Science.gov

Sample records for vibration response characteristics

  1. Significant characteristics of social response to noise and vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishinomiya, G.

    1979-01-01

    Several surveys made since 1971 to investigate annoyance resulting from noise and vibration, from various sources were studied in order to quantify the relation between annoyance response to noise or vibration and properties of the respondent including factors such as noise exposure, etc. Samples collected by the social surveys and physical measurements were analyzed by multi-dimensional analysis.

  2. Vibration Response of Airplane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Gelalles, A G

    1935-01-01

    This report presents test results of experiments on the vibration-response characteristics of airplane structures on the ground and in flight. It also gives details regarding the construction and operation of vibration instruments developed by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  3. Investigation of vibration characteristics of electric motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakshis, A. K.; Tamoshyunas, Y. K.

    1973-01-01

    The vibration characteristics of electric motors were analyzed using mathematical statistics methods. The equipment used and the method of conducting the test are described. Curves are developed to show the visualization of the electric motor vibrations in the vertical direction. Additional curves are included to show the amplitude-phase frequency characteristic of dynamic rotor-housing vibrations at the first lug and the same data for the second lug of the electric motor. Mathematical models were created to show the transmission function of the dynamic rotor housing system.

  4. Vibrational excitation energies from vibrational coupled cluster response theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidler, Peter; Christiansen, Ove

    2007-05-01

    Response theory in the context of vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) theory is introduced and used to obtain vibrational excitation energies. The relation to the vibrational configuration interaction (VCI) approach is described, and the increase in accuracy of VCC response energies relative to VCI energies is discussed theoretically in terms of a perturbational order expansion and demonstrated numerically. To illustrate the theory, a pilot implementation is used to obtain anharmonic vibrational frequencies for fundamental, first overtone and combination excitations of formaldehyde as well as for the fundamental transitions of ethylene.

  5. Effect of Vibration on Retention Characteristics of Screen Acquisition Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tegart, J. R.; Park, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation of the effect of vibration on the retention characteristics of screen acquisition systems was performed. The functioning of surface tension devices using fine-mesh screens requires that the pressure differential acting on the screen be less than its pressure retention capability. When exceeded, screen breakdown will occur and gas-free expulsion of propellant will no longer be possible. An analytical approach to predicting the effect of vibration was developed. This approach considers the transmission of the vibration to the screens of the device and the coupling of the liquid and the screen in establishing the screen response. A method of evaluating the transient response of the gas/liquid interface within the screen was also developed.

  6. Vibration characteristic of high power CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kuo

    2015-02-01

    High power CO2 laser is widely used in various scientific, industrial and military applications. Vibration is a common phenomenon during laser working process, it will affect the working performance of high power CO2 laser, vibration must be strictly controlled in the condition where the laser pointing is required. This paper proposed a method to investigate the vibration characteristic of high power CO2 laser. An experiment device with vibration acceleration sensor was established to measure vibration signal of CO2 laser, the measured vibration signal was mathematically treated using space-frequency conversion, and then the vibration characteristic of high power CO2 laser can be obtained.

  7. Sensitivity of rotor blade vibration characteristics to torsional oscillations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratanow, T.; Ecer, A.

    1973-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of dynamic response characteristics of helicopter rotor blades in forward flight was carried out with special emphasis on the torsional degrees-of-freedom. The finite element method was applied in the formulation of the coupled equations of motion for flapwise bending and torsion for blades with non-collinear elastic, mass and aerodynamic axes. The sensitivity of blade vibration characteristics with respect to structural, geometric and aerodynamic properties as well as flight conditions was evaluated. Numerical results for sample blades were plotted to show the variation of the coupling between bending and torsional components of the response.

  8. Human response to vibration in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Waddington, David C; Woodcock, James; Peris, Eulalia; Condie, Jenna; Sica, Gennaro; Moorhouse, Andrew T; Steele, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the main findings of a field survey conducted in the United Kingdom into the human response to vibration in residential environments. The main aim of this study was to derive exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to vibration from environmental sources. The sources of vibration considered in this paper are railway and construction activity. Annoyance data were collected using questionnaires conducted face-to-face with residents in their own homes. Questionnaires were completed with residents exposed to railway induced vibration (N?=?931) and vibration from the construction of a light rail system (N?=?350). Measurements of vibration were conducted at internal and external positions from which estimates of 24-h vibration exposure were derived for 1073 of the case studies. Sixty different vibration exposure descriptors along with 6 different frequency weightings were assessed as potential predictors of annoyance. Of the exposure descriptors considered, none were found to be a better predictor of annoyance than any other. However, use of relevant frequency weightings was found to improve correlation between vibration exposure and annoyance. A unified exposure-response relationship could not be derived due to differences in response to the two sources so separate relationships are presented for each source. PMID:24437758

  9. NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Residential Crack Response to Vibrations from Underground Mining

    E-print Network

    NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY Residential Crack Response to Vibrations from Underground Mining A Thesis facilitates simultaneous measurement of crack response to environmental changes and various dynamic events. These crack responses to blast vibrations were compared to responses to environmental changes as well

  10. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p <0.05) directly with the +G level reaching a maximum (3G) within a seconds compare to controls. There were no significant differences in heart and respiratory rate from 60 t0 2000 Hz among studied groups. All monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  11. Dynamic characteristics of a vibrating beam with periodic variation in bending stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, John S.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed dynamic analysis is performed of a vibrating beam with bending stiffness periodic in the spatial coordinate. Using a perturbation expansion technique the free vibration solution is obtained in a closed-form, and the effects of system parameters on beam response are explored. It is found that periodic stiffness acts to modulate the modal displacements from the characteristic shape of a simple sine wave. The results are verified by a finite element solution and through experimental testing.

  12. Prediction of vibration characteristics in beam structure using sub-scale modeling with experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zai, Behzad Ahmed; Sami, Saad; Khan, M. Amir; Ahmad, Furqan; Park, Myung Kyun

    2015-09-01

    Geometric or sub-scale modeling techniques are used for the evaluation of large and complex dynamic structures to ensure accurate reproduction of load path and thus leading to true dynamic characteristics of such structures. The sub-scale modeling technique is very effective in the prediction of vibration characteristics of original large structure when the experimental testing is not feasible due to the absence of a large testing facility. Previous researches were more focused on free and harmonic vibration case with little or no consideration for readily encountered random vibration. A sub-scale modeling technique is proposed for estimating the vibration characteristics of any large scale structure such as Launch vehicles, Mega structures, etc., under various vibration load cases by utilizing precise scaled-down model of that dynamic structure. In order to establish an analytical correlation between the original structure and its scaled models, different scale models of isotropic cantilever beam are selected and analyzed under various vibration conditions( i.e. free, harmonic and random) using finite element package ANSYS. The developed correlations are also validated through experimental testing. The prediction made from the vibratory response of the scaled-down beam through the established sets of correlation are found similar to the response measured from the testing of original beam structure. The established correlations are equally applicable in the prediction of dynamic characteristics of any complex structure through its scaled-down models. This paper presents modified sub-scale modeling technique that enables accurate prediction of vibration characteristics of large and complex structure under not only sinusoidal but also for random vibrations.

  13. Mounting method improves electrical and vibrational characteristics of screen electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of the mesh or screen electrodes used in electron tubes are improved by decreasing the shunt capacitance of the tube while retaining the close spacing needed for the required resolution. Vibrational characteristics are enhanced by raising the natural resonant frequency.

  14. Scale-model characterization of flow-induced vibrational response of FFTF reactor internals

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J. A.; Mahoney, J. J.

    1980-10-01

    Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed for flow-induced vibrational characteristics under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup as an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program. The Hydraulic Core Mockup was an 0.285 geometric scale model of the Fast Test Reactor internals designed to simulate prototype vibrational and hydraulic characteristics. Using water to simulate sodium coolant, vibrational characteristics were measured and determined for selected model components over the scaled flow range of 36 to 110%. Additionally, in-situ shaker tests were conducted on selected Hydraulic Core Mockup outlet plenum components to establish modal characteristics. Most components exhibited resonant response at all test flow rates; however, the measured dynamic response was neither abnormal nor anomalously flow-rate dependent, and the predicted prototype components' response were deemed acceptable.

  15. Thermal weights for semiclassical vibrational response functions.

    PubMed

    Moberg, Daniel R; Alemi, Mallory; Loring, Roger F

    2015-08-28

    Semiclassical approximations to response functions can allow the calculation of linear and nonlinear spectroscopic observables from classical dynamics. Evaluating a canonical response function requires the related tasks of determining thermal weights for initial states and computing the dynamics of these states. A class of approximations for vibrational response functions employs classical trajectories at quantized values of action variables and represents the effects of the radiation-matter interaction by discontinuous transitions. Here, we evaluate choices for a thermal weight function which are consistent with this dynamical approximation. Weight functions associated with different semiclassical approximations are compared, and two forms are constructed which yield the correct linear response function for a harmonic potential at any temperature and are also correct for anharmonic potentials in the classical mechanical limit of high temperature. Approximations to the vibrational linear response function with quantized classical trajectories and proposed thermal weight functions are assessed for ensembles of one-dimensional anharmonic oscillators. This approach is shown to perform well for an anharmonic potential that is not locally harmonic over a temperature range encompassing the quantum limit of a two-level system and the limit of classical dynamics. PMID:26328812

  16. IV characteristics of molecular wires in the presence of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution

    E-print Network

    Röder, Beate

    IV characteristics of molecular wires in the presence of intramolecular vibrational energy and it is responsible for electronic energy dissipation, thus con- trolling the degree of heat accumulation. To account this has been demonstrated, for example, in Ref. [20] for single copper phthalocyanine molecules. Here

  17. Characteristics of Vibration that Alter Cardiovascular Parameters in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yao; Rabey, Karyne N; Schmitt, Daniel; Norton, John N; Reynolds, Randall P

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that short-term exposure of mice to vibration within a frequency range thought to be near the resonant frequency range of mouse tissue and at an acceleration of 0 to 1 m/s2 would alter heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). We used radiotelemetry to evaluate the cardiovascular response to vibration in C57BL/6 and CD1 male mice exposed to vertical vibration of various frequencies and accelerations. MAP was consistently increased above baseline values at an acceleration near 1 m/s2 and a frequency of 90 Hz in both strains, and HR was increased also in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, MAP increased at 80 Hz in individual mice of both strains. When both strains were analyzed together, mean MAP and HR were increased at 90 Hz at 1 m/s2, and HR was increased at 80 Hz at 1 m/s2. No consistent change in MAP or HR occurred when mice were exposed to frequencies below 80 Hz or above 90 Hz. The increase in MAP and HR occurred only when the mice had conscious awareness of the vibration, given that these changes did not occur when anesthetized mice were exposed to vibration. Tested vibration acceleration levels lower than 0.75 m/s2 did not increase MAP or HR at 80 or 90 Hz, suggesting that a relatively high level of vibration is necessary to increase these parameters. These data are important to establish the harmful frequencies and accelerations of environmental vibration that should be minimized or avoided in mouse facilities. PMID:26224436

  18. A direct evidence of vibrationally delocalized response at ice surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Morita, Akihiro

    2014-11-14

    Surface-specific vibrational spectroscopic responses at isotope diluted ice and amorphous ice are investigated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations. The intense response specific to the ordinary crystal ice surface is predicted to be significantly suppressed in the isotopically diluted and amorphous ices, demonstrating the vibrational delocalization at the ordinary ice surface. The collective vibration at the ice surface is also analyzed with varying temperature by the MD simulation.

  19. Dynamic characteristics of a vibrating beam with periodic variation in bending stiffness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, John S.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed dynamic analysis is performed of a vibrating beam with bending stiffness periodic in the spatial coordinate. The effects of system parameters on beam response are explored with a perturbation expansion technique. It is found that periodic stiffness acts to modulate the modal displacements from the characteristic shape of a simple sine wave. The results are verified by a finite element solution and through experimental testing.

  20. Synthesis of a system with active vibration isolation, considering the vibroacoustical characteristics of the source and of the isolated object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genkin, M. D.; Yelezov, V. G.; Yablonskiy, V. V.

    1973-01-01

    The efficiency and resistance of an active vibration isolation system (AVI) are analyzed for the case of unidirectional vibrations of a mass on a spring, with a damper, resting on a rigid base. The effect of certain vibroacoustical characteristics of real objects on AVI resistance and synthesis of AVI, which are effective over a wide frequency band are considered. A numerical analysis of the response of a mechanical system with AVI features is presented.

  1. Study the vibration and dynamic response of the dipole girder system for CSNS/RCS

    E-print Network

    Liu Renhong; Wang Min; Zhang JunSong; Wang GuangYuan

    2015-06-24

    China Spallation Neutron Source is a high intensity proton accelerator based facility, and its accelerator complex includes two main parts an H- linac and a rapid cycling synchrotron. The RCS accumulates the 80MeV proton beam, and accelerates it to 1.6GeV, with a repetition rate of 25Hz. The dipole of the CSNS RCS is operated at a 25 Hz sinusoidal alternating current which causes severe vibrate. The vibration will influence the long term safety and reliable operation of the magnet. The dipole of the CSNS RCS is an active vibration equipment which is different from the ground vibration accelerator. It is very important to design and study the dynamic characteristics of the dipole girder system. This paper takes the dipole and girder as a specific model system, a method for studying the dynamic characteristics of the system is put forward by combining theoretical calculation with experimental testing. The modal parameters with and without vibration isolator of the dipole girder system are obtain through ANSYS simulation and testing. Then the dynamic response of the system is calculated with modal analysis and vibration testing data. The dipole girder takes four-point support system which maybe appears over constrained in the progress of adjustment. The dynamic characteristics and dynamic response of the three point girder system were studied with the same method.

  2. Vibration characteristics of a rotating flexible arm with ACLD treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, E. H. K.; Yau, D. T. W.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the vibration behavior and control of a clamped-free rotating flexible cantilever arm with fully covered active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment are investigated. The arm is rotating in a horizontal plane in which the gravitational effect and rotary inertia are neglected. The stress-strain relationship for the viscoelastic material (VEM) is described by a complex shear modulus while the shear deformations in the two piezoelectric layers are neglected. Hamilton's principle in conjunction with finite element method (FEM) is used to derive the non-linear coupled differential equations of motion and the associated boundary conditions that describe the rigid hub angle rotation, the arm transverse displacement and the axial deformations of the three-layer composite. This refined model takes into account the effects of centrifugal stiffening due to the rotation of the beam and the potential energies of the VEM due to extension and bending. Active controllers are designed with PD for the piezosensor and actuator. The vibration frequencies and damping factors of the closed-loop beam/ACLD system are obtained after solving the characteristic complex eigenvalue problem numerically. The effects of different rotating speed, thickness ratio and loss factor of the VEM as well as different controller gain on the damped frequency and damping ratio are presented. The results of this study will be useful in the design of adaptive and smart structures for vibration suppression and control in rotating structures such as rotorcraft blades or robotic arms.

  3. Human discomfort response to noise combined with vertical vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted (1) to determine the effects of combined environmental noise and vertical vibration upon human subjective discomfort response, (2) to develop a model for the prediction of passenger discomfort response to the combined environment, and (3) to develop a set of noise-vibration curves for use as criteria in ride quality design. Subjects were exposed to parametric combinations of noise and vibrations through the use of a realistic laboratory simulator. Results indicated that accurate prediction of passenger ride comfort requires knowledge of both the level and frequency content of the noise and vibration components of a ride environment as well as knowledge of the interactive effects of combined noise and vibration. A design tool in the form of an empirical model of passenger discomfort response to combined noise and vertical vibration was developed and illustrated by several computational examples. Finally, a set of noise-vibration criteria curves were generated to illustrate the fundamental design trade-off possible between passenger discomfort and the noise-vibration levels that produce the discomfort.

  4. Evaluation of High Freuqency Vibrator Response

    E-print Network

    Hendrix, Craig Michael

    2012-08-12

    significant improvements when approximating high frequency source signatures, there are still limitations that arise from using this method. Initially, it was derived and developed using the Prakla Seismos VVDA vibrator (total weight ? 31,000 lbs), which...

  5. The flaminio obelisk in Rome: vibrational characteristics as part of preservation efforts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bongiovanni, G.; Celebi, M.; Clemente, P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to study the vibrational characteristics of the Flaminio Obelisk in Rome as part of general studies being performed for preservation purposes. The state of preservation of the monument is described as well as the sonic method used to evaluate the integrity of the sections. The results of the sonic tests are used to determine reductions in the cross-sectional properties. A stick model including two rotational frequency independent soil springs at the basement level of the obelisk is developed. A response spectrum and stress analysis according to the Italian Seismic Code is performed considering and evaluating the degraded characteristics of sections. -from Authors

  6. Sensitivity analysis of torsional vibration characteristics of helicopter rotor blades. Part 2: Aerodynamics and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratanow, T.; Ecer, A.

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of dynamic response characteristics of rotor blades was carried out with special emphasis on torsional degrees-of-freedom. Coupled equations of motion for flapwise bending and torsion were formulated at varying azimuth positions for rotor blades with noncollinear aerodynamic, elastic and mass axes. Both structural and aerodynamic mass, damping and stiffness coefficients were included. The variations of a sample blade at different flight conditions were investigated from these equations. The obtained numerical results were illustrated. The sensitivity of overall blade vibration characteristics to torsional oscillations was also investigated from the equations of motion for the sample blade. The illustrated results show the importance of torsional degrees-of-freedom in rotor blade analysis. Various possibilities of improving the overall response by tuning blade geometric, structural and aerodynamic characteristics are discussed.

  7. Experimental Investigations on Effect of Damage on Vibration Characteristics of a Reinforced Concrete Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, V.; Jeyasehar, C. Antony; Ramanjaneyulu, K.; Sasmal, Saptarshi

    2012-02-01

    Need for developing efficient non-destructive damage assessment procedures for civil engineering structures is growing rapidly towards structural health assessment and management of existing structures. Damage assessment of structures by monitoring changes in the dynamic properties or response of the structure has received considerable attention in recent years. In the present study, damage assessment studies have been carried out on a reinforced concrete beam by evaluating the changes in vibration characteristics with the changes in damage levels. Structural damage is introduced by static load applied through a hydraulic jack. After each stage of damage, vibration testing is performed and system parameters were evaluated from the measured acceleration and displacement responses. Reduction in fundamental frequencies in first three modes is observed for different levels of damage. It is found that a consistent decrease in fundamental frequency with increase in damage magnitude is noted. The beam is numerically simulated and found that the vibration characteristics obtained from the measured data are in close agreement with the numerical data.

  8. Characteristics of coated copper wire specimens using high frequency ultrasonic complex vibration welding equipments.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, J; Ihara, S; Harada, Y; Kasahara, K; Sakamaki, N

    2004-04-01

    Welding characteristic of thin coated copper wires were studied using 40, 60, 100 kHz ultrasonic complex vibration welding equipments with elliptical to circular vibration locus. The complex vibration systems consisted of a longitudinal-torsional vibration converter and a driving longitudinal vibration system. Polyurethane coated copper wires of 0.036 mm outer diameter and copper plates of 0.3 mm thickness and the other dimension wires were used as welding specimens. The copper wire part is completely welded on the copper substrate and the insulated coating material is driven from welded area to outsides of the wire specimens by high frequency complex vibration. PMID:15047272

  9. Determination of the vibration characteristics of electromechanical hammers in the design stage

    SciTech Connect

    Gol'dshtein, B.G.; Petrushina, L.G.; Pyatov, V.L.

    1985-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a method for computing the vibration characteristics of electromechanical hammers with a compression-vacuum impact mechanism used in the overwhelming majority of electrical hand-held percussion machines (HHPM). The authors developed a mathematical model of a system including an operator, an HHPM with a compression-vacuum impact mechanism, and the medium being worked. They also developed algorithms and programs for solving the model's equations and for calculating the vibration characteristics of the machinery. The system model includes the most widely-used vibration-protection equipment: vibration insulators and dynamic dampers. The mathematical model and the computer programs make it possible to predict the vibration of electric hammers with a compression-vacuum impact mechanism and to perform vibration diagnostics, as well as to select machine parameters and vibration-protection systems, thus producing a vibration-safe machine.

  10. Damage Identification of Piles Based on Vibration Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaozhong; Yao, Wenjuan; Chen, Bo; Liu, Dewen

    2014-01-01

    A method of damage identification of piles was established by using vibration characteristics. The approach focused on the application of the element strain energy and sensitive modals. A damage identification equation of piles was deduced using the structural vibration equation. The equation contained three major factors: change rate of element modal strain energy, damage factor of pile, and sensitivity factor of modal damage. The sensitive modals of damage identification were selected by using sensitivity factor of modal damage firstly. Subsequently, the indexes for early-warning of pile damage were established by applying the change rate of strain energy. Then the technology of computational analysis of wavelet transform was used to damage identification for pile. The identification of small damage of pile was completely achieved, including the location of damage and the extent of damage. In the process of identifying the extent of damage of pile, the equation of damage identification was used in many times. Finally, a stadium project was used as an example to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method of damage identification for piles. The correctness and practicability of the proposed method were verified by comparing the results of damage identification with that of low strain test. The research provided a new way for damage identification of piles. PMID:25506062

  11. Thermoregulatory responses to heat and vibration in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaul, W. A.; Spear, R. C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of vibration on thermoregulatory responses was studied in heat-acclimated men exposed suddenly to simultaneous heat and whole body vibrations (WBVs) at two intensity levels, each at graded frequencies between 5 and 80 Hz. The mean rectal temperature (Tre) became elevated more quickly in the WBV exposures than in the controls (heat exposure alone). Both intensity- and frequency-dependent WBV relationships were recorded in localized blood flows and in sweat rates. Thus, vibration appears to reduce the efficiency of the cooling mechanisms during a heat exposure.

