, another organophosphate insecticide, was not attenuated by chlorimuron-ethyl (OR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.08, 5.66). Dose-response trends were observed for chlorimuron-ethyl, chlorpyrifos, and phorate; the strongest odds ratio was for applying chlorpyrifos on more than 40 days per year (OR = 2.40, 95% CI: 1.24, 4.65). These results add to the emerging literature linking organophosphate insecticides and respiratory health and suggest a role for chlorimuron-ethyl. PMID:16611668

Hoppin, Jane A; Umbach, David M; London, Stephanie J; Lynch, Charles F; Alavanja, Michael C R; Sandler, Dale P

2006-04-12

143

Damage tolerance assessment of bonded composite doubler repairs for commercial aircraft applications  

SciTech Connect

The Federal Aviation Administration has sponsored a project at its Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to validate the use of bonded composite doublers on commercial aircraft. A specific application was chosen in order to provide a proof-of-concept driving force behind this test and analysis project. However, the data stemming from this study serves as a comprehensive evaluation of bonded composite doublers for general use. The associated documentation package provides guidance regarding the design, analysis, installation, damage tolerance, and nondestructive inspection of these doublers. This report describes a series of fatigue and strength tests which were conducted to study the damage tolerance of Boron-Epoxy composite doublers. Tension-tension fatigue and ultimate strength tests attempted to grow engineered flaws in coupons with composite doublers bonded to aluminum skin. An array of design parameters, including various flaw scenarios, the effects of surface impact, and other off-design conditions, were studied. The structural tests were used to: (1) assess the potential for interply delaminations and disbonds between the aluminum and the laminate, and (2) determine the load transfer and crack mitigation capabilities of composite doublers in the presence of severe defects. A series of specimens were subjected to ultimate tension tests in order to determine strength values and failure modes. It was demonstrated that even in the presence of extensive damage in the original structure (cracks, material loss) and in spite of non-optimum installations (adhesive disbonds), the composite doubler allowed the structure to survive more than 144,000 cycles of fatigue loading. Installation flaws in the composite laminate did not propagate over 216,000 fatigue cycles. Furthermore, the added impediments of impact--severe enough to deform the parent aluminum skin--and hot-wet exposure did not effect the doubler`s performance. Since the tests were conducting using extreme combinations of flaw scenarios (sizes and collocation) and excessive fatigue load spectrums, the performance parameters were arrived at in a conservative manner.

Roach, D.

1998-08-01

144

Geothermal potential for commercial and industrial direct heat applications in Salida, Colorado. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The Salida Geothermal Prospect (Poncha Hot Springs) was evaluated for industrial and commercial direct heat applications at Salida, Colorado, which is located approximately five miles east of Poncha Hot Springs. Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd., holds the geothermal leases on the prospect and the right-of-way for the main pipeline to Salida. The Poncha Hot Springs are located at the intersection of two major structural trends, immediately between the Upper Arkansas graben and the Sangre de Cristo uplift. Prominent east-west faulting occurs at the actual location of the hot springs. Preliminary exploration indicates that 1600 gpm of geothermal fluid as hot as 250/sup 0/F is likely to be found at around 1500 feet in depth. The prospective existing endusers were estimated to require 5.02 x 10/sup 10/ Btu per year, but the total annual amount of geothermal energy available for existing and future endusers is 28.14 x 10/sup 10/ Btu. The engineering design for the study assumed that the 1600 gpm would be fully utilized. Some users would be cascaded and the spent fluid would be cooled and discharged to nearby rivers. The economic analysis assumes that two separate businesses, the energy producer and the energy distributor, are participants in the geothermal project. The producer would be an existing limited partnership, with Chaffee Geothermal, Ltd. as one of the partners; the distributor would be a new Colorado corporation without additional income sources. Economic evaluations were performed in full for four cases: the Base Case and three alternate scenarios. Alternate 1 assumes a three-year delay in realizing full production relative to the Base Case; Alternate 2 assumes that the geothermal reservoir is of a higher quality than is assumed for the Base Case; and Alternate 3 assumes a lower quality reservoir. 11 refs., 34 figs., 40 tabs.

Coe, B.A.; Dick, J.D.; Galloway, M.J.; Gross, J.T.; Meyer, R.T.; Raskin, R.; Zocholl, J.R.

1982-10-01

145

Catalytic pyrolysis of plastic wastes - Towards an economically viable process  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of our project is an economically viable pyrolysis process to recover useful fuels and/or chemicals from plastics- containing wastes. This paper reports the effects of various promoted and unpromoted binary oxide catalysts on yields and compositions of liquid organic products, as measured in a small laboratory pyrolysis reactor. On the basis of these results, a commercial scale catalytic pyrolysis reactor was simulated by the Aspen software and rough costs were estimated. The results suggest that such a process has potential economic viability.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.; Brockmeier, F.E.

1996-07-01

146

Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7B: Termites and Other Wood Destroying Pests. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite and wood destroying pest control category. The text discusses the importance, description, biology, and control of termites, powderpost beetles, house and warf borers, carpenter ants, and…

Schmitt, John B.

147

Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8A: General Public Health Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests such as cockroaches, lice, fleas, and mites, vertebrate pests; and plant pests such as poison ivy and ragweed. A study guide…

Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

148

Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7B: Termites and Other Wood Destroying Pests. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite and wood destroying pest control category. The text discusses the importance, description, biology, and control of termites, powderpost beetles, house and warf borers, carpenter ants, and…

Schmitt, John B.

149

75 FR 12561 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...may be affiliated with the same political party. Background In the Omnibus Budget...commercial operations with balanced political party affiliations. The Committee's...Committee may be held outside of Washington, DC, usually at a CBP...

2010-03-16

150

NASA's human system risk management approach and its applicability to commercial spaceflight.  

PubMed

As planning continues for commercial spaceflight, attention is turned to NASA to assess whether its human system risk management approach can be applied to mitigate the risks associated with commercial suborbital and orbital flights. NASA uses a variety of methods to assess the risks to the human system based on their likelihood and consequences. In this article, we review these methods and categorize the risks in the system as "definite," "possible," or "least" concern for commercial spaceflight. As with career astronauts, these risks will be primarily mitigated by screening and environmental control. Despite its focus on long-duration exploration missions, NASA's human system risk management approach can serve as a preliminary knowledge base to help medical planners prepare for commercial spaceflights. PMID:23305003

Law, Jennifer; Mathers, Charles H; Fondy, Susan R E; Vanderploeg, James M; Kerstman, Eric L

2013-01-01

151

Technology data characterizing space conditioning in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with COMMEND 4.0  

SciTech Connect

In the US, energy consumption is increasing most rapidly in the commercial sector. Consequently, the commercial sector is becoming an increasingly important target for state and federal energy policies and also for utility-sponsored demand side management (DSM) programs. The rapid growth in commercial-sector energy consumption also makes it important for analysts working on energy policy and DSM issues to have access to energy end-use forecasting models that include more detailed representations of energy-using technologies in the commercial sector. These new forecasting models disaggregate energy consumption not only by fuel type, end use, and building type, but also by specific technology. The disaggregation of space conditioning end uses in terms of specific technologies is complicated by several factors. First, the number of configurations of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and heating and cooling plants is very large. Second, the properties of the building envelope are an integral part of a building`s HVAC energy consumption characteristics. Third, the characteristics of commercial buildings vary greatly by building type. The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Commercial End-Use Planning System (COMMEND 4.0) and the associated data development presented in this report attempt to address the above complications and create a consistent forecasting framework. This report describes the process by which the authors collected space-conditioning technology data and then mapped it into the COMMEND 4.0 input format. The data are also generally applicable to other end-use forecasting frameworks for the commercial sector.

Sezgen, O.; Franconi, E.M.; Koomey, J.G.; Greenberg, S.E.; Afzal, A.; Shown, L.

1995-12-01

152

Determining Transit’s Impact on Seoul Commercial Land Values: An Application of Spatial Econometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature regarding transit’s impact on land values reports mixed results concerning the economic benefits of accessibility to subway stations, specifically regarding commercial properties. After examining 731 commercial land values in Seoul, Korea, this study suggests a possible explanation for the mixed results: transit’s discrimination impact on land values by location in a built-up urban area. The regression coefficient for distance

Jin Kim; Ming Zhang

2005-01-01

153

The Application of Electrodialysis to Extend the Lifetime of Commercial Electroplating Baths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrodialysis has been investigated as a method to extend the lifetime of industrial electroplating solutions via the selective removal of inert electrolyte salts that build up during electroplating operations.The electrodialysis measurements were made using a commercially available plate-and frame-type cell and various combinations of Nafion cation exchange and either Tosflex or Neosepta anion exchange membranes.Two commercial plating solutions were studied:

Geraldine Purdy; Christine Zawodzinski; Barbara Smith; Wayne H. Smith

1995-01-01

154

Estimating commercial property prices: an application of cokriging with housing prices as ancillary information  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vast majority of the recent literature on spatial hedonic analysis has been concerned with residential property values,\\u000a with only very few examples of studies focused on commercial property prices. The dearth of studies can be attributed to some\\u000a of the challenges faced in the analysis of commercial properties, in particular the scarcity of information compared to residential\\u000a transactions. In

José-María Montero-Lorenzo; Beatriz Larraz-Iribas; Antonio Páez

2009-01-01

155

Development of zinc-bromine batteries for utility applications: Commercialization task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been working on two complementary, concurrent zinc-bromine battery contracts directed at the use of this technology in utility load leveling operations. The Department of Energy contract is concerned with technology development while the Electric Power Research Institute contract RR2123-3 is centered around those studies necessary for commercialization to take place. The commercialization program reported herein

C. Chi; P. R. Voyentzie

1990-01-01

156

Commercial application in high-efficiency FGD of sorbent injection with flue gas humidification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper updates the commercial progress in the recent development of a low-capital-cost method of achieving high efficiency (85--90%) removal of SO from high-sulfur fossil fuel combustion. The results of the successful performance of a proof-of-concept, field pilot plant operation in Izmir, Turkey are presented. In addition, details of the design of the first commercial scale, high-performance installation of dry

W. Ellison; W. A. Walsh; S. Serinken

1999-01-01

157

Moving research to patient applications through commercialization: understanding and evaluating the role of intellectual property.  

PubMed

The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization, and 5) the role of intellectual property and commercialization in the advancement of healthcare. PMID:20353687

Patino, Robert M

2010-03-01

158

Moving Research to Patient Applications through Commercialization: Understanding and Evaluating the Role of Intellectual Property  

PubMed Central

The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization, and 5) the role of intellectual property and commercialization in the advancement of healthcare.

2010-01-01

159

COMMERCIAL APPLICATION OF PLASMA MASS SEPARATION IN THE ARCHIMEDES FILTER PLANT  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the commercial application of an innovative plasma mass separator called the Archimedes Filter to a pre-treatment plant that can be integrated into the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford and Savannah River Sites to significantly enhance the treatment of radioactive high-level waste. The output of the Archimedes Filter is completely compatible with existing waste immobilization processes such as vitrification and requires no new waste form to be developed. A full-geometric-scale Demonstration Filter Unit (DEMO) has been constructed and is undergoing initial testing at the Archimedes Technology Group Development Facilities in San Diego. Some of the technology and engineering development is being performed by other organizations in collaboration with Archimedes. The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) is developing the plasma calcination technology and all of the associated systems for AFP feed preparation. Two Russian institutes are involved in the development of the ICP torch and injector system. The Remote System Group (UT-Battelle) at ORNL is developing the remote maintenance system for the filter units. Conceptual design of the Archimedes Filter Plant (AFP) is being developed concurrently with the DEMO testing program. The AFP mission is to significantly reduce the cost and accelerate the rate of vitrification of high-level waste by separating low activity waste from the sludge removed from underground storage tanks. Mass separation is accomplished by vaporizing the sludge feed and injecting it into a partially ionized, neutral plasma. In a single pass, heavy ions are deposited near the center of the filter and light mass ions are transported by the plasma to the ends of the cylindrically-shaped vacuum vessel. Responding to the DOE programs for cost reduction and cleanup acceleration, the AFP Project is planned on an expeditious schedule that executes all phases of the project with private sector funding. The initial AFP implementation is targeted for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site. Hot commissioning is scheduled for late 2007 with design throughput and availability achieved by end of 2008. It is anticipated that AFP revenues will be based on a shared cost savings model, thus providing first revenues by late 2007. Preliminary safety studies have shown that AFP process hazards are similar to or less hazardous than those in a radio-chemical pre-treatment plant for high-level waste. Conservative criticality evaluations indicate very large margins from criticality. Development of a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report will begin in mid 2003 to support licensing activities. A detailed permitting plan has been developed which, when combined with other activities, support a start of construction in 2005.

Ahlfeld, C.E.; Gilleland, J.G.; Wagoner, J.D.

2003-02-27

160

Single-wire or path-guidance systems and the inherent advantages versus multiwire or signal systems in commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most difficult areas in the IVHS field, much effort is being spent on vehicle guidance systems. Recent developments in technology have allowed major upgrades in capabilities and performance of guidance systems originally developed for AGVs. Advances yield a robust, cost effective single wire system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. A Cyplex developed variant of a single wire system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal (human) safety reductions in speed are more than adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and its antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system have been tested at speeds up to 80 MPH. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement, such as stopping precisely on location for fully automated refueling operations. The operation of this Cyplex refined or developed system is described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use is discussed. A case for single wire systems as a primary guide is made. Single wire systems as a complement to machine vision based and other systems also are discussed.

Kenyon, Chase H.; Murphy, Mike

1995-01-01

161

Performance evaluation of a commercially available heat flow calorimeter and applicability assessment for safeguarding special nuclear materials  

SciTech Connect

The performance characteristics of a commercially available heat-flow calorimeter will be presented. The heat-flow sensors within the calorimeter are based on thermopile technology with a vendor-quoted sensitivity of 150 {micro}V/mW. The calorimeter is a full-twin design to compensate for ambient temperature fluctuations. The efficacy of temperature fluctuation compensations will also be detailed. Finally, an assessment of design applicability to special nuclear materials control and accountability and safeguarding will be presented.

Bracken, D.S.; Biddle, R.; Rudy, C.

1998-12-31

162

Accelerating the commercialization of university technologies for military healthcare applications: the role of the proof of concept process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The von Liebig Center for Entrepreneurism and Technology Advancement at UC San Diego (vonliebig.ucsd.edu) is focused on accelerating technology transfer and commercialization through programs and education on entrepreneurism. Technology Acceleration Projects (TAPs) that offer pre-venture grants and extensive mentoring on technology commercialization are a key component of its model which has been developed over the past ten years with the support of a grant from the von Liebig Foundation. In 2010, the von Liebig Entrepreneurism Center partnered with the U.S. Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), to develop a regional model of Technology Acceleration Program initially focused on military research to be deployed across the nation to increase awareness of military medical needs and to accelerate the commercialization of novel technologies to treat the patient. Participants to these challenges are multi-disciplinary teams of graduate students and faculty in engineering, medicine and business representing universities and research institutes in a region, selected via a competitive process, who receive commercialization assistance and funding grants to support translation of their research discoveries into products or services. To validate this model, a pilot program focused on commercialization of wireless healthcare technologies targeting campuses in Southern California has been conducted with the additional support of Qualcomm, Inc. Three projects representing three different universities in Southern California were selected out of forty five applications from ten different universities and research institutes. Over the next twelve months, these teams will conduct proof of concept studies, technology development and preliminary market research to determine the commercial feasibility of their technologies. This first regional program will help build the needed tools and processes to adapt and replicate this model across other regions in the Country.

Ochoa, Rosibel; Delong, Hal; Kenyon, Jessica; Wilson, Eli

2011-05-01

163

Technology data characterizing refrigeration in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with COMMEND 4.0  

SciTech Connect

In the United States, energy consumption is increasing most rapidly in the commercial sector. Consequently, the commercial sector is becoming an increasingly important target for state and federal energy policies and also for utility-sponsored demand side management (DSM) programs. The rapid growth in commercial-sector energy consumption also makes it important for analysts working on energy policy and DSM issues to have access to energy end-use forecasting models that include more detailed representations of energy-using technologies in the commercial sector. These new forecasting models disaggregate energy consumption not only by fuel type, end use, and building type, but also by specific technology. The disaggregation of the refrigeration end use in terms of specific technologies, however, is complicated by several factors. First, the number of configurations of refrigeration cases and systems is quite large. Also, energy use is a complex function of the refrigeration-case properties and the refrigeration-system properties. The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Commercial End-Use Planning System (COMMEND 4.0) and the associated data development presented in this report attempt to address the above complications and create a consistent forecasting framework. Expanding end-use forecasting models so that they address individual technology options requires characterization of the present floorstock in terms of service requirements, energy technologies used, and cost-efficiency attributes of the energy technologies that consumers may choose for new buildings and retrofits. This report describes the process by which we collected refrigeration technology data. The data were generated for COMMEND 4.0 but are also generally applicable to other end-use forecasting frameworks for the commercial sector.

Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

1995-12-01

164

Energy use and conservation in the commercial sector: Volume 2, An application of the NBECS (Nonresidential Buildings Energy Consumption Survey) commercial conditional demand model to a test case utility, San Diego Gas and Electric Company: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an investigation into the application of an enhanced conditional demand analysis (CDA) technique to the estimation and forecasting of commercial sector energy demand. The report consists of two volumes. This volume, the second, describes the application of the technique to a particular utility service area. 5 refs., 4 figs., 27 tabs.

Parti, M.; Sebald, A.V.; Farber, M.

1988-02-01

165

Application of Eimeria-specific plymerase chain reaction to study coccidiosis on commercial broiler operations.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the species distribution and drug sensitivity of Eimeria oocysts isolated from different types of commercial broiler operations. In the first study, litter samples were collected from two groups of broiler farms that differed by means of coccidiosis ...

166

Applications in Military Communications of Low and Medium Earth Orbit Commercial Satellite Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the dawn of the 21st century several Low and Medium Earth Orbit Commercial Satellite constellations will be operational and they will be able to provide high bandwidth Global Communications in voice, data and multimedia services for mobile consumers an...

I. Kakavas

1997-01-01

167

Application of SVM Based on Principal Component Analysis to Credit Risk Assessment in Commercial Banks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Credit risk assessment is a crucial area to commercial banks. It's important for banks to discriminate good creditors from bad ones. Support vector machine (SVM) has been applied to classification widely. However, if the index of the training data has much noise and redundancy, the generalized performance of SVM will be weakened, so this can cause some disadvantages of slow

Weibin Feng; Yonggang Zhao; Jiajia Deng

2009-01-01

168

Thin-Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization, Critical Issues and Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We report here on the major commercialization aspects of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies based on CIGS and CdTe (a-Si and thin-Si are also reported for completeness on the status of thin-film PV). Worldwide silicon (Si) based PV technologies cont...

B. von Roedern H. S. Ullal

2007-01-01

169

Emerging Commercial Applications Using the 60 GHz Unlicensed Band: Opportunities and Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 60 GHz band has emerged as an international spectrum opportunity for short-range wireless communication networks. In this paper, opportunities that may leverage 60 GHz and the technology trends that will impact the commercial deployment of systems utilizing the 60 GHz frequency band are discussed. Millimeter-wave frequency bands have historically been costly to utilize and traditionally used almost exclusively for

B. Bosco; R. Emrick; S. Franson; J. Holmes; S. Rockwell

2006-01-01

170

Commercial application of integrated robotic vehicle drivers and guidance systems for autonomous vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' vehicle. This is the story of a currently deployed, commercially developed and sold, integrated autonomous automobile. This system was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for

Chase H. Kenyon

1995-01-01

171

Improved quality of sex-sorted sperm: A prerequisite for wider commercial application  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date the only successful method to sort sperm into X- and Y-chromosome-bearing populations is the Beltsville Sperm Sexing Technology. Fertility results continue to be variable even though the technology has been used in a commercial setting for nearly a decade. This is at least partly due to the reduced lifespan of sperm after sorting and freezing. Several technical and

D. Rath; G. Moench-Tegeder; U. Taylor; L. A. Johnson

2009-01-01

172

67 FR 34515 - Commercial Driver's License Standards; Exemption Application From Joest Racing USA, Inc.  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Exemption Application From Joest Racing USA, Inc. AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...received an application from Joest Racing USA, Inc. (petitioner), a private carrier...process them. Exemption Request Joest Racing USA, Inc., a private motor carrier of...

2002-05-14

173

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Forest Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Common forest pests and their control are discussed. Special attention is given to the effectiveness of different application techniques and potential human and environmental hazards. (CS)

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

174

40 CFR 171.6 - Standards for supervision of noncertified applicators by certified private and commercial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

(a) Certified applicators whose activities indicate a supervisory role must demonstrate a practical knowledge of Federal and State supervisory requirements, including labeling, regarding the application of restricted use pesticides by noncertified...

2013-07-01

175

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 2: Forest Pest Control. CS-14.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The pamphlet discusses the recognition and control of forest pests such as weeds, insects, disease and vertebrates by application of pesticides. Special attention is given to application methods and precautions to minimize human and…

DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

176

A Pulse Power Modulator System for Commercial High Power Ion Beam Surface Treatment Applications  

SciTech Connect

The Ion Beam Surface Treatment (lBESTrM) process utilizes high energy pulsed ion beams to deposit energy onto the surface of a material allowing near instantaneous melting of the surface layer. The melted layer typically re-solidifies at a very rapid rate which forms a homogeneous, fine- grained structure on the surface of the material resulting in significantly improved surface characteristics. In order to commercialize the IBESTTM process, a reliable and easy-to-operate modulator system has been developed. The QM-I modulator is a thyratron-switched five-stage magnetic pulse compression network which drives a two-stage linear induction adder. The adder provides 400 kV, 150 ns FWHM pulses at a maximum repetition rate of 10 pps for the acceleration of the ion beam. Special emphasis has been placed upon developing the modulator system to be consistent with long-life commercial service.

Barrett, D.M.; Cockreham, B.D.; Dragt, A.J.; Ives, H.C.; Neau, E.L.; Reed, K.W.; White, F.E.

1999-05-24

177

Applicability of Commercial CFD Tools for Assessment of Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In preliminary validation studies, computational predictions from the commercial CFD codes Star-CD were compared with detailed\\u000a velocity, pressure and force balance data from experiments completed in the 7 ft. by 10 ft. wind tunnel at NASA Ames using\\u000a a Generic Conventional Model (GCM) that is representative of typical current-generation tractor-trailer geometries. Lessons\\u000a learned from this validation study were then applied

David Pointer; Tanju Sofu; Jimmy Chang; David Weber

2008-01-01

178

Cryogenic magnetostrictive transducers and devices for commercial, military, and space applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unique attributes of magnetostrictive materials have been used to develop a wide variety of electromechanical transducers and devices. Most of these applications have been at or above room temperature. However, many applications at cryogenic temperatures also require high authority, high precision, efficient actuation. Other technologies, including all piezoelectric systems, tend to be inoperable or impractical and unreliable at cryogenic

G. N. Weisensel; O. D. McMasters; Robert G. Chave

1998-01-01

179

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the recognition of weeds and methods of their control in rights-of-way. Different types of application equipment both airborne and ground are discussed with precautions for the safe and effective use of herbicides. (CS)|

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

180

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 6: Right-of-Way Pest Control. CS-18.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text discusses important right-of-way weeds and unwanted woody plants and provides suggestions for both long- and short-term control. Attention is also given to special problems associated with application of right-of-way…

Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephan O.

181

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 5: Aquatic Pest Control. CS-17.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the control of aquatic weeds in a variety of water use situations, i.e. static water, limited-flow impoundments and moving water. Also discussed are the principles of limited area application such as surface…

Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

182

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1A: Agricultural Weed Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Weeds, their effects, and control in relation to crop production are presented. Pre- and post-emergence treatments are discussed for row crops such as corn and soybeans. Problems with herbicide application to grass pastures, small grains, and…

Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

183

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1C: Agricultural Crop Disease Control. CS-11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. It summarizes the economically important diseases of field and forage crops such as corn, soybeans and alfalfa. Special attention is given to pesticide application methods and safety. (CS)|

Nyvall, Robert F.; Ryan, Stephen O.

184

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Food Processing Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Characteristics, life cycles and habits of pests such as roaches, beetles, flies, ants and rodents are discussed. Additionally, pest control measures, especially by application of aerosols, dusts, baits, fumigants or vapors, is presented. (CS)|

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

185

Thermochromism in Commercial Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many commercial products change color with a change of temperature. How do they do it? The processes responsible for the two major categories of commercial thermochromic coloring agents are presented, along with a description of applications of thermochromic materials.

Mary Anne White; Monique Leblanc

1999-01-01

186

Compilation of information on commercially available ceramic coatings for high-temperature applications  

SciTech Connect

Ceramic recuperator materials are exposed to high temperature corrosive/fouling flue gases during service. Recent exposure tests have shown that SiC ceramics are susceptible to corrosion in certain furnace environments. Ceramic coatings might protect SiC ceramics and other recuperator materials from corrosion. This compilation presents commercially available ceramic coatings that could be considered for corrosion protection of heat exchanger materials. The coatings include compositions based on alumina, alumina-magnesia, chromia, hafnia, silica, silicon carbide, titania, and zirconia. Recommendations for a program to evaluate and compare coatings are also presented.

Federer, J.I.; Moorhead, A.J.

1985-12-01

187

Evaluation of commercial adsorbents and their application for desulfurization of model fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of dibenzothiophene from model fuel was carried out by adsorption on commercially available adsorbents including\\u000a an activated carbon, aluminum oxide, 13X and Y zeolite. Activated carbon was SOLCARBTM C3 which was grinded from its original particle size 1.0–2.0 mm to the 0.40–0.80 mm, while aluminum oxide Selexsorb CDX,\\u000a 13X zeolite MSE 13X and Y zeolite HSZ-320NAA were used in their

Marko Muzic; Katica Sertic-Bionda; Tamara Adzamic

188

Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Animal. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Chapter one deals with the safety problems of pesticide use to humans, livestock and the environment. The second chapter is concerned with the types of application equipment and their utilization. Specific pests of livestock and poultry…

Pendleton, R. F., Ed.; Schmidtmann, E. T., Ed.

189

Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 1 - Agricultural, Subcategory - Animal. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Chapter one deals with the safety problems of pesticide use to humans, livestock and the environment. The second chapter is concerned with the types of application equipment and their utilization. Specific pests of livestock and poultry…

Pendleton, R. F., Ed.; Schmidtmann, E. T., Ed.

190

Comparison of commercial supercapacitors and high-power lithium-ion batteries for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, from Saft, Maxwell, Panasonic, CCR, Ness, EPCOS, and Power Systems were tested under constant current and constant power discharges to assess their applicability for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Commercial lithium-ion batteries from Saft and Shin-Kobe were also tested under similar conditions. Internal resistances were measured by electrochemical impedance

Andrew Chu; Paul Braatz

2002-01-01

191

The application of electrodialysis to extend the lifetime of commercial electroplating baths  

SciTech Connect

Electrodialysis has been investigated as a method to extend the lifetime of industrial electroplating solutions via the selective removal of inert electrolyte salts that build up during electroplating operations. The electrodialysis measurements were made using a commercially available plate-and frame-type cell and various combinations of Nafion cation ``change and either Tosflex or Neosepta anion exchange membranes. Two commercial plating solutions were studied: a zinc-tin bath in which there is a buildup of excess potassium hydroxide and a nickel-tungsten bath characterized by a buildup of excess sodium sulfate. Potassium hydroxide was effectively removed from the zinc-tin bath with very little loss of the heavy metals. Two configurations were investigated: a three compartment configuration with potassium hydroxide in the anolyte strip and sulfuric acid in the catholyte strip, and a two compartment configuration with sulfuric acid in the catholyte strip and the anode placed directly in the plating solution. In both cases potassium hydroxide was stripped from the plating solution at greater than 94% current efficiency, but at a slightly greater voltage in the three compartment cell due to increased resistance caused by the extra membrane. A three compartment configuration was used to remove sodium sulfate from the nickel-tungsten bath, with acid solution in the catholyte and alkaline solution in the anolyte. Current efficiencies for salt removal were high but with appreciable loss of tungsten and nickel to the strip solutions.

Purdy, G.; Zawodzinski, C.; Smith, B.; Smith, W.H.

1993-12-31

192

Application of commercial glasses for high dose measurement using the thermoluminescent technique.  

PubMed

Commercial glasses under this study showed linear thermoluminescence (TL) response in gamma dose range 100 Gy to 10 kGy, glow peaks between 175 and 200 degrees C, fading under dark and room light 2.86-7.36% and 10.42-20.82%, respectively, in 24h and 34.86-70.80% under sunlight in 5h after exposure. The TL glass dosimetric results have been found to be reproducible within +/- 6.0%. Glasses have been observed as thermally unstable and its TL sensitivity reduces after annealing. The TL response of the glasses has been found to reduce by 7.40-51.49% after first annealing of the samples at 400 degrees C for 15 min. The trace element study suggests that presence of impurities has no role in TL sensitivity of glasses rather imperfections and dislocations in the lattice are the major contributor in the formation of TL centers. Commercial glasses can serve as good TL material for gamma irradiator and gamma chamber dosimetry. The various radiation parameters for glass TL dosimetry have been studied in detail and presented. PMID:17720505

Narayan, Pradeep; Senwar, K R; Vaijapurkar, S G; Kumar, D; Bhatnagar, P K

2007-07-26

193

Commercial application of integrated robotic vehicle drivers and guidance systems for autonomous vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' vehicle. This is the story of a currently deployed, commercially developed and sold, integrated autonomous automobile. This system was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. The goals of the project were to create a combination of robotic vehicle driver systems and a base traffic control system, that was capable of testing up to 20 vehicles at a time on a 1.3 mile oval test track at speeds up to 50 MPH or greater. As a fixed price commercial project, system and component costs were of paramount importance. As a result, the greater part of the design effort was not technology development, but evaluation, modification, and integration of proven, existing technology in new and often novel ways.

