Sample records for vibration energy harvesting

  1. Downhole vibration sensing by vibration energy harvesting

    E-print Network

    Trimble, A. Zachary

    2007-01-01

    This thesis outlines the design of a prototype electromagnetic induction vibration energy harvesting device for use in a downhole environment. First order models of the necessary components for a generic vibration energy ...

  2. Harvesting energy from non-ideal vibrations

    E-print Network

    Chang, Samuel C

    2013-01-01

    Energy harvesting has drawn significant interest for its potential to power autonomous low-power applications. Vibration energy harvesting is particularly well suited to industrial condition sensing, environmental monitoring ...

  3. PERFORMANCE OF MICROFABRICATED PIEZOELECTRIC VIBRATION ENERGY HARVESTERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NOËL DUTOIT; BRIAN WARDLE

    2006-01-01

    Model verification and design of MEMS piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (MPVEH) are presented, motivated by lowering power requirements of wireless sensor nodes. Applications include structural health monitoring. Coupled electromechanical harvester models are presented and verified (through comparison with experimental data). Harvester material selection is discussed. The model is used to concurrently design a prototype MPVEH and a microfabrication scheme. Targeting

  4. A vibration energy harvesting device with bidirectional resonance frequency tunability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinod R Challa; M G Prasad; Yong Shi; Frank T Fisher

    2008-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesting is an attractive technique for potential powering of wireless sensors and low power devices. While the technique can be employed to harvest energy from vibrations and vibrating structures, a general requirement independent of the energy transfer mechanism is that the vibration energy harvesting device operate in resonance at the excitation frequency. Most energy harvesting devices developed to

  5. Vibration energy harvesting by magnetostrictive material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Wang; F. G. Yuan

    2008-01-01

    A new class of vibration energy harvester based on magnetostrictive material (MsM), Metglas 2605SC, is designed, developed and tested. It contains two submodules: an MsM harvesting device and an energy harvesting circuit. Compared to piezoelectric materials, the Metglas 2605SC offers advantages including higher energy conversion efficiency, longer life cycles, lack of depolarization and higher flexibility to survive in strong ambient

  6. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from broadband random vibrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Adhikari; M. I. Friswell; D. J. Inman

    2009-01-01

    Energy harvesting for the purpose of powering low power electronic sensor systems has received explosive attention in the last few years. Most works using deterministic approaches focusing on using the piezoelectric effect to harvest ambient vibration energy have concentrated on cantilever beams at resonance using harmonic excitation. Here, using a stochastic approach, we focus on using a stack configuration and

  7. On energy harvesting from ambient vibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. G. Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Future MEMS devices will harvest energy from their environment. One can envisage an autonomous condition monitoring vibration sensor being powered by that same vibration, and transmitting data over a wireless link; inaccessible or hostile environments are obvious areas of application. The base excitation of an elastically mounted magnetic seismic mass moving past a coil, considered previously by several authors, is

  8. Harvesting Vibrational Energy Using Material Work Functions

    PubMed Central

    Varpula, Aapo; Laakso, Sampo J.; Havia, Tahvo; Kyynäräinen, Jukka; Prunnila, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesters scavenge energy from mechanical vibrations to energise low power electronic devices. In this work, we report on vibration energy harvesting scheme based on the charging phenomenon occurring naturally between two bodies with different work functions. Such work function energy harvester (WFEH) is similar to electrostatic energy harvester with the fundamental distinction that neither external power supplies nor electrets are needed. A theoretical model and description of different operation modes of WFEHs are presented. The WFEH concept is tested with macroscopic experiments, which agree well with the model. The feasibility of miniaturizing WFEHs is shown by simulating a realistic MEMS device. The WFEH can be operated as a charge pump that pushes charge and energy into an energy storage element. We show that such an operation mode is highly desirable for applications and that it can be realised with either a charge shuttle or with switches. The WFEH is shown to give equal or better output power in comparison to traditional electrostatic harvesters. Our findings indicate that WFEH has great potential in energy harvesting applications. PMID:25348004

  9. Harvesting vibrational energy using material work functions.

    PubMed

    Varpula, Aapo; Laakso, Sampo J; Havia, Tahvo; Kyynäräinen, Jukka; Prunnila, Mika

    2014-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesters scavenge energy from mechanical vibrations to energise low power electronic devices. In this work, we report on vibration energy harvesting scheme based on the charging phenomenon occurring naturally between two bodies with different work functions. Such work function energy harvester (WFEH) is similar to electrostatic energy harvester with the fundamental distinction that neither external power supplies nor electrets are needed. A theoretical model and description of different operation modes of WFEHs are presented. The WFEH concept is tested with macroscopic experiments, which agree well with the model. The feasibility of miniaturizing WFEHs is shown by simulating a realistic MEMS device. The WFEH can be operated as a charge pump that pushes charge and energy into an energy storage element. We show that such an operation mode is highly desirable for applications and that it can be realised with either a charge shuttle or with switches. The WFEH is shown to give equal or better output power in comparison to traditional electrostatic harvesters. Our findings indicate that WFEH has great potential in energy harvesting applications. PMID:25348004

  10. Energy harvesting vibration sources for microsystems applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S P Beeby; M J Tudor; N M White

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art in vibration energy harvesting for wireless, self-powered microsystems. Vibration-powered generators are typically, although not exclusively, inertial spring and mass systems. The characteristic equations for inertial-based generators are presented, along with the specific damping equations that relate to the three main transduction mechanisms employed to extract energy from the system. These transduction mechanisms are: piezoelectric,

  11. Vibration based energy harvesting using piezoelectric material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. N Fakhzan; Asan G. A. Muthalif

    2011-01-01

    Energy harvesting has been around for centuries in the form of windmills, watermills and passive solar power systems. It is not only restricted to the natural resources but it has widen the tapping source to utilise the vibration which happen all around us. In the last decade, beam with piezoceramic patches have been used as a method to harverst energy.

  12. Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 Flowserve Vibration Energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Fall 2011 Flowserve Vibration Energy Harvesting of these vibrations, Flowseve is looking at using vibration absorbers coupled with energy harvesting technology to deacrease vibration while also creating usable energy that would otherwise be wasted. Objectives The team

  13. Vibration energy harvesting for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anton, Steven R.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2008-03-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are a critical component of many military operations. Over the last few decades, the evolution of UAVs has given rise to increasingly smaller aircraft. Along with the development of smaller UAVs, termed mini UAVs, has come issues involving the endurance of the aircraft. Endurance in mini UAVs is problematic because of the limited size of the fuel systems that can be incorporated into the aircraft. A large portion of the total mass of many electric powered mini UAVs, for example, is the rechargeable battery power source. Energy harvesting is an attractive technology for mini UAVs because it offers the potential to increase their endurance without adding significant mass or the need to increase the size of the fuel system. This paper investigates the possibility of harvesting vibration and solar energy in a mini UAV. Experimentation has been carried out on a remote controlled (RC) glider aircraft with a 1.8 m wing span. This aircraft was chosen to replicate the current electric mini UAVs used by the military today. The RC glider was modified to include two piezoelectric patches placed at the roots of the wings and a cantilevered piezoelectric beam installed in the fuselage to harvest energy from wing vibrations and rigid body motions of the aircraft, as well as two thin film photovoltaic panels attached to the top of the wings to harvest energy from sunlight. Flight testing has been performed and the power output of the piezoelectric and photovoltaic devices has been examined.

  14. Energy Harvesting from Vibration Using Polymer Electret

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Suzuki

    2008-01-01

    A vibration-driven electret generator has been developed for energy harvesting applications. Perfluorinated polymer electret with extremely-high surface charge density is employed for large power output. By using parylene as the spring material, a low-resonant-frequency MEMS generator is realized. Large in-plane amplitude of 0.8 mm at the resonant frequency as low as 37 Hz has been achieved. With our early prototype,

  15. Energy harvesting from wind-induced vibration of suspension bridges

    E-print Network

    Shi, Miao, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01

    Recently, an extensive amount of research has been focused on energy harvesting from structural vibration sources for wireless self-powered microsystem applications. One method of energy harvesting is using electromagnetic ...

  16. Adjustable Nonlinear Springs to Improve Efficiency of Vibration Energy Harvesters

    E-print Network

    S. Boisseau; G. Despesse; B. Ahmed Seddik

    2015-06-01

    Vibration Energy Harvesting is an emerging technology aimed at turning mechanical energy from vibrations into electricity to power microsystems of the future. Most of present vibration energy harvesters are based on a mass spring structure introducing a resonance phenomenon that allows to increase the output power compared to non-resonant systems, but limits the working frequency bandwidth. Therefore, they are not able to harvest energy when ambient vibrations' frequencies shift. To follow shifts of ambient vibration frequencies and to increase the frequency band where energy can be harvested, one solution consists in using nonlinear springs. We present in this paper a model of adjustable nonlinear springs (H-shaped springs) and their benefits to improve velocity-damped vibration energy harvesters' (VEH) output powers. A simulation on a real vibration source proves that the output power can be higher in nonlinear devices compared to linear systems (up to +48%).

  17. Multiple cell configuration electromagnetic vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Anthony; Bressers, Scott; Priya, Shashank

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports the design of an electromagnetic vibration energy harvester that doubles the magnitude of output power generated by the prior four-bar magnet configuration. This enhancement was achieved with minor increase in volume by 23% and mass by 30%. The new 'double cell' design utilizes an additional pair of magnets to create a secondary air gap, or cell, for a second coil to vibrate within. To further reduce the dimensions of the device, two coils were attached to one common cantilever beam. These unique features lead to improvements of 66% in output power per unit volume (power density) and 27% increase in output power per unit volume and mass (specific power density), from 0.1 to 0.17 mW cm-3 and 0.41 to 0.51 mW cm-3 kg-1 respectively. Using the ANSYS multiphysics analysis, it was determined that for the double cell harvester, adding one additional pair of magnets created a small magnetic gradient between air gaps of 0.001 T which is insignificant in terms of electromagnetic damping. An analytical model was developed to optimize the magnitude of transformation factor and magnetic field gradient within the gap.

  18. On the Effectiveness of Vibration-based Energy Harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shad Roundy

    2005-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the research on vibration-based energy harvesting in recent years. Most research is focused on a particular technology, and it is often difficult to compare widely differing designs and approaches to vibration-based energy harvesting. The aim of this study is to provide a general theory that can be used to compare different approaches and

  19. Vibration Energy Harvesting by Carbon Nanotube Network\\/Polydimethylsiloxane Composite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Lv; Mingxiang Chen; Keling Wu; Sheng Liu

    2010-01-01

    There are many vibration energy in nature, vibration energy harvesting is an attractive technique for low-power devices. In this paper, a new vibration energy harvesting by carbon nanotube network(NTN)\\/polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS) composite was investigated. The composite of NTN embedded in PDMS matrix has been fabricated by using filtration, standard integrated circuits processes and transfer process. The NTN\\/PDMS composite can be used to

  20. A low-frequency vibration-to-electrical energy harvester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Min Zhang; Daniel Brignac; Pratul Ajmera; Kun Lian

    2008-01-01

    As the power consumption of modern electronics and wireless circuits decreases to a few hundred microwatts, it becomes possible to power these electronic devices by using ambient energy harvested from the environment. Mechanical vibration is among the more pervasive ambient available energy forms. Recent works in vibration-to-electrical energy harvesters have been centered on high frequency vibration applications. Although high-frequency mechanical

  1. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from traffic-induced bridge vibrations

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting from traffic-induced bridge vibrations Micha¨el Peigney1 of cantilever piezoelectric harvester was designed, tested, and modeled. Even though the considered bridge for piezoelectric harvesters to be used on bridges. hal-00859131,version1-11Sep2013 Author manuscript, published

  2. On Mechanical Modeling of Cantilevered Piezoelectric Vibration Energy Harvesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Erturk; D. J. Inman

    2008-01-01

    Cantilevered beams with piezoceramic (PZT) layers are the most commonly investigated type of vibration energy harvesters. A frequently used modeling approach is the single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) modeling of the harvester beam as it allows simple expressions for the electrical outputs. In the literature, since the base excitation on the harvester beam is assumed to be harmonic, the well known SDOF relation

  3. Piezoelectric energy harvesting from flow-induced vibration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D.-A. Wang; H.-H. Ko

    2010-01-01

    A new piezoelectric energy harvester for harnessing energy from flow-induced vibration is developed. It converts flow energy into electrical energy by piezoelectric conversion with oscillation of a piezoelectric film. A finite element model is developed in order to estimate the generated voltage of the piezoelectric laminate subjected to a distributed load. Prototypes of the energy harvester are fabricated and tested.

  4. A MEMS vibration energy harvester for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Schaijk, R.; Elfrink, R.; Oudenhoven, J.; Pop, V.; Wang, Z.; Renaud, M.

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this work is to develop MEMS vibration energy harvesters for tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS), they can be located on the rim or on the inner-liner of the car tire. Nowadays TPMS modules are powered by batteries with a limited lifetime. A large effort is ongoing to replace batteries with small and long lasting power sources like energy harvesters [1]. The operation principle of vibration harvesters is mechanical resonance of a seismic mass, where mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. In general, vibration energy harvesters are of specific interest for machine environments where random noise or repetitive shock vibrations are present. In this work we present the results for MEMS based vibration energy harvesting for applying on the rim or inner-liner. The vibrations on the rim correspond to random noise. A vibration energy harvester can be described as an under damped mass-spring system acting like a mechanical band-pass filter, and will resonate at its natural frequency [2]. At 0.01 g2/Hz noise amplitude the average power can reach the level that is required to power a simple wireless sensor node, approximately 10 ?W [3]. The dominant vibrations on the inner-liner consist mainly of repetitive high amplitude shocks. With a shock, the seismic mass is displaced, after which the mass will "ring-down" at its natural resonance frequency. During the ring-down period, part of the mechanical energy is harvested. On the inner-liner of the tire repetitive (one per rotation) high amplitude (few hundred g) shocks occur. The harvester enables an average power of a few tens of ?W [4], sufficient to power a more sophisticated wireless sensor node that can measure additional tire-parameters besides pressure. In this work we characterized MEMS vibration energy harvesters for noise and shock excitation. We validated their potential for TPMS modules by measurements and simulation.

  5. Characterization of Direct Piezoelectric Properties for Vibration Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Takeshi; Miyabuchi, Hiroki; Murakami, Syuichi; Ashida, Atsushi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2011-10-01

    Direct piezoelectric effect of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films was investigated to discuss the application of ferroelectric films to vibration energy harvesting. From the model of the piezoelectric vibration energy harvester, it was found that the figure of merit (FOM) is proportional of the square of the effective transverse piezoelectric coefficient e31,f. The e31,f coefficient of PZT films were measured by substrate bending method. Furthermore, it was found that the e31,f coefficient increases with increasing strain, which is favourable for the vibration energy harvesting.

  6. A variable-capacitance vibration-to-electric energy harvester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard C. Yen; Jeffrey H. Lang

    2006-01-01

    Past research on vibration energy harvesting has focused primarily on the use of magnets or piezoelectric materials as the basis of energy transduction, with few experimental studies implementing variable-capacitance-based scavenging. In contrast, this paper presents the design and demonstration of a variable-capacitance vibration energy harvester that combines an asynchronous diode-based charge pump with an inductive energy flyback circuit to deliver

  7. Vibration energy harvesting using macro-fiber composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaowen Yang; Lihua Tang; Hongyun Li

    2009-01-01

    The decreasing energy consumption of today's portable electronics has invoked the possibility of energy harvesting from the ambient environment for self-power supply. One common and simple method for vibration energy harvesting is to utilize the direct piezoelectric effect. Compared to traditional piezoelectric materials such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), macro-fiber composites (MFC) are characterized by their flexibility on large deformation.

  8. Energy harvesting of random wide-band vibrations with applications to an electro-magnetic rotational energy harvester

    E-print Network

    Trimble, A. Zachary

    2011-01-01

    In general, vibration energy harvesting is the scavenging of ambient vibration by transduction of mechanical kinetic energy into electrical energy. Many mechanical or electro-mechanical systems produce mechanical vibrations. ...

  9. Wideband electromagnetic energy harvesting from ambient vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Dhiman; Podder, Pranay; Roy, Saibal

    2015-06-01

    Different bandwidth widening schemes of electromagnetic energy harvesters have been reported in this work. The devices are fabricated on FR4 substrate using laser micromachining techniques. The linear device operate in a narrow band around the resonance; in order to tune resonant frequency of the device electrically, two different types of complex load topologies are adopted. Using capacitive load, the resonant frequency is tuned in the low frequency direction whereas using inductive load, the resonant frequency is tuned in the high frequency direction. An overall tuning range of ˜2.4 Hz is obtained at 0.3g though the output power dropped significantly over the tuning range. In order to improve the off-resonance performance, nonlinear oscillation based systems are adopted. A specially designed spring arm with fixed-guided configuration produced single well nonlinear monostable configuration. With increasing input acceleration, wider bandwidth is obtained with such a system as large displacement, stretching nonlinearity comes into play and 9.55 Hz bandwidth is obtained at 0.5g. The repulsive force between one static and one vibrating oppositely polarized magnets are used to generate bistable nonlinear potential system. The distance between the mentioned magnets is varied between 4 to 10 mm to produce tunable nonlinearity with a maximum half power bandwidth over 3 Hz at 0.5g.

  10. Modeling and design of a MEMS piezoelectric vibration energy harvester

    E-print Network

    Du Toit, Noël Eduard

    2005-01-01

    The modeling and design of MEMS-scale piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvesters (MPVEH) are presented. The work is motivated by the need for pervasive and limitless power for wireless sensor nodes that have application ...

  11. A review of vibration-based MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salem Saadon; Othman Sidek

    2011-01-01

    The simplicity associated with the piezoelectric micro-generators makes it very attractive for MEMS applications, especially for remote systems. In this paper we reviewed the work carried out by researchers during the last three years. The improvements in experimental results obtained in the vibration-based MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesters show very good scope for MEMS piezoelectric harvesters in the field of power

  12. MULTI-AXIS ALN-ON-SILICON VIBRATION ENERGY HARVESTER WITH INTEGRATED FREQUENCY-UPCONVERTING TRANSDUCERS

    E-print Network

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    presents fully-integrated multi-axis piezoelectric-on-silicon kinetic energy harvesters (KEHs energy harvesters at such low frequencies. Piezoelectric cantilever harvesters generateMULTI-AXIS ALN-ON-SILICON VIBRATION ENERGY HARVESTER WITH INTEGRATED FREQUENCY

  13. A Vibration-Based PMN-PT Energy Harvester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Mathers; Kee S. Moon; Jingang Yi

    2009-01-01

    We report design, modeling, analysis, and experimental study of a vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvester. The energy harvester is made of a composite cantilever of a single crystal relaxor ferroelectric material, (1- x)Pb(Mg1\\/3Nb2\\/3)O3-xPbTiO3 (PMN-PT), and a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) base layer. A PDMS proof mass is constructed at the tip of the composite cantilever beam and is used as a means to

  14. Vibration energy harvesting using Galfenol-based transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbyuk, Viktor

    2013-04-01

    In this paper the novel design of Galfenol based vibration energy harvester is presented. The device uses Galfenol rod diameter 6.35 mm and length 50mm, polycrystalline, production grade, manufactured by FSZM process by ETREMA Product Inc. For experimental study of the harvester, the test rig was developed. It was found by experiment that for given frequency of external excitation there exist optimal values of bias and pre-stress which maximize generated voltage and harvested power. Under optimized operational conditions and external excitations with frequency 50Hz the designed transducer generates about 10 V and harvests about 0,45 W power. Within the running conditions, the Galfenol rod power density was estimated to 340mW/cm3. The obtained results show high practical potential of Galfenol based sensors for vibration-to-electrical energy conversion, structural health monitoring, etc.

  15. Demonstration of Energy-Neutral Operation on a WSN Testbed Using Vibration Energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Uysal-Biyikoglu, Elif

    Demonstration of Energy-Neutral Operation on a WSN Testbed Using Vibration Energy Harvesting S-neutral operation of a wireless sensor network of MicaZ Motes through electromagnetic vibration energy harvesting harvested fully compensates for the energy used for the operation of the node. Keywords--Wireless sensor

  16. Development of a Cantilever Beam Generator Employing Vibration Energy Harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Torah; S. P. Beeby; M. J. Tudor; T. O'Donnell; S. Roy

    This paper details the development of a generator based upon a cantilever beam inertial mass system which harvests energy from ambient environmental vibrations. The paper compares the predicted results from Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the mechanical behaviour and magnetic field simulations and experimental results from a generator. Several design changes were implemented to maximise the conversion of magnetic energy

  17. A micro electromagnetic generator for vibration energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S P Beeby; R N Torah; M J Tudor; P Glynne-Jones; T O'Donnell; C R Saha; S Roy

    2007-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesting is receiving a considerable amount of interest as a means for powering wireless sensor nodes. This paper presents a small (component volume 0.1 cm3, practical volume 0.15 cm3) electromagnetic generator utilizing discrete components and optimized for a low ambient vibration level based upon real application data. The generator uses four magnets arranged on an etched cantilever with

  18. Enhanced vibration energy harvesting using dual-mass systems Xiudong Tang, Lei Zuo n

    E-print Network

    Zuo, Lei

    Enhanced vibration energy harvesting using dual-mass systems Xiudong Tang, Lei Zuo n Department-mass vibration energy harvester, where two masses are connected in series with the energy transducer and spring, is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The dual-mass vibration energy harvester is proved to be able

  19. Electret transducer for vibration-based energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillenbrand, J.; Pondrom, P.; Sessler, G. M.

    2015-05-01

    Vibration-based electret energy harvesters with soft cellular spacer rings are presented. These harvesters are closely related to recently introduced electret accelerometers; however, their development targets are partially differing. Various harvesters with seismic masses from 8 to 23 g and surface potentials in the 500 V regime were built and characterized and powers of up to 8 ?W at about 2 kHz and an acceleration of 1 g were measured. An analytical model is presented which, for instance, allows the calculation of the frequency response of the power output into a given load resistance. Finally, experimental and calculated results are compared.

  20. Low-frequency meandering piezoelectric vibration energy harvester.

    PubMed

    Berdy, David F; Srisungsitthisunti, Pornsak; Jung, Byunghoo; Xu, Xianfan; Rhoads, Jeffrey F; Peroulis, Dimitrios

    2012-05-01

    The design, fabrication, and characterization of a novel low-frequency meandering piezoelectric vibration energy harvester is presented. The energy harvester is designed for sensor node applications where the node targets a width-to-length aspect ratio close to 1:1 while simultaneously achieving a low resonant frequency. The measured power output and normalized power density are 118 ?W and 5.02 ?W/mm(3)/g(2), respectively, when excited by an acceleration magnitude of 0.2 g at 49.7 Hz. The energy harvester consists of a laser-machined meandering PZT bimorph. Two methods, strain-matched electrode (SME) and strain-matched polarization (SMP), are utilized to mitigate the voltage cancellation caused by having both positive and negative strains in the piezoelectric layer during operation at the meander's first resonant frequency. We have performed finite element analysis and experimentally demonstrated a prototype harvester with a footprint of 27 x 23 mm and a height of 6.5 mm including the tip mass. The device achieves a low resonant frequency while maintaining a form factor suitable for sensor node applications. The meandering design enables energy harvesters to harvest energy from vibration sources with frequencies less than 100 Hz within a compact footprint. PMID:22622969

  1. A broadband vibrational energy harvester Louis Van Blarigan, Per Danzl, and Jeff Moehlisa)

    E-print Network

    Bigelow, Stephen

    . This harvester uses two flexi- ble ceramic piezoelectric elements from Advanced Cerame- trics, Inc., as shownA broadband vibrational energy harvester Louis Van Blarigan, Per Danzl, and Jeff Moehlisa for an energy harvester which has the potential to harvest vibrational energy over a broad range of ambient

  2. A Study on Energy Harvesting Aware Routing for Vibration-Motivated Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Lim, Sunho

    , a piezoelectric device based energy harvesting from ambient vibrations is a promising technique for easy harvesting, Piezoelectric transducer, Routing, Vibration, Wireless sensor networks. This researchA Study on Energy Harvesting Aware Routing for Vibration-Motivated Wireless Sensor Networks TTU

  3. Energy Harvesting Devices Utilizing Resonance Vibration of Piezoelectric Buzzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Toshio; Sugisawa, Ryosuke; Sakurada, Yuta; Aoshima, Hiroshi; Hikida, Masahito; Akaishi, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    A piezoelectric buzzer for energy harvesting was investigated. Although an external force was added to a buzzer, a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) unimorph in the buzzer, the ceramic disc diameter, thickness, and capacitance of which were respectively 14 mm, 0.2 mm, and 10 nF, generated resonance vibration. As a result, alternating voltages of around 30 V and a frequency of 5 kHz were observed. When the generated voltages were applied to a LED lamp, new devices such as a “night-view footwear” and a “piezo-walker” were developed. It was confirmed that the piezo-buzzer for energy harvesting utilizing resonance vibration is an effective tool for obtaining clean energy.

  4. A study of electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters with different interface circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Liang, Xingyu; Wei, Haiqiao

    2015-06-01

    A dimensionless analysis of piezoelectric vibration energy harvester was conducted in the previous work where the harvested power and energy harvesting efficiency were normalised and determined from two non-dimensional variables of resistance and force factor. This paper has developed a dimensionless analysis of an electromagnetic vibration energy harvester where the harvested power and energy harvesting efficiency are normalised and determined from two similar non-dimensional variables of resistance and equivalent force factor. The harvested power and efficiency are compared for the electromagnetic harvester with different interface circuits. The aim is to disclose some similarity and limitations of the piezoelectric and electromagnetic harvesters in a dimensionless scale.

  5. Model reduction in stochastic vibration energy harvesting using compressive sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickenheiser, A. M.

    2013-09-01

    Vibration energy harvesters are designed to gather parasitic energy from the motion of their host structures. In many germane scenarios, this motion is broadband; however, the preponderance of design criteria appearing in the literature for vibration energy harvesters considers sinusoidal base excitation at a single frequency. While this analysis often leads to analytical formulas for estimating power harvested, they fail to account for the contribution of multiple frequency components of the host motion and the excitation of higher vibration modes of the transducer. In this paper, an attempt is made to provide brief, analytical approximation of these additional factors. To wit, the single-mode, single-frequency power formula is extended to multi-frequency inputs and multiple modal excitations by matching each base acceleration frequency component to at most one mode of vibration whose half-power bandwidth that frequency falls within. Then, due to orthogonality, the expected power can be written as the sum of the contributions of the individual frequency components. To demonstrate the accuracy of this approximation, recorded acceleration signals from a car idling and a person walking are used as inputs, and predictions from the approximation are compared to results from full simulations. Approximations using only three frequency components are shown to be more than 80% accurate, with increased accuracy as the base acceleration signal becomes narrower in bandwidth. The effects of charge cancellation in the higher modes are also considered using simulations and the aforementioned approximations. These studies show that rectifying the strain in the higher modes is only beneficial if these modes contribute significantly to the power harvested. The approximate formulas derived in this paper are useful for making this determination.

  6. Vibration energy harvesting for low power and wireless applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challa, Vinod Reddy

    Vibration energy harvesting is an attractive technique for the potential powering of wireless sensors and low power devices. While the technique can be employed to harvest energy from ambient and mechanical vibrations, there are several generic requirements independent of the energy transfer mechanism that needs to be satisfied for efficient energy harvesting which are pursued here. For example, most energy harvesting devices developed are based on a single resonance frequency, and while recently efforts are being attempted to broaden the frequency range of the devices, lacking is a robust frequency tunable technique. In this work, a resonance frequency tunable mechanism employing magnetic force/stiffness technique is developed that allows the device frequency to increase or decrease based on the mode (attractive, repulsive) of the magnetic force applied. The developed technique provides the device to tune to approximately +/- 25% of its untuned resonance frequency allowing a wide frequency bandwidth. Further, this technique is developed into a self-tunable technique for autonomous device development. Another generic requirement is to match the electrical damping to the mechanical damping in the energy harvesting system for maximum efficiency. To satisfy this requirement, two independent energy harvesting techniques (piezoelectric and electromagnetic) are coupled through design, resulting in ˜30% and ˜65.5% increase in two different independent devices. Another key requirement is developing MEMS scale energy harvesting devices that will not only promises to enhance the power density but also allows potential integration with wireless sensors as an on-chip power source. Piezoelectric MEMS composite structures along with integrated silicon tip masses are fabricated using standard microfabrication techniques. Spray coating and spin coating techniques were explored to deposit zinc oxide as the piezoelectric material. Commercially available magnets were employed to demonstrate the frequency tuning/calibration of these structures resulting in ˜50% bandwidth. These approaches set the stage for a MEMS scale frequency tuning mechanism to be developed that would allow the integration of a self-tunability methodology for a completely autonomous MEMS scale energy harvesting devices for wide applications.

  7. Analysis of Energy Harvesting for Vibration-Motivated Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Lim, Sunho

    . In particular, a piezoelectric device based energy harvesting from ambient vibrations is a promising technique for analyzing vibration-motivated WSNs. Index Terms--Energy harvesting, Piezoelectric transducer, Vi- bration available, it has been found that piezoelectric-based energy harvesting is the most promising technique [4

  8. Multi-link Piezoelectric Structure for Vibration Energy Harvesting Rameen M. Aryanpur and Robert D. White

    E-print Network

    White, Robert D.

    Multi-link Piezoelectric Structure for Vibration Energy Harvesting Rameen M. Aryanpur and Robert D ABSTRACT Work in piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting has typically focused on single member Harvesting, Energy Scavenging, Multi-link, Wide bandwidth, PZT 1. INTRODUCTION The use of piezoelectric

  9. Harvesting vibration energy by a triple-cantilever based triboelectric nanogenerator

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Harvesting vibration energy by a triple-cantilever based triboelectric nanogenerator Weiqing Yang1), a unique technology for harvesting ambient mechanical energy based on triboelectric effect, have been a rationally designed triple-cantilever based TENG for harvesting vibration energy. With the assistance

  10. Multistable chain for ocean wave vibration energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harne, R. L.; Schoemaker, M. E.; Wang, K. W.

    2014-03-01

    The heaving of ocean waves is a largely untapped, renewable kinetic energy resource. Conversion of this energy into electrical power could integrate with solar technologies to provide for round-the-clock, portable, and mobile energy supplies usable in a wide variety of marine environments. However, the direct drive conversion methodology of gridintegrated wave energy converters does not efficiently scale down to smaller, portable architectures. This research develops an alternative power conversion approach to harness the extraordinarily large heaving displacements and long oscillation periods as an excitation source for an extendible vibration energy harvesting chain. Building upon related research findings and engineering insights, the proposed system joins together a series of dynamic cells through bistable interfaces. Individual impulse events are generated as the inertial mass of each cell is pulled across a region of negative stiffness to induce local snap through dynamics; the oscillating magnetic inertial mass then generates current in a coil which is connected to energy harvesting circuitry. It is shown that linking the cells into a chain transmits impulses through the system leading to cascades of vibration and enhancement of electrical energy conversion from each impulse event. This paper describes the development of the multistable chain and ways in which realistic design challenges were addressed. Numerical modeling and corresponding experiments demonstrate the response of the chain due to slow and large amplitude input motion. Lastly, experimental studies give evidence that energy conversion efficiency of the chain for wave energy conversion is much higher than using an equal number of cells without connections.

  11. An auto-parametrically excited vibration energy harvester

    E-print Network

    Jia, Yu; Seshia, Ashwin A.

    2014-01-01

    An auto-parametrically excited vibration energy harvester Yu Jia and Ashwin A. Seshia Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1PZ, UK E-mail: yj252@cam.ac.uk, aas41@cam.ac.uk Draft: September 11, 2014 Abstract — Parametric... designs to minimise this thresh- old, through non-resonant direct amplification of the base excitation that is subsequently fed into the parametric resonator. This paper explores the integration of auto-parametric resonance, as a form of resonant...

  12. Efficiency enhancement of a cantilever-based vibration energy harvester.

    PubMed

    Kubba, Ali E; Jiang, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Extracting energy from ambient vibration to power wireless sensor nodes has been an attractive area of research, particularly in the automotive monitoring field. This article reports the design, analysis and testing of a vibration energy harvesting device based on a miniature asymmetric air-spaced cantilever. The developed design offers high power density, and delivers electric power that is sufficient to support most wireless sensor nodes for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The optimized design underwent three evolutionary steps, starting from a simple cantilever design, going through an air-spaced cantilever, and ending up with an optimized air-spaced geometry with boosted power density level. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used as an initial tool to compare the three geometries' stiffness (K), output open-circuit voltage (V(ave)), and average normal strain in the piezoelectric transducer (?(ave)) that directly affect its output voltage. Experimental tests were also carried out in order to examine the energy harvesting level in each of the three designs. The experimental results show how to boost the power output level in a thin air-spaced cantilever beam for energy within the same space envelope. The developed thin air-spaced cantilever (8.37 cm3), has a maximum power output of 2.05 mW (H = 29.29 ?J/cycle). PMID:24366177

  13. Efficiency Enhancement of a Cantilever-Based Vibration Energy Harvester

    PubMed Central

    Kubba, Ali E.; Jiang, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Extracting energy from ambient vibration to power wireless sensor nodes has been an attractive area of research, particularly in the automotive monitoring field. This article reports the design, analysis and testing of a vibration energy harvesting device based on a miniature asymmetric air-spaced cantilever. The developed design offers high power density, and delivers electric power that is sufficient to support most wireless sensor nodes for structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The optimized design underwent three evolutionary steps, starting from a simple cantilever design, going through an air-spaced cantilever, and ending up with an optimized air-spaced geometry with boosted power density level. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) was used as an initial tool to compare the three geometries' stiffness (K), output open-circuit voltage (Vave), and average normal strain in the piezoelectric transducer (?ave) that directly affect its output voltage. Experimental tests were also carried out in order to examine the energy harvesting level in each of the three designs. The experimental results show how to boost the power output level in a thin air-spaced cantilever beam for energy within the same space envelope. The developed thin air-spaced cantilever (8.37 cm3), has a maximum power output of 2.05 mW (H = 29.29 ?J/cycle). PMID:24366177

  14. Vibration energy harvesting using a piezoelectric circular diaphragm array.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Tongqing; Chen, Xurui; Yao, Xi

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a method for harvesting electric energy from mechanical vibration using a mechanically excited piezoelectric circular membrane array. The piezoelectric circular diaphragm array consists of four plates with series and parallel connection, and the electrical characteristics of the array are examined under dynamic conditions. With an optimal load resistor of 160 k?, an output power of 28 mW was generated from the array in series connection at 150 Hz under a prestress of 0.8 N and a vibration acceleration of 9.8 m/s(2), whereas a maximal output power of 27 mW can be obtained from the array in parallel connection through a resistive load of 11 k? under the same frequency, prestress, and acceleration conditions. The results show that using a piezoelectric circular diaphragm array can significantly increase the output of energy compared with the use of a single plate. By choosing an appropriate connection pattern (series or parallel connections) among the plates, the equivalent impedance of the energy harvesting devices can be tailored to meet the matched load of different applications for maximal power output. PMID:23007776

  15. Piezoelectric MEMS energy harvesting systems driven by harmonic and random vibrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars-Cyril Blystad; Einar Halvorsen; Svein Husa

    2010-01-01

    Switching power conditioning techniques are known to greatly enhance the performance of linear piezoelectric energy harvesters subject to harmonic vibrations. With such circuits, little is known about the effect of mechanical stoppers that limit the motion or about waveforms other than harmonic vibrations. This work presents SPICE simulations of piezoelectric micro energy harvester systems that differ in choice of power

  16. Dimensionless optimization of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters with different interface This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-print Network

    Lin, Liwei

    Dimensionless optimization of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters with different interface optimization of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters with different interface circuits Xu Wang1 and Liwei piezoelectric vibration energy harvester and normalized in a dimensionless form. Performance optimizations have

  17. A dimensionless analysis of a 2DOF piezoelectric vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Xu; John, Sabu

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a dimensionless analysis method is proposed to predict the output voltage and harvested power for a 2DOF vibration energy harvesting system. This method allows us to compare the harvesting power and efficiency of the 2DOF vibration energy harvesting system and to evaluate the harvesting system performance regardless the sizes or scales. The analysis method is a hybrid of time domain simulation and frequency response analysis approaches, which would be a useful tool for parametric study, design and optimisation of a 2DOF piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. In a case study, a quarter car suspension model with a piezoelectric material insert is chosen to be studied. The 2DOF vibration energy harvesting system could potentially be applied in a vehicle to convert waste or harmful ambient vibration energy into electrical energy for charging the battery. Especially for its application in a hybrid vehicle or an electrical vehicle, the 2DOF vibration energy harvesting system could improve charge mileage, comfort and reliability.

  18. Smart nanocoated structure for energy harvesting at low frequency vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Sudhanshu

    Increasing demands of energy which is cleaner and has an unlimited supply has led development in the field of energy harvesting. Piezoelectric materials can be used as a means of transforming ambient vibrations into electrical energy that can be stored and used to power other devices. With the recent surge of micro scale devices, piezoelectric power generation can provide a convenient alternative to traditional power sources. In this research, a piezoelectric power generator composite prototype was developed to maximize the power output of the system. A lead zirconate titanate (PZT) composite structure was formed and mounted on a cantilever bar and was studied to convert vibration energy of the low range vibrations at 30 Hz--1000 Hz. To improve the performance of the PZT, different coatings were made using different percentage of Ferrofluid (FNP) and Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO) and binder resin. The optimal coating mixture constituent percentage was based on the performance of the composite structure formed by applying the coating on the PZT. The fabricated PZT power generator composite with an effective volume of 0.062 cm3 produced a maximum of 44.5 ?W, or 0.717mW/cm3 at its resonant frequency of 90 Hz. The optimal coating mixture had the composition of 59.9%FNP + 40% ZnO + 1% Resin Binder. The coating utilizes the opto-magneto-electrical properties of ZnO and Magnetic properties of FNP. To further enhance the output, the magneto-electric (ME) effect was increased by subjecting the composite to magnetic field where coating acts as a magnetostrictive material. For the effective volume of 0.0062 cm 3, the composite produced a maximum of 68.5 ?W, or 1.11mW/cm 3 at its resonant frequency of 90 Hz at 160 gauss. The optimal coating mixture had the composition of 59.9% FNP + 40% ZnO + 1% Resin Binder. This research also focused on improving the efficiency of solar cells by utilizing the magnetic effect along with gas plasma etching to improve the internal reflection. Preliminary results showed an improvement in solar cell efficiency from 14.6% to 17.1%.

  19. Scaling and power density metrics of electromagnetic vibration energy harvesting devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Scott D.; Payne, Owen R.; Hart, Genevieve A.; Ung, Chandarin

    2015-02-01

    A review of the vibration energy harvesting literature has been undertaken with the goal of establishing scaling laws for experimentally demonstrated harvesting devices based on electromagnetic transduction. Power density metrics are examined with respect to scaling length, mass, frequency and drive acceleration. Continuous improvements in demonstrated power density of harvesting devices over the past decade are noted. Scaling laws are developed from observations that appear to suggest an upper limit to the power density achievable with current harvesting techniques.

  20. IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 9, NO. 7, JULY 2009 731 A Vibration-Based PMN-PT Energy Harvester

    E-print Network

    Yi, Jingang

    , and ex- perimental study of a vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvester. The energy harvester piezoelectric harvesters. Index Terms--Composite cantilever beam, energy harvester, in- terdigited electrodes (IDEs), piezoelectric harvester, PMN-PT. I. INTRODUCTION OVER the past decade, there has been

  1. Abstract--This paper presents ambient mechanical vibrations as an alternative source for energy harvesting, especially

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    Abstract--This paper presents ambient mechanical vibrations as an alternative source for energy harvesting, especially beneficial where alternatives such as light, wind, biomass and thermal energy are limited, e.g., powering underground sensors. Transduction of ambient kinetic energy, e.g., the vibrations

  2. Micro-scale piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting: From fixed-frequency to adaptable-frequency devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lindsay Margaret

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have the potential to transform engineering infrastructure, manufacturing, and building controls by allowing condition monitoring, asset tracking, demand response, and other intelligent feedback systems. A wireless sensor node consists of a power supply, sensor(s), power conditioning circuitry, radio transmitter and/or receiver, and a micro controller. Such sensor nodes are used for collecting and communicating data regarding the state of a machine, system, or process. The increasing demand for better ways to power wireless devices and increase operation time on a single battery charge drives an interest in energy harvesting research. Today, wireless sensor nodes are typically powered by a standard single-charge battery, which becomes depleted within a relatively short timeframe depending on the application. This introduces tremendous labor costs associated with battery replacement, especially when there are thousands of nodes in a network, the nodes are remotely located, or widely-distributed. Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesting presents a potential solution to the problems associated with too-short battery life and high maintenance requirements, especially in industrial environments where vibrations are ubiquitous. Energy harvester designs typically use the harvester to trickle charge a rechargeable energy storage device rather than directly powering the electronics with the harvested energy. This allows a buffer between the energy harvester supply and the load where energy can be stored in a "tank". Therefore, the harvester does not need to produce the full required power at every instant to successfully power the node. In general, there are tens of microwatts of power available to be harvested from ambient vibrations using micro scale devices and tens of milliwatts available from ambient vibrations using meso scale devices. Given that the power requirements of wireless sensor nodes range from several microwatts to about one hundred milliwatts and are falling steadily as improvements are made, it is feasible to use energy harvesting to power WSNs. This research begins by presenting the results of a thorough survey of ambient vibrations in the machine room of a large campus building, which found that ambient vibrations are low frequency, low amplitude, time varying, and multi-frequency. The modeling and design of fixed-frequency micro scale energy harvesters are then presented. The model is able to take into account rotational inertia of the harvester's proof mass and it accepts arbitrary measured acceleration input, calculating the energy harvester's voltage as an output. The fabrication of the micro electromechanical system (MEMS) energy harvesters is discussed and results of the devices harvesting energy from ambient vibrations are presented. The harvesters had resonance frequencies ranging from 31 - 232 Hz, which was the lowest reported in literature for a MEMS device, and produced 24 pW/g2 - 10 nW/g2 of harvested power from ambient vibrations. A novel method for frequency modification of the released harvester devices using a dispenser printed mass is then presented, demonstrating a frequency shift of 20 Hz. Optimization of the MEMS energy harvester connected to a resistive load is then presented, finding that the harvested power output can be increased to several microwatts with the optimized design as long as the driving frequency matches the harvester's resonance frequency. A framework is then presented to allow a similar optimization to be conducted with the harvester connected to a synchronously switched pre-bias circuit. With the realization that the optimized energy harvester only produces usable amounts of power if the resonance frequency and driving frequency match, which is an unrealistic situation in the case of ambient vibrations which change over time and are not always known a priori, an adaptable-frequency energy harvester was designed. The adaptable-frequency harvester works by taking advantage of the coupling between

  3. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR MEMS-SCALE PIEZOELECTRIC MECHANICAL VIBRATION ENERGY HARVESTERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NOËL E. DUTOIT; BRIAN L. WARDLE; SANG-GOOK KIM

    2005-01-01

    Design considerations for piezoelectric-based energy harvesters for MEMS-scale sensors are presented, including a review of past work. Harvested ambient vibration energy can satisfy power needs of advanced MEMS-scale autonomous sensors for numerous applications, e.g., structural health monitoring. Coupled 1-D and modal (beam structure) electromechanical models are presented to predict performance, especially power, from measured low-level ambient vibration sources. Models are

  4. Electromagnetic energy harvesting from vibrations of multiple frequencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Yang; Chengkuo Lee; Wenfeng Xiang; Jin Xie; Johnny Han He; Rama Krishna Kotlanka; Siew Ping Low; Hanhua Feng

    2009-01-01

    A novel multi-frequency energy harvester has been designed and fabricated, which consists of three permanent magnets, three sets of two-layer copper coils and a supported beam of acrylic, while these coils are made of thin fire resistant 4 (FR4) substrates using a standard printed circuit board. The energy under the first, second and third resonant modes can be harvested, corresponding

  5. An interface circuit prototype for a vibration-based electromagnetic energy harvester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arian Rahimi; Ozge Zorlu; Haluk Kulah; Ali Muhtaroglu

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the interface electronics for a vibration based Electromagnetic (EM) energy harvester, which works on the mechanical frequency-up-conversion principle. The interface electronics is used to step up and rectify the harvested AC signal of the energy harvester through a two-stage charge-pump circuit. Output voltage of 4.5 V with 2.5% ripple has been demonstrated at a load current of

  6. A hybrid indoor ambient light and vibration energy harvester for wireless sensor nodes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hua; Yue, Qiuqin; Zhou, Jielin; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    To take advantage of applications where both light and vibration energy are available, a hybrid indoor ambient light and vibration energy harvesting scheme is proposed in this paper. This scheme uses only one power conditioning circuit to condition the combined output power harvested from both energy sources so as to reduce the power dissipation. In order to more accurately predict the instantaneous power harvested from the solar panel, an improved five-parameter model for small-scale solar panel applying in low light illumination is presented. The output voltage is increased by using the MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays architecture. It overcomes the disadvantage of traditional MEMS vibration energy harvester with low voltage output. The implementation of the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) for indoor ambient light is implemented using analog discrete components, which improves the whole harvester efficiency significantly compared to the digital signal processor. The output power of the vibration energy harvester is improved by using the impedance matching technique. An efficient mechanism of energy accumulation and bleed-off is also discussed. Experiment results obtained from an amorphous-silicon (a-Si) solar panel of 4.8 × 2.0 cm2 and a fabricated piezoelectric MEMS generator of 11 × 12.4 mm2 show that the hybrid energy harvester achieves a maximum efficiency around 76.7%. PMID:24854054

  7. Piezoelectric energy harvesting devices for low frequency vibration applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongna Shen

    2009-01-01

    Energy harvesting, a process of capturing ambient waste energy and converting it into usable electricity, has been attracting more and more researchers' interest because of the limitations of traditional power sources, the increasing demands upon mobile devices such as wireless sensor networks, and the recent advent of the extremely low power electrical and mechanical devices such as microelectromechanical systems (MEMS).