  12. Characteristics of large capacity ultrasonic complex vibration sources with stepped complex transverse vibration rods.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, J; Ueoka, T

    2004-04-01

    Configurations of large capacity ultrasonic complex vibration sources with multiple longitudinal transducers are proposed and studied. The ultrasonic complex vibration systems are effective and essential for new applications in various industries. The complex vibration source of 27 kHz consists of a complex transverse rod with a welding tip (aluminum alloy, stainless steel and titanium alloy), a complex vibration rod with a flange and stepped part for holding the system, a circular longitudinal vibration disk (aluminum alloy) and six bolt-clamped Langevin type PLT transducers. Three transducer pairs are driven simultaneously using three driving systems at phase difference 120 degrees, and almost circular vibration locus is obtained. PMID:15047267

  13. Investigation of vibrational characteristics in BBO crystals by femtosecond CARS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yuanqin; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Zi; Zhang, Sheng; Dong, Zhiwei; Chen, Deying; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2012-10-01

    Femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is utilized to study the ultrafast vibrational dynamics in BBO crystals at room temperature. Time-resolved two-beam and three-beam CARS are detected. The vibrational dephasing time is analyzed and the changes of vibrational mode intensities with the polarization of pump pulses are observed.

  14. Influence of alternating loads on nonlinear vibration characteristics of cracked blade in rotor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Jiang, Dongxiang; Chu, Fulei

    2015-09-01

    As important causes of fatigue and crack failure, alternating loads also affect vibration characteristics of cracked blades in rotor system and probably influence formulation of diagnostic rule. This work carried out analysis of nonlinear vibration of cracked blade in rotor system with crack breathing effects and alternating loads taken into account. Firstly, equations of motion are formed with Finite Element Method (FEM), and breathing crack is modeled with cracked hexahedral element (CHE) where the breathing behavior is load-dependent. Secondly, displacement responses of cracked blade are obtained, and the results with CHE and contact element are identical. The stiffness of the cracked blade is obtained with CHE and proved to be time-varying and dependent on the alternating loads. Thirdly, natural frequencies of cracked blade in stationary condition are analyzed including normal model, linear model (open crack) and nonlinear model (breathing crack), and the requirement of the inclusion of breathing effects in blades with fatigue crack is proved. Finally, influence of alternating loads on critical frequency of cracked blade in rotating condition is compared. The results show that the critical frequency is significantly affected due to the co-effects of the rotating speed and alternating loads. The proposed method can estimate nonlinear vibration characteristics of crack blade which is beneficial for the formulation of the diagnostic rule.

  15. Vibrational characteristics of FRP-bonded concrete interfacial defects in a low frequency regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Tin Kei; Lau, Denvid

    2014-04-01

    As externally bonded fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) is a critical load-bearing component of strengthened or retrofitted civil infrastructures, the betterment of structural health monitoring (SHM) methodology for such composites is imperative. Henceforth the vibrational characteristics of near surface interfacial defects involving delamination and trapped air pockets at the FRP-concrete interface are investigated in this study using a finite element approach. Intuitively, due to its lower interfacial stiffness compared with an intact interface, a damaged region is expected to have a set of resonance frequencies different from an intact region when excited by acoustic waves. It has been observed that, when excited acoustically, both the vibrational amplitudes and frequency peaks in the response spectrum of the defects demonstrate a significant deviation from an intact FRP-bonded region. For a thin sheet of FRP bonded to concrete with sizable interfacial defects, the fundamental mode under free vibration is shown to be relatively low, in the order of kHz. Due to the low resonance frequencies of the defects, the use of low-cost equipment for interfacial defect detection via response spectrum analysis is highly feasible.

  16. An optimized semiclassical approximation for vibrational response functions

    PubMed Central

    Gerace, Mallory; Loring, Roger F.

    2013-01-01

    The observables of multidimensional infrared spectroscopy may be calculated from nonlinear vibrational response functions. Fully quantum dynamical calculations of vibrational response functions are generally impractical, while completely classical calculations are qualitatively incorrect at long times. These challenges motivate the development of semiclassical approximations to quantum mechanics, which use classical mechanical information to reconstruct quantum effects. The mean-trajectory (MT) approximation is a semiclassical approach to quantum vibrational response functions employing classical trajectories linked by deterministic transitions representing the effects of the radiation-matter interaction. Previous application of the MT approximation to the third-order response function R(3)(t3, t2, t1) demonstrated that the method quantitatively describes the coherence dynamics of the t3 and t1 evolution times, but is qualitatively incorrect for the waiting-time t2 period. Here we develop an optimized version of the MT approximation by elucidating the connection between this semiclassical approach and the double-sided Feynman diagrams (2FD) that represent the quantum response. Establishing the direct connection between 2FD and semiclassical paths motivates a systematic derivation of an optimized MT approximation (OMT). The OMT uses classical mechanical inputs to accurately reproduce quantum dynamics associated with all three propagation times of the third-order vibrational response function. PMID:23556706

  17. Optimization design of vibration characteristics of ship composite brace with rigid vibration isolation mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiangyong; Yao, Xiongliang; Yu, Danzhu; Pang, Fuzhen

    2011-06-01

    In considering the theory of structural dynamic optimization design, a design method of the structural style of ship composite brace with rigid vibration isolation mass was studied. Two kinds of structural dynamic optimization formulations minimizing the vibration acceleration of the non-pressure hull on the restraining condition of the gross weight of the ship cabin were established: 1) dynamic optimization of the sectional dimensions of the rigid vibration isolation mass in the composite brace; 2) dynamic optimization of the arranging position of the rigid vibration isolation mass. Through the optimization results, sectional dimensions and the arranging position of the rigid vibration isolation mass with better performance in reducing vibration were gained, and some reference was provided for practical engineering designs as well as enrichment of the design method of a novel ship vibration-isolation brace.

  18. Vibration characteristics of an APS lab facility in Building 401

    SciTech Connect

    Royston, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    The vibratory behavior of a lab facility located in Building 401 of the Advanced Photon Source site at Argonne National Laboratory is summarized. Measurements of ambient vibration indicate that acceptable displacement levels are usually maintained (rms value below 0.1 microns) for the measured frequency range, above 0.2 Hz. An exception occurs when strong wind conditions excite a horizontal building resonance near 1.85 Hz to rms levels as high as 0.3 microns. Measurements of the laboratory floor`s dynamic response to directly applied force excitation agree with theoretical predictions. The primary component of the floor construction is a reinforced concrete slab. The slab has a transverse fundamental resonant frequency of 18.5 Hz and an associated damping level of roughly 8.5% of critical. It is also shown via experimental measurements that the linoleum surface adhered to the concrete slab is far more compliant than the slab itself and can significantly influence the floor`s dynamic response to local excitations.

  19. Analytical design and evaluation of an active control system for helicopter vibration reduction and gust response alleviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. B.; Zwicke, P. E.; Gold, P.; Miao, W.

    1980-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to define the basic configuration of an active control system for helicopter vibration and gust response alleviation. The study culminated in a control system design which has two separate systems: narrow band loop for vibration reduction and wider band loop for gust response alleviation. The narrow band vibration loop utilizes the standard swashplate control configuration to input controller for the vibration loop is based on adaptive optimal control theory and is designed to adapt to any flight condition including maneuvers and transients. The prime characteristics of the vibration control system is its real time capability. The gust alleviation control system studied consists of optimal sampled data feedback gains together with an optimal one-step-ahead prediction. The prediction permits the estimation of the gust disturbance which can then be used to minimize the gust effects on the helicopter.

  20. Rocket Launch-Induced Vibration and Ignition Overpressure Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caimi, Raoul; Margasahayam, Ravi; Nayfeh, Jamal; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rocket-induced vibration and ignition overpressure response environments are predicted in the low-frequency (5 to 200 hertz) range. The predictions are necessary to evaluate their impact on critical components, structures, and facilities in the immediate vicinity of the rocket launch pad.

  1. Characteristics of spaceborne cooler passive vibration isolator by using a compressed shape memory alloy mesh washer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyun-Ung; Kwon, Seong-Cheol; Youn, Se-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic coolers produce undesirable micro-vibrations during on-orbit operation, which may seriously affect the image quality of high-resolution observation satellites. Micro-vibrations can be easily isolated by mounting the cooler on a vibration isolator with low stiffness to attenuate the vibration transmitted to the satellite structure. However, the structural safety of a cooler supported by an isolator with low stiffness cannot be guaranteed under the much more severe vibration condition of a launch environment. In this study, to guarantee vibration isolation performance in a launch environment while effectively isolating the micro-vibrations from the cooler on-orbit, a new type of passive vibration isolation system by using a compressed shape memory alloy mesh washer was proposed and investigated. The basic characteristics of the isolator were measured in static and free vibration tests of the isolator, and a simple equivalent model of the isolator was proposed. The effectiveness of the isolator design in a launch environment was demonstrated through sine vibration, random vibration, and shock tests.

  2. Seated Occupant Apparent Mass Characteristics Under Automotive Postures and Vertical Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RAKHEJA, S.; HARU, I.; BOILEAU, P.-É.

    2002-05-01

    The biodynamic apparent mass response characteristics of 24 human subjects (12 males and 12 females) seated under representative automotive postures with hands-in-lap (passengers) and hands-on-steering wheel (drivers) are reported. The measurements were carried out under white noise vertical excitations of 0·25, 0·5 and 1·0m/s2r.m.s. acceleration magnitudes in the 0·5-40Hz frequency range and a track measured input (1·07m/s2). The measured data have been analyzed to study the effects of hands position, body mass, magnitude and type of vibration excitation, and feet position, on the biodynamic response expressed in terms of apparent mass. A comparison of the measured response of subjects assuming typical automotive postures involving inclined cushion, inclined backrest and full use of backrest support with data determined under different postural conditions and excitation levels revealed considerable differences. The biodynamic response of automobile occupants seated with hands in lap, peaks in the 6·5-8·6Hz frequency range, which is considerably higher than the reported range of fundamental frequencies (4·5-5Hz) in most other studies involving different experimental conditions. The peak magnitude tends to decrease considerably for the driving posture with hands-on-steering wheel, while a second peak in the 8-12 Hz range becomes more apparent for this posture. The results suggest that biodynamic response of occupants seated in automotive seats and subject to vertical vibration need to be characterized, as a minimum, by two distinct functions for passenger and driving postures. A higher body mass, in general, yields higher peak magnitude response and lower corresponding frequency for both postures. The strong dependence of the response on the body mass is further demonstrated by grouping the measured data into four different mass ranges: less than 60 kg, between 60·5 and 70 kg, between 70·5 and 80 kg, and above 80 kg. From the results, it is concluded that hands position and body mass have the most significant influence on the apparent mass response under automotive posture and vibration.

  3. Experimental and numerical investigations on vibration characteristics of a loaded ship model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Pu; Hong, Ming; Wang, Zheng

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, vibration characteristics of the structure in the finite fluid domain are analyzed using a coupled finite element method. The added mass matrix is calculated with finite element method (FEM) by 8-node acoustic fluid elements. Vibration characteristics of the structure in finite fluid domain are calculated combining structure FEM mass matrix. By writing the relevant programs, numerical analysis on vibration characteristics of a submerged cantilever rectangular plate in finite fluid domain and loaded ship model is performed. A modal identification experiment for the loaded ship model in air and in water is conducted and the experiment results verify the reliability of the numerical analysis. The numerical method can be used for further research on vibration characteristics and acoustic radiation problems of the structure in the finite fluid domain.

  4. Non-linear dual-axis biodynamic response to vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, N.; Griffin, M. J.

    2003-11-01

    Seated human subjects have been exposed to vertical whole-body vibration so as to investigate the non-linearity in their biodynamic responses and quantify the response in directions other than the direction of excitation. Twelve males were exposed to random vertical vibration in the frequency range 0.25-25 Hz at four vibration magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 r.m.s.). The subjects sat in four sitting postures having varying foot heights so as to produce differing thigh contact with the seat (feet hanging, feet supported with maximum thigh contact, feet supported with average thigh contact, and feet supported with minimum thigh contact). Forces were measured in the vertical, fore-and-aft, and lateral directions on the seat and in the vertical direction at the footrest. The characteristic non-linear response of the human body with reducing resonance frequency at increasing vibration magnitudes was seen in all postures, but to a lesser extent with minimum thigh contact. Appreciable forces in the fore-and-aft direction also showed non-linearity, while forces in the lateral direction were low and showed no consistent trend. Forces at the feet were non-linear with a multi-resonant behaviour and were affected by the position of the legs. The decreased non-linearity with the minimum thigh contact posture suggests the tissues of the buttocks affect the non-linearity of the body more than the tissues of the thighs. The forces in the fore-and-aft direction are consistent with the body moving in two directions when exposed to vertical vibration. The non-linear behaviour of the body, and the considerable forces in the fore-aft direction should be taken into account when optimizing vibration isolation devices.

  5. Study of the bending vibration characteristic of phononic crystals beam-foundation structures by Timoshenko beam theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Ni, Zhi-Qiang; Jiang, Lin-Hua; Han, Lin; Kang, Xue-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Vibration problems wildly exist in beam-foundation structures. In this paper, finite periodic composites inspired by the concept of ideal phononic crystals (PCs), as well as Timoshenko beam theory (TBT), are proposed to the beam anchored on Winkler foundation. The bending vibration band structure of the PCs Timoshenko beam-foundation structure is derived from the modified transfer matrix method (MTMM) and Bloch's theorem. Then, the frequency response of the finite periodic composite Timoshenko beam-foundation structure by the finite element method (FEM) is performed to verify the above theoretical deduction. Study shows that the Timoshenko beam-foundation structure with periodic composites has wider attenuation zones compared with homogeneous ones. It is concluded that TBT is more available than Euler beam theory (EBT) in the study of the bending vibration characteristic of PCs beam-foundation structures with different length-to-height ratios.

  6. Dynamic characteristics analysis and vibration experiment of Upper-time of Flight Counter (U-ToFC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Yidu; Song, Sunguang

    2012-09-01

    The dynamic characteristic parameters of Up-time of Flight Counter (U-ToFC) are important for research of structure optimization and reliability. However, the current simulation is performed based on homogenous material and simplified constraint model, the correct and reliability of results are difficult to be guaranteed. The finite element method based on identification of material parameters is proposed for this investigation on dynamic analysis, simulation and vibration experiment of the U-ToFC. The structure of the U-ToFC is complicated. Its' outside is made of aluminum alloy and inside contains electronic components such as capacitors, resistors, inductors, and integrated circuits. The accurate material parameters of model are identified difficultly. Hence, the parameters identification tests are performed to obtain the material parameters of this structure. On the basis of the above parameters, the experiment and FEA are conducted to the U-ToFC. In terms of the flight acceptance test level, and two kinds of joints condition between the U-ToFC and fixture are considered. The natural frequencies, vibration shapes and the response of the power spectral density of the U-ToFC are obtained. The results show simulation which is based on parameters identification is similar with vibration experiment in natural frequencies and responses. The errors are less than 10%. The vibration modes of simulation and experiment are consistent. The paper provides a more reliable computing method for the dynamic characteristic analysis of large complicated structure.

  7. Nonlinear response of vibrational excitons: Simulating the two-dimensional infrared spectrum of liquid water

    E-print Network

    Mukamel, Shaul

    Nonlinear response of vibrational excitons: Simulating the two-dimensional infrared spectrum for the nonlinear response of vibrational excitons is presented and applied to the OH stretching vibrations of neat. Interference effects between Liouville pathways in excitonic systems and their impact on the analysis

  8. Investigation on flow and mixing characteristics of supersonic mixing layer induced by forced vibration of cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dongdong; Tan, Jianguo; Lv, Liang

    2015-12-01

    The mixing process has been an important issue for the design of supersonic combustion ramjet engine, and the mixing efficiency plays a crucial role in the improvement of the combustion efficiency. In the present study, nanoparticle-based planar laser scattering (NPLS), particle image velocimetry (PIV) and large eddy simulation (LES) are employed to investigate the flow and mixing characteristics of supersonic mixing layer under different forced vibration conditions. The indexes of fractal dimension, mixing layer thickness, momentum thickness and scalar mixing level are applied to describe the mixing process. Results show that different from the development and evolution of supersonic mixing layer without vibration, the flow under forced vibration is more likely to present the characteristics of three-dimensionality. The laminar flow region of mixing layer under forced vibration is greatly shortened and the scales of rolled up Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices become larger, which promote the mixing process remarkably. The fractal dimension distribution reveals that comparing with the flow without vibration, the turbulent fluctuation of supersonic mixing layer under forced vibration is more intense. Besides, the distribution of mixing layer thickness, momentum thickness and scalar mixing level are strongly influenced by forced vibration. Especially, when the forcing frequency is 4000 Hz, the mixing layer thickness and momentum thickness are 0.0391 m and 0.0222 m at the far field of 0.16 m, 83% and 131% higher than that without vibration at the same position, respectively.

  9. Optimization of Training Sets for Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Patterns from Vibrating Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2001-01-01

    Artificial neural networks have been used for a number of years to process holography-generated characteristic patterns of vibrating structures. This technology depends critically on the selection and the conditioning of the training sets. A scaling operation called folding is discussed for conditioning training sets optimally for training feed-forward neural networks to process characteristic fringe patterns. Folding allows feed-forward nets to be trained easily to detect damage-induced vibration-displacement-distribution changes as small as 10 nm. A specific application to aerospace of neural-net processing of characteristic patterns is presented to motivate the conditioning and optimization effort.

  10. Training Data Optimized and Conditioned to Learn Characteristic Patterns of Vibrating Blisks and Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2001-01-01

    At the NASA Glenn Research Center, we have been training artificial neural networks to interpret the characteristic patterns (see the leftmost image) generated from electronic holograms of vibrating structures. These patterns not only visualize the vibration properties of structures, but small changes in the patterns can indicate structural changes, cracking, or damage. Neural networks detect these small changes well. Our objective has been to adapt the neural-network, electronic-holography combination for inspecting components in Glenn's Spin Rig.

  11. Analysis of proposed criteria for human response to vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janeway, R. N.

    1975-01-01

    The development of criteria for human vibration response is reviewed, including the evolution of the ISO standard 2631. The document is analyzed to show why its application to vehicle ride evaluation is strongly opposed. Alternative vertical horizontal limits for comfort are recommended in the ground vehicle ride frequency range above 1 Hz. These values are derived by correlating the absorbed power findings of Pradko and Lee with other established criteria. Special emphasis is placed on working limits in the frequency range of 1 to 10 Hz since this is the most significant area in ground vehicle ride evaluation.

  12. Modelling of Haptic Vibration Textures with Infinite-Impulse-Response Filters

    E-print Network

    Lee, WonSook

    Modelling of Haptic Vibration Textures with Infinite-Impulse-Response Filters Vijaya L. Guruswamy, Canada ON K1N 6N5 Email: vguru054,jlang,wslee@site.uottwa.ca Abstract--Vibration feedback models--Haptic, Vibrotactile, Texture. I. INTRODUCTION We experience vibrations during contact with our physical environment

  13. Calculating vibrational spectra without determining excited eigenstates: Solving the complex linear equations of damped response theory for vibrational configuration interaction and vibrational coupled cluster states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godtliebsen, Ian H.; Christiansen, Ove

    2015-10-01

    It is demonstrated how vibrational IR and Raman spectra can be calculated from damped response functions using anharmonic vibrational wave function calculations, without determining the potentially very many eigenstates of the system. We present an implementation for vibrational configuration interaction and vibrational coupled cluster, and describe how the complex equations can be solved using iterative techniques employing only real trial vectors and real matrix-vector transformations. Using this algorithm, arbitrary frequency intervals can be scanned independent of the number of excited states. Sample calculations are presented for the IR-spectrum of water, Raman spectra of pyridine and a pyridine-silver complex, as well as for the infra-red spectrum of oxazole, and vibrational corrections to the polarizability of formaldehyde.

  14. Calculating vibrational spectra without determining excited eigenstates: Solving the complex linear equations of damped response theory for vibrational configuration interaction and vibrational coupled cluster states.

    PubMed

    Godtliebsen, Ian H; Christiansen, Ove

    2015-10-01

    It is demonstrated how vibrational IR and Raman spectra can be calculated from damped response functions using anharmonic vibrational wave function calculations, without determining the potentially very many eigenstates of the system. We present an implementation for vibrational configuration interaction and vibrational coupled cluster, and describe how the complex equations can be solved using iterative techniques employing only real trial vectors and real matrix-vector transformations. Using this algorithm, arbitrary frequency intervals can be scanned independent of the number of excited states. Sample calculations are presented for the IR-spectrum of water, Raman spectra of pyridine and a pyridine-silver complex, as well as for the infra-red spectrum of oxazole, and vibrational corrections to the polarizability of formaldehyde. PMID:26450293

  15. Sensitivity analysis of torsional vibration characteristics of helicopter rotor blades. Part 1: Structural dynamics analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratanow, T.; Ecer, A.

    1974-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of structural vibration characteristics of rotor blades was carried out. Coupled equations of motion for flapwise bending and torsion were formulated for rotor blades with noncollinear elastic and mass axes. The finite element method was applied for a detailed representation of blade structural properties. Coupled structural mass and stiffness coefficients were evaluated. The range of validity of a set of coupled equations of motion linearized with respect to eccentricity between elastic and mass axes was investigated. The sensitivity of blade vibration characteristics to torsion were evaluated by varying blade geometric properties, boundary conditions, and eccentricities between mass and elastic axes.

  16. Large-voltage behavior of charge transport characteristics in nanosystems with weak electron–vibration coupling

    PubMed Central

    Belzig, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Summary We study analytically the Full Counting Statistics of the charge transport through a nanosystem consisting of a few electronic levels weakly coupled to a discrete vibrational mode. In the limit of large transport voltage bias the cumulant generating function can be evaluated explicitly based solely on the intuitive physical arguments and classical master equation description of the vibration mode. We find that for the undamped vibrational modes mutual dynamical interplay between electronic and vibronic degrees of freedom leads to strongly nonlinear (in voltage) transport characteristics of the nanosystem. In particular, we find that for large voltages the k-th cumulant of the current grows as V 2k to be contrasted with the linear dependence in case of more strongly externally damped and thus thermalized vibrational modes. PMID:26425436

  17. Large-voltage behavior of charge transport characteristics in nanosystems with weak electron-vibration coupling.

    PubMed

    Novotný, Tomáš; Belzig, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    We study analytically the Full Counting Statistics of the charge transport through a nanosystem consisting of a few electronic levels weakly coupled to a discrete vibrational mode. In the limit of large transport voltage bias the cumulant generating function can be evaluated explicitly based solely on the intuitive physical arguments and classical master equation description of the vibration mode. We find that for the undamped vibrational modes mutual dynamical interplay between electronic and vibronic degrees of freedom leads to strongly nonlinear (in voltage) transport characteristics of the nanosystem. In particular, we find that for large voltages the k-th cumulant of the current grows as V (2k) to be contrasted with the linear dependence in case of more strongly externally damped and thus thermalized vibrational modes. PMID:26425436

  18. Vibrationally (and rotationally) inelastic scattering characteristics for the He+I*2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajnovich, Douglas J.; Butz, Kirk W.; Du, Hong; Parmenter, Charles S.