Kenyon, Chase H.

1995-01-01

194

Canola Oil Fuel Cell Demonstration: Volume 3 - Technical, Commercialization, and Application Issues Associated with Harvested Biomass.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluated the use of Montana-based oilseed crops (canola oil) for power generation in defense and civilian fuel cell applications. Three major fuel production operations were considered: (1) recovery of oil from the harvested vegetable crop, (2...

C. Cassarino J. Adams J. Lindstrom L. Eslin S. M. Lux

2006-01-01

195

Apply Pesticides Correctly. A Guide for Commercial Applicators. Food Processing Pest Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide contains basic information to help meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators in the food and feed industries. Because this guide was prepared to cover the entire nation, some information important to each state may not be included.

P. K. Harein

1976-01-01

196

Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator system. Phase I. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the design and analysis of the BDM CAPVC (Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator) system. The preliminary design, prototype test and evaluation, system analysis, and final design of a large-scale concentrating photovoltaic system are described. The application is on an attractive new office building which represents a large potential market. The photovoltaic concentrating array is a roof-mounted, single-axis linear parabolic trough, using single crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells. A total of 6720 square feet of aperture is focussed on 13,944 PV cells. The photovoltaic system operates in parallel with the local utility in an augmentary loadsharing operating mode. The array is actively cooled and the thermal energy utilized for building heat during winter months. (WHK)

Anderson, D.J.; Anderson, E.R.; Bardwell, K.M.

1980-04-01

197

Introduction to Applications and Industries for Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) have gained acceptance as viable products for many commercial and government applications. MEMS are currently being used as displays for digital projection systems, sensors for airbag deployment systems, inkjet print head systems, and optical routers. This paper will discuss current and future MEMS applications.

Jeremy A. Walraven; Jeremy Allen

2003-01-01

198

Methods of first wall structural analysis with applications to the long pulse commercial tokamak reactor design  

SciTech Connect

Methods of analysis for fusion first wall design are developed. Several design limits have been evaluated and combined to present trade-offs in the form of design windows. These considerations include limits related to thermal fatigue, primary membrane strength, displacement under loading, ratcheting, radiation damage, and plasma-wall interactions. Special emphasis is placed on the investigation of thermal fatigue using a two dimensional treatment of a tubular first wall configuration. The work is motivated by the proposal of the Ultra Long Pulse Commercial Reactor (ULTR), a machine capable of delivering plasma burn pulses of up to 24 hours in length. The present work looks in detail at the impact of pertinent characteristics of the ULTR design such as pulse length, coolant pressure, first wall thickness and first wall lifetime on the structural effects considered. Computer programs are developed and consider several major structural effects on a cylindrical first wall element for both 316 stainless steel and vanadium alloy.

Leclaire, R.J. Jr.

1984-05-01

199

Commercial Banks and Microfinance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 30 years, microfinance has proven to be a viable solution for the alleviation of poverty through international organizations, voluntary work and donations. Today, the challenge facing microfinance institutions is self-sufficiency. Consequently, the integration of microfinance with commercial banks will provide the necessary scale and outreach in making microfinance a self-sufficient and thus long-term solution for the alleviation

Zeynep Ugur

2006-01-01

200

Microencapsulated fuel technology for commercial light water and advanced reactor application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential application of microencapsulated fuels to light water reactors (LWRs) has been explored. The specific fuel manifestation being put forward is for coated fuel particles embedded in silicon carbide or zirconium metal matrices. Detailed descriptions of these concepts are presented, along with a review of attributes, potential benefits, and issues with respect to their application in LWR environments, specifically from the standpoints of materials, neutronics, operations, and economics. Preliminary experiment and modeling results imply that with marginal redesign, significant gains in operational reliability and accident response margins could be potentially achieved by replacing conventional oxide-type LWR fuel with microencapsulated fuel forms.

Terrani, Kurt A.; Snead, Lance L.; Gehin, Jess C.

2012-08-01

201

Microencapsulated Fuel Technology for Commercial Light Water and Advanced Reactor Application  

SciTech Connect

The potential application of microencapsulated fuels to light water reactors (LWRs) has been explored. The specific fuel manifestation being put forward is for coated fuel particles embedded in silicon carbide or zirconium metal matrices. Detailed descriptions of these concepts are presented, along with a review of attributes, potential benefits, and issues with respect to their application in LWR environments, specifically from the standpoints of materials, neutronics, operations, and economics. Preliminary experiment and modeling results imply that with marginal redesign, significant gains in operational reliability and accident response margins could be potentially achieved by replacing conventional oxide-type LWR fuel with microencapsulated fuel forms.

Terrani, Kurt A [ORNL; Snead, Lance Lewis [ORNL; Gehin, Jess C [ORNL

2012-01-01

202

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition of pests and vectors such as lice, fleas, mosquitoes, flies and rodents. There is also discussion on methods of control without pesticides or in combination with pesticide treatment. Sections of the text are devoted to…

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

203

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turfgrass Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition and control of ornamental and turfgrass pests such as leaf spot, scab, powdery mildew, galls, grubs and weeds. A section of the text is also devoted to environmental concerns to be considered when undertaking pest…

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

204

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 3: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. CS-15.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section serves as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of common problems on some of the more common ornamental plants. Recommended control measures are suggested. The second section provides color photographs of common lawn…

Cott, A. E.; And Others

205

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Control of Wood Destroying Pests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is designed to assist pesticide applicators in the category of wood destroying organisms to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of the Agriculture for certification. The 10 sections included describe: (1) Subterranean termites; (2) Dampwood termites; (3) Drywood termites; (4) Powder-post beetles; (5) Old house borer; (6)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

206

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)|

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

207

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition of pests and vectors such as lice, fleas, mosquitoes, flies and rodents. There is also discussion on methods of control without pesticides or in combination with pesticide treatment. Sections of the text are devoted…

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

208

Mission computer replacement prototype for Special Operations Forces aircraft: an application of commercial technology to avionics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempts to improve the reliability and maintainability of Special Operations Forces (SOF) fixed wing aircraft avionics by developing the mission computer replacement prototype (MCRP), are described. The purpose of the MCRP is to design, build, and demonstrate a replacement mission computer that is applicable across SOF aircraft. Our goal is to develop an open architecture mission computer based on industry

H. Lowery; B. Mitchell

2000-01-01

209

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1E: Animal Pest Control. CS-13.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The areas discussed include the economic insect pests on livestock and control treatments; the toxicity and hazards of livestock pesticides; and special considerations when applying pesticides. (CS)|

DeWitt, Jerald R.; Ryan, Stephen O.

210

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and…

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

211

Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and…

Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

212

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 4: Seed Treatment. CS-16.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The text is concerned with the storage insects, soil insects and fungi which are the major kinds of seed pests. Chemical and nonchemical control measures and the labeling and coloring requirements for treated seed are also discussed.…

Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

213

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of aquatic pest control meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aquatic Pest Control Guide served as a basis for this manual. The six sections presented describe: (1) Aquatic pest control; (2)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

214

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

Brunner, J.; And Others

215

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

216

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1B: Agricultural Insect Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide provides basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the control of economic insect pests on field and forage crops, especially corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Full color photographs of the more destructive pests are provided to aid in identification of problems. Precautions and…

Stockdale, Harold J.; Ryan, Stephen O.

217

Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Control of Wood Destroying Pests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual is designed to assist pesticide applicators in the category of wood destroying organisms to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of the Agriculture for certification. The 10 sections included describe: (1) Subterranean termites; (2) Dampwood termites; (3) Drywood termites; (4) Powder-post beetles; (5) Old house borer; (6)…

Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

218

MOA2—an R&D paradigm buster enabling space propulsion by commercial applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 60 years after the late Nobel laureate Hannes Alfvén had published a letter stating that oscillating magnetic fields can accelerate ionised matter via magneto-hydrodynamic interactions in a wave like fashion, the technical implementation of Alfvén waves for propulsive purposes has been proposed, patented and examined for the first time by a group of inventors. Consequently improved since then, the name of the latest concept, relying on magneto-acoustic waves to accelerate electric conductive matter, is MOA2—Magnetic field Oscillating Amplified Accelerator. Based on computer simulations, which were undertaken to get a first estimate on the performance of the system, MOA2 is a corrosion free and highly flexible propulsion system, whose performance parameters might easily be adapted in operation, by changing the mass flow and/or the power level. As such the system is capable of delivering a maximum specific impulse of 13116 s (12.87 mN) at a power level of 11.16 kW, using Xe as propellant, but can also be attuned to provide a thrust of 236.5 mN (2411 s) at 6.15 kW of power. First tests—that are further described in this paper—have been conducted successfully with a 400 W prototype system at an ambient pressure of 0.20 Pa, delivered 9.24 mN of thrust at 1472 s ISP, thereby underlining the feasibility of the concept. Based on these results, space propulsion is expected to be a prime application for MOA2—a claim that is supported by numerous applications such as Solar and/or Nuclear Electric Propulsion or even as an 'afterburner system' for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion. However, MOA2 has so far seen most of its R&D impetus from terrestrial applications, like coating, semiconductor implantation and manufacturing as well as steel cutting. Based on this observation, MOA2 resembles an R&D paradigm buster, as it is the first space propulsion system, whose R&D is driven primarily by its terrestrial applications. Different terrestrial applications exist, but the most successful scenarios so far revolve around MOA2's unique features with respect to high throughput/low target temperature coatings on sensitive materials. In combination with its intrinsic high flexibility, MOA2 is highly suited for a common space-terrestrial application research and utilisation strategy. This paper presents the recent developments of the MOA2 R&D activities at Q2 Technologie(s), the company in Vienna, Austria, which has been set up to further develop and test the magneto-acoustic wave technology and its applications.

Frischauf, Norbert; Hettmer, Manfred; Koudelka, Otto; Löb, Horst

2012-04-01

219

Design and development of high-speed fiber-optic transmit and receive network for commercial and military applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Speed Multi-Channel Fiber-Optic Transmitter (Tx) and Receiver (Rx) modules are needed for communication Applications. The fiber optic network should take advantage of the high speeds (10 Gbps/channel) and have the ability to connect multiple systems using fiber-optic network capable of working with 100"s of Gigabits of information. In addition, the network should provide redundant links between nodes so that in case one node goes out of service, the remainder of the network remains operational. In this paper we will present design, development and performance results for 1x12 Tx and Rx module operating at 10Gbps/channel. Each of the 1x12 modules is capable of providing 120 Gbps/Module operations for Military and Commercial Applications. Experimental results on 1x12 channel modules will include performance characteristics at 10 Gbps and will demonstrate high performance fiber-optical Tx and Rx Modules. We will also present architecture and simulation for a Fiber-Optic Network Card that has the capability to transmit and receive data, add and drop data at each node, and provide dual network redundancy. This network card includes Tx, Rx modules, serializer and de-serializer (SERDES) and a cross bar switch. This architecture can be used as a building block for high-speed local area network applications and also applicable to optical backplanes for distributed microprocessor communication.

Sood, Ashok K.; Bhadra, Sriraj K.; Smith, Paul R.; Puri, Yash R.; Cross, Mitchell; Ueda, Jason; Patel, Rakesh; Liu, Jiang; Chang, Wayne H.; Simonis, George J.; Plant, David V.; Kirk, Andrew G.; Schwartz, Joshua D.

2004-11-01

220

Thin Film CIGS and CdTe Photovoltaic Technologies: Commercialization, Critical Issues, and Applications; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

We report here on the major commercialization aspects of thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies based on CIGS and CdTe (a-Si and thin-Si are also reported for completeness on the status of thin-film PV). Worldwide silicon (Si) based PV technologies continues to dominate at more than 94% of the market share, with the share of thin-film PV at less than 6%. However, the market share for thin-film PV in the United States continues to grow rapidly over the past several years and in CY 2006, they had a substantial contribution of about 44%, compared to less than 10% in CY 2003. In CY 2007, thin-film PV market share is expected to surpass that of Si technology in the United States. Worldwide estimated projections for CY 2010 are that thin-film PV production capacity will be more than 3700 MW. A 40-MW thin-film CdTe solar field is currently being installed in Saxony, Germany, and will be completed in early CY 2009. The total project cost is Euro 130 million, which equates to an installed PV system price of Euro 3.25/-watt averaged over the entire solar project. This is the lowest price for any installed PV system in the world today. Critical research, development, and technology issues for thin-film CIGS and CdTe are also elucidated in this paper.

Ullal, H. S.; von Roedern, B.

2007-09-01

221

Microturbines - an economic and reliability evaluation for commercial, residential, and remote load applications  

SciTech Connect

Most distributed self-generation operates base loaded and in parallel with the electric utility system (1) to minimize peak loads, (2) to improve reliability, (3) to eliminate the need for reserve margin (standby) and (4) may or may not sell back excess generation. This paper examines the economics of distributed microturbine generation operating isolated from the electric utility system and having enough reserve margin to either match or improve the existing reliability of service provided by central station generation and the T and D system. This analysis shows the isolated operation of microturbines with a reserve margin can provide the same or a higher level of reliability as the electric utility, yet the costs can be lower. Sensitivity analysis for different investment costs, O and M costs, fuel costs, reliability, load shapes (load factors), and alternative fuels were performed and the economic comparisons are made in terms of {cents}/kWh. This analysis shows a strong economic preference in applying microturbines to high load factor commercial loads. The cost of standby (from the utility) was found to be from .52 to 2.09{cents}/kWh greater than if the microturbine generation provided its own standby through a built in reserve margin.

Davis, M.W.; Gifford, A.H.; Krupa, T.J.

1999-11-01

222

Applicability of commercial CFD tools for assessment of heavy vehicle aerodynamic characteristics.  

SciTech Connect

In preliminary validation studies, computational predictions from the commercial CFD codes Star-CD were compared with detailed velocity, pressure and force balance data from experiments completed in the 7 ft. by 10 ft. wind tunnel at NASA Ames using a Generic Conventional Model (GCM) that is representative of typical current-generation tractor-trailer geometries. Lessons learned from this validation study were then applied to the prediction of aerodynamic drag impacts associated with various changes to the GCM geometry, including the addition of trailer based drag reduction devices and modifications to the radiator and hood configuration. Add-on device studies have focused on ogive boat tails, with initial results indicating that a seven percent reduction in drag coefficient is easily achievable. Radiator and hood reconfiguration studies have focused on changing only the size of the radiator and angle of the hood components without changes to radii of curvature between the radiator grill and hood components. Initial results indicate that such changes lead to only modest changes in drag coefficient.

Pointer, W. D.; Sofu, T.; Chang, J.; Weber, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2008-12-01

223

Evaluating the Performance and Economics of Transpired Solar Collectors for Commercial Applications  

SciTech Connect

Using transpired solar collectors to preheat ventilation air has recently become recognized as an economic alternative for integrating renewable energy into commercial buildings in heating climates. The collectors have relatively low installed costs and operate on simple principles. Theory and performance testing have shown that solar collection efficiency can exceed 70% of incident solar. However, implementation and current absorber designs have adversely affected the efficiency and associated economics from this initial analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has actively studied this technology and monitored performance at several installations. A calibrated model that uses typical meteorological weather data to determine absorber plate efficiency resulted from this work. With this model, an economic analysis across heating climates was done to show the effects of collector size, tilt, azimuth, and absorptivity. The analysis relates the internal rate of return of a system based on the cost of the installed absorber area. In general, colder and higher latitude climates return a higher rate of return because the heating season extends into months with good solar resource. Wal-Mart has installed approximately 8,000 ft{sup 2} of absorber at its experimental store in Aurora, Colorado. The delivered energy efficiency was measured at 8-11% during January and February 2007. The low collection efficiency is largely due to the oversized absorber and to the multizone control strategy that limits the amount of air pulled through the collector. Analysis shows that more than 50% of the incident solar energy could be delivered with proper control strategy changes.

Kozubal, E.; Deru, M.; Slayzak, S.; Norton, P.; Barker, G.; McClendon, J.

2008-01-01

224

Phase-locking of commercial DFB lasers for distributed optical fiber sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a phase/frequency detector-based optical phase-locked loop (PFD-OPLL) capable of locking two commercial semiconductor distributed feedback (DFB) lasers for the purpose of making Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Analysis (BOTDA) measurements is presented. Due to the aperiodic nature of the PFD transfer characteristic, the PFDOPLL offers strong acquisition performance without requiring additional acquisition hardware. Design constraints due to laser linewidths are relaxed by choosing a damping factor of 3.5 instead of 0.707. Loop stability is ensured by reducing the loop propagation delay by as much as possible in hardware, and choosing the loop natural frequency such that the loop bandwidth is below the FM phase reversal frequency of the laser. Results show stable lock performance at 11 GHz with a phase noise of -70dBc/Hz at a 100 Hz offset, a capture range of 2.5 GHz and a tuning range of 3.3 GHz. These specifications exceed the performance requirements of a BOTDA system.

Rouse, Chris D.; Brown, Anthony W.; Wylie, Michael T. V.; Colpitts, Bruce G.

2011-05-01

225

BAE Systems' 17?m LWIR camera core for civil, commercial, and military applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seventeen (17) µm pixel Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) Sensors based on vanadium oxide (VOx) micro-bolometers have been in full rate production at BAE Systems' Night Vision Sensors facility in Lexington, MA for the past five years.[1] We introduce here a commercial camera core product, the Airia-MTM imaging module, in a VGA format that reads out in 30 and 60Hz progressive modes. The camera core is architected to conserve power with all digital interfaces from the readout integrated circuit through video output. The architecture enables a variety of input/output interfaces including Camera Link, USB 2.0, micro-display drivers and optional RS-170 analog output supporting legacy systems. The modular board architecture of the electronics facilitates hardware upgrades allow us to capitalize on the latest high performance low power electronics developed for the mobile phones. Software and firmware is field upgradeable through a USB 2.0 port. The USB port also gives users access to up to 100 digitally stored (lossless) images.

Lee, Jeffrey; Rodriguez, Christian; Blackwell, Richard

2013-06-01

226

Evaluating the Performance and Economics of Transpired Solar Collectors for Commercial Applications: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Using transpired solar collectors to preheat ventilation air has recently become recognized as an economic alternative for integrating renewable energy into commercial buildings in heating climates. The collectors have relatively low installed costs and operate on simple principles. Theory and performance testing have shown that solar collection efficiency can exceed 70% of incident solar. However, implementation and current absorber designs have adversely affected the efficiency and associated economics from this initial analysis. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory has actively studied this technology and monitored performance at several installations. A calibrated model that uses typical meteorological weather data to determine absorber plate efficiency resulted from this work. With this model, an economic analysis across heating climates was done to show the effects of collector size, tilt, azimuth, and absorptivity. The analysis relates the internal rate of return of a system based on the cost of the installed absorber area. In general, colder and higher latitude climates return a higher rate of return because the heating season extends into months with good solar resource.

Kozubal, E.; Deru, M.; Slayzak, S.; Norton, P.; Barker, G.; McClendon, J,

2008-07-01

227

Improved quality of sex-sorted sperm: a prerequisite for wider commercial application.  

PubMed

To date the only successful method to sort sperm into X- and Y-chromosome-bearing populations is the Beltsville Sperm Sexing Technology. Fertility results continue to be variable even though the technology has been used in a commercial setting for nearly a decade. This is at least partly due to the reduced lifespan of sperm after sorting and freezing. Several technical and biological factors are responsible for this problem. Furthermore, to meet economic demands, only 10-15% of the number of sperm (compared to unsexed semen) are loaded in each straw, further limiting the chances for fertilization. A new protocol for preservation of bull sperm, utilizing Sexcess shows promise in extending the lifespan of sorted bull sperm. Motility and acrosome integrity are significantly increased using Sexcess. Conception rates achieved with heifers for those bulls tested with Sexcess and using a standard AI regime give results that do not differ from results achieved using regular AI. In addition to the improvements of the sorting technology itself, we recommend a thorough pre-selection of bulls. A reliable prediction method to determine whether a bull is suitable for a sex-sorting program still does not exist. Such a test is needed, especially for "custom sorting" programs. Currently, test sorts are the only means of obtaining information about the sorting efficiency of semen from a particular bull. PMID:18995893

Rath, D; Moench-Tegeder, G; Taylor, U; Johnson, L A

2008-11-07

228

In vitro maturation of viable islets from partially digested young pig pancreas.  

PubMed

Isolation of islets from market size pig is costly, with considerable islet losses from fragmentation occurring during isolation and tissue culture. Fetal and neonatal pigs yield insulin unresponsive islet-like cell clusters that become glucose responsive after extended periods of time. Both issues impact clinical applicability and commercial scale-up. We have focused our efforts on a cost-effective scalable method of isolating viable insulin responsive islets. Young Yorkshire pigs (mean age 20 days, range 4-30 days) underwent rapid pancreatectomy (<5 min) and partial digestion using low dose collagenase, followed by in vitro culture at 37°C and 5% CO? for up to 14 days. Islet viability was assessed using FDA/PI or Newport Green and function assessed using glucose stimulated insulin release (GSIR) assay. Islet yield was performed using enumeration of dithizone stained aliquots. Young porcine (YP) islet yield at dissociation was 12.6+2.1 x10³ IE (mean+SEM) per organ and increased to 33.3+6.4x10³ IE after 7 days of in vitro culture. Viability was 97.3+7% at dissociation and remained over 90% viable after 11 days in tissue culture (n=ns). Glucose responsiveness increased throughout maturation in culture. The stimulation index (SI) of the islets increased from 1.7±2 on culture day 3 to 2.58±0.5 on culture day 7. These results suggested that this method is both efficient and scalable for isolating and maturing insulin responsive porcine islets in culture. PMID:23394130

Lamb, Morgan; Laugenour, Kelly; Liang, Ouwen; Alexander, Michael; Foster, Clarence E; Lakey, Jonathan R

2013-02-01

229

First commercial application of NbTi superconductor employing artificial pinning centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercon has applied its artificial pinning center (APC) technology to develop a multifilamentary NbTi superconductor for MRI application. This technology is particularly well suited to large filament, low field use. The conductor microstructure and performance (e.g., critical current) are presented. The influence of conductor geometry (e.g., filament placement, spacing to diameter ratio) on filament quality is discussed. The conductor has

C. Renaud; M. Rudziak; J. Seuntjens; T. Wong; J. Wong; P. Eckels; C. King; T. Havens; D. Mantone; B. Myers; S. Wong

1995-01-01

230

Use of G1.2\\/G2.2 media for commercial bovine embryo culture: equivalent development and pregnancy rates compared to co-culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expanded application of commercial bovine IVM, IVF, and IVC systems is dependent on the ability to produce embryos in culture that are capable of producing normal pregnancies. Because serum containing culture systems can induce neonatal and fetal problems there exists a definite need for a serum-free culture system that produces viable blastocysts. This study demonstrated that the physiological sequential

David K. Gardner; Marilyn J. Hasler; John F. Hasler

2003-01-01

231

Natural transfer of viable microbes in space.  

PubMed

The possibility and probability of natural transfer of viable microbes from Mars to Earth and Earth to Mars traveling in meteoroids during the first 0.5 Ga and the following 4 Ga are investigated, including: --radiation protection against the galactic cosmic ray nuclei and the solar rays, dose rates as a function of the meteorite's radial column mass (radius x density), combined with dose rates generated by natural radioactivity within the meteorite; and survival curves for some bacterial species using NASA's HZETRN transport code --other factors affecting microbe survival: vacuum; central meteorite temperatures at launch, orbiting, and arrival; pressure and acceleration at launch; spontaneous DNA decay; metal ion migration --mean sizes and numbers of unshocked meteorites ejected and percentage falling on Earth, using current semiempirical results --viable flight times for the microbe species Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans R1 --the approximate fraction of microbes (with properties like the two species studied) viably arriving on Earth out of those ejected from Mars during the period 4 Ga BP to the present time, and during the 700 Ma from 4.5 to 3.8 Ga. Similarly, from Earth to Mars. The conclusion is that if microbes existed or exist on Mars, viable transfer to Earth is not only possible but also highly probable, due to microbes' impressive resistance to the dangers of space transfer and to the dense traffic of billions of martian meteorites which have fallen on Earth since the dawn of our planetary system. Earth-to-Mars transfer is also possible but at a much lower frequency. PMID:11543506

Mileikowsky, C; Cucinotta, F A; Wilson, J W; Gladman, B; Horneck, G; Lindegren, L; Melosh, J; Rickman, H; Valtonen, M; Zheng, J Q

2000-06-01

232

Commercial Radio as Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

1996-01-01

233

Characterization of a commercialized SERS-active substrate and its application to the identification of intact Bacillus endospores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-enhanced-Raman-spectroscopy (SERS) can be made an attractive approach for the identification of Raman-active compounds and biological materials (i.e., toxins, viruses, or intact bacterial cells or spores) through development of reproducible, spatially uniform SERS-active substrates. Recently, reproducible (from substrate to substrate), spatially homogeneous (over large areas) SERS-active substrates have been commercialized and are now available in the marketplace. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution, tapping-mode atomic force microscopy have been used to analyze these novel plasmonic surfaces for topographical consistency. Additionally, we have assessed, by wavelength-tunable microreflectance spectrometry, the spatial distribution of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) across a single substrate surface as well as the LSPR ?MAX variance from substrate to substrate. These analyses reveal that these surfaces are topologically uniform with small LSPR variance from substrate to substrate. Further, we have utilized these patterned surfaces to acquire SERS spectral signatures of four intact, genetically distinct Bacillus spore species cultivated under identical growth conditions. Salient spectral signature features make it possible to discriminate among these genetically distinct spores. Additionally, partial least squares, a multivariate calibration method, has been used to develop personal-computer-borne algorithms useful for classification of unknown spore samples based solely on SERS spectral signatures. To our knowledge, this is the first report detailing application of these commercially available SERS-active substrates to identification of intact Bacillus spores.

Alexander, Troy A.; Le, Dianna M.

2007-06-01

234

Disruption of the yeast ATH1 gene confers better survival after dehydration, freezing, and ethanol shock: potential commercial applications.  

PubMed

The accumulation of trehalose is a critical determinant of stress resistance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have constructed a yeast strain in which the activity of the trehalose-hydrolyzing enzyme, acid trehalase (ATH), has been abolished. Loss of ATH activity was accomplished by disrupting the ATH1 gene, which is essential for ATH activity. The delta ath1 strain accumulated greater levels of cellular trehalose and grew to a higher cell density than the isogenic wild-type strain. In addition, the elevated levels of trehalose in the delta ath1 strain correlated with increased tolerance to dehydration, freezing, and toxic levels of ethanol. The improved resistance to stress conditions exhibited by the delta ath1 strain may make this strain useful in commercial applications, including baking and brewing. PMID:8633854

Kim, J; Alizadeh, P; Harding, T; Hefner-Gravink, A; Klionsky, D J

1996-05-01

235

DECREASE Final Technical Report: Development of a Commercial Ready Enzyme Application System for Ethanol  

SciTech Connect

Conversion of biomass to sugars plays a central in reducing our dependence on petroleum, as it allows production of a wide range of biobased fuels and chemicals, through fermentation of those sugars. The DECREASE project delivers an effective enzyme cocktail for this conversion, enabling reduced costs for producing advanced biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol. Benefits to the public contributed by growth of the advanced biofuels industry include job creation, economic growth, and energy security. The DECREASE primary project objective was to develop a two-fold improved enzyme cocktail, relative to an advanced cocktail (CZP00005) that had been developed previously (from 2000- 2007). While the final milestone was delivery of all enzyme components as an experimental mixture, a secondary objective was to deploy an improved cocktail within 3 years following the close of the project. In February 2012, Novozymes launched Cellic CTec3, a multi-enzyme cocktail derived in part from components developed under DECREASE. The externally validated performance of CTec3 and an additional component under project benchmarking conditions indicated a 1.8-fold dose reduction in enzyme dose required for 90% conversion (based on all available glucose and xylose sources) of NREL dilute acid pretreated PCS, relative to the starting advanced enzyme cocktail. While the ability to achieve 90% conversion is impressive, targeting such high levels of biomass digestion is likely not the most cost effective strategy. Novozymes techno economic modeling showed that for NREL's dilute acid pretreated corn stover (PCS), 80% target conversion enables a lower total production cost for cellulosic ethanol than for 90% conversion, and this was also found to be the case when cost assumptions were based on the NREL 2002 Design Report. A 1.8X dose-reduction was observed for 80% conversion in the small scale (50 g) DECREASE benchmark assay for CTec3 and an additional component. An upscaled experiment (in 0.5 kg kettle reactors) was performed to compare the starting enzyme mixture CZP00005 with CTec3 alone; these results indicated a 1.9X dose- reduction for 80% conversion. The CTec3 composition does not include the best available enzyme components from the DECREASE effort. While these components are not yet available in a commercial product, experimental mixtures were assayed in a smaller scale assay using DECREASE PCS, at high solids loadings (21.5% TS). The results indicated that the newer mixtures required 2.9X-less enzyme for 90% conversion, and 3.2X-less enzyme for 80% conversion, relative to the starting enzyme cocktail. In conclusion, CTec3 delivers a 1.8-1.9X dose reduction on NREL PCS at high solids loadings, and the next generation enzyme from Novozymes will continue to show dramatically improved biochemical performance. CTec3 allows reduced costs today, and the experimental cocktails point to continued biotechnological improvements that will further drive down costs for biorefineries of tomorrow.