  8. Energy harvesting and vibration control using piezoelectric elements and a nonlinear approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Qiu; H. L. Ji; H. Shen

    2009-01-01

    The piezoelectric materials, as the most widely used functional materials in smart structures, have many outstanding advantages for sensors and actuators, especially in vibration control and energy harvesting, because of their excellent mechanical-electrical coupling characteristics and frequency response characteristics. Semi-active vibration control based on state switching and pulse switching, have been receiving much attention over the past decade because of

  9. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting under High PreStressed Cyclic Vibrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyeoung Woo Kim; Shashank Priya; Kenji Uchino; Robert E. Newnham

    2005-01-01

    Cymbal transducers have been found as a promising structure for piezoelectric energy harvesting under high force (? 100 N) at cyclic conditions (? 100–200 Hz). The thicker steel cap enhances the endurance of the ceramic to sustain higher ac loads along with stress amplification. This study reports the performance of the cymbal transducer under ac force of 70 N with

  10. Peculiarities of the third natural frequency vibrations of a cantilever for the improvement of energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Janusas, Giedrius; Milasauskaite, Ieva; Zilys, Mindaugas; Kizauskiene, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on several aspects extending the dynamical efficiency of a cantilever beam vibrating in the third mode. A few ways of producing this mode stimulation, namely vibro-impact or forced excitation, as well as its application for energy harvesting devices are proposed. The paper presents numerical and experimental analyses of novel structural dynamics effects along with an optimal configuration of the cantilever beam. The peculiarities of a cantilever beam vibrating in the third mode are related to the significant increase of the level of deformations capable of extracting significant additional amounts of energy compared to the conventional harvester vibrating in the first mode. Two types of a piezoelectric vibrating energy harvester (PVEH) prototype are analysed in this paper: the first one without electrode segmentation, while the second is segmented using electrode segmentation at the strain nodes of the third vibration mode to achieve effective operation at the third resonant frequency. The results of this research revealed that the voltage generated by any segment of the segmented PVEH prototype excited at the third resonant frequency demonstrated a 3.4-4.8-fold increase in comparison with the non-segmented prototype. Simultaneously, the efficiency of the energy harvester prototype also increased at lower resonant frequencies from 16% to 90%. The insights presented in the paper may serve for the development and fabrication of advanced piezoelectric energy harvesters which would be able to generate a considerably increased amount of electrical energy independently of the frequency of kinematical excitation. PMID:26029948

  11. Improved mechanical reliability of MEMS electret based vibration energy harvesters for automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, M.; Fujita, T.; Goedbloed, M.; de Nooijer, C.; van Schaijk, R.

    2014-11-01

    Current commercial wireless tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS) require a battery as electrical power source. The battery limits the lifetime of the TPMS. This limit can be circumvented by replacing the battery by a vibration energy harvester. Autonomous wireless TPMS powered by MEMS electret based vibration energy harvester have been demonstrated. A remaining technical challenge to attain the grade of commercial product with these autonomous TPMS is the mechanical reliability of the MEMS harvester. It should survive the harsh conditions imposed by the tire environment, particularly in terms of mechanical shocks. As shown in this article, our first generation of harvesters has a shock resilience of 400 g, which is far from being sufficient for the targeted application. In order to improve this aspect, several types of shock absorbing structures are investigated. With the best proposed solution, the shock resilience of the harvesters is brought above 2500 g.

  12. Electromagnetic vibration energy harvesting with high power density using a magnet array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiudong; Lin, Teng; Zuo, Lei

    2012-04-01

    Electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters have been widely used to convert the vibration energy into electricity. However, one of the main challenges of using electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters is that they are usually in very large size with low power density. In this paper, a new type of electromagnetic vibration energy harvester with remarkably high power density is developed. By putting the strong rare-earth magnets in alternating directions and using high-magnetic-conductive casing, magnetic flux density up to 0.9T are obtained. This configuration also has a small current loop with less electrical reluctance, which further increases the high power density when the coil is designed to follow the current loop. The prototype, the size of which is 142x140x86 mm3, can provided up to 727Ns/m damping coefficient, which means 428 kNs/m4 damping density when it is shunt with 70? external resistive load which is set to the same as the internal resistor of the harvester to achieve maximum power. The corresponding power density is 725 ?W/cm3 at 15HZ harmonic force excitation of 2.54mm peak-to-peak amplitude. When shot-circuited, 1091Ns/m damping coefficient and 638 kNs/m4 damping density is achieved. The effectiveness of this novel vibration energy harvester is shown both by FEA and experiments. The eddy current damper is also discussed in this paper for comparison. The proposed configuration of the magnet array can also be extended for both micro-scale and large-scale energy harvesting applications, such as vibration energy harvesting from tall buildings, long bridges and railways.

  13. High output power AlN vibration-driven energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Z.; He, J.; Wang, Q.; Hara, M.; Oguchi, H.; Kuwano, H.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents miniature AlN harvesters for harvesting low-frequency and two-dimensional vibration energy. A high fracture toughness and high yield strength stainless steel substrate was used to enhance output power and reduce resonate frequency of vibration energy harvesters. The thickness of 1.89 ?m AlN films were deposited on 50 ?m thick stainless steel (SUS) substrates for fabricating the harvesters. The Al/AlN/SUS multi-layer sheet was made into long and thin plate-like cantilevers with heavy proof masses attached at their free ends. The devices can collect vibration energy efficiently not only under perpendicular direction to the plate surface of cantilevers but also under the parallel direction. When vibration acceleration was 1.0 g, output power was 28.114 ?W for perpendicular vibration and 51.735 ?W for parallel vibration. When the acceleration of parallel vibration was 1.6 g, output power was 89.339 ?W.

  14. Piezoelectric MEMS energy harvesting systems driven by harmonic and random vibrations.

    PubMed

    Blystad, Lars-Cyril; Halvorsen, Einar; Husa, Svein

    2010-04-01

    Switching power conditioning techniques are known to greatly enhance the performance of linear piezoelectric energy harvesters subject to harmonic vibrations. With such circuits, little is known about the effect of mechanical stoppers that limit the motion or about waveforms other than harmonic vibrations. This work presents SPICE simulations of piezoelectric micro energy harvester systems that differ in choice of power conditioning circuits and stopper models. We consider in detail both harmonic and random vibrations. The nonlinear switching conversion circuitry performs better than simple passive circuitry, especially when mechanical stoppers are in effect. Stopper loss is important under broadband vibrations. Stoppers limit the output power for sinusoidal excitations, but result in the same output power whether the stoppers are lossy or not. When the mechanical stoppers are hit by the proof mass during high-amplitude vibrations, nonlinear effects such as saturation and jumps are present. PMID:20378453

  15. Powering pacemakers from heartbeat vibrations using linear and nonlinear energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin Karami, M.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear piezoelectric devices are introduced to continuously recharge the batteries of the pacemakers by converting the vibrations from the heartbeats to electrical energy. The power requirement of a pacemaker is very low. However, after few years, patients require another surgical operation just to replace their pacemaker battery. Linear low frequency and nonlinear mono-stable and bi-stable energy harvesters are designed according to the especial signature of heart vibrations. The proposed energy harvesters are robust to variation of heart rate and can meet the power requirement of pacemakers.

  16. Magnetostrictive Vibration Damper and Energy Harvester for Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Zhangxian; Asnani, Vivake M.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrations generated by machine driveline components can cause excessive noise and structural damage. Magnetostrictive materials, including Galfenol (iron-gallium alloys) and Terfenol-D (terbium-iron-dysprosium alloys), are able to convert mechanical energy to magnetic energy. A magnetostrictive vibration ring is proposed, which generates electrical energy and dampens vibration, when installed in a machine driveline. A 2D axisymmetric finite element (FE) model incorporating magnetic, mechanical, and electrical dynamics is constructed in COMSOL Multiphysics. Based on the model, a parametric study considering magnetostrictive material geometry, pickup coil size, bias magnet strength, flux path design, and electrical load is conducted to maximize loss factor and average electrical output power. By connecting various resistive loads to the pickup coil, the maximum loss factors for Galfenol and Terfenol-D due to electrical energy loss are identified as 0.14 and 0.34, respectively. The maximum average electrical output power for Galfenol and Terfenol-D is 0.21 W and 0.58 W, respectively. The loss factors for Galfenol and Terfenol-D are increased to 0.59 and 1.83, respectively, by using an L-C resonant circuit.

  17. Frequency Up-Converted Low Frequency Vibration Energy Harvester Using Trampoline Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, S.; Chae, S. H.; Choi, Y.; Jun, S.; Park, S. M.; Lee, S.; Lee, H. W.; Ji, C.-H.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a non-resonant vibration energy harvester based on magnetoelectric transduction mechanism and mechanical frequency up-conversion using trampoline effect. The harvester utilizes a freely movable spherical permanent magnet which bounces off the aluminum springs integrated at both ends of the cavity, achieving frequency up-conversion from low frequency input vibration. Moreover, bonding method of magnetoelectric laminate composite has been optimized to provide higher strain to piezoelectric material and thus obtain a higher output voltage. A proof-of-concept energy harvesting device has been fabricated and tested. Maximum open-circuit voltage of 11.2V has been obtained and output power of 0.57?W has been achieved for a 50k? load, when the fabricated energy harvester was hand-shaken.

  18. Regular and chaotic vibration in a piezoelectric energy harvester with fractional damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Junyi; Syta, Arkadiusz; Litak, Grzegorz; Zhou, Shengxi; Inman, Daniel J.; Chen, Yangquan

    2015-06-01

    We examine a vibrational energy harvester consisting of a mechanical resonator with a fractional damping and electrical circuit coupled by a piezoelectric converter. By comparing the bifurcation diagrams and the power output we show that the fractional order of damping changes the system response considerably and affects the power output. Various dynamic responses of the energy harvester are examined using phase trajectory, Fourier spectrum, Multi-scale entropy and 0-1 test. The numerical analysis shows that the fractionally damped energy harvesting system exhibits chaos, and periodic motion, as the fractional order changes. The observed bifurcations strongly influence the power output.

  19. The dynamic characteristics of harvesting energy from mechanical vibration via piezoelectric conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kang-Qi; Ming, Zheng-Feng; Xu, Chun-Hui; Chao, Feng-Bo

    2013-10-01

    As an alternative power solution for low-power devices, harvesting energy from the ambient mechanical vibration has received increasing research interest in recent years. In this paper we study the transient dynamic characteristics of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system including a piezoelectric energy harvester, a bridge rectifier, and a storage capacitor. To accomplish this, this energy harvesting system is modeled, and the charging process of the storage capacitor is investigated by employing the in-phase assumption. The results indicate that the charging voltage across the storage capacitor and the gathered power increase gradually as the charging process proceeds, whereas the charging rate slows down over time as the charging voltage approaches to the peak value of the piezoelectric voltage across the piezoelectric materials. In addition, due to the added electrical damping and the change of the system natural frequency when the charging process is initiated, a sudden drop in the vibration amplitude is observed, which in turn affects the charging rate. However, the vibration amplitude begins to increase as the charging process continues, which is caused by the decrease in the electrical damping (i.e., the decrease in the energy removed from the mechanical vibration). This electromechanical coupling characteristic is also revealed by the variation of the vibration amplitude with the charging voltage.

  20. Optimized energy harvesting from mechanical vibrations through piezoelectric actuators, based on a synchronized switching technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsampas, P.; Roditis, G.; Papadimitriou, V.; Chatzakos, P.; Gan, Tat-Hean

    2013-05-01

    Increasing demand in mobile, autonomous devices has made energy harvesting a particular point of interest. Systems that can be powered up by a few hundreds of microwatts could feature their own energy extraction module. Energy can be harvested from the environment close to the device. Particularly, the ambient mechanical vibrations conversion via piezoelectric transducers is one of the most investigated fields for energy harvesting. A technique for optimized energy harvesting using piezoelectric actuators called "Synchronized Switching Harvesting" is explored. Comparing to a typical full bridge rectifier, the proposed harvesting technique can highly improve harvesting efficiency, even in a significantly extended frequency window around the piezoelectric actuator's resonance. In this paper, the concept of design, theoretical analysis, modeling, implementation and experimental results using CEDRAT's APA 400M-MD piezoelectric actuator are presented in detail. Moreover, we suggest design guidelines for optimum selection of the storage unit in direct relation to the characteristics of the random vibrations. From a practical aspect, the harvesting unit is based on dedicated electronics that continuously sense the charge level of the actuator's piezoelectric element. When the charge is sensed, to come to a maximum, it is directed to speedily flow into a storage unit. Special care is taken so that electronics operate at low voltages consuming a very small amount of the energy stored. The final prototype developed includes the harvesting circuit implemented with miniaturized, low cost and low consumption electronics and a storage unit consisting of a super capacitors array, forming a truly self-powered system drawing energy from ambient random vibrations of a wide range of characteristics.

  1. Theoretical investigations of energy harvesting efficiency from structural vibrations using piezoelectric and electromagnetic oscillators.

    PubMed

    Harne, Ryan L

    2012-07-01

    Conversion of ambient vibrational energy into electric power has been the impetus of much modern research. The traditional analysis has focused on absolute electrical power output from the harvesting devices and efficiency defined as the convertibility of an infinite resource of vibration excitation into power. This perspective has limited extensibility when applying resonant harvesters to host resonant structures when the inertial influence of the harvester is more significant. Instead, this work pursues a fundamental understanding of the coupled dynamics of a main mass-spring-damper system to which an electromagnetic or piezoelectric mass-spring-damper is attached. The governing equations are derived, a metric of efficiency is presented, and analysis is undertaken. It is found that electromagnetic energy harvesting efficiency and maximum power output is limited by the strength of the coupling such that no split system resonances are induced for a given mass ratio. For piezoelectric harvesters, only the coupling strength and certain design requirements dictate maximum power and efficiency achievable. Since the harvesting circuitry must "follow" the split resonances as the piezoelectric harvesters become more massive, the optimum design of piezoelectric harvesters appears to be more involved than for electromagnetic devices. PMID:22779465

  2. Nonlinear vibration control and energy harvesting of a beam using a nonlinear energy sink and a piezoelectric device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nili Ahmadabadi, Z.; Khadem, S. E.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an optimal design for a system comprising a nonlinear energy sink (NES) and a piezoelectric-based vibration energy harvester attached to a free-free beam under shock excitation. The energy harvester is used for scavenging vibration energy dissipated by the NES. Grounded and ungrounded configurations are examined and the systems parameters are optimized globally to both maximize the dissipated energy by the NES and increase the harvested energy by piezoelectric element. A satisfactory amount of energy has been harvested as electric power in both configurations. The realization of nonlinear vibration control through one-way irreversible nonlinear energy pumping and optimizing the system parameters result in acquiring up to 78 percent dissipation of the grounded system energy.

  3. Analysis of Piezoelectric Materials for Energy Harvesting Devices under High-g Vibrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongna Shen; Song-Yul Choe; Dong-Joo Kim

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the miniaturized energy harvesting devices (each volume within 0.3 cm3) fabricated by using three types of piezoelectric materials such as lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramic, macro fiber composite (MFC) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer to investigate the capability of converting mechanical vibration into electricity under larger vibration amplitudes or accelerations conditions (>= 1g, gravitational acceleration). All prototypes based

  4. Energy harvesting from coherent resonance of horizontal vibration of beam excited by vertical base motion

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, C. B.; Qin, W. Y. [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

    2014-09-15

    This letter investigates the energy harvesting from the horizontal coherent resonance of a vertical cantilever beam subjected to the vertical base excitation. The potential energy of the system has two symmetric potential wells. So, under vertical excitation, the system can jump between two potential wells, which will lead to the large vibration in horizontal direction. Two piezoelectric patches are pasted to harvest the energy. From experiment, it is found that the vertical excitation can make the beam turn to be bistable. The system can transform vertical vibration into horizontal vibration of low frequency when excited by harmonic motion. The horizontal coherence resonance can be observed when excited by a vertical white noise. The corresponding output voltages of piezoelectric films reach high values.

  5. Self-powered autonomous wireless sensor node using vibration energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Torah; P. Glynne-Jones; M. Tudor; T. O'Donnell; S. Roy; S. Beeby

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the development and implementation of an energy aware autonomous wireless condition monitoring sensor system (ACMS) powered by ambient vibrations. An electromagnetic (EM) generator has been designed to harvest sufficient energy to power a radio-frequency (RF) linked accelerometer-based sensor system. The ACMS is energy aware and will adjust the measurement\\/transmit duty cycle according to the available energy; this

  6. Low-frequency vibration energy harvester using a spherical permanent magnet with controlled mass distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yunhee; Ju, Suna; Chae, Song Hee; Jun, Sangbeom; Ji, Chang-Hyeon

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a vibration energy harvester using a springless spherical permanent magnet with a non-uniform mass distribution as a proof mass. The magnet has been designed to have the center of mass below the geometrical center, which generates a roly-poly-like motion in response to external vibrations and maintains the upright position. Utilizing this roly-poly-like magnet, proof-of-concept electromagnetic energy harvesters have been fabricated, tested and analyzed. An analytical model which explains the motion of the magnet assembly and resulting output voltage has been developed by finite element analysis of the magnetic field distribution and motion analysis of the magnet assembly. With the fabricated device, a maximum open-circuit voltage of 48.85 mVrms and an output power of 9.03 ?W have been obtained in response to a 20 Hz sinusoidal vibration at 3 g acceleration.

  7. Scavenging vibration energy from seismically isolated bridges using an electromagnetic harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Qiuchen; Loong, Chengning; Chang, Chih-Chen; Dimitrakopoulos, Elias G.

    2014-04-01

    The increasing worldwide efforts in securing renewable energy sources increase incentive for civil engineers to investigate whether the kinetic energy associated with the vibration of larger-scale structures can be harvested. Such a research remains challenging and incomplete despite that hundreds of related articles have been published in the last decade. Base isolation is one of the most popular means of protecting a civil engineering structure against earthquake forces. Seismic isolation hinges on the decoupling of the structure from the shaking ground, hence protecting the structure from stress and damage during an earthquake excitation. The low stiffness isolator inserted between the structure and the ground dominates the response leading to a structural system of longer vibration period. As a consequence of this period shift, the spectral acceleration is reduced, but higher response displacements are produced. To mitigate this side effect, usually isolators are combined with the use of additional energy dissipation. In this study, the feasibility of scavenging the need-to-be dissipated energy from the isolator installed in a seismically isolated bridge using an electromagnetic (EM) energy harvester is investigated. The EM energy harvester consists of an energy harvesting circuit and a capacitor for energy storage. A mathematical model for this proposed EM energy harvester is developed and implemented on an idealized base-isolated single-degree-of-freedom system. The effect of having this EM energy harvester on the performance of this seismic isolated system is analyzed and discussed. The potential of installing such an EM energy harvester on a seismically isolated bridge is also addressed.

  8. Switched-mode impedance synthesis for electrical tuning of a vibration energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, J. A.; Burrow, S. G.; Clare, L. R.

    2013-12-01

    Switched-mode power circuits are able to efficiently synthesise a variable complex load impedance that can tune a vibration energy harvester, whilst also providing rectification and feeding the harvested energy into a DC store. The electrical tuning system presented in this paper is based upon a boost rectifier configured as a variable power factor converter. Its performance is benchmarked against a more basic resistance emulator where it is demonstrated that electrical tuning provides an increase in power bandwidth of over three times. The paper describes the experimental results of electrical tuning in some detail and elucidates the design challenges for these systems.

  9. Fabrication and performance of MEMS-based piezoelectric power generator for vibration energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua-bin Fang; Jing-quan Liu; Zheng-yi Xu; Lu Dong; Li Wang; Di Chen; Bing-chu Cai; Yue Liu

    2006-01-01

    A MEMS-based energy harvesting device, micro piezoelectric power generator, is designed to convert ambient vibration energy to electrical power via piezoelectric effect. In this work, the generator structure of composite cantilever with nickel metal mass is devised. Micro-electronic-mechanical systems (MEMS) related techniques such as sol–gel, RIE dry etching, wet chemical etching, UV-LIGA are developed to fabricate the device and then

  10. A two-dimensional broadband vibration energy harvester using magnetoelectric transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jin, E-mail: yangjin@cqu.edu.cn; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Yue, Xihai; Yu, Qiangmo; Bai, Xiaoling [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Research Center of Sensors and Instruments, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)] [Department of Optoelectronic Engineering, Research Center of Sensors and Instruments, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2013-12-09

    In this study, a magnetoelectric vibration energy harvester was demonstrated, which aims at addressing the limitations of the existing approaches in single dimensional operation with narrow working bandwidth. A circular cross-section cantilever rod, not a conventional thin cantilever beam, was adopted to extract vibration energy in arbitrary in-plane motion directions. The magnetic interaction not only resulted in a nonlinear motion of the rod with increased frequency bandwidth, but also contributed to a multi-mode motion to exhibit double power peaks. In energy harvesting with in-plane directions, it showed a maximum bandwidth of 4.4?Hz and power of 0.59?mW, with acceleration of 0.6?g (with g?=?9.8?m?s{sup ?2})

  11. Fully integrated micro electromagnetic vibration energy harvesters with micro-patterning of bonded magnets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Tao; G. Ding; P. Wang; Z. Yang; Y. Wang

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a novel fully integrated micro electromagnetic vibration energy harvester using micro-patterning of bonded magnets. The magnetic material utilized is a polymer composite, consisting of a commercially available NdFeB powder dispersed in epoxy resin to a weight loading percentage of 90%. The prototype is fabricated using UV-LIGA technology and microelectroplating technology. The whole

  12. A resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester for intelligent wireless sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jing; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Liu, Xin; Chen, Hengjia; Yang, Jin

    2015-05-01

    Vibration energy harvesting is now receiving more interest as a means for powering intelligent wireless sensor systems. In this paper, a resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester (VEH) employing double cantilever to convert low-frequency vibration energy into electrical energy is presented. The VEH is made up of two cantilever beams, a coil, and magnetic circuits. The electric output performances of the proposed electromagnetic VEH have been investigated. With the enhancement of turns number N, the optimum peak power of electromagnetic VEH increases sharply and the resonance frequency deceases gradually. When the vibration acceleration is 0.5 g, we obtain the optimum output voltage and power of 9.04 V and 50.8 mW at frequency of 14.9 Hz, respectively. In a word, the prototype device was successfully developed and the experimental results exhibit a great enhancement in the output power and bandwidth compared with other traditional electromagnetic VEHs. Remarkably, the proposed resonant electromagnetic VEH have great potential for applying in intelligent wireless sensor systems.

  13. Optimal piezoelectric beam shape for single and broadband vibration energy harvesting: Modeling, simulation and experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthalif, Asan G. A.; Nordin, N. H. Diyana

    2015-03-01

    Harvesting energy from the surroundings has become a new trend in saving our environment. Among the established ones are solar panels, wind turbines and hydroelectric generators which have successfully grown in meeting the world's energy demand. However, for low powered electronic devices; especially when being placed in a remote area, micro scale energy harvesting is preferable. One of the popular methods is via vibration energy scavenging which converts mechanical energy (from vibration) to electrical energy by the effect of coupling between mechanical variables and electric or magnetic fields. As the voltage generated greatly depends on the geometry and size of the piezoelectric material, there is a need to define an optimum shape and configuration of the piezoelectric energy scavenger. In this research, mathematical derivations for unimorph piezoelectric energy harvester are presented. Simulation is done using MATLAB and COMSOL Multiphysics software to study the effect of varying the length and shape of the beam to the generated voltage. Experimental results comparing triangular and rectangular shaped piezoelectric beam are also presented.

  14. Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting Circuit With Feedforward and Feedback DC–DC PWM Boost Converter for Vibration Power Generator System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinping Cao; Wen-Jen Chiang; Ya-Chin King; Yi-Kuen Lee

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated vibration power generator system. The system consists of a mini electromagnetic vibration power generator and a highly efficient energy harvesting circuit implemented on a minute printed circuit board and a 0.35-mum CMOS integrated chip. By introducing a feedback control into the dc-dc pulsewidth modulation (PWM) boost converter with feedforward control, the energy harvesting circuit can

  15. Micropower energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. M. Vullers; R. van Schaijk; I. Doms; C. Van Hoof; R. Mertens

    2009-01-01

    More than a decade of research in the field of thermal, motion, vibration and electromagnetic radiation energy harvesting has yielded increasing power output and smaller embodiments. Power management circuits for rectification and DC–DC conversion are becoming able to efficiently convert the power from these energy harvesters. This paper summarizes recent energy harvesting results and their power management circuits.

  16. Vibration energy harvesting is an attractive technique for the potential powering of wireless sensors and low power devices. While the technique can be employed to

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Frank

    ABSTRACT Vibration energy harvesting is an attractive technique for the potential powering of wireless sensors and low power devices. While the technique can be employed to harvest energy from ambient transfer mechanism is that the vibration energy harvesting device operate in resonance at the excitation

  17. Nonlinear Energy Harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Cottone; H. Vocca; L. Gammaitoni

    2009-01-01

    Ambient energy harvesting has been in recent years the recurring object of a number of research efforts aimed at providing an autonomous solution to the powering of small-scale electronic mobile devices. Among the different solutions, vibration energy harvesting has played a major role due to the almost universal presence of mechanical vibrations. Here we propose a new method based on

  18. Micro electro-mechanical system piezoelectric cantilever array for a broadband vibration energy harvester.

    PubMed

    Chun, Inwoo; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Kwon, Kwang-Ho

    2014-12-01

    Limited energy sources of ubiquitous sensor networks (USNs) such as fuel cells and batteries have grave drawbacks such as the need for replacements and re-charging owing to their short durability and environmental pollution. Energy harvesting which is converting environmental mechanical vibration into electrical energy has been researched with some piezoelectric materials and various cantilever designs to increase the efficiency of energy-harvesting devices. In this study, we focused on an energy-harvesting cantilever with a broadband vibration frequency. We fabricated a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) cantilever array with various Si proof masses on small beams (5.5 mm x 0.5 mm x 0.5 mm). We obtained broadband resonant frequencies ranging between 127 Hz and 136 Hz using a micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) process. In order to obtain broadband resonant characteristics, the cantilever array was comprised of six cantilevers with different resonant frequencies. We obtained an output power of about 2.461 ?W at an acceleration of 0.23 g and a resistance of 4 k?. The measured bandwidth of the resonant frequency was approximately 9 Hz (127-136 Hz), which is about six times wider than the bandwidth of a single cantilever. PMID:25971046

  19. Vibration energy harvester with sustainable power based on a single-crystal piezoelectric cantilever array.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonkeun; Lee, Sang-Kyun; Ham, Yong-Hyun; Yang, Yil Suk; Kwon, Jong-Kee; Kwon, Kwang-Ho

    2012-08-01

    We designed and fabricated a bimorph cantilever array for sustainable power with an integrated Cu proof mass to obtain additional power and current. We fabricated a cantilever system using single-crystal piezoelectric material and compared the calculations for single and arrayed cantilevers to those obtained experimentally. The vibration energy harvester had resonant frequencies of 60.4 and 63.2 Hz for short and open circuits, respectively. The damping ratio and quality factor of the cantilever device were 0.012 and 41.66, respectively. The resonant frequency at maximum average power was 60.8 Hz. The current and highest average power of the harvester array were found to be 0.728 mA and 1.61 mW, respectively. The sustainable maximum power was obtained after slightly shifting the short-circuit frequency. In order to improve the current and power using an array of cantilevers, we also performed energy conversion experiments. PMID:22962737

  20. Design considerations for small-scale wind energy harvesters driven by broadband vortex-induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxson, Benjamin; Wickenheiser, Adam M.

    2014-04-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of breakthroughs have been made in the field of small-scale wind energy harvesting, where specialized materials are utilized to convert flow energy into electric power. Several studies on this power extraction rely on a common energy harvester setup in which a stiff cantilever beam is attached to the trailing edge of a miniature bluff body. At these small scales where boundary layer effects are appreciable in the laminar flow regime, periodic vortex shedding can be used to drive transverse vibrations in the beam. Interestingly, the fluid dynamics involved in this unsteady process have been studied for decades not to exploit their characteristics, but instead to eliminate potentially destructive effects. As a result, there is still much room for improvement and expansion on recent design studies. A study of how subtle changes in bluff body trailing edge geometry effect power output of a model will be presented in this paper. The model under consideration consists of a miniature bluff body on the order of tens of millimeters in diameter, to which a piezoelectric cantilever is attached at the trailing edge. This model is specifically designed for laminar to transitional Reynolds Number flows (500-2800) where the periodicity of vortex shedding approaches the natural frequency of the beam. As the flow speed is further increased, the effect of lock-in occurs where the resonant beam motion resists a change in vortex shedding frequency. Vibration amplitudes of the beam reach a maximum under this condition, thus maximizing power generation efficiency of the system and providing an optimal condition to operate the harvester. In an effort to meaningfully compare the results, a number of dimensionless parameters are employed. The influence of parameters such as beam length and natural frequency, fluid flow speed, and trailing edge geometry are studied utilizing COMSOL Multiphysics laminar, fluid-structure interaction simulations in order to create design guidelines for an improved energy harvester.

  1. HARVESTING ENERGY FROM MOTH VIBRATIONS DURING FLIGHT S.C. Chang1, F.M. Yaul1, A. Dominguez-Garcia3, F. O'Sullivan2, D.M. Otten1, J.H. Lang1

    E-print Network

    Liberzon, Daniel

    energy harvesting has compared concepts for moths [1], studied piezoelectric-based vibration harvestersHARVESTING ENERGY FROM MOTH VIBRATIONS DURING FLIGHT S.C. Chang1, F.M. Yaul1, A. Dominguez-Garcia3 the design, fabrication, and testing of a harvester that extracts energy from moth-body vibrations during

  2. An experimental study of vibration based energy harvesting in dynamically tailored structures with embedded acoustic black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liuxian; Conlon, Stephen C.; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental investigation on the energy harvesting performance of dynamically tailored structures based on the concept of embedded acoustic black holes (ABHs). Embedded ABHs allow tailoring the wave propagation characteristics of the host structure creating structural areas with extreme levels of energy density. Experiments are conducted on a tapered plate-like aluminum structure with multiple embedded ABH features. The dynamic response of the structure is tested via laser vibrometry in order to confirm the vibration localization and the passive wavelength sweep characteristic of ABH embedded tapers. Vibrational energy is extracted from the host structure and converted into electrical energy by using ceramic piezoelectric discs bonded on the ABHs and shunted on an external electric circuit. The energy harvesting performance is investigated both under steady state and transient excitation. The experimental results confirm that the dynamic tailoring produces a drastic increase in the harvested energy independently from the nature of the excitation input.

  3. Modeling and Simulation of Linear and Nonlinear MEMS Scale Electromagnetic Energy Harvesters for Random Vibration Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sassani, Farrokh

    2014-01-01

    The simulation results for electromagnetic energy harvesters (EMEHs) under broad band stationary Gaussian random excitations indicate the importance of both a high transformation factor and a high mechanical quality factor to achieve favourable mean power, mean square load voltage, and output spectral density. The optimum load is different for random vibrations and for sinusoidal vibration. Reducing the total damping ratio under band-limited random excitation yields a higher mean square load voltage. Reduced bandwidth resulting from decreased mechanical damping can be compensated by increasing the electrical damping (transformation factor) leading to a higher mean square load voltage and power. Nonlinear EMEHs with a Duffing spring and with linear plus cubic damping are modeled using the method of statistical linearization. These nonlinear EMEHs exhibit approximately linear behaviour under low levels of broadband stationary Gaussian random vibration; however, at higher levels of such excitation the central (resonant) frequency of the spectral density of the output voltage shifts due to the increased nonlinear stiffness and the bandwidth broadens slightly. Nonlinear EMEHs exhibit lower maximum output voltage and central frequency of the spectral density with nonlinear damping compared to linear damping. Stronger nonlinear damping yields broader bandwidths at stable resonant frequency. PMID:24605063

  4. An elastic-support model for enhanced bistable piezoelectric energy harvesting from random vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Y. G.; Gao, Y. J.; Tan, D.; Fan, S. B.; Lai, Z. H.

    2015-02-01

    To overcome the defect of conventional nonlinear piezoelectric cantilever vibration energy harvesters, in this paper we conceive an elastic-support model to study the performance of energy converters under two types of variable-intensity excitation conditions: filtered Gaussian noises and pink noises. When excitation intensity is insufficient, thanks to the system's variable potential function, frequent bistable transition oscillations between two wells occur in elastic-support systems, while only weak oscillations in either well could be observed in rigid-support systems. In practical applications, the structural parameters of energy harvesters are not allowed to make real-time changes. If considered remaining the magnet interval and the spring's elastic stiffness unchanged while receiving stable maximum output voltage, elastic-support systems can be made full use toward variable-intensity filtered Gaussian noises. It has been proven that elastic-support systems are capable of adapting to random excitations with variable intensity, through which maximum power output and sufficient electromechanical energy conversion of the system can be accomplished.

  5. Triboelectric nanogenerator built on suspended 3D spiral structure as vibration and positioning sensor and wave energy harvester.

    PubMed

    Hu, Youfan; Yang, Jin; Jing, Qingshen; Niu, Simiao; Wu, Wenzhuo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-11-26

    An unstable mechanical structure that can self-balance when perturbed is a superior choice for vibration energy harvesting and vibration detection. In this work, a suspended 3D spiral structure is integrated with a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) for energy harvesting and sensor applications. The newly designed vertical contact-separation mode TENG has a wide working bandwidth of 30 Hz in low-frequency range with a maximum output power density of 2.76 W/m(2) on a load of 6 M?. The position of an in-plane vibration source was identified by placing TENGs at multiple positions as multichannel, self-powered active sensors, and the location of the vibration source was determined with an error less than 6%. The magnitude of the vibration is also measured by the output voltage and current signal of the TENG. By integrating the TENG inside a buoy ball, wave energy harvesting at water surface has been demonstrated and used for lighting illumination light, which shows great potential applications in marine science and environmental/infrastructure monitoring. PMID:24168315

  6. Reliability of vibration energy harvesters of metal-based PZT thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujiura, Y.; Suwa, E.; Kurokawa, F.; Hida, H.; Kanno, I.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the reliability of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (PVEHs) of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films on metal foil cantilevers. The PZT thin films were directly deposited onto the Pt-coated stainless-steel (SS430) cantilevers by rf-magnetron sputtering, and we observed their aging behavior of power generation characteristics under the resonance vibration condition for three days. During the aging measurement, there was neither fatigue failure nor degradation of dielectric properties in our PVEHs (length: 13 mm, width: 5.0 mm, thickness: 104 ?m) even under a large excitation acceleration of 25 m/s2. However, we observed clear degradation of the generated electric voltage depending on excitation acceleration. The decay rate of the output voltage was 5% from the start of the measurement at 25 m/s2. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient (e31,f) also degraded with almost the same decay rate as that of the output voltage; this indicates that the degradation of output voltage was mainly caused by that of piezoelectric properties. From the decay curves, the output powers are estimated to degrade 7% at 15 m/s2 and 36% at 25 m/s2 if we continue to excite the PVEHs for 30 years.

  7. A Single Inductor, Multiple Input Piezoelectric Interface Circuit Capable of Harvesting Energy from Asynchronously Vibrating Sources

    E-print Network

    Ribeiro, Roland

    2014-10-23

    electromagnetic energy harvester c©IEEE 1998 [4] 10 1.7 Pavegen Systems floor tile [5] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.8 Energy harvesting from piezoelectric shoe insert c©IEEE 1998 [6] . . . 13 2.1 Equivalent lumped spring mass system of a... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.1 Typical piezoelectric energy harvesting system . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3.2 Full wave rectifier c©IEEE 2010 [8] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 3.3 Output power vs output voltage for full wave rectifier . . . . . . . . . 31 3...

  8. A Study on Design and Analysis of Hybrid Vibration Damper with Energy Harvesting and Optimal Damping Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanumantha Rao, T. V.; Srinivasa Rao, M. S. S.; Apparao, B. V.; Satyanarayana, K.

    2014-04-01

    The basic purpose of a damper is to reduce the vibration and to have a better ride comfort, road handling and safety to the rider. Recent developments show that an active vibration damper can effectively work much better than a passive damper. The effectiveness and reliability can be further enhanced by using hybrid dampers, which is a combination of active and passive dampers. But the need to have energy optimization in any field need not be stressed. Consequently, novel suspension concepts are required, not only to improve the vehicle's dynamic performance, but also to see that the energy generated during vibration can be harvested by utilizing regeneration functions. Hence if a hybrid damper with energy harvesting capability be designed, it would serve both purposes. In the hybrid damper a combination of hydraulic damper to act as a passive damper and an electromagnetic (EM) damper to act as an active damper is considered. The hydraulic system has more reliability and is time tested and the EM system acts as a dynamic vibration system as well as energy harvester. In this study a hybrid EM damper is modeled, analyzed and validity is shown for frequency response functions and energy balance for its active use. It is also shown how the effectiveness of the suspension system can be enhanced by using a hybrid damper.

  9. Harvesting Kinetic Energy with Switched-Inductor DCDC Converters

    E-print Network

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    - power piezoelectric and electrostatic kinetic-harvesting sources. I. HARVESTING KINETIC ENERGY the application ultimately determines which kinetic energy harvesting scheme is optimal, piezoelectric transducers sacrificing some, if not all, the energy harvested. II. PIEZOELECTRIC HARVESTERS When a mechanical vibration

  10. Broadband energy harvesting by exploiting nonlinear oscillations around the second vibration mode of a rectangular piezoelectric bistable laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Dai, Fuhong; Du, Shanyi

    2015-04-01

    Recently bistable composite laminates have been investigated for broadband energy harvesting, by taking advantage of their nonlinear oscillations around the first vibration mode. However, it has been reported that the excitation acceleration needed for the desired large amplitude limit cycle oscillation is too high, if the first vibration mode is elevated to relative higher frequencies (60 Hz e.g.). This study investigates the feasibility of exploiting the nonlinear oscillations around the second vibration mode of a rectangular piezoelectric bistable laminate (RPBL), for broadband vibration energy harvesting at relative higher frequencies, but with relative low excitation acceleration. The proposed RPBL has three oscillation patterns around the second vibration mode, including single-well oscillation, chaotic intermittency oscillation and limit cycle oscillation. The broadband characteristics and the considerable energy conversion efficiency of the RPBL are demonstrated in experiments. The static nonlinearity and the dynamic responses of the RPBL are investigated by finite element method. Finite element analysis (FEA) reveals that the enhanced dynamic responses of the RPBL are due to its softening bending stiffness and the local snap through phenomenon. The FEA results coincide reasonably well with experimental results.

  11. Tools for Analytical and Numerical Analysis of Electrostatic Vibration Energy Harvesters: Application to a Continuous Mode Conditioning Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galayko, D.; Blokhina, E.; Basset, P.; Cottone, F.; Dudka, A.; O'Riordan, E.; Feely, Orla

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports the application of different analytical tools to a basic continuous conditioning (CC) circuit for electrostatic vibration energy harvesters (e-VEHs). We address the fundamental issues of this conditioning circuit and give design advice that enhances the performance of e-VEHs employing this circuit. This circuit is widely used for harvesters with or without an electret layer. Despite its wide use, its fundamental problems have been weakly addressed even for simple configurations of e-VEHs since it is impossible to solve the corresponding equations in closed form. As a consequence, appropriate semi-analytical methods that provide an insight into the physics of the system are required.

  12. Reliability of potassium ion electret in silicon oxide for vibrational energy harvester applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Kensuke; Sugiyama, Tatsuhiko; Hashiguchi, Gen; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the long-term reliability of potassium ion electret included in a thermally grown silicon oxide. The electret in this work is used in a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) energy harvester to generate electrical current from mechanical vibration. A spring-mass system similar to a comb-drive electrostatic actuator is developed by silicon micromachining, and the surface is oxidized by wet-oxidation through a potassium hydroxide bubbler, thereby including potassium atoms at a high concentration. The potassium is then electrically polarized by an applied voltage of 150 V at 650 °C for 5 min. Degradation of the stored polarization potential is monitored in a vacuum of 1 × 10?3 Pa at elevated temperatures of 350, 400, and 450 °C. The time needed to cause a ?1 dB decay of the potential is used as the lifetime of the electret, and the Arrhenius extrapolation plot suggested a life time of more than 400 years at 25 °C.

  13. Fabrication, modelling and characterization of MEMS piezoelectric vibration harvesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Renaud; K. Karakaya; T. Sterken; P. Fiorini; C. Van Hoof; R. Puers

    2008-01-01

    Piezoelectric converters designed for harvesting energy from mechanical vibrations have been fabricated by micromachining technologies. They are characterized by applying a sinusoidal oscillation as mechanical input and by using a resistive load to measure the output power of the system. A maximum output power of 40?W has been measured for a PZT based harvester excited by an input vibration having

  14. Experimental and analytical parametric study of single-crystal unimorph beams for vibration energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Karami, M Amin; Bilgen, Onur; Inman, Daniel J; Friswell, Michael I

    2011-07-01

    This research presents an experimental and theoretical energy harvesting characterization of beam-like, uniform cross-section, unimorph structures employing single-crystal piezoelectrics. Different piezoelectric materials, substrates, and configurations are examined to identify the best design configuration for lightweight energy harvesting devices for low-power applications. Three types of piezoelectrics (singlecrystal PMN-PZT, polycrystalline PZT-5A, and PZT-5H-type monolithic ceramics) are evaluated in a unimorph cantilevered beam configuration. The devices have been excited by harmonic base acceleration. All of the experimental characteristics have been used to validate an exact electromechanical model of the harvester. The study shows the optimum choice of substrate material for single-crystal piezoelectric energy harvesting. Comparison of energy scavengers with stainless steel substrates reveals that single-crystal harvesters produce superior power compared with polycrystalline devices. To further optimize the power harvesting, we study the relation between the thickness of the substrate and the power output for different substrate materials. The relation between power and substrate thickness profoundly varies among different substrate materials. The variation is understood by examining the change of mechanical transmissibility and the variations of the coupling figure of merit of the harvesters with thickness ratio. The investigation identifies the optimal thickness of the substrate for different substrate materials. The study also shows that the densities of the substrates and their mechanical damping coefficients have significant effects on the power output. PMID:21768034

  15. A 1-mW vibration energy harvesting system for moth flight-control applications

    E-print Network

    Chang, Samuel C

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the approach and methodologies required to build a 1-mW energy-harvesting system for moth flight control applications. The crepuscular hawk moth Manduca sexta is the chosen test subject. This project ...