    1989-12-01

    An analysis is provided for the state-resolved vibrationally inelastic scattering cross sections ?(??) for He interacting with I2 B0+u molecules in either ?'=15, 25, or 35. The collision energy for these crossed molecular beam data is 720 cm-1 (89 meV), whereas the local I*2 vibrational quantum size varies from about 100 to 60 cm-1. The ?(??) encompass scattering events with ?? ranging to ±3 for ?'=15 and to ±7 for ?'=35. The sets of ?(??) for each initial ?' scale with an exponential energy gap law, and the scaling is identical for all initial ?' levels. Additionally, ?(??) values for conjugate T?V and V?T transitions (i.e., pairs of ??=±n for UP vs DOWN transitions) are nearly equal so that the single scaling law ?(??)?exp(-??Evib ?/110 cm-1) describes the entire set of data. The scaling for the He target beam is identical to that for D2 but different from H2 indicating that the pattern of vibrational energy flow is determined mainly by the mass of the target gas and collision energy as opposed to subtle details of the interaction potential. 1D and 3D classical trajectory calculations replicate the principal characteristics of the scattering, particularly the common exponential scaling and UP-DOWN symmetry of conjugate ?(??), but fail to account quantitatively for processes with large ??. The vibrational flow pattern is not markedly influenced by big variations in the rotational energy content of the initial ?' level. The competition between rotationally and vibrationally inelastic scattering is about the same for each initial ?'. The rotational cross section is only about 2.5× larger than ?(??=-1), the largest vibrational cross section. The total vibrational cross section, however, actually equals or exceeds that for pure rotationally inelastic scattering for all initial ?' levels. Comparisons are made with the vibrational and rotational energy transfer characteristics observed in 300 K bulb experiments.

  19. Teacher Characteristics for Culturally Responsive Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychly, Laura; Graves, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Culturally responsive pedagogy, as defined by one of the most prominent authors in the field, Geneva Gay (2002), is "using the cultural characteristics, experiences, and perspectives of ethnically diverse students as conduits for teaching them more effectively". Culturally responsive pedagogy can be thought of, then, as teaching practices that…

  20. Evaluation of human response to structural vibrations induced by sonic booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, Louis C.; Czech, J.

    1992-01-01

    The topic is addressed of building vibration response to sonic boom and the evaluation of the associated human response to this vibration. An attempt is made to reexamine some of the issues addressed previously and to offer fresh insight that may assist in reassessing the potential impact of sonic boom over populated areas. Human response to vibration is reviewed first and a new human vibration response criterion curve is developed as a function of frequency. The difference between response to steady state versus impulsive vibration is addressed and a 'vibration exposure' or 'vibration energy' descriptor is suggested as one possible way to evaluate duration effects on response to transient vibration from sonic booms. New data on the acoustic signature of rattling objects are presented along with a review of existing data on the occurrence of rattle. Structural response to sonic boom is reviewed and a new descriptor, 'Acceleration Exposure Level' is suggested which can be easily determined from the Fourier Spectrum of a sonic boom. A preliminary assessment of potential impact from sonic booms is provided in terms of human response to vibration and detection of rattle based on a synthesis of the preceding material.

  1. Vibration Characteristics of Piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate by Fluid Flow in Intravascular Oxygenator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gi?Beum; Hong, Chul?Un; Kwon, Tae?Kyu

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, we describe the enhancement in oxygen transfer rate in hollow-fiber-membrane (HFM) modules using a plumbum piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) actuator and a piezoelectric poly vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensor. We developed a vibrating intravascular lung assist device (VIVLAD) for patients having chronic respiratory problems and performed experiments on hydrodynamic flow through a bundle of sinusoidal vibrating hollow fibers. These modules were used to provide some insight into how wall vibrations might enhance the performance of an intravascular lung assist device. The experimental design and procedure are then applied to the fabrication of a device used to assess the effectiveness of membrane vibrations. The test section was a cylindrical duct with an inner diameter of 30 mm. The flow rate was controlled by a pump and monitored by a built-in flowmeter. The vibration apparatus was composed of a piezovibrator, a function generator, and a power amplifier. The direction of vibration was radial to the fluid flow. Gas flow rates of up to 6 L/min through 120-cm-long hollow fibers were achieved by exciting the piezovibrator. The time and frequency responses of PVDF sensors were investigated through various frequencies in VIVLAD. In these devices, the flow of blood and the source of oxygen were separated by a semipermeable membrane that allows oxygen and carbon dioxide to diffuse into and out of the fluid, respectively. Results of the experiments have shown that a vibrating intravascular lung assist device performs effectively.

  2. Studies on vibration characteristics of a pear using finite element method*

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hui-zhi; Wang, Jun; Li, Yong-hui

    2006-01-01

    The variation of the vibration characteristics of a Huanghua pear was investigated using finite element simulations. A new image processing technique was used to obtain the unsymmetrical and un-spherical geometrical model of a pear. The vibration characteristics of this type of pear with the correlation of its behavior with geometrical configurations and material characteristics were investigated using numerical modal analysis. The results showed that the eigenfrequency increased with the increasing pear Young’s modulus, while decreased with increasing pear density, and decreased with increasing pear volume. The results of this study provided foundation for further investigations of the physical characteristics of fruits and vegetables by using finite element simulations. PMID:16691644

  3. Active vibration isolation of a simulated engine response 

    E-print Network

    Wong, Steven Matthew

    1997-01-01

    Vibration isolation is prevalent in many industrial applications. In the automotive industry two factors arise amidst many others . cost and mass reduction. As these factors are implemented in the design of the modem automobile, vehicle vibration...

  4. Optimization of Training Sets For Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Patterns From Vibrating Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An artificial neural network is disclosed that processes holography generated characteristic pattern of vibrating structures along with finite-element models. The present invention provides for a folding operation for conditioning training sets for optimally training forward-neural networks to process characteristic fringe pattern. The folding pattern increases the sensitivity of the feed-forward network for detecting changes in the characteristic pattern The folding routine manipulates input pixels so as to be scaled according to the location in an intensity range rather than the position in the characteristic pattern.

  5. Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Patterns From Electronic Holograms of Vibrating Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    1999-01-01

    Finite-element-model-trained artificial neural networks can be used to process efficiently the characteristic patterns or mode shapes from electronic holograms of vibrating blades. The models used for routine design may not yet be sufficiently accurate for this application. This document discusses the creation of characteristic patterns; compares model generated and experimental characteristic patterns; and discusses the neural networks that transform the characteristic patterns into strain or damage information. The current potential to adapt electronic holography to spin rigs, wind tunnels and engines provides an incentive to have accurate finite element models lor training neural networks.

  6. Light-induced vibration characteristics of free-standing carbon nanotube films fabricated by vacuum filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Junying; Zhu, Yong Wang, Ning; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xin

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, we fabricated carbon nanotube (CNT) films with different thickness by vacuum filtration method, and the films were separated from Mixed Cellulose Ester membranes with burn-off process. The thickness of CNT films with different concentrations of CNTs 50?mg, 100?mg, 150?mg, and 200?mg are 10.36??m, 20.90??m, 30.19??m, and 39.98??m respectively. The CNT bundles are homogeneously distributed and entangled with each other, and still maintain 2D continuous network structures after burn-off process. The optical absorptivity of the films is between 84% and 99% at wavelengths ranging from 400?nm to 2500?nm. Vibration characteristics were measured with the Fabry-Perot (F-P) interferometer vibration measurement system. CNT films vibrate only under the xenon light irradiating perpendicularly to the surface. Vibration recorded by Fabry-Perot interferometer is considered to be caused by the time-dependent thermal moment, which is due to the temperature differences of two sides of CNT films. The vibration frequency spectrums between 0.1???0.5?Hz were obtained by the Fast Fourier Transform spectra from time domain to frequency domain, and showed a linear relationship with films thickness, which is in accordance with theoretical model of thermal induced vibration.

  7. The dynamic characteristics of harvesting energy from mechanical vibration via piezoelectric conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kang-Qi; Ming, Zheng-Feng; Xu, Chun-Hui; Chao, Feng-Bo

    2013-10-01

    As an alternative power solution for low-power devices, harvesting energy from the ambient mechanical vibration has received increasing research interest in recent years. In this paper we study the transient dynamic characteristics of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system including a piezoelectric energy harvester, a bridge rectifier, and a storage capacitor. To accomplish this, this energy harvesting system is modeled, and the charging process of the storage capacitor is investigated by employing the in-phase assumption. The results indicate that the charging voltage across the storage capacitor and the gathered power increase gradually as the charging process proceeds, whereas the charging rate slows down over time as the charging voltage approaches to the peak value of the piezoelectric voltage across the piezoelectric materials. In addition, due to the added electrical damping and the change of the system natural frequency when the charging process is initiated, a sudden drop in the vibration amplitude is observed, which in turn affects the charging rate. However, the vibration amplitude begins to increase as the charging process continues, which is caused by the decrease in the electrical damping (i.e., the decrease in the energy removed from the mechanical vibration). This electromechanical coupling characteristic is also revealed by the variation of the vibration amplitude with the charging voltage.

  8. Analyses of vibration responses on nanoscale processing in a liquid using tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, Thin-Lin

    2009-10-01

    An analytical solution of the vibration responses of biological specimens using atomic force microscopy (AFM), which often requires operation in a liquid, is developed. In this study, the modal superposition method is employed to analyze the vibration responses of AFM cantilevers in tapping mode (TM) operated in a liquid and in air. The hydrodynamic force exerted by the fluid on AFM cantilevers is approximated by additional mass and hydrodynamic damping. The tip-sample interaction forces were transformed into axial, distributed transversal, and bending loading, and then applied to the end region of the AFM through the tip holder. The effects of transverse stress and bending stress were adopted to solve the dynamic model. With this model, a number of simulations were carried out to investigate the relationship between the transient responses of the cantilever in a liquid and the parameters considered in nanoscale processing. The simulations show that the vibration of AFM cantilevers in a liquid has dramatically different dynamic characteristics from these of that in air. The liquid reduces the magnitude of the transversal response and reduces the cantilever resonances. Moreover, the magnitudes of response become larger with increasing intermolecular distances and smaller with decreasing tip length. The cantilever vibration amplitudes significantly depend on the damping constant and the mass proportionality constant.

  9. Piezoelectric Instruments of High Natural Frequency Vibration Characteristics and Protection Against Interference by Mass Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohlka, Werner

    1943-01-01

    The exploration of the processes accompanying engine combustion demands quick-responding pressure-recording instruments, among which the piezoelectric type has found widespread use because of its especially propitious properties as vibration-recording instruments for high frequencies. Lacking appropriate test methods, the potential errors of piezoelectric recorders in dynamic measurements could only be estimated up to now. In the present report a test method is described by means of which the resonance curves of the piezoelectric pickup can be determined; hence an instrumental appraisal of the vibration characteristics of piezoelectric recorders is obtainable.

  10. Experimental investigation of the vibration characteristics of a model of an asymmetric multielement space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, U. J.

    1977-01-01

    Vibration investigations of a model of the asymmetric multielement space shuttle were made. The influence on overall motions of local deformation in the vicinity of element interfaces, high modal density, low structural damping, and high responsiveness in the crew cabin are included in the findings. Mode frequencies generally increase with decreasing propellant masses and staging of elements.

  11. Nonlinear parametrically excited vibration and active control of gear pair system with time-varying characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Jin-Jin; Liu, Jin-Jie; Li, Ya-Qian

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, we investigate the nonlinear parametrically excited vibration and active control of a gear pair system involving backlash, time-varying meshing stiffness and static transmission error. Firstly, a gear pair model is established in a strongly nonlinear form, and its nonlinear vibration characteristics are systematically investigated through different approaches. Several complicated phenomena such as period doubling bifurcation, anti period doubling bifurcation and chaos can be observed under the internal parametric excitation. Then, an active compensation controller is designed to suppress the vibration, including the chaos. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified numerically. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61104040), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2012203090), and the University Innovation Team of Hebei Province Leading Talent Cultivation Project, China (Grant No. LJRC013).

  12. The transmission of vertical vibration through seats: Influence of the characteristics of the human body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2011-12-01

    The transmission of vibration through a seat depends on the impedance of the seat and the apparent mass of the seat occupant. This study was designed to determine how factors affecting the apparent mass of the body (age, gender, physical characteristics, backrest contact, and magnitude of vibration) affect seat transmissibility. The transmission of vertical vibration through a car seat was measured with 80 adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with two backrest conditions (no backrest and backrest), and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Linear regression models were used to study the effects of subject physical characteristics (age, gender, and anthropometry) and features of their apparent mass (resonance frequency, apparent mass at resonance and at 12 Hz) on the measured seat transmissibility. The strongest predictor of both the frequency of the principal resonance in seat transmissibility and the seat transmissibility at resonance was subject age, with other factors having only marginal effects. The transmissibility of the seat at 12 Hz depended on subject age, body mass index, and gender. Although subject weight was strongly associated with apparent mass, weight was not strongly associated with seat transmissibility. The resonance frequency of the seat decreased with increases in the magnitude of the vibration excitation and increased when subjects made contact with the backrest. Inter-subject variability in the resonance frequency and transmissibility at resonance was less with greater vibration excitation, but was largely unaffected by backrest contact. A lumped parameter seat-person model showed that changes in seat transmissibility with age can be predicted from changes in apparent mass with age, and that the dynamic stiffness of the seat appeared to increase with increased loading so as to compensate for increases in subject apparent mass associated with increased sitting weight.

  13. Free vibration and dynamic response analysis of spinning structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The proposed effort involved development of numerical procedures for efficient solution of free vibration problems of spinning structures. An eigenproblem solution procedure, based on a Lanczos method employing complex arithmetic, was successfully developed. This task involved formulation of the numerical procedure, FORTRAN coding of the algorithm, checking and debugging of software, and implementation of the routine in the STARS program. A graphics package for the E/S PS 300 as well as for the Tektronix terminals was successfully generated and consists of the following special capabilities: (1) a dynamic response plot for the stresses and displacements as functions of time; and (2) a menu driven command module enabling input of data on an interactive basis. Finally, the STARS analysis capability was further improved by implementing the dynamic response analysis package that provides information on nodal deformations and element stresses as a function of time. A number of test cases were run utilizing the currently developed algorithm implemented in the STARS program and such results indicate that the newly generated solution technique is significantly more efficient than other existing similar procedures.

  14. Vibration characteristics of Ni-Ti pseudo-elastic wire inter-weaved fabric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Rui; Yang, Qiuhong; Dong, Li

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a study on the vibration characteristics of Ni-Ti wire inter-weaved glass fabric/epoxy composites. The Ni-Ti pseudo-elastic wires were used as warp yarns and embedded in the fabric preforms with various weaving methods. Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer (DMA) and vibration test technique were used to reveal the dynamical behaviors of specimens in different frequencies of vibration. The storage modulus E', the loss tan?, the natural frequency f and damping ratio ? were examined. The energy dissipation behaviors of the Ni-Ti pseudo-elastic wire, the geometry of textile fabric was also studied. The effect of weaving method on the vibration behavior in Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) based textile composites was considered. The results showed that: (I) the energy dissipation capacity of the wire could be significantly improved by increasing the tensile strain and speed, but slightly affected by loading frequency; (II) the woven of few Ni-Ti warps caused the increase of the storage modulus and the change of the loss tan?. In the buckling vibration, the damping effects of Ni-Ti pseudo-elastic wires vary with the woven structures. The compact woven structure with proper Ni-Ti warp architectures would receive a small amplitude and good damping.

  15. City Dweller Responses to Multiple Stressors Intruding into Their Homes: Noise, Light, Odour, and Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eja

    2015-01-01

    Urban densification increases exposure to noise, light, odour, and vibration in urban dwellings. Exposure from combined environmental stressors intruding into the home could increase the risk of adverse effects on wellbeing, even when the exposure is at a relatively low level. This study assesses the prevalence of annoyance with a combination of potential environmental stressors common in urban areas and the association with wellbeing. A questionnaire was sent by mail to residents in five areas in Halmstad (Sweden) with similar socioeconomic and housing characteristics but different exposure (response rate 56%; n = 385). Of the respondents, 50% were annoyed to some degree by at least one of the suggested stressors, most commonly by noise and vibration from local traffic. Structural equation modelling showed that annoyance led to lowered quality of life via the mediating construct residential satisfaction, which in turn was influenced by place attachment and perceived restoration possibilities in the dwelling. Stress had a negative impact on quality of life, but was not directly correlated to annoyance. Stress was however correlated with sensitivity. The findings suggest that dose-response relationships for environmental stressors should be studied in a broader context of environmental and individual factors. Also relatively low levels of exposure should be mitigated, especially if several stressors are present. PMID:25794188

  16. User Response Characteristics For Sequential Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ims, John R.

    1981-07-01

    Visual responses to briefly presented sequential displays were studied in two experiments exploring stimulus contrast variation influences on target acquisition. When two stimuli are presented in close temporal and spatial proximity, the target stimulus (TS) information is changed by the flanking or surrounding mask stimulus (MS). The observers' visual response characteristics or TS information bandwidth varies in a non-monotonic U-shaped fashion as the temporal difference between TS and MS onset (stimulus onset asynchrony or SOA) increases (Type B masking). Experiment 1 varied only TS con-trast, Experiment 2 varied only MS contrast. Observer responses to TS shape and location in the visual field were measured as a function of SOA and stimulus contrast. Data were evaluated by estimating the maximum of the regression functions describing the empirical masking functions. For Experiment 1, as TS contrast decreased, the SOA of maximum shape masking also decreased. SOA for maximum location masking was lower than that for shape responses. Experiment 2 revealed an attenuation of the Type B shape masking function as MS contrast was reduced. Location masking was minimal. In conclusion, variation of user visual response characteristics may prove useful in optimizing information bandwidth during human/computer display dialogues.

  17. Insulation of nonlinear and random vibrations in the mining industry. [elastodynamic response of rubber insulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeveleanu, C.

    1974-01-01

    The insulation of nonlinear and random vibrations is considered for some ore preparing and sorting implements: rotary crushers, resonance screens, hammer mills, etc. The appearance of subharmonic vibrations is analyzed, and the conditions for their appearance are determined. A method is given for calculating the insulation of these vibrations by means of elastic elements made of rubber. The insulation of the random vibrations produced by Symons crushers is calculated by determining the transmissability and deformation of the insulation system for a narrow band random response.

  18. Neuromuscular response of the trunk to inertial based sudden perturbations following whole body vibration exposure.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre, Danielle; Cort, Joel A

    2014-12-01

    The effects of whole body vibration exposure on the neuromuscular responses following inertial-based trunk perturbations were examined. Kinematic and surface EMG (sEMG) data were collected while subjects were securely seated on a robotic platform. Participants were either exposed to 10 min of vibration or not, which was followed by sudden inertial trunk perturbations with and without timing and direction knowledge. Amplitude of sEMG was analyzed for data collected during the vibration protocol, whereas the onset of sEMG activity and lumbar spine angle were analyzed for the perturbation protocol. Data from the vibration protocol did not show a difference in amplitude of sEMG for participants exposed to vibration and those not. The perturbation protocol data showed that those not exposed to vibration had a 14% faster muscle onset, despite data showing no difference in fatigue level. PMID:25241645

  19. The interior working mechanism and temperature characteristics of a fluid based micro-vibration isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jie; Zhao, Shougen; Wu, Dafang; Jing, Xingjian

    2016-01-01

    Micro-vibration isolation is a hot topic in spacecraft vibration control, and fluid based vibration isolators alternatively provide a good and reliable solution to this challenging issue. In this paper, a novel fluid based micro-vibration isolator (FBMVI) is investigated. According to its inherent working principle and deformation pattern, the generation mechanisms of the damping and stiffness characteristics are derived, which are nonlinear functions of the environmental temperature. Then a lumped parameter model which is expressed by the physical design parameters (PDPs) is constructed, and the corresponding performance objective indices (POIs) are also obtained by applying the equivalence of mechanical impedance. Based on the finite element analysis of the internal damping component, a single variable method is further adopted to carry out the parametric study, and the influences of each PDP on the POIs are analyzed in details. Finally, experiments are conducted to identify the variation of fluid bulk modulus with the outside environmental temperature, and to validate the performance of the isolator under different temperature environments. The tested results show great consistence compared with the predicted tendencies of the parametric study. The results of this study can provide a very useful insight into and/or an important guidance for the design and application of this type of FBMVIs in engineering practice.

  20. Nonlinear Vibrational Response of Coupled Anharmonic Systems Towards the 2D IR Spectrum of H2O

    E-print Network

    Mukamel, Shaul

    Nonlinear Vibrational Response of Coupled Anharmonic Systems Towards the 2D IR Spectrum of H2O A present a new method of numerical propagation of the vibrational dipole moments that allows for nonlinear studied the effect of intermolecular coupling on nonlinear vibrational response using the OH stretching

  1. Transfer matrix method for determination of the natural vibration characteristics of elastically coupled launch vehicle boosters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Laith K.; Zhou, Qinbo; Hendy, Hossam; Rui, Xiaoting

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of natural vibration characteristics has become one of important steps of the manufacture and dynamic design in the aerospace industry. This paper presents a new scenario called virtual cutting in the context of the transfer matrix method of linear multibody systems closed-loop topology for computing the free vibration characteristics of elastically coupled flexible launch vehicle boosters. In this approach, the coupled system is idealized as a triple-beam system-like structure coupled by linear translational springs, where a non-uniform free-free Euler-Bernoulli beam is used. A large thrust-to-weight ratio leads to large axial accelerations that result in an axial inertia load distribution from nose to tail. Consequently, it causes the development of significant compressive forces along the length of the launch vehicle. Therefore, it is important to take into account this effect in the transverse vibration model. This scenario does not need the global dynamics equations of a system, and it has high computational efficiency and low memory requirements. The validity of the presented scenario is achieved through comparison to other approaches published in the literature.