Teter, Sarah A

2012-04-18

236

Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

US DOE mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 181,000 cubic meters (about 2,000 waste streams). Treatability studies may be used as part of DOE`s mixed waste management program. Commercial treatability study suppliers have been identified that either have current capability in their own facilities or have access to licensed facilities. Numerous federal and state regulations, as well as DOE Order 5820.2A, impact the performance of treatability studies. Generators, transporters, and treatability study facilities are subject to regulation. From a mixed- waste standpoint, a key requirement is that the treatability study facility must have an NRC or state license that allows it to possess radioactive materials. From a RCRA perspective, the facility must support treatability study activities with the applicable plans, reports, and documentation. If PCBs are present in the waste, TSCA will also be an issue. CERCLA requirements may apply, and both DOE and NRC regulations will impact the transportation of DOE mixed waste to an off-site treatment facility. DOE waste managers will need to be cognizant of all applicable regulations as mixed-waste treatability study programs are initiated.

NONE

1996-09-01

237

Technology data characterizing space conditioning in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with COMMEND 4.0.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the US, energy consumption is increasing most rapidly in the commercial sector. Consequently, the commercial sector is becoming an increasingly important target for state and federal energy policies and also for utility-sponsored demand side management...

O. Sezgen E. M. Franconi J. G. Koomey S. E. Greenberg A. Afzal

1995-01-01

238

Gravitational Waves in Viable Modified Gravity Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review our recent work [1] on gravitational waves in viable f(R) models. We concentrate on the exponential gravity and Starobinsky models. We show that in both cases, the mass of the scalar mode is order of 10-33eV when it propagates in vacuum. In the presence of matter density, such as galaxy, the scalar mode can be heavy. In particular, it becomes almost infinity so that the scalar mode of gravitational wave for the exponential model disappears like the ACDM, whereas it can be as low as 10-24eV in the Starobinsky model, corresponding to the lowest frequency of 10-9 Hz, which may be detected by the current and future gravitational wave probes in space.

Geng, C. Q.

2012-09-01

239

Viable Supersymmetry and Leptogenesis with Anomaly Mediation  

SciTech Connect

The seesaw mechanism that explains the small neutrino masses comes naturally with supersymmetric (SUSY) grand unification and leptogenesis. However, the framework suffers from the SUSY flavor and CP problems, and has a severe cosmological gravitino problem. We propose anomaly mediation as a simple solution to all these problems, which is viable once supplemented by the D-terms for U(1)_Y and U(1)_B-L. Even though the right-handed neutrino mass explicitly breaks U(1)_B-L and hence reintroduces the flavor problem, we show that it lacks the logarithmic enhancement and poses no threat to the framework. The thermal leptogenesis is then made easily consistent with the gravitino constraint.

Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi; Yanagida, Tsutomu

2005-01-13

240

Viable supersymmetry and leptogenesis with anomaly mediation  

SciTech Connect

The seesaw mechanism that explains the small neutrino masses comes naturally with supersymmetric (SUSY) grand-unification and leptogenesis. However, the framework suffers from the SUSY flavor and CP problems, and has a severe cosmological gravitino problem. We propose anomaly mediation as a simple solution to all these problems, which is viable once supplemented by the D-terms for U(1){sub Y} and U(1){sub B-L}. Even though the right-handed neutrino mass explicitly breaks U(1){sub B-L} and hence reintroduces the flavor problem, we show that it lacks the logarithmic enhancement and poses no threat to the framework. The thermal leptogenesis is then made easily consistent with the gravitino constraint.

Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2004-10-01

241

Technology data characterizing space conditioning in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with COMMEND 4.0  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the US, energy consumption is increasing most rapidly in the commercial sector. Consequently, the commercial sector is becoming an increasingly important target for state and federal energy policies and also for utility-sponsored demand side management (DSM) programs. The rapid growth in commercial-sector energy consumption also makes it important for analysts working on energy policy and DSM issues to have

O. Sezgen; E. M. Franconi; J. G. Koomey; S. E. Greenberg; A. Afzal; L. Shown

1995-01-01

242

Application of a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Henneguya ictaluri in commercial channel catfish ponds.  

PubMed

Proliferative gill disease (PGD) in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus is caused by the myxozoan parasite Henneguya ictaluri. Prolonged exposure of channel catfish to the actinospore stage of the parasite results in extensive gill damage, leading to reduced production and significant mortality in commercial operations. A H. ictaluri-specific real-time (Q)PCR assay was used to determine parasite levels in commercial channel catfish ponds and evaluate the risk of losing fish newly stocked into the system. Previous research has shown the H. ictaluri actinospore to be infective for approximately 24 h; therefore, determining the parasite load (ratio of parasite DNA to host DNA) in sentinel fish exposed for 2 separate 24 h periods with a minimum of 1 wk between sampling indirectly represents the rate at which infective actinospores are being released by the oligochaete host and if that rate is changing over time. Alternatively, QPCR analysis of pond water samples eliminates the need for sentinel fish. Water samples collected on 2 separate days, with a minimum of 1 wk between sampling, not only determines the approximate concentrations of actinospores in the pond but if these concentrations are remaining stable. Increases in parasite load (r = 0.69, p = 0.054) correlated with percent mortality in sentinel fish, as did increases in mean actinospore concentrations (r = 0.63, p = 0.003). Both applications are more rapid than current protocols for evaluating the PGD status of a catfish pond and identified actinospore levels that correlate to both high and low risk of fish loss. PMID:20066957

Griffin, Matt J; Pote, Linda M; Camus, Alvin C; Mauel, Michael J; Greenway, Terrence E; Wise, David J

2009-11-01

243

Manganese carbonyl fluorides: are they viable molecules?  

PubMed

The mononuclear Mn(CO)(5)X and binuclear Mn(2)(CO)(8)(?-X)(2) manganese carbonyl halides have long been known for the halogens Cl, Br, and I. However, the corresponding manganese carbonyl fluorides (X = F) remain unknown. The structures and thermochemistry of such manganese carbonyl fluorides and their decarbonylation products have now been investigated using density functional theory. In all cases singlet structures were found to have lower energies than the corresponding triplet structures. The expected octahedral structure is predicted for Mn(CO)(5)F. Decarbonylation of Mn(CO)(5)F is predicted to give trigonal bipyramidal Mn(CO)(4)F with equatorial fluorine. Further, decarbonylation gives tetrahedral Mn(CO)(3)F. All of the binuclear Mn(2)(CO)(n)F(2) structures (n = 8, 7, 6) are predicted to have a central Mn(2)F(2) unit with two bridging F atoms, a non-bonding Mn···Mn distance of ~3.1 Å, and exclusively terminal CO groups. The thermochemistry of these manganese carbonyl fluorides indicates that they are viable species. This suggests that the failure to date to synthesize the simple manganese carbonyl fluorides arises from a lack of a suitable synthetic method rather than from the instability of the desired products. PMID:22491522

Deng, Jianming; Li, Qian-shu; Xie, Yaoming; King, R Bruce

2012-04-11

244

Application of solar collectors to control the visible plume from wet cooling towers of a commercial building in Hong Kong: A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication presents a case study on the application and utility of solar collectors heating system to control the visible plume from wet cooling towers of a huge commercial building. The visibility of plume from cooling towers depends on the weather conditions, specially, the temperature and relative humidity of the ambient air. Although the ambient temperature is the main parameter

S. W. Wang; S. K. Tyagi; Atul Sharma; S. C. Kaushik

2007-01-01

245

Production of Liquid Synthetic Fuels from Carbon, Water and Nuclear Power on Ships and at Shore Bases for Military and Potential Commercial Applications  

SciTech Connect

It is demonstrable that synthetic fuels (jet/diesel/gasoline {approx_equal} (CH{sub 2}){sub n}) can be produced from carbon, water, and nuclear energy. What remains to be shown is that all system processes are scalable, integrable, and economical. Sources of carbon include but are not limited to CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere or seawater, CO{sub 2} from fossil-fired power plants, and elemental carbon from coal or biomass. For mobile defense (Navy) applications, the ubiquitous atmosphere is our chosen carbon source. For larger-scale sites such as Naval Advance Bases, the atmosphere may still be the choice should other sources not be readily available. However, at many locations suitable for defense and, potentially, commercial syn-fuel production, far higher concentrations of carbon may be available. The rationale for this study was manifold: fuel system security from terrorism and possible oil embargoes; rising demand and, eventually, peaking supply of conventional petroleum; and escalating costs and prices of fuels. For these reasons, the initial parts of the study were directed at Syn-fuel production for mobile Naval platforms and shore sites such as Rokkasho, Japan (as an exemplar). Nuclear reactors would provide the energy for H{sub 2} from water-splitting, Membrane Gas Absorption (MGA) would extract CO{sub 2} from the atmosphere, the Reverse Water-Gas Reaction (RWGR) would convert the CO{sub 2} to CO, and the resultant H{sub 2} and CO feeds would be converted to (CH{sub 2})n by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Many of these processes exist at commercial scale. Some, particularly MGA and RWGR, have been demonstrated at the bench-scale, requiring up-scaling. Likewise, the demonstration of an integrated system at some scale is yet to be done. For ship-based production, it has been shown that the system should be viable and, under reasonable assumptions, both scalable and economical for defense fuels. For the assumptions in the study, fuel cost estimates range from {approx} $2.55 to $4.75 per gallon with a nominal cost of {approx} $3.65 per gallon. For large installations and advanced nuclear power and hydrogen production systems (high temperature reactors and thermo-chemical hydrogen production), then fuel production might be produced at near-commercial fuel prices. For the H2-MHR and plausible assumptions and estimates of CO{sub 2} extraction and fuel synthesis capital and operating costs, such fuels might have nominal and low production costs ranging from {approx} $2.40 to $1.70 per gallon, respectively, for a Public Sector Fixed Charge Rate of 5%. Next, it was shown that for CO{sub 2} provided from a fossil-fired power plant, a CO{sub 2} 'disposal' fee of $30/tonne and a Fixed Charge Rate of 10%, then syn-fuel might be produced at {approx} $3.00 and $2.45 (nominal cost values) and $1.90 and $1.85 (low cost values) per gallon by LWRs and H2-MHRs, respectively. Last, it was shown that nuclear-produced H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} could convert coal to liquid fuels at very low cost. For a Fixed Charge Rate of 10% and nominal plant costs, fuel costs ranged from {approx} $1.60 (LWR) per gallon to {approx} $1.30 (H2-MHR) for an assumed CO{sub 2} avoidance credit of $30/Tonne. Our studies have shown that the addition of nuclear-produced hydrogen and oxygen to the coal syn-fuel process can greatly reduce CO{sub 2} production and, for modest CO{sub 2} credit, can further reduce the cost of the syn-fuel. Capturing CO{sub 2} from stack gas or even the air will further reduce the amount of CO{sub 2} that must be dealt with. This last case is independent of the price of fossil fuels and liquid fuel production costs and prices will have been capped. Of possibly even greater importance, the carbon fuel cycle will have been closed, thus minimizing or eliminating concerns with Global Climate Change. (authors)

Locke Bogart, S. [7982 Chaucer Drive, Weeki Wachee, FL 34607 (United States); Schultz, Ken; Brown, Lloyd; Russ, Ben [General Atomics 3550 General Atomics Court, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

2006-07-01

246

A commercial 65nm CMOS technology for space applications: Heavy ion, proton and gamma test results and modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents new experimental and modeling evidences that advanced commercial CMOS technologies get intrinsically harder against space radiations with technology downscaling. When further using innovative rad-hard design techniques, electrical performances and radiation-hardness can be both met in a commercial CMOS 65 nm.

Philippe Roche; Gilles Gasiot; Slawosz Uznanski; Jean-Marc Daveau; Josep Torras-Flaquer; Sylvain Clerc; Reno Harboe-Sorensen

2009-01-01

247

Intestinal stem cells remain viable after prolonged tissue storage.  

PubMed

Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) are responsible for renewal of the epithelium both during normal homeostasis and following injury. As such, they have significant therapeutic potential. However, whether ISCs can survive tissue storage is unknown. We hypothesize that, although the majority of epithelial cells might die, ISCs would remain viable for at least 24 h at 4 °C. To explore this hypothesis, jejuna of C57Bl6/J or Lgr5-LacZ mice were removed and either processed immediately or placed in phosphate-buffered saline at 4 °C. Delayed isolation of epithelium was performed after 24, 30, or 48 h storage. At the light microscope level, despite extensive apoptosis of villus epithelial cells, small intestinal crypts remained morphologically intact for 30 h and ISCs were identifiable via Lgr5-LacZ positivity. Electron microscopy showed that ISCs retained high integrity for 24 h. When assessed by flow cytometry, ISCs were more resistant to degeneration than the rest of the epithelium, including neighboring Paneth cells, with higher viability across all time points. Cultured isolated crypts showed no loss of capacity to form complex enteroids after 24 h tissue storage, with efficiencies after 7 days of culture remaining above 80 %. By 30 h storage, efficiencies declined but budding capability was retained. We conclude that, with delay in isolation, ISCs remain viable and retain their proliferative capacity. In contrast, the remainder of the epithelium, including the Paneth cells, exhibits degeneration and programmed cell death. If these findings are recapitulated in human tissue, storage at 4 °C might offer a valuable temporal window for the harvesting of crypts or ISCs for therapeutic application. PMID:23820734

Fuller, Megan K; Faulk, Denver M; Sundaram, Nambirajan; Mahe, Maxime M; Stout, Kara M; von Furstenberg, Richard J; Smith, Brian J; McNaughton, Kirk K; Shroyer, Noah F; Helmrath, Michael A; Henning, Susan J

2013-07-03

248

Survival of “pre-viable” infants in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary OBJECTIVE: We investigated temporal trend in survival of pre-viable (200–499 g) fetuses over the previous decade, and estimated future survival rates based on previous and current survival thresholds. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a retrospective cohort study on live-born pre-viable fetuses (200–499 g) in the United States comparing two period cohorts; 1985–1988 versus 1995–1999. We computed survival of pre-viable babies

Hamisu M. Salihu; Donath Emusu; Zakari Y. Aliyu; Russell S. Kirby; Greg R. Alexander

2005-01-01

249

Vacuum application through a nonfully dilated cervix: a viable option  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the feasibility of vacuum delivery through a nonfully dilated cervix.\\u000a The study group consisted of 39 women with vacuum deliveries through a nonfully dilated cervix larger than 9 cm and station\\u000a of the head at S or more +2 cm. These were compared to a control group of 215 vacuum deliveries at

Oscar Sadan; Shimon Ginath; Andrei Gomel; Samuel Lurie; Sigi Rotmensch; Abraham Golan; Mona Boaz; Marek Glezerman

2003-01-01

250

Discrimination of viable from non-viable gram-negative bacterial pathogens in airborne particles using propidium monoazide-assisted qPCR.  

PubMed

The presence of bacterial pathogens in airborne particulate matter (PM) has been of considerable concern from the public health standpoint. Conventional culture-based methods are tedious, time consuming and are unable to quantify stressed viable but non-culturable (VBNC) populations of these pathogens. This study reports the optimization, validation and application of a new and rapid quantitative method for enumeration of four live potential Gram-negative bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila) in PM of biomass burning origin. This method makes use of an intercalating dye (propidium monoazide, PMA) in conjunction with real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis following DNA extraction from PM samples for distinguishing viable from non-viable potential bacterial pathogens. This method was not affected by the complex matrix of the environmental samples, nor by any PCR inhibition effects. The number of viable pathogens ranged from 0 to 8×10(4) gene copies/m(3) in PM. With the exception of A. hydrophilia, all the three pathogens were found to be present in PM. The correlation between the counts obtained using the PMA-qPCR (modified qPCR) and those from the culture-based method was very high with R(2)~1.0 and p value<0.0001. PMID:23428754

Kaushik, Rajni; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

2013-02-19

251

Differentiation of genes extracted from non-viable versus viable micro-organisms in environmental samples using ethidium monoazide bromide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differentiation of DNA derived from viable or non-viable microorganisms within mixed microbial communities continues to be one of the greatest challenges in molecular studies of environmental samples. A novel method developed for microbial food pathogens is tested here on environmental samples. This technique involves the use of ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA) for the distinction of live\\/dead cells. In non-viable cells

Jola M. Pisz; John R. Lawrence; Alexis N. Schafer; Steven D. Siciliano

2007-01-01

252

Potential Military Application of Commercial Intermodal Equipment Advancements: An Alternative to the Stockpiling of National Defense Features.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the study is to address alternatives to stockpiling National Defense Features (NDF)/Sealift Enhancement Features (SEF) and secondly to examine possible day-to-day commercial utilization of Government developed and procured NDFs/SEFs. Within...

W. A. Byrne T. A. Dillman

1990-01-01

253

48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01...of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.504 Section 12.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...

2011-10-01

254

48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01...laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.503 Section 12.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...

2012-10-01

255

48 CFR 212.570 - Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01...contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially available off-the-shelf...570 Section 212.570 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...

2012-10-01

256

48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01...of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.504 Section 212.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...

2012-10-01

257

48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01...of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.504 Section 12.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...

2012-10-01

258

48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01...laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.503 Section 12.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL...

2011-10-01

259

48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01...laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.503 Section 212.503 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE...

2012-10-01

260

Characterization of inulin hydrolyzing enzyme(s) in commercial glucoamylases and its application in lactic acid production from Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Jat).  

PubMed

A high inulinase activity was found in three commercially available glucoamylase enzymes. Its origin was investigated and two proteins in the commercial glucoamylases were identified as the potential enzymes showing inulinase activity. One of the commercial glucoamylases, GA-L New from Genencor, was used for Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Jat) hydrolysis and a high hydrolysis yield of fructose was obtained. The simultaneous saccharification and lactic acid fermentation (SSF) of Jat was carried out using GA-L New as the inulinase and Pediococcus acidilactici DQ2 as the fermenting strain. A high lactic acid titer, yield, and productivity of 111.5g/L, 0.46g/g DM, and 1.55g/L/h, respectively, were obtained within 72h. The enzyme cost using the commercial glucoamylase as inulinase was compared to that using the typical inulinase and a large profit margin was identified. The results provided a practical way of Jat application for lactic acid production using cheap commercial glucoamylase enzyme. PMID:24050923

Dao, Thai Ha; Zhang, Jian; Bao, Jie

2013-08-29

261

Desiccation induces viable but Non-Culturable cells in Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021  

PubMed Central

Sinorhizobium meliloti is a microorganism commercially used in the production of e.g. Medicago sativa seed inocula. Many inocula are powder-based and production includes a drying step. Although S. meliloti survives drying well, the quality of the inocula is reduced during this process. In this study we determined survival during desiccation of the commercial strains 102F84 and 102F85 as well as the model strain USDA1021. The survival of S. meliloti 1021 was estimated during nine weeks at 22% relative humidity. We found that after an initial rapid decline of colony forming units, the decline slowed to a steady 10-fold reduction in colony forming units every 22 days. In spite of the reduction in colony forming units, the fraction of the population identified as viable (42-54%) based on the Baclight live/dead stain did not change significantly over time. This change in the ability of viable cells to form colonies shows (i) an underestimation of the survival of rhizobial cells using plating methods, and that (ii) in a part of the population desiccation induces a Viable But Non Culturable (VBNC)-like state, which has not been reported before. Resuscitation attempts did not lead to a higher recovery of colony forming units indicating the VBNC state is stable under the conditions tested. This observation has important consequences for the use of rhizobia. Finding methods to resuscitate this fraction may increase the quality of powder-based seed inocula.

2012-01-01

262

Viable versus inactivated lactobacillus strain GG in acute rotavirus diarrhoea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of viable or heat inactivated human Lactobacillus casei strain GG on rotavirus immune responses in patients with rotavirus diarrhoea was assessed. Rotavirus serum IgA enzyme immunoassay antibody responses were higher in infants treated with viable L casei strain GG than in those treated with inactivated L casei strain GG. There was a significant difference at convalescence with rotavirus

M Kaila; E Isolauri; M Saxelin; H Arvilommi; T Vesikari

1995-01-01

263

Method to Obtain Intact, Viable Protoplasts from Pollen Grains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to and has among its objects the provision of a novel method to obtain intact, viable plant protoplasts from within the cell walls of mature pollen grains. Intact, viable protoplasts are obtained readily and in good quantity ...

M. L. Weaver

1987-01-01

264

Ovulation synchronization following commercial application of ultrasound-guided follicle ablation during the estrous cycle in mares.  

PubMed

A regimen of progesterone plus estradiol (P&E) was used as a standard for ovarian synchronization to test the efficacy and evaluate the commercial application of ultrasound-guided follicle ablation as a non-steroidal alternative for ovulation synchronization in mares. Recipient mares at a private embryo transfer facility were at unknown stages of the estrous cycle at the start of the experiment on Day 1 when they were randomly assigned to an ablation group (n=18-21 mares) or to a P&E group (n=20-21 mares). In the ablation group, mares were lightly sedated and all follicles > or = 10 mm were removed by transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration. In the P&E group, a combination of progesterone (150 mg) plus estradiol (10mg) prepared in safflower oil was given daily (im) for 10 d. Two doses of prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF, 10mg/dose, im) were given 12 h apart on Day 5 in the ablation group, or a single dose on Day 10 in the P&E group. Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 2500 IU/mare, im) was given at a fixed time, 6 and 10 d after PGF treatment in the ablation and P&E groups, respectively, with the expectation of a follicle > or = 30 mm at the time of treatment. In both the ablation and P&E groups, transrectal ultrasonography was done at the start of the study (Day 1) and again on the day of hCG treatment and daily thereafter to determine the presence of a CL, measure diameter of the largest follicle and detect ovulation. The mean interval from the start of the study and from PGF treatment to ovulation was shorter (P<0.0001) in the ablation group (13.7 and 9.7 d, respectively) compared to the P&E group (22.3 and 13.2 d, respectively). Following fixed-day treatment with hCG after PGF treatment, the degree of ovulation synchronization was not different (P>0.05) between the ablation and P&E groups within a 2-d (56 and 70%) or 4-d (83% and 90%) period. Although ultrasound-guided follicle ablation may not be practical in all circumstances, it excluded the conventional 10-d regimen of progesterone and estradiol and was considered an efficacious and feasible, non-steroidal alternative for ovulation synchronization in mares during the estrous cycle. PMID:17904213

Bergfelt, D R; Meira, C; Fleury, J J; Fleury, P D C; Dell'Aqua, J A; Adams, G P

2007-09-27

265

Investigation of hermetically sealed commercial LiNbO3 optical modulator for use in laser\\/LIDAR space-flight applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first in a series of publications to investigate the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components for space flight fiber laser transmitter systems and LIDAR (laser imaging detection and ranging) detection systems. In the current study, a hermetically sealed COTS LiNbO3 optical modulator is characterized for space flight applications. The modulator investigated was part of the family of

William J. Thomes; Frank V. LaRoccaa; Melanie N. Ottb

266

Investigation of hermetically sealed commercial LiNbO3 optical modulator for use in laser\\/LIDAR space-flight applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first in a series of publications to investigate the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components for space flight fiber laser transmitter systems and LIDAR (laser imaging detection and ranging) detection systems. In the current study, a hermetically sealed COTS LiNbO3 optical modulator is characterized for space flight applications. The modulator investigated was part of the family of

William J. Thomes Jr.; Frank V. LaRocca; Melanie N. Ott; Xiaodan Linda Jin; Richard F. Chuska; Shawn L. MacMurphy; Tracee L. Jamison

2007-01-01

267

Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Muenchen on apples as affected by application of commercial fruit waxes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Muenchen, and yeasts and molds on apples as affected by application of five commercial apple waxes was investigated. Red Delicious cv. apples at 21 °C were spot inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. Muenchen and spray coated with waxes. Apples sprayed with water served as controls. Apples were dried at either 21 or

Stephen J Kenney; Larry R Beuchat

2002-01-01

268

Development and assessment of a clinically viable system for breast ultrasound computer-aided diagnosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chances of surviving a breast cancer diagnosis as well as the effectiveness of any potential treatments increase significantly with early detection of the disease. As such, a considerable amount of research is being conducted to augment the breast cancer detection and diagnosis process. One such area of research involves the investigation and application of sophisticated computer algorithms to assist clinicians in detecting and diagnosing breast cancer on medical images (termed generally as "computer-aided diagnosis" or CAD). This study investigated a previously-developed breast ultrasound CAD system with the intent of translating it into a clinically-viable system. While past studies have demonstrated that breast ultrasound CAD may be a beneficial aid during the diagnosis of breast cancer on ultrasound, there are no investigations concerning its potential clinical translation and there are currently no commercially-available implementations of such systems. This study "bridges the gap" between the laboratory-developed system and the steps necessary for clinical implementation. A novel observer study was conducted that mimicked the clinical use of the breast ultrasound CAD system in order to assess the impact it had on the diagnostic performance of the user. Several robustness studies were also performed: the sonographic features used by the system were evaluated and the databases used for calibration and testing were characterized, the effect of the user's input was assessed by evaluating the performance of the system with variations in lesion identification and image selection, and the performance of the system on different patient populations was investigated by evaluating its performance on a database consisting solely of patients with Asian ethnicity. The analyses performed here indicate that the breast ultrasound CAD system under investigation is robust and demonstrates only minor variability when subjected to "real-world" use. All of these results are critical to the success of a CAD system in a clinical environment, and they support the execution of a prospective clinical trial of the system.

Gruszauskas, Nicholas Peter

269

Bacteriocins - a viable alternative to antibiotics?  

PubMed

Solutions are urgently required for the growing number of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Bacteriocins, which are antimicrobial peptides produced by certain bacteria, might warrant serious consideration as alternatives to traditional antibiotics. These molecules exhibit significant potency against other bacteria (including antibiotic-resistant strains), are stable and can have narrow or broad activity spectra. Bacteriocins can even be produced in situ in the gut by probiotic bacteria to combat intestinal infections. Although the application of specific bacteriocins might be curtailed by the development of resistance, an understanding of the mechanisms by which such resistance could emerge will enable researchers to develop strategies to minimize this potential problem. PMID:23268227

Cotter, Paul D; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin

2012-12-24

270

Use of Ethidium Monoazide and PCR in Combination for Quantification of Viable and Dead Cells in Complex Samples  

PubMed Central

The distinction between viable and dead cells is a major issue in many aspects of biological research. The current technologies for determining viable versus dead cells cannot readily be used for quantitative differentiation of specific cells in mixed populations. This is a serious limitation. We have solved this problem by developing a new concept with the viable/dead stain ethidium monoazide (EMA) in combination with real-time PCR (EMA-PCR). A dynamic range of approximately 4 log10 was obtained for the EMA-PCR viable/dead assay. Viable/dead differentiation is obtained by covalent binding of EMA to DNA in dead cells by photoactivation. EMA penetrates only dead cells with compromised membrane/cell wall systems. DNA covalently bound to EMA cannot be PCR amplified. Thus, only DNA from viable cells can be detected. We evaluated EMA-PCR with the major food-borne bacterium Campylobacter jejuni as an example. Traditional diagnosis of this bacterium is very difficult due to its specific growth requirements and because it may enter a state where it is viable but not cultivable. The conditions analyzed included detection in mixed and natural samples, survival in food, and survival after disinfection or antibiotic treatment. We obtained reliable viable/dead quantifications for all conditions tested. Comparison with standard fluorescence-based viable/dead techniques showed that the EMA-PCR has a broader dynamic range and enables quantification in mixed and complex samples. In conclusion, EMA-PCR offers a novel real-time PCR method for quantitative distinction between viable and dead cells with potentially very wide application.

Rudi, Knut; Moen, Birgitte; Dr?mtorp, Signe Marie; Holck, Askild L.

2005-01-01

271

Differentiation of genes extracted from non-viable versus viable micro-organisms in environmental samples using ethidium monoazide bromide.  

PubMed

Differentiation of DNA derived from viable or non-viable microorganisms within mixed microbial communities continues to be one of the greatest challenges in molecular studies of environmental samples. A novel method developed for microbial food pathogens is tested here on environmental samples. This technique involves the use of ethidium monoazide bromide (EMA) for the distinction of live/dead cells. In non-viable cells EMA intercalates into the DNA which prevents amplification by PCR. We adapted and evaluated the EMA technique for soil, elemental sulfur and river biofilm samples. Quantitative PCR determined that EMA suppressed 99.99% of E. coli LKI gfp+ signal in non-viable cultures and 100.00% when the cultures were added to soil samples. The same technique was also successful at suppressing DNA amplification from spiked non-viable cells in elemental sulfur samples by 100.00%, but not in three Saskatchewan River biofilms. In sub Antarctic soil, EMA-Q-PCR was used to detect the prevalence of a functional gene, amoA, and this was closely correlated to nitrification activity measurements. The ability of EMA to differentiate between viable and non-viable populations in soil was confirmed by the similarity of the 16S rRNA denaturing-gradient-gel electrophoresis DNA fingerprint of EMA treated soil and the 16S rRNA cDNA fingerprint of non-EMA treated soil. The EMA technique effectively suppressed amplification of non-viable spiked controls, closely mirrored activity assays and yielded community composition profiles similar to rRNA techniques. The use of EMA in soil effectively suppressed amplification of non-viable organism DNA, however it was not effective in biofilm samples and EMA partially inhibited amplification of viable organism DNA in elemental sulfur samples. PMID:17963903

Pisz, Jola M; Lawrence, John R; Schafer, Alexis N; Siciliano, Steven D

2007-10-25

272

Keeping checkpoint/restart viable for exascale systems.  