  16. A Single Inductor, Multiple Input Piezoelectric Interface Circuit Capable of Harvesting Energy from Asynchronously Vibrating Sources 

    E-print Network

    Ribeiro, Roland

    2014-10-23

    The energy harvesting industry has seen steady growth in recent years. This growth has been driven by the increasing demand for remote sensing, implantable technologies, and increased battery life in mobile and hand held devices. Due to the limited...

  17. Design of high-efficiency vibration energy harvesters and experimental functional tests for improving bandwidth and tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somà, A.; De Pasquale, G.

    2013-05-01

    The reduction of power consumption of sensors allows the local power supply or wireless sensor networks. This paper introduces the results of design and experiments on devices for harvesting energy from vibrations of machines. The main contribution of this research is the empirical evaluation of different technical solutions able to improve harvester performances and sensing system duty cycle. Satisfactory results have been achieved in lowering of resonance by levitating suspensions and in increasing of Q-factor by studying the air flows. Output power values of 10mW (5.7Hz, 1.4g) and 115mW (3.2Hz, 0.2g) were obtained for piezoelectric and inductive harvesters respectively.

  18. An application of stochastic resonance for energy harvesting in a bistable vibrating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rencheng; Nakano, Kimihiko; Hu, Honggang; Su, Dongxu; Cartmell, Matthew P.

    2014-06-01

    The application of stochastic resonance to mechanical energy harvesting is currently of topical interest, and this paper concentrates on an analytical and experimental investigation in which stochastic resonance is deliberately exploited within a bistable mechanical system for optimised energy harvesting. The condition for the occurrence of stochastic resonance is defined conventionally by the Kramers rate, and the modelling of a theoretical nonlinear oscillator driven by a small periodic modulating excitation and a harvestable noise source, which, together satisfy this condition, is developed in the paper. A novel experiment is also discussed which validates this particular form of stochastic resonance, showing that the response can indeed be amplified when the frequency of the weak periodic modulating excitation fulfills the correct occurrence condition. The experimental results indicate that the available power generated under this condition of stochastic resonance is noticeably higher than the power that can be collected under other harvesting conditions.

  19. Investigation on behavior of the vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvester array in ultracapacitor charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yangyiwei; Shi, Xiang; Lan, Haoran; Xiao, Zhao; Dong, Ying; Liu, Yaoze; Yang, Tongqing

    2015-04-01

    In this article, behaviors are investigated when the piezoelectric harvester array, consisting of four lead zirconate-titanate (PZT) circular diaphragms, charges ultracapacitors. It exhibits that V-I characteristic of the harvester array is approximately linear within 3RC, demonstrates that the array could be equivalent as the linear source. Relevant factors on ultracapacitor charging power P, including equivalent circuitry impedance R, charging capacitor C, operating frequency f, and connection patterns, are also studied. Meanwhile, interrelation between energy charging efficiency ? and maximum charging power PMS is demonstrated, which is also used to find out the best condition for the harvester array's operation. It exhibits that PZT harvester array connected in pattern of rectifying-parallel will have higher charging efficiency.

  20. A piezoelectric energy harvester with increased bandwidth based on beam flexural vibrations in perpendicular directions.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Jin, Feng; Yang, Jiashi

    2013-10-01

    We propose a new structure for piezoelectric energy harvesters. It consists of an elastic beam with two pairs of piezoelectric films operating with the fundamental flexural modes in perpendicular directions. A one-dimensional model is developed and used to analyze the proposed structure. The output power density is calculated and examined. Results show that, with simultaneous flexural motions in two perpendicular directions, the output power has two peaks close to each other resulting from the two fundamental flexural resonances. The distance between the two peaks can be adjusted through design to make the two peaks merge into one wide peak. Hence, the frequency bandwidth through which energy can be harvested is roughly doubled when compared with conventional beam bimorph energy harvesters operating with flexural motion in one direction and one resonance only. PMID:24081271

  1. Low dimensional modeling of a non-uniform, buckled piezoelectric beam for vibrational energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Blarigan, Louis; Moehlis, Jeff; McMeeking, Robert

    2015-06-01

    A model is developed for a non-uniform piezoelectric beam suitable for analyzing energy harvesting behavior. System dynamics are projected onto a numerically developed basis to produce energy functions which are used to derive equations of motion for the system. The resulting model reproduces the experimentally observed transition to chaos while providing a conservative estimate of power output and bandwidth.

  2. Development of energy harvester system for avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadas, Z.; Vetiska, V.; Ancik, Z.; Ondrusek, C.; Singule, V.

    2013-05-01

    This paper deals with an energy harvesting system for avionics; it is an energy source for a unit which is used for wireless monitoring or autonomous control of a small aircraft engine. This paper is focused on development process of energy harvesting system from mechanical vibrations in the engine area. The used energy harvesting system consists of an electro-magnetic energy harvester, power management and energy storage element. The energy harvesting system with commercial power management circuits have to be tested and verified measured results are used for an optimal redesign of the electro-magnetic harvester. This developmental step is necessary for the development of the optimal vibration energy harvesting system.

  3. A MEMS-Based Piezoelectric Power Generator for Low Frequency Vibration Energy Harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hua-Bin Fang; Jing-Quan Liu; Zheng-Yi Xu; Lu Dong; Di Chen; Bing-Chu Cai; Yue Liu

    2006-01-01

    A novel power generator has been achieved to convert vibration to electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect. The generator obtained by micro fabrication process mainly consists of silicon based frame and composite cantilever. The prototype tested at resonant vibration generates 1.15 muW of effective power to a 20.4-kOmega resistance load. The potential of this work is to offer miniaturization solutions

  4. Extremely low-loss rectification methodology for low-power vibration energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, R.; Ryoo, K.; Schlichting, A.; Garcia, E.

    2013-06-01

    Because of its promise for the generation of wireless systems, energy harvesting technology using smart materials is the focus of significant reported effort. Various techniques and methodologies for increasing power extraction have been tested. One of the key issues with the existing techniques is the use of diodes in the harvesting circuits with a typical voltage drop of 0.7 V. Since most of the smart materials, and other transducers, do not produce large voltage outputs, this voltage drop becomes significant in most applications. Hence, there is a need for designing a rectification method that can convert AC to DC with minimal losses. This paper describes a new mechanical rectification scheme, designed using reed switches, in a full-bridge configuration that shows the capability of working with signals from millivolts to a few hundred volts with extremely low losses. The methodology has been tested for piezoelectric energy harvesters undergoing mechanical excitation.

  5. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaowen Yang; Lihua Tang

    2009-01-01

    Last decade has seen growing research interest in vibration energy harvesting using piezoelectric materials. When developing piezoelectric energy harvesting systems, it is advantageous to establish certain analytical or numerical model to predict the system performance. In the last few years, researchers from mechanical engineering established distributed models for energy harvester but simplified the energy harvesting circuit in the analytical derivation.

  6. Piezoelectric MEMS for energy harvesting

    E-print Network

    Kim, Sang-Gook

    Piezoelectric microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have been proven to be an attractive technology for harvesting small magnitudes of energy from ambient vibrations. This technology promises to eliminate the need for ...

  7. SystemC-AMS Heterogeneous Modeling of a Capacitive Harvester of Vibration Energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Caluwaerts; D. Galayko; P. Basset

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of modeling of a mixed non-linear, strongly coupled and multidomain electromechanical system designed to scavenge the energy of ambient vibrations and to generate an electrical supply for an embedded microsystem. The system is operating in three domains: purely mechanical (the resonator), coupled electromechanical (electrostatic transducer associated with the moving mass) and electrical circuit, including switches,

  8. Ultra wide-bandwidth micro energy harvester

    E-print Network

    Hajati, Arman

    2011-01-01

    An ultra wide-bandwidth resonating thin film PZT MEMS energy harvester has been designed, modeled, fabricated and tested. It harvests energy from parasitic ambient vibration at a wide range of amplitude and frequency via ...

  9. A General Analytical Tool for the Design of Vibration Energy Harvesters (VEHs) Based on the Mechanical Impedance Concept

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitri Galayko; Philippe Basset

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a new approach for the anal- ysis and design of vibration-to-electricity converters (vibration en- ergy harvesters (VEHs)) operating in the mode of strong electro- mechanical coupling. The underlying concept is that the mechan- ical impedance is defined for a nonlinear electromechanical trans- ducer on the basis of an equivalence between electrical and me- chanical systems. This

  10. SystemC-AMS Modeling of an Electromechanical Harvester of Vibration Energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken Caluwaerts; Dimitri Galayko

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of modeling of a mixed non-linear, strongly coupled and multidomain electromechanical system designed to scavenge the energy of ambient vibrations and to generate an\\u2029 electrical supply for an embedded micro system. The system is operating in three domains: purely\\u2029 mechanical (the resonator), coupled electromechanical (electrostatic transducer associated with the moving\\u2029 mass) and electrical circuit, including switches,

  11. Vibration shape effects on the power output in piezoelectric vibro-impact energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twiefel, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Vibro-Impcact harvesting devices are one concept to increase the bandwidth of resonant operated piezoelectric vibration generators. The fundamental setup is a piezoelectric bending element, where the deflection is limited by two stoppers. After starting the system in resonance operation the bandwidth increases towards higher frequencies as soon the deflection reach the stopper. If the stoppers are rigid, the frequency response gives constant amplitude for increasing frequencies, as long the system is treated as ideal one-DOF system with symmetric stoppers. In consequence, the bandwidth is theoretically unlimited large. However, such a system also has two major drawbacks, firstly the complicated startup mechanism and secondly the tendency to drop from the high constant branch in the frequency response on the much smaller linear branch if the system is disturbed. Nevertheless, the system has its application wherever the startup problem can be solved. Most modeling approaches utilize modal one-DOF models to describe the systems behavior and do not tread the higher harmonics of the beam. This work investigates the effects of the stoppers on the vibration shape of the piezoelectric beam, wherefore a finite element model is used. The used elements are one-dimensional two node elements based on the Timoshenko-beam theory. The finite element code is implemented in Matlab. The model is calculated utilizing time step integration for simulation, to reduce the computation time an auto-resonant calculation method is implemented. A control loop including positive feedback and saturation is used to create a self-excited system. Therefore, the system is always operated in resonance (on the backbone curve) and the frequency is a direct result of the computation. In this case tip velocity is used as feedback. This technique allows effective parametric studies. Investigated parameters include gap, excitation amplitude, tip mass as well as the stiffness of the stopper. The stress and strain distribution as well as the generated electrical power is analyzed with respect to the proper operation range.

  12. Vibration Harvesting using Electromagnetic Transduction

    E-print Network

    Waterbury, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    asset monitoring or tracking where the vibrations from themonitoring. Further investigation into characterizing industrial vibrationmonitoring 6.1. Large industrial motor deployment 6.1.1. Motor vibration

  13. Enhancement of piezoelectric vibration energy harvester output power level for powering of wireless sensor node in large rotary machine diagnostic system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Pekoslawski; Piotr Pietrzak; Maciej Makowski; Andrzej Napieralski

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents results of experimental and theoretical studies on small-size piezoelectric generators, in which energy of machine mechanical vibrations is harvested and converted to electric energy. These piezoelectric generators were proposed, as an alternative to a battery-based solution, for powering of sensor nodes in condition monitoring systems of large rotary machines such as turbogenerators in power plants. Initial studies

  14. Development of Piezoelectric MEMS Vibration Energy Harvester Using (100) Oriented BiFeO3 Ferroelectric Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, S.; Yoshimura, T.; Satoh, K.; Wakazono, K.; Kariya, K.; Fujimura, N.

    2013-12-01

    Piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters (VEHs) with unimorph structure have been developed using Si micro-electrical mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Since we revealed that (100) epitaxial BiFeO3 (BFO) piezoelectric films have high figure-of-merit on energy conversion, (100)-oriented BFO films have been prepared on (100)-oriented LaNiO3 bottom electrodes by the sol-gel method. We fabricated the piezoelectric VEHs using BFO films with resonance frequencies of ~100 Hz. The maximum output power density of these VEHs was determined to be 10.5 ?Wmm-3G-2 (G=9.8 ms-2) at a load resistance of 1 M?, which exceeds or is comparable to those of the best-performing VEHs using other piezoelectric films.

  15. Lumped parameter models of vortex induced vibration with application to the design of aquatic energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanwani, Manish A.; Sarkar, Abhijit; Patnaik, B. S. V.

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, a lumped parameter model for vortex-induced vibrations is analysed. In this work, the vortex-induced vibrations of an elastically mounted rigid cylinder are able to move in-line and transverse to the flow with equal mass ratio and natural frequencies. A simplified lumped mass model is proposed to study the two degree of freedom (dof) structural oscillator. A classical van der Pol equation along with acceleration coupling, models the near wake dynamics describing the fluctuating nature of vortex shedding. The model dynamics is investigated analytically and the results are compared for moderate mass ratios. The results predicted using this model show a good agreement with the experimental data. The dependence of stream-wise displacement on mass and damping is explored. The cause of cross-flow displacement magnification due to freedom to move in stream-wise direction is also explored using the proposed model. Apart from these two degrees of freedom, the cylinder can also undergo rotation about its centre of mass. The effect of freedom to move in this rotational degree of freedom is exploited to our advantage by applying it to the VIVACE (Vortex induced vibration aquatic clean energy) design which was originally proposed by Bernitsas et al. (2008). The original design was not reported to be the optimal one and the set-up was shown to work only for a given flow velocity. But, the flow environment keeps changing and hence there is a need to bring in robustness and optimize the proposed design. The values of optimized spring stiffness have been found using the lumped mass model. The design is made robust by exploiting the rotational mode. This mode is triggered by varying the overhang lengths in accordance with the varying flow velocity in order to strike resonance for a certain flow regime.

  16. Design and fabrication of vibration based energy harvester using microelectromechanical system piezoelectric cantilever for low power applications.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonkeun; Lee, Sang-Kyun; Yang, Yil Suk; Jeong, Jaehwa; Min, Nam Ki; Kwon, Kwang-Ho

    2013-12-01

    We fabricated dual-beam cantilevers on the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) scale with an integrated Si proof mass. A Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) cantilever was designed as a mechanical vibration energy-harvesting system for low power applications. The resonant frequency of the multilayer composition cantilevers were simulated using the finite element method (FEM) with parametric analysis carried out in the design process. According to simulations, the resonant frequency, voltage, and average power of a dual-beam cantilever was 69.1 Hz, 113.9 mV, and 0.303 microW, respectively, at optimal resistance and 0.5 g (gravitational acceleration, m/s2). Based on these data, we subsequently fabricated cantilever devices using dual-beam cantilevers. The harvested power density of the dual-beam cantilever compared favorably with the simulation. Experiments revealed the resonant frequency, voltage, and average power density to be 78.7 Hz, 118.5 mV, and 0.34 microW, respectively. The error between the measured and simulated results was about 10%. The maximum average power and power density of the fabricated dual-beam cantilever at 1 g were 0.803 microW and 1322.80 microW cm(-3), respectively. Furthermore, the possibility of a MEMS-scale power source for energy conversion experiments was also tested. PMID:24266167

  17. Electrostatic Force-induced Broadband Effect in Electret- based Vertical Vibration Energy Harvesters using Finegrained Stainless Steel Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, H.; Hara, M.; Oguchi, H.; Kuwano, H.

    2014-11-01

    We propose a fine-grained stainless-steel as a promising material for a robust oscillator and investigate the dependence of frequency band width, resonance frequency, and output power on initial air gaps in electret-based vertical vibration energy harvesters. Beams of the oscillator showed a shallow side-etched depth less than 10 ?m, as well as smooth edges. The oscillator succeeded in travelling over 1-mm displacement without fracture. Also, we found that broader frequency band, as well as lower resonance frequency, can be achieved with reducing the initial air gap, whereas the output power exhibited a peak value at an optimal initial air gap. The results may be attributed to the soft spring effect induced by the stronger electrostatic force. Maximum output power density and FWHM of frequency band width of our harvester are 4.7 ?W/cm3 and 14 Hz at initial air gap 0.3 mm and acceleration 4.9 m/s2.

  18. An efficient piezoelectric energy-harvesting interface circuit using a Bias-Flip rectifier and shared inductor

    E-print Network

    Ramadass, Yogesh Kumar

    Energy harvesting is an emerging technology with applications to handheld, portable and implantable electronics. Harvesting ambient vibration energy through piezoelectric (PE) means is a popular energy harvesting technique ...

  19. A MEMS-based piezoelectric power generator array for vibration energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing-Quan Liu; Hua-Bin Fang; Zheng-Yi Xu; Xin-Hui Mao; Xiu-Cheng Shen; Di Chen; Hang Liao; Bing-Chu Cai

    2008-01-01

    Piezoelectric power generator made by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology can scavenge power from low-level ambient vibration sources. The developed MEMS power generators are featured with fixed\\/narrow operation frequency and power output in microwatt level, whereas, the frequency of ambient vibration is floating in some range, and power output is insufficient. In this paper, a power generator array based on thick-film

  20. Piezoelectric MEMS Energy Harvester for Low-Frequency Vibrations With Wideband Operation Range and Steadily Increased Output Power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huicong Liu; Cho Jui Tay; Chenggen Quan; Takeshi Kobayashi; Chengkuo Lee

    2011-01-01

    A piezoelectric MEMS energy harvester (EH) with low resonant frequency and wide operation bandwidth was de- signed, microfabricated, and characterized. The MEMS piezo- electric energy harvesting cantilever consists of a silicon beam integrated with piezoelectric thin film (PZT) elements parallel- arranged on top and a silicon proof mass resulting in a low resonant frequency of 36 Hz. The whole chip

  1. Piezoelectric Water Drop Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Ahmad, Mahmoud

    2014-02-01

    Piezoelectric materials convert mechanical deformation directly into electrical charges, which can be harvested and used to drive micropower electronic devices. The low power consumption of such systems on the scale of microwatts leads to the possibility of using harvested vibrational energy due to its almost universal nature. Vibrational energy harvested using piezoelectric cantilevers provides sufficient output for small-scale power applications. This work reports on vibrational energy harvesting from free-falling droplets at the tip of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric-based cantilevers. The harvester incorporates a multimorph clamped-free cantilever made of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric thick films. During the impact, the droplet's kinetic energy is transferred to the form of mechanical stress, forcing the piezoelectric structure to vibrate and thereby producing charges. Experimental results show an instantaneous drop-power of 2.15 mW cm-3 g-1. The scenario of a medium intensity of falling water drops, i.e., 200 drops per second, yielded a power of 0.48 W cm-3 g-1 per second.

  2. The effect of the built-in stress level of AlN layers on the properties of piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Karakaya; M. Renaud; M. Goedbloed; R. van Schaijk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the effects of built-in stress on the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of sputtered AlN layers, meant to be implemented in micromachined piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters. Test structures including cantilevers, 4-point bending beams and metal-insulator-metal capacitors were manufactured with reactive sputtered AlN layers in a thickness range of 400-1200 nm. Various bias conditions during the deposition

  3. Energy Harvesting Communication Networks: Optimization and Demonstration

    E-print Network

    Gesbert, David

    with the timely harvesting, storage and delivery of energy to the computing and communication units energy sources. Devices with #12;2 Fig. 2. A network of communication nodes, storage units and energy harvesting devices. EH capability can scavenge ambient energy, such as vibrations, thermal gradients or solar

  4. Energy harvesting projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Joseph

    2005-01-01

    This article examines how harvesting environmental energy in sensor networks changes the way an application developer views energy management, and discusses prototype devices. Then it proposes devices that combine energy harvesting and data acquisition. Then it explores novel approaches for optimizing the power extracted using piezoelectric materials. The final one explores kinetic and thermal energy harvesting from human users' activities.

  5. Energy Harvesting From Low Frequency Applications Using Piezoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Huidong; Tian, Chuan; Deng, Zhiqun

    2014-11-06

    This paper reviewed the state of research on piezoelectric energy harvesters. Various types of harvester configurations, piezoelectric materials, and techniques used to improve the mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency were discussed. Most of the piezoelectric energy harvesters studied today have focused on scavenging mechanical energy from vibration sources due to their abundance in both natural and industrial environments. Cantilever beams have been the most studied structure for piezoelectric energy harvester to date because of the high responsiveness to small vibrations.

  6. A resonant frequency tunable, extensional mode piezoelectric vibration harvesting mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dylan J Morris; John M Youngsman; Michael J Anderson; David F Bahr

    2008-01-01

    Electrical power for distributed, wireless sensors may be harvested from vibrations in the ambient through the use of electromechanical transducers. To be most useful, the electromechanical transducer should maximize the harvested power by matching its resonant frequency to the strongest vibration amplitude in the source’s vibration spectrum. This paper introduces a new frequency tunable mechanism wherein the deformation of the

  7. Stresa, Italy, 25-27 April 2007 CHARACTERISATION OF AN ELECTROSTATIC VIBRATION HARVESTER

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Stresa, Italy, 25-27 April 2007 CHARACTERISATION OF AN ELECTROSTATIC VIBRATION HARVESTER T. Sterken ambient vibration is proposed as an alternative to storage based power supplies for autonomous systems. The system presented converts the mechanical energy of a vibration into electrical energy by means

  8. Comparison between four piezoelectric energy harvesting circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhao Qiu; Hao Jiang; Hongli Ji; Kongjun Zhu

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates and compares the efficiencies of four different interfaces for vibration-based energy harvesting systems.\\u000a Among those four circuits, two circuits adopt the synchronous switching technique, in which the circuit is switched synchronously\\u000a with the vibration. In this study, a simple source-less trigger circuit used to control the synchronized switch is proposed\\u000a and two interface circuits of energy harvesting

  9. A Nonlinear Energy Sink with Energy Harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremer, Daniel

    The transfer of energy between systems is a natural process, manifesting in many different ways. In engineering transferable energy can be considered wanted or unwanted. Specifically in mechanical systems, energy transfer can occur as unwanted vibrations, passing from a source to a receiver. In electrical systems, energy transfer can be desirable, where energy from a source may be used elsewhere. This work proposes a method to combine the two, converting unwanted mechanical energy into useable electrical energy. A nonlinear energy sink (NES) is a vibration absorber that passively localizes vibrational energy, removing mechanical energy from a primary system. Consisting of a mass-spring-damper such that the stiffness is essentially nonlinear, a NES can localize vibrational energy from a source and dissipate it through damping. Replacing the NES mass with a series of magnets surrounded by coils fixed to the primary mass, the dissipated energy can be directly converted to electrical energy. A NES with energy harvesting properties is constructed and introduced. The system parameters are identified, with the NES having an essentially cubic nonlinear stiffness. A transduction factor is quantified linking the electrical and mechanical systems. An analytic analysis is carried out studying the transient and harmonically excited response of the system. It is found that the energy harvesting does not reduce the vibrational absorption capabilities of the NES. The performance of the system in both transient and harmonically excited responses is found to be heavily influenced by input energies. The system is tested, with good match to analytic results.

  10. A multiaxial piezoelectric energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousselmal, H. D.; Cottinet, P. J.; Quiquerez, L.; Remaki, B.; Petit, L.

    2013-04-01

    An important limitation in the classical energy harvesters based on cantilever beam structure is its monodirectional sensibility. The external excitation must generate an orthogonal acceleration from the beam plane to induced flexural deformation. If the direction of the excitation deviates from this privileged direction, the harvester output power is drastically reduced. This point is obviously very restrictive in the case of an arbitrary excitation direction induced for example by human body movements or vehicles vibrations. In order to overcome this issue of the conventional resonant cantilever configuration with seismic mass, a multidirectional harvester is introduced here by the authors. The multidirectional ability relies on the exploitation of 3 degenerate structural vibration modes where each of them is induced by the corresponding component of the acceleration vector. This specific structure has been already used for 3 axis accelerometers but the approach is here totally revisited because the final functional goal is different. This paper presents the principle and the design considerations of such multidirectional piezoelectric energy harvester. A finite element model has been used for the harvester optimisation. It has been shown that the seismic mass is a relevant parameter for the modes tuning because the resonant frequency of the 1st exploited flexural mode directly depends on the mass whereas the resonance frequency of the 2nd flexural mode depends on its moment of inertia. A simplified centimetric prototype limited to a two orthogonal direction sensibility has permitted to valid the theoretical approach.

  11. Piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A Howells

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials can be used to convert oscillatory mechanical energy into electrical energy. This technology, together with innovative mechanical coupling designs, can form the basis for harvesting energy from mechanical motion. Piezoelectric energy can be harvested to convert walking motion from the human body into electrical power. Recently four proof-of-concept Heel Strike Units were developed where each unit is essentially

  12. Performance comparison of PZT and PMN–PT piezoceramics for vibration energy harvesting using standard or nonlinear approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prissana Rakbamrung; Mickaël Lallart; Daniel Guyomar; Nantakan Muensit; Chanchana Thanachayanont; Claude Lucat; Benoît Guiffard; Lionel Petit; Pisan Sukwisut

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the performance comparison of two common piezoelectric compositions for energy harvesting purposes, using either a standard or a nonlinear technique. Unlike single crystals, piezoelectric ceramics are quite easy to obtain, and thus their application to realistic applications is feasible. This study focuses on two compositions: PZT+1mol% Mn and PMN–25PT, obtained from sintering piezoelectric powders, and highlights the

  13. DSPs for energy harvesting sensors: applications and architectures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeevan Amirtharajah; Jamie Collier; Jeff Siebert; Bicky Zhou; Anantha Chandrakasan

    2005-01-01

    Energy harvesting from human or environmental sources shows promise as an alternative to battery power for embedded digital electronics. Digital signal processors that harvest power from ambient mechanical vibration are particularly promising for sensor networks.

  14. Bias-Flip Technique for Frequency Tuning of Piezo-Electric Energy Harvesting Devices

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Jianying

    Devices that harvest electrical energy from mechanical vibrations have the problem that the frequency of the source vibration is often not matched to the resonant frequency of the energy harvesting device. Manufacturing ...

  15. Characteristics of Energy Storage Devices in Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Guan; W. H. Liao

    2008-01-01

    Using piezoelectric elements to harvest energy from ambient vibration has been of great interest recently. As the power harvested from the piezoelectric element is relatively low, energy storage devices are needed to accumulate the energy for intermittent use. In this study, the energy storage devices considered include rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors. The traditional electrolytic capacitors are not considered due to

  16. Harvesting Raindrop Energy with Piezoelectrics: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Chin-Hong; Dahari, Zuraini; Abd Manaf, Asrulnizam; Miskam, Muhammad Azman

    2015-01-01

    Harvesting vibration energy from piezoelectric material impacted by raindrops has proved to be a promising approach for future applications. A piezoelectric harvester has interesting advantages such as simple structure, easy fabrication, reduced number of components, and direct conversion of vibrations to electrical charge. Extensive research has been carried out and is still underway to explore this technique for practical applications. This review provides a comprehensive picture of global research and development of raindrop energy harvesting using piezoelectric material to enable researchers to determine the direction of further investigation. The work published so far in this area is reviewed and summarized with relevant suggestions for future work. In addition, a brief experiment was carried out to investigate the suitable piezoelectric structure for raindrop energy harvesting. Results showed that the bridge structure generated a higher voltage compared with the cantilever structure.

  17. M-shaped asymmetric nonlinear oscillator for broadband vibration energy harvesting: Harmonic balance analysis and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadenham, S.; Erturk, A.

    2014-11-01

    Over the past few years, nonlinear oscillators have been given growing attention due to their ability to enhance the performance of energy harvesting devices by increasing the frequency bandwidth. Duffing oscillators are a type of nonlinear oscillator characterized by a symmetric hardening or softening cubic restoring force. In order to realize the cubic nonlinearity in a cantilever at reasonable excitation levels, often an external magnetic field or mechanical load is imposed, since the inherent geometric nonlinearity would otherwise require impractically high excitation levels to be pronounced. As an alternative to magnetoelastic structures and other complex forms of symmetric Duffing oscillators, an M-shaped nonlinear bent beam with clamped end conditions is presented and investigated for bandwidth enhancement under base excitation. The proposed M-shaped oscillator made of spring steel is very easy to fabricate as it does not require extra discrete components to assemble, and furthermore, its asymmetric nonlinear behavior can be pronounced yielding broadband behavior under low excitation levels. For a prototype configuration, linear and nonlinear system parameters extracted from experiments are used to develop a lumped-parameter mathematical model. Quadratic damping is included in the model to account for nonlinear dissipative effects. A multi-term harmonic balance solution is obtained to study the effects of higher harmonics and a constant term. A single-term closed-form frequency response equation is also extracted and compared with the multi-term harmonic balance solution. It is observed that the single-term solution overestimates the frequency of upper saddle-node bifurcation point and underestimates the response magnitude in the large response branch. Multi-term solutions can be as accurate as time-domain solutions, with the advantage of significantly reduced computation time. Overall, substantial bandwidth enhancement with increasing base excitation is validated experimentally, analytically, and numerically. As compared to the 3 dB bandwidth of the corresponding linear system with the same linear damping ratio, the M-shaped oscillator offers 3200, 5600, and 8900 percent bandwidth enhancement at the root-mean-square base excitation levels of 0.03g, 0.05g, and 0.07g, respectively. The M-shaped configuration can easily be exploited in piezoelectric and electromagnetic energy harvesting as well as their hybrid combinations due to the existence of both large strain and kinetic energy regions. A demonstrative case study is given for electromagnetic energy harvesting, revealing the importance of higher harmonics and the need for multi-term harmonic balance analysis for predicting the electrical power output accurately.

  18. Piezoelectric monolayers as nonlinear energy harvesters.

    PubMed

    López-Suárez, Miquel; Pruneda, Miguel; Abadal, Gabriel; Rurali, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    We study the dynamics of h-BN monolayers by first performing ab-initio calculations of the deformation potential energy and then solving numerically a Langevine-type equation to explore their use in nonlinear vibration energy harvesting devices. An applied compressive strain is used to drive the system into a nonlinear bistable regime, where quasi-harmonic vibrations are combined with low-frequency swings between the minima of a double-well potential. Due to its intrinsic piezoelectric response, the nonlinear mechanical harvester naturally provides an electrical power that is readily available or can be stored by simply contacting the monolayer at its ends. Engineering the induced nonlinearity, a 20 nm2 device is predicted to harvest an electrical power of up to 0.18 pW for a noisy vibration of 5 pN. PMID:24722065

  19. PIEZOELECTRIC POWER SCAVENGING OF MECHANICAL VIBRATION ENERGY

    E-print Network

    Ervin, Elizabeth K.

    with other smart materials for power harvesting #12;Piezoelectric MaterialsPiezoelectric MaterialsPIEZOELECTRIC POWER SCAVENGING OF MECHANICAL VIBRATION ENERGY PIEZOELECTRIC POWER SCAVENGING and magneticand magnetic field.field. Piezoelectric Materials as Smart Material- Among the all smart materials

  20. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Improvement with Complex Conjugate Impedance Matching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Brufau-Penella; M. Puig-Vidal

    2009-01-01

    One way to enhance the efficiency of energy harvesting systems is complex conjugate impedance matching of its electrical impedance. In Piezoelectric energy Harvesting systems the match is done to increment the energy flows from a vibration energy source to an energy storage electrical circuit. In this article, we compare the power generated using the modulus impedance matching with the power

  1. Motorcycle waste heat energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, Alexander D.; Anton, Steven R.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2008-03-01

    Environmental concerns coupled with the depletion of fuel sources has led to research on ethanol, fuel cells, and even generating electricity from vibrations. Much of the research in these areas is stalling due to expensive or environmentally contaminating processes, however recent breakthroughs in materials and production has created a surge in research on waste heat energy harvesting devices. The thermoelectric generators (TEGs) used in waste heat energy harvesting are governed by the Thermoelectric, or Seebeck, effect, generating electricity from a temperature gradient. Some research to date has featured platforms such as heavy duty diesel trucks, model airplanes, and automobiles, attempting to either eliminate heavy batteries or the alternator. A motorcycle is another platform that possesses some very promising characteristics for waste heat energy harvesting, mainly because the exhaust pipes are exposed to significant amounts of air flow. A 1995 Kawasaki Ninja 250R was used for these trials. The module used in these experiments, the Melcor HT3-12-30, produced an average of 0.4694 W from an average temperature gradient of 48.73 °C. The mathematical model created from the Thermoelectric effect equation and the mean Seebeck coefficient displayed by the module produced an average error from the experimental data of 1.75%. Although the module proved insufficient to practically eliminate the alternator on a standard motorcycle, the temperature data gathered as well as the examination of a simple, yet accurate, model represent significant steps in the process of creating a TEG capable of doing so.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Multi-tier Energy Harvesters Using Macro-fiber Composite Patches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun Jeong Song; Young-Tai Choi; Ashish S. Purekar; Norman M. Wereley

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the performance evaluation of a vibration-based energy harvester using macro-fiber composite (MFC) elements, which can harvest power from environmental or ambient vibration and shock. An innovative multi-tier energy harvester (MTEH), comprised of a small number of vibrating beam elements with same fundamental frequencies, is developed in this study to overcome the harvested power limitations of single-tier energy

  3. Algae Harvest Energy Conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yung-Tse Hung; O. Sarafadeen Amuda; A. Olanrewaju Alade; I. Adekunle Amoo; Stephen Tiong-Lee Tay; Kathleen Hung Li

    \\u000a Algae harvest energy conversion to biofuel technology is a promising alternative to fossil fuel that has inherent pollution\\u000a attachment. With present resources available for the microalgae mass production and hence, high oil yield, microalgal can\\u000a sufficiently be a new source of renewable energy to replace the fossil fuels. In this chapter, algae description, composition,\\u000a cultivation, its conversion to biofuel, and

  4. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting and Dissipation on Structural Damping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Liang; W. H. Liao

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to provide a comparative study on the functions of piezoelectric energy harvesting, dissipation, and their effects on the structural damping of vibrating structures. Energy flow in piezoelectric devices is discussed. Detailed modeling of piezoelectric materials and devices are provided to serve as a common base for both analyses of energy harvesting and dissipation. Based on these foundations,

  5. An Efficient Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Interface Circuit Using a Bias-Flip Rectifier and Shared Inductor

    E-print Network

    Ramadass, Yogesh Kumar

    Harvesting ambient vibration energy through piezoelectric means is a popular energy harvesting technique which can potentially supply 10-100's of [mu]W of available power. One of the main limitations of existing piezoelectric ...

  6. An electromechanical finite element model for piezoelectric energy harvester plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos De Marqui Junior; Alper Erturk; Daniel J. Inman

    2009-01-01

    Vibration-based energy harvesting has been investigated by several researchers over the last decade. The goal in this research field is to power small electronic components by converting the waste vibration energy available in their environment into electrical energy. Recent literature shows that piezoelectric transduction has received the most attention for vibration-to-electricity conversion. In practice, cantilevered beams and plates with piezoceramic

  7. On the efficiencies of piezoelectric energy harvesting circuits towards storage device voltages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Guan; W. H. Liao

    2007-01-01

    Using piezoelectric elements to harvest energy from ambient vibrations has been of great interest over the past few years. Due to the relatively low power output of piezoelectric materials, energy storage devices are used to accumulate harvested energy for intermittent use. Piezoelectric energy harvesting circuits have two schemes: one-stage and two-stage energy harvesting. A one-stage energy harvesting scheme includes a

  8. Energy Harvesting Diamond Channel with Energy Cooperation

    E-print Network

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Energy Harvesting Diamond Channel with Energy Cooperation Berk Gurakan Sennur Ulukus Department@umd.edu Abstract--We consider the energy harvesting diamond channel, where the source and two relays harvest energy the option of wirelessly transferring some of its energy to the relays via energy cooperation. We find

  9. An aero-elastic flutter based electromagnetic energy harvester with wind speed augmenting funnel

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    been used to convert wind flow energy into mechanical vibration, which is then transformed for an energy harvester to extract energy. To overcome this limitation, we use wind-induced flutter vibration BACKGOURND 2.1. Wind as a source for energy harvesting Wind energy has long been used to generate power

  10. A new piezoelectric energy harvesting design concept: multimodal energy harvesting skin.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soobum; Youn, Byeng D

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an advanced design concept for a piezoelectric energy harvesting (EH), referred to as multimodal EH skin. This EH design facilitates the use of multimodal vibration and enhances power harvesting efficiency. The multimodal EH skin is an extension of our previous work, EH skin, which was an innovative design paradigm for a piezoelectric energy harvester: a vibrating skin structure and an additional thin piezoelectric layer in one device. A computational (finite element) model of the multilayered assembly - the vibrating skin structure and piezoelectric layer - is constructed and the optimal topology and/or shape of the piezoelectric layer is found for maximum power generation from multiple vibration modes. A design rationale for the multimodal EH skin was proposed: designing a piezoelectric material distribution and external resistors. In the material design step, the piezoelectric material is segmented by inflection lines from multiple vibration modes of interests to minimize voltage cancellation. The inflection lines are detected using the voltage phase. In the external resistor design step, the resistor values are found for each segment to maximize power output. The presented design concept, which can be applied to any engineering system with multimodal harmonic-vibrating skins, was applied to two case studies: an aircraft skin and a power transformer panel. The excellent performance of multimodal EH skin was demonstrated, showing larger power generation than EH skin without segmentation or unimodal EH skin. PMID:21429855

  11. Enhanced energy harvesting in commercial ferroelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Satyanarayan; Chauhan, Aditya; Vaish, Rahul

    2014-04-01

    Ferroelectric materials are used in a number of applications ranging from simple sensors and actuators to ferroelectric random access memories (FRAMs), transducers, health monitoring system and microelectronics. The multiphysical coupling ability possessed by these materials has been established to be useful for energy harvesting applications. However, conventional energy harvesting techniques employing ferroelectric materials possess low energy density. This has prevented the successful commercialization of ferroelectric based energy harvesting systems. In this context, the present study aims at proposing a novel approach for enhanced energy harvesting using commercially available ferroelectric materials. This technique was simulated to be used for two commercially available piezoelectric materials namely PKI-552 and APCI-840, soft and hard lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) pervoskite ceramics, respectively. It was observed that a maximum energy density of 348 kJm-3cycle-1 can be obtained for cycle parameters of (0-1 ton compressive stress and 1-25 kV.cm-1 electric field) using APCI-840. The reported energy density is several hundred times larger than the maximum energy density reported in the literature for vibration harvesting systems.

  12. Energy Harvesting Communications with Continuous Energy Arrivals

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    Energy Harvesting Communications with Continuous Energy Arrivals Burak Varan Kaya Tutuncuoglu Aylin--This work considers an energy harvesting transmit- ter that gathers a continuous flow of energy from intermittent sources, thus relaxing the modeling assumption of discrete amounts of harvested energy present

  13. An experimentally validated bimorph cantilever model for piezoelectric energy harvesting from base excitations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Erturk; D. J. Inman

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric transduction has received great attention for vibration-to-electric energy conversion over the last five years. A typical piezoelectric energy harvester is a unimorph or a bimorph cantilever located on a vibrating host structure, to generate electrical energy from base excitations. Several authors have investigated modeling of cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters under base excitation. The existing mathematical modeling approaches range from

  14. Energy Cooperation in Energy Harvesting Wireless Communications

    E-print Network

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Energy Cooperation in Energy Harvesting Wireless Communications Berk Gurakan1 , Omur Ozel1 , Jing node, a relay node and a destination node where the source and the relay can harvest energy from the nature. Energy required for communication arrives (is harvested) at the transmitter and an unlimited

  15. Adaptive piezoelectric energy harvesting circuit for wireless remote power supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geffrey K. Ottman; Heath F. Hofmann; Archin C. Bhatt; George A. Lesieutre

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to harvesting electrical energy from a mechanically excited piezoelectric element. A vibrating piezoelectric device differs from a typical electrical power source in that it has a capacitive rather than inductive source impedance, and may be driven by mechanical vibrations of varying amplitude. An analytical expression for the optimal power flow from a rectified piezoelectric device

  16. High-efficiency integrated piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhiman Hande; Pradeep Shah

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes hierarchically architectured development of an energy harvesting (EH) system that consists of micro and\\/or macro-scale harvesters matched to multiple components of remote wireless sensor and communication nodes. The micro-scale harvesters consist of thin-film MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays and power generation modules in IC-like form to allow efficient EH from vibrations. The design uses new high conversion efficiency

  17. A low frequency nonlinear energy harvester with large bandwidth utilizing magnet levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Cai, C. S.; Kong, Bo

    2015-04-01

    The application of vibration based energy harvesting in civil infrastructures usually has to resolve two major problems, namely, the low excitation frequency and large frequency range. To this end, a nonlinear energy harvester utilizing magnet levitation is proposed in this study. The proposed harvester can convert low frequency excitations into high frequency ones in its four doubly clamped piezoelectric beams through multi-impact. A large bandwidth is expected due to the stiffness nonlinearity introduced by using magnet levitation. A theoretical model is first developed for the harvester. Then, sinusoidal vibrations and simulated bridge vibrations are used as the external excitations to verify the performance of the harvester. The simulation results show an improved robustness of the harvester under low frequency vibrations, which indicates the proposed harvester is an ideal device for energy harvesting in civil infrastructures.

  18. Energy harvesting for self-powered aerostructure actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Matthew; Pizzonia, Matthew; Mehallow, Michael; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2014-04-01

    This paper proposes and experimentally investigates applying piezoelectric energy harvesting devices driven by flow induced vibrations to create self-powered actuation of aerostructure surfaces such as tabs, flaps, spoilers, or morphing devices. Recently, we have investigated flow-induced vibrations and limit cycle oscillations due to aeroelastic flutter phenomena in piezoelectric structures as a mechanism to harvest energy from an ambient fluid flow. We will describe how our experimental investigations in a wind tunnel have demonstrated that this harvested energy can be stored and used on-demand to actuate a control surface such as a trailing edge flap in the airflow. This actuated control surface could take the form of a separate and discrete actuated flap, or could constitute rotating or deflecting the oscillating energy harvester itself to produce a non-zero mean angle of attack. Such a rotation of the energy harvester and the associated change in aerodynamic force is shown to influence the operating wind speed range of the device, its limit cycle oscillation (LCO) amplitude, and its harvested power output; hence creating a coupling between the device's performance as an energy harvester and as a control surface. Finally, the induced changes in the lift, pitching moment, and drag acting on a wing model are quantified and compared for a control surface equipped with an oscillating energy harvester and a traditional, static control surface of the same geometry. The results show that when operated in small amplitude LCO the energy harvester adds negligible aerodynamic drag.

  19. Wind energy harvesting using a piezo-composite generating element (PCGE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cam Minh Tri Tien; Nam-Seo Goo

    2010-01-01

    Energy can be reclaimed and stored for later use to recharge a battery or power a device through a process called energy harvesting. Piezoelectric is being widely investigated for use in harvesting surrounding energy sources such as sun, wind, tides, indoor lighting, body movement or machine vibration, etc. This paper introduces a wind energy harvesting device using a Piezo-Composite Generating

  20. Energy Harvesting Using a Piezoelectric ``Cymbal'' Transducer in Dynamic Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyeoung Woo Kim; Amit Batra; Shashank Priya; Kenji Uchino; Douglas Markley; Robert E. Newnham; Heath F. Hofmann

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the capability of harvesting the electrical energy from mechanical vibrations in a dynamic environment through a ``cymbal'' piezoelectric transducer. Targeted mechanical vibrations lie in the range of 50-150 Hz with force amplitude in the order of 1 kN (automobile engine vibration level). It was found that under such severe stress conditions the metal-ceramic composite transducer

  1. Plucked piezoelectric bimorphs for energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Michele; Zhu, Meiling

    2011-06-01

    The modern drive towards mobility and wireless devices is motivating intense research in energy harvesting (EH) technologies. In an effort to reduce the battery burden of people, we are investigating a novel piezoelectric wearable energy harvester. As piezoelectric EH is significantly more effective at high frequencies, in opposition to the characteristically low-frequency human activities, we propose the use of an up-conversion strategy analogous to the pizzicato musical technique. In order to guide the design of such harvester, we have modelled with Finite Elements (FE) the response and power generation of a piezoelectric bimorph while it is "plucked", i.e. deflected, then released and permitted to vibrate freely. An experimental rig has been devised and set up to reproduce the action of the bimorph in the harvester. Measurements of the voltage output and the energy dissipated across a series resistor are reported and compared with the FE predictions. As the novel harvester will feature a number of bimorphs, each plucked tens of times per step, we predict a total power output of several mW, with imperceptible effect on the wearer's gait.