  2. Flight and Analytical Methods for Determining the Coupled Vibration Response of Tandem Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeates, John E , Jr; Brooks, George W; Houbolt, John C

    1957-01-01

    Chapter one presents a discussion of flight-test and analysis methods for some selected helicopter vibration studies. The use of a mechanical shaker in flight to determine the structural response is reported. A method for the analytical determination of the natural coupled frequencies and mode shapes of vibrations in the vertical plane of tandem helicopters is presented in Chapter two. The coupled mode shapes and frequencies are then used to calculate the response of the helicopter to applied oscillating forces.

  3. Seismic response reduction of a piping system by a dynamic vibration absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroe

    1995-11-01

    A number of studies have been conducted on seismic response reduction technique of piping systems. Among them, seismic supports including elastic-plastic damping devices are rapidly being developed for real application. Dynamic vibration absorbers, which are directly attached to pipe, provide another technique for seismic response reduction. When they are successfully applied to a piping system, they can reduce the number of supports with rigid structures and can be useful for improvement of piping layout. In order to obtain above improvements by the dynamic vibration absorbers, its effectiveness in reducing the large vibration response of the piping system must be verified under the strong earthquake condition. Typical problems to be solved are strength of device against strong excitation, adaptation for multimode`s vibration of pipe, and performance with non-linear behavior of pipe system. Shake table tests are very effective to investigate these problems. The authors have developed a dynamic vibration absorber which uses an air cylinder coil spring and magnetic damping devices and applied it to a real scale piping model. Vibration test results using 3-dimensional piping model have shown the good performance of the absorber, although some problems remain to be solved before actual application. In this paper the authors report the performance of this newly developed dynamic vibration absorber for seismic response reduction of piping systems.

  4. Responses of the frog primary vestibular afferents to direct vibration of the semicircular canal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlov, I. V.

    1980-01-01

    Responses of primary afferents (PA) of lateral semicircular canal to sinusoidal vibration of the canal wall within the range 0.05-200 Hz (mean amplitudes 5-15 microns) in immobilized frogs were studied. Dynamic characteristics (gain, phase) of relative linear velocity of the vibrator (micron X/s) were examined. At 0.2 Hz, the gain was 5.35 + or - 3.19 imp X/s /micron X/s (mean; S.D.; n=14) and linearly decreased if the frequency rose. Phase lag of relative velocity at 0.05 Hz was 49.8 deg + or - 16.5 deg (n=13) and at 1 Hz 97 deg + or - 9.4 deg (n=22). At 100 Hz phase lag was about 240 deg. Three groups of PA are described: wide range PA reacting in the range from 0.05 up to 60-180 Hz; high frequency PA responding in the range from 20-40 up to 100-150 Hz; and low frequency PA responding in the range from 0.05 up to 2-20 Hz.

  5. Crack Response to Blast Vibrations and Moisture Induced Volumetric Changes in Foundation Soils

    E-print Network

    Crack Response to Blast Vibrations and Moisture Induced Volumetric Changes in Foundation Soils By C, Evanston, IL. Abstract In this paper vibratory crack response is compared to that produced by volumetric compared vibratory responses of cracks to atmospheric effects such as those produced by the passage

  6. Vibration responses of h-BN sheet to charge doping and external strain

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wei; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Fawei; Zhang, Ping; Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084

    2013-12-07

    Based on density functional theory and density functional perturbation theory calculations, we systematically investigate the vibration responses of h-BN sheet to charge doping and external strains. It is found that under hole doping, the phonon frequencies of the ZO and TO branches at different wave vector q shift linearly with different slopes. Under electron doping, although the phonon frequencies shift irregularly, the shifting values are different at different phonon wave vectors. Interestingly, we find that external strain can restrain the irregular vibration responses of h-BN sheet to electron doping. The critical factor is revealed to be the relative position of the nearly free electron and boron p{sub z} states of h-BN sheet. Under external strains, the vibration responses of h-BN sheet are also found to be highly dependent on the phonon branches. Different vibration modes at different q points are revealed to be responsible for the vibration responses of h-BN sheet to charge doping and external strain. Our results point out a new way to detect the doping or strain status of h-BN sheet by measuring the vibration frequencies at different wave vector.

  7. Studies on the receptor responsible for vibration induced inhibition of monosynaptic reflexes in man.

    PubMed Central

    Dindar, F; Verrier, M

    1975-01-01

    A further attempt has been made to define the receptor responsible for the inhibition of monosynaptic reflexes by vibration in man. Vibration of the tendo Achillis will produce inhibition of the H reflex even when the muscles of the anterior compartment of the leg are denervated or blocked with local anaesthetic, implying that there are receptors in the posterior compartment capable of producing this effect. However, there is evidence that vibration spreads through the limb. The inhibition is greater when the anterior compartment is innervated indicating that there is a contribution from receptors in this compartment. Stretching the muscles of the posterior compartment alone, or the muscles of the anterior and posterior compartments reciprocally does not influence the inhibition of the monosynaptic reflex by vibration. These observations support the contention that the reduction of the monosynaptic reflex by vibration in man is due to presynaptic inhibition resulting from activation of primary spindle endings. PMID:1151396

  8. Vibration manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, C.

    1971-01-01

    Guidelines of the methods and applications used in vibration technology at the MSFC are presented. The purpose of the guidelines is to provide a practical tool for coordination and understanding between industry and government groups concerned with vibration of systems and equipments. Topics covered include measuring, reducing, analyzing, and methods for obtaining simulated environments and formulating vibration specifications. Methods for vibration and shock testing, theoretical aspects of data processing, vibration response analysis, and techniques of designing for vibration are also presented.

  9. Performance Characteristics of a Vibration Isolator with Electro-Rheological Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, I.; Mallik, A. K.; Bhaya, P. Gupta

    1999-01-01

    The conflicting requirements on the damping capacity if a vibration isolator in the low- and high-frequency regimes can be achieved by actively controlling a damper with electro-rheological fluid. Experimentally obtained results on two colloidal suspensions, one based on silica powder and the other on starch powder, are reported. While both demonstrate considerable reduction in the near-resonance transmissibility, the starch based fluid exhibits Coulomb damping characteristics at a high field strength. This, in turn, restricts the transmissibility to less than or equal to unity at all frequencies even when the isolator is used in a passive manner.

  10. Characteristics of vibration energy harvesting using giant magnetostrictive cantilevers with resonant tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kotaro; Horibe, Tadashi; Ishikawa, Shigekazu; Shindo, Yasuhide; Narita, Fumio

    2015-12-01

    This work deals with the dynamic bending and energy harvesting characteristics of giant magnetostrictive cantilevers with resonant tuning both numerically and experimentally. The giant magnetostrictive cantilever is fabricated using a thin Terfenol-D layer, SUS layer, movable proof mass, etc, and, is designed to automatically adjust its own resonant frequency to match the external vibration frequency in real time. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was conducted, and the resonant frequency, induced voltage and stress in the magnetostrictive cantilevers were predicted. The resonant frequency and induced voltage were also measured, and comparison was made between simulation and experiment. The time-varying behavior and self-tuning ability are discussed in detail.

  11. Lunar seismic profiling experiment. [Apollo 17 flight measurements of lunar surface vibrations to determine subsurface characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo 17 lunar seismic profiling experiment was conducted to record the vibrations of the lunar surface as induced by explosive charges, the thrust of the lunar module ascent engine, and the crash of the lunar module ascent stage. Analysis of the data obtained made it possible to determine the internal characteristics of the lunar crust to a depth of several kilometers. The test equipment used in the experiment is described. Maps showing the location of the geophones and the deployed explosive packages are provided. Samples of the seismic signals recorded by the lunar seismic profiling experiment geophones are included.

  12. Effect of Ultrasonic Vibration on Compression Behavior and Microstructural Characteristics of Commercially Pure Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagherzadeh, Saeed; Abrinia, Karen

    2015-11-01

    The principle objective of this research is to investigate the modeling of compression behavior and microstructural evolution of pure aluminum in the ultrasonic-assisted compression test. A dislocation density-based constitutive model was developed based on the existing frameworks and calibrated using experimental data to predict the stress-strain response of pure aluminum during UAC tests. An experimental set-up was designed to work at resonance condition with frequency of around 20 kHz and variant longitudinal vibration amplitudes at the range of 0~20 ?m. The verified model and experimental samples were used for parameter studies and the study of grain formation of aluminum after conventional and ultrasonic upsetting. Results showed that the developed constitutive model was able to predict compression behavior of aluminum suitably. An increase in the flow stress drop, residual flow stress, and dislocation density occurred when the applied vibration intensity was raised. In addition, it was observed that the more homogenous microstructure with nearly equiaxed grains and also the higher microhardness values can be achieved when ultrasonic vibration is imposed on samples during compression test.

  13. Vibration Characteristics of a Large-Capacity Complex Vibration Source Using a Titanium Alloy Complex Transverse Vibration Rod with Two Stepped Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujino, Jiromaru; Ueoka, Tetsugi; Kikuchi, Yuya

    2004-05-01

    The configurations of large-capacity 27 kHz ultrasonic complex vibration sources with multiple longitudinal transducers are proposed and studied. Ultrasonic complex vibration systems are effective for various types of metal welding and essential for new applications in various industries. The large-capacity vibration source consists of a complex transverse rod with a welding tip (titanium alloy), a complex vibration rod with a flange and a stepped part for holding the system (stainless-steel), a one-wavelength longitudinal vibration disk (aluminum alloy) and six bolt-clamped Langevin type piezo-electric ceramic (PZT) transducers (BLTs) installed along the circumference of the disk at an angle difference of 60°. The vibration source is driven using three driving systems with three transformers at a phase difference of 120°, and the disk is driven in a circular locus. The transverse vibration rod installed at the center of the disk is driven transversally and the welding tip of the rod vibrates in a circular locus.

  14. Vibration characteristics of NiTi–Al MMC beam fabricated with ultrasonic welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian; Wang, Yiqing; Kuang, Xinbin; Zhang, Teng; Liu, Hongzhong; Lu, Bingheng; Xu, Minglong

    2015-12-01

    A free-vibration differential equation of the compound beam of NiTi–Al MMC (metal matrix composite) is built considering the recovery stress of NiTi foil and based on Timoshenko beam theory to predict the frequency tuning characteristics of the compound beam. The clamped-free (CF) beam is under compressive stress state due to the recovery stress in the NiTi foil, which may cause a reduction in its natural frequency. For an 80 mm CF beam with 8% NiTi (prestrain 3%) embedded in Al matrix, the natural frequency decreases by 52.1% when temperature is up to 70 °C. However the stress state of clamped–clamped (CC) beam depends on the combined effect of recovery stress and thermal expansion of NiTi. At least 20% NiTi should be embedded in Al matrix to increase the natural frequency of CC beam. Finally, the NiTi–Al MMC beam is prepared by ultrasonic welding process. A thermal modal experiment is conducted to study the vibration characteristics of the compound beam. The results show that the natural frequency of the compound beam could be tuned effectively by volume fraction of the NiTi embedded in Al foil, which is consistent with theoretical calculations.

  15. Response of a flexible filament in a flowing soap film subject to a forced vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Laibing; Xiao, Qing; Wu, Haijun; Wu, Yanfeng; Yin, Xiezhen

    2015-01-01

    The interactions between flexible plates and fluids are important physical phenomena. A flag in wind is one of the most simplified and classical models for studying the problem. In this paper, we investigated the response of a flag in flow with an externally forced vibration by using flexible filaments and soap film. Experiments show that for a filament that is either in oscillation or stationary, the external forced vibration leads to its oscillation. A synchronization phenomenon occurs in the experiments. A small perturbation leads to a large response of flapping amplitude in response. The insight provided here is helpful to the applications in the flow control, energy harvesting, and bionic propulsion areas.

  16. The vibration characteristics of a coupled helicopter rotor-fuselage by a finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutkowski, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The dynamic coupling between the rotor system and the fuselage of a simplified helicopter model in hover was analytically investigated. Mass, aerodynamic damping, and elastic and centrifugal stiffness matrices are presented for the analytical model; the model is based on a beam finite element, with polynomial mass and stiffness distributions for both the rotor and fuselage representations. For this analytical model, only symmetric fuselage and collective blade degrees of freedom are treated. Real and complex eigen-analyses are carried out to obtain coupled rotor-fuselage natural modes and frequencies as a function of rotor speed. Vibration response results are obtained for the coupled system subjected to a radially uniform, harmonic blade loading. The coupled response results are compared with response results from an uncoupled analysis in which hub loads for an isolated rotor system subjected to the same sinusoidal blade loading as the coupled system are applied to a free-free fuselage.

  17. Vibration characteristics of aluminum surface subjected to ultrasonic waves and their effect on wetting behavior of solder droplets.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Xu, Zhiwu; Zheng, Kun; Yan, Jiuchun; Yang, Shiqin

    2014-03-01

    The vibration characteristics of an aluminum surface subjected to ultrasonic waves were investigated with a combination of numerical simulation and experimental testing. The wetting behavior of solder droplets on the vibrating aluminum surface was also examined. The results show that the vibration pattern of the aluminum surface is inhomogeneous. The amplitude of the aluminum surface exceeds the excitation amplitude in some zones, while the amplitude decreases nearly to zero in other zones. The distribution of the zero-amplitude zones is much less dependent on the strength of the vibration than on the location of the vibration source. The surface of the liquid solder vibrates at an ultrasonic frequency that is higher than the vibration source, and the amplitude of the liquid solder is almost twice that of the aluminum surface. The vibration of the surface of the base metal (liquid solder) correlates with the oxide film removal effect. Significant removal of the oxide film can be achieved within 2s when the amplitude of the aluminum surface is higher than 5.4 ?m or when the amplitude of the liquid solder surface is higher than 10.2 ?m. PMID:24295911

  18. The Effect of Surface Wave Propagation on Neural Responses to Vibration in Primate Glabrous Skin

    E-print Network

    Elias, Damian Octavio

    The Effect of Surface Wave Propagation on Neural Responses to Vibration in Primate Glabrous Skin relies on the response of large populations of receptors distributed across the skin, we seek to characterize how a mechanical deformation of the skin at one location affects the skin at another. To this end

  19. Non-linear dual-axis biodynamic response to fore-and-aft whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawayseh, N.; Griffin, M. J.

    2005-04-01

    Seated subjects have participated in two experiments with fore-and-aft whole-body vibration to investigate dynamic responses at the seat and footrest in the direction of vibration and in other directions. In the first experiment, 12 males were exposed to fore-and-aft random vibration (0.25-20 Hz) at four magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625, and 1.25 m s -2 rms) while sitting on a seat with no backrest in four postures with varying foot heights to produce differing thigh contact with the seat (feet hanging, feet supported with maximum thigh contact, feet supported with average thigh contact, and feet supported with minimum thigh contact). In the second experiment, six subjects were exposed to three vibration magnitudes (0.125, 0.25, 0.625 m s -2 rms) in the average thigh contact posture, both with and without a rigid backrest. Forces were measured in the vertical, fore-and-aft, and lateral directions on the supporting seat surface (in the first experiment) and in the fore-and-aft and vertical directions at the footrest (in the second experiment). On the seat, there were three vibration modes in the fore-and-aft apparent mass on the seat at frequencies below 10 Hz in all postures (around 1 Hz, between 1 and 3 Hz, and between 3 and 5 Hz); large vertical forces were dependent on foot support while lateral forces were relatively small. At the feet, the fore-and-aft apparent mass showed a resonance between 3 and 5 Hz, which increased in frequency and magnitude when a backrest was used. The fore-and-aft vibration produced high vertical forces at the footrest. At frequencies below resonance, the backrest reduced vertical and fore-and-aft forces at the footrest. On the seat and the footrest, the forces showed a nonlinear characteristic that varied between postures. The presence of appreciable vertical forces indicate that during fore-and-aft excitation the body moved in two dimensions. It is concluded that forces in directions other than the direction of excitation should be taken into account when considering biodynamic responses to fore-and-aft whole-body vibration.

  20. Vibrational Response of Au-Ag Nanoboxes and Nanocages to Ultrafast Laser-Induced Heating

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Hristina; Lin, Chien-Hua; Hu, Min; Chen, Jingyi; Siekkinen, Andrew R.; Xia, Younan; Sader, John E.; Hartland, Gregory V.

    2008-01-01

    Time-resolved spectroscopy has been used to investigate the vibrational properties of hollow cubic nanoparticles: Au-Ag nanoboxes and nanocages. In these experiments laser-induced heating was used to coherently excite the breathing vibrational modes of the particle. The vibrational periods scale with the edge length of the particle, and the nanocages and nanoboxes showing equivalent responses despite a large difference in their morphology. The measured vibrational periods are compared to finite element calculations, where the particles are modeled as a hollow cube, with the principle crystal axes parallel to the sides of the cube. Very good agreement is obtained between the calculations and the experimental data, with the experimental frequencies being slightly lower than the calculated values (by ? 7 %). These results demonstrate the importance of accurately modeling the particles in order to interpret experimental data. PMID:17358093

  1. Subjective response to combined noise and vibration during flight of a large twin-jet airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    A NASA twin-jet airplane was used to obtain controlled noise and vibration environments during flight while obtaining subjective responses from 13 passenger-subjects (6 females and 7 males). Subjective ratings of overall comfort, comfort when considering only vibration, and comfort when considering only noise were obtained during times of different vibration and noise environments. Passenger-subjects were able to distinguish and rate noise better than vibration. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference in ratings of ride comfort due to both sex type and flight experience. Males rated flying discomfort much more severely than females when rating the overall ride and the ride when considering only the noise environment. Experienced passengers also rated the overall ride to be more uncomfortable than inexperienced passengers.

  2. Flow-induced vibration characteristics of the BWR/5-201 jet pump

    SciTech Connect

    LaCroix, L.V.

    1982-09-01

    A General Electric boiling water reactor BWR/5-201 jet pump was tested for flow-induced vibration (FIV) characteristics in the Large Steam Water Test Facility at Moss Landing, CA, during the period June-July 1978. High level periodic FIV were observed at reactor operating conditions (1027 psia, 532/sup 0/F and prototypical flow rates) for the specific single jet pump assembly tested. High level FIV of similar amplitude and character have been shown capable of damaging jet pump components and associated support hardware if allowed to continue unchecked. High level FIV were effectively suppressed in two special cases tested: (1) lateral load (>500 lb) at the mixer to diffuser slip joint; and (2) a labyrinth seal (5 small, circumferential grooves) on the mixer at the slip joint. Stability criteria for the particular jet pump tested were developed from test data. A cause-effect relationship between the dynamic pressure within the slip joint and the jet pump vibration was established.

  3. Effects of blood in veins of dragonfly wing on the vibration characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dan; Yin, Yajun; Zhao, Hongxiao; Zhong, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    How the blood in veins of dragonfly wing affects its vibration characteristics is investigated. Based on the experimental results of the wing's morphology and microstructures, including the veins, the membranes and the pterostigma, accurate three-dimensional finite element models of the dragonfly forewing are developed. Considering the blood in veins, the total mass, mass distribution and the moments of inertia of the wing are studied. The natural frequencies/modal shapes are analyzed when the veins are filled with and without blood, respectively. The based natural frequency of the model with blood (189 Hz) is much closer to the experimental result. Relative to bending modal shapes, the torsional ones are affected more significantly by the blood. The results in this article reveal the multi-functions of the blood in dragonfly wings and have important implications for the bionic design of flapping-wing micro air vehicles. PMID:25577611

  4. Free-vibration characteristics and correlation of a space station split-blanket solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Kelly S.; Shaker, Francis J.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods for studying the free-vibration characteristics of a large split-blanket solar array in a zero-g cantilevered configuration are presented. The zero-g configuration corrresponds to an on-orbit configuration of the Space Station solar array. The first method applies the equations of continuum mechanics to determine the natural frequencies of the array; the second uses the finite element method program, MSC/NASTRAN. The stiffness matrix from the NASTRAN solution was found to be erroneously grounded. The results from the two methods are compared. It is concluded that the grounding does not seriously compromise the solution to the elastic modes of the solar array. However, the correct rigid body modes need to be included to obtain the correct dynamic model.

  5. Free-vibration characteristics and correlation of a Space Station split-blanket solar array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Kelly S.; Shaker, Francis J.

    1989-01-01

    Two methods for studying the free-vibration characteristics of a large split-blanket solar array in a zero-g cantilevered configuration are presented. The zero-g configuration corresponds to an on-orbit configuration of the Space Station solar array. The first method applies the equations of continuum mechanics to determine the natural frequencies of the array; the second uses the finite element method program, MSC/NASTRAN. The stiffness matrix from the NASTRAN solution was found to be erroneously grounded. The results from the two methods are compared. It is concluded that the grounding does not seriously compromise the solution to the elastic modes of the solar array. However, the correct rigid body modes need to be icluded to obtain the correct dynamic model.

  6. Nonlinear Vibration Response Measured at Umbo and Stapes in the Rabbit Middle ear.

    PubMed

    Peacock, John; Pintelon, Rik; Dirckx, Joris

    2015-10-01

    Using laser vibrometry and a stimulation and signal analysis method based on multisines, we have measured the response and the nonlinearities in the vibration of the rabbit middle ear at the level of the umbo and the stapes. With our method, we were able to detect and quantify nonlinearities starting at sound pressure levels of 93-dB SPL. The current results show that no significant additional nonlinearity is generated as the vibration signal is passed through the middle ear chain. Nonlinearities are most prominent in the lower frequencies (125 Hz to 1 kHz), where their level is about 40 dB below the vibration response. The level of nonlinearities rises with a factor of nearly 2 as a function of sound pressure level, indicating that they may become important at very high sound pressure levels such as those used in high-power hearing aids. PMID:26162416

  7. Response characteristics of the human torsional vestibuloocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of the response dynamics of the human torsional vestibuloocular reflex were studied during controlled rotations about an earth-horizontal axis. The results extended the frequency range to 2 Hz and identified the nonlinearity of the amplitude response.