SciTech Connect

Next-generation exascale systems, those capable of performing a quintillion (10{sup 18}) operations per second, are expected to be delivered in the next 8-10 years. These systems, which will be 1,000 times faster than current systems, will be of unprecedented scale. As these systems continue to grow in size, faults will become increasingly common, even over the course of small calculations. Therefore, issues such as fault tolerance and reliability will limit application scalability. Current techniques to ensure progress across faults like checkpoint/restart, the dominant fault tolerance mechanism for the last 25 years, are increasingly problematic at the scales of future systems due to their excessive overheads. In this work, we evaluate a number of techniques to decrease the overhead of checkpoint/restart and keep this method viable for future exascale systems. More specifically, this work evaluates state-machine replication to dramatically increase the checkpoint interval (the time between successive checkpoint) and hash-based, probabilistic incremental checkpointing using graphics processing units to decrease the checkpoint commit time (the time to save one checkpoint). Using a combination of empirical analysis, modeling, and simulation, we study the costs and benefits of these approaches on a wide range of parameters. These results, which cover of number of high-performance computing capability workloads, different failure distributions, hardware mean time to failures, and I/O bandwidths, show the potential benefits of these techniques for meeting the reliability demands of future exascale platforms.

Riesen, Rolf E.; Bridges, Patrick G. (IBM Research, Ireland, Mulhuddart, Dublin); Stearley, Jon R.; Laros, James H., III; Oldfield, Ron A.; Arnold, Dorian (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Brightwell, Ronald Brian

2011-09-01

273

Feasibility of Commercial Application of Victor Thayer's Innovation for Reducing Energy Required to Separate Liquids: Summary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major goal of this grant is to provide a technical assessment of those factors that contribute to the economic feasibility for the commercial use of the ''Low Energy Distillation Process'' of Victor Thayer (US Patent No. 4,267,736). The activity had f...

1987-01-01

274

Immobilization of commercial laccase onto green coconut fiber by adsorption and its application for reactive textile dyes degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effort has been made to find a cheaper, easily available and simple alternative for the immobilization of enzymes and subsequent utilization at large scale in textile wastewater treatment. Commercial laccase was immobilized for the first time on an agroindustrial residue, green coconut fiber, by physical adsorption. The effect of the immobilization conditions (enzyme concentration, contact time and pH value)

Raquel O. Cristóvão; Ana P. M. Tavares; Ana Iraidy Brígida; José M. Loureiro; Rui A. R. Boaventura; Eugénia A. Macedo; Maria Alice Z. Coelho

2011-01-01

275

What is lacking in order to design and build a commercially viable fusion reactor?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A critical overview of the state of the art in fusion research is presented. The four main areas of activity are considered: physics, technology, engineering and safety. In physics, the trend is positive towards a better understanding of the suitable plasma regimes, which have to be confirmed through further experimentation on the operating machines. The quality of the engineering has already been demonstrated through the design and construction of a number of experimental machines, and a large database obtained from the design and operation of fission reactors is available. For safety very satisfactory results in analysing the impact of fusion on man and the environment are being achieved. In technology, an outstanding problem is that of finding low activation materials capable of resisting the harsh fusion environment for an adequate number of years. An intense 14 MEV neutron source is needed in order to allow the necessary developments.

Andreani, R.

2000-06-01

276

Development of a Commercially Viable Yellow Perch ('Perca flavescens') Culture System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was designed to determine if yellow perch fingerlings collected from a wild population would accept a practical diet. After 34 days, 100% of the fish examined had feed in their digestive tracts. Growth rates of stunted and non-stunted yellow perch...

F. N. Williams

1988-01-01

277

PossybliCom, a Commercially Viable Personal Navigator for Blind People  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disaps vof is a Dutch start-up Company which is born as spin-off from the Italian company Intecs S.p.A.. Disaps is working on a project called PossybliCom, which is the acronym of Positioning System for Blind, and it is developing wearable navigation equipment for visually impaired or in general people withself- localization problems. Other secondary markets could be thought of as well, such as peoplesuffering from Alzheimer or having temporary memory or consciousness losses. Even peoplehaving experienced problems like TIA (Transient Ischemic Attacks) or faints would need a highlyaccessible device knowing always the way home. PossybliCom is a contribution to further enhance these users' confidence in independent travelling by providing them with a more precise description of the surroundings they are in. A business feasibility study demonstrated how, under certain key restrictions on the system architecture,the product has a high potential for disabled people as well as for the others when specialenvironmental conditions apply. Main issues could be easily identified as accessibility, portability, ease of use, fast learning curve. The European Space Agency's business incubation facility ESI in Noordwijk is supporting the start-up project with physical incubation, which includes office space and shared facilities as well as access to services and the know-how of ESA staff. Once part of the business incubation programme, for aperiod of 6 months the company shall demonstrate the market feasibility and produce a detailed workplan for prototyping.

Bavaro, M.; Citterico, D.; Dionisio, C.; van Eijck, D.

2007-08-01

278

Development of commercially viable high-{Tc} Bi-2223 superconductor tapes  

SciTech Connect

Long lengths of flexible Ag-clad Bi-2223 Superconductors have been fabricated by the powder-in-tube technique using prereacted, poly-phase, Pb-doped Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O powders. At liquid helium (4.2 K) temperature, improved process conditions yielded transport critical current density (J{sub c}) values greater than 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at zero field; at liquid nitrogen (77K) temperature, the J{sub c} values of short tape samples exceeded 4 {times} 10{sup 4} A/cm{sub 2}. Rolled tapes are cut into lengths up to 2 - meters long and are used in parallel to fabricate small superconducting pancake coils by the ``wind-and-react`` technique. The cots are characterized at 77K and 4.2 K. The J{sub c} of the coils are up to 80% of the short, rolled sample result at 77 K. The coils exhibited these results even after being cooled and warmed several times between ambient, 77 K and 4.2 K, indicating their stability following thermal cycling.

Balachandran, U.; Youngdahl, C.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials and Components Technology Div.; Haldar, P. [Intermagnetics General Corp., Guilderland, NY (United States); Motowidlo, L.R. [IGC/Advanced Superconductors, Inc., Waterbury, CT (United States)

1993-02-01

279

Development of commercially viable high-[Tc] Bi-2223 superconductor tapes  

SciTech Connect

Long lengths of flexible Ag-clad Bi-2223 Superconductors have been fabricated by the powder-in-tube technique using prereacted, poly-phase, Pb-doped Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O powders. At liquid helium (4.2 K) temperature, improved process conditions yielded transport critical current density (J[sub c]) values greater than 10[sup 5] A/cm[sup 2] at zero field; at liquid nitrogen (77K) temperature, the J[sub c] values of short tape samples exceeded 4 [times] 10[sup 4] A/cm[sub 2]. Rolled tapes are cut into lengths up to 2 - meters long and are used in parallel to fabricate small superconducting pancake coils by the wind-and-react'' technique. The cots are characterized at 77K and 4.2 K. The J[sub c] of the coils are up to 80% of the short, rolled sample result at 77 K. The coils exhibited these results even after being cooled and warmed several times between ambient, 77 K and 4.2 K, indicating their stability following thermal cycling.

Balachandran, U.; Youngdahl, C.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials and Components Technology Div.); Haldar, P. (Intermagnetics General Corp., Guilderland, NY (United States)); Motowidlo, L.R. (IGC/Advanced Superconductors, Inc., Waterbury, CT (United States))

1993-02-01

280

Minimum viable populations: Is there a 'magic number' for ...  

Treesearch

Description: Establishing species conservation priorities and recovery goals is often enhanced by extinction risk estimates. ... To inform conservation policy, recent studies have revived the concept of the minimum viable population (MVP), the ...

281

In vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activities of various commercial essential oils, oleoresin and pure compounds against food pathogens and application in ham.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the application of commercially available essential oils (EOs) and oleoresins to control bacterial pathogens for ready to eat food. In this study, sixty seven commercial EOs, oleoresins (ORs) and pure compounds were used to evaluate in vitro their antimicrobial activity against six food pathogens. These products were first screened for their antimicrobial activity using disk diffusion assay. Forty one products were then chosen for further analysis to determine their minimum inhibitory concentration against 6 different bacteria. There were 5 different products (allyl isothiocyanate, cinnamon Chinese cassia, cinnamon OR, oregano and red thyme) that showed high antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria. Further analysis examined the effect of four selected EOs on controlling the growth rate of mixed cultures of Listeria monocytogenes in ham. A reduction of the growth rate by 19 and 10% was observed when oregano and cinnamon cassia EOs were respectively added in ham at a concentration of 500ppm. PMID:24012976

Dussault, Dominic; Vu, Khanh Dang; Lacroix, Monique

2013-08-15

282

Viable Cyanobacteria and Green Algae from the Permafrost Darkness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review represents an overview of the existence, distribution and abundance of the photoautotrophic microorganisms in\\u000a the deep subsurface permafrost of the Northeast Russia and McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. The morphology, growth rate, spectral\\u000a properties, phylogenetic position of the viable permafrost green algae and cyanobacteria have been studied. Viable photoautotrophs\\u000a were represented by unicellular green algae and filamentous cyanobacteria with

Tatiana A. Vishnivetskaya; Tatiana A

2009-01-01

283

Second Guessing a Commercial 'Black Box' Classifier by an 'In House' Classifier: Serial Classifier Combination in a Speech Recognition Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a We describe how an ’in house’ classifier can enhance the performance of a commercial ’black box’ classifier using the classic serial multiple classifier combination scheme. It is now acknowledged by the classifier combination\\u000a community that parallel or hybrid decision fusion algorithms, in general, outperform serial combination schemes. However,\\u000a classifier combination using techniques that use class labeling, ranking or probability estimators

Fuad Rahman; Yuliya Tarnikova; Aman Kumar; Hassan Alam

2004-01-01

284

Persistence of Bacillus thuringiensis deposits in a hardwood forest, after aerial application of a commercial formulation at two dosage rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. kurstaki (BTK), Foray® 48B, was sprayed aerially over four blocks B13, B14, B15A and B15B in an oak forest in Wayne County, Pennsylvania during May 1990. B13 and B14 were sprayed at 75 billion international units (BIU) in 5.91 litres\\/ha and the other two at 50 BIU in 3.94 litres\\/ha. Oak foliage

K. M. S. Sundaram; A. Sundaram; B. D. Hammock

1994-01-01

285

Application of a PCR-RFLP Method to Identify Salmon Species in U.S. Commercial Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for salmon species identification was optimized for use with U.S. commercial products. Reference specimens of six salmonid species were collected and morphologically verified. A 463- to 464-bp fragment of the mitochondrial tRNA\\/cytochrome b gene was PCR-amplified, digested with two restriction enzymes (Sau3AI and NlaIII), and analyzed with agarose gel electrophoresis. All

Rosalee S. Rasmussen; Michael T. Morrissey; Jessica Walsh

2010-01-01

286

APPLICATION OF SAFT AND PC-SAFT EQUATIONS OF STATE TO MODELING COMMERCIAL LDPE-ETHYLENE PHASE EQUILIBRIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is one of the most widespread plastic materials, synthesized commercially at relatively high temperatures and high pressures by free-radical bulk polymerization in supercritical ethylene. In the production of polyethylene, phase behavior is important for different reasons, including since process control aspects until end-use properties. Although the use of equations of state has been for a long time

Y. G. Pereira; L. Lon; M. Embiruçu

287

Computer interface for electrophysiological applications: Simple modifications to a commercial (Datel) single-board data-aquisition system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial single-board data-aquisition systems such as the Datel ST series, often lack a programmable sampling clock and\\u000a multichannel sample and holds. These features are often vital to biophysical experiments where it is necessary to sample at\\u000a precise intervals and\\/or change the sampling rate during an experiment. Additionally, when more than one signal is being sampled\\u000a during the experiment, the delay

V. Demjanenko; F. Sachs

1982-01-01

288

Technology data characterizing lighting in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with commend 4.0  

SciTech Connect

End-use forecasting models typically utilize technology tradeoff curves to represent technology options available to consumers. A tradeoff curve, in general terms, is a functional form which relates efficiency to capital cost. Each end-use is modeled by a single tradeoff curve. This type of representation is satisfactory in the analysis of many policy options. On the other hand, for policies addressing individual technology options or groups of technology options, because individual technology options are accessible to the analyst, representation in such reduced form is not satisfactory. To address this and other analysis needs, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has enhanced its Commercial End-Use Planning System (COMMEND) to allow modeling of specific lighting and space conditioning (HVAC) technology options. This report characterizes the present commercial floorstock in terms of lighting technologies and develops cost-efficiency data for these lighting technologies. This report also characterizes the interactions between the lighting and space conditioning end uses in commercial buildings in the US In general, lighting energy reductions increase the heating and decrease the cooling requirements. The net change in a building`s energy requirements, however, depends on the building characteristics, operating conditions, and the climate. Lighting/HVAC interactions data were generated through computer simulations using the DOE-2 building energy analysis program.

Sezgen, A.O.; Huang, Y.J.; Atkinson, B.A.; Eto, J.H.; Koomey, J.G.

1994-05-01

289

Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture.  

SciTech Connect

Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the electric grid. Petra Solar, Inc., a New Jersey-based company, received SEGIS funds to develop solutions to two of these key challenges: integrating increasing quantities of solar resources into the grid without compromising (and likely improving) power quality and reliability, and moving the design from a concept of intelligent system controls to successful commercialization. The resulting state-of-the art technology now includes a distributed photovoltaic (PV) architecture comprising AC modules that not only feed directly into the electrical grid at distribution levels but are equipped with new functions that improve voltage stability and thus enhance overall grid stability. This integrated PV system technology, known as SunWave, has applications for 'Power on a Pole,' and comes with a suite of technical capabilities, including advanced inverter and system controls, micro-inverters (capable of operating at both the 120V and 240V levels), communication system, network management system, and semiconductor integration. Collectively, these components are poised to reduce total system cost, increase the system's overall value and help mitigate the challenges of solar intermittency. Designed to be strategically located near point of load, the new SunWave technology is suitable for integration directly into the electrical grid but is also suitable for emerging microgrid applications. SunWave was showcased as part of a SEGIS Demonstration Conference at Pepco Holdings, Inc., on September 29, 2011, and is presently undergoing further field testing as a prelude to improved and expanded commercialization.

Enslin, Johan (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Hamaoui, Ronald (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Haddad, Ghaith (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Rustom, Khalid (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Stuby, Rick (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Kuran, Mohammad (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Mark, Evlyn (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Amarin, Ruba (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Alatrash, Hussam (Petra Solar, Inc., South Plainfield, NJ); Bower, Ward Isaac; Kuszmaul, Scott S.; Sena-Henderson, Lisa; David, Carolyn; Akhil, Abbas Ali

2012-03-01

290

A Simple, Rapid Method for Enumerating Total Viable and Metabolically Active Bacteria in Groundwater  

PubMed Central

We report here a new staining procedure which uses both the enzymatic dehydrogenation of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-p-(nitrophenyl)-5 phenyltetrazolium chloride to a pink intracellular formazan and the DNA-specific fluorochrome 4?,6?-diamidino-2-phenylindole. Application of this staining procedure to cells concentrated on filters and then transferred to microscope slides by the filter-transfer-freeze technique has proven valuable for statistically accurate enumeration of the total viable and metabolically active cells in groundwaters.

King, Laura K.; Parker, Bruce C.

1988-01-01

291

Application of a commercially available derivatization instrument and commonly used reagents to HPLC on-line determination of antioxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates the potential of a commercially available derivatization instrument coupled with HPLC for separation and on-line determination of antioxidants detected with widely used screening reagents—DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), ABTS (2,2?-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) or FCR (Folin–Ciocalteu's phenol reagent). As a result of optimization, key parameters of the analytical procedure were established: concentrations of derivatization reagents 1.5mmol\\/L and 2.1mmol\\/L in methanol for DPPH

B. Kusznierewicz; A. Piasek; A. Bartoszek; J. Namiesnik

2011-01-01

292

Emerging commercial opportunities based on combined communication navigation services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cost reduction pressure on companies and increasing regulatory and legislative demand together with rapid technological progress in space-based communication and navigation are opening up new and exciting commercial opportunities. In this framework, a novel service for maritime applications is presented using a two-way messaging system and the global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The system implements an end-to-end solution for asset tracking and fleet management, positioning and tracing, messaging and security for all types of sea-going vessels. The service applies a vessel-based terminal hosting a GNSS receiver which transmits the navigation status together with messages to a Service Center with a flexible return-link capability. A hybrid space segment is considered comprising the Inmarsat constellation of geostationary communications satellites augmented by two highly inclined low earth orbit satellites for truly global services. Services will be offered to commercial enterprises such as fishing companies as well as public entities such as National Coast Guards. A detailed market analysis has been performed to assess these markets and to determine their penetration. Commercial viability has been proven for business models purely based on Inmarsat and a hybrid space segment using Inmarsat and dedicated micro-satellites. Both cases represent viable businesses in the range of MEUR 100 p.a. Although tailored to a specific market, the approach can be extended to other commercial opportunities requiring space-based communication navigation services.

Gill, Eberhard; Fox, Brian M.; Kreisel, Joerg

2006-07-01

293

Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelium using viable cryopreserved cells.  

PubMed

Transplantation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) may have potential clinical application for the surgical treatment of RPE-specific retinal degeneration, including age-related macular degeneration. The feasibility of an RPE storage bank has been investigated by experimenting with transplantation using viable, cryopreserved RPE cells. Fresh and cultured fetal human and bovine RPE cells were cryopreserved in 90% fetal bovine serum containing 10% dimethyl sulfoxide. The viability of the cells before and after cryopreservation was evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion test, microculture tetrazolium assay (MTA), tissue culture, and transplantation after cryopreservation. The origin of RPE cells before and after cryopreservation was assessed by immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, and indirect ELISA of RPE-marker protein using cytokeratin for cultured fetal human RPE cells and by immunocytochemistry of cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CR-ALBP) for cultured bovine RPE cells. Freshly isolated and cryopreserved uncultured bovine RPE cells were transplanted by posterior transscleral approach into the subretinal spaces of adult albino rabbits and 23-day-old Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats with a 33 gauge Hamilton syringe. Following surgery, artificial retinal blebs were confirmed by fundus examination. Morphologic examination was performed postoperatively by light and electron microscopy in albino rabbits and by light microscopy in RCS rats up to 3 mo. Control subretinal injections using vehicle solution also were performed in RCS rats. Cultured fetal human and bovine RPE cells after cryopreservation were found to be viable, based on the results of trypan blue dye exclusion test, MTA, tissue culture, and transplantation. Expression and reexpression of cytokeratin intermediate filaments in cultured fetal human RPE were demonstrated by immunocytochemistry, immunoblotting, and indirect ELISA before and after cryopreservation. Immunocytochemistry of CRALBP before and after cryopreservation in uncultured bovine RPE cells disclosed expression and reexpression of RPE cell marker protein. No uncultured fetal human RPE cells showed proliferation in tissue culture after cryopreservation. In rabbits, light and electron microscopy disclosed xenografted RPE cells residing on Bruch's membrane of the host retina. No sign of graft vs. host reaction was observed. No morphologic difference was noted between the fresh and 10-day-old cryopreserved RPE cells in situ following transplantation at day 25. In RCS rats, subretinal injection of 3-wk-old cryopreserved bovine RPE cells partially rescued photoreceptor cells locally at the transplanted area observed at 3 mo postoperatively. The retinal photoreceptors at the inferior hemisphere of the transplanted eye and the eye injected with vehicle solution showed no rescue effect. We found that cryopreserved cultured fetal human RPE cells and uncultured and cultured bovine RPE cells can be used for RPE transplantation studies. The ability to create an RPE storage bank as a source of donor cells may result in several clinical advantages. PMID:9142447

Durlu, Y K; Tamai, M

294

The emergence of doing "nothing" as a viable paradigm design.  

PubMed

Resting state fMRI has become widely accepted as a viable technique for investigating functional connectivity of the human brain. I review from a personal perspective the events of the first 8-10 years after the initial report of resting state functional connectivity, focusing on the events that led to eventual acceptance of the method. During this time there were important studies, both in MRI and other modalities, that were critical to the eventual acceptance of the resting state as a viable research tool in fMRI. PMID:22245648

Lowe, Mark J

2012-01-08

295

Effect of application rate of commercial lignite-derived amendments on early-stage growth of Medicago sativa and soil health, in acidic soil conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercially available lignite-derived amendments, sold mainly as humate preparations, have been promoted as plant growth stimulants leading to higher crop yields. These products are also claimed to improve soil properties such as pH. This study investigated the effect of application rate of three lignite-derived amendments on the early-stage growth of a pasture legume, lucerne (Medicago sativa), and soil health in a soil type common to south eastern Australia, in a glasshouse setting. An organic-mineral humate product and 'run of mine' lignite coal did not improve shoot or root growth despite application at a range of rates at, and in excess of, the manufacturers recommendation. Application of soluble K-humate product at 20 kg/ha (9.5 kg/ha C equivalent) produced an observable positive effect in shoot growth. At this application rate, a significant delay in the appearance of chlorotic symptoms was observed along with an increase in soil pH concurrent with decreased availability of soil Mn and Al. Higher root dry weight was associated with lower microbial biomass carbon which may indicate an effect on allocation of resources between the microbial community and the plant. An assessment of the effectiveness of lignite-derived amendments on plant growth, as well as their potential to improve the health of an acidic soil will assist farmers in making decisions regarding the use of these products.

Patti, Antonio; Little, Karen; Rose, Michael; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Tim

2013-04-01

296

Commercialization of quality.  

PubMed

Without overriding financial imperatives, the commercial marketplace for products and services enabling quality improvement, quality assurance, and quality control has been limited in health care. Companies serving this industry have had a difficult time finding business justification to bring these products to market. However, government initiatives in the past 6 years attempting to reduce health care costs are placing an emphasis on better, more appropriate, and more effective health care delivery through evidence-based medicine. Incentives,penalties, and reimbursements for providers serving Medicare and Medicaid patients are being implemented or altered to encourage this adoption. Within this new environment,quality systems become vital tools in managing optimal operations, and thus, a new commercial marketplace is rapidly evolving for vendors to develop, promote, and profitably sell quality assurance and quality control products and services.With a viable, growing, and competitive market, radiologists, technologists, and radiology administrators may look forward to having a wide choice of quality tools to help them make their departments an invaluable resource in a changing healthcare delivery system. PMID:23609928

Strauss, John

2013-06-01

297

Aluminium in Commercial Vehicles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This manual created by the European Aluminium Association is a comprehensive compilation of aluminum use in commercial applications. Discussed are application, design, joining, treatment, cleaning, repair, and various methods of processing aluminum. Although this report is of particular interest to design engineers, process engineers, repair managers and maintenance managers, itâs also very useful to anyone interested in aluminum development and use in transportation.

Association, European A.

298

Neutron imaging of a commercial Li-ion battery during discharge: Application of monochromatic imaging and polychromatic dynamic tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A commercial lithium-ion polymer battery of prismatic construction was imaged in 2D by monochromatic neutron radiography at wavelengths around a LiC 6 spectral feature. Over the range of 3-4 Å, the neutron attenuation spectra for charged and discharged batteries are distinctly different. In a real-time experiment, a battery was observed during discharge at wavelengths spanning the LiC 6 spectral feature and its disappearance monitored. No evidence of “staging” was detected in this preliminary experiment. A similar battery was imaged in 3D with a new tomographic data acquisition scheme based on the Greek golden ratio; the scheme allows convenient post-processing to establish “time windows” for 3D image reconstruction. The 3D images at 5% state of charge intervals are compromised by beam hardening, but still show some asymmetric battery volume change with discharge. Finally comments on the future of neutron imaging for battery experiments, whether at continuous sources at nuclear reactors or at pulsed spallation sources, are discussed.

Butler, Leslie G.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Ham, Kyungmin; Dobbins, Tabbetha A.; Liu, Ping; Vajo, John J.

2011-09-01

299

Viable tumor tissue detection in murine metastatic breast cancer by whole-body MRI and multispectral analysis.  

PubMed

Whole-body MRI combined with a semiautomated hierarchical multispectral image analysis technique was evaluated as a method for detecting viable tumor tissue in a murine model of metastatic breast cancer (4T1 cell line). Whole-body apparent diffusion coefficient, T(2), and proton density maps were acquired in this study. The viable tumor tissue segmentation included three-stage k-means clustering of the parametric maps, morphologic operations, application of a size threshold, and reader discrimination of the segmented objects. The segmentation results were validated by histologic evaluation, and the detection accuracy of the technique was evaluated at three size thresholds (15, 100, and 500 voxels). The accuracy was 88.9% for a 500-voxel size threshold, and the area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.84. The regions of segmented viable tumor tissue within the primary tumors were found mostly on the periphery of the tumors in agreement with the histologic findings. The presented technique was found capable of detecting metastases and segmenting the viable tumor from necrotic regions within tumors found in this model. It offers a noninvasive, whole-body, viable tumor tissue detection method for preclinical and potentially clinical applications such as tumor screening and evaluating therapeutic efficacy. PMID:19859948

Barck, Kai H; Willis, Brandon; Ross, Jed; French, Dorothy M; Filvaroff, Ellen H; Carano, Richard A D

2009-12-01

300

Scaling and application of commercial, feature-rich, modular mixed-signal technology platforms for large format ROICs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's modular, mixed-signal CMOS process platforms are excellent choices for manufacturing of highly integrated, large-format read out integrated circuits (ROICs). Platform features, that can be used for both cooled and un-cooled ROIC applications, can include (1) quality passives such as 4fFmum2 stacked MIM capacitors for linearity and higher density capacitance per pixel, 1kOhm high-value poly-silicon resistors, 2.8mum thick metals for

Arjun Kar-Roy; Marco Racanelli; David Howard; Glenn Miyagi; Mark Bowler; Scott Jordan; Tao Zhang; William Krieger

2010-01-01

301

The VSM toolbox: Software for the viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning and using the viable system model (VSM) are both facilitated by good software. This paper reports on software developed to support expert users in storing, managing, and retrieving the data associated with large-scale VSM studies. The software also seems to help novice users in learning to apply the VSM. To stereotype the software somewhat, it is a graphics-interface dbms

Barry Clemson

1994-01-01

302

The energy utilization chain: Determining viable oil alternative technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the continuing debate over the limits to economic growth focusing on oil, oil technologies, and the services provided by those technologies. Since there is a growing consensus that oil production will be in short supply in the next 30 or so years, it is important to examine all viable oil alternatives. The author uses the concept of

Douglas B. Reynolds

2000-01-01

303

High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells  

DOEpatents

Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

Sasaki, D.T.; Van den Engh, G.J.; Buckie, A.M.

1995-11-14

304

Fort Osage School District Works toward Guaranteed and Viable Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administrators at Fort Osage School District in Independence, Missouri, feel it is their responsibility to provide students with a guaranteed and viable curriculum. Based on Dr. Robert Marzano's model, district leaders set out to alter their curriculum so that it could be taught adequately in the time allotted for instruction. They wanted to…

Technology & Learning, 2007

2007-01-01

305

A METHOD TO DETECT VIABLE HELICOBACTER PYLORI BACTERIA IN GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The inability to detect the presence of viable Helicobacter pylori bacteria in environmental waters has hindered the public health community in assessing the role water may playin the transmission of this pathogen. This work describes a cultural enrichment method coupled with an...

306

Singularity Phenomena in Viable f(R) Gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The curvature singularity in viable f(R) gravity models is examined when the background density is dense. This singularity could be eliminated by adding the R(2) term in the Lagrangian. Some of cosmological consequences, in particular the source for the scalar mode of gravitational waves, are discussed.

Lee, C.; Geng, C.; Yang, L.

2012-08-01

307

Problem-based learning: a viable approach in leadership development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of the paper is to investigate problem-based learning (PBL) as a viable approach in leadership development. It identifies several key factors, strategies and possible outcomes associated with this new approach to training. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Reflective inquiry through storytelling was employed as a research tool to gather rich qualitative data from two PBL trainers and 18 senior

Roland K. Yeo

2007-01-01

308

Induction and Resuscitation of Viable Nonculturable Arcobacter butzleri Cells?  

PubMed Central

Two strains of Arcobacter butzleri, ATCC 49616 and an environmental isolate, became nonculturable in seawater microcosms at 4°C by 20 days and at room temperature by 14 days. Nonculturable cells were viable for up to 270 days of incubation in microcosms. Resuscitation of A. butzleri cells from microcosms at both temperatures was achieved 9 days after nutrient addition.