  2. Nonlinear interface between the piezoelectric harvesting structure and the modulating circuit of an energy harvester with a real storage battery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuantai Hu; Huan Xue; Ting Hu; Hongping Hu

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of an energy harvester with a piezoelectric bimorph (PB) and a real electrochemical battery (ECB), both are connected as an integrated system through a rectified dc-dc converter (DDC). A vibrating PB can scavenge energy from the operating environment by the electromechanical coupling. A DDC can effectively match the optimal output voltage of the harvesting structure

  3. Influence of pattern gradation on the design of piezocomposite energy harvesting devices using topology optimization

    E-print Network

    Paulino, Glaucio H.

    weight, material usage, and costs. The interest in piezoelectric energy harvesting is reflected- lyze the power output of a vibration-based piezoelectric energy- harvesting device when it is connectedInfluence of pattern gradation on the design of piezocomposite energy harvesting devices using

  4. A coupled piezoelectric–electromagnetic energy harvesting technique for achieving increased power output through damping matching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinod R Challa; M G Prasad; Frank T Fisher

    2009-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesting is being pursued as a means to power wireless sensors and ultra-low power autonomous devices. From a design standpoint, matching the electrical damping induced by the energy harvesting mechanism to the mechanical damping in the system is necessary for maximum efficiency. In this work two independent energy harvesting techniques are coupled to provide higher electrical damping within

  5. ZnO/LSMO Nanocomposites for Energy Harvesting Robert Kinner1$

    E-print Network

    Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    ZnO/LSMO Nanocomposites for Energy Harvesting Robert Kinner1$ , Abdul-Majeed Azad1 , G (LSMO) with zinc oxide (ZnO) are candidate materials for energy harvesting by virtue of their magnetic and piezoelectric characteristics. They could be used to harvest energy from stray sources, such as the vibrations

  6. Stresa, Italy, 26-28 April 2006 NON-LINEAR TECHNIQUES FOR INCREASING HARVESTING ENERGY FROM

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Stresa, Italy, 26-28 April 2006 NON-LINEAR TECHNIQUES FOR INCREASING HARVESTING ENERGY FROM, many researches have been performed in order to harvest energy from mechanical vibrations and discuss different techniques in order to maximize the energy harvested from piezoelectric

  7. Harvested power and sensitivity analysis of vibrating shoe-mounted piezoelectric cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moro, L.; Benasciutti, D.

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a preliminary investigation on energy harvesting from human walking via piezoelectric vibrating cantilevers. Heel accelerations during human gait are established by correlating data gathered from the literature with direct experimental measurements. All the observed relevant features are synthesized in a typical (standard) acceleration signal, used in subsequent numerical simulations. The transient electromechanical response and the harvested power of a shoe-mounted bimorph cantilever excited by the standard acceleration signal is computed by numerical simulations and compared with measurements on a real prototype. A sensitivity analysis is finally developed to estimate the mean harvested power for a wide range of scavenger configurations. Acceptability criteria based on imposed geometrical constraints and resistance strength limits (e.g. fatigue limit) are also established. This analysis allows a quick preliminary screening of harvesting performance of different scavenger configurations.

  8. A wideband magnetic energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C. L.; Chen, W. Q.

    2010-03-01

    A wideband magnetic energy harvester is proposed by using a number of multiferroic composite fibers of different lengths which are connected in parallel or series. The structural theory is employed to characterize the magnetoelectroelastic behavior of the fibers. A global circuit analysis is then performed. It is shown that such a structure of energy harvester is capable of collecting the ambient magnetic energy over a wide frequency range.

  9. 696 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 18, NO. 2, MARCH 2003 Optimized Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Circuit

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, Heath F.

    of harvesting vibrational energy with a piezoelectric element using a step-down dc­dc converter is presented--DC­DC, discontinuous conduction mode, energy harvesting, piezoelectric devices. I. INTRODUCTION THE need for a remote and their noninvasive harvesting method. A vibrating piezoelectric device differs from a typical elec- trical power

  10. Communicating with Energy Harvesting Transmitters and Receivers

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    Communicating with Energy Harvesting Transmitters and Receivers Kaya Tutuncuoglu Aylin Yener is on applying this framework to the single-link problem with an energy harvesting transmitter and an energy on offline optimization of energy harvesting transmitters to networks with all energy harvesting nodes includ

  11. A Full-Wave Rectifier With Integrated Peak Selection for Multiple Electrode Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathaniel J. Guilar; Rajeevan Amirtharajah; Paul J. Hurst

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric transducers are a viable way of harvesting vibrational energy for low power embedded systems such as wireless sensors. A proposed disk-shaped piezoelectric transducer with several electrodes enables increased energy harvesting from multiple mechanical resonances. To rectify the low-frequency AC voltage from harvested vibrational energy, a full-wave rectifier has been fabricated in 0.35 mum CMOS. Integrated peak selection circuitry allows

  12. Performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester driven by air flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitio Kwuimy, C. A.; Litak, G.; Borowiec, M.; Nataraj, C.

    2012-01-01

    A turbulent wind source for possible energy harvesting is considered. To increase the amplitude of vibration, we apply a magnetopiezoelastic oscillator having a double well Duffing potential. The output voltage response of the system for different level of wind excitations is analyzed. The energy harvesting appeared to be the most efficient for the conditions close to the stochastic resonance region where the potential barrier was overcame.

  13. Resistive Impedance Matching Circuit for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Na Kong; Dong Sam Ha; Alper Erturk; Daniel J. Inman

    2010-01-01

    A two-stage power conditioning circuit consisting of an AC-DC converter followed by a DC-DC converter is proposed for a vibration-based energy harvesting system. The power conditioning circuit intends to maximize the amount of power extracted from a piezoelectric energy harvester by matching the source impedance with the circuit by adaptively adjusting the duty cycle. An equivalent electrical circuit representation derived

  14. Damping as a result of piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Lesieutre; G. K. Ottman; H. F. Hofmann

    2004-01-01

    Systems that harvest or scavenge energy from their environments are of considerable interest for use in remote power supplies. A class of such systems exploits the motion or deformation associated with vibration, converting the mechanical energy to electrical, and storing it for later use; some of these systems use piezoelectric materials for the direct conversion of strain energy to electrical

  15. Impedance adaptation methods of the piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyeoungwoo Kim

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the important issues of energy recovery were addressed and a comprehensive investigation was performed on harvesting electrical power from an ambient mechanical vibration source. Also discussed are the impedance matching methods used to increase the efficiency of energy transfer from the environment to the application. Initially, the mechanical impedance matching method was investigated to increase mechanical energy

  16. Analysis of the energy harvesting performance of a piezoelectric bender outside its Adrian Amancic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Analysis of the energy harvesting performance of a piezoelectric bender outside its resonance of this bandwidth depends on the excitation amplitude. Keywords: Wide-bandwidth, Piezoelectric energy harvester 1 is practically harvested. For off- resonance vibrating frequencies, the optimal operating conditions can

  17. POWER EVALUATION FOR FLUTTER-BASED ELCTROMAGNETIC ENERGY HARVESTER USING CFD SIMULATIONS

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    harvesters. Wind induced vibrations have been used to mechanically strain piezoelectric transducersPOWER EVALUATION FOR FLUTTER-BASED ELCTROMAGNETIC ENERGY HARVESTER USING CFD SIMULATIONS J. Park 1 as an effective input source for small scale energy harvesters. The self exciting aerodynamic force exerted on a T

  18. Energy harvesting: a key to wireless sensor nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Matthew; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2009-07-01

    Energy harvesting has enabled new operational concepts in the growing field of wireless sensing. A novel energy harvesting device driven by aeroelastic flutter vibrations has been developed and could be used to complement existing environmental energy harvesters such as solar cells in wireless sensing applications. An analytical model of the mechanical, electromechanical, and aerodynamic systems suitable for designing aeroelastic energy harvesters for various flow applications are derived and presented. Wind tunnel testing was performed with a prototype energy harvester to characterize the power output and flutter frequency response of the device over its entire range of operating wind speeds. Finally, two wing geometries, a flat plate and a NACA 0012 airfoil were tested and compared.

  19. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Device Optimization by Synchronous Electric Charge Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elie Lefeuvre; Adrien Badel; Claude Richard; Daniel Guyomar

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a nonlinear approach to optimize the power flow of vibration-based piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices. This self-adaptive principle is based on a particular synchronization between extraction of the electric charge produced by the piezoelectric element and the system vibrations, which maximizes the mechanical to electrical energy conversion. An analytical expression of the optimal power flow is derived from a

  20. A piezoelectric energy harvester based on internal resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liqun; Jiang, Wenan

    2015-05-01

    A vibration-based energy harvester is essentially a resonator working in a limited frequency range. To increase the working frequency range is a challenging problem. This paper reveals a novel possibility for enhancing energy harvesting via internal resonance. An internal resonance energy harvester is proposed. The excitation is successively assumed as the Gaussian white noise, the colored noise defined by a second-order filter, the narrow-band noise, and exponentially correlated noise. The corresponding averaged root-mean-square output voltages are computed. Numerical results demonstrate that the internal resonance increases the operating bandwidth and the output voltage.

  1. Implementation of a piezoelectric energy harvester in railway health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Tang, Jiong

    2014-03-01

    With development of wireless sensor technology, wireless sensor network has shown a great potential for railway health monitoring. However, how to supply continuous power to the wireless sensor nodes is one of the critical issues in long-term full-scale deployment of the wireless smart sensors. Some energy harvesting methodologies have been available including solar, vibration, wind, etc; among them, vibration-based energy harvester using piezoelectric material showed the potential for converting ambient vibration energy to electric energy in railway health monitoring even for underground subway systems. However, the piezoelectric energy harvester has two major problems including that it could only generate small amount of energy, and that it should match the exact narrow band natural frequency with the excitation frequency. To overcome these problems, a wide band piezoelectric energy harvester, which could generate more power on various frequencies regions, has been designed and validated with experimental test. Then it was applied to a full-scale field test using actual railway train. The power generation of the wide band piezoelectric array has been compared to a narrow-band, resonant-based, piezoelectric energy harvester.

  2. Design of radio frequency energy harvesting system for an unmanned airplane

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Zhao; Kwangsik Choi; Zeynep Dilli; Scott Bauman; Thomas Salter; Martin Peckerar

    2011-01-01

    Energy harvesting is a promising technique that can be used to drive various sorts of passively powered devices [1]. Viable energy sources include wind, sunlight, thermal energy, radio waves, mechanical vibration and so on. As an energy source existing ubiquitously in our environment, radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting has the potential to be widely applied. In this work, an RF

  3. Performance Evaluation of Vibration-Based Piezoelectric Energy Scavengers

    E-print Network

    Shu, Yi-Chung

    of piezoelectric power harvesting systems using either the standard or the synchronized switch harvestingChapter 3 Performance Evaluation of Vibration-Based Piezoelectric Energy Scavengers Yi-Chung Shu Abstract This chapter summarizes several recent activities for fundamental under- standing of piezoelectric

  4. An Efficient Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Interface Circuit Using a Bias-Flip Rectifier and Shared Inductor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yogesh K. Ramadass; Anantha P. Chandrakasan

    2010-01-01

    Harvesting ambient vibration energy through piezoelectric means is a popular energy harvesting technique which can potentially supply 10-100's of ¿W of available power. One of the main limitations of existing piezoelectric harvesters is in their interface circuitry. In this paper, a bias-flip rectifier circuit that can improve the power extraction capability from piezoelectric harvesters over conventional full-bridge rectifiers and voltage

  5. Energy Harvesting in Wireless Communications Communicating with Energy

    E-print Network

    Smith, Adam D.

    Energy Harvesting in Wireless Communications Communicating with Energy Harvesting Transmitters Tech, utilizing strain Wireless networking with energy harvesting nodes: · Green, self-sufficient nodes, · Extended network lifetime, · Smaller nodes with smaller batteries, · Very limited and varying energy

  6. Efficient Topology Design in Time-Evolving and Energy-Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yu

    information. To reduce the cost of supporting time-evolving networks with limited harvesting energy sources the environment [1]­[6]. Various energy sources including light, vibration or heat can be har- vested by sensor. Even though energy-harvesting technology can power WSNs more perpetually than non-renewable energy

  7. Design of a multiresonant beam for broadband piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaofan Qi; Roger Shuttleworth; S. Olutunde Oyadiji; Jan Wright

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes initial investigations into the behavior of a mechanical system for a proposed novel energy harvesting device. The device comprises a clamped-clamped beam piezoelectric fiber composite generator with side mounted cantilevers. These side mounted cantilevers are tuned by added masses to be resonant at different frequencies. A Rayleigh-Ritz model has been developed to predict the vibration response of

  8. Sunrise for energy harvesting products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Krikke

    2005-01-01

    Hundreds of companies and research institutes in the US, Europe, and Japan are working on energy harvesting technology, and the industry is attracting millions of dollars in venture capital. But despite these considerable investments, progress in bringing this technology to market has been slow. Alternative power sources contribute only a fraction to worldwide power generation, and the load on the

  9. Harvesting ultrasonic energy using 1–3 piezoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zengtao; Zeng, Deping; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Chunliang; Tan, Jianwen

    2015-07-01

    Harvesting longitudinal ultrasonic energy from the surroundings has been highlighted as an alternative to conventional batteries. The energy can be used to power portable electronics and wireless sensors operating at remote locations. In this paper, an ultrasonic energy harvester made of a 1–3 piezoelectric composite is proposed. This harvester could convert longitudinal-mode ultrasonic vibrations into electrical energy. A theoretical analysis of a 1–3 piezoelectric composite harvester operating with thickness-stretch modes is performed. The results show that maximum output power dissipated in the load can be achieved when the load resistor is equal to the impedance of the harvester. Under such conditions, two peaks of maximum output power occur at the antiresonance frequency and resonance frequency. An experimental study following the theoretical model confirms the feasibility of extracting certain amounts of ultrasonic vibration energy using a 1–3 piezoelectric composite harvester. Both the experimental and theoretical studies show that the output voltages for different pure resistive loads peak at different operating frequencies. As the pure resistive load increases, the operating frequency varies from the resonance frequency to the antiresonance frequency.

  10. Passive self-tuning energy harvester for extracting energy from rotational motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Lei; Livermore, Carol

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents experiments and models of a passive self-tuning energy harvester for rotational vibration applications. Tensile stress due to centrifugal force in a radially oriented piezoelectric cantilever beam passively tunes the resonant frequency so that the harvester remains at or near its resonant frequency. Because centrifugal force is proportional to the square of driving frequency, the resonant frequency of an optimized harvester can track and match the driving frequency over a wide frequency range. An analytical model is presented to explain the harvester's operation, advantages, and design parameter selection. A prototype demonstrated significantly improved performance compared with an untuned harvester.

  11. Energy-harvesting power sources for very-high-G gun-fired munitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rastegar; R. Murray; C. Pereira; H.-L. Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    Several novel classes of piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources are presented for very high-G gun-fired munitions (40,000 - 240,000 Gs). The power sources are designed to harvest energy from the firing acceleration and in certain applications also from in-flight vibrations. The harvested energy is converted to electrical energy for powering onboard electronics, and can provide enough energy to eliminate the need

  12. The Search for High-Impact Diagnostic and Management Tools for Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Self-Powered Low-Cost Blood Pressure Measurement Device Powered by a Solid-State Vibration Energy Harvester.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, Onur; Kenerson, John G; Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Hattery, Rebecca; Hanson, Lisbet M

    2015-08-01

    The World Health Organization has established recommendations for blood pressure measurement devices for use in low-resource venues, setting the "triple A" expectations of Accuracy, Affordability, and Availability. Because of issues related to training and assessment of proficiency, the pendulum has swung away from manual blood pressure devices and auscultatory techniques towards automatic oscillometric devices. As a result of power challenges in the developing world, there has also been a push towards semiautomatic devices that are not dependent on external power sources or batteries. Beyond solar solutions, disruptive technology related to solid-state vibrational energy harvesting may be the next iterative solution to attain the ultimate goal of a self-powered low-cost validated device that is simple to use and reliable. PMID:25913774

  13. Information Capacity of Energy Harvesting Sensor Nodes

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Vinod

    Information Capacity of Energy Harvesting Sensor Nodes R Rajesh CABS, DRDO Bangalore, India Email Email: pramodv@uiuc.edu Abstract--Sensor nodes with energy harvesting sources are gaining popularity due communication'. We study such a sensor node with an energy harvesting source and compare various architectures

  14. Afternoon Session-Part 1 Energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Afternoon Session- Part 1 Energy Harvesting Wireless Networks Aylin Yener yener@ee.psu.edu Wireless Wireless networking with rechargeable (energy harvesting) nodes: Green, self-sufficient nodes, Extended. 7/27/2011Wireless Information Theory Summer School in Oulu, Finland #12;Energy Harvesting

  15. Cyclic energy harvesting from pyroelectric materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poorna Mane; Jingsi Xie; Kam Leang; Karla Mossi

    2011-01-01

    A method of continuously harvesting energy from pyroelectric materials is demonstrated using an innovative cy- clic heating scheme. In traditional pyroelectric energy harvest- ing methods, static heating sources are used, and most of the available energy has to be harvested at once. A cyclic heating system is developed such that the temperature varies between hot and cold regions. Although the

  16. Ferrofluid based micro-electrical energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, Viswas; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Jena, Grishma; Mishra, Madhusha; Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA93106 Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Innovations in energy harvesting have seen a quantum leap in the last decade. With the introduction of low energy devices in the market, micro energy harvesting units are being explored with much vigor. One of the recent areas of micro energy scavenging is the exploitation of existing vibrational energy and the use of various mechanical motions for the same, useful for low power consumption devices. Ferrofluids are liquids containing magnetic materials having nano-scale permanent magnetic dipoles. The present work explores the possibility of the use of this property for generation of electricity. Since the power generation is through a liquid material, it can take any shape as well as response to small acceleration levels. In this work, an electromagnet-based micropower generator is proposed to utilize the sloshing of the ferrofluid within a controlled chamber which moves to different low frequencies. As compared to permanent magnet units researched previously, ferrofluids can be placed in the smallest of containers of different shapes, thereby giving an output in response to the slightest change in motion. Mechanical motion from 1- 20 Hz was able to give an output voltage in mV's. In this paper, the efficiency and feasibility of such a system is demonstrated.

  17. Low-Cost Integrable Tuning-Free Converter for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mickaël Lallart; Daniel J. Inman

    2010-01-01

    The future in terms of autonomous devices is about to experience an important breakthrough because of the development of energy-harvesting systems. This paper presents a new vibration energy-harvesting electrical interface for optimizing the power extracted from piezoelectric elements. Based on piezoelectric energy-harvesting properties, the proposed circuit allows an optimization of the extracted energy independently from the structure's parameters and without

  18. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL. 17, NO. 5, SEPTEMBER 2002 669 Adaptive Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Circuit for

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, Heath F.

    to harvesting elec- trical energy from a mechanically excited piezoelectric element. A vibrating piezoelectric for a wireless electrical power supply has spurred an interest in piezoelectric energy harvesting approaches to harvesting energy generated by a piezoelectric device[2],[3],[5],[6]there hasnot been

  19. Energy Harvesting Broadcast Channel with Inefficient Energy Storage

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    Energy Harvesting Broadcast Channel with Inefficient Energy Storage Kaya Tutuncuoglu Aylin Yener with an energy harvesting transmitter equipped with an inefficient energy storage device. For this setting by the energy harvesting process. The convexity of the capacity region for the energy harvesting broadcast

  20. Criterion for material selection in design of bulk piezoelectric energy harvesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Priya

    2010-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesting has gained tremendous attention in the past decade and continues to grow rapidly. There are various transduction mechanisms for converting the vibration energy into electrical energy, out of which the piezoelectric mechanism has been shown to provide advantages at the micro-to-meso scale. In the past few years, several studies have tried to address the question of which

  1. Development of MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Hyun

    The research of powering devices in a microwatt range has been activated and developed by the emergence of low-power Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology in the past few years. The powering devices require a size that is compatible with the application, sufficient power, and extended lifetime using permanent and ubiquitous energy sources. The piezoelectric energy harvester using vibration sources is attractive due to its high conversion efficiency, simple design for miniaturizing, and lack of external voltage source. While bulk piezoelectric energy harvesters produce enough power for a few tens of mW, the insufficient power is still a major issue during miniaturizing into micro size. The piezoelectric energy harvester was fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and developed to enhance its output power. It was designed to be resonated at the frequency range of ambient vibration source (50˜300 Hz) and convert the mechanical stress to electricity by piezoelectric thin film. The cantilever structure was chosen in this study due to its large strain, and a big proof mass at the end of tip was integrated for the same reason. This study focuses on three specific issues related to the robust fabrication process, including the integration of piezoelectric thin film, structure design for high power density, and the reliability of device. The Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) thin films were prepared by a sol-gel process and were used to fabricate energy harvesters by an optimized MEMS process. The properties of PZT thin film were studied considering the substrate effect, heat treatment, and thickness effects. The fabricated energy harvester produced 769 mVpk-pk, and 6.72 muW with the optimal resistive load of 11 kO at 127 Hz of resonant frequency. The device had dimensions of about 4 mm(L) x 2 mm(w) x 0.021 mm(H), and the Si proof mass had dimensions of 3 mm(L) x 2 mm(W) x 0.5 mm(H). Beyond this result, the technical platform for the robust fabrication process was established on a Deep Reactive Ion Etcher (DRIE). The plasma etching using DRIE was optimized to prevent damage of the PZT film and to obtain uniform and precise dimension control. The trapezoidal shape of the cantilever was demonstrated to enhance the power density by stress distribution on the PZT film. The geometry change in cantilever shape distributed the strain on piezoelectric film and improved the output power ˜40% higher than that of the rectangular shape due to nonlinear piezoelectric properties. The multi-beam arrays were designed to obtain a multiplied electric power effect as if as number of cantilevers was used. The multibeam arrayed design requires the uniform machining to match the unified resonant frequency of each cantilever structure. Based on the optimized fabrication process, the cantilever array that consists of four cantilevers generated 18.39 muA and 1.352 muW with 4 kO of optimized resistive load in parallel connection under 1 G of acceleration force. The result was exactly four times higher power and current than that of individual cantilever. Finally, reliability tests were performed for the piezoelectric MEMS energy harvester considering the number of cyclic loads and temperature, and the degradation of PZT during fabrication was also investigated.

  2. Contacting mode operation of work function energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varpula, A.; Laakso, S. J.; Havia, T.; Kyynäräinen, J.; Prunnila, M.

    2014-11-01

    The work function energy harvester (WFEH) is a variable capacitance vibration energy harvester where the charging of the capacitor electrodes is driven by the work function difference of the electrode materials. In this work, we investigate operation modes of the WFEH by utilizing a macroscopic parallel plate capacitor with Cu and Al electrodes and varying plate distance. We show that by charging the electrodes of the WFEH by letting the electrode plates touch during the operation a significant output power enhancement can be achieved in comparison to the case where the electrodes are charged and discharged only through a load resistor.

  3. Power management for energy harvesting wireless sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arms, S. W.; Townsend, C. P.; Churchill, D. L.; Galbreath, J. H.; Mundell, S. W.

    2005-05-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate smart wireless sensing nodes capable of operation at extremely low power levels. These systems were designed to be compatible with energy harvesting systems using piezoelectric materials and/or solar cells. The wireless sensing nodes included a microprocessor, on-board memory, sensing means (1000 ohm foil strain gauge), sensor signal conditioning, 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4 radio transceiver, and rechargeable battery. Extremely low power consumption sleep currents combined with periodic, timed wake-up was used to minimize the average power consumption. Furthermore, we deployed pulsed sensor excitation and microprocessor power control of the signal conditioning elements to minimize the sensors" average contribution to power draw. By sleeping in between samples, we were able to demonstrate extremely low average power consumption. At 10 Hz, current consumption was 300 microamps at 3 VDC (900 microwatts); at 5 Hz: 400 microwatts, at 1 Hz: 90 microwatts. When the RF stage was not used, but data were logged to memory, consumption was further reduced. Piezoelectric strain energy harvesting systems delivered ~2000 microwatts under low level vibration conditions. Output power levels were also measured from two miniature solar cells; which provided a wide range of output power (~100 to 1400 microwatts), depending on the light type & distance from the source. In summary, system power consumption may be reduced by: 1) removing the load from the energy harvesting & storage elements while charging, 2) by using sleep modes in between samples, 3) pulsing excitation to the sensing and signal conditioning elements in between samples, and 4) by recording and/or averaging, rather than frequently transmitting, sensor data.

  4. Piezoelectric energy harvester converting strain energy into kinetic energy for extremely low frequency operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Dae-Sung; Ko, Hee-Jin; Kim, Min-Ook; Oh, Yongkeun; Sim, Jaesam; Lee, Kyounghoon; Cho, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we developed a flexible energy harvester that uses the frequency up-conversion mechanism. The harvester is composed of a flexible piezoelectric cantilever and substrate, and it can scavenge energy from deformation or strain by converting it into a mechanical vibration of the cantilever. We found experimentally that the output voltage of the harvester not affected by an input frequency as long as the strain was large enough, and there was no lower limit of the input frequency. The critical strain, i.e., the threshold radius of curvature of the harvester, could be modulated by adjusting magnetic force; therefore, it is possible to optimally apply the harvester to various deformation ranges. The maximum and average power density at 0.5 Hz of input frequency was measured to be 320 ?W/cm2 and 6.8 ?W/cm2 for a resistive load of 10 M?.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of free-standing thick-film piezoelectric cantilevers for energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swee-Leong Kok; Neil M White; Nick R Harris

    2009-01-01

    Research into energy harvesting from ambient vibration sources has attracted great interest over the last few years, largely as a result of advances in the areas of wireless technology and low-power electronics. One of the mechanisms for converting mechanical vibration to electrical energy is the use of piezoelectric materials, typically operating as a cantilever in a bending mode, which generate

  6. Adaptive duty cycling for energy harvesting systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Hsu; Sadaf Zahedi; Aman Kansal; Mani B. Srivastava; Vijay Raghunathan

    2006-01-01

    Harvesting energy from the environment is feasible in many applications to ameliorate the energy limitations in sensor networks. In this paper, we present an adaptive duty cycling algorithm that allows energy harvesting sensor nodes to autonomously adjust their duty cycle according to the energy availability in the environment. The algorithm has three objectives, namely (a) achieving energy neutral operation, i.e.,

  7. Power management in energy harvesting sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aman Kansal; Jason Hsu; Sadaf Zahedi; Mani B. Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    Power management is an important concern in sensor networks, because a tethered energy infrastructure is usually not available and an obvious concern is to use the available battery energy efficiently. However, in some of the sensor networking applications, an additional facility is available to ameliorate the energy problem: harvesting energy from the environment. Certain considerations in using an energy harvesting

  8. High-efficiency integrated piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hande, Abhiman; Shah, Pradeep

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes hierarchically architectured development of an energy harvesting (EH) system that consists of micro and/or macro-scale harvesters matched to multiple components of remote wireless sensor and communication nodes. The micro-scale harvesters consist of thin-film MEMS piezoelectric cantilever arrays and power generation modules in IC-like form to allow efficient EH from vibrations. The design uses new high conversion efficiency thin-film processes combined with novel cantilever structures tuned to multiple resonant frequencies as broadband arrays. The macro-scale harvesters are used to power the collector nodes that have higher power specifications. These bulk harvesters can be integrated with efficient adaptive power management circuits that match transducer impedance and maximize power harvested from multiple scavenging sources with very low intrinsic power consumption. Texas MicroPower, Inc. is developing process based on a composition that has the highest reported energy density as compared to other commercially available bulk PZT-based sensor/actuator ceramic materials and extending it to thin-film materials and miniature conversion transducer structures. The multiform factor harvesters can be deployed for several military and commercial applications such as underground unattended sensors, sensors in oil rigs, structural health monitoring, supply chain management, and battlefield applications such as sensors on soldier apparel, equipment, and wearable electronics.

  9. Vibrational beatings conceal evidence of electronic coherence in the FMO light-harvesting complex.

    PubMed

    Tempelaar, Roel; Jansen, Thomas L C; Knoester, Jasper

    2014-11-13

    In biological light harvesting, solar energy is captured by photosynthetic antennae for subsequent storage into chemical bonds. The remarkable efficiency reached in transferring the energy between the collection and storage events recently has been attributed to long-lived electronic coherence present in such antennae systems. We present numerical simulations indicating that the spectroscopic transients that supported this hypothesis are not induced by electronic coherence but instead are caused by vibrational (nuclear) motion in the electronic ground state potential. Besides emphasizing the significance of such nuclear modes, our findings stimulate a reconsideration of the role of electronic coherence in promoting energy transfer in natural photosynthesis. Furthermore, they require us to rethink how energy transfer efficiency is reflected in spectral signals. PMID:25321492

  10. All polymeric transducers for energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Di Pasquale; S. Graziani; F. Pagano; E. Umana

    2010-01-01

    The power harvesting properties of a new class of all polymeric ionic electroactive materials, named Ionic Polymer-Polymer composites (IP2Cs) from vibrating sources are introduced and experimentally investigated. Obtained results show that the proposed technology gives better results with respect to other ionic polymeric transducers and allow to foresee the possibility to use in the future all polymeric transducers to power

  11. An efficient piezoelectric energy-harvesting interface circuit using a bias-flip rectifier and shared inductor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yogesh K. Ramadass; Anantha P. Chandrakasan

    2009-01-01

    Energy harvesting is an emerging technology with applications to handheld, portable and implantable electronics. Harvesting ambient vibration energy through piezoelectric (PE) means is a popular energy harvesting technique that can potentially supply 10 to 100's of muW of available power. One of the limitations of existing PE harvesters is in their interface circuitry. Commonly used full-bridge rectifiers and voltage doublers

  12. Optimal configurations of bistable piezo-composites for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, D. N.; Kim, H. A.; Bowen, C. R.; Inman, D. J.

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents an arrangement of bistable composites combined with piezoelectrics for broadband energy harvesting of ambient vibrations. These non-linear devices have improved power generation over conventional resonant systems and can be designed to occupy smaller volumes than magnetic cantilever systems. This paper presents results based on optimization of bistable composites that enables improved electrical power generation by discovering the optimal configurations for harvesting based on the statics of the device. The optimal device aspect ratio, thickness, stacking sequence, and piezoelectric area are considered. Increased electrical output is found for geometries and piezoelectric configurations, which have not been considered previously.

  13. Experimental valitation of energy harvesting device for civil engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyung-Jo; Kim, In-Ho; Park, Jeongsu

    2012-04-01

    In the field of structural health monitoring using wireless sensors, considerable research attention has been recently given to vibration-based energy harvesting devices for exploring their feasibility as a power source of a wireless sensor node. Most of the previous studies have focused on lab-scale tests for performance validation. For real application, however, field tests on developed energy harvesting devices should be conducted, because their performance may be considerably affected by change in the testing environment. In this study, a new electromagnetic energy harvester is proposed, which is more suitable for civil engineering application, and the preliminary field test on a real cable-stayed bridge are conducted to validate its effectiveness.

  14. Broadband piezoelectric energy harvesting devices using multiple bimorphs with different operating frequencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huan Xue; Yuantai Hu; Qing-ming Wang

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for designing broadband piezoelectric harvesters by integrating multiple piezoelectric bimorphs (PBs) with different aspect ratios into a system. The effect of 2 connecting patterns among PBs, in series and in parallel, on improving energy harvesting performance is discussed. It is found for multifrequency spectra ambient vibrations: 1) the operating frequency band (OFB) of a

  15. Piezoelectric energy harvesting using diaphragm structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunghwan Kim; William W. Clark; Qing-Ming Wang

    2003-01-01

    Energy harvesting using piezoelectric material is not a new concept, but its generation capability has not been attractive for mass energy generation. For this reason, little research has been done on the topic. Recently, wearable computer concepts, as well as small portable electrical devices, are a few motivations that have ignited the study of piezoelectric energy harvesting again. The theory

  16. A free-standing, thick-film piezoelectric energy harvester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swee L. Kok; Neil M. White; Nick R. Harris

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, free-standing structures in the form of cantilevers, fabricated by using a combination of conventional thick-film technology and sacrificial layer techniques, is proposed. These structures were designed to operate as energy harvesters at low-levels of ambient vibration and were characterised using a shaker table over a range of frequencies and acceleration levels. A cantilever with dimensions of 13.5

  17. Micro Electret Energy Harvesting Device with Analogue Impedance Conversion Circuit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Suzuki; Masato Edamoto; Nobuhide Kasagi; Kimiaki Kashiwagi; Yoshitomi Morizawa; Toru Yokoyama; Tomonori Seki; Masatoshi Oba

    2008-01-01

    A vibration-driven electret generator has been developed for energy harvesting applications. By using parylene as the spring material, a low-resonant-frequency MEMS generator is realized. Large in- plane amplitude of 0.8 mm at the resonant frequency as low as 37 Hz has been achieved. With our early prototype, output power of 0.28 ?W has been obtained. We also demonstrate electret-powered operation

  18. Energy Harvesting Communications with Hybrid Energy Storage and Processing Cost

    E-print Network

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Energy Harvesting Communications with Hybrid Energy Storage and Processing Cost Omur Ozel Khurram with an energy harvesting transmitter with non-negligible processing circuitry power and a hybrid energy storage for energy storage while the battery has unlimited space. The transmitter stores the harvested energy either

  19. Vibration-to-electric energy conversion using a mechanically-varied capacitor

    E-print Network

    Yen, Bernard Chih-Hsun, 1981-

    2005-01-01

    Past research in vibration energy harvesting has focused on the use of variable capacitors, magnets, or piezoelectric materials as the basis of energy transduction. How- ever, few of these studies have explored the detailed ...

  20. Investigation of electrostrictive polymer efficiency for mechanical energy harvesting.

    PubMed

    Cottinet, Pierre-Jean; Guyomar, Daniel; Lallart, Mickaël; Guiffard, Benoit; Lebrun, Laurent

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose new means for harvesting energy using electrostrictive polymers. Recent trends in energy conversion mechanisms have demonstrated the abilities of electrostrictive polymers for converting mechanical vibrations into electricity. In particular, such materials present advantageous features such as a high productivity, high flexibility, and ease of processing; hence, the application of these materials for energy harvesting purposes has been of significant interest over the last few years. This paper discusses the development of a model that is able to predict the energy harvesting capabilities of an electrostrictive polymer. Moreover, the energy scavenging abilities of an electrostrictive composite composed of terpolymer poly(vinylidenefluoride-trofluoroethylene- chlorofluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE-CFE)] filled with 1 vol% carbon black (C) is evaluated. Experimental measurements of the harvested power and current have been compared with the theoretical behavior predicted by the proposed model. A good agreement was observed between the two sets of data, which consequently validated the proposed modeling to optimize the choice of materials. It was also shown that the incorporation of nanofillers in P(VDF-TrFE-CFE) increased the harvested power. PMID:21937316

  1. Cooperative Energy Harvesting Communications with Relaying and Energy Sharing

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    Cooperative Energy Harvesting Communications with Relaying and Energy Sharing Kaya Tutuncuoglu where the transmitters harvest their energy in an inter- mittent fashion. In this network, communication, exposing a trade-off between energy cooperation and use of harvested energy for transmission. A multi

  2. Improving Energy Efficiency for Energy Harvesting Embedded Systems*

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Qinru

    ABSTRACT While the energy harvesting system (EHS) supplies green energy to the embedded system, it also Environmental energy harvesting is a promising technique for sustainable operation of embedded system (eImproving Energy Efficiency for Energy Harvesting Embedded Systems* Yang Ge, Yukan Zhang and Qinru

  3. The Energy Harvesting Multiple Access Channel with Energy Storage Losses

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    The Energy Harvesting Multiple Access Channel with Energy Storage Losses Kaya Tutuncuoglu and Aylin considers a Gaussian multiple access channel with two energy harvesting transmitters with lossy energy storage. The power allocation policy maximizing the average weighted sum rate given the energy harvesting

  4. Intramolecular Vibration-to-Vibration Energy Transfer in Carbon Dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James T. Yardley; C. Bradley Moore

    1967-01-01

    We have used a vibrational fluorescence technique to study the deactivation of the asymmetric stretching vibration (00°1) of CO2 by intramolecular vibration-to-vibration energy transfer during CO2—rare-gas collisions. The efficiency for deactivation has only a slight dependence on mass, with a peak corresponding to resonance between the duration of the collision and the frequency difference between the vibrational levels involved. We

  5. Power harvesting and management from vibrations: a multi-source strategy simulation for aircraft structure health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durou, Hugo; Rossi, Carole; Brunet, Magali; Vanhecke, Claude; Bailly, Nicolas; Ardila, Gustavo; Ourak, Lamine; Ramond, Adrien; Simon, Patrice; Taberna, Pierre-Louis

    2008-12-01

    Vibration harvesting has been intensively developed recently and systems have been simulated and realized, but real-life situations (including aircraft Structure Health Monitoring (SHM)involve uneven, low amplitude, low frequency vibrations. In such an unfavorable case, it is very likely that no power can be harvested for a long time. To overcome this, multi-source harvesting is a relevant solution, and in our application both solar and thermal gradient sources are available. We propose in this paper a complete Microsystem including a piezoelectric vibration harvesting module, thermoelectric conversion module, signal processing electronics and supercapacitor. A model is proposed for these elements and a VHDL-AMS simulation of the whole system is presented, showing that the vibration harvesting device alone cannot supply properly a SHM wireless node. Its role is nevertheless important since it is a more reliable source than thermoelectric (which depends on climatic conditions). Moreover, synergies between vibration harvesting and thermoelectric scavenging circuits are presented.

  6. Flight Test Results of a Thermoelectric Energy Harvester for Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, D.; Kluge, M.; Fuss, T.; Schmid, U.; Becker, Th.

    2012-06-01

    The idea of thermoelectric energy harvesting for low-power wireless sensor systems in aircraft and its practical implementation was recently published. The concept of using a thermoelectric generator (TEG) attached to the aircraft inner hull and a thermal storage device to create an artificial temperature gradient at the TEG during take-off and landing from the temperature changes of the fuselage has passed initial tests and is now subject to flight testing. This work presents preflight test results, e.g., vibration and temperature testing of the harvesters, the practical installation of two harvesting devices inside a test plane, and the first test flight results. Several flight cycles with different flight profiles, flight lengths, and outside temperatures have been performed. Although the influence of different flight profiles on the energy output of the harvester can be clearly observed, the results are in good agreement with expectations from numerical simulations with boundary conditions evaluated from initial climate chamber experiments. In addition, the flight test demonstrates that reliable operation of thermoelectric energy harvesting in harsh aircraft environments seems to be feasible, therefore paving the way for realization of energy-autonomous, wireless sensor networks.

  7. Energy harvesting from mortar tube firing impulse to supplement fire-control electronics battery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rastegar; R. Murray; R. Tillinghast; C. Pereira; H.-L. Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Novel designs are presented for piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources that are attached to mortar tubes to harvest energy from the firing impulse. The power sources generate electrical energy by storing mechanical potential energy in spring elements during the firing. The mass-spring unit of the power source begins to vibrate after firing, thereby applying a cyclic force to a set of

  8. Energy-harvesting from mortar tube firing impulse to supplement fire-control electronics battery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rastegar; R. Murray; R. Tillinghast; C. Pereira; H.-L. Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Novel designs are presented for piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources that are attached to mortar tubes to harvest energy from the firing impulse. The power sources generate electrical energy by storing mechanical potential energy in spring elements during the firing. The mass-spring unit of the power source begins to vibrate after firing, thereby applying a cyclic force to a set of

  9. Coupled analysis for the harvesting structure and the modulating circuit in a piezoelectric bimorph energy harvester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuantai Hu; Ting Hu; Qing Jiang

    2007-01-01

    The authors analyze a piezoelectric energy harvester as an electro-mechanically coupled system. The energy harvester consists of a piezoelectric bimorph with a concentrated mass attached at one end, called the harvesting structure, an electric circuit for energy storage, and a rectifier that converts the AC output of the harvesting structure into a DC input for the storage circuit. The piezoelectric

  10. Modelling of a bridge-shaped nonlinear piezoelectric energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gafforelli, G.; Xu, R.; Corigliano, A.; Kim, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    Piezoelectric MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) energy harvesting is an attractive technology for harvesting small magnitudes of energy from ambient vibrations. Increasing the operating frequency bandwidth of such devices is one of the major issues for real world applications. A MEMS-scale doubly clamped nonlinear beam resonator is designed and developed to demonstrate very wide bandwidth and high power density. In this paper a first complete theoretical discussion of nonlinear resonating piezoelectric energy harvesting is provided. The sectional behaviour of the beam is studied through the Classical Lamination Theory (CLT) specifically modified to introduce the piezoelectric coupling and nonlinear Green-Lagrange strain tensor. A lumped parameter model is built through Rayleigh-Ritz Method and the resulting nonlinear coupled equations are solved in the frequency domain through the Harmonic Balance Method (HBM). Finally, the influence of external load resistance on the dynamic behaviour is studied. The theoretical model shows that nonlinear resonant harvesters have much wider power bandwidth than that of linear resonators but their maximum power is still bounded by the mechanical damping as is the case for linear resonating harvesters.

  11. Multimodal piezoelectric wind energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovejas, V. J.; Cuadras, A.

    2011-08-01

    We investigated energy harvesting from wind to electrical power using piezoelectric films. Commercial films with different areas (from 3 to 30 cm2) and thicknesses (40-64 µm) were used. The generated energy was rectified through a diode bridge and delivered to a storage capacitor. Two different wind flows were investigated: laminar flow from a wind tunnel and turbulent flow from a dryer using three different setups and two wind incidences (parallel and normal). Piezofilms oscillating in wind flows were recorded using video cameras and electrical signals monitored with an oscilloscope. They were found to be stressed by travelling waves of different frequencies induced by wind turbulences. We propose a simple model based on sinusoidal current generators working at different frequencies. We studied the geometrical dependence of the piezofilm on the power generation. Power generation was found to be of the order of 0.2 µW for these particular sensors. Guidelines to significantly improve power generation are provided, taking into account a convenient geometrical design to match the piezofilm resonance frequency to the vortex generation frequency.

  12. Energy harvesting from small unmmaned air vehicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Anton; A. Erturk; D. J. Inman

    2008-01-01

    Small, unmanned air vehicles (UAV) are used for reconnaissance by the military. Many of these are all electric with batteries as the primary source of energy. This talk explores the idea of extending the battery life (or flight time) of an electric radio controlled plane by using several harvesting concepts combined into one aircraft. Piezoceramic based harvesting using fiber based

  13. Low energy dissipation electric circuit for energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kanjuro Makihara; Junjiro Onoda; Takeya Miyakawa

    2006-01-01

    A low energy dissipation circuit is proposed to achieve more effective energy harvesting, called 'synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI)'. The proposed circuit only has two diodes, while the original SSHI circuit has four diodes comprising a diode bridge. It thus reduces the voltage drop during the energy-harvesting process, because the actual diodes have forward voltage regarded as equivalent electrical

  14. Applications of energy harvesting for ultralow power technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop-Vadean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Barz, C.; Chiver, O.

    2015-06-01

    Ultra-low-power (ULP) technology is enabling a wide range of new applications that harvest ambient energy in very small amounts and need little or no maintenance – self-sustaining devices that are capable of perpetual or nearly perpetual operation. These new systems, which are now appearing in industrial and consumer electronics, also promise great changes in medicine and health. Until recently, the idea of micro-scale energy harvesting, and collecting miniscule amounts of ambient energy to power electronic systems, was still limited to research proposals and laboratory experiments.Today an increasing number of systems are appearing that take advantage of light, vibrations and other forms of previously wasted environmental energy for applications where providing line power or maintaining batteries is inconvenient. In the industrial world, where sensors gather information from remote equipment and hazardous processes; in consumer electronics, where mobility and convenience are served; and in medical systems, with unique requirements for prosthetics and non-invasive monitoring, energy harvesting is rapidly expanding into new applications.This paper serves as a survey for applications of energy harvesting for ultra low power technology based on various technical papers available in the public domain.