  8. Study of T53 engine vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Vibration characteristics for overhauled T53 engines, including rejection rate, principal sources of vibration, and normal procedures taken by the overhaul center to reduce engine vibration are summarized. Analytical and experimental data were compared to determine the engine's dynamic response to unbalance forces with results showing that the engine operates through bending critical speeds. Present rigid rotor balancing techniques are incapable of compensating for the flexible rotor unbalance. A comparison of typical test cell and aircraft vibration levels disclosed significant differences in the engine's dynamic response. A probable spline shift phenomenon was uncovered and investigated. Action items to control costs and reduce vibration levels were identified from analytical and experimental studies.

  9. Lumped Parameter Modeling for Rapid Vibration Response Prototyping and Test Correlation for Electronic Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyke, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Present preliminary work using lumped parameter models to approximate dynamic response of electronic units to random vibration; Derive a general N-DOF model for application to electronic units; Illustrate parametric influence of model parameters; Implication of coupled dynamics for unit/board design; Demonstrate use of model to infer printed wiring board (PWB) dynamics from external chassis test measurement.

  10. Vibration characteristics of walls and a plate glass window representative of those of a wood-frame house

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1979-01-01

    Mechanical excitation was used, and measurements of acceleration response, natural frequencies, and nodal patterns were performed. Results indicate that the wall sections and the complete wall did not act as a unit in responding to sinusoidal vibration inputs. Calculated frequencies of the components that account for this independent behavior of the studs and face sheets agreed resonably well with experimental frequencies. Experimental vibrations of the plate glass window agreed with the calculated behavior, and responses of the window exposed to airplane flyover noise were readily correlated with the test results.

  11. Coupled vibration response of a shaft with a breathing crack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannopoulos, G. I.; Georgantzinos, S. K.; Anifantis, N. K.

    2015-02-01

    The accurate and detailed knowledge of the local flexibility which is introduced by a crack into a structure may be used in damage diagnosis. This paper investigates the variation of the local flexibility of cracked shafts under harmonic type of loadings causing tensional as well as compressional stresses around the crack faces in a periodic manner which inevitably lead to the opening and closure of the crack, i.e. the breathing mechanism. Time-dependent nonlinear finite element method (FEM) is adopted to analyze various crack sizes as well as time-dependent axial, bending and torsional types of loading. Special boundary conditions are adopted between crack faces to avoid penetration along the contact area and simultaneously permit the existence of stick or slip contact zones according to Coulomb's law. Deflection differences at the loaded edge between uncracked and cracked shaft are used for the computation of the local flexibilities. Apart from the computation of the diagonal terms of local flexibility matrix intensive emphasis is given to its off-diagonal coefficients which cause the coupling of motion between different degrees of freedom and thus may affect considerably the overall vibrational behavior of the shaft.

  12. Free vibration characteristics of multiple load path blades by the transfer matrix method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. R.; Joshi, Arun M.

    1986-01-01

    The determination of free vibrational characteristics is basic to any dynamic design, and these characteristics can form the basis for aeroelastic stability analyses. Conventional helicopter blades are typically idealized as single-load-path blades, and the transfer matrix method is well suited to analyze such blades. Several current helicopter dynamic programs employ transfer matrices to analyze the rotor blades. In this paper, however, the transfer matrix method is extended to treat multiple-load-path blades, without resorting to an equivalent single-load-path approximation. With such an extension, these current rotor dynamic programs which employ the transfer matrix method can be modified with relative ease to account for the multiple load paths. Unlike the conventional blades, the multiple-load-path blades require the introduction of the axial degree-of-freedom into the solution process to account for the differential axial displacements of the different load paths. The transfer matrix formulation is validated through comparison with the finite-element solutions.

  13. Effects of gear crack propagation paths on vibration responses of the perforated gear system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hui; Pang, Xu; Zeng, Jin; Wang, Qibin; Wen, Bangchun

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates the dynamic behaviors of a perforated gear system considering effects of the gear crack propagation paths and this study focuses on the effects of a crack propagating through the rim on the time-varying mesh stiffness (TVMS) and vibration responses. Considering the effects of the extended tooth contact, a finite element (FE) model of a gear pair is established based on ANSYS software. TVMS of the perforated gear with crack propagating through tooth and rim are calculated by using the FE model. Furthermore, a lumped mass model is adopted to investigate the vibration responses of the perforated gear system. The results show that there exist three periods related to slots of the gear body in a rotating period of the perforated gear. Gear cracks propagating through tooth and rim both reduce the gear body stiffness and lead to reduction of TVMS besides the crack tooth contact moment, and the TVMS weakening for the former is less than that for the latter. Moreover, the results also show that the gear crack propagating through the rim (CPR) has a greater effect on vibration responses than the gear crack propagating through the tooth (CPT) under the same crack level. Vibration level increases with the increasing crack depth, especially for the gear with CPR.

  14. Experimental studies for determining human discomfort response to vertical sinusoidal vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Leatherwood, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate several problems related to methodology and design of experiments to obtain human comfort response to vertical sinusoidal vibration. Specifically, the studies were directed to the determination of (1) the adequacy of frequency averaging of vibration data to obtain discomfort predictors, (2) the effect of practice on subject ratings, (3) the effect of the demographic factors of age, sex, and weight, and (4) the relative importance of seat and floor vibrations in the determination of measurement and criteria specification location. Results indicate that accurate prediction of discomfort requires knowledge of both the acceleration level and frequency content of the vibration stimuli. More importantly, the prediction of discomfort was shown to be equally good based upon either floor accelerations or seat accelerations. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the discomfort levels in different seats resulting from similar vibratory imputs were equal. Therefore, it was recommended that criteria specifications and acceleration measurements be made at the floor location. The results also indicated that practice did not systematically influence discomfort responses nor did the demographic factors of age, weight, and sex contribute to the discomfort response variation.

  15. Exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Calum; Woodcock, James; Sica, Gennaro; Peris, Eulalia; Moorhouse, Andrew T; Waddington, David C

    2014-01-01

    In this work, exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments are developed, so as to better understand the differences in human response to these two sources of environmental vibration. Data for this research come from a field study comprising interviews with respondents and measurements of their vibration exposure (N?=?752). A logistic regression model is able to accurately classify 96% of these measured railway vibration signals as freight or passenger based on two signal properties that quantify the duration and low frequency content of each signal. Exposure-response relationships are then determined using ordinal probit modeling with fixed thresholds. The results indicate that people are able to distinguish between freight and passenger railway vibration, and that the annoyance response due to freight railway vibration is significantly higher than that due to passenger railway vibration, even for equal levels of exposure. In terms of a community tolerance level, the population studied is 15?dB (re 10(-6) m?s(-2)) more tolerant to passenger railway vibration than freight railway vibration. These results have implications for the expansion of freight traffic on rail, or for policies to promote passenger railway. PMID:24437760

  16. The Gamow-Teller response within Skyrme random-phase approximation plus particle-vibration coupling

    E-print Network

    Yifei Niu; Gianluca Colo; Marco Brenna; Marco Brenna; Pier Francesco Bortignon; Jie Meng

    2012-03-28

    Although many random-phase approximation (RPA) calculations of the Gamow-Teller (GT) response exist, this is not the case for calculations going beyond the mean-field approximation. We apply a consistent model that includes the coupling of the GT resonance to low-lying vibrations, to nuclei of the $fp$ shell. Among other motivations, our goal is to see if the particle-vibration coupling can redistribute the low-lying GT$^+$ strength that is relevant for electron-capture processes in core-collapse supernova. We conclude that the lowering and fragmentation of that strength are consistent with the experimental findings and validate our model. However, the particle-vibration coupling cannot account for the quenching of the total value of the low-lying strength.

  17. Short term response of insulin, glucose, growth hormone and corticosterone to acute vibration in rats.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolkas, C. B.; Leon, H. A.; Chackerian, M.

    1971-01-01

    Study carried out to obtain some notion of the initial phasing and interactive effects among some hormones known to be responsive to vibration stress. Sprague-Dawley derived rats were exposed to the acute effects of confinement and confinement with lateral (plus or minus G sub y) vibration. The coincident monitoring of glucose, insulin, growth hormone, and corticosterone plasma levels, during and immediately subsequent to exposure to brief low level vibration, exhibits the effects of inhibition of insulin release by epinephrine. The ability of insulin (IRI) to return rapidly to basal levels, from appreciably depressed levels during vibration, in the face of elevated levels of glucose is also shown. Corticosterone responds with almost equal rapidity, but in opposite phase to the IRI. The immuno-assayable growth hormone (IGH) dropped from a basal level of 32 ng/ml to 7.3 ng/ml immediately subsequent to vibration and remained at essentially that level throughout the experiment (60 min). Whether these levels represent a real fall in the rat or whether they merely follow the immuno-logically deficient form is still in question.

  18. Theoretical relationship between vibration transmissibility and driving-point response functions of the human body

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ren G.; Welcome, Daniel E.; McDowell, Thomas W.; Wu, John Z.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the vibration transmissibility and driving-point response functions (DPRFs) of the human body is important for understanding vibration exposures of the system and for developing valid models. This study identified their theoretical relationship and demonstrated that the sum of the DPRFs can be expressed as a linear combination of the transmissibility functions of the individual mass elements distributed throughout the system. The relationship is verified using several human vibration models. This study also clarified the requirements for reliably quantifying transmissibility values used as references for calibrating the system models. As an example application, this study used the developed theory to perform a preliminary analysis of the method for calibrating models using both vibration transmissibility and DPRFs. The results of the analysis show that the combined method can theoretically result in a unique and valid solution of the model parameters, at least for linear systems. However, the validation of the method itself does not guarantee the validation of the calibrated model, because the validation of the calibration also depends on the model structure and the reliability and appropriate representation of the reference functions. The basic theory developed in this study is also applicable to the vibration analyses of other structures.

  19. EUV/FUV response characteristics of photographic films for the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Deforest, Craig E.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Lindblom, Joakim F.

    1991-01-01

    The photographic film employed by NASA's Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array must have high-to-ultrahigh resolution; since the spacecraft bearing the telescope must be evacuated to prevent the failure of delicate EUV and soft X-ray filters due to acoustic vibration during launch, the films must also have very low outgassing rates. An account is presently given of the properties of important new emulsions selected for flight, together with response-characteristics data for the experimental XUV 100 film and an uncoated Spectroscopic 649 emulsion.

  20. Modulated pulses based distributed vibration sensing with high frequency response and spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tao; He, Qian; Xiao, Xianghui; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2013-02-11

    A distributed optical fiber sensing system merged Mach-Zehnder interferometer and phase sensitive optical time domain reflectometer (?-OTDR) system for vibration measurement with high-frequency response and high spatial resolution is demonstrated, where modulated pulses are proposed to be used as sensing source. Frequency response and location information are obtained by Mach-Zehnder interferometer and ?-OTDR technology, respectively. In order to simulate high-frequency vibration of crack of cable and civil structure, experiments on detection of piezoelectric transducer and pencil-break are carried out. Spatial resolution of 5 m and the maximum frequency response of ~3 MHz are achieved in 1064 m fiber link when the narrow pulse width is 50 ns. PMID:23481753

  1. Synchronous and non-synchronous responses of systems with multiple identical nonlinear vibration absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issa, Jimmy S.; Shaw, Steven W.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we investigate the nonlinear dynamic response of systems composed of a primary inertia to which multiple identical vibration absorbers are attached. This problem is motivated by observations of systems of centrifugal pendulum vibration absorbers that are designed to reduce engine order torsional vibrations in rotating systems, but the results are relevant to translational systems as well. In these systems the total absorber mass is split into multiple equal masses for purposes of distribution and/or balance, and it is generally expected that the absorbers will act in unison, corresponding to a synchronous response. In order to capture nonlinear effects of the responses of the absorbers, specifically, their amplitude-dependent frequency, we consider them to possess nonlinear stiffness. The equations of motion for the system are derived and it is shown how one can uncouple the equations for the absorbers from that for the primary inertia, resulting in a system of identical resonators that are globally coupled. These symmetric equations are scaled for weak nonlinear effects, near resonant forcing, and small damping. The method of averaging is applied, from which steady-state responses and their stability are investigated. The response of systems with two, three, and four absorbers are considered in detail, demonstrating a rich variety of bifurcations of the synchronous response, resulting in responses with various levels of symmetry in which sub-groups of absorbers are mutually synchronous. It is also shown that undamped models with more than two absorbers possess a degenerate response, which is made robust by the addition of damping to the model. Design guidelines are proposed based on the nature of the system response, with the aim of minimizing the acceleration of the primary system. It is shown that the desired absorber parameters are selected so that the system achieves a stable synchronous response which does not undergo jumps via saddle-node bifurcations, nor instabilities related to the underlying symmetry of the system.

  2. Vibration Response Testing of the CEBAF 12GeV Upgrade Cryomodules

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G. Kirk; Matalevich, Joseph R.; Wiseman, Mark A.; Powers, Thomas J.

    2012-09-01

    The CEBAF 12 GeV upgrade project includes 80 new 7-cell cavities to form 10 cryomodules. These cryomodules were tested during production to characterize their microphonic response in situ. For several early cryomodules, detailed (vibration) modal studies of the cryomodule string were performed during the assembly process to identify the structural contributors to the measured cryomodule microphonic response. Structural modifications were then modelled, implemented, and verified by subsequent modal testing and in-situ microphonic response testing. Interim and latest results from this multi-stage process will be reviewed.

  3. Experimental analysis of dynamic characteristics for vibration-impact process of steam turbine blades with integral shroud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Lu-ping; Lu, Xu-xiang; Rao, Hong-de; Liu, Yu-jing

    2008-11-01

    Integral shroud is an advanced technique used to improve reliability of steam turbine blades. In this paper, dynamic characteristics of vibration-impact process of steam turbine blades with integral shroud are studied. To test and verify the reliability of calculation result, a series of experiments are well performed on the platform of contracting and impacting of blades tips. The dynamic strain data under different gaps, different loads and different rotating speeds are surveyed through which the log decrement at each condition is obtained, and the effects of vibration damping are obtained by comparing the log decrement. The results of experimental study show that larger log decrement means larger system damping and better effectives of vibration reduction. Besides, the effects of vibro-impact reduction of different parameters are got and the experimental study results show that the vibro-impact structure is a good vibration damper. The dynamic stress of the blade with integral shroud is insensitive to loads when the gap between adjacent integral shrouds is small. In short, the achievements gained in the paper have revealed dynamic characteristics for vibro-impact process of steam turbine blades with integral shroud, which will bring important engineering application to development and modification design of the integrally shrouded blades.

  4. Evaluating Attenuation of Vibration Response using Particle Impact Damping for a Range of Equipment Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Brent; Parsons, David; Smith, Andrew; Hunt, Ron; LaVerde, Bruce; Towner, Robert; Craigmyle, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Particle dampers provide a mechanism for diverting energy away from resonant structural vibrations. This experimental study provides data from a series of acoustically excited tests to determine the effectiveness of these dampers for equipment mounted to a curved orthogrid panel for a launch vehicle application. Vibration attenuation trends are examined for variations in particle damper fill level, component mass, and excitation energy. A significant response reduction at the component level was achieved, suggesting that comparatively small, strategically placed, particle damper devices might be advantageously used in launch vehicle design. These test results were compared to baseline acoustic response tests without particle damping devices, over a range of isolation and damping parameters. Instrumentation consisting of accelerometers, microphones, and still photography data will be collected to correlate with the analytical results.

  5. Electrorheological vibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobko, Evguenia V.; Shulman, Zinovy P.; Korobko, Yulia O.

    2001-07-01

    The present paper is devoted to de3velopment and testing of an active vibration system. The system is intended for providing efficient motion of a piston in a hydraulic channel for creation of shocks and periodic vibrations in a low frequency range by means of the ER-valves based on an electrosensitive working me dium, i.e. electrorheological fluids. The latter manifests the electrorheological (ER) effect, i.e. a reversible change in the rheological characteristics of weak-conducting disperse compositions in the presence of constant and alternating electric fields. As a result of the experimental study of the dependence of viscoelastic properties of the ER-fluid on the magnitude and type of an electric field, the optimum dimensions of the vibrator and the its valves characteristics of the optimal electrical signal are determined. For control of an ER- vibrator having several valves we have designed a special type of a high-voltage two-channel impulse generator. Experiments were conducted at the frequencies ranged from 1- 10 Hz. It has been shown, that a peak force made 70% of the static force exercised by the vibrator rod. A phase shift between the input voltage and the load acceleration was less than 45 degree(s)C which allowed servocontrol and use of the vibrator for attendant operations. It was noted that a response of the vibrator to a stepwise signal has a delay only of several milliseconds.

  6. Vibration and Operational Characteristics of a Composite-Steel (Hybrid) Gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; LaBerge, Kelsen E.; DeLuca, Samuel; Pelagalli, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid gears have been tested consisting of metallic gear teeth and shafting connected by composite web. Both free vibration and dynamic operation tests were completed at the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Test Facility, comparing these hybrid gears to their steel counterparts. The free vibration tests indicated that the natural frequency of the hybrid gear was approximately 800 Hz lower than the steel test gear. The dynamic vibration tests were conducted at five different rotational speeds and three levels of torque in a four square test configuration. The hybrid gears were tested both as fabricated (machined, composite layup, then composite cure) and after regrinding the gear teeth to the required aerospace tolerance. The dynamic vibration tests indicated that the level of vibration for either type of gearing was sensitive to the level of load and rotational speed.

  7. Psychophysical relationships characterizing human response to whole-body sinusoidal vertical vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental investigation determined that the psychophysical relationships between subjective discomfort evaluations to vibratory stimuli and subjective evaluations of the intensity of vibratory stimuli can be expressed in a linear fashion. Furthermore, significant differences were found to exist between discomfort and intensity subjective response for several but not all discrete frequencies investigated. The implication of these results is that ride quality criteria based upon subjective evaluation of vibration intensity should be applied cautiously in the development of criteria for human comfort.

  8. Application of vibration response technique for the firmness evaluation of pear fruit during storage.

    PubMed

    Oveisi, Z; Minaei, S; Rafiee, S; Eyvani, A; Borghei, A

    2014-11-01

    Storage conditions of pear affect its subsequent softening process and shelf life. Measurements of firmness have traditionally been carried out according to the Magness Taylor (MT) procedure; using a texture analyzer or penetrometer in reference texture tests. In this study, a non-destructive method using Laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) technology was used to estimate texture firmness of pears. This technique was employed to detect responses to imposed vibration of intact fruit using a shaker. Vibration transmitted through the fruit to the upper surface was measured by LDV. A fast Fourier transform algorithm was used to process response signals and the desired results were extracted. Multiple Linear Regression models using fruit density and four parameters obtained from modal tests showed better correlation (R(2)?=?0.803) with maximum force in Magness Taylor test compared to the models that used only modal parameters (R(2)?=?0.798). The best polynomial regression models for pear firmness were based on elasticity index (EI) and damping ratio (?) with R(2)?=?0.71 and R(2)?=?0.64, respectively. This study shows the capability of the LDV technique and the vibration response data for predicting ripeness and modeling pear firmness and the significant advantage for commercially classifying of pears based on consumer demands. PMID:26396319

  9. Analytical and experimental evaluations of Space Shuttle TPS tile vibration response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piersol, A. G.; Pope, L. D.

    1982-01-01

    Analytical studies and laboratory experiments have been performed to evaluate the vibration response of the Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) tiles due to the intense rocket generated acoustic noise during lift-off. The TPS tiles are mounted over the exterior of the Space Shuttle Orbiter structure through Strain Isolation Pads (SIP) which protect the tiles from thermal induced shear loads at their interface. The analytical predictions indicate that the response of a typical tile is governed by the structural vibration inputs through the SIP under the tile at frequencies below 250 Hz, and by the direct acoustic excitation over the exterior surface of the tile at frequencies above 250 Hz. An evaluation of the laboratory test data for this same tile, in which conditioned (partial) coherent output spectral analysis procedures were used, leads to exactly the same conclusion. The results demonstrate the power of conditioned spectral analysis procedures in identifying vibration response mechanisms when two or more of the inputs are highly correlated.