Fera, M. T.; Maugeri, T. L.; Gugliandolo, C.; La Camera, E.; Lentini, V.; Favaloro, A.; Bonanno, D.; Carbone, M.

2008-01-01

309

Lease/Purchase: A Viable Alternative for Financing Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lease-purchase finance is a viable alternative for school districts that cannot or do not want to employ traditional financing techniques. Outlines the advantages and disadvantages of lease-purchase financing compared to outright purchase; operating leasing, which is taxable; and traditional tax-exempt bond financing. (MLF)

Demers, Denise

1989-01-01

310

Characteristics of Viable and Sustainable Workers for the Year 2015.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A two-round Delphi study was conducted to identify the characteristics of viable and sustainable employees in northeastern Tennessee in 2015. The Delphi panel selected for the study consisted of 25 experts who represented a cross-section of the businesses and communities in the 10-county area of northeastern Tennessee served by Walters State…

Dean, Brenda Pennington; West, Russell

311

Sensitive Rapid Detection Method for Viable Bacterial Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A rapid sensitive method for the detection of viable bacterial cells is described in which P32 as inorganic orthophosphate is used to label the cells. Factors affecting the uptake of P32 by cells as well as the sensitivity of the method have been explored...

R. A. MacLeod M. Light L. A. White J. F. Currie

1966-01-01

312

A new method for obtaining viable cells from dermal infiltrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental contact dermatitis has been induced in 2,4 dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) sensitized guinea pigs. The developing dermal infiltrate was excised and the infiltrating cells were obtained by mechanical extraction alone as well as by the combination with collagenase and elastase treatment. The most viable cells appeared in the elastase and mechanically extracted samples and the least in those subjected to mechanical

L. Molnár; J. M. Baló-Banga; J. Leibinger; K. Kiraly

1979-01-01

313

High speed flow cytometric separation of viable cells  

DOEpatents

Hematopoietic cell populations are separated to provide cell sets and subsets as viable cells with high purity and high yields, based on the number of original cells present in the mixture. High-speed flow cytometry is employed using light characteristics of the cells to separate the cells, where high flow speeds are used to reduce the sorting time.

Sasaki, Dennis T. (Mountain View, CA); Van den Engh, Gerrit J. (Seattle, WA); Buckie, Anne-Marie (Margate, GB)

1995-01-01

314

Total Viable Count of Microorganisms in the Infected Dental Pulp  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for estimating the total viable count of microorganisms in the infected dental pulp is described. The count obtainable using blood agar, tomato juice agar, or Sabouraud's agar solid media is about 106 per tooth. Anaerobes are more numerous than aerobes counted on the blood agar plates. It may be possible to apply this technique for evaluating the efficacy

E. S. Akpata

1974-01-01

315

Vector symbolic architectures are a viable alternative for Jackendoff's challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors, on the basis of brief arguments, have dismissed tensor networks as a viable response to Jackendoff's challenges. However, there are reasons to believe that connectionist approaches descended from tensor networks are actually very well suited to answering Jackendoff's challenges. I rebut their arguments for dismissing tensor networks and briefly compare the approaches.

Ross W. Gayler

2006-01-01

316

Commercial Fishing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is a curriculum framework for a program in commercial fishing to be taught in Florida secondary and postsecondary institutions. This outline covers the major concepts/content of the program, which is designed to prepare students for employment in occupations with titles such as net fishers, pot fishers, line fishers, shrimp boat…

Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

317

Using the Viable Systems Model to Structure a System Dynamics Mapping and Modeling Project for the Australian Taxation Office  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a case study of a major System Dynamics (SD) intervention in policy design in the Australian Taxation Office. The project, which lasted two years, tested a number of hypotheses regarding the application of Stafford Beer's Viable Systems Model (VSM) to the structure and process of the project. The paper reports that the success of the VSM within

Tim Haslett; Rod Sarah

2006-01-01

318

Investigation of hermetically sealed commercial LiNbO3 optical modulator for use in laser/LIDAR space-flight applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is the first in a series of publications to investigate the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components for space flight fiber laser transmitter systems and LIDAR (laser imaging detection and ranging) detection systems. In the current study, a hermetically sealed COTS LiNbO3 optical modulator is characterized for space flight applications. The modulator investigated was part of the family of "High-Extinction Ratio Modulators" with part number MXPE-LN from Photline Technologies in Besancon, France. Device performance was monitored during exposure to a Cobalt60 gamma-ray source. Results from the testing show little change in device operation for a total accumulated dose of 52 krad.

Thomes, William J., Jr.; LaRocca, Frank V.; Ott, Melanie N.; Jin, Xiaodan Linda; Chuska, Richard F.; MacMurphy, Shawn L.; Jamison, Tracee L.

2007-10-01

319

Evaluation of low-residue soldering for military and commercial applications: A report from the Low-Residue Soldering Task Force  

SciTech Connect

The LRSTF combined the efforts of industry, military, and government to evaluate low-residue soldering processes for military and commercial applications. These processes were selected for evaluation because they provide a means for the military to support the presidential mandate while producing reliable hardware at a lower cost. This report presents the complete details and results of a testing program conducted by the LRSTF to evaluate low-residue soldering for printed wiring assemblies. A previous informal document provided details of the test plan used in this evaluation. Many of the details of that test plan are contained in this report. The test data are too massive to include in this report, however, these data are available on disk as Excel spreadsheets upon request. The main purpose of low-residue soldering is to eliminate waste streams during the manufacturing process.

Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burress, R.V. [SEHO (United States)] [and others

1995-06-01

320

Fluorescence particle detector for real-time quantification of viable organisms in air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to detect viable organisms in air in real time is important in a number of applications. Detecting high levels of airborne organisms in hospitals can prevent post-operative infections and the spread of diseases. Monitoring levels of airborne viable organisms in pharmaceutical facilities can ensure safe production of drugs or vaccines. Monitoring airborne bacterial levels in meat processing plants can help to prevent contamination of food products. Monitoring the level of airborne organisms in bio-containment facilities can ensure that proper procedures are being followed. Finally, detecting viable organisms in real time is a key to defending against biological agent attacks. This presentation describes the development and performance of a detector, based on fluorescence particle counting technology, where an ultraviolet laser is used to count particles by light scattering and elicit fluorescence from specific biomolecules found only in living organisms. The resulting detector can specifically detect airborne particles containing living organisms from among the large majority of other particles normally present in air. Efforts to develop the core sensor technology, focusing on integrating an UV laser with a specially designed particle-counting cell will be highlighted. The hardware/software used to capture the information from the sensor, provide an alarm in the presence of an unusual biological aerosol content will also be described. Finally, results from experiments to test the performance of the detector will be presented.

Luoma, Greg; Cherrier, Pierre P.; Piccioni, Marc; Tanton, Carol; Herz, Steve; DeFreez, Richard K.; Potter, Michael; Girvin, Kenneth L.; Whitney, Ronald

2002-02-01

321

Real-time quantification of viable bacteria in liquid medium using infrared thermography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying viable bacteria in liquids is important in environmental, food processing, manufacturing, and medical applications. Since vegetative bacteria generate heat as a result of biochemical reactions associated with cellular functions, thermal sensing techniques, including infrared thermography (IRT), have been used to detect viable cells in biologic samples. We developed a novel method that extends the dynamic range and improves the sensitivity of bacterial quantification by IRT. The approach uses IRT video, thermodynamics laws, and heat transfer mechanisms to directly measure, in real-time, the amount of energy lost as heat from the surface of a liquid sample containing bacteria when the specimen cools to a lower temperature over 2 min. We show that the Energy Content (EC) of liquid media containing as few as 120 colony-forming units (CFU) of Escherichia coli per ml was significantly higher than that of sterile media (P < 0.0001), and that EC and viable counts were strongly positively correlated (r = 0.986) over a range of 120 to approximately 5 × 108 CFU/ml. Our IRT approach is a unique non-contact method that provides real-time bacterial enumeration over a wide dynamic range without the need for sample concentration, modification, or destruction. The approach could be adapted to quantify other living cells in a liquid milieu and has the potential for automation and high throughput.

Salaimeh, Ahmad A.; Campion, Jeffrey J.; Gharaibeh, Belal Y.; Evans, Martin E.; Saito, Kozo

2011-11-01

322

Commercial incineration demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described.

Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

1982-01-01

323

Commercial Overfishing and Property Rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Management of many commercial fisheries includes a struggle to avoid overfishing. Natural resource agencies fail in this struggle when the application of biological, sociological, or philosophical sciences fails. In addition, they fail because they underestimate the pervasiveness of greed and the power of commerce, not because they lack good intentions. Current strategies to manage commercial fishing include extending property rights

Paul J. Radomski

1999-01-01

324

Automatic detection of TV commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

TV advertising commercials are a critical marketing tool for many companies. Their interspersion within regular broadcast television programming can be entertaining, informing, annoying or a sales gold mine depending on one's viewpoint. As a result, there are two major reasons for being able to detect commercial segments within television broadcasts. These two applications' goals - at least indirectly - are

B. Satterwhite; O. Marques

2004-01-01

325

Enumeration of Viable Bacteria in the Marine Pelagic Environment  

PubMed Central

The low percentage of living bacteria commonly obtained when comparing viable counts with total direct counts in seawater could be due more to inappropriate techniques for appreciating the growth ability of living cells than to unadapted culture conditions. The most-probable-number counts in filtered seawater cultures and the microscopic counts of 4(prm1),6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI)-stained aggregate-forming units grown on black polycarbonate filters appeared significantly correlated to the direct counts. Both these techniques show that in the superficial and intermediate water masses, the living cells may constitute an important (frequently higher than 20%) but highly variable part of the total populations. These viable counts appear more realistic than the conventional CFU counts, which provide only 0.001 to 0.2% of the total counts.

Bianchi, A.; Giuliano, L.

1996-01-01

326

Evidence for viable, non-clonal but fatherless Boa constrictors  

PubMed Central

Parthenogenesis in vertebrates is considered an evolutionary novelty. In snakes, all of which exhibit genetic sex determination with ZZ : ZW sex chromosomes, this rare form of asexual reproduction has failed to yield viable female WW offspring. Only through complex experimental manipulations have WW females been produced, and only in fish and amphibians. Through microsatellite DNA fingerprinting, we provide the first evidence of facultative parthenogenesis in a Boa constrictor, identifying multiple, viable, non-experimentally induced females for the first time in any vertebrate lineage. Although the elevated homozygosity of the offspring in relation to the mother suggests that the mechanism responsible may be terminal fusion automixis, no males were produced, potentially indicating maternal sex chromosome hemizygosity (WO). These findings provide the first evidence of parthenogenesis in the family Boidae (Boas), and suggest that WW females may be more common within basal reptilian lineages than previously assumed.

Booth, Warren; Johnson, Daniel H.; Moore, Sharon; Schal, Coby; Vargo, Edward L.

2011-01-01

327

Scaling and application of commercial, feature-rich, modular mixed-signal technology platforms for large format ROICs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today's modular, mixed-signal CMOS process platforms are excellent choices for manufacturing of highly integrated, large-format read out integrated circuits (ROICs). Platform features, that can be used for both cooled and un-cooled ROIC applications, can include (1) quality passives such as 4fF?m2 stacked MIM capacitors for linearity and higher density capacitance per pixel, 1kOhm high-value poly-silicon resistors, 2.8?m thick metals for efficient power distribution and reduced I-R drop; (2) analog active devices such as low noise single gate 3.3V, and 1.8V/3.3V or 1.8V/5V dual gate configurations, 40V LDMOS FETs, and NPN and PNP devices, deep n-well for substrate isolation for analog blocks and digital logic; (3) tools to assist the circuit designer such as models for cryogenic temperatures, CAD assistance for metal density uniformity determination, statistical, X-sigma and PCM-based models for corner validation and to simulate design sensitivity, and (4) sub-field stitching for large die. The TowerJazz platform of technology for 0.50?m, 0.25?m and 0.18?m CMOS nodes, with features as described above, is described in detail in this paper.

Kar-Roy, Arjun; Racanelli, Marco; Howard, David; Miyagi, Glenn; Bowler, Mark; Jordan, Scott; Zhang, Tao; Krieger, William

2010-04-01

328

Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews published experimental and theoretical investigations of particle deposition from turbulent flows and considers the applicability of this body of work to the specific case of particle deposition from flows in the ducts of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Particle deposition can detrimentally affect the performance of HVAC systems and it influences the exposure of building occupants to a variety of air pollutants. The first section of this report describes the types of HVAC systems under consideration and discusses the components, materials and operating parameters commonly found in these systems. The second section reviews published experimental investigations of particle deposition rates from turbulent flows and considers the ramifications of the experimental evidence with respect to HVAC ducts. The third section considers the structure of turbulent airflows in ventilation ducts with a particular emphasis on turbulence investigations that have been used as a basis for particle deposition models. The final section reviews published literature on predicting particle deposition rates from turbulent flows.

Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

2002-06-01

329

Method to detect only viable cells in microbial ecology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propidium monoazide can limit the analysis of microbial communities derived from genetic fingerprints to viable cells with\\u000a intact cell membranes. However, PMA treatment cannot completely suppress polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification when\\u000a the targeted gene is too short. PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR was designed to overcome this problem.\\u000a Four experiments were performed to determine the limitation

Jian-Fei Luo; Wei-Tie Lin; Yong Guo

2010-01-01

330

Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools...?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay

J. Montain; J. M. Byrne

2010-01-01

331

Formation and resuscitation of viable but nonculturable Salmonella typhi.  

PubMed

Salmonella typhi is a pathogen that causes the human disease of typhoid fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state of S. typhi. Some samples were stimulated at 4°C or -20°C, while others were induced by different concentrations of CuSO4. Total cell counts remained constant throughout several days by acridine orange direct counting; however, plate counts declined to undetectable levels within 48 hours by plate counting at -20°C. The direct viable counts remained fairly constant at this level by direct viable counting. Carbon and nitrogen materials slowly decreased which indicated that a large population of cells existed in the VBNC state and entered the VBNC state in response to exposure to 0.01 or 0.015?mmol/L CuSO4 for more than 14 or 12 days, respectively. Adding 3% Tween 20 or 1% catalase enabled cells to become culturable again, with resuscitation times of 48?h and 24?h, respectively. The atomic force microscope results showed that cells gradually changed in shape from short rods to coccoids, and decreased in size when they entered the VBNC state. Further animal experiments suggested that resuscitated cells might regain pathogenicity. PMID:23509799

Zeng, Bin; Zhao, Guozhong; Cao, Xiaohong; Yang, Zhen; Wang, Chunling; Hou, Lihua

2012-12-26

332

Production of viable pigs from fetal somatic stem cells.  

PubMed

Fetal somatic stem cells (FSSCs) are a novel type of somatic stem cells that have recently been discovered in primary fibroblast cultures from pigs and other species. The goal of the present study was to produce viable piglets from FSSCs. NT complexes were prepared from both FSSCs and porcine fetal fibroblasts (pFF) to permit comparison of these two donor cell types. FSSCs from isolated attached colonies were compared with pFF in their ability to form blastocysts upon use in NT. Fusion and cleavage rates were similar between the two groups, while blastocyst rates were significantly higher when using pFF as donor cells. FSSCs of three different size categories derived from dissociation of spheroids yielded similar results. The use of FSSCs of 15-20 microm in size yielded similar cleavage and blastocyst rates as fetal fibroblasts. In the final experiment NT complexes produced from FSSCs were transferred to foster mothers. After transfer to prepubertal gilts, three of seven recipients established pregnancies and delivered seven piglets, of which three piglets were viable and showed normal development. Results for the first time demonstrate that FSSCs are able to produce cloned embryos, and that pregnancies can be established and viable piglets can be produced. PMID:17907947

Hornen, Nadine; Kues, Wilfried A; Carnwath, Joseph W; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Petersen, Björn; Hassel, Petra; Niemann, Heiner

2007-01-01

333

Towards viable computer systems: a set theory interpretation of ecological dependence within Beer's self-organizing viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented is research articulating a novel technology progressing resource management within self-organizing systems. Examining both Cybernetic and Autonomic Computing techniques we evolve a set-theory oriented, atomically-derived, emergent model that reflects an algorithmic decomposition of Beer's recursive, multi-agent Viable System Model, pertinent by its composition of multiple and independent entities, sharing one or more objectives. Integrated management promotes each sub-system as

R. J. Thompson; A. G. Laws; D. J. Reilly; A. Taleb-bendiab; David Llewellyn-jones

2009-01-01

334

Evaluation of a commercial, porous stainless steel as a prosthetic implant material.  

PubMed

In the course of evaluating various porous materials as candidates for prosthetic devices, a commercial stainless steel (316L) was found which was designed for porous filtration applications. Small bars (approximately to 3mm x 3mm x 20mm) were implanted in dog extremeties for periods of 10 to 15 weeks. The average tensile strength of the bone/(bone/metal) interface was found to be 0.975 kgf/mm2 (1380 psi) with no indication of variation with time of implantation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with X-ray energy dispersive (XRED) analysis indicates production of calcified bone in the bone/metal composite. Inherent strength and porosity characteristic combined with biocompatbility indicate that this commercially available meterial is a viable implant candidate for attachment to the skeletal system. PMID:454778

Skinner, H B; Davis, C M; Shackelford, J F; Lin, H J

1979-01-01

335

Army relevant Biological Hazards Detection with Commercial SERS substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an increasing need and challenge for early rapid and accurate detection, identification, and quantification of chemical, biological, and energetic hazards in many fields of interest (e.g., medical, environmental, industrial, and defense applications). Increasingly to meet these challenges, researchers are turning to interdisciplinary approaches combining spectroscopy with nanoscale platforms to create technologies that offer viable and novel solutions for today's sensing needs. One technology that has gained increasing popularity to meet these needs is surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). SERS is particularly advantageous as it does not suffer from interferences from water, requires little to no sample preparation, is robust and can be used in numerous environments, is relatively insensitive to the wavelength of excitation employed and produces a narrow-band spectral signature unique to the molecular vibrations of the analyte. SERS enhancements (chemical and electromagnetic) are typically observed on metalized nanoscale roughened surfaces. For ideal SERS sensing, a commercially available uniform and reproducible nanoscale surface demonstrating high sensitivity are desirable. Additionally, if these surfaces can be modified for the selective sensing of hazard materials, an ideal sensor platform for dynamic in field measurements can be imagined. In this proceedings paper, preliminary efforts towards the characterization and application of commercially available next generation Klarite substrates will be demonstrated. Additionally, efforts toward chemical modification of these substrates, through peptide recognition elements, can be used for the targeted sensing of hazardous materials.

Farrell, Mikella E.; Pellegrino, Paul M.

336

Commercial proteases: present and future.  

PubMed

This review presents a brief overview of the general categories of commercially used proteases, and critically surveys the successful strategies currently being used to improve the properties of proteases for various commercial purposes. We describe the broad application of proteases in laundry detergents, food processing, and the leather industry. The review also introduces the expanding development of proteases as a class of therapeutic agents, as well as highlighting recent progress in the field of protease engineering. The potential commercial applications of proteases are rapidly growing as recent technological advances are producing proteases with novel properties and substrate specificities. PMID:23318711

Li, Qing; Yi, Li; Marek, Peter; Iverson, Brent L

2013-01-11

337

Commercial incineration demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate

L. C. Borduin; A. S. Neuls

1981-01-01

338

Modulation of the endocannabinoid system in viable and non-viable first trimester pregnancies by pregnancy-related hormones  

PubMed Central

Background In early pregnancy, increased plasma levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) are associated with miscarriage through mechanisms that might affect the developing placenta or maternal decidua. Methods In this study, we compare AEA levels in failed and viable pregnancies with the levels of the trophoblastic hormones (beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG), progesterone (P4) and (pregnancy-associated placental protein-A (PAPP-A)) essential for early pregnancy success and relate that to the expression of the cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that modulate AEA levels. Results The median plasma AEA level in non-viable pregnancies (1.48 nM; n = 20) was higher than in viable pregnancies (1.21 nM; n = 25; P = 0.013), as were progesterone and beta-hCG levels (41.0 vs 51.5 ng/mL; P = 0.052 for P4 and 28,650 vs 6,560 mIU/L; P = 0.144 for beta-hCG, respectively, but were not statistically significant). Serum PAPP-A levels in the viable group were approximately 6.8 times lower than those in the non-viable group (1.82 vs 12.25 mg/L; P = 0.071), but again these differences were statistically insignificant. In the spontaneous miscarriage group, significant correlations between P4 and beta-hCG, P4 and PAPP-A and AEA and PAPP-A levels were observed. Simultaneously, immunohistochemical distributions of the two main cannabinoid receptors and the AEA-modifying enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), changed within both the decidua and trophoblast. Conclusions The association of higher AEA levels with early pregnancy failure and with beta-hCG and PAPP-A, but not with progesterone concentrations suggest that plasma AEA levels and pregnancy failure are linked via a mechanism that may involve trophoblastic beta-hCG, and PAPP-A, but not, progesterone production. Although the trophoblast, decidua and embryo contain receptors for AEA, the main AEA target in early pregnancy failure remains unknown.

2011-01-01

339

Viable f(R) gravity and future cosmological evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the so-called viable modified gravities is analyzed. This kind of gravity theories are characterized by a well behavior at local scales, where General Relativity is recovered, while the modified terms become important at the cosmological level, where the late-time accelerating era is reproduced, and even the inflationary phase. In the present work, the future cosmological evolution for one of these models is studied. A transition to the phantom phase is observed. Furthermore, the scalar-tensor equivalence of f(R) gravity is also considered, which provides important information concerning this kind of models.

Sáez-Gómez, Diego

2013-02-01

340

Viable butNonculturable Bacteria inDrinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes,Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Streptococcus faecalis, Micro- coccusflavus, Bacillus subtilis, andPseudomonas strains L2and719were tested fortheability togrow and maintain viability indrinking water.Microcosms were employed inthestudy tomonitor growthandsurvival byplate counts, acridine orangedirect counts(AODC),anddirect viable counts(DVC).Plate countsdropped belowthedetection limit within 7daysforallstrains exceptthose ofBaciUus andPseudomonas. Inall cases, theAODC didnotchange. TheDVC alsodidnotchange exceptthattheDVC,on average, were ca. 10-fold lower thantheAODC. Bacteria initially presented withadequate nutrient

RITAR. COLWELL

1991-01-01

341

Viable Palatini-f(R) cosmologies with generalized dark matter  

SciTech Connect

We study the formation of large-scale structure in universes dominated by dark matter and driven to accelerated expansion by f(R) gravity in the Palatini formalism. If the dark matter is cold, practically all of these models are ruled out because they fail to reproduce the observed matter power spectrum. We point out that if the assumption that dark matter is perfect and pressureless at all scales is relaxed, nontrivial alternatives to a cosmological constant become viable within this class of modified gravity models.

Koivisto, Tomi [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland, and Department of Physical Sciences, Helsinki University, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

2007-08-15

342

Database Tomography for Commercial Application.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Database tomography is a method for extracting themes and their relationships from text. The algorithms, employed begin with word frequency and word proximity analysis and build upon these results. When the word 'database' is used, think of medical or pol...

R. N. Kostoff H. J. Eberhart

1994-01-01

343

Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Muenchen on apples as affected by application of commercial fruit waxes.  

PubMed

Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Muenchen, and yeasts and molds on apples as affected by application of five commercial apple waxes was investigated. Red Delicious cv. apples at 21 degrees C were spot inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. Muenchen and spray coated with waxes. Apples sprayed with water served as controls. Apples were dried at either 21 or 55 degrees C for 2 min before subjecting to microbiological analysis after storage for 0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 weeks at 2 or 21 degrees C. Drying temperature did not significantly influence populations of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Muenchen. Waxing reduced populations E. coli O157:H7 and S. Muenchen by up to 1.48 log10 cfu/apple. Compared to untreated apples, treatment of apples with water or waxes resulted in significant (P < or = 0.05) reductions in populations of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Muenchen during storage at 2 degrees C. Reductions on waxed apples stored at 21 degrees C were not as marked compared to reductions on waxed apples stored at 2 degrees C. With the exception of one wax, drying temperature did not significantly influence populations of yeasts and molds. Mold populations were less affected by wax applications than were yeasts, and were detected in higher numbers on apples treated with three of the five waxes compared to populations recovered from untreated control apples. None of the waxes evaluated can be relied upon to kill or remove E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on apples. PMID:12160082

Kenney, Stephen J; Beuchat, Larry R

2002-08-25

344

15 CFR 971.203 - Commercial recovery plan.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial recovery plan. 971.203 Section...DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.203 Commercial recovery plan. (a)...

2013-01-01

345

76 FR 28799 - Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. USCG-2011-0371] Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee...applications for membership on the Commercial Fishing Safety Advisory Committee...relating to the safe operation of commercial fishing industry vessels....

2011-05-18

346

Production of viable cultures of Flavobacterium psychrophilum: approach and control.  

PubMed

Although the fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum is a major source of concern in salmonid hatcheries, few studies have been conducted on its pathogenicity. Difficulties are often experienced when trying to control or quantify standard procedures for in vitro culture of the bacterium. Plate enumeration and counting chamber enumeration combined with epifluorescent microscopy with fluorescent dyes determined that no more than 25% of the bacterial cells present in the cultures were able to produce colonies on agar media. This was strongly dependent upon different medium components. Tryptone-enriched Anacker and Ordal medium proved more suitable than tryptone-yeast extract-salts with skimmed milk. Adding horse serum and trace elements in controlled proportions offered the most reproducible results. Viable but nonculturable forms were apparently not responsible for the difficulties in production of F. psychrophilum, but the cells were highly susceptible to osmotic conditions. Improvements in the media and careful handling of the bacteria in isotonic suspension media resulted in predictable production of viable bacteria and allowed an absorbance/colony-forming-units relation curve to be established. PMID:10422696

Michel, C; Antonio, D; Hedrick, R P

1999-06-01

347

Substrata mechanical stiffness can regulate adhesion of viable bacteria.  

PubMed

The competing mechanisms that regulate adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and subsequent biofilm formation remain unclear, though nearly all studies have focused on the role of physical and chemical properties of the material surface. Given the large monetary and health costs of medical-device colonization and hospital-acquired infections due to bacteria, there is considerable interest in better understanding of material properties that can limit bacterial adhesion and viability. Here we employ weak polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) thin films comprised of poly(allylamine) hydrochloride (PAH) and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), assembled over a range of conditions, to explore the physicochemical and mechanical characteristics of material surfaces controlling adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria and subsequent colony growth. Although it is increasingly appreciated that eukaryotic cells possess subcellular structures and biomolecular pathways to sense and respond to local chemomechanical environments, much less is known about mechanoselective adhesion of prokaryotes such as these bacteria. We find that adhesion of viable S. epidermidis correlates positively with the stiffness of these polymeric substrata, independently of the roughness, interaction energy, and charge density of these materials. Quantitatively similar trends observed for wild-type and actin analogue mutant Escherichia coli suggest that these results are not confined to only specific bacterial strains, shapes, or cell envelope types. These results indicate the plausibility of mechanoselective adhesion mechanisms in prokaryotes and suggest that mechanical stiffness of substrata materials represents an additional parameter that can regulate adhesion of and subsequent colonization by viable bacteria. PMID:18452330

Lichter, Jenny A; Thompson, M Todd; Delgadillo, Maricela; Nishikawa, Takehiro; Rubner, Michael F; Van Vliet, Krystyn J

2008-05-02

348

Method to detect only viable cells in microbial ecology.  

PubMed

Propidium monoazide can limit the analysis of microbial communities derived from genetic fingerprints to viable cells with intact cell membranes. However, PMA treatment cannot completely suppress polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification when the targeted gene is too short. PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR was designed to overcome this problem. Four experiments were performed to determine the limitation of PMA treatment and to evaluate the suitability of the method by applying the following samples: (1) pure cultures of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Alcaligenes faecalis; (2) pond water samples spiked with heat-killed E. coli O157:H7 and E. aerogenes; (3) anaerobic sludge samples exposed to increasing heat stress; and (4) selected natural samples of estuarine sediment and lake mud. Results from the first two experiments show that PMA treatment cannot efficiently suppress dead cells from PCR amplification when the targeted gene is as short as 190 bp, however, the two-step nested PCR can overcome this problem. The last two experiments indicate the method that PMA treatment in combination with two-step nested PCR is useful for viable cells detection in microbial ecology. PMID:20024544

Luo, Jian-Fei; Lin, Wei-Tie; Guo, Yong

2009-12-19

349

Viable but nonrecoverable stage of Salmonella enteritidis in aquatic systems.  