  15. Novel composite piezoelectric material for energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janusas, Giedrius; Guobiene, Asta; Palevicius, Arvydas; Prosycevas, Igoris; Ponelyte, Sigita; Baltrusaitis, Valentinas; Sakalys, Rokas

    2015-04-01

    Past few decades were concentrated on researches related to effective energy harvesting applied in modern technologies, MEMS or MOEMS systems. There are many methods for harvesting energy as, for example, usage of electromagnetic devices, but most dramatic changes were noticed in the usage of piezoelectric materials in small scale devices. Major limitation faced was too small generated power by piezoelectric materials or high resonant frequencies of such smallscale harvesters. In this research, novel composite piezoelectric material was created by mixing PZT powder with 20% solution of polyvinyl butyral in benzyl alcohol. Obtained paste was screen printed on copper foil using 325 mesh stainless steel screen and dried for 30 min at 100 °C. Polyvinyl butyral ensures good adhesion and flexibility of a new material at the conditions that requires strong binding. Five types of a composite piezoelectric material with different concentrations of PZT (40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 80 %) were produced. As the results showed, these harvesters were able to transform mechanical strain energy into electric potential and, v.v. In experimental setup, electromagnetic shaker was used to excite energy harvester that is fixed in the custom-built clamp, while generated electric potential were registered with USB oscilloscope PICO 3424. The designed devices generate up to 80 ?V at 50 Hz excitation. This property can be applied to power microsystem devices or to use them in portable electronics and wireless sensors. However, the main advantage of the created composite piezoelectric material is possibility to apply it on any uniform or nonuniform vibrating surface and to transform low frequency vibrations into electricity.

  16. Modeling the Effects of Electromechanical Coupling on Energy Storage Through Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam M. Wickenheiser; Timothy Reissman; Wen-Jong Wu; Ephrahim Garcia

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on comparing the effects of varying degrees of electromechanical coupling in piezoelectric power harvesting systems on the dynamics of charging a storage capacitor. In order to gain an understanding of the behavior of these dynamics, a transducer whose vibrational dynamics are impacted very little by electrical energy extraction is compared to a transducer that displays strong electromechanical

  17. Energy harvesting MEMS device based on thin film piezoelectric cantilevers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Choi; Y. Jeon; J.-H. Jeong; R. Sood; S. G. Kim

    2006-01-01

    A thin film lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT), energy harvesting MEMS device is developed to enable self-supportive sensors for in-service integrity monitoring of\\u000a large social and environmental infrastructures at remote locations. It is designed to resonate at specific frequencies of\\u000a an external vibrational energy source, thereby creating electrical energy via the piezoelectric effect. Our cantilever device\\u000a has a PZT\\/SiNx bimorph

  18. Two-hop Communication with Energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Gunduz, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Communication nodes with the ability to harvest energy from the environment have the potential to operate beyond the timeframe limited by the finite capacity of their batteries; and accordingly, to extend the overall network lifetime. However, the optimization of the communication system in the presence of energy harvesting devices requires a new paradigm in terms of power allocation since the energy becomes available over time. In this paper, we consider the problem of two-hop relaying in the presence of energy harvesting nodes. We identify the optimal offline transmission scheme for energy harvesting source and relay when the relay operates in the full-duplex mode. In the case of a half-duplex relay, we provide the optimal transmission scheme when the source has a single energy packet.

  19. Analytical modeling and experimental validation of a structurally integrated piezoelectric energy harvester on a thin plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aridogan, U.; Basdogan, I.; Erturk, A.

    2014-04-01

    Vibration-based energy harvesting using piezoelectric cantilevers has been extensively studied over the past decade. As an alternative to cantilevered harvesters, piezoelectric patch harvesters integrated to thin plates can be more convenient for use in marine, aerospace and automotive applications since these systems are often composed of thin plate-like structures with various boundary conditions. In this paper, we present analytical electroelastic modeling of a piezoelectric energy harvester structurally integrated to a thin plate along with experimental validations. The distributed-parameter electroelastic model of the thin plate with the piezoceramic patch harvester is developed based on Kirchhoff’s plate theory for all-four-edges clamped (CCCC) boundary conditions. Closed-form steady-state response expressions for coupled electrical output and structural vibration are obtained under transverse point force excitation. Analytical electroelastic frequency response functions (FRFs) relating the voltage output and vibration response to force input are derived and generalized for different boundary conditions. Experimental validation and extensive theoretical analysis efforts are then presented with a case study employing a thin PZT-5A piezoceramic patch attached on the surface of a rectangular aluminum CCCC plate. The importance of positioning of the piezoceramic patch harvester is discussed through an analysis of dynamic strain distribution on the overall plate surface. The electroelastic model is validated by a comparison of analytical and experimental FRFs for a wide range of resistive electrical boundary conditions. Finally, power generation performance of the structurally integrated piezoceramic patch harvester from multiple vibration modes is investigated analytically and experimentally.

  20. Soft Capacitors for Wave Energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Karsten Ahnert; Markus Abel; Matthias Kollosche; Per Jørgen Jørgensen; Guggi Kofod

    2011-10-14

    Wave energy harvesting could be a substantial renewable energy source without impact on the global climate and ecology, yet practical attempts have struggle d with problems of wear and catastrophic failure. An innovative technology for ocean wave energy harvesting was recently proposed, based on the use of soft capacitors. This study presents a realistic theoretical and numerical model for the quantitative characterization of this harvesting method. Parameter regio ns with optimal behavior are found, and novel material descriptors are determined which simplify analysis dramatically. The characteristics of currently ava ilable material are evaluated, and found to merit a very conservative estimate of 10 years for raw material cost recovery.

  1. Thermal Energy Harvesting from Wildlife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woias, P.; Schule, F.; Bäumke, E.; Mehne, P.; Kroener, M.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we present the measurement of temperature differences between the ambient air and the body temperature of a sheep (Heidschnucke) and its applicability for thermoelectric energy harvesting from livestock, demonstrated via the test of a specially tailored TEG system in a real-life experiment. In three measurement campaigns average temperature differences were found between 2.5 K and 3.5 K. Analytical models and FEM simulations were carried out to determine the actual thermal resistance of the sheep's fur from comparisons with the temperature measurements. With these data a thermoelectric (TEG) generator was built in a thermally optimized housing with adapted heats sink. The whole TEG system was mounted to a collar, including a data logger for recording temperature and TEG voltage. First measurements at the neck of a sheep were accomplished, with a calculated maximal average power output of 173 ?W at the TEG. Taking the necessity of a low-voltage step-up converter into account, an electric output power of 54 ?W is available which comes close to the power consumption of a low-power VHF tracking system.

  2. Investigation of electrostrictive polymers for energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiming Liu; Kai Liang Ren; Heath F. Hofmann; Qiming Zhang

    2005-01-01

    The recent development of electrostrictive polymers has generated new opportunities for high-strain actuators. At the current time, the investigation of using electrostrictive polymer for energy harvesting, or mechanical to electrical energy conversion, is beginning to show its potential for this application. In this paper we discuss the mechanical and electrical boundary conditions for maximizing the energy harvesting density and mechanical-to-electrical

  3. Harvesting Energy Using a Thin Unimorph Prestressed Bender: Geometrical Effects

    E-print Network

    Mossi, Karla

    Words: energy harvesting, piezoelectricity, prestressed curved actuator, geometry effects. INTRODUCTION. Some of these phenomena can be harvested through the use of piezoelectric devices. Piezoelectricity demonstrated the possibility of using a piezoelectric device to harvest energy. Kysmissis et al. (1998

  4. Energy Harvesting Using Piezoelectric NanowiresA Correspondence on ``Energy Harvesting Using

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Energy Harvesting Using Piezoelectric Nanowires­A Correspondence on ``Energy Harvesting Using mechanical energy into electrical energy by piezoelectric zinc oxide nanowire (NW) arrays.[1,2] The mechanism of the nanogenerator (NG) relies on the coupling of piezoelectric and semiconducting dual properties of ZnO as well

  5. Optimal Scheduling on an Energy Harvesting Broadcast Channel

    E-print Network

    Uysal-Biyikoglu, Elif

    Optimal Scheduling on an Energy Harvesting Broadcast Channel Mehmet Akif Antepli, Elif Uysal for a given number of bits per user in an energy harvesting communication system, where energy harvesting data are available at the beginning, a non- negative amount of energy from each energy harvest

  6. Harvesting energy via fluttering piezoelectric beams in viscous flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcabay, Deniz; Young, Yin

    2011-11-01

    This work explores the idea of harvesting energy from ambient flows using flexible piezoelectric beams. Beams lose their stability and flutter above a critical length or flow speed or below a critical stiffness. During flutter, beams oscillate in increasing amplitude until they enter a self-sustained limit cycle oscillation, which could be exploited to harvest energy. The objectives of this study are to: (i) identify the flutter boundary of a flexible beam in viscous flow; (ii) explore the energy harvesting potential; and (iii) identify critical non-dimensional parameters and parametric relations that govern the response and stability of thin composite beams vibrating in a viscous fluid. Two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are solved with a nonlinear beam model coupled with a linear piezoelectric material constitutive model. The harvested energy potential for various solid/fluid combinations is investigated by varying the critical non-dimensional parameters, which are defined in terms of beam length, density, thickness, and stiffness; fluid speed and density; and piezoelectric material properties.

  7. Ultra-wide bandwidth piezoelectric energy harvesting

    E-print Network

    Hajati, Arman

    Here, we present an ultra wide-bandwidth energy harvester by exploiting the nonlinear stiffness of a doubly clamped microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs) resonator. The stretching strain in a doubly clamped beam shows a ...

  8. Analytical and experimental comparisons of electromechanical vibration response of a piezoelectric bimorph beam for power harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumentut, M. F.; Howard, I. M.

    2013-03-01

    Power harvesters that extract energy from vibrating systems via piezoelectric transduction show strong potential for powering smart wireless sensor devices in applications of health condition monitoring of rotating machinery and structures. This paper presents an analytical method for modelling an electromechanical piezoelectric bimorph beam with tip mass under two input base transverse and longitudinal excitations. The Euler-Bernoulli beam equations were used to model the piezoelectric bimorph beam. The polarity-electric field of the piezoelectric element is excited by the strain field caused by base input excitation, resulting in electrical charge. The governing electromechanical dynamic equations were derived analytically using the weak form of the Hamiltonian principle to obtain the constitutive equations. Three constitutive electromechanical dynamic equations based on independent coefficients of virtual displacement vectors were formulated and then further modelled using the normalised Ritz eigenfunction series. The electromechanical formulations include both the series and parallel connections of the piezoelectric bimorph. The multi-mode frequency response functions (FRFs) under varying electrical load resistance were formulated using Laplace transformation for the multi-input mechanical vibrations to provide the multi-output dynamic displacement, velocity, voltage, current and power. The experimental and theoretical validations reduced for the single mode system were shown to provide reasonable predictions. The model results from polar base excitation for off-axis input motions were validated with experimental results showing the change to the electrical power frequency response amplitude as a function of excitation angle, with relevance for practical implementation.

  9. The research of energy harvesting system use in RFID tag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Liyang; Yao, Guohua; Yang, Wang

    2012-10-01

    With the decreasing power requirement of microelectronics, environmental energy sources can begin to replace batteries in the RFID tag. In this spirit, a novel resonate piezoelectric device is developed in the combined structure of SAW and FBAR which used for generating electrical power "parasitically" while the RFID tag is moving. The relationship of the different vibration mode to the power density of harvesting energy is analyzed and the relative merits and compromises are discussed. In the last, the suggestions are proposed for improvements and potential applications in the RFID.

  10. Microscale energy harvesting: a system design perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chao Lu; Vijay Raghunathan; Kaushik Roy

    2010-01-01

    Harvesting electrical power from environmental energy sources is an attractive and increasingly feasible option for several micro-scale electronic systems such as biomedical implants and wireless sensor nodes that need to operate autonomously for long periods of time (months to years). However, designing highly efficient micro-scale energy harvesting systems requires an in-depth understanding of various design considerations and tradeoffs. This paper

  11. Impedance matching for broadband piezoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagedorn, F.; Leicht, J.; Sanchez, D.; Hehn, T.; Manoli, Y.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a system design for broadband piezoelectric energy harvesting by means of impedance matching. An inductive load impedance is emulated by controlling the output current of the piezoelectric harvester with a bipolar boost converter. The reference current is derived from the low pass filtered voltage measured at the harvester terminals. In order to maximize the harvested power especially for nonresonant frequencies the filter parameters are adjusted by a simple optimization algorithm. However the amount of harvested power is limited by the efficiency of the bipolar boost converter. Therefore an additional switch in the bipolar boost converter is proposed to reduce the capacitive switching losses. The proposed system is simulated using numerical parameters of available discrete components. Using the additional switch, the harvested power is increased by 20%. The proposed system constantly harvests 80% of the theoretically available power over frequency. The usable frequency range of ±4Hz around the resonance frequency of the piezoelectric harvester is mainly limited due to the boost converter topology. This comparison does not include the power dissipation of the control circuit.

  12. A Low-order Model for the Design of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey L. Kauffman; George A. Lesieutre

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric energy harvesting devices are an attractive approach to providing remote wireless power sources. They operate by converting available vibration energy and storing it as electrical energy. Currently, most devices rely on mechanical excitation near their resonance frequency, so a low-order model which computes a few indicators of device performance is a critical design tool. Such a model, based on

  13. Capacity of a Gaussian MAC with Energy Harvesting Transmit Nodes

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Vinod

    Capacity of a Gaussian MAC with Energy Harvesting Transmit Nodes R Rajesh CABS, DRDO Bangalore the users are sensor nodes powered by energy harvesters. The energy harvesters may have finite or infinite buffer to store the harvested energy. First, we find the capacity region of a GMAC powered by transmit

  14. Anti-correlated vibrations drive fast non-adiabatic light harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonas, David

    2015-03-01

    We have recently shown that intramolecular vibrations shared across pigments can drive electronic energy transfer beyond the Born-Oppenheimer framework developed by Forster. The key features of this mechanism are a small change in vibrational equilibrium (less than the zero point amplitude) upon electronic excitation of the pigments and vibrational resonance with the adiabatic electronic energy gap. For identical pigments, delocalized, anti-correlated vibrations increase the speed of energy transfer. The same anti-correlated vibrations are excited by an electronically enhanced Raman process on the ground electronic state of photosynthetic antennas, and these vibrational wavepackets generate all of the reported signatures of photosynthetic energy transfer in femtosecond two-dimensional Fourier transform spectra. The talk will discuss how these results are generalized for differences between donor and acceptor and for multiple vibrations. This material is based upon work supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under AFOSR Award No. FA9550-14-1-0258.

  15. Probabilistic Data Collection Protocols for Energy Harvesting Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    Probabilistic Data Collection Protocols for Energy Harvesting Sensor Networks Masaya Yoshida Zealand Email: winston.seah@ecs.vuw.ac.nz Abstract--Energy harvesting has been studied as a candidate harvesting devices cannot always communicate with other nodes because the energy harvesting devices cannot

  16. Transmission Completion Time Minimization in an Energy Harvesting System

    E-print Network

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Transmission Completion Time Minimization in an Energy Harvesting System Jing Yang Sennur Ulukus-user energy harvesting wireless communication system. In this system, both the data packets and the harvested time is minimized. Under a deterministic system setting, we assume that the energy harvesting times

  17. Development of an acoustical energy harvester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen B. Horowitz; Toshikazu Nishida; Louis N. Cattafesta; Mark Sheplak

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the development of one component of a miniature acoustical energy harvesting system that is designed to convert acoustical energy into electrical energy. This component consists of a composite circular membrane containing a circular piezoelectric ring near the clamped boundary. An acoustic pressure fluctuation leads to a deflection of the membrane. This deflection generates a strain concentrated near

  18. Evaluation of energy harvesting performance of electrostrictive polymer and carbon-filled terpolymer composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mickaeel Lallart; Pierre-Jean Cottinet; Laurent Lebrun; Daniel Guyomar

    2010-01-01

    Recent trends in energy conversion mechanisms have demonstrated the abilities of electrostrictive polymers for converting mechanical vibrations into electricity. In particular, such materials present advantageous features such as high productivity, high flexibility, and processability. Hence, the application of these materials for energy harvesting purposes has been of significant interest over the last few years. The purpose of this paper consists

  19. Energy harvesting from base excitation of ionic polymer metal composites in fluid environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matteo Aureli; Chekema Prince; Maurizio Porfiri; Sean D. Peterson

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we analytically and experimentally study the energy harvesting capability of submerged ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs). We consider base excitation of an IPMC strip that is shunted with an electric impedance and immersed in a fluid environment. We develop a modeling framework to predict the energy scavenged from the IPMC vibration as a function of the excitation

  20. Optimal Scheduling for Energy Harvesting Transmitters with Hybrid Energy Storage

    E-print Network

    Ulukus, Sennur

    that for a single battery and is obtained by applying directional water-filling algorithm multiple times. I channel [11], [12]. Offline throughput maximization for energy harvesting systems with leakage in energy offline throughput maximization for energy harvesting devices in the presence of energy storage losses

  1. Thinned-PZT on SOI process and design optimization for piezoelectric inertial energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ethem Erkan Aktakka; Rebecca L. Peterson; Khalil Najafi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and testing of a thinned-PZT\\/Si unimorph for vibration energy harvesting. It produces a record power output and has state-of-the-art efficiency. The harvester utilizes thinning of bulk-PZT pieces bonded to an SOI wafer, and takes advantage of the similar thermal expansion between PZT and Si to minimize beam bending due to residual stress. Monolithic integration

  2. Analytical Modelling of a Plucked Piezoelectric Bimorph for Energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Pozzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Energy harvesting (EH) is a multidisciplinary research area, involving physics, materials science and engineering, with the objective of providing renewable sources of sufficient power to operate targeted low-power applications. Piezoelectric transducers are often used for vibrational, inertial and direct movement EH. One problem is that, due to the stiffness of the most common material (PZT) and typically useful sizes, intrinsic resonant frequencies are normally high, whereas the available power is often concentrated at low frequencies. The aim of the plucking technique of frequency up-conversion, also known as "pizzicato" excitation, is to bridge this frequency gap. In this paper, the technique is modelled analytically. The analytical model is developed starting from the Euler-Bernoulli beam equations modified for piezoelectric coupling. A system of differential equations and associated initial conditions are derived which describe the free vibration of a piezoelectric bimorph in the last part of the plucki...

  3. Thermal energy harvesting plasmonic based chemical sensors.

    PubMed

    Karker, Nicholas; Dharmalingam, Gnanaprakash; Carpenter, Michael A

    2014-10-28

    Detection of gases such as H2, CO, and NO2 at 500 °C or greater requires materials with thermal stability and reliability. One of the major barriers toward integration of plasmonic-based chemical sensors is the requirement of multiple components such as light sources and spectrometers. In this work, plasmonic sensing results are presented where thermal energy is harvested using lithographically patterned Au nanorods, replacing the need for an external incident light source. Gas sensing results using the harvested thermal energy are in good agreement with sensing experiments, which used an external incident light source. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the wavelength parameter space from 665 variables down to 4 variables with similar levels of demonstrated selectivity. The combination of a plasmonic-based energy harvesting sensing paradigm with PCA analysis offers a novel path toward simplification and integration of plasmonic-based sensing methods. PMID:25280004

  4. Acoustic energy harvesting using an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Phipps, Alex; Horowitz, Stephen; Ngo, Khai; Cattafesta, Louis; Nishida, Toshikazu; Sheplak, Mark

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents the development of an acoustic energy harvester using an electromechanical Helmholtz resonator (EMHR). The EMHR consists of an orifice, cavity, and a piezoelectric diaphragm. Acoustic energy is converted to mechanical energy when sound incident on the orifice generates an oscillatory pressure in the cavity, which in turns causes the vibration of the diaphragm. The conversion of acoustic energy to electrical energy is achieved via piezoelectric transduction in the diaphragm of the EMHR. Moreover, the diaphragm is coupled with energy reclamation circuitry to increase the efficiency of the energy conversion. Lumped element modeling of the EMHR is used to provide physical insight into the coupled energy domain dynamics governing the energy reclamation process. The feasibility of acoustic energy reclamation using an EMHR is demonstrated in a plane wave tube for two power converter topologies. The first is comprised of only a rectifier, and the second uses a rectifier connected to a flyback converter to improve load matching. Experimental results indicate that approximately 30 mW of output power is harvested for an incident sound pressure level of 160 dB with a flyback converter. Such power level is sufficient to power a variety of low power electronic devices. PMID:18397006

  5. Vibrational dynamics of plant light-harvesting complex LHC II investigated by quasi- and inelastic neutron scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, Maksym; Irrgang, Klaus-Dieter; Rusevich, Leonid; Pieper, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Vibrational dynamics of the light-harvesting complex II (LHC II) from spinach was investigated by quasi- and inelastic neutron scattering (QENS and INS) at three different temperatures of 80, 160, and 285 K. QENS/INS spectra of solubilised LHC II and of the corresponding buffer solution were obtained separately and exhibit characteristic inelastic features. After subtraction of the buffer contribution, the INS spectrum of LHC II reveals a distinct Boson peak at ˜ 2.5 meV at 80 K that shifts towards lower energies if the temperature is increased to 285 K. This effect is interpreted in terms of a "softening" of the protein matrix along with the dynamical transition at ˜ 240 K. Our findings indicate that INS is a valuable method to obtain the density of vibrational states not only at cryogenic, but also at physiological temperatures.

  6. Analysis of a piezoelectric bimorph plate with a central-attached mass as an energy harvester.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shunong; Hu, Yuantai

    2007-07-01

    This article analyzes the performance of a piezoelectric energy harvester in the flexural mode for scavenging ambient vibration energy. The energy harvester consists of a piezoelectric bimorph plate with a central-attached mass. The linear piezoelectricity theory is applied to evaluate the performance dependence upon the physical and geometrical parameters of the model bimorph plate. The analytical solution for the flexural motion of the piezoelectric bimorph plate energy harvester shows that the output power density increases initially, reaches a maximum, then decreases monotonically with the increasing load impedance, which is normalized by a parameter that is a simple combination of the physical and geometrical parameters of the scavenging structure, the bimorph plate, and the frequency of the ambient vibration, underscoring the importance for the load circuit to have the impedance desirable by the scavenging structure. The numerical results illustrate the considerably enhanced performances by adjusting the physical and geometrical parameters of the scavenging structure. PMID:17718336

  7. 3-dimensional fabrication of soft energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas; Walters, Peter; Rossiter, Jonathan; O'Brien, Benjamin; Anderson, Iain

    2013-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEG) provide an opportunity to harvest energy from low frequency and aperiodic sources. Because DEG are soft, deformable, high energy density generators, they can be coupled to complex structures such as the human body to harvest excess mechanical energy. However, DEG are typically constrained by a rigid frame and manufactured in a simple planar structure. This planar arrangement is unlikely to be optimal for harvesting from compliant and/or complex structures. In this paper we present a soft generator which is fabricated into a 3 Dimensional geometry. This capability will enable the 3-dimensional structure of a dielectric elastomer to be customised to the energy source, allowing efficient and/or non-invasive coupling. This paper demonstrates our first 3 dimensional generator which includes a diaphragm with a soft elastomer frame. When the generator was connected to a self-priming circuit and cyclically inflated, energy was accumulated in the system, demonstrated by an increased voltage. Our 3D generator promises a bright future for dielectric elastomers that will be customised for integration with complex and soft structures. In addition to customisable geometries, the 3D printing process may lend itself to fabricating large arrays of small generator units and for fabricating truly soft generators with excellent impedance matching to biological tissue. Thus comfortable, wearable energy harvesters are one step closer to reality.

  8. Connected Vibrating Piezoelectric Bimorph Beams as a Wide-band Piezoelectric Power Harvester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zengtao Yang; Jiashi Yang

    2009-01-01

    We analyze coupled flexural vibration of two elastically and electrically connected piezoelectric beams near resonance for converting mechanical vibration energy to electrical energy. Each beam is a so-called piezoelectric bimorph with two layers of piezoelectrics. The 1D equations for bending of piezoelectric beams are used for a theoretical analysis. An exact analytical solution to the beam equations is obtained. Numerical

  9. Cyclic energy harvesting from pyroelectric materials.

    PubMed

    Mane, Poorna; Xie, Jingsi; Leang, Kam K; Mossi, Karla

    2011-01-01

    A method of continuously harvesting energy from pyroelectric materials is demonstrated using an innovative cyclic heating scheme. In traditional pyroelectric energy harvesting methods, static heating sources are used, and most of the available energy has to be harvested at once. A cyclic heating system is developed such that the temperature varies between hot and cold regions. Although the energy harvested during each period of the heating cycle is small, the accumulated total energy over time may exceed traditional methods. Three materials are studied: a commonly available soft lead zirconate titanate (PZT), a pre-stressed PZT composite, and single-crystal PMN-30PT. Radiation heating and natural cooling are used such that, at smaller cyclic frequencies, the temporal rate of change in temperature is large enough to produce high power densities. The maximum power density of 8.64 ?W/cm3 is generated with a PMN-30PT single crystal at an angular velocity of 0.64 rad/s with a rate of 8.5°C/s. The pre-stressed PZT composite generated a power density of 6.31 ?W/cm(3), which is 40% larger than the density of 4.48 ?W/cm3 obtained from standard PZT. PMID:21244970

  10. Circuits for energy harvesting sensor signal processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajeevan Amirtharajah; Justin Wenck; Jamie Collier; Jeff Siebert; Bicky Zhou

    2006-01-01

    ducesystem weight andvolume, increase operating lifetime, Therecent explosion incapability ofembedded andportable decrease maintenance costs, andopennewfrontiers forin- electronics hasnotbeenmatchedbybattery technology. tegrating digital computation withsensing andactuation. Theslowgrowth ofbattery energy density haslimited device Because wireless communication typically consumes much lifetime andaddedweight andvolume. Passive energy har- morepowerthancomputation, manyapplications wantto vesting fromsolar radiation, thermal sources, ormechanicalmaximize theamountofcomputation doneataparticular vibration haspotentially wideapplication inwearable and sensor network

  11. Toward energy harvesting using active materials and conversion improvement by nonlinear processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Guyomar; Adrien Badel; Elie Lefeuvre; Claude Richard

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new technique of electrical energy generation using mechanically excited piezoelectric materials and a nonlinear process. This technique, called synchronized switch harvesting (SSH), is derived from the synchronized switch damping (SSD), which is a nonlinear technique previously developed to address the problem of vibration damping on mechanical structures. This technique results in a significant increase of the

  12. Integrated solar energy harvesting and storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathaniel J. Guilar; Albert Chen; Travis Kleeburg; Rajeevan Amirtharajah

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT To explore integrated solar energy harvesting as a power,source for low power systems such as wireless sensor nodes, an array of energy,scavenging ,photodiodes ,based ,on a ,passive-pixel architecture for imagers and have been fabricated together with storage capacitors implemented ,using on-chip interconnect in a 0.35 ?m CMOS ,logic process. Integrated vertical plate capacitors enable dense energy storage without limiting

  13. Providing security in energy harvesting sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvain Pelissier; T. V. Prabhakar; H. S. Jamadagni; R. VenkateshaPrasad; Ignas Niemegeers

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we study the adaptability of well known cryptography algorithms to energy harvesting wireless sensor networks. We are particularly interested in algorithms that have the ability to adapt to varying power in such networks. Our investigations and implementation on hardware platforms indicate that it is optimal to precompute a few key stream bytes, store in memory and later

  14. Dielectric Elastomers for Actuation and Energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Brochu, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials with electrodes embedded on both sides of the silicone film were tested as capacitive strain sensing and energy harvestingenergy harvesting purposes. The soft silicone composite was capable of gener- ating over 7 mJ/g of active material,

  15. ENERGY HARVESTING UTILISING THE GYROSCOPIC EFFECT

    E-print Network

    Sóbester, András

    ENERGY HARVESTING UTILISING THE GYROSCOPIC EFFECT N.C. Townsend nick@soton.ac.uk Fluid Structure of a marine vessel can induce gyroscopic precession. x y Z 0 Figure 1: A Schematic of a Single Unit Gyroscopic the gyroscopic effect) Experimental sea trials will be conducted in 2011. The motivation behind the project

  16. Energy-harvesting at the Nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Andrew; Sothmann, Björn; Sánchez, Rafael; Büttiker, Markus

    2013-03-01

    Energy harvesting is the process by which energy is taken from the environment and transformed to provide power for electronics. Specifically, the conversion of thermal energy into electrical power, or thermoelectrics, can play a crucial role in future developments of alternative sources of energy. Unfortunately, present thermoelectrics have low efficiency. Therefore, an important task in condensed matter physics is to find new ways to harvest ambient thermal energy, particularly at the smallest length scales where electronics operate. To achieve this goal, there is on one hand the miniaturizing of electrical devices, and on the other, the maximization of either efficiency or power the devices produce. We will present the theory of nano heat engines able to efficiently convert heat into electrical power. We propose a resonant tunneling quantum dot engine that can be operated either in the Carnot efficient mode, or maximal power mode. The ability to scale the power by putting many such engines in a ``Swiss cheese sandwich'' geometry gives a paradigmatic system for harvesting thermal energy at the nanoscale. Energy harvesting is the process by which energy is taken from the environment and transformed to provide power for electronics. Specifically, the conversion of thermal energy into electrical power, or thermoelectrics, can play a crucial role in future developments of alternative sources of energy. Unfortunately, present thermoelectrics have low efficiency. Therefore, an important task in condensed matter physics is to find new ways to harvest ambient thermal energy, particularly at the smallest length scales where electronics operate. To achieve this goal, there is on one hand the miniaturizing of electrical devices, and on the other, the maximization of either efficiency or power the devices produce. We will present the theory of nano heat engines able to efficiently convert heat into electrical power. We propose a resonant tunneling quantum dot engine that can be operated either in the Carnot efficient mode, or maximal power mode. The ability to scale the power by putting many such engines in a ``Swiss cheese sandwich'' geometry gives a paradigmatic system for harvesting thermal energy at the nanoscale. This work was supported by the US NSF Grant No. DMR-0844899, the Swiss NSF, the NCCR MaNEP and QSIT, the European STREP project Nanopower, the CSIC and FSE JAE-Doc program, the Spanish MAT2011-24331 and the ITN Grant 234970 (EU)

  17. Active Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting: General Principle and Experimental Demonstration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiming Liu; Geng Tian; Yong Wang; Junhong Lin; Qiming Zhang; Heath F. Hofmann

    2009-01-01

    In piezoelectric energy harvesting systems, the energy harvesting circuit is the interface between a piezoelectric device and an electrical load. A conventional view of this interface is based on impedance matching concepts. In fact, an energy harvesting circuit can also apply electrical boundary conditions, such as voltage and charge, to the piezoelectric device for each energy conversion cycle. An optimized

  18. EXPLOITING NONLINEARITY TO PROVIDE BROADBAND ENERGY HARVESTING Jeff Moehlis

    E-print Network

    Moehlis, Jeff

    EXPLOITING NONLINEARITY TO PROVIDE BROADBAND ENERGY HARVESTING Jeff Moehlis Department@engineering.ucsb.edu ABSTRACT Energy harvesters are a promising technology for capturing useful energy from the environment or a machine's operation. In this paper we highlight ideas that might lead to energy harvesters that more

  19. Energy Harvesting for Structural Health Monitoring Sensor Gyuhae Park1

    E-print Network

    Simunic, Tajana

    Energy Harvesting for Structural Health Monitoring Sensor Networks Gyuhae Park1 , Tajana Rosing2 recognition paradigm for SHM is first presented and the concept of energy harvesting for embedded sensing strategies. Various approaches to energy harvesting and energy storage are discussed and limitations

  20. Analysis of routing algorithms for Energy harvesting wireless sensor

    E-print Network

    Analysis of routing algorithms for Energy harvesting wireless sensor network Negin Ostadabbasi; is providing in recent decades. The objective of routing algorithms in energy harvesting wireless sensor a comprehensive survey on both energy-ecient and energy harvesting routing algorithms in WSN eld. There are few

  1. Power Allocation for Energy Harvesting Transmitter with Causal Information

    E-print Network

    Greenberg, Albert

    1 Power Allocation for Energy Harvesting Transmitter with Causal Information Zhe Wang, Vaneet- controlled transmitter with energy harvesting capability based on causal observations of the channel fading powered by a renewable energy source and the energy harvesting process can practically be predicted

  2. Paper Generators: Harvesting Energy from Touching, Rubbing and Sliding

    E-print Network

    Poupyrev, Ivan

    Paper Generators: Harvesting Energy from Touching, Rubbing and Sliding Mustafa Emre Karagozler1, PA 15213 USA ABSTRACT We present a new energy harvesting technology that generates electrical energy from a user's interactions with paper-like materials. The energy harvesters are flexible, light

  3. Networking Low-Power Energy Harvesting Devices: Measurements and Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Shepard, Kenneth

    Networking Low-Power Energy Harvesting Devices: Measurements and Algorithms Maria Gorlatova, Aya--Recent advances in energy harvesting materials and ultra-low-power communications will soon enable the realization of networks composed of energy harvesting devices. These devices will operate using very low ambient energy

  4. Optimizing energy harvesting parameters using response surface methodology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poorna Mane; Karla Mossi; Christopher Green

    2009-01-01

    Energy harvesting is a process in which energy that would otherwise be wasted is stored and then used to power a system. Due to their unique properties piezoelectric materials are ideal for energy harvesting applications. In this study a pre-stressed piezoelectric composite was pressure loaded dynamically to harvest energy. The objective of this study was to optimize, using piezoelectric diaphragms,

  5. Dielectric elastomer energy harvesting undergoing polarization saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liwu; Luo, Xiaojian; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2012-04-01

    Mechanical energy can be converted into electrical energy by using a dielectric elastomer generator. The elastomer is susceptible to various models of failure, including electrical breakdown, electromechanical instability, loss of tension, and rupture by stretching. The models of failure define a cycle of maximal energy that can be converted. On the other hand, when subjected to voltage, the charge will be induced on a dielectric elastomer. When the voltage is small, the charge increases with the voltage. Along with the continuously increase of voltage, when the charge approaches a certain value, it would become saturated. This paper develops a thermodynamic model of dielectric elastomers undergoing polarization saturation. We studied the typical failure model with three variables of Gent Model silicone energy harvester and obtained an analytical solution of the constitutive equation of dielectric elastomer undergoing polarization saturation. These results can be used to facilitate the design and manufacture of dielectric elastomer energy harvesters.

  6. Vibrational energy transfer in fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David W.; Adelman, Steven A.

    A review of several of the available theories of vibrational energy transfer (VET) in the gas and liquid phases is presented. First the classical theory of gas phase VET mainly due to Landau and Teller, to Jackson and Mott and to Zener is developed in some detail. Next the Schwartz-Slawsky-Herzfeld theory, a framework for analysing VET data based on the classical theory, is outlined. Experimental tests of the classical theory and theoretical critiques of its assumptions are then described. Next a brief review of the modern ab-initio quantum approach to gas phase VET rates, taking as an example the work of Banks, Clary and Werner, is given. Theories of VET at elevated densities are then discussed. The isolated binary collision model is reviewed and a new molecular approach to the density, temperature and isotope dependences of vibrational energy relaxation rates, due to Adelman and co-workers, is outlined.

  7. Design study of piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices for generation of higher electrical power using a coupled piezoelectric-circuit finite element method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meiling Zhu; Emma Worthington; Ashutosh Tiwari

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a design study on the geometric parameters of a cantilever-based piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices (EHD), which harvest energy from motion (vibration), for the purpose of scavenging more energy from ambient vibration energy sources. The design study is based on the coupled piezoelectric-circuit finite element method (CPCFEM), previously presented by Dr. Zhu. This model can calculate the power output

  8. Nonlinear interface between the piezoelectric harvesting structure and the modulating circuit of an energy harvester with a real storage battery.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuantai; Xue, Huan; Hu, Ting; Hu, Hongping

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of an energy harvester with a piezoelectric bimorph (PB) and a real electrochemical battery (ECB), both are connected as an integrated system through a rectified dc-dc converter (DDC). A vibrating PB can scavenge energy from the operating environment by the electromechanical coupling. A DDC can effectively match the optimal output voltage of the harvesting structure to the battery voltage. To raise the output power density of PB, a synchronized switch harvesting inductor (SSHI) is used in parallel with the harvesting structure to reverse the voltage through charge transfer between the output electrodes at the transition moments from closed-to open-circuit. Voltage reversal results in earlier arrival of rectifier conduction because the output voltage phases of any two adjacent closed-circuit states are just opposite each other. In principle, a PB is with a smaller, flexural stiffness under closed-circuit condition than under open-circuit condition. Thus, the PB subjected to longer closed-circuit condition will be easier to be accelerated. A larger flexural velocity makes the PB to deflect with larger amplitude, which implies that more mechanical energy will be converted into an electric one. Nonlinear interface between the vibrating PB and the modulating circuit is analyzed in detail, and the effects of SSHI and DDC on the charging efficiency of the storage battery are researched numerically. It was found that the introduction of a DDC in the modulating circuit and an SSHI in the harvesting structure can raise the charging efficiency by several times. PMID:18334321

  9. Energy harvesting from mortar tube firing impulse to supplement fire-control electronics battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Murray, R.; Tillinghast, R.; Pereira, C.; Nguyen, H.-L.

    2011-06-01

    Novel designs are presented for piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources that are attached to mortar tubes to harvest energy from the firing impulse. The power sources generate electrical energy by storing mechanical potential energy in spring elements during the firing. The mass-spring unit of the power source begins to vibrate after firing, thereby applying a cyclic force to a set of piezoelectric elements to which it is attached. The mechanical energy of vibration is thereby converted to electrical energy over a relatively long period of time and stored in electrical energy storage elements such as capacitors. The power sources are shown to provide a significant portion of the required electrical energy of the fire control system.

  10. Energy-harvesting from mortar tube firing impulse to supplement fire-control electronics battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Murray, R.; Tillinghast, R.; Pereira, C.; Nguyen, H.-L.

    2011-03-01

    Novel designs are presented for piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources that are attached to mortar tubes to harvest energy from the firing impulse. The power sources generate electrical energy by storing mechanical potential energy in spring elements during the firing. The mass-spring unit of the power source begins to vibrate after firing, thereby applying a cyclic force to a set of piezoelectric elements to which it is attached. The mechanical energy of vibration is thereby converted to electrical energy over a relatively long period of time and stored in electrical energy storage elements such as capacitors. The power sources are shown to provide a significant portion of the required electrical energy of the fire control system.

  11. Efficient Energy Management Policies for Networks with Energy Harvesting Sensor Nodes

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Vinod

    Efficient Energy Management Policies for Networks with Energy Harvesting Sensor Nodes Vinod Sharma, Utpal Mukherji and Vinay Joseph Abstract-- We study sensor networks with energy harvesting nodes management policies, energy harvesting, sensor networks, MAC protocols. I. INTRODUCTION Sensor networks

  12. Optimal Power Policy for Energy Harvesting Transmitters with Inefficient Energy Storage

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    1 Optimal Power Policy for Energy Harvesting Transmitters with Inefficient Energy Storage Kaya State University, University Park, PA, 16802 Abstract--An energy harvesting transmitter time horizon is found for a given energy harvesting scenario. In contrast to previous results

  13. Pyroelectric Nanogenerators for Harvesting Thermoelectric Energy Ken C. Pradel,

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    effect for harvesting thermal energy.5 Recently, piezoelectric ZnO nanowires have been effectively used to harvest small-scale mechanical energy.6-9 The core of the piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) is to utilizePyroelectric Nanogenerators for Harvesting Thermoelectric Energy Ya Yang, Wenxi Guo, Ken C. Pradel

  14. Reincarnation in the Ambiance: Devices and Networks with Energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Kuzmanov, Georgi

    1 Reincarnation in the Ambiance: Devices and Networks with Energy Harvesting R. Venkatesha Prasad for improvement in battery technologies. An alternative is to harvest energy from the environment. An important aspect of energy harvesting is that the devices go through birth and death cycle with respect

  15. Grafting Energy-Harvesting Leaves onto the Sensornet Tree

    E-print Network

    Dutta, Prabal

    Grafting Energy-Harvesting Leaves onto the Sensornet Tree Lohit Yerva , Bradford Campbell , Apoorva the problem of augmenting battery-powered sen- sornet trees with energy-harvesting leaf nodes. Our results harvest enough energy from ambient sources to acquire and transmit sensor readings ev- ery minute, even

  16. Resource Management for Fading Wireless Channels with Energy Harvesting Nodes

    E-print Network

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Resource Management for Fading Wireless Channels with Energy Harvesting Nodes Omur Ozel1 , Kaya of these systems is the fact that the nodes can harvest energy throughout the duration in which communication takes place. As such, transmission policies of the nodes need to adapt to these harvested energy arrivals

  17. Design and Power Management of Energy Harvesting Embedded Systems

    E-print Network

    Chou, Pai H.

    Design and Power Management of Energy Harvesting Embedded Systems Vijay Raghunathan NEC Labs phchou@uci.edu ABSTRACT Harvesting energy from the environment is a desirable and increas- ingly, biomedical implants, etc. While energy harvesting has the potential to enable near-perpetual system operation

  18. Ekho: A Tool for Recording and Emulating Energy Harvesting Conditions

    E-print Network

    Ekho: A Tool for Recording and Emulating Energy Harvesting Conditions Ryan Archer Honors Thesis;ABSTRACT Harvested energy makes it possible to deploy sensing devices long-term with minimal required to anticipate the behavior of these devices. Ekho is tool that records and emulates energy harvesting conditions

  19. Improved Capacity Bounds for the Binary Energy Harvesting Channel

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    Improved Capacity Bounds for the Binary Energy Harvesting Channel Kaya Tutuncuoglu1 , Omur Ozel2 of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 Abstract--We consider a binary energy harvesting channel (BEHC) where is asymptotically optimal for small energy harvesting rates. We then present a novel upper bounding technique, which

  20. Real-Time Scheduling for Energy Harvesting Sensors

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Real-Time Scheduling for Energy Harvesting Sensors Maryline Chetto IRCCyN Lab University of Nantes harvesting is the conversion of ambient energy into electricity to power small devices such as wireless power management and scheduling solutions for energy harvesting systems having real-time constraints

  1. Automated Checkpointing for Enabling Intensive Applications on Energy Harvesting Devices

    E-print Network

    Automated Checkpointing for Enabling Intensive Applications on Energy Harvesting Devices Azalia intensive computation on ultra-low power devices with discontinuous energy-harvesting supplies. We devise on a battery-less RF energy-harvester platform. Extensive experiments targeting applications in medical implant

  2. Energy Harvesting Devices Using Macro-fiber Composite Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun Jeong Song; Young-Tai Choi; Norman M. Wereley; Ashish S. Purekar

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses the experimental validation of a design methodology for an energy harvesting device utilizing macro-fiber composite (MFC) materials. The energy harvesting device is composed of a cantilever beam with MFC elements, a tip mass, a rectifier, and an electrical resistance. A theoretical model of the energy harvesting device was developed for the estimation of generated power, voltage, and

  3. The effect of seismic energy scavenging on host structure and harvesting performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lallart, Mickaël; Wu, Yi-Chieh; Yan, Linjuan; Richard, Claude; Guyomar, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters have been studied extensively in recent years. Numerous techniques have been investigated to achieve optimal power output. However, the extraction of electrical energy from mechanical vibration leads to a reduction of the vibration magnitude of the harvester because of the electromechanical coupling effect, and so a model considering constant vibration magnitude input is no longer valid. Thus, an energy harvesting model excited with a constant force or acceleration magnitude has been adopted to take into account the damping effect induced by the energy harvesting process. This paper extends this model to the effect of energy harvesting on the fixed host structure (mechanical to mechanical coupling). Theoretical developments are presented as a dynamic problem of an electromechanically coupled two-degree-of-freedom (TDOF) spring-mass-damper system. Then, experimental measurements and computations based on finite element modeling (FEM) are carried out to validate theoretical predictions. It is shown that the extracted power obtained from the TDOF model would reach a maximal value by tuning the mass ratio between the host structure and the harvester and optimizing the electric load. The mechanical to mechanical coupling effect due to the harvester leads to a trade-off between the mechanical energy of the host structure and the harvested energy. When the harvester mass to host structure mass ratio is around 10-3, the maximal power is obtained and the host structure then has a sudden displacement reduction due to the strong mechanical to mechanical coupling. Experimental measurements have been performed for a mass ratio of around 0.02, with which the harvester effect is not negligible on the host structure behavior as the host structure displacement shows a decrease of more than 3 dB. In addition, the harvested power calculated with the TDOF model is about two times less than with a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) model under a constant acceleration magnitude as the SDOF model does not consider the backward damping effect due to mechanical to mechanical coupling and thus overestimates the power output.