  10. Hormonal and Neuromuscular Responses to Mechanical Vibration Applied to Upper Extremity Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Di Giminiani, Riccardo; Fabiani, Leila; Baldini, Giuliano; Cardelli, Giovanni; Giovannelli, Aldo; Tihanyi, Jozsef

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the acute residual hormonal and neuromuscular responses exhibited following a single session of mechanical vibration applied to the upper extremities among different acceleration loads. Methods Thirty male students were randomly assigned to a high vibration group (HVG), a low vibration group (LVG), or a control group (CG). A randomized double-blind, controlled-parallel study design was employed. The measurements and interventions were performed at the Laboratory of Biomechanics of the University of L'Aquila. The HVG and LVG participants were exposed to a series of 20 trials ×10 s of synchronous whole-body vibration (WBV) with a 10-s pause between each trial and a 4-min pause after the first 10 trials. The CG participants assumed an isometric push-up position without WBV. The outcome measures were growth hormone (GH), testosterone, maximal voluntary isometric contraction during bench-press, maximal voluntary isometric contraction during handgrip, and electromyography root-mean-square (EMGrms) muscle activity (pectoralis major [PM], triceps brachii [TB], anterior deltoid [DE], and flexor carpi radialis [FCR]). Results The GH increased significantly over time only in the HVG (P?=?0.003). Additionally, the testosterone levels changed significantly over time in the LVG (P?=?0.011) and the HVG (P?=?0.001). MVC during bench press decreased significantly in the LVG (P?=?0.001) and the HVG (P?=?0.002). In the HVG, the EMGrms decreased significantly in the TB (P?=?0.006) muscle. In the LVG, the EMGrms decreased significantly in the DE (P?=?0.009) and FCR (P?=?0.006) muscles. Conclusion Synchronous WBV acutely increased GH and testosterone serum concentrations and decreased the MVC and their respective maximal EMGrms activities, which indicated a possible central fatigue effect. Interestingly, only the GH response was dependent on the acceleration with respect to the subjects' responsiveness. PMID:25368995

  11. A scaling approach for the prediction of high-frequency mean responses of vibrating systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianhui

    2010-05-01

    This analysis presents a scaling approach to predict high-frequency mean responses of vibrating systems. The basis of the approach lies in the dynamic similitude between the original systems and the scaled models. A general scaling law is formulated using Skudrzyk's mean-value theorem and its specific form is derived for the case of a flexural plate. Modal density is scaled down to reduce the computational cost in the high-frequency mean response prediction. Different scaling procedures are numerically experimented and some insights are given about the accuracy of the scaling approach as compared with a dense finite element analysis. PMID:21117716

  12. Analyses of contact forces and vibration response for a defective rolling element bearing using an explicit dynamics finite element model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarabjeet; Köpke, Uwe G.; Howard, Carl Q.; Petersen, Dick

    2014-10-01

    This paper provides insights into the physical mechanism by which defect-related impulsive forces, and consequently, vibrations are generated in defective rolling element bearings. A dynamic nonlinear finite element model of a rolling element bearing with an outer raceway defect was numerically solved using the explicit dynamics finite element software package, LS-DYNA. A hypothesis was developed to explain the numerical noise observed in the predicted vibrations and contact forces, and the noise frequencies were analytically estimated. In-depth analyses of the numerically estimated dynamic contact forces between the rolling elements and the raceways of a bearing, which are not measured in practice, and have not been reported previously, are presented in this paper. Several events associated with the traverse of the rolling elements through the outer raceway defect are elaborated, and the impulsive force generating mechanism is explained. It was found that the re-stressing of the rolling elements that occurs near the end of a raceway defect generates a burst of multiple short-duration force impulses. The modelling results also highlight that much higher contact forces and accelerations are generated on the exit of the rolling elements out of defect compared to when they strike the defective surface. A bearing with a machined outer raceway defect was tested in a controlled experiment; the measured acceleration response compared favourably with the numerically modelled acceleration results, thereby, validating the low- and high-frequency characteristics of the de-stressing and re-stressing of the rolling elements, respectively.

  13. Vibration response of spacecraft shrouds to in-flight fluctuating pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockburn, J. A.; Robertson, J. E.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented for the vibration response of a spacecraft shroud to a range of in-flight fluctuation pressures. An Atlas-Agena 15 degree cone-cylinder shroud was analyzed during the present study, and three critical flight Mach numbers were considered. At transonic Mach numbers, the aerodynamic flow over the shroud is complex, involving zones of regular attached flow, separated flow, shock wave oscillation, and modified attached flows induced by local thickening of the boundary layer. The overall shroud vibration levels for a particular Mach number were determined by initially calculating the mean square acceleration levels induced by the fluctuating pressures distributed over an individual zone, and then summing mean square acceleration levels in one-third octave bands over all zones.

  14. Parametric identification of a time-varying structure based on vector vibration response measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonakos, M. D.; Fassois, S. D.

    2009-08-01

    The problem of parametric output-only identification of a time-varying structure based on vector random vibration signal measurements is considered. A functional series vector time-dependent autoregressive moving average (FS-VTARMA) method is introduced and employed for the identification of a "bridge-like" laboratory structure consisting of a beam and a moving mass. The identification is based on three simultaneously measured vibration response signals obtained during a single experiment. The method is judged against baseline modelling based on multiple "frozen-configuration" stationary experiments, and is shown to be effective and capable of accurately tracking the dynamics. Additional comparisons with a recursive pseudo-linear regression VTARMA (PLR-VTARMA) method and a short time canonical variate analysis (ST-CVA) subspace method are made and demonstrate the method's superior achievable accuracy and model parsimony.

  15. Modeling “unilateral” response in the cross-ties of a cable network: Deterministic vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaccu, Gian Felice; Caracoglia, Luca; Barbiellini, Bernardo

    2014-09-01

    Cross-ties are employed as passive devices for the mitigation of stay-cable vibrations, exhibited on cable-stayed bridges under wind and wind-rain excitation. Large-amplitude oscillation can result in damage to the cables or perceived discomfort to bridge users. The “cable-cross-ties system” derived by connecting two or more stays by transverse cross-ties is often referred to as an “in-plane cable network”. Linear modeling of network dynamics has been available for some time. This framework, however, cannot be used to detect incipient failure in the restrainers due to slackening or snapping. A new model is proposed in this paper to analyze the effects of a complete loss in the pre-tensioning force imparted to the cross-ties, which leads to the “unilateral” free-vibration response of the network (i.e., a cross-tie with linear-elastic internal force in tension and partially inactive in compression). Deterministic free vibrations of a three-cable network are investigated by using the “equivalent linearization method”. A performance coefficient is introduced to monitor the relative reduction in the average (apparent) stiffness of the connector during free vibration response (“mode by mode”), exhibiting unilateral behavior. A reduction of fifty percent in the apparent stiffness was observed in the cross-tie when the pre-tensioning force is small in comparison with the tension force in the stay. This coefficient may be used as a damage indicator for the selection of the initial pre-tensioning force in the cross-ties needed to avoid slackening.

  16. Sympathetic and local vasoconstrictor response to cold in vibration induced white finger.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, N; Fjeldborg, P; Brchner-Mortensen, J

    1985-01-01

    To study the relative roles of sympathetic and local vasoconstrictor response to cold in vibration induced white finger (VWF) seven lumberjacks with bilateral VWF and seven age matched controls were investigated. During body cooling finger systolic blood pressure was measured with a cuff technique simultaneously on one affected finger on each hand at 30 degrees, 15 degrees, and 6 degrees C. Both affected fingers had an increased vasoconstrictor response at 15 degrees and 6 degrees C compared with the control group (p less than or equal to 0.05). During unilateral sympathetic nerve block the cold provocation test was repeated on both fingers. The unblocked finger affected by VWF showed no significant difference in the cold response between the two cold provocation tests (p greater than 0.10). The local cold response of blocked finger did not differ from that of the control group (p greater than 0.10). The sympathetic vasoconstrictor response to cold was estimated as the difference between the cold response before nerve block and the cold response during nerve block. The median sympathetic vasoconstrictor response at 6 degrees C was about twice as large as the local response during nerve block (p less than 0.05). The results indicate that the sympathetic vasoconstrictor response to cold plays the dominant part in VWF. PMID:3978048

  17. Semi-analytical solution of random response for nonlinear vibration energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiaoling; Wang, Yong; Xu, Ming; Huang, Zhilong

    2015-03-01

    Due to the prominent broadband performance of nonlinear vibration energy harvester, theoretical evaluations for the mean-square response to random excitations and the associated mean output power are of great interest. By employing the generalized harmonic transformation and equivalent nonlinearization technique, established here is a semi-analytical solution of random response for nonlinear vibration energy harvesters subjected to Gaussian white noise excitation. The semi-analytical solution for stationary probability density of the system response is obtained by two iterative processes. Numerical results for a Duffing-type harvester demonstrate rapid convergence of the iterative processes and high evaluation accuracy for the mean-square response and the mean output power. Furthermore, the influence of harvesting circuit on the mechanical subsystem can be converted to modified quasi-linear damping and stiffness with energy-dependent coefficients, which is different from the traditional viewpoint on the equivalence of constant-coefficient damping and provides more comprehensive explanation on the influence of harvesting circuit.

  18. Test-Anchored Vibration Response Predictions for an Acoustically Energized Curved Orthogrid Panel with Mounted Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frady, Gregory P.; Duvall, Lowery D.; Fulcher, Clay W. G.; Laverde, Bruce T.; Hunt, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    A rich body of vibroacoustic test data was recently generated at Marshall Space Flight Center for a curved orthogrid panel typical of launch vehicle skin structures. Several test article configurations were produced by adding component equipment of differing weights to the flight-like vehicle panel. The test data were used to anchor computational predictions of a variety of spatially distributed responses including acceleration, strain and component interface force. Transfer functions relating the responses to the input pressure field were generated from finite element based modal solutions and test-derived damping estimates. A diffuse acoustic field model was employed to describe the assumed correlation of phased input sound pressures across the energized panel. This application demonstrates the ability to quickly and accurately predict a variety of responses to acoustically energized skin panels with mounted components. Favorable comparisons between the measured and predicted responses were established. The validated models were used to examine vibration response sensitivities to relevant modeling parameters such as pressure patch density, mesh density, weight of the mounted component and model form. Convergence metrics include spectral densities and cumulative root-mean squared (RMS) functions for acceleration, velocity, displacement, strain and interface force. Minimum frequencies for response convergence were established as well as recommendations for modeling techniques, particularly in the early stages of a component design when accurate structural vibration requirements are needed relatively quickly. The results were compared with long-established guidelines for modeling accuracy of component-loaded panels. A theoretical basis for the Response/Pressure Transfer Function (RPTF) approach provides insight into trends observed in the response predictions and confirmed in the test data. The software modules developed for the RPTF method can be easily adapted for quick replacement of the diffuse acoustic field with other pressure field models; for example a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) model suitable for vehicle ascent. Wind tunnel tests have been proposed to anchor the predictions and provide new insight into modeling approaches for this type of environment. Finally, component vibration environments for design were developed from the measured and predicted responses and compared with those derived from traditional techniques such as Barrett scaling methods for unloaded and component-loaded panels.

  19. Theoretical foundation, methods, and criteria for calibrating human vibration models using frequency response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ren G.; Welcome, Daniel E.; McDowell, Thomas W.; Wu, John Z.

    2015-11-01

    While simulations of the measured biodynamic responses of the whole human body or body segments to vibration are conventionally interpreted as summaries of biodynamic measurements, and the resulting models are considered quantitative, this study looked at these simulations from a different angle: model calibration. The specific aims of this study are to review and clarify the theoretical basis for model calibration, to help formulate the criteria for calibration validation, and to help appropriately select and apply calibration methods. In addition to established vibration theory, a novel theorem of mechanical vibration is also used to enhance the understanding of the mathematical and physical principles of the calibration. Based on this enhanced understanding, a set of criteria was proposed and used to systematically examine the calibration methods. Besides theoretical analyses, a numerical testing method is also used in the examination. This study identified the basic requirements for each calibration method to obtain a unique calibration solution. This study also confirmed that the solution becomes more robust if more than sufficient calibration references are provided. Practically, however, as more references are used, more inconsistencies can arise among the measured data for representing the biodynamic properties. To help account for the relative reliabilities of the references, a baseline weighting scheme is proposed. The analyses suggest that the best choice of calibration method depends on the modeling purpose, the model structure, and the availability and reliability of representative reference data.

  20. Theoretical foundation, methods, and criteria for calibrating human vibration models using frequency response functions

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ren G.; Welcome, Daniel E.; McDowell, Thomas W.; Wu, John Z.

    2015-01-01

    While simulations of the measured biodynamic responses of the whole human body or body segments to vibration are conventionally interpreted as summaries of biodynamic measurements, and the resulting models are considered quantitative, this study looked at these simulations from a different angle: model calibration. The specific aims of this study are to review and clarify the theoretical basis for model calibration, to help formulate the criteria for calibration validation, and to help appropriately select and apply calibration methods. In addition to established vibration theory, a novel theorem of mechanical vibration is also used to enhance the understanding of the mathematical and physical principles of the calibration. Based on this enhanced understanding, a set of criteria was proposed and used to systematically examine the calibration methods. Besides theoretical analyses, a numerical testing method is also used in the examination. This study identified the basic requirements for each calibration method to obtain a unique calibration solution. This study also confirmed that the solution becomes more robust if more than sufficient calibration references are provided. Practically, however, as more references are used, more inconsistencies can arise among the measured data for representing the biodynamic properties. To help account for the relative reliabilities of the references, a baseline weighting scheme is proposed. The analyses suggest that the best choice of calibration method depends on the modeling purpose, the model structure, and the availability and reliability of representative reference data.

  1. Energy-dependent characteristics of collisinal vibration-energy exchange in vapors of polyatomic molcules

    SciTech Connect

    Zalesskaya, G.A.; Yakovlev, D.L.

    1995-02-01

    CO{sub 2} laser-induced delayed fluorescence was used to study the collisional vibration-energy exchange between the polyatomic molecules in gases. The efficiency of collisional exchange, the mean amount of energy transfer in one collision, as well as their correlation with the vibration energy and with the size of excited molecule were determined for diacetyl, acetophenone, benzophenone, and anthraquinone molecules form the experimentally observed pressure dependences of the decay rates and fluorescence intensities. It was shown that the mean amount of energy transfer per collision decreases with the molecular size and increases as E{sup m}, with m>2, with increasing the vibration energy. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation (SUMI) Component Responses to Payload Vibration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    Vibration testing of SUMI was performed at both the experiment and payload levels. No accelerometers were installed inside the experiment during testing, but it is certain that component responses were very high. The environments experienced by optical and electronic components in these tests is an area of ongoing concern. The analysis supporting this presentation included a detailed finite element model of the SUMI experiment section, the dynamic response of which, correlated well with accelerometer measurements from the testing of the experimental section at Marshall Space Flight Center. The relatively short timeframe available to complete the task and the limited design information available was a limitation on the level of detail possible for the non-experiment portion of the model. However, since the locations of interest are buried in the experimental section of the model, the calculated responses should be enlightening both for the development of test criteria and for guidance in design.

  3. Enhancement of response of a bistable VCSEL to modulated orthogonal optical feedback by vibrational resonance.

    PubMed

    Chizhevsky, V N

    2012-11-01

    It is experimentally demonstrated that the response of a bistable vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at a selected polarization to the effect of the modulated optical feedback at the orthogonal polarization can be considerably enhanced by the additional periodic current modulation via vibrational resonance. It shows up as a nonmonotonic dependence of the response at the frequency of the modulated optical feedback as a function of the amplitude of the current modulation. In such conditions the laser response can be amplified more than 80 times for a weak optical feedback. At the optimal amplitude of the current modulation a complete synchronization of optical switchings between polarization states with modulated optical feedback is observed. The effect of asymmetry of a bistable quasi-potential is also experimentally demonstrated. PMID:23114304

  4. Physiological response to whole-body vibration in athletes and sedentary subjects.

    PubMed

    Gojanovic, B; Feihl, F; Gremion, G; Waeber, B

    2014-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a new exercise method, with good acceptance among sedentary subjects. The metabolic response to WBV has not been well documented. Three groups of male subjects, inactive (SED), endurance (END) and strength trained (SPRINT) underwent a session of side-alternating WBV composed of three 3-min exercises (isometric half-squat, dynamic squat, dynamic squat with added load), and repeated at three frequencies (20, 26 and 32 Hz). VO(2), heart rate and Borg scale were monitored. Twenty-seven healthy young subjects (10 SED, 8 SPRINT and 9 END) were included. When expressed in % of their maximal value recorded in a treadmill test, both the peak oxygen consumption (VO(2)) and heart rate (HR) attained during WBV were greatest in the SED, compared to the other two groups (VO(2): 59.3 % in SED vs 50.8 % in SPRINT and 48.0 % in END, p<0.01; HR 82.7 % in SED vs 80.4 % in SPRINT and 72.4 % in END, p<0.05). In conclusions, the heart rate and metabolic response to WBV differs according to fitness level and type, exercise type and vibration frequency. In SED, WBV can elicit sufficient cardiovascular response to benefit overall fitness and thus be a potentially useful modality for the reduction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25157652

  5. Seated occupant interactions with seat backrest and pan, and biodynamic responses under vertical vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakheja, S.; Stiharu, I.; Zhang, H.; Boileau, P.-É.

    2006-12-01

    The relative interactions of the seated occupants with an inclined backrest were investigated in terms of apparent mass (APMS) responses at the two driving-points formed by the buttock-seat pan and the upper body-backrest under exposure to broad-band and road-measured vertical vibration. The measurements were performed using 24 adult subjects seated with full contact with the back support and two different positions of the hands (in lap and on steering wheel), while exposed to three different levels of broad band (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m/s 2 rms acceleration) vibration in the 0.5-40 Hz frequency range, and a track-measured vibration spectrum (1.07 m/s 2 rms acceleration). The forces developed on the seat pan and the backrest in directions normal to the supporting surfaces were measured to derive the APMS responses at both the driving-points. The results showed significant interactions of the upper body with the back support in a direction normal to the backrest, even though the vibration is applied along the vertical axis. At low frequencies, the backrest APMS magnitude was smaller than that measured at the seat pan, but it either exceeded or approached that of the seat pan APMS in the vicinity of the primary resonant frequencies. The results also suggested considerable effect of the hands position on the APMS magnitudes measured at both the driving-points. The effects of variations in the excitation type and magnitude, considered in this study, were observed to be small compared to those caused by the hands position and individual body masses. Owing to the strong effects of the body mass on the measured APMS responses at both driving-points, a total of 8 target data sets were identified corresponding to four mass groups (<60, 60.6-70, 70.5-80 and >80 kg) and two hands positions for formulating mechanical equivalent models. The model parameters identified for the target functions suggested that the models mass, stiffness and damping parameters increase with increasing body mass. The observed variations in the identified parameters could be applied for predicting the APMS responses reflected on the pan as well as backrest of the human occupants with specific body mass.

  6. [Identification of the characteristic vibrations for 16 PAHs based on Raman spectrum].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Ya-Ling; Jiang, Long; Cai, Xiao-Yu; Li, Yu

    2014-11-01

    In the present paper, by means of density functional theory in B3LYP/6-311++G(d, p) method, 16 kinds of pollutants, i. e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): naphthalene (Nap), acenaphthylene (AcPy), acenaphthene (Acp), fluorene (Flu), phenanthrene (PA), anthracene (Ant), fluoranthene (Fl), pyrene (Pyr), benzo [a] anthracene (BaA), fused two naphthalene (CHR), benzo [b] fluoranthene (BbF), benzo [k] fluoranthene (BkF), benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), dibenzo (a, h) anthracene (DahA), dibenzo [g, h, i] pyrene (BghiP) and indene benzene (1, 2, 3-cd) pyrene (IcdP) among the U. S. EPA priority pollutants were selected, whose structures were optimized and Raman vibrational frequencies and depolarization were calculated. The structure, Raman vibrational frequencies and depolarization were basis of identification of PAHs. Studies have shown that Raman vibrations of 16 PAHs are mainly distributed in three frequency regions: 200-1 000 cm(-1) (fingerprint region), 1 000-1 700 cm(-1) and 3 000-3 200 cm(-1) (group frequency region), corresponding vibrations were assigned to ring deformation (ring def), C-C stretching (CCStr), C-H wiggle (CHw) and of these two patterns (CCStrCCw), and C-H stretching (CHStr). Further analysis showed that in fingerprint region the depolarization of 16 PAHs was reduced with the symmetry of benzene deformation vibration enhanced. At the point of minimum depolarization, symmetry and Raman peak of benzene ring breathing vibration were found strongest. At the minimum differential wave number the strongest peak in fingerprint region was distinguishable by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Therefore, 16 PAHs can be individually identified by depolarization and the strongest peak in fringerprint region. Vibration frequencies and peak intensity distribution of alkanes (Akn), olefin (Oe), alkyne (Aye), alcohols and phenols (Aap), aliphatic ether (Ape), arylalkyl ether (Aae), aldehydes (Ahd), ketones (Ktn), carboxylic acid (Cba), esters (Etr), amines (Aie), nitriles (Nte), amides (Aid), acid anhydride (Ahr), aromatic hydrocarbons (Ahc) were not completely consistent with each other, and interference can be discharged by the differences of frequency and peak intensity distribution. PMID:25752046

  7. On the vibrational characteristics of single- and double-walled carbon nanotubes containing ice nanotube in aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, R.; Ajori, S.; Ameri, A.

    2015-10-01

    The properties and behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in aqueous environment due to their considerable potential applications in nanobiotechnology and designing nanobiosensors have attracted the attention of researchers. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations are carried out to investigate the vibrational characteristics of single- and double-walled CNTs containing ice nanotubes (a new phase of ice) in vacuum and aqueous environments. The results demonstrate that formation of ice nanotubes inside the CNTs reduces the natural frequency of pure CNTs. Moreover, it is demonstrated that increasing the number of walls considerably reduces the sensitivity of frequency to the presence of ice nanotube inside CNT. Additionally, it is shown that increasing the length decreases the effect of ice nanotube on reducing the frequency. The calculation of natural frequency of CNTs in aqueous media demonstrates that the interaction of CNTs with water molecules considerably reduces the natural frequency up to 50 %. Finally, it is demonstrated that in the case of CNTs with one free end in aqueous environment, the CNT does not vibrate in its first mode, and its frequency is between the frequencies of first and second modes of vibration.

  8. Test-Anchored Vibration Response Predictions for an Acoustically Energized Curved Orthogrid Panel with Mounted Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frady, Gregory P.; Duvall, Lowery D.; Fulcher, Clay W. G.; Laverde, Bruce T.; Hunt, Ronald A.

    2011-01-01

    rich body of vibroacoustic test data was recently generated at Marshall Space Flight Center for component-loaded curved orthogrid panels typical of launch vehicle skin structures. The test data were used to anchor computational predictions of a variety of spatially distributed responses including acceleration, strain and component interface force. Transfer functions relating the responses to the input pressure field were generated from finite element based modal solutions and test-derived damping estimates. A diffuse acoustic field model was applied to correlate the measured input sound pressures across the energized panel. This application quantifies the ability to quickly and accurately predict a variety of responses to acoustically energized skin panels with mounted components. Favorable comparisons between the measured and predicted responses were established. The validated models were used to examine vibration response sensitivities to relevant modeling parameters such as pressure patch density, mesh density, weight of the mounted component and model form. Convergence metrics include spectral densities and cumulative root-mean squared (RMS) functions for acceleration, velocity, displacement, strain and interface force. Minimum frequencies for response convergence were established as well as recommendations for modeling techniques, particularly in the early stages of a component design when accurate structural vibration requirements are needed relatively quickly. The results were compared with long-established guidelines for modeling accuracy of component-loaded panels. A theoretical basis for the Response/Pressure Transfer Function (RPTF) approach provides insight into trends observed in the response predictions and confirmed in the test data. The software developed for the RPTF method allows easy replacement of the diffuse acoustic field with other pressure fields such as a turbulent boundary layer (TBL) model suitable for vehicle ascent. Structural responses using a TBL model were demonstrated, and wind tunnel tests have been proposed to anchor the predictions and provide new insight into modeling approaches for this environment. Finally, design load factors were developed from the measured and predicted responses and compared with those derived from traditional techniques such as historical Mass Acceleration Curves and Barrett scaling methods for acreage and component-loaded panels.