PubMed

An environmental isolate (13- 1BB ) of Salmonella enteritidis serogroup C1 was inoculated into sterile Potomac River water microcosms to observe survival and culturability of the organism by employing acridine orange direct count, fluorescent antibody direct count, direct viable count, plate count on veal infusion agar and xylose lysine decarboxylase agar, and indirect enumeration by the most-probable-number method (MPN), using media selective for Salmonella. Loss of culturability on laboratory media was observed within 48 h. However, cultures could be "resuscitated" and cultured on solid media, following addition of nutrients to the microcosms . Cells, resuscitated 4 days after apparent "die-off" (0 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL) using plate count techniques, yielded numbers of cfu in the same order of magnitude as had been observed before the onset of nutrient limitation. Microscopic techniques for direct viable counting indicated that viability is maintained for as long as 60 days after depletion of nutrients, although attempts to culture these cells, by addition of nutrient, after 21 days yielded apparently sterile plates. Thus, longer periods of "dormancy" appear to require conditions other than simple nutrient addition for resumption of cell growth and division. PMID:6372975

Roszak, D B; Grimes, D J; Colwell, R R

1984-03-01

350

Monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus in ambient air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to recent SARS related issues (Science 300 (5624) 1394; Nature 423 (2003) 240; Science 300 (5627) 1966), the development of reliable airborne virus monitoring procedures has become galvanized by an exceptional sense of urgency and is presently in a high demand (In: Cox, C.S., Wathers, C.M. (Eds.), Bioaerosols Handbook, Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1995, pp. 247-267). Based on engineering control method (Aerosol Science and Technology 31 (1999) 249; 35 (2001) 852), which was previously applied to the removal of particles from gas carriers, a new personal bioaerosol sampler has been developed. Contaminated air is bubbled through porous medium submerged into liquid and subsequently split into multitude of very small bubbles. The particulates are scavenged by these bubbles, and, thus, effectively removed. The current study explores its feasibility for monitoring of viable airborne SARS virus. It was found that the natural decay of such virus in the collection fluid was around 0.75 and 1.76 lg during 2 and 4 h of continuous operation, respectively. Theoretical microbial recovery rates of higher than 55 and 19% were calculated for 1 and 2 h of operation, respectively. Thus, the new sampling method of direct non-violent collection of viable airborne SARS virus into the appropriate liquid environment was found suitable for monitoring of such stress sensitive virus.

Agranovski, Igor E.; Safatov, Alexander S.; Pyankov, Oleg V.; Sergeev, Alexander N.; Agafonov, Alexander P.; Ignatiev, Georgy M.; Ryabchikova, Elena I.; Borodulin, Alexander I.; Sergeev, Artemii A.; Doerr, Hans W.; Rabenau, Holger F.; Agranovski, Victoria

351

Clinical and sonographic management of viable hydatid liver cysts  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to review our 18-year experience in the treatment of viable hydatid liver cysts (HLCs) with double percutaneous aspiration and ethanol injection (D-PAI) and to provide indications for the clinical management of HLCs. Materials and methods From January 1989 to December 2007, 127 patients (100 males; 13–80 years) with 184 viable HLCs (137 univesicular, 47 multivesicular; 2.8–20 cm) underwent D-PAI. Results Ultrasonography (US) showed complete disappearance of 125/184 (68%) cysts; in the remaining 59 cases, an inactive solid (37 cases, 20%) or liquid pattern (22 cases, 12%) was observed with volume decreases of 50–80%. The final US pattern was unmodified during the follow-up in 96.8%. Local recurrences were observed in 5 patients (3.9%): 4 patients with 8 multivesicular cysts and 1 patient with a bilocular cyst (with a solid pattern on US) that ruptured into the biliary tree 2 years after the procedure and disappeared after endoscopic sphincterectomy. The mortality rate was 0.8%, and the overall morbidity was 8.6%. The mean hospital stay was 2.9 days. The time of healing for smaller cysts (<5 cm) was shorter than that of large cysts (?5 cm) (P < 0.001). Conclusion Our long-term results confirm the high effectiveness of D-PAI in the treatment of HLCs. These results suggest that multilocular cysts require closer follow-up than unilocular cysts.

Giorgio, A.; de Stefano, G.; Di Sarno, A.; Liorre, G.; Scognamiglio, U.; Iaquinta, S.; Mariniello, A.; Giorgio, V.; de Stefano, M.; Perrotta, A.

2008-01-01

352

Commercialization of nanotechnology.  

PubMed

The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization. PMID:20049790

Hobson, David W

353

CASH 2021: Commercial access and space habitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Issues about commercialization of space have been a growing concern in the past decade for the space community. This paper focuses on the work from a team of 51 students attending the Summer Session Program of the International Space University in Bremen, Germany. CASH 2021 (Commercial Access and Space Habitation) documents a plan that identifies commercial opportunities for space utilization that will extend human presence in space, and will chart the way forward for the next 20 years. The group selected four commercial sectors that show the most promise for the future: tourism, entertainment, space system service, assembly and debris removal, and research and development/production. The content of this document presents the results of their research. Historical activities in each of the commercial sectors are reviewed along with the current market situation. To provide a coherent background for future commercialization possibilities a scenario has been developed. This scenario includes a postulated upon ideal future and includes social, political and economic factors that may affect the space industry over the timeline of the study. The study also presents a roadmap, within the limited optimistic scenario developed, for the successful commercialization of space leading to future human presence in space. A broad range of commercially viable opportunities, not only within the current limits of the International Space Station, but also among the many new developments that are expected by 2021 are discussed.

Aldrin, Andrew; Amara, Adam; Aris, Lodewijk; Baierl, Nida; Beatty, Patrick; Beaulieu, Catherine; Behnke, Torsten; Castegini, Roberta; Chauhan, Amitabh; Cojanis, Philip; Dayawansa, Pelawa; Diop, Marie; Eito, Kinya; Engle, Steve; Ferretti, Stefano; Gassama, Hamet; Genova, Bojana; Goulding, Colin; Janjua, Jameel; Jansaeng, Thidarat; Jousset, Frédéric; Kopik, Anatoly; Laurin, Catherine; Leggatt, Jason; Li, Hengnian; Mezzadri, Monica; Miura, Amane; Nolet, Simon; Ogami, Satoshi; Patry, Johanne; Patten, Laryssa; Payerne, Cyril; Peer, Guy; Prampolini, Marco; Rheaume, Caroline; Saary, Joan; Spehar, Daniela; Sufi, Atiya; Sun, Baosheng; Thompson, J. Barry; Thomson, Ward; Trautner, Roland; Tursunmuratov, Murat; Venet, Vrata; Wilems, Elizabeth; Wilson, Helen; Wittwer, Karl; Wokke, Frank; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Shaobin; Zilioli, Ilaria

2002-07-01

354

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption...microorganism shall be an authentic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...

2009-07-01

355

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption...microorganism shall be an authentic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...

2008-07-01

356

40 CFR 180.1011 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption from... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner; exemption...microorganism shall be an authentic strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner...

2010-07-01

357

Commercial incineration demonstration  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985.

Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

1981-01-01

358

Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

2010-12-01

359

Scanning tunneling microscope lithography: a viable lithographic technology?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A steered beam lithography will represent an essential part of the technology to meet the future need for ultra-high resolution mask making and direct write. Conventional high voltage e-beam lithography is being developed to meet these challenges. However, there are a number of physical limitations (proximity effects, resist sensitivity) which must be overcome. To do so will prove to be extremely expensive if in fact these problems can be overcome. There are significant advantages in going to extremely low energies in e-beam lithography. Proximity effects are eliminated although the electron-optics become more exacting. The need to focus a low energy e-beam can be eliminated by maintaining a sharp tip close to a surface as in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). We have demonstrated technologically useful lithography with the STM operated with 4 - 50 V between tip and sample. Patterns have been defined in e-beam resists and by selective oxidation of semiconductor substrates under the action of the STM tip. In both cases the pattern can be transferred into the substrate with a dry etch. Sub 50 nm resolution is routine on a variety of substrates. A viable lithographic technology has been demonstrated in the research laboratory. However, several key issues must be addressed to develop a technologically viable lithography system compatible with existing microfabrication practice. These issues include: registration using the imaging properties of the STM for alignment, pattern accuracy and throughput. Advances in STM speed are described and suggestions made for improving lithographic performance with multiple sharp tips (each with an independent servo loop). The potential pay-off is high as a low voltage lithography tool will involve significantly less capital investment (and support cost) than the next generations of high voltage e-beam lithography tools.

Marrian, Christie R.; Dobisz, Elizabeth A.; Dagata, John A.

1992-07-01

360

Intracellular integration of synthetic nanostructures with viable cells for controlled biochemical manipulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the integration of vertically aligned carbon nanofibre (VACNF) elements with the intracellular domains of viable cells for controlled biochemical manipulation. Deterministically synthesized VACNFs were modified with either adsorbed or covalently-linked plasmid DNA and were subsequently inserted into cells. Post insertion viability of the cells was demonstrated by continued proliferation of the interfaced cells and long-term (> 22 day) expression of the introduced plasmid. Adsorbed plasmids were typically desorbed in the intracellular domain and segregated to progeny cells. Covalently bound plasmids remained tethered to nanofibres and were expressed in interfaced cells but were not partitioned into progeny, and gene expression ceased when the nanofibre was no longer retained. This provides a method for achieving a genetic modification that is non-inheritable and whose extent in time can be directly and precisely controlled. These results demonstrate the potential of VACNF arrays as an intracellular interface for monitoring and controlling subcellular and molecular phenomena within viable cells for applications including biosensors, in vivo diagnostics, and in vivo logic devices.

McKnight, Timothy E.; Melechko, Anatoli V.; Griffin, Guy D.; Guillorn, Michael A.; Merkulov, Vladimir I.; Serna, Francisco; Hensley, Dale K.; Doktycz, Mitchel J.; Lowndes, Douglas H.; Simpson, Michael L.

2003-05-01

361

Improved Direct Viable Count Procedure for Quantitative Estimation of Bacterial Viability in Freshwater Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct viable count (DVC) procedure was developed which clearly and easily discriminates the viability of bacterial cells. In this quantitative DVC (qDVC) procedure, viable cells are selectively lysed by spheroplast formation caused by incubation with antibiotics and glycine. This glycine effect leads to swollen cells with a very loose cell wall. The viable cells then are lysed easily by

DAISAKU YOKOMAKU; NOBUYASU YAMAGUCHI; MASAO NASU

2000-01-01

362

9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section...26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. Each serial...required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be tested as...

2010-01-01

363

9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section...26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. Each serial...required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be tested as...

2009-01-01

364

9 CFR 113.26 - Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. 113.26 Section...26 Detection of viable bacteria and fungi except in live vaccine. Each serial...required to be free of viable bacteria and fungi, they shall also be tested as...

2013-01-01

365

9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section...Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise...tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section. A...

2013-01-01

366

9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section...Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise...tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section. A...

2010-01-01

367

9 CFR 113.27 - Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. 113.27 Section...Detection of extraneous viable bacteria and fungi in live vaccines. Unless otherwise...tested for extraneous viable bacteria and fungi as prescribed in this section. A...

2009-01-01

368

Challenges of future aircraft propulsion: A review of distributed propulsion technology and its potential application for the all electric commercial aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper highlights the role of distributed propulsion technology for future commercial aircraft. After an initial historical perspective on the conceptual aspects of distributed propulsion technology and a glimpse at numerous aircraft that have taken distributed propulsion technology to flight, the focal point of the review is shifted towards a potential role this technology may entail for future commercial aircraft. Technological limitations and challenges of this specific technology are also considered in combination with an all electric aircraft concept, as means of predicting the challenges associated with the design process of a next generation commercial aircraft.

Gohardani, Amir S.; Doulgeris, Georgios; Singh, Riti

2011-07-01

369

Characterization of Exposure to Low Levels of Viable Penicillium chrysogenum Conidia and Allergic Sensitization Induced by a Protease Allergen Extract from Viable P. chrysogenum Conidia in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous evidence by our laboratory has shown that mice inoculated with viable Penicillium chrysogenum conidia or spores at levels comparable to those found in contaminated buildings induced spore antigen-specific allergic responses. We proposed that mice exposed to low levels of viable P. chrysogenum conidia would not develop allergic symptoms. We also hypothesized that the symptoms induced by high numbers

Christopher J. Schwab; J. Danny Cooley; Trevor Brasel; Cynthia A. Jumper; Suzanne C. Graham; David C. Straus

2003-01-01

370

Is viability still viable after the STICH trial?  

PubMed

Stunning and hibernation represent two different forms of tissue viability identifiable in acute coronary syndromes and chronic ischaemic cardiomyopathy, respectively. Functional recovery occurs spontaneously with myocardial stunning, while it generally follows revascularization in case of hibernating myocardium. Low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography is an accurate modality for identifying myocardial stunning and provides important information on ventricular remodelling after both systemic thrombolysis and primary angioplasty. In patients with conservatively treated infarction, the prognostic significance of viability by dobutamine stress echocardiography correlates with residual pump function. Substantial contractile reserve is predictive of favourable outcome in patients with poor but not in those with preserved or slightly reduced left ventricular function. Non-invasive assessment of coronary flow reserve with transthoracic Doppler echocardiography of the left anterior descending coronary artery allows to distinguish between necrotic and stunned myocardium and predicts ventricular remodelling following primary angioplasty. Resting echocardiographic examination can provide information on hibernating myocardium. In particular, systolic thickening <7 mm, restrictive filling pattern, and high end-systolic volume are predictive of no viability. Compared with nuclear imaging, dobutamine stress echocardiography is more specific for predicting functional recovery, less expensive, more generally available and radiation-free. A large body of evidence collected over the years demonstrates the favourable prognostic impact of revascularizing extensive myocardial territories which are found viable at dobutamine stress echocardiography in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy. The prognostic implications of viability-guided revascularization have been clearly established in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. However, the prognostic value of myocardial viability has been questioned by the results of the STICH trial that did not demonstrate any advantage of survival in the patients with a large extent of myocardial viability undergoing revascularization. Is the end of a paradigm that deeply influenced clinical practice so far or just a neutral result that can be ignored due to the several limitations of study design? In the present review, we will address the main advantages and limitations of ultrasounds for the evaluation of myocardial viability and try to demonstrate that viability is still viable. PMID:22080451

Cortigiani, Lauro; Bigi, Riccardo; Sicari, Rosa

2011-11-11

371

Designing viable business models for context-aware mobile services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technologies of 3G and beyond open up new opportunities to develop and commercialize context-aware services that utilize information like user location and social context. Although initial expectations were high, the adoption and diffusion of context-aware services have thus far been limited. Existing literature points to failing business models to explain part of the disappointing uptake. However, most authors focus on

Mark De Reuver; Timber Haaker

2009-01-01

372

Pattern of growth in viable f(R) cosmologies  

SciTech Connect

We study the evolution of linear perturbations in metric f(R) models of gravity and identify a potentially observable characteristic scale-dependent pattern in the behavior of cosmological structures. While at the background level viable f(R) models must closely mimic Lambda Cold Dark Matter, the differences in their prediction for the growth of large scale structures can be sufficiently large to be seen with future weak lensing surveys. While working in the Jordan frame, we perform an analytical study of the growth of structures in the Einstein frame, demonstrating the equivalence of the dynamics in the two frames. We also provide a physical interpretation of the results in terms of the dynamics of an effective dark energy fluid with a nonzero shear. We find that the growth of structure in f(R) is enhanced, but that there are no small scale instabilities associated with the additional attractive ''fifth force.'' We then briefly consider some recently proposed observational tests of modified gravity and their utility for detecting the f(R) pattern of structure growth.

Pogosian, Levon [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Silvestri, Alessandra [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 13244 (United States)

2008-01-15

373

The elusive minimum viable population size for white sturgeon  

SciTech Connect

Biological conservation of sturgeon populations is a concern for many species. Those responsible for managing the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and similar species are interested in identifying extinction thresholds to avoid. Two thresholds that exist in theory are the minimum viable population size (MVP) and minimum amount of suitable habitat. In this paper, we present both model and empirical estimates of these thresholds. We modified a population viability analysis (PVA) model for white sturgeon to include two new Allee mechanisms. Despite this, PVA-based MVP estimates were unrealistically low compared with empirical estimates unless opportunities for spawning were assumed to be less frequent. PVA results revealed a trade-off between MVP and habitat thresholds; smaller populations persisted in longer river segments and vice versa. Our empirical analyses suggested (1) a MVP range based on population trends from 1,194 to 27,700 individuals, and (2) a MVP estimate of 4,000 individuals based on recruitment. Long-term historical population surveys are needed for more populations to pinpoint an MVP based on trends, whereas the available data were sufficient to estimate MVP based on recruitment. Beyond the MVP, we developed a hierarchical model for population status based on empirical data. Metapopulation support was the most important predictor of population health, followed by the length of free-flowing habitat, with habitat thresholds at 26 and 150 km. Together, these results suggest that habitat and connectivity are important determinants of population status that likely influence the site-specific MVP thresholds.

Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Lepla, Ken B. [Idaho Power Company; Van Winkle, Webb [Van Windle Environmental Consulting; James, Mr Brad [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife; McAdam, Dr Steve [University of British Columbia, Vancouver

2010-01-01

374

Viable supersymmetric model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an electroweak model which is compatible with the UV insensitive anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. The model is an extension of the next to minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) by adding vectorlike matter fields which can drive the soft scalar masses of the singlet Higgs field negative and the successful electroweak symmetry breaking is achieved. Viable parameter regions are found to preserve perturbativity of all the coupling constants up to the Planck scale. With this success, the model becomes a perfect candidate of physics beyond the standard model without the flavor changing neutral current and CP problem. The cosmology is also quite interesting. The lightest neutralino is the wino which is a perfect cold dark matter candidate assuming the nonthermal production from the gravitino decay. There is no gravitino problem because it decays before the big-bang nucleosynthesis era, and thus the thermal leptogenesis works. The cosmological domain wall problem inherent in the NMSSM is absent since the Z3 symmetry is broken by the QCD instanton effect in the presence of the vectorlike quarks. We also briefly comment on a possible solution to the strong CP problem à la the Nelson-Barr mechanism.

Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi

2005-04-01

375

Rapid isolation of intact, viable fetal cartilage models  

SciTech Connect

A rapid procedure is described for the isolation of viable, intact, femoral cartilage models (humeri and femora) obtained from pregnant rats on the 18th day of gestation. Viability of these models is demonstrated in an in vitro system where the incorporation of /sup 35/S-sulfate was linear with time of incubation and with numbers of cartilage models utilized. Treatment of cartilage models with ice-cold trichloroacetic acid and a boiling water bath prior to incubation with radiolabel, reduced the amount of radioactivity incorporated to 1.3% of that observed for models incubated by routine procedures. Furthermore, digestion of cartilage model homogenates with protease yielded a supernatant from which 51% to 57% of the radioactivity was precipitated as GAG. This method may also be used to isolate fetal cartilage models as early as the 16th day of gestation. with this system, specific biochemical parameters of mammalian fetal chondrogenesis may be surveyed in normally and abnormally developing fetal cartilage free of surrounding soft tissue.

Schmidt, R.R.; Chepenik, K.P.; Paynton, B.V.; Cotler, J.M.

1982-04-01

376

A viable supersymmetric model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation  

SciTech Connect

We propose an electroweak model which is compatible with the UV insensitive anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. The model is an extension of the NMSSM by adding vector-like matter fields which can drive the soft scalar masses of the singlet Higgs field negative and the successful electroweak symmetry breaking is achieved. Viable parameter regions are found to preserve perturbativity of all the coupling constants up to the Planck scale. With this success, the model becomes a perfect candidate of physics beyond the standard model without the FCNC and CP problem. The cosmology is also quite interesting. The lightest neutralino is the wino which is a perfect cold dark matter candidate assuming the non-thermal production from the gravitino decay. There is no gravitino problem because it decays before the BBN era, and thus the thermal leptogenesis works. The cosmological domain wall problem inherent in the NMSSM is absent since the Z_3 symmetry is broken by the QCD instanton effect in the presence of the vector-like quarks. We also briefly comment on a possible solution to the strong CP problem a la the Nelson-Barr mechanism.

Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi

2004-12-14

377

Colourful male guppies produce faster and more viable sperm.  

PubMed

In guppies (Poecilia reticulata) precopulatory sexual selection (via female choice) and post-copulatory selection (via sperm competition) both favour males with relatively high levels of carotenoid (orange) pigmentation, suggesting that colourful males produce more competitive ejaculates. Here we test whether there is a positive association between male orange pigmentation and sperm quality. Our analysis of sperm quality focused on sperm swimming speeds (using CASA: computer-assisted sperm analysis to estimate three parameters of sperm velocity in vitro), sperm viability (proportion of live sperm per stripped ejaculate) and sperm lengths. We found that males with relatively large areas of orange pigmentation had significantly faster and more viable sperm than their less ornamented counterparts, suggesting a possible link between dietary carotenoid intake and sperm quality. By contrast, we found no relationship between sperm length (head length and total sperm length) and male phenotype. These findings, in conjunction with previous work showing that highly ornamented male guppies sire higher quality offspring, suggest that female preference for colourful males and sperm competition work in concert to favour intrinsically higher quality males. PMID:16910988

Locatello, L; Rasotto, M B; Evans, J P; Pilastro, A

2006-09-01

378

Oral vitamin D, still a viable treatment option for psoriasis.  

PubMed

Vitamin D as a topical treatment has become one of the mainstays for treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. Oral vitamin D on the other hand has for the most part become a forgotten option. But a review of the literature on oral vitamin D as a treatment for psoriasis reveals that this treatment is efficacious. The main side effect of this therapy is hypercalcemia, which appears to be easily monitored and avoidable with proper dosing and monitoring. The literature also suggests a correlation between low levels of serum vitamin D in this patient population associated with increased severity of disease involvement. In addition, oral vitamin D improves psoriatic arthropathy. Moreover, vitamin D has been proven to have many health benefits such as prevention of cancer, improved cardiovascular health among many others. Psoriatic patients as a population are at increased risk of developing adverse health complications such as cardiovascular disease, and oral vitamin D may prove to be of benefit in this population. Oral vitamin D is inexpensive and easily available. It is still a viable option and should not be forgotten as a possible treatment for psoriasis. PMID:22103655

Kamangar, Faranak; Koo, John; Heller, Misha; Lee, Eric; Bhutani, Tina

2012-01-21

379

Viable supersymmetric model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation  

SciTech Connect

We propose an electroweak model which is compatible with the UV insensitive anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. The model is an extension of the next to minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) by adding vectorlike matter fields which can drive the soft scalar masses of the singlet Higgs field negative and the successful electroweak symmetry breaking is achieved. Viable parameter regions are found to preserve perturbativity of all the coupling constants up to the Planck scale. With this success, the model becomes a perfect candidate of physics beyond the standard model without the flavor changing neutral current and CP problem. The cosmology is also quite interesting. The lightest neutralino is the wino which is a perfect cold dark matter candidate assuming the nonthermal production from the gravitino decay. There is no gravitino problem because it decays before the big-bang nucleosynthesis era, and thus the thermal leptogenesis works. The cosmological domain wall problem inherent in the NMSSM is absent since the Z{sub 3} symmetry is broken by the QCD instanton effect in the presence of the vectorlike quarks. We also briefly comment on a possible solution to the strong CP problem a la the Nelson-Barr mechanism.

Ibe, Masahiro [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo (Japan); Kitano, Ryuichiro [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Murayama, Hitoshi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2005-04-01

380

The Heating of the ICM: Energy Crisis and Viable Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray observations indicate that non-gravitational processes play a key role in the thermodynamics of the Intra Cluster Medium (ICM). The effect of non-gravitational processes is imprinted in the ICM as an entropy minimum, whose effects are visible in the Luminosity-Temperature relation and in the Entropy-Temperature relation. However, the X-ray emission alone cannot discriminate between different mechanisms and sources of heating. There are no answers at present to the following questions: how much non-gravitational energy per baryons is present in the ICM? When was this energy injected? Which are the sources of heating? The embarrassment in front of these questions is amplified by the fact that the most viable sources of heating, SNae and stellar winds, seem to be inefficient in bringing the ICM to the observed entropy level. We may call it the energy crisis. Here we review the main aspects of this crisis, listing possible solutions, including other sources, like AGNs and Radio Galaxies, or other mechanisms, like large scale shocks and selective cooling.

Tozzi, P.

381

Viable cells are a requirement for in vitro cartilage calcification.  

PubMed

It is a common belief that chondrocyte death must precede calcification in the growth plate. To challenge this dogma, cell devitalization was induced in an in vitro model that mimics in situ cartilage calcification. Chick limb-bud mesenchymal cells, plated in micromass culture, differentiate to form a cartilaginous matrix which mineralizes in the presence of inorganic or organic phosphate. The mineral formed resembles physiologic mineral in crystal size, composition, and distribution. Killing cells by water lysis, ethanol fixation, freeze-thawing, trypsinization, or impairing their function by oligomycin treatment prior to the time at which mineralization commenced, prevented mineral deposition. In contrast, devitalizing cells by any of these techniques after mineralization commenced resulted in dystrophic calcification (excessive, randomly distributed mineral of larger than physiologic crystal size). Based on analyses of 45Ca uptake, FT-IR microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy, it is concluded that the presence of viable cells is obligatory for physiologic cartilage calcification in the differentiating chick limb-bud mesenchymal cell culture system. PMID:8852573

Boskey, A L; Doty, S B; Stiner, D; Binderman, I

1996-03-01

382

Lysis of Viable Rumen Bacteria in Bovine Rumen Fluid  

PubMed Central

Streptococcus bovis and Butyrivibrio sp. were labeled with thymidine-methyl-3H, washed, and resuspended in rumen fluid or rumen fluid fractions obtained from Holstein and Jersey cows fed alfalfa hay once daily. Factors affecting the lytic activity found in untreated rumen fluid were examined. Day to day variation and differences before and after feeding were observed for the same cow. There were also differences between cows on the same day. For a given rumen fluid, the rate of release of label was roughly proportional to the number of labeled cells present over a 100-fold range in concentration. Removal of protozoa largely abolished the lytic action of fresh rumen fluid for S. bovis, but some soluble lytic activity remained. Mixed rumen protozoa added to media containing labeled S. bovis caused label to appear in solution. In a sample of rumen fluid containing 4.3 × 104 protozoa/ml 5.2% of the S. bovis population were destroyed by protozoa per hr. The mean rate of destruction for 12 runs on whole rumen fluid was 8.7% per hr with a standard deviation of 6.05. Parallel experiments with Butyrivibrio indicated that soluble lytic factors were more important for this organism. They could be destroyed by autoclaving and were generated when viable rumen bacteria were resuspended in autoclaved rumen fluid. The lysis of S. bovis and Butyrivibrio, at equal cell densities, by mixed rumen protozoa was compared in 30% rumen fluid media, and Butyrivibrio appeared to be more readily lysed than S. bovis.

Jarvis, B. D. W.

1968-01-01

383

Rebound peer review: a viable recourse for aggrieved authors?  

PubMed

Scholarly peer review represents the linchpin of academic publishing. Recognized benefits of the peer review system are manifold. Critics raise several valid concerns that deserve attention. Several studies show that the current peer review system lacks robustness and is subject to bias in favor of well-established research groups and "mainstream" theories. Hypotheses that harmonize with that of the leaders in the field are more likely to be accepted for publication in prestigious journals than heretic or radical ones. Then, there is the risk posed by the potentially unscrupulous reviewer. Alternatives to traditional peer review have been tried but the outcomes fall much short of expectations. Postreview rejection can be equally frustrating for the author and editor particularly when they are victims of limitations of the blinded forms of review. To provide recourse for authors who felt that their work has been rejected not because of the quality of science but because of the constraints of the peer review system, ARS introduces a rebound track for peer review ( www.liebertpub.com/ars ). The rebound peer review track is a two-tier process that represents a hybrid of partially blinded and open peer review systems. The goal is to make sure that every author has the opportunity to rescue their rejected work which they feel may have been victimized by the glitches of the current peer review system. I invite affected authors to make full use of this experimental mechanism so we know whether the rebound peer review should prevail as a viable recourse. PMID:22098370

Sen, Chandan K

2011-12-07

384

Dosimetric verification and clinical evaluation of a new commercially available Monte Carlo-based dose algorithm for application in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern cancer treatment techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), have greatly increased the demand for more accurate treatment planning (structure definition, dose calculation, etc) and dose delivery. The ability to use fast and accurate Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculations within a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) in the clinical setting is now becoming

Margarida Fragoso; Ning Wen; Sanath Kumar; Dezhi Liu; Samuel Ryu; Benjamin Movsas; Ajlouni Munther; Indrin J. Chetty

2010-01-01

385

A rapid and simple determination of protoberberine alkaloids in cortex phellodendri by 1H NMR and its application for quality control of commercial traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huangbai (cortex Phellodendri, the dried bark of Phellodendron amurense or Phellodendron chinense) is one of the important traditional Chinese medicines. Protoberberine alkaloids were reported to contribute to the biological activity of this species. A highly specific and sensitive method using 1H NMR has been developed for the quantitative determination of protoberberine alkaloids in Phellodendron species and their commercial traditional Chinese

Chia-Ying Li; Hsin-Jung Lu; Chung-Hua Lin; Tian-Shung Wu

2006-01-01

386

Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part I: Initial characterizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating commercial Li-ion batteries presents some unique benefits. One of them is to use cells made from established fabrication process and form factor, such as those offered by the 18650 cylindrical configuration, to provide a common platform to investigate and understand performance deficiency and aging mechanism of target chemistry. Such an approach shall afford us to derive relevant information without

Matthieu Dubarry; Cyril Truchot; Mikaël Cugnet; Bor Yann Liaw; Kevin Gering; Sergiy Sazhin; David Jamison; Christopher Michelbacher

2011-01-01

387

Commercial researcher perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein crystallography--a research tool used to study the structure of the complex building blocks of living systems--has a lot to gain from space-based research. In order to know how a protein works in the human body, researchers must understand its molecular structure. Researchers have identified 150,000 different proteins in the body, but they now know the structure of less than a third of them. The only viable technique for analyzing the structure of these proteins is x-ray diffraction of the proteins in their crystal form. The better the quality of a protein crystal, the more useful it is to researchers who are trying to delineate its structure. The microgravity environment of space allows protein crystals to grow nearly undisturbed by convection and other gravity-driven forces that cause flaws to form in them on the ground. In space, lack of convection enables protein crystals to grow more slowly than they do on Earth, and the slower a protein crystal grows, the fewer flaws it will have. Protein crystal growth experiments have already flown on 14 Space Shuttle missions. This year's USML-1 Spacelab mission included protein crystal growth experiments conducted for commercial researchers. The results of protein crystal experiments flown thus far have been larger crystals with more uniform morphologies. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (A NASA-cosponsored CCDS) currently builds flight hardware to meet researchers' needs and handles sample loading and retrieval for flight experiments. Protein crystallography enables 'rational drug design': the development of drugs that bind only with the target protein and, hence, do not cause side effects. For example, pharmaceutical companies presently are interested in developing drugs that can inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), a protein that plays a role in auto-immune diseases. To continue these kinds of investigations, researchers need a constant supply of protein crystals that are as free of flaws as possible. Space Station Freedom will provide the kind of research environment that will enable the production of such supplies. In addition, Freedom will provide the kind of long-duration facility required by protein crystal researchers: 40 percent of proteins require more than two weeks to crystallize.