  4. A wideband acoustic energy harvester using a three degree-of-freedom architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiao; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Yang, Aichao; Bai, Xiaoling

    2013-10-01

    In this study, an acoustic energy harvester consisting of a perforated brass plate sandwiched between two cavities is designed and fabricated for scavenging energy from wide-spectrum acoustic sources. The multi-mode resonances of the device are adjusted closely spaced over a wide range of frequencies by properly tuned acoustic coupling of the vibrating plate and the two cavities. The experimental results show that the proximity of the multiple peaks enables the harvester operating in the frequency range of 1100-1400 Hz, which provides useful leads for the realization of acoustic energy generators of practical interest.

  5. Energy Cooperation in Energy Harvesting Two-Way Communications

    E-print Network

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Energy Cooperation in Energy Harvesting Two-Way Communications Berk Gurakan1 , Omur Ozel1 , Jing energy from nature and energy can be transferred in one-way from one of the users to the other. Energy and users have unlimited batteries to store energy for future use. In addition, there is a separate wireless

  6. Microfabrication and Integration of a Sol-Gel PZT Folded Spring Energy Harvester.

    PubMed

    Lueke, Jonathan; Badr, Ahmed; Lou, Edmond; Moussa, Walied A

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and challenges experienced in the microfabrication, packaging, and integration of a fixed-fixed folded spring piezoelectric energy harvester. A variety of challenges were overcome in the fabrication of the energy harvesters, such as the diagnosis and rectification of sol-gel PZT film quality and adhesion issues. A packaging and integration methodology was developed to allow for the characterizing the harvesters under a base vibration. The conditioning circuitry developed allowed for a complete energy harvesting system, consisting a harvester, a voltage doubler, a voltage regulator and a NiMH battery. A feasibility study was undertaken with the designed conditioning circuitry to determine the effect of the input parameters on the overall performance of the circuit. It was found that the maximum efficiency does not correlate to the maximum charging current supplied to the battery. The efficiency and charging current must be balanced to achieve a high output and a reasonable output current. The development of the complete energy harvesting system allows for the direct integration of the energy harvesting technology into existing power management schemes for wireless sensing. PMID:26016911

  7. Microfabrication and Integration of a Sol-Gel PZT Folded Spring Energy Harvester

    PubMed Central

    Lueke, Jonathan; Badr, Ahmed; Lou, Edmond; Moussa, Walied A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and challenges experienced in the microfabrication, packaging, and integration of a fixed-fixed folded spring piezoelectric energy harvester. A variety of challenges were overcome in the fabrication of the energy harvesters, such as the diagnosis and rectification of sol-gel PZT film quality and adhesion issues. A packaging and integration methodology was developed to allow for the characterizing the harvesters under a base vibration. The conditioning circuitry developed allowed for a complete energy harvesting system, consisting a harvester, a voltage doubler, a voltage regulator and a NiMH battery. A feasibility study was undertaken with the designed conditioning circuitry to determine the effect of the input parameters on the overall performance of the circuit. It was found that the maximum efficiency does not correlate to the maximum charging current supplied to the battery. The efficiency and charging current must be balanced to achieve a high output and a reasonable output current. The development of the complete energy harvesting system allows for the direct integration of the energy harvesting technology into existing power management schemes for wireless sensing. PMID:26016911

  8. Development of a biomechanical energy harvester

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingguo; Naing, Veronica; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2009-01-01

    Background Biomechanical energy harvesting–generating electricity from people during daily activities–is a promising alternative to batteries for powering increasingly sophisticated portable devices. We recently developed a wearable knee-mounted energy harvesting device that generated electricity during human walking. In this methods-focused paper, we explain the physiological principles that guided our design process and present a detailed description of our device design with an emphasis on new analyses. Methods Effectively harvesting energy from walking requires a small lightweight device that efficiently converts intermittent, bi-directional, low speed and high torque mechanical power to electricity, and selectively engages power generation to assist muscles in performing negative mechanical work. To achieve this, our device used a one-way clutch to transmit only knee extension motions, a spur gear transmission to amplify the angular speed, a brushless DC rotary magnetic generator to convert the mechanical power into electrical power, a control system to determine when to open and close the power generation circuit based on measurements of knee angle, and a customized orthopaedic knee brace to distribute the device reaction torque over a large leg surface area. Results The device selectively engaged power generation towards the end of swing extension, assisting knee flexor muscles by producing substantial flexion torque (6.4 Nm), and efficiently converted the input mechanical power into electricity (54.6%). Consequently, six subjects walking at 1.5 m/s generated 4.8 ± 0.8 W of electrical power with only a 5.0 ± 21 W increase in metabolic cost. Conclusion Biomechanical energy harvesting is capable of generating substantial amounts of electrical power from walking with little additional user effort making future versions of this technology particularly promising for charging portable medical devices. PMID:19549313

  9. Power Management for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Arms; C. P. Townsend; D. L. Churchill; J. H. Galbreath; S. W. Mundell

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate smart wireless sensing nodes capable of operation at extremely low power levels. These systems were designed to be compatible with energy harvesting systems using piezoelectric materials and\\/or solar cells. The wireless sensing nodes included a microprocessor, on-board memory, sensing means (1000 ohm foil strain gauge), sensor signal conditioning, 2.4 GHz IEEE 802.15.4

  10. Strain Energy Harvesting for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Churchill; M. J. Hamel; C. P. Townsend; S. W. Arms

    2003-01-01

    Our goal was to demonstrate a robust strain energy harvesting system for powering an embedded wireless sensor network without batteries. A composite material specimen was laminated with unidirectional aligned piezoelectric fibers (PZT5A, 250 um, overall 13x10x.38 mm). The fibers were embedded within a resin matrix for damage tolerance (Advanced Cerametrics, Lambertville, NJ). A foil strain gauge (Micro-Measurements, Raleigh, NC) was

  11. Magnetocaloric piezoelectric composites for energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Cleveland; Hong Liang

    2012-01-01

    Magnetocaloric alloy, Gd5Si2Ge2, was developed into a composite with the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) piezoelectric polymer. This multifunctional material possesses unique properties that are suitable for energy conversion and harvesting. Experimental approaches include using an arc melting technique to synthesize the Gd5Si2Ge2 (GSG) alloy and the spinning casting method to fabricate the composite. The materials were characterized using various techniques at

  12. Strain energy harvesting for wireless sensor networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Churchill; Michael J. Hamel; Christopher P. Townsend; Steven W. Arms

    2003-01-01

    Our goal was to demonstrate a robust strain energy harvesting system for powering an embedded wireless sensor network without batteries. A composite material specimen was laminated with unidirectional aligned piezoelectric fibers (PZT5A, 250 um, overall 13x10x.38 mm). The fibers were embedded within a resin matrix for damage tolerance (Advanced Cerametrics, Lambertville, NJ). A foil strain gauge (Micro-Measurements, Raleigh, NC) was

  13. Optimized energy harvesting materials and generator design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Christian; Hitzbleck, Julia; Feller, Torsten; Clauberg, Karin; Wagner, Joachim; Krause, Jens; Maas, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Electroactive polymers are soft capacitors made of thin elastic and electrically insulating films coated with compliant electrodes offering a large amount of deformation. They can either be used as actuators by applying an electric charge or they can be used as energy converters based on the electrostatic principle. These unique properties enable the industrial development of highly efficient and environmentally sustainable energy converters, which opens up the possibility to further exploit large renewable and inexhaustible energy sources like wind and water that are widely unused otherwise. Compared to other electroactive polymer materials, polyurethanes, whose formulations have been systematically modified and optimized for energy harvesting applications, have certain advantages over silicones and acrylates. The inherently higher dipole content results in a significantly increased permittivity and the dielectric breakdown strength is higher, too, whereby the overall specific energy, a measure for the energy gain, is better by at least factor ten, i.e. more than ten times the energy can be gained out of the same amount of material. In order to reduce conduction losses on the electrode during charging and discharging, a highly conductive bidirectional stretchable electrode has been developed. Other important material parameters like stiffness and bulk resistivity have been optimized to fit the requirements. To realize high power energy harvesting systems, substantial amounts of electroactive polymer material are necessary as well as a smart mechanical and electrical design of the generator. In here we report on different measures to evaluate and improve electroactive polymer materials for energy harvesting by e.g. reducing the defect occurrence and improving the electrode behavior.

  14. Harvesting Residuals-Economic Energy Link

    E-print Network

    Owens, E. T.; Curtis, D. B.

    -for-energy. economics INTRODUCTION The conventional wisdom in efficient harvesting Was to leave the non-merchantable and marginal trees because they had no economic value in the market place. Current technology and a change in the relative values of energy from... the production line but he wants an assured market. On the other, the prospective consumer hesitates because there is no visible sign of fuel supply. The following paragraphs illustrate a couple of ways in which this apparent obstacle was surmounted. Energy...

  15. Broadband electromagnetic power harvester from vibrations via frequency conversion by impact oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Yuksek, N. S.; Almasri, M. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States); Feng, Z. C. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    In this paper, we propose an electromagnetic power harvester that uses a transformative multi-impact approach to achieve a wide bandwidth response from low frequency vibration sources through frequency-up conversion. The device consists of a pick-up coil, fixed at the free edge of a cantilever beam with high resonant frequency, and two cantilever beams with low excitation frequencies, each with an impact mass attached at its free edge. One of the two cantilevers is designed to resonate at 25?Hz, while the other resonates at 50?Hz within the range of ambient vibration frequency. When the device is subjected to a low frequency vibration, the two low-frequency cantilevers responded by vibrating at low frequencies, and thus their thick metallic masses made impacts with the high resonance frequency cantilever repeatedly at two locations. This has caused it along with the pick-up coil to oscillate, relative to the permanent magnet, with decaying amplitude at its resonance frequency, and results in a wide bandwidth response from 10 to 63?Hz at 2?g. A wide bandwidth response between 10–51?Hz and 10–58?Hz at acceleration values of 0.5?g and 2?g, respectively, were achieved by adjusting the impact cantilever frequencies closer to each other (25?Hz and 45?Hz). A maximum output power of 85??W was achieved at 5?g at 30?Hz across a load resistor, 2.68 ?.

  16. Optimal Power Control for Energy Harvesting Transmitters in an Interference Channel

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    Optimal Power Control for Energy Harvesting Transmitters in an Interference Channel Kaya harvesting transmit- ters and two corresponding receivers are considered. Energy harvesting transmitters have water- filling algorithm. A practical distributed algorithm requiring only local energy harvesting

  17. High performance piezoelectric MEMS energy harvester based on D33 mode of PZT thin film on buffer-layer with PBTIO3 inter-layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Park; D. H. Lee; J. Y. Park; Y. S. Chang; Y. P. Lee

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a MEMS energy harvester was investigated to scavenge power from ambient vibration source. It was designed to convert low level vibration to electrical power via the piezoelectric effect. The proposed energy harvester was fabricated by patterning Pt electrodes into inter-digital geometry on top of the sol-gel-spin coated Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 thin film for d33 mode on silicon cantilever

  18. Self-powered smart blade: helicopter blade energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Matthew; Fang, Austin; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2010-04-01

    A novel energy harvesting device powered by aeroelastic flutter vibrations is proposed to generate power for embedded wireless sensors on a helicopter rotor blade. Such wireless sensing and on-board power generation system would eliminate the need for maintenance intensive slip ring systems that are required for hardwired sensors. A model of the system has been developed to predict the response and output of the device as a function of the incident wind speed. A system of coupled equations that describe the structural, aerodynamic, and electromechanical aspects of the system are presented. The model uses semi-empirical, unsteady, nonlinear aerodynamics modeling to predict the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the structure and to account for the effects of vortex shedding and dynamic stall. These nonlinear effects are included to predict the limit cycle behavior of the system over a range of wind speeds. The model results are compared to preliminary wind tunnel tests of a low speed aeroelastic energy harvesting experiment.

  19. Design and analysis of a connected broadband multi-piezoelectric-bimorph- beam energy harvester.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifeng; Afzalul, Karim

    2014-06-01

    The rapid growth of remote, wireless, and microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices over the past decades has motivated the development of a self-powered system that can replace traditional electrochemical batteries. Piezoelectric energy harvesters are ideal for capturing energy from mechanical vibrations in the ambient environment. Numerous studies have been made of this application of piezoelectric energy conversion; however, the narrow frequency operation band has limited its application to generate useful power. In this paper, a broadband energy harvester with an array/matrix of piezoelectric bimorphs connected by springs has been designed and analyzed based on the 1-D piezoelectric beam equations. The predicted result shows that the operational frequency band can be enlarged significantly by carefully adjusting the small end masses, length of the beam and spring stiffness. An optimal selection of the load impedance to realize the maximum power output is discussed. The results provide an important foundation for future broadband energy harvester design. PMID:24859665

  20. Issues in mathematical modeling of piezoelectric energy harvesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Erturk; D. J. Inman

    2008-01-01

    The idea of vibration-to-electric energy conversion for powering small electronic components by using the ambient vibration energy has been investigated by researchers from different disciplines in the last decade. Among the possible transduction mechanisms, piezoelectric transduction has received the most attention for converting ambient vibrations to useful electrical energy. In the last five years, there have been a considerable number

  1. Models for 31-mode PVDF energy harvester for wearable applications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Currently, wearable electronics are increasingly widely used, leading to an increasing need of portable power supply. As a clean and renewable power source, piezoelectric energy harvester can transfer mechanical energy into electric energy directly, and the energy harvester based on polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) operating in 31-mode is appropriate to harvest energy from human motion. This paper established a series of theoretical models to predict the performance of 31-mode PVDF energy harvester. Among them, the energy storage one can predict the collected energy accurately during the operation of the harvester. Based on theoretical study and experiments investigation, two approaches to improve the energy harvesting performance have been found. Furthermore, experiment results demonstrate the high accuracies of the models, which are better than 95%. PMID:25114981

  2. Models for 31-Mode PVDF Energy Harvester for Wearable Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingjing; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Currently, wearable electronics are increasingly widely used, leading to an increasing need of portable power supply. As a clean and renewable power source, piezoelectric energy harvester can transfer mechanical energy into electric energy directly, and the energy harvester based on polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) operating in 31-mode is appropriate to harvest energy from human motion. This paper established a series of theoretical models to predict the performance of 31-mode PVDF energy harvester. Among them, the energy storage one can predict the collected energy accurately during the operation of the harvester. Based on theoretical study and experiments investigation, two approaches to improve the energy harvesting performance have been found. Furthermore, experiment results demonstrate the high accuracies of the models, which are better than 95%. PMID:25114981

  3. Optimal energy management policies for energy harvesting sensor nodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vinod Sharma; Utpal Mukherji; Vinay Joseph; Shrey Gupta

    2010-01-01

    We study a sensor node with an energy harvesting source. The generated energy can be stored in a buffer. The sensor node periodically senses a random field and generates a packet. These packets are stored in a queue and transmitted using the energy available at that time. We obtain energy management policies that are throughput optimal, i.e., the data queue

  4. Stretchable energy-harvesting tactile electronic skin capable of differentiating multiple mechanical stimuli modes.

    PubMed

    Park, Steve; Kim, Hyunjin; Vosgueritchian, Michael; Cheon, Sangmo; Kim, Hyeok; Koo, Ja Hoon; Kim, Taeho Roy; Lee, Sanghyo; Schwartz, Gregory; Chang, Hyuk; Bao, Zhenan

    2014-11-19

    The first stretchable energy-harvesting electronic-skin device capable of differentiating and generating energy from various mechanical stimuli, such as normal pressure, lateral strain, bending, and vibration, is presented. A pressure sensitivity of 0.7 kPa(-1) is achieved in the pressure region <1 kPa with power generation of tens of ?W cm(-2) from a gentle finger touch. PMID:25256696

  5. The fundamental role of quantized vibrations in coherent light harvesting by cryptophyte algae.

    PubMed

    Kolli, Avinash; O'Reilly, Edward J; Scholes, Gregory D; Olaya-Castro, Alexandra

    2012-11-01

    The influence of fast vibrations on energy transfer and conversion in natural molecular aggregates is an issue of central interest. This article shows the important role of high-energy quantized vibrations and their non-equilibrium dynamics for energy transfer in photosynthetic systems with highly localized excitonic states. We consider the cryptophyte antennae protein phycoerythrin 545 and show that coupling to quantized vibrations, which are quasi-resonant with excitonic transitions is fundamental for biological function as it generates non-cascaded transport with rapid and wider spatial distribution of excitation energy. Our work also indicates that the non-equilibrium dynamics of such vibrations can manifest itself in ultrafast beating of both excitonic populations and coherences at room temperature, with time scales in agreement with those reported in experiments. Moreover, we show that mechanisms supporting coherent excitonic dynamics assist coupling to selected modes that channel energy to preferential sites in the complex. We therefore argue that, in the presence of strong coupling between electronic excitations and quantized vibrations, a concrete and important advantage of quantum coherent dynamics is precisely to tune resonances that promote fast and effective energy distribution. PMID:23145719

  6. The fundamental role of quantized vibrations in coherent light harvesting by cryptophyte algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolli, Avinash; O'Reilly, Edward J.; Scholes, Gregory D.; Olaya-Castro, Alexandra

    2012-11-01

    The influence of fast vibrations on energy transfer and conversion in natural molecular aggregates is an issue of central interest. This article shows the important role of high-energy quantized vibrations and their non-equilibrium dynamics for energy transfer in photosynthetic systems with highly localized excitonic states. We consider the cryptophyte antennae protein phycoerythrin 545 and show that coupling to quantized vibrations, which are quasi-resonant with excitonic transitions is fundamental for biological function as it generates non-cascaded transport with rapid and wider spatial distribution of excitation energy. Our work also indicates that the non-equilibrium dynamics of such vibrations can manifest itself in ultrafast beating of both excitonic populations and coherences at room temperature, with time scales in agreement with those reported in experiments. Moreover, we show that mechanisms supporting coherent excitonic dynamics assist coupling to selected modes that channel energy to preferential sites in the complex. We therefore argue that, in the presence of strong coupling between electronic excitations and quantized vibrations, a concrete and important advantage of quantum coherent dynamics is precisely to tune resonances that promote fast and effective energy distribution.

  7. The fundamental role of quantized vibrations in coherent light harvesting by cryptophyte algae

    E-print Network

    Avinash Kolli; Edward J. O'Reilly; Gregory D. Scholes; Alexandra Olaya-Castro

    2012-10-10

    The influence of fast vibrations on energy transfer and conversion in natural molecular aggregates is an issue of central interest. This article shows the important role of high-energy quantized vibrations and their non-equilibrium dynamics for energy transfer in photosynthetic systems with highly localized excitonic states. We consider the cryptophyte antennae protein phycoerythrin 545 and show that coupling to quantized vibrations which are quasi-resonant with excitonic transitions is fundamental for biological function as it generates non-cascaded transport with rapid and wider spatial distribution of excitation energy. Our work also indicates that the non-equilibrium dynamics of such vibrations can manifest itself in ultrafast beating of both excitonic populations and coherences at room temperature, with time scales in agreement with those reported in experiments. Moreover, we show that mechanisms supporting coherent excitonic dynamics assist coupling to selected modes that channel energy to preferential sites in the complex. We therefore argue that, in the presence of strong coupling between electronic excitations and quantized vibrations, a concrete and important advantage of quantum coherent dynamics is precisely to tune resonances that promote fast and effective energy distribution.

  8. Review of the application of energy harvesting in buildings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J W Matiko; N J Grabham; S P Beeby; M J Tudor

    2014-01-01

    This review presents the state of the art of the application of energy harvesting in commercial and residential buildings. Electromagnetic (optical and radio frequency), kinetic, thermal and airflow-based energy sources are identified as potential energy sources within buildings and the available energy is measured in a range of buildings. Suitable energy harvesters are discussed and the available and the potential

  9. Vibrational Energies of the CO2 Molecule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Robert Stull; Philip J. Wyatt; Gilbert N. Plass

    1962-01-01

    The vibrational energy levels of the eight most abundant isotopic species of carbon dioxide have been calculated. Over 1800 energy levels are given for each isotope. The calculations included terms to the third order in the vibrational quantum numbers and took account of the Fermi resonance. The matrices were diagonalized by an eigenvalue routine of great accuracy.

  10. Jumping-droplet electrostatic energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miljkovic, Nenad; Preston, Daniel J.; Enright, Ryan; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2014-07-01

    Micro- and nanoscale wetting phenomena have been an active area of research due to its potential for improving engineered system performance involving phase change. With the recent advancements in micro/nanofabrication techniques, structured surfaces can now be designed to allow condensing coalesced droplets to spontaneously jump off the surface due to the conversion of excess surface energy into kinetic energy. In addition to being removed at micrometric length scales (˜10 ?m), jumping water droplets also attain a positive electrostatic charge (˜10-100 fC) from the hydrophobic coating/condensate interaction. In this work, we take advantage of this droplet charging to demonstrate jumping-droplet electrostatic energy harvesting. The charged droplets jump between superhydrophobic copper oxide and hydrophilic copper surfaces to create an electrostatic potential and generate power during formation of atmospheric dew. We demonstrated power densities of ˜15 pW/cm2, which, in the near term, can be improved to ˜1 ?W/cm2. This work demonstrates a surface engineered platform that promises to be low cost and scalable for atmospheric energy harvesting and electric power generation.

  11. Nonlinear dynamics of a bistable piezoelectric-composite energy harvester for broadband application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, D. N.; Bowen, C. R.; Kim, H. A.; Gathercole, N.; Clarke, C. T.; Inman, D. J.

    2013-09-01

    The continuing need for reduced power requirements for small electronic components, such as wireless sensor networks, has prompted renewed interest in recent years for energy harvesting technologies capable of capturing energy from ambient vibrations. A particular focus has been placed on piezoelectric materials and devices due to the simplicity of the mechanical to electrical energy conversion and their high strain energy densities compared to electrostatic and electromagnetic equivalents. In this paper an arrangement of piezoelectric layers attached to a bistable asymmetric laminate is investigated experimentally to understand the dynamic response of the structure and power generation characteristics. The inherent bistability of the underlying structure is exploited for energy harvesting since a transition from one stable configuration to another, or "snap-through", is used to repeatedly strain the surface bonded piezoelectric and generate electrical energy. This approach has been shown to exhibit high levels of power extraction over a wide range of vibrational frequencies. Using high speed digital image correlation, a variety of dynamic modes of oscillation are identified in the harvester. The sensitivity of such modes to changes in vibration frequency and amplitude are investigated. Power outputs are measured for repeatable snap-through events of the device and are correlated with the measured modes of oscillation. The typical power generated is approximately 3.2 mW, comparing well with the needs of typical wireless senor node applications.

  12. Design, fabrication, and testing of energy-harvesting thermoelectric generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Velimir; Ghamaty, Saeid

    2006-03-01

    An energy-harvesting thermoelectric generator (TEG) is being developed to provide power for wireless sensors used in health monitoring of Navy machinery. TEGs are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity without any moving parts. In this application, the TEGs utilize the heat transfer between shipboard waste heat sources and the ambient air to generate electricity. In order to satisfy the required small design volume of less than one cubic inch, Hi-Z is using its innovative thin-film Quantum Well (QW) thermoelectric technology that will provide a factor of four increase in efficiency and a large reduction in the device volume over the currently used bulk Bi IITe 3 based thermoelectics. QWs are nanostructured multi-layer films. These wireless sensors can be used to detect cracks, corrosion, impact damage, and temperature and vibration excursions as part of the Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) of the Navy ship machinery. The CBM of the ship machinery can be significantly improved by automating the process with the use of self-powered wireless sensors. These power-harvesting TEGs can be used to replace batteries as electrical power sources and to eliminate power cables and data lines. The first QW TEG module was fabricated and initial tests were successful. It is planned to conduct performance tests the entire prototype QW TEG device (consisting of the TEG module, housing, thermal insulation and the heat sink) in a simulated thermal environment of a Navy ship.

  13. Energy harvesting using a thermoelectric material

    DOEpatents

    Nersessian, Nersesse (Van Nuys, CA); Carman, Gregory P. (Los Angeles, CA); Radousky, Harry B. (San Leandro, CA)

    2008-07-08

    A novel energy harvesting system and method utilizing a thermoelectric having a material exhibiting a large thermally induced strain (TIS) due to a phase transformation and a material exhibiting a stress induced electric field is introduced. A material that exhibits such a phase transformation exhibits a large increase in the coefficient of thermal expansion over an incremental temperature range (typically several degrees Kelvin). When such a material is arranged in a geometric configuration, such as, for a example, a laminate with a material that exhibits a stress induced electric field (e.g. a piezoelectric material) the thermally induced strain is converted to an electric field.

  14. Optimal Transmission Policies for Energy Harvesting Two-hop Networks

    E-print Network

    Orhan, Oner

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a two-hop communication system with energy harvesting nodes is considered. Unlike battery powered wireless nodes, both the source and the relay are able to harvest energy from environment during communication, therefore, both data and energy causality over the two hops need to be considered. Assuming both nodes know the harvested energies in advance, properties of optimal transmission policies to maximize the delivered data by a given deadline are identified. Using these properties, optimal power allocation and transmission schedule for the case in which both nodes harvest two energy packets is developed.

  15. Thin film battery recharging from micropower energy harvesting sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris Townsend; Steve Arms; Mike Hamel; Jake Galbreath; David Churchill

    2008-01-01

    Energy harvesting systems can eliminate the need for battery maintenance. However, in many cases the amount of instantaneously available harvested energy may not be sufficient to power an electronic circuit. Therefore, it is desirable to efficiently accumulate and store energy until enough energy is available to do something practical, such as power a wireless sensor. We conducted a review of

  16. Potential Ambient Energy-Harvesting Sources and Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Faruk

    2009-01-01

    Ambient energy harvesting is also known as energy scavenging or power harvesting, and it is the process where energy is obtained from the environment. A variety of techniques are available for energy scavenging, including solar and wind powers, ocean waves, piezoelectricity, thermoelectricity, and physical motions. For example, some systems…

  17. A multiscale-based approach for composite materials with embedded PZT filaments for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Etriby, Ahmed E.; Abdel-Meguid, Mohamed E.; Hatem, Tarek M.; Bahei-El-Din, Yehia A.

    2014-03-01

    Ambient vibrations are major source of wasted energy, exploiting properly such vibration can be converted to valuable energy and harvested to power up devices, i.e. electronic devices. Accordingly, energy harvesting using smart structures with active piezoelectric ceramics has gained wide interest over the past few years as a method for converting such wasted energy. This paper provides numerical and experimental analysis of piezoelectric fiber based composites for energy harvesting applications proposing a multi-scale modeling approach coupled with experimental verification. The multi-scale approach suggested to predict the behavior of piezoelectric fiber-based composites use micromechanical model based on Transformation Field Analysis (TFA) to calculate the overall material properties of electrically active composite structure. Capitalizing on the calculated properties, single-phase analysis of a homogeneous structure is conducted using finite element method. The experimental work approach involves running dynamic tests on piezoelectric fiber-based composites to simulate mechanical vibrations experienced by a subway train floor tiles. Experimental results agree well with the numerical results both for static and dynamic tests.

  18. An optimized self-powered switching circuit for non-linear energy harvesting with low voltage output

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mickaël Lallart; Daniel Guyomar

    2008-01-01

    Harvesting energy from environmental sources has been of particular interest these last few years. Microgenerators that can power electronic systems are a solution for the conception of autonomous, wireless devices. They allow the removal of bulky and costly wiring, as well as complex maintenance and environmental issues for battery-powered systems. In particular, using piezoelectric generators for converting vibrational energy to

  19. Dynamic switching conversion for piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aldo Romani; Cinzia Tamburini; Alessandro Golfarelli; Rossano Codeluppi; Enrico Sangiorgi; Marco Tartagni; Rudi Paolo Paganelli

    2008-01-01

    The current advances in ultra-low power design let foresee great opportunities in energy harvesting platforms for self-powered systems. This paper presents a switching conversion scheme based on active control for harvesting energy with a higher efficiency than traditional approaches. The approach has been validated for piezoelectric energy harvesters with mixed-signal circuital simulations of non-linear equivalent electromechanical systems and a prototype

  20. Analysis and design principles for shear-mode piezoelectric energy harvesting with ZnO nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majidi, C.; Haataja, M.; Srolovitz, D. J.

    2010-05-01

    A comprehensive theory addresses the potential for nanoscale energy harvesting with an array of vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoribbons. Through shear-mode piezoelectric coupling, the nanoribbons are capable of generating electricity from elastic deformations induced by sliding friction or mechanical vibration. In contrast to current ZnO nanowire generators, nanoribbons exhibit a unique combination of geometry and poling orientation that eliminates the need for a nanostructured cathode and allows electrodes to be permanently bonded to the array. The theory incorporates principles and design constraints from solid mechanics, electrostatics, piezoelectricity, vibration dynamics, circuit theory, and tribology. The accuracy of the approximate algebraic solutions is evaluated with finite element modeling. For geometries and operation modes of interest, the electrical power output and conversion ratio from mechanical power input are limited to ~ 10 nW mm - 3 and 1000:1, respectively. While modest, such numbers provide a proper perspective on the potential for nanopiezoelectric energy harvesting.

  1. Modeling of dielectric elastomers: Design of actuators and energy harvesting devices

    E-print Network

    Modeling of dielectric elastomers: Design of actuators and energy harvesting devices David L Keywords: Dielectric elastomers Large deformations Actuators Energy harvesting devices Finite and energy harvesting devices that convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Numerically based design

  2. Energy Harvesting for Self-Powered Nanosystems Zhong Lin Wang

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    Energy Harvesting for Self-Powered Nanosystems Zhong Lin Wang School of Materials Science In this article, an introduction is presented about the energy harvesting technologies that have potential. This is a potential technology for converting mechanical movement energy (such as body movement, muscle stretching

  3. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting with a Clamped Circular Plate: Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunghwan Kim; William W. Clark; Qing-Ming Wang

    2005-01-01

    Energy harvesting using piezoelectric materials is not a new concept, but its small generation capability has not been attractive for mass energy generation. For this reason, little research has been done on the topic. Recently, increased interest in wearable computer concepts and remote electrical devices has provided motivation for more extensive study of piezoelectric energy harvesting. The theory behind cantilever-type

  4. Optimizing efficiency of energy harvesting by macro-fiber composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihua Tang; Yaowen Yang; Hongyun Li

    2008-01-01

    The decreasing energy consumption of today's portable electronics has invoked the possibility of energy harvesting from ambient environment for self power supply. One common and simple method for energy harvesting is to utilize the direct piezoelectric effect. Compared to traditional piezoelectric materials such as lead zirconate titanate (PZT), macro-fiber composites (MFC) are featured in their flexibility of large deformation. However,

  5. Gaussian Wiretap Channel with a Batteryless Energy Harvesting Transmitter

    E-print Network

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Gaussian Wiretap Channel with a Batteryless Energy Harvesting Transmitter Omur Ozel Ersen Ekrem with an energy harvesting transmitter which does not have a battery to save energy. In the absence of a battery that this channel is an instance of the state-dependent wiretap channel with state available only to the transmitter

  6. Low-Resonant-Frequency Micro Electret Generator for Energy Harvesting Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Edamoto; Y. Suzuki; N. Kasagi; K. Kashiwagi; Y. Morizawa; T. Yokoyama; T. Seki; M. Oba

    2009-01-01

    A vibration-driven electret generator has been developed for energy harvesting applications. By using parylene as the spring material, a low-resonant-frequency MEMS generator is realized. Electrostatic levitation is adopted for the gap control. Large in-plane amplitude of 0.5 mm at the resonant frequency as low as 21 Hz has been achieved. We also demonstrate electret-powered operation of LED using a low-power-consumption

  7. Optimized piezoelectric energy harvesting circuit using step-down converter in discontinuous conduction mode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geffrey K. Ottman; H. F. Hofmann; George A. Lesieutre

    2002-01-01

    An optimized method of harvesting vibrational energy with a piezoelectric element using a step-down DC-DC converter is presented. In this configuration, the converter regulates the power flow from the piezoelectric element to the desired electronic load. Analysis of the converter in discontinuous current conduction mode results in an expression for the duty cycle-power relationship. Using parameters of the mechanical system,

  8. Optimized piezoelectric energy harvesting circuit using step-down converter in discontinuous conduction mode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geffrey K. Ottman; Heath F. Hofmann; George A. Lesieutre

    2003-01-01

    An optimized method of harvesting vibrational energy with a piezoelectric element using a step-down DC-DC converter is presented. In this configuration, the converter regulates the power flow from the piezoelectric element to the desired electronic load. Analysis of the converter in discontinuous current conduction mode results in an expression for the duty cycle-power relationship. Using parameters of the mechanical system,

  9. Computational FEA Model of A Coupled Piezoelectric Sensor and Plate Structure for Energy Harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Lumentut; K. K. Teh; I. Howard

    his paper presents a mathematical model of a piezo-plate energy-harvesting scheme. An analytical method is used to generate\\u000a a finite element model of the coupled piezoelectric sensor element using Love-Kirchhoff’s plate theory. Constitutive equations\\u000a for a single layer plate element are formulated. The polarisation of the piezoelectric sensor bounded on the upper plate structure\\u000a is due to ambient vibration exerted

  10. Magnetocaloric piezoelectric composites for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, Michael; Liang, Hong

    2012-04-01

    Magnetocaloric alloy, Gd5Si2Ge2, was developed into a composite with the poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) piezoelectric polymer. This multifunctional material possesses unique properties that are suitable for energy conversion and harvesting. Experimental approaches include using an arc melting technique to synthesize the Gd5Si2Ge2 (GSG) alloy and the spinning casting method to fabricate the composite. The materials were characterized using various techniques at different length scales. These include atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the phase transformation of the magnetocaloric material close to its Curie temperature induced a significant increase in power generation in the piezoelectric polymer. The power output of a laminated structure was 1.1 mW, more than 200 thousand times higher than the piezoelectric materials alone (5.1 nW).

  11. Ecological impacts of energy-wood harvests: lessons from whole-tree harvesting and natural disturbance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, Alaina L.; Palik, Brian; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Fraver, Shawn; Bradford, John B.; Nislow, Keith; King, David; Brooks, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent interest in using forest residues and small-diameter material for biofuels is generating a renewed focus on harvesting impacts and forest sustainability. The rich legacy of research from whole-tree harvesting studies can be examined in light of this interest. Although this research largely focused on consequences for forest productivity, in particular carbon and nutrient pools, it also has relevance for examining potential consequences for biodiversity and aquatic ecosystems. This review is framed within a context of contrasting ecosystem impacts from whole-tree harvesting because it represents a high level of biomass removal. Although whole-tree harvesting does not fully use the nonmerchantable biomass available, it indicates the likely direction and magnitude of impacts that can occur through energy-wood harvesting compared with less-intensive conventional harvesting and to dynamics associated with various natural disturbances. The intent of this comparison is to gauge the degree of departure of energy-wood harvesting from less intensive conventional harvesting. The review of the literature found a gradient of increasing departure in residual structural conditions that remained in the forest when conventional and whole-tree harvesting was compared with stand-replacing natural disturbance. Important stand- and landscape-level processes were related to these structural conditions. The consequence of this departure may be especially potent because future energy-wood harvests may more completely use a greater range of forest biomass at potentially shortened rotations, creating a great need for research that explores the largely unknown scale of disturbance that may apply to our forest ecosystems.

  12. Characterization of a rotary piezoelectric energy harvester based on plucking excitation for knee-joint wearable applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzi, Michele; Zhu, Meiling

    2012-05-01

    Wearable medical and electronic devices demand a similarly wearable electrical power supply. Human-based piezoelectric energy harvesters may be the solution, but the mismatch between the typical frequencies of human activities and the optimal operating frequencies of piezoelectric generators calls for the implementation of a frequency up-conversion technique. A rotary piezoelectric energy harvester designed to be attached to the knee-joint is here implemented and characterized. The wearable harvester is based on the plucking method of frequency up-conversion, where a piezoelectric bimorph is deflected by a plectrum and permitted to vibrate unhindered upon release. Experiments were conducted to characterize the energy produced by the rotary piezoelectric energy harvester with different electric loads and different excitation speeds, covering the range between 0.1 and 1 rev s-1 to simulate human gait speeds. The electrical loads were connected to the generator either directly or through a rectifying bridge, as would be found in most power management circuits. The focus of the paper is to study the capability of energy generation of the harvester for knee-joint wearable applications, and study the effects of the different loads and different excitation speeds. It is found that the energy harvested is around 160-490 µJ and strongly depends on the angular speed, the connected electric loads and also the manufacturing quality of the harvester. Statistical analysis is used to predict the potential energy production of a harvester manufactured to tighter tolerances than the one presented here.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A PIEZOELECTRIC BASED ENERGY HARVESTING SYSTEM FOR AUTONOMOUS WIRELESS SENSOR NODES

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DEVELOPMENT OF A PIEZOELECTRIC BASED ENERGY HARVESTING SYSTEM FOR AUTONOMOUS WIRELESS SENSOR NODES implementation using the BIFRED cir- cuit are presented. KEYWORDS : Piezoelectric sensors, Energy harvesting energy harvesting system consisting of piezoelectric diaphragms and by a specialized circuit for energy

  14. MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvester

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Scott R; Datskos, Panagiotis G

    2013-08-27

    A pyroelectric thermal energy harvesting apparatus for generating an electric current includes a cantilevered layered pyroelectric capacitor extending between a first surface and a second surface, where the first surface includes a temperature difference from the second surface. The layered pyroelectric capacitor includes a conductive, bimetal top electrode layer, an intermediate pyroelectric dielectric layer and a conductive bottom electrode layer. In addition, a pair of proof masses is affixed at a distal end of the layered pyroelectric capacitor to face the first surface and the second surface, wherein the proof masses oscillate between the first surface and the second surface such that a pyroelectric current is generated in the pyroelectric capacitor due to temperature cycling when the proof masses alternately contact the first surface and the second surface.

  15. Delay Optimal Scheduling for Energy Harvesting Based Communications

    E-print Network

    Dai, Huaiyu

    ] to minimize the delay constrained outage probability by using two alternating batteries, where the battery. Equipped with a rechargeable battery, a source node can harvest energy from ambient environments and rely by a capacity-limited battery storing harvested energy and the grid. The proposed scheduling scheme would give

  16. The Internet of Tags: Energy-Harvesting Adaptive Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Hone, James

    The Internet of Tags: Energy-Harvesting Adaptive Algorithms Robert Margolies Ph.D. Candidate a top-down approach and develop energy harvesting adaptive algorithms to support the Internet of Tags (IoTags). We believe that IoTags will be a key component of the Internet of Things (IoT). In the near

  17. Design considerations for solar energy harvesting wireless embedded systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Raghunathan; Aman Kansal; Jason Hsu; Jonathan Friedman; Mani B. Srivastava

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable operation of battery powered wireless embed- ded systems (such as sensor nodes) is a key challenge, and considerable research effort has been devoted to energy optimization of such systems. Environmental energy harvesting, in particular solar based, has emerged as a viable technique to supplement battery supplies. However, designing an efficient solar harvesting system to realize the potential benefits of

  18. Energy Harvesting for Structural Health Monitoring Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tajana Rosing; Michael D. Todd; Charles R. Farrar; William Hodgkiss

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of energy harvesting for low-power embedded structural health monitoring (SHM) sensing systems. A statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM is first presented and the concept of energy harvesting for embedded sensing systems is addressed with respect to the data acquisition portion of this paradigm. Next, various existing and emerging sensing modalities used for SHM and

  19. COMPACT LOW FREQUENCY MEANDERED PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY David F. Berdy1

    E-print Network

    Rhoads, Jeffrey F.

    COMPACT LOW FREQUENCY MEANDERED PIEZOELECTRIC ENERGY HARVESTER David F. Berdy1 , P meandered piezoelectric vibration energy harvester with strain-matched electrodes is presented. The device, and piezoelectric [4]. Electromagnetic harvesters are generally bulky, while electrostatic harvesters require

  20. Optimal Packet Scheduling in a Broadcast Channel with an Energy Harvesting Transmitter

    E-print Network

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Optimal Packet Scheduling in a Broadcast Channel with an Energy Harvesting Transmitter Jing Yang (AWGN) broadcast channel, where the transmitter is able to harvest energy from the nature. The harvested setting, we assume that the energy harvesting times and harvested energy amounts are known before

  1. Analytical solutions for galloping-based piezoelectric energy harvesters with various interfacing circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liya; Yang, Yaowen

    2015-07-01

    Recently, the concept of harvesting available energy from the surrounding environment of electronic devices to implement self-powered stand-alone units has attracted a dramatic increase in interest. Many studies have been conducted on the analytical solutions of output responses for vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesters (VPEHs), with both simple ac circuit and advanced circuits such as impedance adaptation, synchronized switching harvesting on inductor (SSHI) and synchronized charge extraction (SCE). However, very little effort has been devoted to deriving explicit output responses of aeroelastic piezoelectric energy harvesters, especially for cases involving sophisticated interface circuits. This paper proposes analytical solutions of the responses of a galloping-based piezoelectric energy harvester (GPEH). Three different interfacing circuits, including the simple ac, standard and SCE circuits, are considered in the analysis, with which the explicit expressions of power, voltage and displacement amplitude are derived. The optimal load and coupling are calculated for maximum power generation. The cut-in wind speeds for these circuits are also formulated. Wind tunnel experiments based on a prototype of a GPEH with a square sectioned bluff body and circuit simulation based on the equivalent circuit model are carried out to validate the analysis. Recommendations on the applicability of different circuits are provided based on the observed behaviors of the circuits. The proposed theoretical solutions provide significant guidelines for accurate evaluation of effectiveness of GPEHs and the scheme of normalization makes it convenient to compare devices with various parameters.

  2. Capacity of the Energy Harvesting Channel with Energy Arrival Information at the Receiver

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    Capacity of the Energy Harvesting Channel with Energy Arrival Information at the Receiver Omur Ozel memoryless communication channel with an energy harvesting transmitter and the energy arrival information with an energy harvesting transmitter where energy arrival information is available at the receiver in addition

  3. Investigation of bistable piezo-composite plates for broadband energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, David N.; Bowen, Christopher R.; Kim, H. Alicia; Gathercole, Nicholas; Clarke, Christopher T.; Inman, Daniel J.

    2013-04-01

    The need to power small electronic components, such as wireless sensor networks, has prompted interest in energy harvesting technologies capable of generating electrical energy from ambient vibrations. There has been a particular focus on piezoelectric materials and devices due to the simplicity of the mechanical to electrical energy conversion and their high strain energy densities compared to electrostatic and electromagnetic equivalents. This paper describes research on an arrangement of piezoelectric elements attached to a bistable asymmetric laminate to understand the dynamic response of the structure and power generation characteristics. The inherent bistability of the underlying structure is exploited for energy harvesting since 'snap-through' from one stable configuration to another is used to strain the piezoelectric materials bonded to the laminate and generate piezoelectric energy. Using high speed digital image correlation, a variety of dynamic modes of oscillation are identified in the bistable harvester. The sensitivity of such vibrational modes to changes in frequency and amplitude are investigated. Electrical power outputs are measured for repeatable snap-through events and are correlated with the modes of oscillation. The typical power generated is approximately 25mW and compares well with the needs of typical wireless senor node applications.