  9. Structural damage detection using auto correlation functions of vibration response under sinusoidal excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Muyu; Schmidt, Rüdiger; Markert, Bernd

    2015-07-01

    Structural damage detection using time domain vibration responses has attracted more and more researchers in recent years because of its simplicity in calculation and no requirement of a finite element model. This paper proposes a new approach to locate the damage using the auto correlation function of vibration response signals under sinusoidal excitation from different measurement points of the structure, based on which a vector named Auto Correlation Function at Maximum Point Value Vector (AMV) is formulated. A sensitivity analysis of the normalized AMV with respect to the local stiffness shows that under several specific frequency excitations, the normalized AMV has a sharp change around the local stiffness change location, which means that even when the damage is very small, the normalized AMV is a good indicator for the damage. In order to locate the damage, a damage index is defined as the relative change of the normalized AMV before and after damage. Several example cases in stiffness reduction detection of a frame structure valid the results of the sensitivity analysis, demonstrate the efficiency of the normalized AMV in damage localization and the effect of the excitation frequency on its detectability.

  10. Estimating Population Characteristics from Sparse Matrix Samples of Item Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Concepts behind plausible values in estimating population characteristics from sparse matrix samples of item responses are discussed. The use of marginal analyses is described in the context of the National Assessment of Educational Progress, and the approach is illustrated with Scholastic Aptitude Test data for 9,075 high school seniors. (SLD)

  11. Vibration Response Predictions for Heavy Panel Mounted Components from Panel Acreage Environment Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Phillip; Frady, Greg; Duvall, Lowery; Fulcher, Clay; LaVerde, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The development of new launch vehicles in the Aerospace industry often relies on response measurements taken from previously developed vehicles during various stages of liftoff and ascent, and from wind tunnel models. These measurements include sound pressure levels, dynamic pressures in turbulent boundary layers and accelerations. Rigorous statistical scaling methods are applied to the data to derive new environments and estimate the performance of new skin panel structures. Scaling methods have proven to be reliable, particularly for designs similar to the vehicles used as the basis for scaling, and especially in regions of smooth acreage without exterior protuberances or heavy components mounted to the panel. To account for response attenuation of a panel-mounted component due to its apparent mass at higher frequencies, the vibroacoustics engineer often reduces the acreage vibration according to a weight ratio first suggested by Barrett. The accuracy of the reduction is reduced with increased weight of the panel-mounted component, and does not account for low-frequency amplification of the component/panel response as a system. A method is proposed that combines acreage vibration from scaling methods with finite element analysis to account for the frequency-dependent dynamics of heavy panel-mounted components. Since the acreage and mass-loaded skins respond to the same dynamic input pressure, such pressure may be eliminated in favor of a frequency-dependent scaling function applied to the acreage vibration to predict the mass-loaded panel response. The scaling function replaces the Barrett weight ratio, and contains all of the dynamic character of the loaded and unloaded skin panels. The solution simplifies for spatially uncorrelated and fully correlated input pressures. Since the prediction uses finite element models of the loaded and unloaded skins, a rich suite of response data are available to the design engineer, including interface forces, stress and strain, as well as acceleration and displacement. An extension of the method is also developed to incorporate the effect of a local protuberance near a heavy component. Acreage environments from traditional scaling methods with and without protuberance effects serve as the basis for the extension. Authors:

  12. The response characteristics of avalanche photodiodes to ultrashort pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yufa; Dou, Xianan; Li, Feng; Sun, Xiaoquan

    2015-11-01

    The physical model of avalanche photodiode (APD) response to ultrashort pulsed laser is established. Numerical simulation of APD response characteristics is focused and presented. The simulated results show that the response peak voltage degrades approximately linearly with the laser pulse duration narrowing when the peak power of laser pulse keeps unchanged. Meanwhile, when the energy of input pulse laser is at the same quantity, the response peak voltage keeps invariably in different pulse duration. Moreover, the pulse duration of response voltage is determined by the sensitivity of APD itself, and the input duration of ultrashort pulsed laser could not be recognized by the APD. Experiments are carried out and the experimental results are in good agreement with simulated data.

  13. Effect of experimentally reduced distal sensation on postural response to hip abductor/ankle evertor muscle vibration.

    PubMed

    Glasser, S; Collings, R; Paton, J; Marsden, J

    2015-07-01

    This study assessed whether postural responses induced by vibratory perturbations of the hip abductors and ankle evertors, were modified when distal tactile sensation was experimentally reduced through cooling. Sixteen healthy subjects were investigated pre and post cooling. Subjects stood with their eyes closed with a stance width of 4 cm. A 2s vibratory stimulus was applied to the left or right hip abductor or ankle evertor muscle. The order of the site and side of the stimulation was randomised. The postural response to hip abductor and ankle evertor vibration was recorded using 3D motion analysis (Codamotion, Leicestershire). Medio-lateral centre of pressure motion was simultaneously recorded during quiet standing via a force plate (Kistler, UK). Pre-cooling people responded to unilateral ankle vibration with an ipsilateral translation and tilt of the pelvis, and an ipsilateral tilt of the trunk. People responded to unilateral hip vibration with a contralateral translation and tilt of the pelvis, and an ipsilateral tilt of the trunk. Following an experimental reduction in distal tactile sensation there was a significant reduction in the amplitude of pelvic tilt in response to ankle vibration (F(6.2)=P<0.05) and a significant increase in amplitude of pelvic tilt in response to hip vibration (F(5.2)=P<0.05). This suggests that the sensitivity to artificial stimulation of hip proprioception increases with distal cooling, possibly indicating a change in the gain/weighting placed upon sensory information from the hips. PMID:26153881

  14. Ultrasonic assisted EDM: Effect of the workpiece vibration in the machining characteristics of FW4 Welded Metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabgard, Mohammadreza; Kakolvand, Hamed; Seyedzavvar, Mirsadegh; Shotorbani, Ramin Mohammadpour

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental studies carried out to conduct a comprehensive investigation on the influence of ultrasonic vibration of workpiece on the characteristics of Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) process of FW4Welding Metal in comparison with the conventional EDM process. The studied process characteristics included the material removal rate (MRR), tool wear ratio (TWR), and surface roughness ( R a and R max) of the workpiece after the EDM and ultrasonic assisted EDM (US-EDM) processes. The experiments performed under the designed full factorial procedure and the considered EDM input parameters included pulse on-time and pulse current. The experimental results show that in short pulse on-times, material removal rate in the USEDM process is approximately quadruple than that of the EDM process. On the contrary, in the long pulse on-times, ultrasonic vibration of workpiece leads to the reduction in the MRR. On the other hand, in short pulse on-times, the TWR in the US-EDM process is lower than that of in the EDM process, and this condition reverses with increase in the pulse on-time. Furthermore, the surface roughness of the workpiece machined by EDM process is slightly lower than that of applied to the US-EDM process.

  15. A Comparison of Energy-Resolved Vibrational Activation/Dissociation Characteristics of Protonated and Sodiated High Mannose N-Glycopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboufazeli, Forouzan; Kolli, Venkata; Dodds, Eric D.

    2015-04-01

    Fragmentation of glycopeptides in tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) plays a pivotal role in site-specific protein glycosylation profiling by allowing specific oligosaccharide compositions and connectivities to be associated with specific loci on the corresponding protein. Although MS/MS analysis of glycopeptides has been successfully performed using a number of distinct ion dissociation methods, relatively little is known regarding the fragmentation characteristics of glycopeptide ions with various charge carriers. In this study, energy-resolved vibrational activation/dissociation was examined via collision-induced dissociation for a group of related high mannose tryptic glycopeptides as their doubly protonated, doubly sodiated, and hybrid protonated sodium adduct ions. The doubly protonated glycopeptide ions with various compositions were found to undergo fragmentation over a relatively low but wide range of collision energies compared with the doubly sodiated and hybrid charged ions, and were found to yield both glycan and peptide fragmentation depending on the applied collision energy. By contrast, the various doubly sodiated glycopeptides were found to dissociate over a significantly higher but narrow range of collision energies, and exhibited only glycan cleavages. Interestingly, the hybrid protonated sodium adduct ions were consistently the most stable of the precursor ions studied, and provided fragmentation information spanning both the glycan and the peptide moieties. Taken together, these findings illustrate the influence of charge carrier over the energy-resolved vibrational activation/dissociation characteristics of glycopeptides, and serve to suggest potential strategies that exploit the analytically useful features uniquely afforded by specific charge carriers or combinations thereof.

  16. Motion characteristics and output voltage analysis of micro-vibration energy harvester based on diamagnetic levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhitong; Duan, Zhiyong; Takahata, Kenichi; Su, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the force analysis and output performance of the micro-vibration energy harvester are elaborated. The force of the floating magnet in the magnetic field of the lifting magnet is firstly analyzed. Using COMSOL™, the change of magnetic force exerted on the floating magnet versus the vertical distance and the horizontal eccentric distance is obtained for different lifting magnets of a cylinder, a ring and an inner cylinder plus an outer ring, respectively. When the distance between the lifting and floating magnets ranges from 7.3 to 8.1 mm, the change rate of the magnetic force versus the vertical distance for the inner cylinder plus outer ring structure is the smallest, whose value is 619 µN/mm. In other words, if the inner cylinder plus outer ring structure is used as the lifting magnet, the vibration space of the floating magnet is the largest, which is 8 and 7.6 % larger than the cylinder and ring lifting magnets, respectively. The horizontal restoring forces of the three structures are substantially equal to each other at the horizontal eccentric distance of 4 mm, which is around 860 µN. Then the equilibrium position change of the floating magnet is discussed when the energy harvester is in an inclined position. Finally, by the analysis of the vibration model, the output performances of the energy harvester are comparatively calculated under the vertical and inclined positions. At the natural frequency of 6.93 Hz, the maximum power of 66.7 µW is generated.

  17. Motion characteristics and output voltage analysis of micro-vibration energy harvester based on diamagnetic levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhitong; Duan, Zhiyong; Takahata, Kenichi; Su, Yufeng

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, the force analysis and output performance of the micro-vibration energy harvester are elaborated. The force of the floating magnet in the magnetic field of the lifting magnet is firstly analyzed. Using COMSOL™, the change of magnetic force exerted on the floating magnet versus the vertical distance and the horizontal eccentric distance is obtained for different lifting magnets of a cylinder, a ring and an inner cylinder plus an outer ring, respectively. When the distance between the lifting and floating magnets ranges from 7.3 to 8.1 mm, the change rate of the magnetic force versus the vertical distance for the inner cylinder plus outer ring structure is the smallest, whose value is 619 µN/mm. In other words, if the inner cylinder plus outer ring structure is used as the lifting magnet, the vibration space of the floating magnet is the largest, which is 8 and 7.6 % larger than the cylinder and ring lifting magnets, respectively. The horizontal restoring forces of the three structures are substantially equal to each other at the horizontal eccentric distance of 4 mm, which is around 860 µN. Then the equilibrium position change of the floating magnet is discussed when the energy harvester is in an inclined position. Finally, by the analysis of the vibration model, the output performances of the energy harvester are comparatively calculated under the vertical and inclined positions. At the natural frequency of 6.93 Hz, the maximum power of 66.7 µW is generated.

  18. Analysis of lateral and torsional vibration characteristics of beams and shafts with end located rotational masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    Partial differential equations are derived for free lateral and torsional vibration of a uniform free-free beam with a rotational mass attached to each extremity. For appropriate boundary conditions, nonlinear algebraic equations are obtained using a symbolic manipulation computer program, the solutions of which enable the computation of the neutral frequencies and mode-shapes. The mode-shapes are linear combinations of trigonometric and hyperbolic sine and cosine functions. A computer program is written for the numerical solution of the algebraic equations mentioned above, which can compute the natural frequencies, mode-shapes, and node points for any given set of parameters, for any given number of modes.

  19. Static strain and vibration characteristics of a metal semimonocoque helicopter tail cone of moderate size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielawa, Richard L.; Hefner, Rachel E.; Castagna, Andre

    1991-01-01

    The results are presented of an analytic and experimental research program involving a Sikorsky S-55 helicopter tail cone directed ultimately to the improved structural analysis of airframe substructures typical of moderate sized helicopters of metal semimonocoque construction. Experimental static strain and dynamic shake-testing measurements are presented. Correlation studies of each of these tests with a PC-based finite element analysis (COSMOS/M) are described. The tests included static loadings at the end of the tail cone supported in the cantilever configuration as well as vibrational shake-testing in both the cantilever and free-free configurations.

  20. A hybrid analytical model for the transverse vibration response of a micro-end mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, K. B.; Zhong, Z. W.

    2013-01-01

    As a result of its detrimental effect on tool life and product quality, vibration analyses are crucial if the full potential of micro-milling operation is to be attained. In this paper, a hybrid analytical model (HAM) developed for estimating the transverse response of a micro-end mill is presented. The HAM is a combination of discrete and distributed structural elements. The discrete elements account for the stiffness and damping coefficients of the machining system, while the distributed elements idealize the geometrical representation of the micro-end mill with a novel model of the micro-flute. A number of slot micro-end milling operations, carefully designed with the Taguchi method of design of experiments, are carried out to examine the accuracy of the HAM. The comparison of the response profile from the experiment and the developed model shows reasonably close similarity. The influence of the helix angle is found to be far greater on the response of the micro-end mill than the other geometric variables. By making use of the root mean square of the response, it is further observed that the representation of the micro-flute of the micro-end mill with a less accurate model deteriorates the prediction of the HAM.

  1. Vibrational response of free standing single copper nanowire through transient reflectivity microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belliard, Laurent; Cornelius, Thomas W.; Perrin, Bernard; Kacemi, Nazim; Becerra, Loïc; Thomas, Olivier; Eugenia Toimil-Molares, Maria; Cassinelli, Marco

    2013-11-01

    We report on the ultrafast vibrational response of single copper nanowires investigated by femtosecond transient reflectivity measurements. The oscillations of the sample reflectivity are correlated with individual modes of resonance for wires with a diameter ranging from 100 to 500 nm and are compared with 2D finite element simulation. Fluctuation of the sample-substrate coupling is illustrated through its effect on the damping rate. We demonstrate elastic confinement in free standing wires which allowed the detection of up to the third harmonic of the breathing mode. By removing the energy relaxation channel towards the substrate, we obtained nano-oscillators with quality factors up to 130. Finally, taking advantage of the very high spectral resolution achieved on free standing wires, we could observe the elastic coupling between two close wires via their polymer cladding.

  2. Vibration signature analysis of multistage gear transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, F. K.; Tu, Y. K.; Savage, M.; Townsend, D. P.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis is presented for multistage multimesh gear transmission systems. The analysis predicts the overall system dynamics and the transmissibility to the gear box or the enclosed structure. The modal synthesis approach of the analysis treats the uncoupled lateral/torsional model characteristics of each stage or component independently. The vibration signature analysis evaluates the global dynamics coupling in the system. The method synthesizes the interaction of each modal component or stage with the nonlinear gear mesh dynamics and the modal support geometry characteristics. The analysis simulates transient and steady state vibration events to determine the resulting torque variations, speeds, changes, rotor imbalances, and support gear box motion excitations. A vibration signature analysis examines the overall dynamic characteristics of the system, and the individual model component responses. The gear box vibration analysis also examines the spectral characteristics of the support system.

  3. An on-road shock and vibration response test series utilizing worst case and statistical analysis techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Cap, J.S.

    1997-11-01

    Defining the maximum expected shock and vibration responses for an on-road truck transportation environment is strongly dependent on the amount of response data that can be obtained. One common test scheme consists of measuring response data over a relatively short prescribed road course and then reviewing that data to obtain the maximum response levels. The more mathematically rigorous alternative is to collect an unbiased ensemble of response data during a long road trip. This paper compares data gathered both ways during a recent on-road certification test for a tractor trailer van being designed by Sandia.

  4. Free-vibration characteristics of a large split-blanket solar array in a 1-g field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaker, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    Two methods for studying the free vibration characteristics of a large split blanket solar array in both a 0-g and a 1-g cantilevered configuration are presented. The 0-g configuration corresponds to an in-orbit configuration of the array; the 1-g configuration is a typical ground test configuration. The first method applies the equations of continuum mechanics to determine the mode shapes and frequencies of the array; the second method uses the Rayleigh-Ritz approach. In the Rayleigh-Ritz method the array displacements are represented by string modes and cantilevered beam modes. The results of this investigation are summarized by a series of graphs illustrating the effects of various array parameters on the mode shapes and frequencies of the system. The results of the two methods are also compared in tabular form.

  5. Dose-response characteristics of an amorphous silicon EPID.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Peter; Hefner, Alfred; Georg, Dietmar

    2005-10-01

    Electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) were originally developed for the purpose of patient setup verification. Nowadays, they are increasingly used as dosimeters (e.g., for IMRT verification and linac-specific QA). A prerequisite for any clinical dosimetric application is a detailed understanding of the detector's dose-response behavior. The aim of this study is to investigate the dosimetric properties of an amorphous silicon EPID (Elekta IVIEWGT) with respect to three photon beam qualities: 6, 10, and 25 MV. The EPID showed an excellent temporal stability on short term as well as on long term scales. The stability throughout the day was strongly influenced by warming up, which took several hours and affected EPID response by 2.5%. Ghosting effects increased the sensitivity of the EPID. They became more pronounced with decreasing time intervals between two exposures as well as with increasing dose. Due to ghosting, changes in pixel sensitivity amounted up to 16% (locally) for the 25 MV photon beam. It was observed that the response characteristics of our EPID depended on dose as well as on dose rate. Doubling the dose rate increased the EPID sensitivity by 1.5%. This behavior was successfully attributed to a dose per frame effect, i.e., a nonlinear relationship between the EPID signal and the dose which was delivered to the panel between two successive readouts. The sensitivity was found to vary up to 10% in the range of 1 to 1000 monitor units. This variation was governed by two independent effects. For low doses, the EPID signal was reduced due to the linac's changing dose rate during startup. Furthermore, the detector reading was influenced by intrabeam variations of EPID sensitivity, namely, an increase of detector response during uniform exposure. For the beam qualities which were used, the response characteristics of the EPID did not depend on energy. Differences in relative dose-response curves resulted from energy dependent temporal output characteristics of the accelerator. If ghosting is prevented from affecting the results and all dose-response effects are properly corrected for, the EPID signal becomes independent of dose rate, dose, and exposure time. PMID:16279061

  6. Optical measurement of the weak non-linearity in the eardrum vibration response to auditory stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, Johan

    The mammalian hearing organ consists of the external ear (auricle and ear canal) followed by the middle ear (eardrum and ossicles) and the inner ear (cochlea). Its function is to convert the incoming sound waves and convert them into nerve pulses which are processed in the final stage by the brain. The main task of the external and middle ear is to concentrate the incoming sound waves on a smaller surface to reduce the loss that would normally occur in transmission from air to inner ear fluid. In the past it has been shown that this is a linear process, thus without serious distortions, for sound waves going up to pressures of 130 dB SPL (˜90 Pa). However, at large pressure changes up to several kPa, the middle ear movement clearly shows non-linear behaviour. Thus, it is possible that some small non-linear distortions are also present in the middle ear vibration at lower sound pressures. In this thesis a sensitive measurement set-up is presented to detect this weak non-linear behaviour. Essentially, this set-up consists of a loud-speaker which excites the middle ear, and the resulting vibration is measured with an heterodyne vibrometer. The use of specially designed acoustic excitation signals (odd random phase multisines) enables the separation of the linear and non-linear response. The application of this technique on the middle ear demonstrates that there are already non-linear distortions present in the vibration of the middle ear at a sound pressure of 93 dB SPL. This non-linear component also grows strongly with increasing sound pressure. Knowledge of this non-linear component can contribute to the improvement of modern hearing aids, which operate at higher sound pressures where the non-linearities could distort the signal considerably. It is also important to know the contribution of middle ear non-linearity to otoacoustic emissions. This are non-linearities caused by the active feedback amplifier in the inner ear, and can be detected in the external and middle ear. These signals are used for diagnostic purposes, and therefore it is important to have an estimate the non-linear middle ear contribution to these emissions.

  7. Probabilistic analysis of mean-response along-wind induced vibrations on wind turbine towers using wireless network data sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, Antonio; Swartz, Raymond A.

    2011-04-01

    Wind turbine systems are attracting considerable attention due to concerns regarding global energy consumption as well as sustainability. Advances in wind turbine technology promote the tendency to improve efficiency in the structure that support and produce this renewable power source, tending toward more slender and larger towers, larger gear boxes, and larger, lighter blades. The structural design optimization process must account for uncertainties and nonlinear effects (such as wind-induced vibrations, unmeasured disturbances, and material and geometric variabilities). In this study, a probabilistic monitoring approach is developed that measures the response of the turbine tower to stochastic loading, estimates peak demand, and structural resistance (in terms of serviceability). The proposed monitoring system can provide a real-time estimate of the probability of exceedance of design serviceability conditions based on data collected in-situ. Special attention is paid to wind and aerodynamic characteristics that are intrinsically present (although sometimes neglected in health monitoring analysis) and derived from observations or experiments. In particular, little attention has been devoted to buffeting, usually non-catastrophic but directly impacting the serviceability of the operating wind turbine. As a result, modal-based analysis methods for the study and derivation of flutter instability, and buffeting response, have been successfully applied to the assessment of the susceptibility of high-rise slender structures, including wind turbine towers. A detailed finite element model has been developed to generate data (calibrated to published experimental and analytical results). Risk assessment is performed for the effects of along wind forces in a framework of quantitative risk analysis. Both structural resistance and wind load demands were considered probabilistic with the latter assessed by dynamic analyses.