Delucas, Larry

388

Messenger RNA-based RT-PCR detection of viable Salmonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of our study was to investigate whether certain regions in the rpoD gene of Salmonella were suited for the RT-PCR detection of viable Salmonella cells. We performed RT-PCR on RNA extracted from viable, and heat- or ethanol-killed Salmonella cells. Using RT-PCR, RNA was easily detected in viable cells. For the heat-killed cells mRNA was undetectable after 1h when

Nancy Rijpens; Geert Jannes; Lieve Herman

2002-01-01

389

Kaluza-Klein models: Can we construct a viable example?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Kaluza-Klein models with toroidal compactification of the extra dimensions, we investigate soliton solutions of Einstein equation. The nonrelativistic gravitational potential of these solitons exactly coincides with the Newtonian one. We obtain the formulas for perihelion shift, deflection of light, time delay of radar echoes and post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters. Using the constraint on PPN parameter ?, we find that the solitonic parameter k should be very big: |k|?2.3×104. We define a soliton solution which corresponds to a pointlike mass source. In this case the soliton parameter k=2, which is clearly contrary to this restriction. A similar problem with the observations takes place for static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with the dustlike equation of state in all dimensions. The common for both of these models is the same (dustlike) equations of state in our three dimensions and in the extra dimensions. All dimensions are treated at equal footing. This is the crucial point. To be in agreement with observations, it is necessary to break the symmetry (in terms of equations of state) between the external/our and internal spaces. It takes place for black strings which are particular examples of solitons with k??. For such k, black strings are in concordance with the observations. Moreover, we show that they are the only solitons which are at the same level of agreement with the observations as in general relativity. Black strings can be treated as perfect fluid with dustlike equation of state p0=0 in the external/our space and very specific equation of state p1=-(1/2)? in the internal space. The latter equation is due to negative tension in the extra dimension. We also demonstrate that dimension 3 for the external space is a special one. Only in this case we get the latter equation of state. We show that the black string equations of state satisfy the necessary condition of the internal space stabilization. Therefore, black strings are good candidates for a viable model of astrophysical objects (e.g., Sun) if we can provide a satisfactory explanation of negative tension for particles constituting these objects.

Eingorn, Maxim; Zhuk, Alexander

2011-02-01

390

Airborne viable, non-viable, and allergenic fungi in a rural agricultural area of India: a 2-year study at five outdoor sampling stations.  

PubMed

The information on airborne allergenic fungal flora in rural agricultural areas is largely lacking. Adequate information is not available to the bioaerosol researchers regarding the choice of single versus multiple sampling stations for the monitoring of both viable and non-viable airborne fungi. There is no long-term study estimating the ratios of viable and non-viable fungi in the air and earlier studies did not focus on the fractions of airborne allergenic fungi with respect to the total airborne fungal load. To fill these knowledge gaps, volumetric paired assessments of airborne viable and non-viable fungi were performed in five outdoor sampling stations during two consecutive years in a rural agricultural area of India. Samples were collected at 10-day intervals by the Burkard Personal Slide Sampler and the Andersen Two-Stage Viable Sampler. The data on the concentrations of total and individual fungal types from five stations and 2 different years were analyzed and compared by statistical methods. The allergenicity of the prevalent airborne viable fungi was estimated by the skin-prick tests of >100 rural allergy patients using the antigenic fungal extracts from isolates collected with the Andersen sampler. The ranges of total fungal spore concentration were 82-2365 spores per cubic meter of air (spores/m3) in the first sampling year and 156-2022 spores/m3 in the second sampling year. The concentration ranges of viable fungi were 72-1796 colony-forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m3) in the first sampling year and 155-1256 CFU/m3 in the second sampling year. No statistically significant difference was observed between the total spore data of the 2 years, however, the data between five stations showed a significant difference (P<0.0001). No statistically significant difference existed between stations and years with respect to the concentration of viable fungi. When the data of individual allergenic fungal concentrations were compared between stations and years, no statistically significant difference was observed in all cases except for Aspergillus japonicus and Rhizopus nigricans, which showed significant difference in case of stations and years, respectively. The ratios between the total fungal spores collected by the Burkard sampler and the viable fungi collected by the Andersen sampler from all sampling stations ranged between 0.29 and 7.61. The antigenic extracts of eight prevalent viable airborne fungi (A. flavus, A. japonicus, A. fumigatus, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Curvularia pallescens, Fusarium roseum, and R. nigricans) demonstrated >60% positive reactions in the skin prick test. These selected allergenic fungi collectively represented 31.7-63.2% of the total airborne viable fungi in different stations. The study concluded that: (i) a rich fungal airspora existed in the rural study area, (ii) to achieve representative information on the total airborne fungal spores of an area, the monitoring in multiple sampling stations is preferable over a single sampling station; for viable fungi, however, one station can be considered, (iii) the percentage of airborne fungal viability is higher in rural agricultural areas, and (iv) approximately 52% of the viable airborne fungi in the rural study area were allergenic. PMID:15142771

Adhikari, Atin; Sen, Moon M; Gupta-Bhattacharya, Swati; Chanda, Sunirmal

2004-06-29

391

Industrial viable process of making nanoparticles of various shapes and interior structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 10 years, we attempted to develop industrial viable processes which were of significance in manufacturing the nanoparticles in good quality and large volume. Our effort relied on the self-assembly concepts of block macromolecules in solutions to prepare particles with a hard core made of crosslinked plastics and a soft shell made of low Tg elastomer. Depending on the type and microstructure of the copolymers, the solvent concentration and other process parameters chosen, a variety of shell-core nano-particles of different shapes (spheres, hollow spheres, ellipsoids, cylinders, linear and branched strings, disks and etc.) and sizes (5-100 nm diameter) were reproducibly synthesized. Scale-up studies led to an optimization of the manufacturing process and the production of nanoparticles in large quantities for various product application efforts. The unique performance of those nanoparticles as performance tuning additives and novel rubber reinforcing elements was explored in rubber compounds. This review describes the synthesis methods used to produce the polymer nanoparticles, the technology to modify the particles through functionalization, the means to optimize their performance for specific applications, and the methods to use those particles in rubber compounds. Collaborators: Victor J. Foltz, Kurasch Jessica, Chenchy J. Lin, Jeff Magestrelli, Sandra Warren, Alberto Scuratti, James E. Hall, Jim Krom, Mindaugas Rackaitis, Michael W. Hayes, Pat Sadhukhan, Georg G. A. Bohm

Wang, Xiaorong

2008-03-01

392

Research and development of Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Fuel cell infrastructure and commercialization study  

SciTech Connect

This paper has been prepared in partial fulfillment of a subcontract from the Allison Division of General Motors under the terms of Allison`s contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AC02-90CH10435). The objective of this task (The Fuel Cell Infrastructure and Commercialization Study) is to describe and prepare preliminary evaluations of the processes which will be required to develop fuel cell engines for commercial and private vehicles. This report summarizes the work undertaken on this study. It addresses the availability of the infrastructure (services, energy supplies) and the benefits of creating public/private alliances to accelerate their commercialization. The Allison prime contract includes other tasks related to the research and development of advanced solid polymer fuel cell engines and preparation of a demonstration automotive vehicle. The commercialization process starts when there is sufficient understanding of a fuel cell engine`s technology and markets to initiate preparation of a business plan. The business plan will identify each major step in the design of fuel cell (or electrochemical) engines, evaluation of the markets, acquisition of manufacturing facilities, and the technical and financial resources which will be required. The process will end when one or more companies have successfully developed and produced fuel cell engines at a profit. This study addressed the status of the information which will be required to prepare business plans, develop the economic and market acceptance data, and to identify the mobility, energy and environment benefits of electrochemical or fuel cell engines. It provides the reader with information on the status of fuel cell or electrochemical engine development and their relative advantages over competitive propulsion systems. Recommendations and descriptions of additional technical and business evaluations that are to be developed in more detail in Phase II, are included.

NONE

1996-11-01

393

Development of an on-wafer test for rapid evaluation of doping spike carrier concentration levels in commercially manufactured GaAs Gunn diodes for automotive radar applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

At e2v Technologies, gallium arsenide Gunn diodes with hot electron injection, based on the heteroepitaxy of a step-graded AlxGa(1-x)As launcher, are commercially manufactured for 77GHz automotive adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. Characterization of Gunn diode epitaxial material is problematic, especially the measurement of carrier concentration in the injector's thin (less than 10nm) n+ doping spike (around 1018cm-3), which is key

N. Farrington; M. Carr; J. L. Sly; M. Missous

2008-01-01

394

EXPERT SYSTEMS: A VIABLE TOOL FOR SMALL BUSINESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the current term in decision support methodologies is Artificial Intelligence (AI). The search for AI, particularly in potential business applications, targets techniques which collectively result in expert systems. Expert systems technology, while still lacking many of the characteristics of true human expertise, can make the skills of an expert available to a broad population of people who do

Vivek Shah; Joan C. Roderick

395

Why is IPSec a viable option for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many issues still remain to be addressed in order to achieve acceptable security in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). This necessity, together with the adoption of IPv6 on WSNs being defined at the 6lowpan working group of the IETF, motivates our investigation on the feasibility of the application of IPSec on sensor nodes. IPSec is already part of IPv6, which makes

Jorge Granjal; Ricardo Silva; Edmundo Monteiro; J. Sa Silva; F. Boavida

2008-01-01

396

Brain activity during the memorization of visual scenes from TV commercials: an application of high resolution EEG and steady state somatosensory evoked potentials technologies.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to elucidate if the TV commercials that were remembered by the subjects after their observation within a documentary elicited particular brain activity when compared to the activity generated during the observation of TV commercials that were forgotten. High resolution EEG recordings were performed in a group of 10 healthy subjects with the steady state somatosensory evoked potentials (SSSEPs) technique, in which a series of light electrical stimulation at the left wrist were delivered at the frequency of 20Hz. The brain activity was indexed by the phase delay of the EEG spectral responses at 20Hz with respect to the stimulus delivering and evaluated at the scalp level as well as at the cortical surface using several regions of interest coincident with the Brodmann areas (BAs). Results suggest that the cerebral processes involved during the observation of TV commercials that were remembered by the population examined (RMB dataset) are generated by the posterior parietal cortices and the prefrontal areas, rather bilaterally. These results are compatible with previously results obtained in literature by using MEG and fMRI devices during similar experimental tasks. High resolution EEG is able to summarize, with the use of SSSEPs methodologies, the behavior of the estimated cortical networks subserving the proposed memory tasks. It is likely that such tool could play a role in the next future for the investigation of the neural substrates of the human behavior in decision-making and recognition tasks. PMID:19619647

Astolfi, Laura; Fallani, Fabrizio De Vico; Cincotti, Febo; Mattia, Donatella; Bianchi, Luigi; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Salinari, Serenella; Gaudiano, Imma; Scarano, Gaetano; Soranzo, Ramon; Babiloni, Fabio

2009-07-18

397

Successful commercialization of nanophotonic technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exploitation of nanotechnology from proof of principle to realizable commercial applications encounters considerable challenges in regards to high volume, large scale, low cost manufacturability and social ethics. This has led to concerns over converting powerful intellectual property into realizable, industry attractive technologies. At The Technology Partnership we specifically address the issue of successful integration of nanophotonics into industry in markets such as biomedical, ophthalmic, energy, telecommunications, and packaging. In this paper we draw on a few examples where we have either developed industrial scale nanophotonic technology or engineering platforms which may be used to fortify nano/microphotonic technologies and enhance their commercial viability.

Jaiswal, Supriya L.; Clarke, Roger B. M.; Hyde, Sam C. W.

2006-09-01

398

Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

Not Available

1994-04-29

399

Commercial combustion research: ISS hardware and commercial products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary ISS hardware to be used for commercial combustion research, and the first commercial hardware to be sent to ISS, is SpaceDRUMS™. The centerpiece of the display is a full-scale mockup of the SpaceDRUMS™ facility, which is scheduled to be launched to ISS aboard UF-1 in January, 2001. This facility was developed by CCACS industrial member Guigné International Ltd. (GIL), in partnership with SpaceHab™. It is capable of high-precision positioning, manipulation and shaping of both solid and liquid samples. The positioning system operates by application of pulsed acoustic restoring forces. This display features some of the commercial combustion hardware planned for the International Space Station, as well as one of the early commercial products to come out of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines. Backing up the display is a board showing all of the combustion research within CCACS. Each of the projects is described, along with the hardware planned for the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. The industrial partners in CCACS are listed, along with the project interests of each. Finally, summaries of the investments made to date by all the parties are shown. The display also contains a new commercial product, a de-modulating digital camera, which was developed in the course of the combustion research within CCACS and in conjunction with member Princeton Instruments (now a division of Roper Scientific). The camera operates through lock-in detection and amplification applied to the signals associated with each pixel in the field of view. By employing a modulation/de-modulation technique, weak images can be extracted from the strong backgrounds that characterize combustion experiments. Particular portions of flames and solid matter within flames can be observed using this camera. .

Schowengerdt, F. D.

2000-01-01

400

HIGH PREVALENCE OF VIABLE TOXOPLASMA GONDII INFECTION IN MARKET WEIGHT PIGS FROM A FARM IN MASSACHUSETTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ingestion of uncooked infected meat is considered important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and little is known of the prevalence of viable T. gondii in meat used for human consumption in the U.S. In the present study, viable T. gondii was isolated from 51 of 55 of ...

401

Commercial investments in Combustion research aboard ISS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is working with a number of companies planning commercial combustion research to be done aboard the International Space Station (ISS). This research will be conducted in two major ISS facilities, SpaceDRUMS™ and the Fluids and Combustion Facility. SpaceDRUMS™, under development by Guigne Technologies, Ltd.,

F. D. Schowengerdt

2000-01-01

402

Survival of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in commercial yoghurt during refrigerated storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of five brands of commercial yoghurt were obtained directly from the processors and enumeration of viable Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum and determination of pH was carried out at three-day intervals over a five-week period. Three of the five products contained 107–108 g?1 viable cells of L. acidophilus, whereas the other two products contained ? 105 of this organism

Nagendra P. Shah; Warnakulasuriya E. V. Lankaputhra; Margaret L. Britz; William S. A. Kyle

1995-01-01

403

PsycINFO Tutorial: A Viable Instructional Alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article questions the effectiveness and overall applicability of a tutorial as an instructional alternative to in-class instruction. A tutorial was developed to instruct undergraduate students in a high-enrollment psychology course, in the use of the PsycINFO database. A pretest and posttest instrument was developed to evaluate retained information. The results demonstrated that the tutorial significantly increased undergraduate students' understanding

Dorothy Persson; Carlette Washington-Hoagland

2004-01-01

404

Waste-heat steam generation is economically viable in ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Generation of electric power by turbine-driven generators serviced by waste heat boilers is not a blue sky dream. It is time-proven technology, employing time-proven equipment-equipment that is expected to run uninterrupted in fouryear cycles. This equipment and its control are made right here in the U.S. The equipment is very simple to operate and maintain. This article describes the applications of ceramics in this industry.

McMann, F.C.; Marshall, R.W.

1984-03-01

405

Making TCP\\/IP Viable for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TCP\\/IP protocol suite, which has proven itself highly successful in wired networks, is often claimed to be unsuited for wireless micro-sensor networks. In this work, we question this conventional wisdom and present a number of mechanisms that are intended to enable the use of TCP\\/IP for wireless sensor networks: spatial IP address assignment, shared context header compression, application overlay

Adam Dunkels; Juan Alonso; Thiemo Voigt

2004-01-01

406

Development of economically viable, highly integrated, highly modular SEGIS architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initiated in 2008, the SEGIS initiative is a partnership involving the U.S. DOE, Sandia National Laboratories, private sector companies, electric utilities, and universities. Projects supported under the initiative have focused on the complete-system development of solar technologies, with the dual goal of expanding renewable PV applications and addressing new challenges of connecting large-scale solar installations in higher penetrations to the

Johan Enslin; Ronald Hamaoui; Sigifredo Gonzalez; Ghaith Haddad; Khalid Rustom; Rick Stuby; Mohammad Kuran; Evlyn Mark; Ruba Amarin; Hussam Alatrash; Ward Isaac Bower; Scott S. Kuszmaul; Lisa Sena-Henderson; Carolyn David; Abbas Ali Akhil

2012-01-01

407

FIELD EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL FORMULATIONS OF THE CODLING MOTH GRANULOVIRUS: PERSISTENCE OF ACTIVITY AND SUCCESS OF SEASONAL APPLICATIONS AGAINST NATURAL INFESTATIONS OF CODLING MOTH IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST ORCHARDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Applications of the codling moth granulovirus (CpGV), which target neonate larvae before or during initial entry into fruit, offer potential for selective control of this key pest. In field tests we compared the persistence and efficacy of single applications of three CpGV products approved for orga...

408

THE IDEA IS TO USEMODIS IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE CURRENT LIMITED LANDSAT CAPABILITY, COMMERCIAL SATELLITES, ANDUNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV), IN A MULTI-STAGE APPROACH TO MEET EPA INFORMATION NEEDS.REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW: EPA CAPABILITIES, PRIORITY AGENCY APPLICATIONS, SENSOR/AIRCRAFT CAPABILITIES, COST CONSIDERATIONS, SPECTRAL AND SPATIAL RESOLUTIONS, AND TEMPORAL CONSIDERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA remote sensing capabilities include applied research for priority applications and technology support for operational assistance to clients across the Agency. The idea is to use MODIS in conjunction with the current limited Landsat capability, commercial satellites, and Unma...

409

Design Requirements for Future Commercial Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Design requirements for helicopters stemming from civil operations are discussed. The offshore oil and gas industry is and will continue to be the main application of civil helicopters. Development of other commercial markets will require major improvemen...

F. F. J. Schaper

1987-01-01

410

Aerospace century XXI: Space sciences, applications, and commercial developments; Proceedings of the Thirty-third Annual AAS International Conference, Boulder, CO, Oct. 26-29, 1986  

SciTech Connect

Papers are presented on rocket UV observations of Comet Halley, a space system for microgravity research, transitioning from Spacelab to Space Station science, and assemblers and future space hardware. Also considered are spatial and temporal scales of atmospheric disturbances, Doppler radar for prediction and warning, data management for the Columbus program, communications satellites of the future, and commercial launch vehicles. Other topics include space geodesy and earthquake predictions, inverted cellular radio satellite systems, material processing in space, and potential for earth observations from the manned Space Station.

Morgenthaler, G.W.; Koster, J.N.

1987-01-01

411

Commercial Systems Validation Overview.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Commercial Systems Validation Laboratory (CSVL) is composed of the (1) Virtual Product Laboratory (VPL), (2) Commercial Instrument Validation Laboratory (CIVL), and (3) In-Flight Verification & Validation Network (IVVN). All three laboratories are...

R. Ryan

2001-01-01

412

Commercial Master File.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contains a listing of commercial operator and restricted operator licensees in operator name sequence. A cross-reference of commercial operators by serial number is also included. File only covers last seven years.

1988-01-01

413

Commercial Operator History File.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contains a listing of commercial operator and restricted operator licensees in operator name sequence. A crossreference of commercial operators by serial number is also included. This report is produced once a year and contains licenses issued seven or mo...

1983-01-01

414

Commercial Cooking Equipment Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the efforts of a project aimed at improving the thermal efficiency of gas-fired commercial cooking equipment, specifically the development of a commercial open top section employing powered burners and the development of means for ap...

R. L. Himmel

1983-01-01

415

Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae  

PubMed Central

Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR), Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN), Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR), and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR). The colour removal was evaluated by considering dye concentration, reaction time, absence or presence of the mediator ABTS (2,2?-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and the source of laccase. The presence of ABTS was essential for decolourisation of DMR (80–90%, 1?h) and RBBR (80–90%, 24?h) with both laccases. The use of ABTS was not necessary in reactions containing DMBLR (85–97%, 1?h) and DMBBLN (63–84%, 24?h). The decolourisation of DMBBLN by commercial laccase showed levels near 60% while the crude extract presented 80% in 24?h.

Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina S.; Pereira, Patricia Maia; Ferreira-Leitao, Viridiana S.

2010-01-01

416

Successful Cloning of the Yucatan Minipig Using Commercial/Occidental Breeds as Oocyte Donors and Embryo Recipients  

PubMed Central

Abstract The widespread application of porcine SCNT to biomedical research is being hampered by the large adult size (300–600 lbs) of the commercial breeds commonly used for SCNT. The Yucatan minipig, in contrast, has an adult weight of 140–150 lbs and a long history of utility in biomedical research. In order to combine the wide availability of commercial swine with the biomedical value of the Yucatan minipig, we utilized SCNT using the Yucatan as nuclear donors and commercial swine as both oocyte donors and recipients. Of six recipient gilts receiving 631 SCNT embryos, three went to term and delivered seven piglets, four of which survived to adulthood. Additionally, we obtained fetal fibroblasts from a cloned Yucatan and used them for a second round of SCNT. Of three recipients receiving 315 reconstructed embryos, one went to term and delivered three piglets, one of which survived to adulthood. Both microsatellite and D-loop sequence analysis confirmed that all of the piglets generated were nuclear-mitochondrial hybrids carrying Yucatan nuclear DNA and commercial breed mitochondrial DNA. This report shows that it is possible to produce viable Yucatan SCNT clones and opens up the possibility of developing valuable biomedical models in this porcine breed.

Estrada, Jose L.; Collins, Bruce; York, Abby; Bischoff, Steve; Sommer, Jeff; Tsai, Shengdar; Petters, Robert M.

2008-01-01

417

Commercialism in Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document gives voice to concerns raised by critics and supporters of commercialism in schools and provides brief descriptions of several important resources on this topic. "Commercial Activities in School" (U.S. General Accounting Office) reports on the nature and frequency of commercial activities in public schools, as well as the laws and…

Larson, Kirstin

2001-01-01

418

Dielectric laser accelerators: Are they viable advanced accelerator concepts?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dielectric Laser Accelerators (DLAs) have promised GV/m gradients in chip-scale structures with scalable manufacturing. A review of the progress in this field will be presented in an attempt to answer what can be expected from these devices. A summary of critical hurdles overcome and those remaining will also be discussed. DLAs come in several variants, with exemplars discussed here. The capabilities of DLAs already seem to be rather distinct from conventional accelerators both in the time structure of the beams produced as well as the physical scale of the devices. The implications of this new operating regime for accelerators will be considered for light sources, colliders, and non-research applications.

Travish, Gil

2012-12-01

419

Selective Quantification of Viable Escherichia coli Bacteria in Biosolids by Quantitative PCR with Propidium Monoazide Modification ?  

PubMed Central

Quantitative differentiation of live cells in biosolids samples, without the use of culturing-based approaches, is highly critical from a public health risk perspective, as recent studies have shown significant regrowth and reactivation of indicator organisms. Persistence of DNA in the environment after cell death in the range of days to weeks limits the application of DNA-based approaches as a measure of live cell density. Using selective nucleic acid intercalating dyes like ethidium monoazide (EMA) and propidium monoazide (PMA) is one of the alternative approaches to detecting and quantifying viable cells by quantitative PCR. These compounds have the ability to penetrate only into dead cells with compromised membrane integrity and intercalate with DNA via their photoinducible azide groups and in turn inhibit DNA amplification during PCRs. PMA has been successfully used in different studies and microorganisms, but it has not been evaluated sufficiently for complex environmental samples such as biosolids. In this study, experiments were performed with Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 as the model organism and the uidA gene as the target sequence using real-time PCR via the absolute quantification method. Experiments with the known quantities of live and dead cell mixtures showed that PMA treatment inhibits PCR amplification from dead cells with over 99% efficiency. The results also indicated that PMA-modified quantitative PCR could be successfully applied to biosolids when the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration is at or below 2,000 mg·liter?1.

Taskin, Bilgin; Gozen, Ayse Gul; Duran, Metin

2011-01-01

420

Viable cryopreserving tissue-engineered cell-biomaterial for cell banking therapy in an effective cryoprotectant.  

PubMed

The application of cell-biomaterial systems in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is an important challenge in biomedicine, which preserves not only cells, but also tissue-engineered constructs. In this study, the constructs and cryoprotectant parameters were optimized, and it was evaluated whether the characteristics of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), which have high proliferation ability as stem cells, were maintained during encapsulation and cryopreservation. The optimal cell-biomaterial gel constructs with the gelation rate of 2% alginate: 100? mM CaCO(3): 200? mM glucono-?-lactone (GDL)=4:1:1 and suitable cryoprotectants (CPAs) used for cryopreservation were Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% ethylene glycol (EG), 1.0 ?M sucrose and 0.00075 ?M polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Optimality was confirmed by cell viability (trypan blue, live/dead analysis), the proliferation of DPSCs, and the microstructure using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in the constructs, and surface epitope by flow cytometric analysis before and after cryopreservation. There were no visible differences in the structure. In conclusion, this study indicates that the optimal cell-biomaterial gel constructs and the cryoprotectant are promising biomaterials. The defined encapsulation/thawing system offers an excellent option for cell-banking therapy to be developed with ready-to-use viable biomaterials and patient-specific products as drug delivery systems. PMID:21517691

Umemura, Eri; Yamada, Yoichi; Nakamura, Sayaka; Ito, Kenji; Hara, Kenji; Ueda, Minoru

2011-04-25

421

Lithium phthalocyanine: a probe for electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry in viable biological systems.  

PubMed Central

Lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) is a prototype of another generation of synthetic, metallic-organic, paramagnetic crystallites that appear very useful for in vitro and in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry. The peak-to-peak line width of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of LiPc is a linear function of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2); this linear relation is independent of the medium surrounding the LiPc. It has an extremely exchange-narrowed spectrum (peak-to-peak line width = 14 mG in the absence of O2). Physicochemically LiPc is very stable; its response to pO2 does not change with conditions and environments (e.g., pH, temperature, redox conditions) likely to occur in viable biological systems. These characteristics provide the sensitivity, accuracy, and range to measure physiologically and pathologically pertinent O2 tensions (0.1-50 mmHg; 1 mmHg = 133 Pa). The application of LiPc in biological systems is demonstrated in measurements of pO2 in vivo in the heart, brain, and kidney of rats.

Liu, K J; Gast, P; Moussavi, M; Norby, S W; Vahidi, N; Walczak, T; Wu, M; Swartz, H M

1993-01-01

422

Lithium phthalocyanine: a probe for electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry in viable biological systems.  

PubMed

Lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) is a prototype of another generation of synthetic, metallic-organic, paramagnetic crystallites that appear very useful for in vitro and in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry. The peak-to-peak line width of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of LiPc is a linear function of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO2); this linear relation is independent of the medium surrounding the LiPc. It has an extremely exchange-narrowed spectrum (peak-to-peak line width = 14 mG in the absence of O2). Physicochemically LiPc is very stable; its response to pO2 does not change with conditions and environments (e.g., pH, temperature, redox conditions) likely to occur in viable biological systems. These characteristics provide the sensitivity, accuracy, and range to measure physiologically and pathologically pertinent O2 tensions (0.1-50 mmHg; 1 mmHg = 133 Pa). The application of LiPc in biological systems is demonstrated in measurements of pO2 in vivo in the heart, brain, and kidney of rats. PMID:8390665

Liu, K J; Gast, P; Moussavi, M; Norby, S W; Vahidi, N; Walczak, T; Wu, M; Swartz, H M

1993-06-15

423

Lithium Phthalocyanine: A Probe for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Oximetry in Viable Biological Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) is a prototype of another generation of synthetic, metallic-organic, paramagnetic crystallites that appear very useful for in vitro and in vivo electron paramagnetic resonance oximetry. The peak-to-peak line width of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of LiPc is a linear function of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO_2); this linear relation is independent of the medium surrounding the LiPc. It has an extremely exchange-narrowed spectrum (peak-to-peak line width = 14 mG in the absence of O_2). Physicochemically LiPc is very stable; its response to pO_2 does not change with conditions and environments (e.g., pH, temperature, redox conditions) likely to occur in viable biological systems. These characteristics provide the sensitivity, accuracy, and range to measure physiologically and pathologically pertinent O_2 tensions (0.1-50 mmHg; 1 mmHg = 133 Pa). The application of LiPc in biological systems is demonstrated in measurements of pO_2 in vivo in the heart, brain, and kidney of rats.