  4. Frequency Rectification Applied to Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting and Improving Available Power of Piezoelectric Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Kazuaki; LCGT Collaboration

    Piezoelectric materials are just now, within the last decade, coming into their own as a commercial material. Capable of converting energy from the mechanical domain to the electrical domain; piezos are ideal sensors, vibration dampers, energy harvesters, and actuators. Frequency rectification, or the conversion of small, high frequency piezoelectric vibrations into useful low frequency actuation, is required to obtain widespread industrial use of piezoelectric devices. This work examines three manifestations of piezoelectric frequency rectification: energy harvesting, a hydraulic motor, and friction based commercial-off-the-shelf motors. An energy harvesting device is developed, manufactured, and tested in this work, resulting in the development of a high Energy Density (J/m 3), high Power Density (W/m3) energy harvester. The device is shown to have an Energy Density nearly twice that of a similar conventional energy harvesting device. The result of this work is the development of an energy harvesting system that generates more energy in a given volume of piezoelectric material, opening the possibility of miniaturization of energy harvesting devices. Also presented is an effort to integrate a high frequency, high flow rate micromachined valve array into a PiezoHydraulic Pump (PHP), enabling resonant operation of the PHP. Currently, the device is limited by the resonant frequency of the proprietary passive check valves. The PHP is fully characterized, and the microvalve array is tested to determine its resonant frequency in a fluid medium. The valve testing resulted in a resonant frequency of 6.9 kHz, slightly lower than the target operating frequency of 10 kHz. Finally, the results of an examination of frequency rectification as applied to COTS piezoelectric motors are presented. Currently, motors are almost universally characterized based upon their available mechanical power. A better comparison is one based upon the actual Energy Density of the piezoelectric material utilized in the motor compared to the theoretical maximum Energy Density under the motor operating conditions (i.e., frequency, applied electric field). The result of this work is a more descriptive metric to evaluate piezoelectric motors that provides information on the effectiveness of the motor drive train; that is, how effectively the motion of the piezoelectric is transferred to the outside world.

  5. Impedance adaptation methods of the piezoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyeoungwoo

    In this study, the important issues of energy recovery were addressed and a comprehensive investigation was performed on harvesting electrical power from an ambient mechanical vibration source. Also discussed are the impedance matching methods used to increase the efficiency of energy transfer from the environment to the application. Initially, the mechanical impedance matching method was investigated to increase mechanical energy transferred to the transducer from the environment. This was done by reducing the mechanical impedance such as damping factor and energy reflection ratio. The vibration source and the transducer were modeled by a two-degree-of-freedom dynamic system with mass, spring constant, and damper. The transmissibility employed to show how much mechanical energy that was transferred in this system was affected by the damping ratio and the stiffness of elastic materials. The mechanical impedance of the system was described by electrical system using analogy between the two systems in order to simply the total mechanical impedance. Secondly, the transduction rate of mechanical energy to electrical energy was improved by using a PZT material which has a high figure of merit and a high electromechanical coupling factor for electrical power generation, and a piezoelectric transducer which has a high transduction rate was designed and fabricated. The high g material (g33 = 40 [10-3Vm/N]) was developed to improve the figure of merit of the PZT ceramics. The cymbal composite transducer has been found as a promising structure for piezoelectric energy harvesting under high force at cyclic conditions (10--200 Hz), because it has almost 40 times higher effective strain coefficient than PZT ceramics. The endcap of cymbal also enhances the endurance of the ceramic to sustain ac load along with stress amplification. In addition, a macro fiber composite (MFC) was employed as a strain component because of its flexibility and the high electromechanical coupling factor. This characteristic is useful for a small force vibration source which has a high displacement such as human's activities. An experimental setup was used to apply the same conditions as a vibrating car engine. The experiment was done with a cymbal transducer which has 29 mm PZT diameter, 1mm PZT thickness, and 0.4mm endcap operating under force of 70 N in the frequency range of 10--200 Hz. It was found that the generated power was increased and the output impedance was decreased with a higher frequency of vibration source at a constant force. The experimental results were found to be in agreement with the analytical results from the model using the equivalent circuit. In addition, the FEM simulation (ATILA) was employed to optimize the dimensions of cymbal transducer such as endcap thickness and PZT thickness. Finally, the electrical impedance matching method used to increase the electrical to electrical energy transfer for some applications was discussed. To match the output impedance, two methods were employed: one is changing capacitance of transducer by size effect and multilayered ceramics, and another one is developing an energy harvesting circuit which consumes low electrical power and maximizes the output transferred to the intended load. The fabricated multilayered ceramics which has 10, 100 mum thick, layers yielded 10 times higher output current for 40 times reduced output load. Also the electrical output power was double. A DC-DC buck converter which has 78% efficiency was fabricated to transfer the accumulated electrical energy to the low output load without consuming more than 5 mW of power itself. In this DC-DC converter, most of the power was consumed by the gate drive which was required for PWM switching. To reduce the power consumption of the gate drive, the switching frequency was fixed at 1 kHz with optimal duty cycle around 1˜5%. Also the dependence of the inductance (L) in the DC-DC converter was investigated and optimized to increase the output power transferred to the small output load. Using this optimized DC-DC converter, two circ

  6. State Amplification and State Masking for the Binary Energy Harvesting Channel

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    State Amplification and State Masking for the Binary Energy Harvesting Channel Kaya Tutuncuoglu1 its energy harvests. Specifically, we study state amplification and state masking, which define- spectively. For an independent and identically distributed energy harvesting process, we first find

  7. Preliminary work for SiC-based piezoelectric energy harvester with mathematical modelling and simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. N. Fakhzan M., K.; Nasrul F. M., N.; Raman, S.; Muthalif, Asan G. A.

    2015-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary work to explore the feasibility of cubic silicon carbide on silicon wafers with integrated proof mass as horizontal cantilever with vertical displacement. The reason of harvesting ambient vibration energy is to convert mechanical energy produces by piezoelectric into useful electrical energy. The collectable energy is useful for powering the low-power devices. Theoretically, the resonant phenomena are a special characteristic in order to optimize the generated output power. The natural frequency of the cantilever can to be tuned with difference proof masses. Another parameter considered in this paper is the damping ratio. Throughout analytical study, small damping ratio will enhance the output power of the piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH). This paper will present a mathematical modelling approach and the simulation validation.

  8. Pyroelectric nanogenerators for harvesting thermoelectric energy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya; Guo, Wenxi; Pradel, Ken C; Zhu, Guang; Zhou, Yusheng; Zhang, Yan; Hu, Youfan; Lin, Long; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-06-13

    Harvesting thermoelectric energy mainly relies on the Seebeck effect that utilizes a temperature difference between two ends of the device for driving the diffusion of charge carriers. However, in an environment that the temperature is spatially uniform without a gradient, the pyroelectric effect has to be the choice, which is based on the spontaneous polarization in certain anisotropic solids due to a time-dependent temperature variation. Using this effect, we experimentally demonstrate the first application of pyroelectric ZnO nanowire arrays for converting heat energy into electricity. The coupling of the pyroelectric and semiconducting properties in ZnO creates a polarization electric field and charge separation along the ZnO nanowire as a result of the time-dependent change in temperature. The fabricated nanogenerator has a good stability, and the characteristic coefficient of heat flow conversion into electricity is estimated to be ?0.05-0.08 Vm(2)/W. Our study has the potential of using pyroelectric nanowires to convert wasted energy into electricity for powering nanodevices. PMID:22545631

  9. Theoretical modeling and experimental realization of dynamically magnified thermoacoustic-piezoelectric energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouh, M.; Aldraihem, O.; Baz, A.

    2014-07-01

    Conventional thermoacoustic-piezoelectric (TAP) harvesters convert thermal energy, such as solar or waste heat energy, directly into electrical energy without the need for any moving components. The input thermal energy generates a steep temperature gradient along a porous medium. At a critical threshold of the temperature gradient, self-sustained acoustic waves are developed inside an acoustic resonator. The associated pressure fluctuations impinge on a piezoelectric diaphragm, placed at the end of the resonator. In this study, the TAP harvester is coupled with an auxiliary elastic structure in the form of a simple spring-mass system to amplify the strain experienced by the piezoelectric element. The auxiliary structure is referred to as a dynamic magnifier and has been shown in different areas to significantly amplify the deflection of vibrating structures. A comprehensive model of the dynamically magnified thermoacoustic-piezoelectric (DMTAP) harvester has been developed that includes equations of motions of the system's mechanical components, the harvested voltage, the mechanical impedance of the coupled structure at the resonator end and the equations necessary to compute the self-excited frequencies of oscillations inside the acoustic resonator. Theoretical results confirmed that significant amplification of the harvested power is feasible if the magnifier's parameters are properly chosen. The performance characteristics of experimental prototypes of a thermoacoustic-piezoelectric resonator with and without the magnifier are examined. The obtained experimental findings are validated against the theoretical results. Dynamic magnifiers serve as a novel approach to enhance the effectiveness of thermoacoustic energy harvested from waste heat by increasing the efficiency of their harvesting components.

  10. Energy harvesting with piezoelectric grass for autonomous self-sustaining sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobeck, Jared Dale

    The primary objective of this research is to develop a deploy-and-forget energy harvesting device for use in low velocity, highly turbulent, and unpredictable fluid flow environments. The work presented in this dissertation focuses on a novel, lightweight, highly robust, energy harvester design referred to as piezoelectric grass. This biologically inspired design consists of an array of cantilevers, constructed with piezoelectric material. When exposed to a wide range of flow conditions, these cantilevers experience vigorous persistent vibration. Included in this work is an experimentally validated theoretical analysis of the piezoelectric grass harvester generalized for the case of a single cantilever in turbulent cross-flow. A brief parameter optimization study is presented using this distributed parameter model. Two high-sensitivity pressure probes were needed to perform spatiotemporal measurements within various turbulent flows. Measurements with these probes are used to develop a turbulent fluid forcing function. This function is then combined with an analytical structural dynamics model such that not only the modal RMS displacements, but also the modal displacement power spectral density trends are predicted for a given structure. Pressure probe design, turbulence measurement techniques, and both statistical and analytical models are validated with experimental results. An experimental investigation on the energy harvesting potential of large harvester arrays containing up to 112 flexible piezoelectric structures is presented. Experimental results show that a given array will experience large amplitude, waving, resonant-type vibration over a large range of velocities, and is unaffected by large-scale turbulence upstream of the array. These dynamic characteristics make large arrays of flexible piezoelectric structures ideal for many energy harvesting applications. Lastly, this dissertation presents the first documented investigation of a flow-induced vibration phenomenon referred to as dual cantilever flutter (DCF). At a particular combination of flow velocity and distance between two adjacent beams, aeroelastic coupling between the beams causes them to become unstable and undergo limit cycle oscillations. An attractive feature of DCF for energy harvesting is that it provides robust flow-induced excitation over a large range of flow velocities. An experimentally validated lumped parameter model for DCF is presented. Results include CFD simulations that were setup and executed using ANSYS-CFX.

  11. Beacon-less mobility assisted energy efficient georouting in energy harvesting actuator and

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Beacon-less mobility assisted energy efficient georouting in energy harvesting actuator and sensor controlled mobility, and takes account of the energy consumption and the energy harvesting to select next hop position. If, on its route, it finds a good spot for energy harvesting, it will actually stop its movement

  12. Energy Efficient Transmission Strategies for Body Sensor Networks with Energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Sikdar, Biplab

    1 Energy Efficient Transmission Strategies for Body Sensor Networks with Energy Harvesting Alireza of developing energy efficient transmission strategies for Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) with energy harvesting error probability are available to the sensor nodes. Taking into account the energy harvesting capa

  13. Design Considerations for a Universal Smart Energy Module for Energy Harvesting in Wireless

    E-print Network

    Turau, Volker

    Design Considerations for a Universal Smart Energy Module for Energy Harvesting in Wireless Sensor. It supports a wide range of energy harvesters and energy storage systems. The focus is on the efficient to a few years at most. Energy harvesting is a suitable solution for a potentially unlimited lifetime

  14. Energy Harvesting Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks: Energy Model and Battery Dimensioning

    E-print Network

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Energy Harvesting Enabled Wireless Sensor Networks: Energy Model and Battery Dimensioning Raul of Energy Harvesting. How- ever, the low power density that these energy sources pro- vide compared of the harvesting process and the energy storage capacity. A typical solution to reduce this loss probability

  15. An Optimal Energy Allocation Algorithm for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Wong, Vincent

    An Optimal Energy Allocation Algorithm for Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks Shaobo Mao--With the use of energy harvesting technologies, the lifetime of a wireless sensor network (WSN) can be pro management policy of an energy harvesting WSN needs to take into account the energy replenishment process

  16. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting using a Synchronized Switch Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrien Badel; Daniel Guyomar; Elie Lefeuvre; Claude Richard

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a new approach to harvest electrical energy from a mechanically excited structure equipped with piezoelectric elements. Standard harvesting circuits using piezoelectric elements as an electric generator consist of an AC-DC converter coupled to a load. The technique proposed herein is fully compatible with the standard approach. The difference consists in adding up an electrical switching device connected

  17. Resistor Emulation Approach to Low-Power Energy Harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thurein S. Paing; Regan Zane

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an approach and associated circuitry for harvesting near maximum output from low power sources in the 100 muW range for miniature wireless devices. A set of converter topologies and control approaches are presented together with detailed efficiency analysis and a design example for a buck-boost based energy harvesting converter using commercially available discrete circuitry. Experimental results are

  18. Energy harvesting based on piezoelectric Ericsson cycles in a piezoceramic material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Ducharne, B.; Guyomar, D.; Sebald, G.

    2013-09-01

    The possibility of recycling ambient energies with electric generators instead of using batteries with limited life spans has stimulated important research efforts over the past years. The integration of such generators into mainly autonomous low-power systems, for various industrial or domestic applications is envisioned. In particular, the present work deals with energy harvesting from mechanical vibrations. It is shown here that direct piezoelectric energy harvesting (short circuiting on an adapted resistance, for example) leads to relatively weak energy levels that are insufficient for an industrial development. By coupling an electric field and mechanical excitation on Ericsson-based cycles, the amplitude of the harvested energy can be highly increased, and can reach a maximum close to 100 times its initial value. To obtain such a gain, one needs to employ high electrical field levels (high amplitude, high frequency), which induce a non-linearity through the piezoceramic. A special dynamic hysteresis model has been developed to correctly take into account the material properties, and to provide a real estimation of the harvested energy. A large number of theoretical predictions and experimental results have been compared and are discussed herein, in order to validate the proposed solution.

  19. Sustained high-frequency energy harvesting through a strongly nonlinear electromechanical system under single and repeated impulsive excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remick, Kevin; Joo, Han Kyul; McFarland, D. Michael; Sapsis, Themistoklis P.; Bergman, Lawrence; Quinn, D. Dane; Vakakis, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    This work investigates a vibration-based energy harvesting system composed of two oscillators coupled with essential (nonlinearizable) stiffness nonlinearity and subject to impulsive loading of the mechanical component. The oscillators in the system consist of one grounded, weakly damped linear oscillator mass (primary system), which is coupled to a second light-weight, weakly damped oscillating mass attachment (the harvesting element) through a piezoelastic cable. Due to geometric/kinematic mechanical effects the piezoelastic cable generates a nonlinearizable cubic stiffness nonlinearity, whereas electromechanical coupling simply sees a resistive load. Under single and repeated impulsive inputs the transient damped dynamics of this system exhibit transient resonance captures (TRCs) causing high-frequency 'bursts' or instabilities in the response of the harvesting element. In turn, these high-frequency dynamic instabilities result in strong and sustained energy transfers from the directly excited primary system to the lightweight harvester, which, through the piezoelastic element, are harvested by the electrical component of the system or, in the present case, dissipated across a resistive element in the circuit. The primary goal of this work is to demonstrate the efficacy of employing this type of high-frequency dynamic instability to achieve enhanced nonlinear vibration energy harvesting under impulsive excitations.

  20. Noise Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammaitoni, L.; Cottone, F.; Neri, I.; Vocca, H.

    2009-04-01

    Kinetic energy harvesting has been the subject of a significant research effort in the last twenty years. Unfortunately most of the energy available at the microscales comes in the form of random vibrations with a wide spectrum of frequencies while standard harvesting methods are based on linear oscillators that are resonantly tuned in narrow frequency ranges. In this paper we present a novel approach based on the exploitation of nonlinear stochastic dynamics and show that, under proper conditions nonlinear oscillators can beat the standard linear approaches with significant increase in the harvesting efficency. For the sake of demonstration we present experimental results from a toy-model bistable oscillator made by a piezoelectric inverted pendulum.

  1. Optimization of an Electromagnetic Energy Harvesting Device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chitta Ranjan Saha; Terence O'Donnell; Heiko Loder; Steve Beeby; John Tudor

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling and optimization of an electromagnetic-based generator for generating power from ambient vibrations. Basic equations describing such generators are presented and the conditions for maximum power generation are described. Two-centimeter scale prototype generators, which consist of magnets suspended on a beam vibrating relative to a coil, have been built and tested. The measured power and modeled

  2. Scaling of electromagnetic transducers for shunt damping and energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Zilletti, Michele

    2014-04-01

    In order for an electromagnetic transducer to operate well as either a mechanical shunt damper or as a vibration energy harvester, it must have good electromechanical coupling. A simple two-port analysis is used to derive a non-dimensional measure of electromechanical coupling, which must be large compared with unity for efficient operation in both of these applications. The two-port parameters for an inertial electromagnetic transducer are derived, from which this non-dimensional coupling parameter can be evaluated. The largest value that this parameter takes is approximately equal to the square of the magnetic flux density times the length of wire in the field, divided by the mechanical damping times the electrical resistance. This parameter is found to be only of the order of one for voice coil devices that weigh approximately 1 kg, and so such devices are generally not efficient, within the definition used here, in either of these applications. The non-dimensional coupling parameter is found to scale in approximate proportion to the device's characteristic length, however, and so although miniaturised devices are less efficient, greater efficiency can be obtained with large devices, such as those used to control civil engineering structures.

  3. Piezoelectric and electromagnetic respiratory effort energy harvesters.

    PubMed

    Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Padasdao, Bryson; Romine, R; Stickley, C; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The movements of the torso due to normal breathing could be harvested as an alternative, and renewable power source for an ultra-low power electronic device. The same output signal could also be recorded as a physiological signal containing information about breathing, thus enabling self-powered wearable biosensors/harvesters. In this paper, the selection criteria for such a biosensor, optimization procedure, trade-offs, and challenges as a sensor and harvester are presented. The empirical data obtained from testing different modules on a mechanical torso and a human subject demonstrated that an electromagnetic generator could be used as an unobtrusive self-powered medical sensor by harvesting more power, offering reasonable amount of output voltage for rectification purposes, and detecting respiratory effort. PMID:24110468

  4. High temperature energy harvester for wireless sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, J. E.; Heijl, R.; Staaf, L. G. H.; Zenkic, S.; Svenman, E.; Lindblom, A.; Palmqvist, A. E. C.; Enoksson, P.

    2014-09-01

    Implementing energy harvesters and wireless sensors in jet engines will simplify development and decrease costs by reducing the need for cables. Such a device could include a small thermoelectric generator placed in the cooling channels of the jet engine where the temperature is between 500-900 °C. This paper covers the synthesis of suitable thermoelectric materials, design of module and proof of concept tests of a thermoelectric module. The materials and other design variables were chosen based on an analytic model and numerical analysis. The module was optimized for 600-800 °C with the thermoelectric materials n-type Ba8Ga16Ge30 and p-type La-doped Yb14MnSb11, both with among the highest reported figure-of-merit values, zT, for bulk materials in this region. The materials were synthesized and their structures confirmed by x-ray diffraction. Proof of concept modules containing only two thermoelectric legs were built and tested at high temperatures and under high temperature gradients. The modules were designed to survive an ambient temperature gradient of up to 200 °C. The first measurements at low temperature showed that the thermoelectric legs could withstand a temperature gradient of 123 °C and still be functional. The high temperature measurement with 800 °C on the hot side showed that the module remained functional at this temperature.

  5. Piezoelectric Energy Harvester for Batteryless Switch Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Soo; Lee, Sung-Chan; Kim, Sin-Woong; Jeong, Soon-Jong; Kim, In-Sung; Song, Jaesung

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated a piezoelectric energy-harvesting system for a mechanical switch device. Piezoelectric ceramics of 0.4Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.25PbZrO3-0.35PbTiO3 were prepared by using a conventional solid-state reaction method. Li2O, Bi2O3, and CuO additions were used as sintering aids to develop piezoelectric ceramics for low-temperature sintering. Multilayer piezoelectric ceramics with 10×10×3 mm3 sizes and with Ag-Pd inner electrodes were manufactured by using the conventional tape-casting method with the prepared powder. A prototype of a piezoelectric batteryless switch device using the multilayer ceramics was produced. It showed an output peak-to-peak voltage of 3.8 V and an output power per strike of 18 µW. The performance of the device was good enough for practical use.

  6. Waste of radio frequency signal analysis for wireless energy harvester

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohd Aminurrahim bin Othman

    2010-01-01

    Process by which energy is derived from external sources like thermal energy, wind energy and kinetic energy, captured and stored are called `Energy Harvesting' or `Energy Scavenging'. Normally this method is applied to small autonomous robot, wearable electronic devices and wireless sensor networks. Firstly, radio frequency (RF) radiation is a subset of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of 100km to

  7. Innovative thermal energy harvesting for future autonomous applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfray, Stephane

    2013-12-01

    As communicating autonomous systems market is booming, the role of energy harvesting will be a key enabler. As example, heat is one of the most abundant energy sources that can be converted into electricity in order to power circuits. Harvesting systems that use wasted heat open new ways to power autonomous sensors when the energy consumption is low, or to create systems of power generators when the conversion efficiency is high. The combination of different technologies (low power ?-processors, ?-batteries, radio, sensors...) with new energy harvesters compatible with large varieties of use-cases with allow to address this booming market. Thanks to the conjunction of ultra-low power electronic development, 3D technologies & Systems in Package approaches, the integration of autonomous sensors and electronics with ambient energy harvesting will be achievable. The applications are very wide, from environment and industrial sensors to medical portable applications, and the Internet of things may also represent in the future a several billions units market.

  8. Optimizing energy harvesting parameters using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Mane, Poorna; Mossi, Karla; Green, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    Energy harvesting is a process in which energy that would otherwise be wasted is stored and then used to power a system. Due to their unique properties piezoelectric materials are ideal for energy harvesting applications. In this study a pre-stressed piezoelectric composite was pressure loaded dynamically to harvest energy. The objective of this study was to optimize, using piezoelectric diaphragms, relevant parameters that have an effect on the energy harvesting process. Parameters considered were temperature, pressure, resistance and frequency. Response surface methodology was used to develop models to identify optimal parameter ranges and also to predict power conversion capabilities for specific parameter levels. Power densities of approximately 24.27 microW/mm(3) were measured at optimal conditions. The model identified an optimal temperature of 12 degrees C and a pressure of 240 kPa, which are in agreement with experimental results. PMID:19411203

  9. The effects of width reduction on cantilever type piezoelectric energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Jongbeom; Zhai, Linding; Dayou, Jedol; Kim, Jeong-Woong; Kim, Jaehwan

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, energy harvesting capability is examined by changing the width of cantilever beam and piezoelectric cellulose. It is started from hypothesis that if cantilever piezoelectric energy harvester with given width are split, it would increase power output due to the fact that the divided pieces have smaller damping ratio than the original single piece, in turn, they are supposed to vibrate with high amplitude at resonance frequency. In the experiment, as a piezoelectric material, cellulose Piezo Paper is prepared with aluminum electrode deposition. By attaching the Piezo Paper on an aluminum beam, a cantilever type piezoelectric energy harvester is made. The given width of the beam is 5cm, and sets of Piezo Papers with different width and number of beams are made as, 5cm x 1, 2.5cm x 2, 1.66cm x 3, 1.25cm x 4, 1cm x 5 and 0.83cm x 6 beams. Cantilever beams are vibrated on a shaker at its resonance frequency and examined their electrical characteristics in terms of output voltage and current. The results are compared with the original beam of 5 cm wide.

  10. A bulk micromachined lead zinconate titanate cantilever energy harvester with inter-digital IrO(x) electrodes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongcheol; Park, Jae Yeong

    2013-10-01

    A piezoelectric vibration energy harvester with inter-digital IrO(x) electrode was developed by using silicon bulk micromachining technology. Most PZT cantilever based energy harvesters have utilized platinum electrode material. However, the PZT fatigue characteristics and adhesion/delamination problems caused by the platinum electrode might be serious problem in reliability of energy harvester. To address these problems, the iridium oxide was newly applied. The proposed energy harvester was comprised of bulk micromachined silicon cantilever with 800 x 1000 x 20 microm3, which having a silicon supporting membrane, sol-gel-spin coated Pb(Zr52, Ti48)O3 thin film, and sputtered inter-digitally shaped IrO(x) electrodes, and silicon inertial mass with 1000 x 1000 x 500 microm3 to adjust its resonant frequency. The fabricated energy harvester generated 1 microW of electrical power to 470 komega of load resistance and 1.4 V(peak-to-peak) from a vibration of 0.4 g at 1.475 kHz. The corresponding power density was 6.25 mW x cm(-3) x g(-2). As expected, its electrical failure was significantly improved. PMID:24245226

  11. IEEE/ACM TRANS. ON NETWORKING, TO APPEAR 1 Utility Optimal Scheduling in Energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Huang, Longbo

    IEEE/ACM TRANS. ON NETWORKING, TO APPEAR 1 Utility Optimal Scheduling in Energy Harvesting Networks performance in energy harvesting networks with only finite capacity energy storage devices. In these networks, nodes are capable of harvesting energy from the environment. The amount of energy that can be harvested

  12. Fokker-Planck equation analysis of randomly excited nonlinear energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Narayanan, S.; Adhikari, S.; Friswell, M. I.

    2014-03-01

    The probability structure of the response and energy harvested from a nonlinear oscillator subjected to white noise excitation is investigated by solution of the corresponding Fokker-Planck (FP) equation. The nonlinear oscillator is the classical double well potential Duffing oscillator corresponding to the first mode vibration of a cantilever beam suspended between permanent magnets and with bonded piezoelectric patches for purposes of energy harvesting. The FP equation of the coupled electromechanical system of equations is derived. The finite element method is used to solve the FP equation giving the joint probability density functions of the response as well as the voltage generated from the piezoelectric patches. The FE method is also applied to the nonlinear inductive energy harvester of Daqaq and the results are compared. The mean square response and voltage are obtained for different white noise intensities. The effects of the system parameters on the mean square voltage are studied. It is observed that the energy harvested can be enhanced by suitable choice of the excitation intensity and the parameters. The results of the FP approach agree very well with Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) results.

  13. Evaluation of smart-fabric approach to biomechanical energy harvesting

    E-print Network

    Denault, Sebastian Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    This thesis evaluates the proposed use of piezoelectric energy harvesting methods as a power source for light-up sneakers. Light-up sneakers currently marketed for purposes of pedestrian visibility and personal fashion are ...

  14. Energy Harvesting for Self-Powered Wireless Sensors 

    E-print Network

    Wardlaw, Jason

    2012-02-14

    memory alloy (MSMA) energy harvesting material and a low-frequency, low-power rectifier multiplier (RM). Experimental characterizations of the MSMA device and the RM are presented. A study on practical implementation of a strain gauge sensor and its...

  15. Fundamental study of mechanical energy harvesting using piezoelectric nanostructures

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xudong

    Fundamental study of mechanical energy harvesting using piezoelectric nanostructures Chengliang Sun efficiency of piezoelectric nanostructures, including rectangular nanowires NWs , hexagonal NWs, and two-dimensional vertical thin films the nanofins . Static analysis studies the maximum piezoelectric potential that can

  16. Design of test bench apparatus for piezoelectric energy harvesters

    E-print Network

    Yoon, You C. (You Chang)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the design and analysis of an experimental test bench for the characterization of piezoelectric microelectromechanical system (MEMS) energy harvester being developed by the Micro & Nano Systems Laboratory ...

  17. Energy harvesting star-shaped molecules for electroluminescence applications.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K R Justin; Velusamy, Marappan; Lin, Jiann T; Sun, Shih-Sheng; Tao, Yu-Tai; Chuen, Chang-Hao

    2004-10-21

    Novel energy harvesting molecules featuring hexaarylbenzene based triarylamine donors and a dithienyl benzothiadiazole acceptor, and that emit red light in electroluminescent devices, have been prepared for the first time. PMID:15490004

  18. Figure 1: Configuration of energy recovering system Modeling of an Electromechanical Energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Keywords--regenerative; energy harvesting; vehicle suspension; electromagnetic. I. INTRODUCTION Nowadays of electronics power needs. [1], presents a brief history of energy harvesting: the techniques of conversion generator [5] and [6], to create a linear alternator in loudspeakers [7], or to harvest energy from low

  19. Microbial fuel cell energy harvesting using synchronous flyback converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaraj, Muhannad; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Park, Jae-Do

    2014-02-01

    Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) use biodegradable substrates, such as wastewater and marine sediments to generate electrical energy. To harvest more energy from an MFC, power electronic converters have recently been used to replace resistors or charge pumps, because they have superior controllability on MFC's operating point and higher efficiency in energy storage for different applications. Conventional diode-based energy harvesters suffer from low efficiency because of the energy losses through the diode. Replacing the diode with a MOSFET can reduce the conduction loss, but it requires an isolated gate signal to control the floating secondary MOSFET, which makes the control circuitry complex. This study presents a new MFC energy harvesting regime using a synchronous flyback converter, which implements a transformer-based harvester with much simpler configuration and improves harvesting efficiency by 37.6% compared to a diode based boost converter, from 33.5% to 46.1%. The proposed harvester was able to store 2.27 J in the output capacitor out of 4.91 J generated energy from the MFC, while the boost converter can capture 1.67 J from 4.95 J.

  20. Shear mode energy harvesting of piezoelectric sandwich beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2013-04-01

    Piezoelectric materials due to their high electromechanical coupling properties are good candidates for energy harvesting applications by transforming mechanical energy to electrical power. The piezoelectric coupling coefficient of each material is dependent on its operating mode and higher coupling coefficient means higher efficiency in energy harvesting. In most of the piezoelectric materials, the d15 piezoelectric strain coefficient is the highest coefficient compared to the d33 and d31 coefficients. However complicated fabrication and evaluation of energy harvesting devices operating in the shear mode has slow down the research in this area. The shear piezoelectric effect can be induced during the steady state response of a thick cantilever composite beam due to the effect of shear force through the thickness. Here, a model based on the Timoshenko beam theory is developed to estimate the electric power output in a cantilever beam with a piezoelectric core subjected to the base excitation. The governing electromechanical equations as well as the output voltage and power frequency responses are derived for the piezoelectric sandwich beam. This model is applicable to different geometries and piezoelectric compositions in order to design an optimal shear energy harvester. At the end, the performance of this type of shear energy harvesters is compared to the typical cantilever bimorph energy harvesting beams with the same piezoelectric volume.

  1. Hybrid Nanogenerator for Concurrently Harvesting Biomechanical and Biochemical Energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin J. Hansen; Ying Liu; Rusen Yang; Zhong Lin Wang

    2010-01-01

    Harvesting energy from multiple sources available in our personal and daily environments is highly desirable, not only for powering personal electronics, but also for future implantable sensor-transmitter devices for biomedical and healthcare applications. Here we present a hybrid energy scavenging device for potentialin vivoapplications. The hybrid device consists of a piezoelectric poly(vinylidenefluoride) nanofiber nanogeneratorforharvestingmechanicalenergy,suchasfrombreathingorfromthebeatofaheart,andaflexible enzymatic biofuel cell for harvesting the

  2. Laminate composites with enhanced pyroelectric effects for energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. H. S. Chang; Z. Huang

    2010-01-01

    A pyroelectric coefficient enhanced 2-2 connectivity laminate composites' energy harvesting credentials have been assessed. The use of the electrothermal coupling factor for laminate composites (kLam2) for such an assessment has been appraised while the experimental samples are evaluated to show a significant improvement in their performance via pyroelectric coefficient enhancement, demonstrative of their great potential in energy harvesting applications. A

  3. Comparative analysis of piezoelectric power harvesting circuits for rechargeable batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingjie Guan; Wei-Hsin Liao

    2005-01-01

    Using piezoelectric materials to harvest energy from ambient vibrations to power wireless sensors has been of great interest over the past few years. Due to the power output of the piezoelectric materials is relatively low, rechargeable battery is considered as one kind of energy storage to accumulate the harvested energy for intermittent use. Piezoelectric harvesting circuits for rechargeable batteries have

  4. An active piezoelectric energy extraction method for pressure energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deterre, M.; Lefeuvre, E.; Dufour-Gergam, E.

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents an energy harvesting technique to power autonomous systems and more particularly active implantable medical devices. We employ a piezoelectric diaphragm placed in a fluidic environment such as blood subjected to very low frequency (2 Hz) pressure variations that is deflected in a quasi-static manner and transduces mechanical energy into electrical energy. In order to maximize energy generation and to get the most out of a given piezoelectric device, we propose to apply an optimized method to extract the piezoelectrically generated charge through the application of a controlled voltage. We believe that this method could be one of the improvement levers to achieve self-powered miniaturized implants. An analytical model is presented and shows that within its validity domain, the extracted energy is proportional to the desired applied voltage. Taking power electronics losses into account can yield a theoretical increase in the extracted energy of several thousand per cent. Experimental measurements in a pressure chamber have been carried out whose results corroborate the proposed model. For the tested setup, the application of a 10 V peak amplitude square-wave voltage increased the extracted energy by a factor of nine compared to a classical rectifier-based energy harvesting method.

  5. Modeling of a honeycomb-shaped pyroelectric energy harvester for human body heat harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myoung-Soo; Jo, Sung-Eun; Ahn, Hye-Rin; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2015-06-01

    Pyroelectric conversion can be used for thermal energy harvesting in lieu of thermoelectric conversion. In the case of human body energy harvesting, the general pyroelectric energy harvester (PEH) cannot be applied because the weak body heat can hardly penetrate the protecting layer to reach the pyroelectric material. This paper presents the realization of a honeycomb-shaped PEH (H-PEH) and a modeling method of the electrode and hole areas. The fabricated H-PEH successfully generated electrical energy using human body heat. The H-PEH with a 1:1.5 electrode-and-hole area ratio showed the best performance. To verify the human energy harvesting, we evaluated the characteristics of conventional PEH and H-PEH when body heat was used as a heat source. The maximum power of the H-PEH was 0.06 and 0.16 ?W at wind velocities of 2 and 4 m s?1, respectively. These output power values of the H-PEH were 200 and 224% larger than those of the PEH, respectively, according to the wind velocity.

  6. Infrared Energy Harvesting for Optoplasmonics from Nanostructured Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forcherio, Gregory Thomas

    Metamaterials exhibit unique optical resonance characteristics which permit precise engineering of energy pathways within a device. The ability of plasmonic nanostructures to guide electromagnetism offers a platform to reduce global dependence on fossil fuels by harvesting waste heat, which comprises 60% of generated energy around the world. Plasmonic metamaterials were hypothesized to support an exchange of energy between resonance modes, enabling generation of higher energy photons from waste infrared energy. Infrared irradiation of a metamaterial at the Fano coupling lattice resonance was anticipated to re-emit as higher energy visible light at the plasmon resonance. Photonic signals from harvested thermal energy could be used to power wearable medical monitors or off-grid excursions, for example. This thesis developed the design, fabrication, and characterization methods to realize nanostructured metamaterials which permit resonance exchange for infrared energy harvesting applications.

  7. Piezoelectric Harvesters and MEMS Technology: Fabrication, Modeling and Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Renaud; T. Sterken; A. Schmitz; P. Fiorini; C. Van Hoof; R. Puers

    2007-01-01

    Piezoelectric converters designed for harvesting energy from mechanical vibrations have been fabricated by micromachining technologies. The manufactured piezoelectric energy harvesters have been characterized by applying a sinusoidal oscillation as mechanical input and by using a simple resistive load to measure the output power of the system. A maximum output power of 40 muW has been measured for an input vibration

  8. The Optimality of PFPASAP Algorithm for Fixed-Priority Energy-Harvesting Real-Time Systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Optimality of PFPASAP Algorithm for Fixed-Priority Energy-Harvesting Real-Time Systems Yasmina environment can be a very interesting solution, which is known as Energy Harvesting. In this process, energy harvesting system is composed of three parts: The harvester is the part that converts the energy from ambient

  9. Capacity of Fading Gaussian Channel with an Energy Harvesting Sensor Node

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Vinod

    Capacity of Fading Gaussian Channel with an Energy Harvesting Sensor Node R Rajesh CABS, DRDO is becoming an important design goal in wireless sensor networks. Energy harvesting has recently become node with an energy harvesting source and compare various architectures by which the harvested energy

  10. A shoe-embedded piezoelectric energy harvester for wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jingjing; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting mechanical energy from human motion is an attractive approach for obtaining clean and sustainable electric energy to power wearable sensors, which are widely used for health monitoring, activity recognition, gait analysis and so on. This paper studies a piezoelectric energy harvester for the parasitic mechanical energy in shoes originated from human motion. The harvester is based on a specially designed sandwich structure with a thin thickness, which makes it readily compatible with a shoe. Besides, consideration is given to both high performance and excellent durability. The harvester provides an average output power of 1 mW during a walk at a frequency of roughly 1 Hz. Furthermore, a direct current (DC) power supply is built through integrating the harvester with a power management circuit. The DC power supply is tested by driving a simulated wireless transmitter, which can be activated once every 2-3 steps with an active period lasting 5 ms and a mean power of 50 mW. This work demonstrates the feasibility of applying piezoelectric energy harvesters to power wearable sensors. PMID:25019634

  11. A Shoe-Embedded Piezoelectric Energy Harvester for Wearable Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jingjing; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting mechanical energy from human motion is an attractive approach for obtaining clean and sustainable electric energy to power wearable sensors, which are widely used for health monitoring, activity recognition, gait analysis and so on. This paper studies a piezoelectric energy harvester for the parasitic mechanical energy in shoes originated from human motion. The harvester is based on a specially designed sandwich structure with a thin thickness, which makes it readily compatible with a shoe. Besides, consideration is given to both high performance and excellent durability. The harvester provides an average output power of 1 mW during a walk at a frequency of roughly 1 Hz. Furthermore, a direct current (DC) power supply is built through integrating the harvester with a power management circuit. The DC power supply is tested by driving a simulated wireless transmitter, which can be activated once every 2–3 steps with an active period lasting 5 ms and a mean power of 50 mW. This work demonstrates the feasibility of applying piezoelectric energy harvesters to power wearable sensors. PMID:25019634

  12. Cloudy Computing: Leveraging Weather Forecasts in Energy Harvesting Sensor Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Navin Sharma; Jeremy Gummeson; David Irwin; Prashant J. Shenoy

    2010-01-01

    To sustain perpetual operation, systems that harvest environmental energy must carefully regulate their usage to satisfy their demand. Regulating energy usage is challenging if a system's demands are not elastic and its hardware components are not energy-proportional, since it cannot precisely scale its usage to match its supply. Instead, the system must choose when to satisfy its energy demands based

  13. COTTON HARVEST PREPARATION USING THERMAL ENERGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is prepared for mechanical harvest using desiccant and defoliant chemicals. Conventional chemical defoliation is not effective immediately, it requires a period of good weather, and it is restricted in organic production. This study was conducted to determine what impact thermal defoliation...

  14. Magnetostrictive-piezoelectric composite structures for energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafont, Thomas; Gimeno, L.; Delamare, J.; Lebedev, G. A.; Zakharov, D. I.; Viala, B.; Cugat, O.; Galopin, N.; Garbuio, L.; Geoffroy, O.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, harvesters coupling magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials are investigated. The energy conversion of quasi-static magnetic field variations into electricity is detailed. Experimental results are exposed for two macroscopic demonstrators based on the rotation of a permanent magnet. These composite/hybrid devices use both piezoelectric and magnetostrictive (amorphous FeSiB ribbon or bulk Terfenol-D) materials. A quasi-static (or ultra-low frequency) harvester is constructed with exploitable output voltage, even in quasi-static mode. Integrated micro-harvesters using sub-micron multilayers of active materials on Si have been built and are currently being characterized.

  15. Single stage AC-DC converter for Galfenol-based micro-power energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavaroc, Peyton; Curtis, Chandra; Naik, Suketu; Cooper, James

    2014-06-01

    Military based sensor systems are often hindered in operational deployment and/or other capabilities due to limitations in their energy storage elements. Typically operating from lithium based batteries, there is a finite amount of stored energy which the sensor can use to collect and transmit data. As a result, the sensors have reduced sensing and transmission rates. However, coupled with the latest advancements in energy harvesting, these sensors could potentially operate at standard sensing and transition rates as well as dramatically extend lifetimes. Working with the magnetostrictive material Galfenol, we demonstrate the production of enough energy to supplement and recharge a solid state battery thereby overcoming the deficiencies faced by unattended sensors. As with any vibration-based energy harvester, this solution produces an alternating current which needs to be rectified and boosted to a level conducive to recharge the storage element. This paper presents a power converter capable of efficiently converting an ultra-low AC voltage to a solid state charging voltage of 4.1VDC. While we are working with Galfenol transducers as our energy source, this converter may also be applied with any AC producing energy harvester, particularly at operating levels less than 2mW and 200mVAC.

  16. Development of MEMS based pyroelectric thermal energy harvesters

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL; Lavrik, Nickolay V [ORNL; Bannuru, Thirumalesh [ORNL; Mostafa, Salwa [ORNL; Rajic, Slobodan [ORNL; Datskos, Panos G [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The efficient conversion of waste thermal energy into electrical energy is of considerable interest due to the huge sources of low-grade thermal energy available in technologically advanced societies. Our group at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a new type of high efficiency thermal waste heat energy converter that can be used to actively cool electronic devices, concentrated photovoltaic solar cells, computers and large waste heat producing systems, while generating electricity that can be used to power remote monitoring sensor systems, or recycled to provide electrical power. The energy harvester is a temperature cycled pyroelectric thermal-to-electrical energy harvester that can be used to generate electrical energy from thermal waste streams with temperature gradients of only a few degrees. The approach uses a resonantly driven pyroelectric capacitive bimorph cantilever structure that potentially has energy conversion efficiencies several times those of any previously demonstrated pyroelectric or thermoelectric thermal energy harvesters. The goals of this effort are to demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating high conversion efficiency MEMS based pyroelectric energy converters that can be fabricated into scalable arrays using well known microscale fabrication techniques and materials. These fabrication efforts are supported by detailed modeling studies of the pyroelectric energy converter structures to demonstrate the energy conversion efficiencies and electrical energy generation capabilities of these energy converters. This paper reports on the modeling, fabrication and testing of test structures and single element devices that demonstrate the potential of this technology for the development of high efficiency thermal-to-electrical energy harvesters.

  17. The Assistance of Molecular Vibrations on Coherent Energy Transfer in Photosynthesis from the View of Quantum Heat Engine

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Zhedong

    2015-01-01

    Recently the quantum nature in the energy transport in solar cell and light-harvesting complexes have attracted much attention, as being triggered by the experimental observations. We model the light-harvesting complex (i.e., PEB50 dimer) as a quantum heat engine (QHE) and study the effect of the undamped intra-molecule vibrational modes on the coherent energy transfer process and quantum transport. We find that the exciton-vibration interaction has non-trivial contribution to the promotion of quantum yield as well as transport properties of the quantum heat engine at steady state, by enhancing the quantum coherence quantified by entanglement entropy. The perfect quantum yield over 90% has been obtained, with theexciton-vibration coupling. We attribute these improvements to the renormalization of the electronic couplings effectively induced by exciton-vibration interaction and the subsequent delocalization of excitons. Finally we demonstrate that the thermal relaxation and dephasing can help the excitation en...

  18. Energy harvesting under excitations of time-varying frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seuaciuc-Osório, Thiago; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

    2010-06-01

    The design and optimization of energy harvesters capable of scavenging energy efficiently from realistic environments require a deep understanding of their transduction under non-stationary and random excitations. Otherwise, their small energy outputs can be further decreased lowering their efficiency and rendering many critical and possibly life saving technologies inefficient. As a first step towards this critical understanding, this effort investigates the response of energy harvesters to harmonic excitations of time-varying frequency. Such excitations can be used to represent the behavior of realistic vibratory environments whose frequency varies or drifts with time. Specifically, we consider a piezoelectric stack-type harvester subjected to a harmonic excitation of constant amplitude and a sinusoidally varying frequency. We analyze the response of the harvester in the fixed-frequency scenario then use the Jacobi-Anger's expansion to analyze the response in the time-varying case. We obtain analytical expressions for the harvester's response, output voltage, and power. In-depth analysis of the attained results reveals that the solution to the more complex time-varying frequency can be understood through a process which "samples" the fixed-frequency response curve at a discrete and fixed frequency interval then multiplies the response by proper weights. Extensive discussions addressing the effect of the excitation parameters on the output power is presented leading to some initial suggestions pertinent to the harvester's design and optimization in the sinusoidally varying frequency case.

  19. Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting from Transient Ambient Temperature Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, André; Erd, Metin; Kostic, Milos; Cobry, Keith; Kroener, Michael; Woias, Peter

    2012-06-01

    We examine a thermoelectric harvester that converts electrical energy from the naturally occurring temperature difference between ambient air and large thermal storage capacitors such as building walls or the soil. For maximum power output, the harvester design is implemented in two steps: source matching of the thermal and electrical interfaces to the energy source (system level) followed by load matching of the generator to these interfaces (subsystem level). Therefore, we measure thermal source properties such as the temperature difference, the air velocity, and the cutoff frequency in two application scenarios (road tunnel and office building). We extend a stationary model of the harvester into the time domain to account for transient behavior of the source. Based on the model and the source measurements, we perform the source and load matching. The resulting harvester consists of a pin fin heat sink with a thermal resistance of 6.2 K/W and a cutoff frequency 2.5 times greater than that of the source, a thermoelectric generator, and a DC/DC step-up converter starting at a total temperature difference of only ? T = 1.2 K. In a final road tunnel field test, this optimized harvester converts 70 mJ of electrical energy per day without any direct solar irradiation. The energy provided by the harvester enables 415 data transmissions from a wireless sensor node per day.

  20. Cooperative energy harvesting for long-endurance autonomous vehicle teams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, S. F.; Rogers, J. D.; May, K.; Myatt, D. R.; Hickman, D.; Smith, M. I.

    2010-04-01

    This paper considers the exploitation of energy harvesting technologies for teams of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs). Traditionally, the optimisation of information gathering tasks such as searching for and tracking new objects, and platform level power management, are only integrated at a mission-management level. In order to truly exploit new energy harvesting technologies which are emerging in both the commercial and military domains (for example the 'EATR' robot and next-generation solar panels), the sensor management and power management processes must be directly coupled. This paper presents a novel non-myopic sensor management framework which addresses this issue through the use of a predictive platform energy model. Energy harvesting opportunities are modelled using a dynamic spatial-temporal energy map and sensor and platform actions are optimised according to global team utility. The framework allows the assessment of a variety of different energy harvesting technologies and perceptive tasks. In this paper, two representative scenarios are used to parameterise the model with specific efficiency and energy abundance figures. Simulation results indicate that the integration of intelligent power management with traditional sensor management processes can significantly increase operational endurance and, in some cases, simultaneously improve surveillance or tracking performance. Furthermore, the framework is used to assess the potential impact of energy harvesting technologies at various efficiency levels. This provides important insight into the potential benefits that intelligent power management can offer in relation to improving system performance and reducing the dependency on fossil fuels and logistical support.

  1. Magnetostrictive–piezoelectric composite structures for energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Lafont; L Gimeno; J Delamare; G A Lebedev; D I Zakharov; B Viala; O Cugat; N Galopin; L Garbuio; O Geoffroy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, harvesters coupling magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials are investigated. The energy conversion of quasi-static magnetic field variations into electricity is detailed. Experimental results are exposed for two macroscopic demonstrators based on the rotation of a permanent magnet. These composite\\/hybrid devices use both piezoelectric and magnetostrictive (amorphous FeSiB ribbon or bulk Terfenol-D) materials. A quasi-static (or ultra-low frequency) harvester

  2. Stationary response of nonlinear magneto-piezoelectric energy harvester systems under stochastic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, W.; von Wagner, U.; Litak, G.

    2013-09-01

    Recent years have shown increasing interest of researchers in energy harvesting systems designed to generate electrical energy from ambient energy sources, such as mechanical excitations. In a lot of cases excitation patterns of such systems exhibit random rather than deterministic behaviour with broad-band frequency spectra. In this paper, we study the efficiency of vibration energy harvesting systems with stochastic ambient excitations by solving corresponding Fokker-Planck equations. In the system under consideration, mechanical energy is transformed by a piezoelectric transducer in the presence of mechanical potential functions which are governed by magnetic fields applied to the device. Depending on the magnet positions and orientations the vibrating piezo beam system is subject to characteristic potential functions, including single and double well shapes. Considering random excitation, the probability density function (pdf) of the state variables can be calculated by solving the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation. For this purpose, the pdf is expanded into orthogonal polynomials specially adapted to the problem and the residual is minimized by a Galerkin procedure. The power output has been estimated as a function of basic potential function parameters determining the characteristic pdf shape.

  3. Harvesting Energy from the Counterbalancing (Weaving) Movement in Bicycle Riding

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yoonseok; Yeo, Jeongjin; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Bicycles are known to be rich source of kinetic energy, some of which is available for harvesting during speedy and balanced maneuvers by the user. A conventional dynamo attached to the rim can generate a large amount of output power at an expense of extra energy input from the user. However, when applying energy conversion technology to human powered equipments, it is important to minimize the increase in extra muscular activity and to maximize the efficiency of human movements. This study proposes a novel energy harvesting methodology that utilizes lateral oscillation of bicycle frame (weaving) caused by user weight shifting movements in order to increase the pedaling force in uphill riding or during quick speed-up. Based on the 3D motion analysis, we designed and implemented the prototype of an electro-dynamic energy harvester that can be mounted on the bicycle's handlebar to collect energy from the side-to-side movement. The harvester was found to generate substantial electric output power of 6.6 mW from normal road riding. It was able to generate power even during uphill riding which has never been shown with other approaches. Moreover, harvesting of energy from weaving motion seems to increase the economy of cycling by helping efficient usage of human power. PMID:23112598

  4. A 900MHz RF Energy Harvesting Module TARIS Thierry, VIGNERAS Valrie

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A 900MHz RF Energy Harvesting Module TARIS Thierry, VIGNERAS Valérie IMS lab, University Abstract --This paper presents a guideline to design and optimize a RF energy harvester operating in ISM harvesting module The basic architecture of an RF energy harvester is presented in Fig. 1. The antenna

  5. Information Capacity of an Energy Harvesting Sensor Node

    E-print Network

    Viswanath, Pramod

    to electrical energy. Common energy harvesting devices are solar cells, wind turbines and piezo-electric cells be generated at all times (e.g., a solar cell). Furthermore the rate of generation of energy can be limited by limited battery power, computational resources and storage space. Once deployed, the battery

  6. Evaluation of motions and actuation methods for biomechanical energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penglin Niu; Patrick Chapman; Raziel Riemer; Xudong Zhang

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses energy harvesting from biomechanical motions. Such a technique is useful for powering small portable devices, such as wireless phones, music players, and digital assistants. For very low power devices, biomechanical energy may be enough to provide baseload power. In others, such as cell phones (which typically requires up to 3 W), biomechanical energy would recharge batteries for

  7. Practical energy harvesting for microbial fuel cells: a review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heming; Park, Jae-Do; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-03-17

    The microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology offers sustainable solutions for distributed power systems and energy positive wastewater treatment, but the generation of practically usable power from MFCs remains a major challenge for system scale up and application. Commonly used external resistors will not harvest any usable energy, so energy-harvesting circuits are needed for real world applications. This review summarizes, explains, and discusses the different energy harvesting methods, components, and systems that can extract and condition the MFC energy for direct utilization. This study aims to assist environmental scientists and engineers to gain fundamental understandings of these electronic systems and algorithms, and it also offers research directions and insights on how to overcome the barriers, so the technology can be further advanced and applied in larger scale. PMID:25670167

  8. Energy Aware Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Selection for Real-Time Systems with Energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Qinru

    Energy Aware Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Selection for Real-Time Systems with Energy Harvesting}@binghamton.edu Abstract In this paper, an energy aware dynamic voltage and frequency selection (EA-DVFS) algorithm energy and the harvested energy in a future duration. Specifically, if the system has sufficient energy

  9. Energy harvesting from human motion: exploiting swing and shock excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ylli, K.; Hoffmann, D.; Willmann, A.; Becker, P.; Folkmer, B.; Manoli, Y.

    2015-02-01

    Modern compact and low power sensors and systems are leading towards increasingly integrated wearable systems. One key bottleneck of this technology is the power supply. The use of energy harvesting techniques offers a way of supplying sensor systems without the need for batteries and maintenance. In this work we present the development and characterization of two inductive energy harvesters which exploit different characteristics of the human gait. A multi-coil topology harvester is presented which uses the swing motion of the foot. The second device is a shock-type harvester which is excited into resonance upon heel strike. Both devices were modeled and designed with the key constraint of device height in mind, in order to facilitate the integration into the shoe sole. The devices were characterized under different motion speeds and with two test subjects on a treadmill. An average power output of up to 0.84 mW is achieved with the swing harvester. With a total device volume including the housing of 21 cm3 a power density of 40 ?W cm?3 results. The shock harvester generates an average power output of up to 4.13 mW. The power density amounts to 86 ?W cm?3 for the total device volume of 48 cm3. Difficulties and potential improvements are discussed briefly.

  10. Note: Enhanced energy harvesting from low-frequency magnetic fields utilizing magneto-mechano-electric composite tuning-fork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Aichao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Yang, Chao; Wang, Decai; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Jiajia

    2015-06-01

    A magnetic-field energy harvester using a low-frequency magneto-mechano-electric (MME) composite tuning-fork is proposed. This MME composite tuning-fork consists of a copper tuning fork with piezoelectric Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) plates bonded near its fixed end and with NdFeB magnets attached at its free ends. Due to the resonance coupling between fork prongs, the MME composite tuning-fork owns strong vibration and high Q value. Experimental results show that the proposed magnetic-field energy harvester using the MME composite tuning-fork exhibits approximately 4 times larger maximum output voltage and 7.2 times higher maximum power than the conventional magnetic-field energy harvester using the MME composite cantilever.

  11. Piezoelectric energy harvester operated by noncontact mechanical frequency up-conversion using shell cantilever structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Munseon; Song, Seunghwan; Park, Yong-Hee; Yun, Kwang-Seok

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we propose and demonstrate a piezoelectric energy harvester with a shell cantilever for mechanical frequency up-conversion to generate electric power in a low-frequency vibration environment. The proposed device is composed of a clamped semicylindrical shell cantilever as a driving beam and a piezoelectric cantilever attached to the proof mass of the shell cantilever as a generating beam. The shell cantilever bends downward when the external acceleration is over the threshold value for buckling transition. When the acceleration direction is reversed, the shell cantilever makes abrupt stop at its initial position, inducing impact-like force on the generating beam and resulting in free vibration at high resonance frequencies. Experimental results show that a maximum power of 101 µW at 20 Hz can be obtained.

  12. Energy-harvesting power sources for gun-fired munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Murray, R.; Pereira, C.; Nguyen, H.-L.

    2011-06-01

    A novel class of piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources has been developed for gun-fired munitions which harvest energy from the firing acceleration. These piezoelectric-based devices have been shown to produce enough electrical energy for many applications such as fuzing, where they provide an ultrasafe power source, often eliminating the need for chemical batteries. An overview of the development of these power sources is provided, along with methods and results of laboratory and field testing performed on prototypes. Additionally, methods for integrating the generators into different classes of projectiles are discussed along with strategies for manufacturing and a side-by-side comparison with competing technologies.

  13. Cooperative Energy Harvesting-Adaptive MAC Protocol for WBANs.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Volker; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Kartsakli, Elli; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Miribel-Català, Pere; Verikoukis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a cooperative medium access control (MAC) protocol, named cooperative energy harvesting (CEH)-MAC, that adapts its operation to the energy harvesting (EH) conditions in wireless body area networks (WBANs). In particular, the proposed protocol exploits the EH information in order to set an idle time that allows the relay nodes to charge their batteries and complete the cooperation phase successfully. Extensive simulations have shown that CEH-MAC significantly improves the network performance in terms of throughput, delay and energy efficiency compared to the cooperative operation of the baseline IEEE 802.15.6 standard. PMID:26029950

  14. Wireless sensor networks with energy harvesting technologies: a game-theoretic approach to optimal energy management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dusit Niyato; Ekram Hossain; Mohammad Rashid; Vijay Bhargava

    2007-01-01

    Energy harvesting technologies are required for autonomous sensor networks for which using a power source from a fixed utility or manual battery recharging is infeasible. An energy harvesting device (e.g., a solar cell) converts different forms of environmental energy into electricity to be supplied to a sensor node. However, since it can produce energy only at a limited rate, energy

  15. The effect of polymer fill ratio in pillar structure for piezoelectric energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo; Shin, Dong-Jin; Chae, Moon-Soon; Koo, Sang-Mo; Ha, Jae-Geun; Koh, Jung-Hyuk; Cho, Kyung-Ho; Seo, Chang-Eui; Jeong, Soon-Jong

    2013-07-01

    One method of energy harvesting is to use piezoelectric devices, which are able to interchange electrical energy and mechanical strain or vibration. This study is to experimentally investigate the behavior of a piezoelectric energy harvester that was constructed with an array of pillar structures made of 0.2(PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)-0.8(PbZr0.475Ti0.525O3) with polymer fill. Additionally, the aim of this study is to optimize the fill ratio of the composite piezoelectric ceramics and polymer structure. 0.2(PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3)-0.8(PbZr0.475Ti0.525O3) ceramics were employed as piezoelectric ceramic pillars, prepared in a rectangular shape. These piezoelectric ceramic pillars were sintered separately and attached to a bottom metallic electrode with poled states. The optimum ratio of ceramic pillar and elastic polymer ratio will be discussed. Piezoelectric properties will be discussed including the piezoelectric constant, piezoelectric voltage constants, and electromechanical coupling coefficient. We will present how the harvested energy depends on the lead resistor.

  16. Antenna-coupled dual band RF energy harvester design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Li; Xi Shao; Negin Shahshahan; Neil Goldsman; Thomas S. Salter; George M. Metze

    2011-01-01

    Radio Frequency (RF) energy harvesting aims at collecting and converting ambient RF wave energy into storable electrical energy to power electronics. The reported RF energy density in urban areas can be as high as 0.5?W\\/cm2 which corresponds to an input power level of 16.6 ?W (?17.6 dBm) at 1800MHz [1]. It is thus appealing to convert the RF energy in

  17. A design and experimental verification methodology for an energy harvester skin structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soobum; Youn, Byeng D.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a design and experimental verification methodology for energy harvesting (EH) skin, which opens up a practical and compact piezoelectric energy harvesting concept. In the past, EH research has primarily focused on the design improvement of a cantilever-type EH device. However, such EH devices require additional space for proof mass and fixture and sometimes result in significant energy loss as the clamping condition becomes loose. Unlike the cantilever-type device, the proposed design is simply implemented by laminating a thin piezoelectric patch onto a vibrating structure. The design methodology proposed, which determines a highly efficient piezoelectric material distribution, is composed of two tasks: (i) topology optimization and (ii) shape optimization of the EH material. An outdoor condensing unit is chosen as a case study among many engineered systems with harmonic vibrating configuration. The proposed design methodology determined an optimal PZT material configuration on the outdoor unit skin structure. The designed EH skin was carefully prototyped to demonstrate that it can generate power up to 3.7 mW, which is sustainable for operating wireless sensor units for structural health monitoring and/or building automation.

  18. Development and commercialization strategy for piezoelectric energy-harvesting power sources for gun-fired munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegar, J.; Murray, R.

    2010-04-01

    A novel class of piezoelectric-based energy-harvesting power sources has been developed for gun-fired munitions and similar high-G applications. The power sources are designed to harvest energy primarily from the firing acceleration, but from in-flight vibratory motions as well. During the firing, a spring-mass element reacts to the axial acceleration, deforming and storing mechanical potential energy. After the projectile has exited the muzzle, the spring-mass element is free to vibrate, and the energy of the vibration is harvested using piezoelectric materials. These piezoelectric-based devices have been shown to produce enough electrical energy for many applications such as fuzing, and are able to eliminate the need for chemical batteries in many applications. When employed in fuzing applications, the developed power sources have the added advantage of providing augmented safety, since the fuzing electronics are powered only after the projectile has exited the muzzle and traveled a safe distance from the weapon platform. An overview of the development of these novel power sources is provided, especially designing and packaging for the high-G environment. Extensive laboratory and field testing has been performed on various prototypes; the methods and results of these experiments are presented. In addition to presenting the development and validation of this technology, methods for integrating the generators into different classes of projectiles are discussed along with strategies for manufacturing. This technology is currently validated to the extent that prototype devices have been successfully fired on-board actual gun-fired projectiles, demonstrating survivability and indicating performance. Strategies for designing the devices for a particular round and transitioning to commercialization are also discussed.

  19. Analysis and Optimization of Asynchronously Controlled Electrostatic Energy Harvesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asantha Kempitiya; Diana-Andra Borca-Tasciuc; Mona Mostafa Hella

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical to electrical energy conversion employ- ing variable capacitors is assisted by electronic circuits that can have synchronous or asynchronous architectures. The later does not require synchronization of electrical events with mechanical motion, which eliminates difficulties in gate clocking and the power consumption associated with intelligent control circuitry. However, implementation of asynchronous energy harvesting cir- cuits with the mechanical-to-electrical converter

  20. Nanotechnologies for efficient solar and wind energy harvesting and storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louay A. Eldada

    2010-01-01

    We describe nanotechnologies used to improve the efficient harvest of energy from the Sun and the wind, and the efficient storage of energy in secondary batteries and ultracapacitors, for use in a variety of applications including smart grids, electric vehicles, and portable electronics. We demonstrate high-quality nanostructured copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin films for photovoltaic (PV) applications. The self-assembly

  1. Analysis of power output for piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y C Shu; I C Lien

    2006-01-01

    Power harvesting refers to the practice of acquiring energy from the environment which would be otherwise wasted and converting it into usable electric energy. Much work has been done on studying the optimal AC power output, while little has considered the AC–DC output. This article investigates the optimal AC–DC power generation for a rectified piezoelectric device. In contrast with estimates

  2. Analysis of power output for piezoelectric energy harvesting systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. C. Shu; I. C. Lien

    2006-01-01

    Power harvesting refers to the practice of acquiring energy from the environment which would be otherwise wasted and converting it into usable electric energy. Much work has been done on studying the optimal AC power output, while little has considered the AC-DC output. This article investigates the optimal AC-DC power generation for a rectified piezoelectric device. In contrast with estimates

  3. Real-time scheduling for energy harvesting sensor nodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clemens Moser; Davide Brunelli; Lothar Thiele; Luca Benini

    2007-01-01

    Abstract , Energy harvesting has recently emerged as a feasible option to increase the operating time of sensor networks. If each node, of the network, however, is powered by a fluctuating energy source, common power management solutions have to be reconceived., This holds in particular if real-time responsiveness of a given application has to be guaranteed. Task scheduling at the

  4. An Efficient Solar Energy Harvester for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Davide Brunelli; Luca Benini; Clemens Moser; Lothar Thiele

    2008-01-01

    Solar harvesting circuits have been recently proposed to in- crease the autonomy of embedded systems. One key design chal- lenge is how to optimize the efficiency of solar energy collection under non stationary light conditions. This paper proposes a sca- venger that exploits miniaturized photovoltaic modules to perform automatic maximum power point tracking at a minimum energy cost. The system

  5. Active and reactive power in stochastic resonance for energy harvesting

    E-print Network

    Kubota, Madoka; Hikihara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    A power allocation to active and reactive power in stochastic resonance is discussed for energy harvesting from mechanical noise. It is confirmed that active power can be increased at stochastic resonance, in the same way of the relationship between energy and phase at an appropriate setting in resonance.

  6. Electromechanical fatigue in IPMC under dynamic energy harvesting conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arvind Krishnaswamy; D. Roy Mahapatra

    2011-01-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs) are an interesting subset of smart, multi-functional materials that have shown promises in energy conversion technologies. Being electromechanically coupled, IPMCs can function as dynamic actuators and sensors, transducers for energy conversion and harvesting, as well as artificial muscles for medical and industrial applications. Like all natural materials, even IPMCs undergo fatigue under dynamic load conditions. Here,

  7. Analyses of power output of piezoelectric energy-harvesting devices directly connected to a load resistor using a coupled piezoelectric-circuit finite element method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meiling Zhu; Emma Worthington; James Njuguna

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, a coupled piezoelectric-circuit finite element model (CPC-FEM) to analyze the power output of a vibration-based piezoelectric energy-harvesting device (EHD) when it is connected to a load resistor. Special focus is given to the effect of the load resistor value on the vibrational amplitude of the piezoelectric EHD, and thus on the current, voltage,

  8. Studying piezoelectric nanowires and nanowalls for energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Falconi; Giulia Mantini; Arnaldo D’Amico; Zhong Lin Wang

    2009-01-01

    Piezoelectric nanostructures can transduce mechanical energy into electrical energy for powering implantable microsystems for in-vivo biomedical applications (smart systems for drug delivery, ?TAS, microsensors for diagnostic and therapeutic applications …) and sensors networks for high-density, low cost environment control. Zinc oxide nanowires and microwires have been recently used to convert vibrations into electrical energy. Here, we explain some previously reported

  9. Wireless energy transmission to supplement energy harvesters in sensor network applications

    SciTech Connect

    Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Stuart G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farrar, Charles R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for coupling wireless energy transmission with traditional energy harvesting techniques in order to power sensor nodes for structural health monitoring applications. The goal of this study is to develop a system that can be permanently embedded within civil structures without the need for on-board power sources. Wireless energy transmission is included to supplement energy harvesting techniques that rely on ambient or environmental, energy sources. This approach combines several transducer types that harvest ambient energy with wireless transmission sources, providing a robust solution that does not rely on a single energy source. Experimental results from laboratory and field experiments are presented to address duty cycle limitations of conventional energy harvesting techniques, and the advantages gained by incorporating a wireless energy transmission subsystem. Methods of increasing the efficiency, energy storage medium, target applications and the integrated use of energy harvesting sources with wireless energy transmission will be discussed.

  10. CMOS compatible low-frequency aluminium nitride MEMS piezoelectric energy harvesting device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, N.; O'Keeffe, R.; O'Neill, M.; Waldron, F.; Mathewson, A.

    2013-05-01

    Piezoelectric materials are widely used in various applications including sensors, actuators, and energy harvesting devices. Energy harvesting devices can be used to power autonomous wireless sensors that are placed in remote or difficult to reach areas, where replacing a battery is not practical or feasible. In this paper the authors present work on the fabrication and design of a CMOS compatible Aluminium Nitride (AlN) piezoelectric based MEMS cantilever structure for harvesting vibrational energy. In order for AlN to be piezoelectric it needs to be highly structured in the c-axis (002) crystal orientation. The deposition of highly structured AlN and its polarity is dependent on the underlying films and their crystal orientation. XRD rocking curve results from this paper show a highly oriented (002) AlN film with a FWHM value of 2.1°. The MEMS cantilever structures were fabricated using standard MEMS fabrication techniques using SOI wafers. By optimising the AlN material deposition process and the stress values in the cantilever structures the authors were able obtain a power density of 2.55 mW/ cm3/g2 for a single MEMS structure with 500 nm thick AlN. The cantilever structure had a resonant frequency of approximately 150 Hz. In this paper the authors also investigated methods to increase the bandwidth of the cantilever structures, by building an array of devices with slightly varying length masses.

  11. Nonlinear modeling, strength-based design, and testing of flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters under large dynamic loads for rotorcraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leadenham, Stephen; Erturk, Alper

    2014-04-01

    There has been growing interest in enabling wireless health and usage monitoring for rotorcraft applications, such as helicopter rotor systems. Large dynamic loads and acceleration fluctuations available in these environments make the implementation of vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesters a very promising choice. However, such extreme loads transmitted to the harvester can also be detrimental to piezoelectric laminates and overall system reliability. Particularly flexible resonant cantilever configurations tuned to match the dominant excitation frequency can be subject to very large deformations and failure of brittle piezoelectric laminates due to excessive bending stresses at the root of the harvester. Design of resonant piezoelectric energy harvesters for use in these environments require nonlinear electroelastic dynamic modeling and strength-based analysis to maximize the power output while ensuring that the harvester is still functional. This paper presents a mathematical framework to design and analyze the dynamics of nonlinear flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters under large base acceleration levels. A strength-based limit is imposed to design the piezoelectric energy harvester with a proof mass while accounting for material, geometric, and dissipative nonlinearities, with a focus on two demonstrative case studies having the same linear fundamental resonance frequency but different overhang length and proof mass values. Experiments are conducted at different excitation levels for validation of the nonlinear design approach proposed in this work. The case studies in this work reveal that harvesters exhibiting similar behavior and power generation performance at low excitation levels (e.g. less than 0.1g) can have totally different strength-imposed performance limitations under high excitations (e.g. above 1g). Nonlinear modeling and strength-based design is necessary for such excitation levels especially when using resonant cantilevers with no geometric constraint.

  12. Piezoelectric touch-sensitive flexible hybrid energy harvesting nanoarchitectures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dukhyun; Lee, Keun Young; Lee, Kang Hyuck; Kim, Eok Su; Kim, Tae Sang; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Jae-Young; Kim, Jong Min

    2010-10-01

    In this work, we report a flexible hybrid nanoarchitecture that can be utilized as both an energy harvester and a touch sensor on a single platform without any cross-talk problems. Based on the electron transport and piezoelectric properties of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured thin film, a hybrid cell was designed and the total thickness was below 500 nm on a plastic substrate. Piezoelectric touch signals were demonstrated under independent and simultaneous operations with respect to photo-induced charges. Different levels of piezoelectric output signals from different magnitudes of touching pressures suggest new user-interface functions from our hybrid cell. From a signal controller, the decoupled performance of a hybrid cell as an energy harvester and a touch sensor was confirmed. Our hybrid approach does not require additional assembly processes for such multiplex systems of an energy harvester and a touch sensor since we utilize the coupled material properties of ZnO and output signal processing. Furthermore, the hybrid cell can provide a multi-type energy harvester by both solar and mechanical touching energies. PMID:20829570

  13. Energy harvesting from electric power lines employing the Halbach arrays.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Zhang, Jitao; Lu, Caijiang; Yang, Aichao

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes non-invasive energy harvesters to scavenge alternating magnetic field energy from electric power lines. The core body of a non-invasive energy harvester is a linear Halbach array, which is mounted on the free end of a piezoelectric cantilever beam. The Halbach array augments the magnetic flux density on the side of the array where the power line is placed and significantly lowers the magnetic field on the other side. Consequently, the magnetic coupling strength is enhanced and more alternating magnetic field energy from the current-carrying power line is converted into electrical energy. An analytical model is developed and the theoretical results verify the experimental results. A power of 566 ?W across a 196 k? resistor is generated from a single wire, and a power of 897 ?W across a 212 k? resistor is produced from a two-wire power cord carrying opposite currents at 10 A. The harvesters employing Halbach arrays for a single wire and a two-wire power cord, respectively, exhibit 3.9 and 3.2 times higher power densities than those of the harvesters employing conventional layouts of magnets. The proposed devices with strong response to the alternating currents are promising to be applied to electricity end-use environment in electric power systems. PMID:24182155

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of galloping-based piezoaeroelastic energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkefi, A.; Yan, Z.; Hajj, M. R.

    2013-09-01

    The normal form is proposed as a tool to analyze the performance and reliability of galloping-based piezoaeroelastic energy harvesters. Two different harvesting systems are considered. The first system consists of a tip mass prismatic structure (isosceles 30° or square cross-section geometry) attached to a multilayered cantilever beam. The only source of nonlinearity in this system is the aerodynamic nonlinearity. The second system consists of an equilateral triangle cross-section bar attached to two cantilever beams. This system is designed to have structural and aerodynamic nonlinearities. The coupled governing equations for the structure's transverse displacement and the generated voltage are derived and analyzed for both systems. The effects of the electrical load resistance and the type of harvester on the onset speed of galloping are quantified. The results show that the onset speed of galloping is strongly affected by the load resistance for both types of harvesters. The normal form of the dynamic system near the onset of galloping (Hopf bifurcation) is then derived. Based on the nonlinear normal form, it is demonstrated that smaller levels of generated voltage or power are obtained for higher absolute values of the effective nonlinearity. For the first harvesting system, the results show a supercritical Hopf bifurcation for both isosceles 30° or square cross-section geometries. The nonlinear normal form shows that the isosceles triangle section (30°) is more efficient than the square section. For the second harvesting system, the normal form is used to identify the values of the nonlinear torsional spring which changes the harvester's instability. It is demonstrated that this critical value of the nonlinear torsional spring depends strongly on the load resistance.

  15. Feasibility of energy harvesting techniques for wearable medical devices.

    PubMed

    Voss, Thaddaeus J; Subbian, Vignesh; Beyette, Fred R

    2014-08-01

    Wearable devices are arguably one of the most rapidly growing technologies in the computing and health care industry. These systems provide improved means of monitoring health status of humans in real-time. In order to cope with continuous sensing and transmission of biological and health status data, it is desirable to move towards energy autonomous systems that can charge batteries using passive, ambient energy. This not only ensures uninterrupted data capturing, but could also eliminate the need to frequently remove, replace, and recharge batteries. To this end, energy harvesting is a promising area that can lead to extremely power-efficient portable medical devices. This paper presents an experimental prototype to study the feasibility of harvesting two energy sources, solar and thermoelectric energy, in the context of wearable devices. Preliminary results show that such devices can be powered by transducing ambient energy that constantly surrounds us. PMID:25570037

  16. Comparison of Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Devices for Recharging Batteries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry A. Sodano; Daniel J. Inman

    2005-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials can be used as a means of transforming ambient vibrations into electrical energy that can then be stored and used to power other devices. With the recent surge of microscale devices, piezoelectric power generation can provide a convenient alternative to traditional power sources used to operate certain types of sensors\\/actuators, telemetry, and MEMS devices. However, the energy produced

  17. Estimation of Electric Charge Output for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. A. Sodano; D. J. Inman

    2004-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials (PZT) can be used as mechanisms to transfer mechanical energy, usually ambient vibration, into electrical energy that can be stored and used to power other devices. With the recent advances in wireless and micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technology, sensors can be placed in exotic and remote locations. As these devices are wireless it becomes necessary that they have their own

  18. Design and modeling of the trapezoidal electrodes array for electrets energy harvester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, M. R.; Md Khir, M. H.; Dennis, J. O.

    2013-05-01

    Electrets-based electrostatic energy harvester for harvesting electrical energy from the ambient vibration is introduced and described in this paper. A new design of electrode structure called the trapezoidal electrodes and its electrets counterpart are designed, modeled and analyzed thoroughly to evaluate its performance. First, the theory is explained and the mathematical analysis is performed using Matlab/Simulink tool. Results of the analysis shows that the average output power harvested from the trapezoidal electrodes is ~1 mW from 20 Hz at 1 g inputs. Then, the 3D model of the electrodes and electrets structures are constructed, simulated and analyzed with Finite Element Modeling/Analysis (FEM/FEA) tool. Further, mechanical analysis carried out on the trapezoidal electrodes model indicates that it displaces laterally at 94 ?m and resonates at 113 Hz whereas the electrostatic analysis unveils 1895 pC of charge density induced on the trapezoidal electrodes from 450 VDC electrets potential. The optimized parameters derive from the analyses are used as a reference for fabrication of MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) physical device on a standard CMOS process technology.

  19. A rectifier-free piezoelectric energy harvester circuit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongwon Kwon; G. A. Rincon-Mora

    2009-01-01

    Although the benefits of incorporating noninvasive intelligence (e.g. wireless micro-sensors) to state-of-the-art and difficult-to-replace technologies are undeniable, micro-scale integration constrains energy and power to the point lifetime and functionality fall below practical expectations, forcing technologists to seek energy and power from the surrounding environment. To this end, a piezoelectric energy harvester circuit is proposed. The 2 mum CMOS design circumvents

  20. Estimation of Solar Energy Harvested for Autonomous Jellyfish Vehicles (AJVs)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keyur B. Joshi; John H. Costello; Shashank Priya

    2011-01-01

    There is significant interest in harvesting ocean energy for powering the autonomous vehicles that can conduct surveillance for long durations. In this paper, we analyze the applicability of solar cells as a power source for medusa-inspired biomimetic vehicles. Since these vehicles will be operating under ocean waters and may need to dive at various depths, a systematic investigation was conducted

  1. Myocardial Cell Pattern on Piezoelectric Nanofiber Mats for Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Wang, X.; Zhao, H.; Du, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents in vitro contractile myocardial cell pattern on piezoelectric nanofiber mats with applications in energy harvesting. The cell-based energy harvester consists of myocardial cell sheet and a PDMS substrate with a PVDF nanofiber mat on. Experimentally, cultured on specifically distributed nanofiber mats, neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes are characterized with the related morphology and contraction. Previously, we have come up with the concept of energy harvesting from heart beating using piezoelectric material. A bio-hybrid energy harvester combined living cardiomyocytes, PDMS polymer substrate and piezoelectric PVDF film with the electrical output of peak current 87.5nA and peak voltage 92.3mV. However, the thickness of the cardiomyocyte cultured on a two-dimensional substrate is much less than that of the piezoelectric film. The Micro Contact Printing (?CP) method used in cell pattern on the PDMS thin film has tough requirement for the film surface. As such, in this paper we fabricated nanofiber-constructed PDMS thin film to realize cell pattern due to PVDF nanofibers with better piezoelectricity and microstructures of nanofiber mats guiding cell distribution. Living cardiomyocytes patterned on those distributed piezoelectric nanofibers with the result of the same distribution as the nanofiber pattern.

  2. Energy harvester for vehicle tires: Nonlinear dynamics and experimental outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefano Tornincasa; Maurizio Repetto; Elvio Bonisoli; Francesco Di Monaco

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a very compact electromechanical wideband energy harvester optimized for tire applications. The device exploits an asymmetric magnetic spring to be adaptive and effective at almost any vehicle speed. The device has been simulated through an experimentally validated SIMULINK block-oriented model. The simulation takes into account nonlinear dynamic and adaptive resonant behavior of the seismic mass, electromagnetic, and

  3. Engineered biomimicry for harvesting solar energy: a bird's eye view

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raúl J. Martín-Palma; Akhlesh Lakhtakia

    2012-01-01

    All three methodologies of engineered biomimicry – bioinspiration, biomimetics, and bioreplication – are represented in current research on harvesting solar energy. Both processes and porous surfaces inspired by plants and certain marine animals, respectively, are being investigated for solar cells. Whereas dye-sensitized solar cells deploy artificial photosynthesis, bioinspired nanostructuring of materials in solar cells improves performance. Biomimetically textured coatings for

  4. Online Fault Detection and Tolerance for Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting Systems

    E-print Network

    Pedram, Massoud

    Online Fault Detection and Tolerance for Photovoltaic Energy Harvesting Systems Xue Lin 1 , Yanzhi (PV systems) are subject to PV cell faults, which decrease the efficiency of PV systems and even shorten the PV system lifespan. Manual PV cell fault detection and elimination are expensive and nearly

  5. Efficiency of energy conversion for a piezoelectric power harvesting system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. C. Shu; I. C. Lien

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the energy conversion efficiency for a rectified piezoelectric power harvester. An analytical model is proposed, and an expression of efficiency is derived under steady-state operation. In addition, the relationship among the conversion efficiency, electrically induced damping and ac-dc power output is established explicitly. It is shown that the optimization criteria are different depending on the relative strength

  6. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting with a Clamped Circular Plate: Experimental Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunghwan Kim; William W. Clark; Qing-Ming Wang

    2005-01-01

    In a companion article, a model for a clamped circular unimorph piezoelectric plate has been developed for the purpose of analyzing the influence of geometric design parameters and electrode configuration on the amount of electrical energy that can be harvested from an applied pressure source. It has been shown that the ratio of layer thickness (piezoelectric layer to substrate layer)

  7. Efficiency of energy conversion for a piezoelectric power harvesting system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y C Shu; I C Lien

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the energy conversion efficiency for a rectified piezoelectric power harvester. An analytical model is proposed, and an expression of efficiency is derived under steady-state operation. In addition, the relationship among the conversion efficiency, electrically induced damping and ac–dc power output is established explicitly. It is shown that the optimization criteria are different depending on the relative strength

  8. Energy harvesting from the nonlinear oscillations of magnetic levitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Mann; N. D. Sims

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the design and analysis of a novel energy harvesting device that uses magnetic levitation to produce an oscillator with a tunable resonance. The governing equations for the mechanical and electrical domains are derived to show the designed system reduces to the form of a Duffing oscillator under both static and dynamic loads. Thus, nonlinear analyses are required

  9. Development of Semiconducting Polymers for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongye Liang; Luping Yu

    2010-01-01

    Semiconducting polymer solar cells are an attracting class of devices for low-cost solar energy harvesting. The bulk hetero-junction structure based on composite materials of semiconducting polymer donor and fullerene acceptor is an effective form of active layers for polymer solar cells. So far, the limiting factors for widespread, practical applications in polymers solar cell is their low power conversion efficiency

  10. A System Design Approach for Unattended Solar Energy Harvesting Supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan W. Kimball; Brian T. Kuhn; Robert S. Balog

    2009-01-01

    Remote devices, such as sensors and communications devices, require continuously available power. In many applications, conventional approaches are too expensive, too large, or unreliable. For short-term needs, primary batteries may be used. However, they do not scale up well for long-term installations. Instead, energy harvesting methods must be used. Here, a system design approach is introduced that results in a

  11. Metamaterials-based enhanced energy harvesting: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongsheng; Guo, Bin; Yang, Yongmin; Cheng, Congcong

    2014-04-01

    Advances in low power design open the possibility to harvest ambient energies to power directly the electronics or recharge a secondary battery. The key parameter of an energy harvesting (EH) device is its efficiency, which strongly depends on the conversion medium. To address this issue, metamaterials, artificial materials and structures with exotic properties, have been introduced for EH in recent years. They possess unique properties not easily achieved using naturally occurring materials, such as negative stiffness, mass, Poisson's ratio, and refractive index. The goal of this paper is to review the fundamentals, recent progresses and future directions in the field of metamaterials-based enhanced energy harvesting. An introduction on EH followed by the classification of potential metamaterials for EH is presented. A number of theoretical and experimental studies on metamaterials-based EH are outlined, including phononic crystals, acoustic metamaterials, and electromagnetic metamaterials. Finally, we give an outlook on future directions of metamaterials-based energy harvesting research including but not limited to active metamaterials-based EH, metamaterials-based thermal EH, and metamaterials-based multifunctional EH capabilities.

  12. Energy harvesting for the implantable biomedical devices: issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Mahammad A; Mutashar, Saad; Samad, Salina A; Hussain, Aini

    2014-01-01

    The development of implanted devices is essential because of their direct effect on the lives and safety of humanity. This paper presents the current issues and challenges related to all methods used to harvest energy for implantable biomedical devices. The advantages, disadvantages, and future trends of each method are discussed. The concept of harvesting energy from environmental sources and human body motion for implantable devices has gained a new relevance. In this review, the harvesting kinetic, electromagnetic, thermal and infrared radiant energies are discussed. Current issues and challenges related to the typical applications of these methods for energy harvesting are illustrated. Suggestions and discussion of the progress of research on implantable devices are also provided. This review is expected to increase research efforts to develop the battery-less implantable devices with reduced over hole size, low power, high efficiency, high data rate, and improved reliability and feasibility. Based on current literature, we believe that the inductive coupling link is the suitable method to be used to power the battery-less devices. Therefore, in this study, the power efficiency of the inductive coupling method is validated by MATLAB based on suggested values. By further researching and improvements, in the future the implantable and portable medical devices are expected to be free of batteries. PMID:24950601

  13. Energy harvesting for the implantable biomedical devices: issues and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The development of implanted devices is essential because of their direct effect on the lives and safety of humanity. This paper presents the current issues and challenges related to all methods used to harvest energy for implantable biomedical devices. The advantages, disadvantages, and future trends of each method are discussed. The concept of harvesting energy from environmental sources and human body motion for implantable devices has gained a new relevance. In this review, the harvesting kinetic, electromagnetic, thermal and infrared radiant energies are discussed. Current issues and challenges related to the typical applications of these methods for energy harvesting are illustrated. Suggestions and discussion of the progress of research on implantable devices are also provided. This review is expected to increase research efforts to develop the battery-less implantable devices with reduced over hole size, low power, high efficiency, high data rate, and improved reliability and feasibility. Based on current literature, we believe that the inductive coupling link is the suitable method to be used to power the battery-less devices. Therefore, in this study, the power efficiency of the inductive coupling method is validated by MATLAB based on suggested values. By further researching and improvements, in the future the implantable and portable medical devices are expected to be free of batteries. PMID:24950601

  14. Thermal energy harvesters with piezoelectric or electrostatic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokaryn, Piotr; Doma?ski, Krzysztof; Marchewka, Micha?; Tomaszewski, Daniel; Grabiec, Piotr; Puscasu, Onoriu; Monfray, Stéphane; Skotnicki, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the idea of the energy harvester which converts thermal gradient present in environment into electricity. Two kinds of such devices are proposed and their prototypes are shown and discussed. The main parts of harvesters are bimetallic spring, piezoelectric transducer or electrostatic transducer with electret. The applied piezomembrane was commercial available product but electrets was made by authors. In the paper a fabrication procedure of electrets formed by the corona discharge process is described. Devices were compared in terms of generated power, charging current, and the voltage across a storage capacitor.

  15. Metal oxide semiconductors for solar energy harvesting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elijah James Thimsen

    2009-01-01

    The correlation between energy consumption and human development illustrates the importance of this societal resource. We will consume more energy in the future. In light of issues with the status quo, such as climate change, long-term supply and security, solar energy is an attractive source. It is plentiful, virtually inexhaustible, and can provide more than enough energy to power society.

  16. Use of a Mobile Sink for Maximizing Data Collection in Energy Harvesting Sensor Networks

    E-print Network

    Liang, Weifa

    Use of a Mobile Sink for Maximizing Data Collection in Energy Harvesting Sensor Networks Xiaojiang--In this paper we study data collection in an energy harvesting sensor network for traffic monitoring are powered by renewable energy sources, the time-varying characteristics of energy harvesting poses great

  17. Optimal Transmission Policies over Vector Gaussian Broadcast Channels with Energy Harvesting

    E-print Network

    Ulukus, Sennur

    Optimal Transmission Policies over Vector Gaussian Broadcast Channels with Energy Harvesting, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 Abstract--We consider an energy harvesting transmitter A distinct characteristic of energy harvesting communica- tion systems is that the energy required

  18. Performance Evaluation of Real-Time Scheduling Heuristics for Energy Harvesting Systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Performance Evaluation of Real-Time Scheduling Heuristics for Energy Harvesting Systems Maryline by extracting energy from their environment. This is known as energy harvesting. This paper investigates a real-time environment where tasks have to meet deadlines and execute periodically, energy harvesting

  19. Fixed Priority Scheduling Strategies for Ambient Energy-Harvesting Embedded systems

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fixed Priority Scheduling Strategies for Ambient Energy-Harvesting Embedded systems Maryline Chetto the capability to harvest energy from the environment. The electrical energy which is available to power of service without wasting the harvested energy. In this paper, we study this problem for a uniprocessor

  20. Short-Term Throughput Maximization for Battery Limited Energy Harvesting Nodes

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    Short-Term Throughput Maximization for Battery Limited Energy Harvesting Nodes Kaya Tutuncuoglu--Deploying energy harvesting nodes can significantly extend the lifetime of a battery powered wireless network-term throughput of an energy harvesting transmitter node with power control and a limited energy storage capacity