Liu, K. J.; Gast, P.; Moussavi, M.; Norby, S. W.; Vahidi, N.; Walczak, T.; Wu, M.; Swartz, H. M.

1993-06-01

424

Cereal crops as viable production and storage systems for pharmaceutical scFv antibodies.  

PubMed

This report describes the stable expression of a medically important antibody in the staple cereal crops rice and wheat. We successfully expressed a single-chain Fv antibody (ScFvT84.66) against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), a well characterized tumor-associated marker antigen. scFv constructs were engineered for recombinant antibody targeting to the plant cell apoplast and ER. Up to 30 microg/g of functional recombinant antibody was detected in the leaves and seeds of wheat and rice. We confirmed that transgenic dry seeds could be stored for at least five months at room temperature, without significant loss of the amount or activity of scFvT84.66. Our results represent the first transition from model plant expression systems, such as tobacco and Arabidopsis, to widely cultivated cereal crops, such as rice and wheat, for expression of an antibody molecule that has already shown efficacy in clinical applications. Thus, we have established that molecular pharming in cereals can be a viable production system for such high-value pharmaceutical macromolecules. Our findings provide a strong foundation for exploiting alternative uses of cereal crops both in industrialized and developing countries. PMID:10809004

Stöger, E; Vaquero, C; Torres, E; Sack, M; Nicholson, L; Drossard, J; Williams, S; Keen, D; Perrin, Y; Christou, P; Fischer, R

2000-03-01

425

Assessment of commercial probiotic bacterial contents and label accuracy  

PubMed Central

Probiotics are widely available for use in animals but quality control of veterinary probiotics has been shown to be poor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the labels and bacterial contents of commercial probiotics marketed for use in animals. Twenty-five probiotics were purchased, labels were scrutinized, and bacterial contents were enumerated. Twenty-one (84%) products listed specific microorganisms. Expected bacterial numbers were listed for 15 (60%) products. One or more organisms were misspelled on the labels of 7/22 (32%) of products that listed specific organisms. Viable growth ranged from 0 to 2 × 109 colony forming units (CFU)/g. Only 4/15 (27%) products that had specific claims of viable organisms met or exceeded their label claim. Only 2 of these also had an acceptable label, which properly described the contents. Deficiencies in veterinary probiotic quality remain. Veterinarians and owners should scrutinize commercial probiotics and demand evidence of quality control and efficacy.

Weese, J. Scott; Martin, Hayley

2011-01-01

426

Fluidics: Basic components and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since its discovery at Harry Diamond Lab. in 1959, fluidics has gradually been developed into a viable technology. This report describes fluidic components and systems now in use or ready for use in many applications. The fluidic technology provides sensing, computing, and controlling functions with fluid power through interaction of fluid streams. Since fluidics can perform these functions without mechanical moving parts that will wear out, it has the advantages of simplicity and reliability. Other advantages are the low cost, environmental insensitivity, and safety of fluidic systems. Commercial applications of fluidics in the aerospace industry, include medicine, and personal-use items. The first aerospace application in production in the United States was for the thrust-reverser control for a DC-10 airplane. In industry, fluidics has been applied to air-conditioning controls, machine controls, process controls, and production-line controls. One of the first commercial applications of fluidics was for life-support medical equipment. For military use, fluidics has been successfully applied to a fluidic generator to convert pneumatic energy into electrical energy, a fluidic stability augmentation system for helicopters, and a pressure-regulating system for aircraft. Under development are rate sensing circuits for roll rate control of cannon-launched guided projectiles and missiles, and a fluidic capillary pyrometer for continuous temperature measurements in high-temperature process control.

Joyce, J. W.

1983-08-01

427

A rapid and simple determination of protoberberine alkaloids in Rhizoma Coptidis by 1H NMR and its application for quality control of commercial prescriptions.  

PubMed

Simple, convenient, sensitive and accurate analytical methods are needed for the analysis of alkaloid components in Rhizoma Coptidis in traditional Chinese herbal medicine, which has important bioactivity. In the present study, a highly specific and sensitive method using (1)H NMR has been developed for the quantitative determination of protoberberine alkaloids berberine, palmatine, coptisine and jatrorrhizine in Coptis species and their commercial traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. A (1)H NMR analysis of the H-13 signals of target protoberberine alkaloids was performed. By comparing the solvent effects on the resolution of these signals, methanol-d(4)-benzene-d(6) (75:25) is selected as an optimal (1)H NMR solvent. The quantity of the compounds is calculated by the relative ratio of the integral values of the target peak for each compound to the known amount of the internal standard anthracene. This method allows rapid and simple quantitation of protoberberine alkaloids from Coptis species and the more complex commercial prescriptions in 5 min without any pre-purification steps. The recoveries of these alkaloids from Coptis chinensis are in the range of 93-105%. Limit of detection of berberine in the plant material or prescription is 0.03 mg/mL. The advantages of this method are that no reference compounds are required for calibration curves, the quantification can be directly realized on a crude extract, and the better selectivity for protoberberine alkaloids and a very significant time-gain can be achieved, in comparison to conventional HPLC methods, for instance. PMID:19345543

Li, Chia-Ying; Tsai, Sung-I; Damu, Amooru G; Wu, Tian-Shung

2009-03-10

428

Controlled Release of Protein from Viable Lactococcus lactis Cells ?  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of the lactococcal CsiA protein affects the cell wall integrity of growing cells and leads to leakage of intracellular material. This property was optimized and exploited for the targeted release of biologically active compounds into the extracellular environment, thereby providing a new delivery system for bacterial proteins and peptides. The effects of different levels of CsiA expression on the leakage of endogenous lactate dehydrogenase and nucleic acids were measured and related to the impact of CsiA expression on Lactococcus lactis cell viability and growth. A leakage phenotype was obtained from cells expressing both recombinant and nonrecombinant forms of CsiA. As proof of principle, we demonstrated that CsiA promotes the efficient release of the heterologous Listeria bacteriophage endolysin LM4 in its active form. Under optimized conditions, native and heterologous active-molecule release is possible without affecting cell viability. The ability of CsiA to release intracellular material by controlled lysis without the requirement for an external lytic agent provides a technology for the control of both the extent of lysis and its timing. Taken together, these results demonstrate the potential of this novel approach for applications including product recovery in industrial fermentations, food processing, and medical therapy.

Stentz, Regis; Bongaerts, Roy J.; Gunning, A. Patrick; Gasson, Mike; Shearman, Claire

2010-01-01

429

End-of-life product-specific material flow analysis. Application to aluminum coming from end-of-life commercial vehicles in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

End-of-life products contain valuable materials that should be efficiently recovered to contribute to the sustainable use of resources. Material flow analysis is known as an efficient tool to map material flows and stocks across the economy. This tool is increasingly applied to waste recovery, although its application to specific products is rather limited. In this paper, a comprehensive step by

Fabrice Mathieux; Daniel Brissaud

2010-01-01

430

Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1D: Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control and Supplement. CS-12 and CS-12a.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The major weed and insect pests of fruits and vegetables are pictured and discussed. Suggested methods for control by utilizing herbicides and pesticides are presented with attention given to safety considerations for both humans and…

Epstein, Abraham H.; And Others

431

World commercial aircraft accidents  

SciTech Connect

This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

Kimura, C.Y.

1993-01-01

432

Establishment of a Viable Population of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Report on program's objective to restore viable population of Red-cockaded woodpecker at SRS. Several management strategies were used to promote population expansion of Red-cockaded woodpecker and reduction of interspecific competition with Red-Cockaded woodpecker.

Johnston, P.A.

2002-01-14

433

Comparison of Analytical Methods for the Measurement of Non-Viable Biological PM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents a preliminary research effort to develop a methodology for the measurement of non-viable biologically based particulate matter (PM), analyzing for mold, dust mite, and ragweed antigens and endotoxins. Using a comparison of analytical me...

M. Y. Menetrez K. K. Foarde D. S. Ensor

2000-01-01

434

RELATIONSHIP OF TOTAL VIABLE AND CULTURABLE CELLS TO EPIPHYTIC POPULATIONS OF PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE  

EPA Science Inventory

The accuracy of the plate count method used routinely for enumeration of viable bacterial populations in natural environments is limited by the culturability of the target population. he method was modified to examine epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae. iable populatio...

435

Viable control for uncertain nonlinear dynamical systems described by differential inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we will study the viable control problem for a class of uncertain nonlinear dynamical systems described by a differential inclusion. The goal is to construct a feedback control such that all trajectories of the system are viable in a map. Moreover, for any initial states no viable in the map, under the feedback control, all solutions of the system are steered to the map with an exponential convergence rate and viable in the map after a finite time T. In this case, an estimate of the time T of all trajectories attaining the map is given. In the nanomedicine system, an example inspired from cerebral embolism and cerebral thrombosis problems illustrates the use of our main results.

Chen, Jia-Wen; Huang, Jen-Fen; Lo, Leonard Y.

2006-03-01

436

Two-aged Silvicultural Treatments in Lodgepole Pine Stands Can Be Economically Viable.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Economically viable silvicultural options are critical for management activities that provide wood products, reduce forest fuels, improve forest health, and enhance wildlife habitat. The Tenderfoot Research Project was developed in the late 1990s to evalu...

D. A. Bomquist S. J. Martin W. W. McCaughey

2006-01-01

437

Dosimetric verification and clinical evaluation of a new commercially available Monte Carlo-based dose algorithm for application in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatment planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern cancer treatment techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), have greatly increased the demand for more accurate treatment planning (structure definition, dose calculation, etc) and dose delivery. The ability to use fast and accurate Monte Carlo (MC)-based dose calculations within a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) in the clinical setting is now becoming more of a reality. This study describes the dosimetric verification and initial clinical evaluation of a new commercial MC-based photon beam dose calculation algorithm, within the iPlan v.4.1 TPS (BrainLAB AG, Feldkirchen, Germany). Experimental verification of the MC photon beam model was performed with film and ionization chambers in water phantoms and in heterogeneous solid-water slabs containing bone and lung-equivalent materials for a 6 MV photon beam from a Novalis (BrainLAB) linear accelerator (linac) with a micro-multileaf collimator (m3 MLC). The agreement between calculated and measured dose distributions in the water phantom verification tests was, on average, within 2%/1 mm (high dose/high gradient) and was within ±4%/2 mm in the heterogeneous slab geometries. Example treatment plans in the lung show significant differences between the MC and one-dimensional pencil beam (PB) algorithms within iPlan, especially for small lesions in the lung, where electronic disequilibrium effects are emphasized. Other user-specific features in the iPlan system, such as options to select dose to water or dose to medium, and the mean variance level, have been investigated. Timing results for typical lung treatment plans show the total computation time (including that for processing and I/O) to be less than 10 min for 1-2% mean variance (running on a single PC with 8 Intel Xeon X5355 CPUs, 2.66 GHz). Overall, the iPlan MC algorithm is demonstrated to be an accurate and efficient dose algorithm, incorporating robust tools for MC-based SBRT treatment planning in the routine clinical setting.

Fragoso, Margarida; Wen, Ning; Kumar, Sanath; Liu, Dezhi; Ryu, Samuel; Movsas, Benjamin; Munther, Ajlouni; Chetty, Indrin J.

2010-08-01

438

Free space optics: a viable last-mile alternative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores Free Space Optics (FSO) as an access technology in the last mile of metropolitan area networks (MANs). These networks are based in part on fiber-optic telecommunications infrastructure, including network architectures of Synchronous Optical Network (commonly referred to as SONET), the North American standard for synchronous data transmission; and Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (commonly referred to as SDH), the international standard and equivalent of SONET. Several converging forces have moved FSO beyond a niche technology for use only in local area networks (LANs) as a bridge connecting two facilities. FSO now allows service providers to cost effectively provide optical bandwidth for access networks and accelerate the extension of metro optical networks bridging what has been termed by industry experts as the optical dead zone. The optical dead zone refers to both the slowdown in capital investment in the short-term future and the actual connectivity gap that exists today between core metro optical networks and the access optical networks. Service providers have built extensive core and minimal metro networks but have not yet provided optical bandwidth to the access market largely due to the non-compelling economics to bridge the dead zone with fiber. Historically, such infrastructure build-out slowdowns have been blamed on a combination of economics, time-to-market constraints and limited technology options. However, new technology developments and market acceptance of FSO give service providers a new cost-effective alternative to provide high-bandwidth services with optical bandwidth in the access networks. Merrill Lynch predicts FSO will grow into a $2 billion market by 2005. The drivers for this market are a mere 5%- 6% penetration of fiber to business buildings; cost effective solution versus RF or fiber; and significant capacity which can only be matched by a physical fiber link, Merrill Lynch reports. This paper will describe FSO technology, its capabilities and its limitations. The paper will investigate how FSO technology has evolved to its current stage for deployment in MANs, LANs, wireless backhaul and metropolitan network extensions - applications that fall within the category of last mile. The paper will address the market, drivers and the adoption of FSO, plus provide a projection of future FSO technology, based on today's product roadmaps. The paper concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations.

Willebrand, Heinz A.; Clark, Gerald R.

2001-10-01

439

14 CFR 119.25 - Rotorcraft operations: Direct air carriers and commercial operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...operations: Direct air carriers and commercial operators. 119.25 Section 119...OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Applicability of Operating...operations: Direct air carriers and commercial operators. Each person who...

2013-01-01

440

75 FR 14609 - Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory Committee; Vacancies  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Docket No. USCG-2010-0163] Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory...applications for membership on the Commercial Fishing Industry Vessel Safety Advisory...relating to the safe operation of commercial fishing industry vessels....

2010-03-26

441

Assessment of Bioaerosol Sampling Techniques for Viable Legionella pneumophila by Ethidium Monoazide Quantitative PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legionella pneumophila causes severe pneumonia and Pontiac fever in humans. Rapid and sensitive bioaerosol monitoring techniques for viable L. pneumophila are unavailable. Coupled with a newly developed viable assay called ethidium monoazide with quantitative PCR (EMA-qPCR), this study applies EMA-qPCR to aerobiology for the first time to evaluate the effects of the method of sampling (all-glass impinger (AGI-30), BioSampler, and

Ching-Wen Chang; Fang-Chen Chou

2011-01-01

442

Immunological resistance to L1210 leukemia induced by viable L1210\\/DTIC cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permanent, drug-induced antigenic alterations, not detectable in parental cells and transmissible after the withdrawal of treatment with the drug, have been obtained in mouse lymphoma. Viable L1210\\/DTIC cells, because they are rejected by syngeneic animals and carry L1210-associated TAA, can elicit host resistance to a subsequent inoculum of parental L1210. Mice challenged with viable L1210\\/DTIC cells, following rejection, were more

A. Nicolin; F. Veronese; O. Marelli; A. Goldin

1980-01-01

443

Assessing and comparing the total antioxidant capacity of commercial beverages: application to beers, wines, waters and soft drinks using TRAP, TEAC and FRAP methods.  

PubMed

This work measures and tries to compare the Antioxidant Capacity (AC) of 50 commercial beverages of different kinds: 6 wines, 12 beers, 18 soft drinks and 14 flavoured waters. Because there is no reference procedure established for this purpose, three different optical methods were used to analyse these samples: Total Radical trapping Antioxidant Parameter (TRAP), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Parameter (FRAP). These methods differ on the chemical background and nature of redox system. The TRAP method involves the transfer of hydrogen atoms while TEAC and FRAP involves electron transfer reactions. The AC was also assessed against three antioxidants of reference, Ascorbic acid (AA), Gallic acid (GA) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl- 2-carboxylic acid (Trolox). The results obtained were analyzed statistically. Anova one-way tests were applied to all results and suggested that methods and standards exhibited significant statistical differences. The possible effect of sample features in the AC, such as gas, flavours, food colouring, sweeteners, acidity regulators, preservatives, stabilizers, vitamins, juice percentage, alcohol percentage, antioxidants and the colour was also investigated. The AC levels seemed to change with brand, kind of antioxidants added, and kind of flavour, depending on the sample. In general, higher ACs were obtained for FRAP as method, and beer for kind of sample, and the standard expressing the smaller AC values was GA. PMID:22931382

Queirós, Raquel B; Tafulo, Paula A R; Sales, M Goreti F

2013-01-01

444

Enhanced disease resistance in Artemia by application of commercial beta-glucans sources and chitin in a gnotobiotic Artemia challenge test.  

PubMed

The anti-infectious potential of a selection of putative immunostimulants including six commercial beta-glucans (all extracted from baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae except for Laminarin) and chitin particles were verified in Artemia nauplii by challenging them under gnotobiotic conditions with the pathogen Vibrio campbellii. Under the described experimental conditions, no differential macroscopic nutritional effect (e.g. growth) was observed among the products. Significant increased survival was observed with beta-glucan (Sigma) and Zymosan and to a lesser extent with MacroGard in challenged nauplii. A poor correlation was found between survival values of the challenged Artemia and the product compositions (such as chitin, mannose and beta-glucan content) indicating that the quality of beta-glucans (e.g. the ratio of beta-1,3 and beta-1,6 glucan, the molecular weight, the dimensional structure, type and frequency of branches), eventually in combination with other unidentified compounds, is more important than the amount of product offered. This small-scale testing under gnotobiotic conditions using freshly hatched Artemia nauplii allows for a rapid and simultaneous screening of anti-infectious and/or putative immunostimulatory polymers, and should be combined with studies on cellular and humoral immune responses in order to gain more quantitative insight into their functional properties. PMID:17825581

Soltanian, Siyavash; François, Jean-Marie; Dhont, Jean; Arnouts, Sven; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

2007-07-17

445

Solvent-stable digestive alkaline proteinases from striped seabream (Lithognathus mormyrus) viscera: characteristics, application in the deproteinization of shrimp waste, and evaluation in laundry commercial detergents.  

PubMed

Alkaline proteases from the viscera of the striped seabream (Lithognathus mormyrus) were extracted and characterized. Interestingly, the crude enzyme was active over a wide range of pH from 6.0 to 11.0, with an optimum pH at the range of 8.0-10.0. In addition, the crude protease was stable over a broad pH range (5.0-12.0). The optimum temperature for enzyme activity was 50 °C. The crude alkaline proteases showed stability towards various surfactants and bleach agents and compatibility with some commercial detergents. It was stable towards several organic solvents and retained more than 50% of its original activity after 30 days of incubation at 30 °C in the presence of 25% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide, N,N-dimethylformamide, diethyl ether, and hexane. The crude enzyme extract was also tested for shrimp waste deproteinization in the preparation of chitin. The protein removal with a ratio enzyme/substrate of 10 was about 79%. PMID:21340536

Ali, Nedra El-Hadj; Hmidet, Noomen; Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Fakhfakh-Zouari, Nahed; Bougatef, Ali; Nasri, Moncef

2011-02-22

446

Correlation of direct viable counts with heterotrophic activity for marine bacteria.  

PubMed

Viable-bacteria counts, heterotrophic activity, and substrate responsiveness of viable bacteria have been used to measure microbial activity. However, the relationship between these parameters is not clear. Thus, the direct viable count (DVC) method was used to analyze seawater samples collected from several different geographical locations. Samples collected from offshore waters of the South China Sea and western Pacific Ocean yielded DVC that indicated the presence of surface and subsurface peaks of viable, substrate-responsive bacteria which could be correlated with turnover rates of amino acids obtained by using uniformly C-labeled amino acids. DVC were always less than total viable counts (acridine orange direct counts), and the DVC subsurface peak occurred close to and within the chlorophyll a zone, suggesting algal-bacterial interactions within the layer. For comparison with the open-ocean samples, selected substrates were used to determine the response of viable bacteria present in seawater samples collected near an ocean outfall of the Barceloneta Regional Waste Treatment Plant, Barceloneta, Puerto Rico. The number of specific substrate-responsive bacteria at the outfall stations varied depending on the substrate used and the sampling location. Changes in the population size or physiological condition of the bacteria were detected and found to be associated with the presence of pharmaceutical waste. PMID:16347454

Kogure, K; Simidu, U; Taga, N; Colwell, R R

1987-10-01

447

Design, Fabrication, and Reliability of Low-Cost Flip-Chip-On-Board Package for Commercial Applications up to 50 GHz  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a flip-chip-on-board (FCOB) packaging technology using a Rogers RO3210 laminate for microwave applications. Compared to the conventional microwave packaging architecture, the proposed FCOB technology skips one level of the ceramic package and thus results in lower reflections and manufacturing costs. To fulfill the small dimension requirement on printed circuit boards, the coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line and

Li-Han Hsu; Wei-Cheng Wu; Edward Yi Chang; Herbert Zirath; Chin-Te Wang; Szu-Ping Tsai; Wee-Chin Lim; Yueh-Chin Lin

2012-01-01

448

Commercializing the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “commercialization of the Internet” is shorthand for three nearly simultaneous events. They are the removal of restrictions by the National Science Foundation over the use of the Internet for commercial purposes, the founding of Netscape, and the rapid entry of tens of thousands-perhaps hundreds of thousands-of firms into commercial ventures using technologies that employ the suite of TCP\\/IP standards.

S. Greenstein

1998-01-01

449

Application of the Cross Battery Approach in the Assessment of American Indian Children: A Viable Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current psychometric and testing practices are inadequate for assessing the intelligence of American Indian students, due to complicating factors of culture and language. These deficient methods are then used to make educational decisions, resulting in improper special education placements. The benefits of alternative methods of testing, including…

Plank, Gary A.

2001-01-01

450

Application of the Cross Battery Approach in the Assessment of American Indian Children: A Viable Alternative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Current psychometric and testing practices are inadequate for assessing the intelligence of American Indian students, due to complicating factors of culture and language. These deficient methods are then used to make educational decisions, resulting in improper special education placements. The benefits of alternative methods of testing,…

Plank, Gary A.

2001-01-01

451

40 CFR 180.1076 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement...microorganism shall be an authentic strain of Bacillus popilliae conforming to the...

2009-07-01

452

40 CFR 180.1076 - Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement of a...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement... Viable spores of the microorganism Bacillus popilliae; exemption from the requirement...microorganism shall be an authentic strain of Bacillus popilliae conforming to the...

2010-07-01

453

75 FR 38821 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application-Alternative Inspection Services (SENTRI...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inspection Services (SENTRI Application and FAST Commercial Driver Application) AGENCY...SENTRI Application (CBP Form 823S) and the FAST Commercial Driver Application (CBP Form...including the SENTRI Application and the FAST Commercial Driver Application. OMB...

2010-07-06

454

Retrieval of Commercials by Semantic Content: The Semiotic Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video information processing and retrieval is a key aspect of future multimedia technologies and applications. Commercial videos encode several planes of expression through a rich and dense use of colors, editing effects, viewpoints and rhythms, which are exploited together to attract potential purchasers. Databases of commercials can be accessed in order to analyze how a commercial has been developed, retrieve

Carlo Colombo; Alberto Del Bimbo; Pietro Pala

2001-01-01

455

Use of peptide nucleic acid probes for rapid detection and enumeration of viable bacteria in recreational waters and beach sand.  

PubMed

Environmental monitoring and public health risk assessments require methods that are rapid and quantitative with defined sensitivity and specificity thresholds. Although several molecular techniques have been developed to rapidly detect bacteria in complex matrices, the challenge to simultaneously detect and enumerate only viable cells remains a limiting factor to their routine application. This chapter describes the use of peroxidase-labeled peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes to simultaneously detect and count live Staphylococcus aureus, a human pathogen in sea water and beach sand. Mixed bacteria from the environmental sample were immobilized on polyvinylidene difluoride membrane filters and allowed to form microcolonies during a 5-h incubation on Tryptic soy agar plates. PNA probes targeting species-specific regions of the 16S rRNA sequences of S. aureus were then used to hybridize the target bacteria in situ. Probes were detected by capturing chemiluminiscence on instant (e.g., Polaroid) films. Each viable cell (i.e., rRNA producing) is detected as a light spot from its microcolony on the film after scanning the image into a computer. This rapid in situ hybridization technique is simple and highly sensitive and could be developed into portable kits for monitoring pathogens and indicators in the environment. PMID:16957353

Esiobu, Nwadiuto

2006-01-01

456

Cosmic history of viable exponential gravity: equation of state oscillations and growth index from inflation to dark energy era  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A generic feature of viable F(R) gravity is investigated: it is demonstrated that during the matter dominated era the large frequency oscillations of the effective dark energy may influence the behavior of higher derivatives of the Hubble parameter with the risk to produce some singular unphysical solutions at high redshift. This behavior is explicitly analyzed for realistic F(R) models, in particular, exponential gravity and a power form model. To stabilize such oscillations, we consider the additional modification of the models via a correction term which does not destroy the viability properties. A detailed analysis on the future evolution of the universe and the evolution history of the growth index of the matter density perturbations are performed. Furthermore, we explore two applications of exponential gravity to the inflationary scenario. We show how it is possible to obtain different numbers of e-folds during the early-time acceleration by making different choices of the model parameters in the presence of ultrarelativistic matter, which destabilizes inflation and eventually leads to the exit from the inflationary stage. We execute the numerical analysis of inflation in two viable exponential gravity models. It is proved that at the end of the inflation, the effective energy density and curvature of the universe decrease and thus a unified description between inflation and the ?CDM-like dark energy dominated era can be realized.

Bamba, Kazuharu; Lopez-Revelles, Antonio; Myrzakulov, R.; Odintsov, S. D.; Sebastiani, L.

2013-01-01

457

Characterisation and migration properties of silicone materials during typical long-term commercial and household use applications: a combined case study.  

PubMed

In consequent continuation of previous described studies, pre-characterised silicone materials were assessed for chemical and physical parameters during long-term usage. In a particular case study silicone moulds were used in a commercial pizza bakery on a daily basis up to 1700 times. Migration behaviour, uptake of fat, the amount of volatiles and extractables, as well as physical properties (elongation, tensile strength) were monitored for the whole period. The main question was whether a significant degradation or even breakdown of the silicone elastomer could take place yielding enhanced migration of dimethyl siloxanes. Oligomeric dimethyl siloxanes are reaction side-products of the polymerisation process and despite their origin as so-called non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) were found to be the by far most dominating constituents of the overall migration. Furthermore, the influence of long-term thermal stress on the functionality of the elastomer was proven. Migration into food was determined by (1)H-NMR and was found to decrease during the experiment from values between 11 and 18 mg kg(-1) to levels below the limit of detection (LOD < 1 mg kg(-1)). No formation of migrating siloxanes beside the initial amount in the new, unused moulds could be observed. The loss of extractable siloxanes of the used compared with the new moulds was compensated by an uptake of fat and other lipophilic food constituents. The release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) decreased from 0.44% for the new moulds to 0.14% for the longest used ones (about 1700 individual uses; the corresponding summarised baking time was approximately 400 h at 180°C). GC-MS analysis of evaporating volatile compounds showed only cyclic oligomers for the new moulds but exclusively incorporated food components for the heavily used moulds. The physical properties of the silicone moulds remained almost constant during the experiment; no limitations in function due to the repeated thermal stress were observed. Similar results were obtained for baby teats under household conditions of use: a 100 times repeated simulated use in contact with milk followed by subsequent microwave sterilisation did not influence the function or mechanical properties. Because milk is only a weak extracting agent no significant changes in the amount of extractable siloxanes between new and used teats could was seen. Again an uptake of fat was seen and the amount of VOC decreased from 0.26% to 0.17%. PMID:22765201

Helling, R; Seifried, P; Fritzsche, D; Simat, T J

2012-07-06

458

Commercial fertilizers 1991  

SciTech Connect

This document contains consumption data for commercial fertilizers in the USA for 1991. Graphical information on the consumption by class is given for the nation. State by state data for consumption of several types of commercial fertilizers are presented. Only numerical data is included.

Hargett, N.L.; Berry, J.T.; Montgomery, M.H.

1991-12-01

459

Commercialization of space activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercialization of space activities requires a legal framework for private investors and entrepreneurs in order to promote and develop this sector of industry into a fully-fledged commercial enterprise. Apart from the already existing international public legal framework of space law, rules should be created to provide a level playing field for all interested parties. These rules should point to transparency

Hanneke L. van Traa-Engelman

1996-01-01

460

Children and Commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the issues underlying the debate over television commercials directed at children from the perspectives of both the proponents and opponents of regulation, drawing a distinction between what research can tell us about the consequences of children's exposure to commercials and value judgments about those consequences inherent in making policy decisions. Following a brief review of empirical studies

Donald F. Roberts

1983-01-01

461

Commercial scale solar drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial scale drying requires a tremendous amount of energy to heat air when drying various food products and there is an opportunity to utilize solar energy in the drying process. Commercial drying is different from the small scale traditional sun drying practised by farmers. The paper begins with a summary of a feasibility study done for the Spices Board of

J. C. Hollick

1999-01-01

462

Toy commercials across Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compares toy commercials in France, Germany and Italy in relation to globalisation, which is claimed to produce a uniform consumer culture. Investigates the roles performed by different territories (international, national, regional and local) in advertising directed at children of these different nationalities. Focuses on the apparent tendency towards universalism in the form and content of TV commercials aimed at children,

Simona de Iulio; Zouha Jarrin

2004-01-01

463