  8. Minimizing vibration response of cylindrical shells through layout optimization of passive constrained layer damping treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, H.; Cai, C.; Pau, G. S. H.; Liu, G. R.

    2005-01-01

    A layout optimization of passive constrained layer damping (PCLD) treatment for minimizing the vibration response of cylindrical shells is presented with consideration of broadband transverse force excitation. The equations governing the displacement responses, relating the integrated out-of-plane displacement over the whole structural volume, i.e., the structural volume displacement (SVD), of a cylindrical shell to structural parameters of base structure and multiple PCLD patches, are derived using the energy approach and assumed-mode method. Genetic algorithm (GA) based penalty function method is employed to find the optimal layout of rectangular PCLD patches with aim to minimize the SVD of the PCLD-treated cylindrical shell. Optimization solutions of the locations of patches for PCLD treatment are obtained under the constraint of total amount of PCLD materials in terms of percentage added weight to the base structure. Effects due to number of patches, their aspect ratios, and total amount of added PCLD weight are also studied. Examination of the optimal layouts reveals that the patches tend to increase their coverage in the axial direction and distribute over the whole surface of the cylindrical shell for optimal SVD reduction.

  9. Elevated Vibration Perception Thresholds in CIDP Patients Indicate More Severe Neuropathy and Lower Treatment Response Rates

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Alon; Albulaihe, Hana; Alabdali, Majed; Qrimli, Mohammad; Breiner, Ari; Barnett, Carolina; Katzberg, Hans D.; Lovblom, Leif E.; Perkins, Bruce A.; Bril, Vera

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vibration perception threshold (VPT) examination using a neurothesiometer provides objective, sensitive and specific information, and has been utilized mainly in patients with diabetic polyneropathy. Objectives Explore the utility of VPT examination in CIDP patients. Methods CIDP subjects attending the Neuromuscular clinic between 01/2013 and 12/2014 were evaluated. Demographic data, clinical history, physical examination, VPT values, and electrophysiologic data from their charts were extracted. Results 70 charts were reviewed. 55 CIDP patients had elevated VPT, associated with higher frequency of abnormal sensory testing for various modalities (92.7% vs. 46.7%, p<0.0001), lower sensory and motor amplitudes and reduced conduction velocities on nerve conduction studies, and lower treatment response rates (54% vs. 93%, p = 0.01). Conclusion VPT examination is a simple tool, which is a reliable and sensitive measure not only for diabetic neuropathy, but also for CIDP. Moreover, in CIDP, elevated VPT values are also associated with lower treatment response rates. PMID:26545096

  10. Atomic lattice structure and continuum plate theories for the vibrational characteristics of graphenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arghavan, S.; Singh, A. V.

    2011-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the equivalent extensional and flexural rigidities of a single layer graphene sheet by treating it as a plane lattice structure made of tightly packed carbon atoms into an array of honeycomb-shaped cells. Each carbon atom is modeled as a node with concentrated atomic mass and prescribed six degrees of freedom. The covalent bond between adjacent carbon atoms provides axial, bending, and torsional stiffness. Using the Poisson's ratio of 0.16 and thickness of 3.4 Å, the equivalent Young's moduli are found to be approximately 0.112 TPa for bending and in the range of 1.03-1.04 TPa for in-plane modes. Subsequently, the graphene structure is simulated by a classical plate with prescribed geometric and mechanical properties. The in-plane and out-of-plane free vibration analyses of the rectangular plate provide the natural frequencies and associated mode shapes. Results are compared with eigen analyses of the lattice structure model for different sizes of graphene. Examples are considered to show close agreement in the results from these two methods. Mode shapes reveal that the lattice structure model shows symmetry about the horizontal and vertical axes and also about the diagonals.

  11. Experimental investigation of the vibration characteristics of a magnetorheological elastomer sandwich beam under non-homogeneous small magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Guoliang; Guo, Miao; Li, Weihua; Du, Haiping; Alici, Gursel

    2011-12-01

    In this study, a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) was manufactured and tested, and a MRE sandwich beam was also fabricated from a MRE between two thin aluminum layers. An experimental test rig was set up to investigate the vibration response of the MRE sandwich beam under a non-homogeneous magnetic field. The experimental results show that the first natural frequency of the MRE sandwich beam decreased as the magnetic field applied to the beam was moved from the clamped end of the beam to the free end of the beam. It is also noted that the MRE sandwich beam had the capability to left shift the first natural frequency when the magnetic field was increased in the activated regions.

  12. Characterization of the frequency and muscle responses of the lumbar and thoracic spines of seated volunteers during sinusoidal whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Baig, Hassam A; Dorman, Daniel B; Bulka, Ben A; Shivers, Bethany L; Chancey, Valeta C; Winkelstein, Beth A

    2014-10-01

    Whole body vibration has been postulated to contribute to the onset of back pain. However, little is known about the relationship between vibration exposure, the biomechanical response, and the physiological responses of the seated human. The aim of this study was to measure the frequency and corresponding muscle responses of seated male volunteers during whole body vibration exposures along the vertical and anteroposterior directions to define the transmissibility and associated muscle activation responses for relevant whole body vibration exposures. Seated human male volunteers underwent separate whole body vibration exposures in the vertical (Z-direction) and anteroposterior (X-direction) directions using sinusoidal sweeps ranging from 2 to 18?Hz, with a constant amplitude of 0.4?g. For each vibration exposure, the accelerations and displacements of the seat and lumbar and thoracic spines were recorded. In addition, muscle activity in the lumbar and thoracic spines was recorded using electromyography (EMG) and surface electrodes in the lumbar and thoracic region. Transmissibility was determined, and peak transmissibility, displacement, and muscle activity were compared in each of the lumbar and thoracic regions. The peak transmissibility for vertical vibrations occurred at 4?Hz for both the lumbar (1.55?±?0.34) and thoracic (1.49?±?0.21) regions. For X-directed seat vibrations, the transmissibility ratio in both spinal regions was highest at 2?Hz but never exceeded a value of 1. The peak muscle response in both spinal regions occurred at frequencies corresponding to the peak transmissibility, regardless of the direction of imposed seat vibration: 4?Hz for the Z-direction and 2-3?Hz for the X-direction. In both vibration directions, spinal displacements occurred primarily in the direction of seat vibration, with little off-axis motion. The occurrence of peak muscle responses at frequencies of peak transmissibility suggests that such frequencies may induce greater muscle activity, leading to muscle fatigue, which could be a contributing mechanism of back pain. PMID:25010637

  13. Modeling and Analysis of Composite Wing Sections for Improved Aeroelastic and Vibration Characteristics Using Smart Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop analysis procedures to investigate the coupling of composite and smart materials to improve aeroelastic and vibratory response of aerospace structures. The structural modeling must account for arbitrarily thick geometries, embedded and surface bonded sensors and actuators and imperfections, such as delamination. Changes in the dynamic response due to the presence of smart materials and delaminations is investigated. Experiments are to be performed to validate the proposed mathematical model.

  14. Effects of eccentricity and order of vibration modes on the inelastic seismic response of 3D steel structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P. Sharifi, Naser; Sakulich, Aaron R.

    2014-04-01

    In torsionally coupled buildings, the total response of the structure is the result of the translational displacement of the story's center of stiffness and the displacement due to the roof's rotation. In structures with high eccentricity, the effect of the floor's rotation in the total response is considerable. The order of vibration modes is another important parameter that changes the contribution of the different translational and rotational modes in the total response. To explore the effects of eccentricity and the order of vibration modes on the total response, a number of 3-D steel moment-resistant frames with 4, 8, and 12 stories, with different eccentricities and plans, were considered. The structures were subjected to bidirectional seismic inputs so that their peak ground accelerations were scaled to 0.4g, 0.6g, and 0.8g. Increasing the eccentricity of the structure increases the participation of rotation in the total response. Furthermore, in torsionally flexible structures, where the first or second mode of vibration is a torsional mode, the contribution of the floor's rotation can be even greater. In some cases, the displacement of exterior columns is primarily the result of the floor's rotation. This suggests that to efficiently dampen the seismic displacement of such structures, the rotational mode of the building should be controlled.

  15. Change in characteristics of superplastic deformation of the aluminum-lithium alloy under the effect of ultrasonic vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myshlyaev, M. M.; Shpeizman, V. V.; Klubovich, V. V.; Kulak, M. M.; Lyu, G.

    2015-10-01

    The tension of samples of aluminum-lithium alloy 1420 in the superplasticity temperature region T = 320-395°C and the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on deformation characteristics have been investigated. It has been shown that the effect of ultrasound manifests itself in a decrease in resistance to deformation and an increase in total strain. The tension curves plotted in the coordinates true stresses-true strains, in contrast to the standard stress-strain curves, have an extended hardening region, the magnitude of which is larger for the samples deformed with the ultrasound. The stress-rate sensitivity coefficients m have been determined from stress jumps with variations in the tension rate. It has been shown that the quantity m can be assumed to be constant over the entire superplasticity temperature region for different strains with ultrasound and without it, m = 0.46 ± 0.04, and, correspondingly, the stress exponent in the formula for the strain rate is = 2.21 ± 0.23. The activation energies of the deformation process have been evaluated, and it has been concluded that the dislocation motion during the intragrain deformation that is characteristic of the hardening stage is facilitated under the effect of ultrasound.

  16. Electrical and Frequency Characteristics of Third-Overtone Vibration-Mode Surface Mount Device High-Frequency Filter Using Modified PbTiO3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Juhyun; Oh, Dongon; Yoon, Hyunsang; Lee, Suho; Kim, Jongsun; Jeong, Yeongho; Ryu, Sunglim

    2003-09-01

    In this study, a 3rd-overtone thickness-vibration-mode surface mount device (SMD) filter was manufactured using modified PbTiO3 system ceramics for application as an intermediate frequency (IF) filter with a split electrode and gap size. To investigate the effects of the split electrode and gap size on the filter characteristics of the 3rd-overtone-mode energy-trapped filter, ceramic wafers were fabricated by etching split rectangular electrodes with sizes (b × d) of b=0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 mm, d=0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mm and gap sizes (c) of the c=0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.6 mm, respectively. Then, SMD ceramic filters were fabricated with the size of 3.7 × 3.1 mm2. SMD ceramic filter with the size of b=0.8 mm, d=0.4 mm and c=0.4 mm showed insertion loss of 2.951 dB, 3 dB bandwidth of 54.7 kHz and 20 dB stop bandwidth of 129.27 kHz. Also, these two filters were cascaded and their bandwidth characteristics were investigated by varying the coupling capacitance to check their applicability as high frequency band-pass filters. The cascaded filter showed a higher stop band, reduction of spurious response and increase of selectivity. With increasing coupling capacitance, insertion loss increased but spurious response decreased. The cascaded filter with a coupling capacitance of 15 pF showed insertion loss of 5.643 dB, 3 dB bandwidth of 55.089 kHz and 20 dB bandwidth of 83.608 kHz.

  17. Model Order Reduction for Prediction of Turbine Engine Rotor Vibration Response in Presence of Parametric Uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganine, Vladislav

    Statistical inhomogeneity of material properties, variations in nominal geometry, manufacturing tolerances, operational wear lead to uncertainties in the parameters associated with FE models of turbine engine rotors and consequently to uncertainties in their vibration response. Reliable assessment of the rotor system behavior cannot be made unless the effects of such uncertainties are understood and quantified. In practical situations the parametric probabilistic approach is the first choice to employ in that context yielding efficient algorithms with feasible implementations. A set of measured or estimated experimentally random parameters is repeatedly propagated through rotor models in Monte-Carlo simulations, which would pose a formidable computational task if the full order high-fidelity finite element (FE) models were utilized. The objective of this dissertation is to decrease the expense of analyzing systems modified in the parametric space by developing accurate model reduction computational techniques suitable for repeated analysis, in particular addressing the problem of large variations in nominal geometry. The first part of the dissertation is concerned with the structural blade mistuning problem. The existing projection based model order reduction techniques capable to numerically characterize variations in nominal geometry of periodic structures are examined, a method generating very compact reduced order models (ROM) based on correction, as opposed to expansion, of the modal subspace is selected and its limitations are analyzed. A new algorithm drawing on optimal preconditioned iterative methods for generalized eigenvalue problem is introduced to address its deficiencies. Both techniques are combined in a stochastic simulation framework to analyze the effect of random mistuning on geometrically modified bladed disks, where random parameter variation in blade properties is introduced in modal space at component level. A family of benchmark problems on an industrial scale bladed disk model are utilized in a comparative study assessing the amount of computational effort and storage, scalability and accuracy as well as providing insight on underlying physical phenomena. In the second part of dissertation a new computational technique is proposed focusing on prediction of the effects of uncertainty in rotor assembly inter-stage geometry on global vibration response. The algorithm stands apart from the traditional modal projection based framework employing harmonic truncation only. It is shown that decent performance can be achieved due to reliance on sparse matrix linear algebra and sampling of small parametric space. Particular emphasis is given to the computational efficiency of ROM update. Accuracy and performance of the technique is illustrated with representative simulation examples over a practical range of geometrical parameter variations and operational conditions.

  18. Preliminary Calibration Report of an Apparatus to Measure Vibration Characteristics of Low Frequency Disturbance Source Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, James W.; Marshall, Robert A.; Finley, Tom D.; Lawrence, George F.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a description of the test apparatus and the method of testing the low frequency disturbance source characteristics of small pumps, fans, camera motors, and recorders that are typical of those used in microgravity science facilities. The test apparatus will allow both force and acceleration spectra of these disturbance devices to be obtained from acceleration measurements over the frequency range from 2 to 300 Hz. Some preliminary calibration results are presented.

  19. Active Inertial Vibration Isolators And Dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Darren; Blackburn, John; Smith, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Report describes development of active inertial vibration isolators and dampers in which actuators electromagnet coils moving linearly within permanent magnetic fields in housings, somewhat as though massive, low-frequency voice coils in loudspeakers. Discusses principle of operation, electrical and mechanical considerations in design of actuators, characteristics of accelerometers, and frequency responses of control systems. Describes design and performance of one- and three-degree-of-freedom vibration-suppressing system based on concept.

  20. NEUROMOTOR RESPONSE TO WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRANSMISSIBILITY IN THE HORIZONTAL DIRECTION AND ITS MATHEMATICAL MODEL

    E-print Network

    Hanumanthareddygari, Vinay

    2010-09-02

    Recent studies of whole body vibration in seated postures have suggested that the neuromotor system may play a role in the etiology of low back disorders. A number of researchers have modeled whole body vibration transmission to the low back, spine...

  1. Computer program for stress, vibration, and buckling characteristics of general shells of revolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, G. A.; Haftka, R. T.

    1973-01-01

    Structures Research Associates (SRA) system of programs is composed of six compatible computer programs for structural analyses of axisymmetric shell structures. Theories and methods upon which these programs are based are presented in documentation. They apply to a common structural model but analyze different modes of structural response.

  2. Characterization of Frequency-Dependent Responses of the Vascular System to Repetitive Vibration

    PubMed Central

    Krajnak, Kristine; Miller, G. Roger; Waugh, Stacey; Johnson, Claud; Kashon, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Occupational exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can result in damage to nerves and sensory loss. The goal of this study was to assess the frequency-dependent effects of repeated bouts of vibration on sensory nerve function and associated changes in nerves. Methods The tails of rats were exposed to vibration at 62.5, 125, or 250 Hz (constant acceleration of 49m/s2) for 10 days. The effects on sensory nerve function, nerve morphology, and transcript expression in ventral tail nerves were measured. Results Vibration at all frequencies had effects on nerve function and physiology. However, the effects tended to be more prominent with exposure at 250 Hz. Conclusion Exposure to vibration has detrimental effects on sensory nerve function and physiology. However, many of these changes are more prominent at 250-Hz exposure than at lower frequencies. PMID:22785326

  3. Quasi-Static and Dynamic Response Characteristics of F-4 Bias-Ply and Radial-Belted Main Gear Tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.

    1997-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at Langley Research Center to determine the quasi-static and dynamic response characteristics of F-4 military fighter 30x11.5-14.5/26PR bias-ply and radial-belted main gear tires. Tire properties were measured by the application of vertical, lateral, and fore-and-aft loads. Mass moment-of-inertia data were also obtained. The results of the study include quasi-static load-deflection curves, free-vibration time-history plots, energy loss associated with hysteresis, stiffness and damping characteristics, footprint geometry, and inertia properties of each type of tire. The difference between bias-ply and radial-belted tire construction is given, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each tire design. Three simple damping models representing viscous, structural, and Coulomb friction are presented and compared with the experimental data. The conclusions discussed contain a summary of test observations.

  4. Natural vibration response based damage detection for an operating wind turbine via Random Coefficient Linear Parameter Varying AR modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendaño-Valencia, L. D.; Fassois, S. D.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of damage detection in an operating wind turbine under normal operating conditions is addressed. This is characterized by difficulties associated with the lack of measurable excitation(s), the vibration response non-stationary nature, and its dependence on various types of uncertainties. To overcome these difficulties a stochastic approach based on Random Coefficient (RC) Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) AutoRegressive (AR) models is postulated. These models may effectively represent the non-stationary random vibration response under healthy conditions and subsequently used for damage detection through hypothesis testing. The performance of the method for damage and fault detection in an operating wind turbine is subsequently assessed via Monte Carlo simulations using the FAST simulation package.

  5. Damage identification and health monitoring of structural and mechanical systems from changes in their vibration characteristics: A literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Doebling, S.W.; Farrar, C.R.; Prime, M.B.; Shevitz, D.W.

    1996-05-01

    This report contains a review of the technical literature concerning the detection, location, and characterization of structural damage via techniques that examine changes in measured structural vibration response. The report first categorizes the methods according to required measured data and analysis technique. The analysis categories include changes in modal frequencies, changes in measured mode shapes (and their derivatives), and changes in measured flexibility coefficients. Methods that use property (stiffness, mass, damping) matrix updating, detection of nonlinear response, and damage detection via neural networks are also summarized. The applications of the various methods to different types of engineering problems are categorized by type of structure and are summarized. The types of structures include beams, trusses, plates, shells, bridges, offshore platforms, other large civil structures, aerospace structures, and composite structures. The report describes the development of the damage-identification methods and applications and summarizes the current state-of-the-art of the technology. The critical issues for future research in the area of damage identification are also discussed.

  6. Vibration characteristics of Z-ring-stiffened 60 deg conical shell models of a planetary entry spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, E. C.; Mixon, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the vibration characteristics of a 60 deg conical shell model of a planetary entry vehicle is described and the results presented. Model configurations include the shell with or without one or two Z-ring stiffeners and with or without a simulated payload. Tests were conducted with the model clamped at the small diameter and with the model suspended at the simulated payload. Additionally, calculated results obtained from application of several analytical procedures reported in the literature are presented together with comparisons between experimental and calculated frequencies and meridional mode shapes. Generally, very good frequency agreement between experimental and calculated results was obtained for all model configurations. For small values of circumferential mode number, however, the frequency agreement decreased as the number of ring stiffeners increased. Overall agreement between experimental and calculated mode shapes was generally good. The calculated modes usually showed much larger curvatures in the vicinity of the rings than were observed in the experimentally measured mode shapes. Dual resonances associated with modal preference were noted for the shell without Z-ring stiffeners, whereas the addition of stiffeners produced resonances for which the model responded in two or more modes over different sections of the shell length.

  7. Effects of the inclination of a rigid wall on the free vibration characteristics of acoustic modes in a trapezoidal cavity.

    PubMed

    Sum, K S; Pan, J

    2006-04-01

    The coupling between rigid-walled modes of a rectangular cavity (RC modes) is used to obtain the shapes and resonance frequencies of rigid-walled modes of a trapezoidal cavity (TC modes) with an inclined rigid wall. A method is established to identify the TC modes, where the modes can be defined to evolve from individual RC modes. The wall inclination generates two coupling mechanisms, namely, the local coupling where the RC modes couple at the inclined wall, and the global coupling where the RC modes couple throughout the trapezoidal volume. The latter arises from the nonorthogonality of the RC modes in the trapezoidal volume. Both couplings are selective that only RC modes with the same number of nodes in the direction perpendicular to the inclination are coupled to each other. For small inclinations, each TC mode possesses the distorted shape of the RC mode that evolves it. When the inclination is increased, the TC-mode shape becomes complicated and unrecognizable, and extrema can also exist in the resonance frequency of the TC mode. These behaviors are determined by the behaviors of the local and global couplings of the RC mode. This paper provides an understanding of how the free vibration characteristics of TC modes change with the inclination and what determines these changes. PMID:16642834

  8. Characteristics of vibrational wave propagation and attenuation in submarine fluid-filled pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jin; Zhang, Juan

    2015-04-01

    As an important part of lifeline engineering in the development and utilization of marine resources, the submarine fluid-filled pipeline is a complex coupling system which is subjected to both internal and external flow fields. By utilizing Kennard's shell equations and combining with Helmholtz equations of flow field, the coupling equations of submarine fluid-filled pipeline for n=0 axisymmetrical wave motion are set up. Analytical expressions of wave speed are obtained for both s=1 and s=2 waves, which correspond to a fluid-dominated wave and an axial shell wave, respectively. The numerical results for wave speed and wave attenuation are obtained and discussed subsequently. It shows that the frequency depends on phase velocity, and the attenuation of this mode depends strongly on material parameters of the pipe and the internal and the external fluid fields. The characteristics of PVC pipe are studied for a comparison. The effects of shell thickness/radius ratio and density of the contained fluid on the model are also discussed. The study provides a theoretical basis and helps to accurately predict the situation of submarine pipelines, which also has practical application prospect in the field of pipeline leakage detection.

  9. Investigation of Dynamic Force/Vibration Transmission Characteristics of Four-Square Type Gear Durability Test Machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahraman, Ahmet

    2002-01-01

    In this study, design requirements for a dynamically viable, four-square type gear test machine are investigated. Variations of four-square type gear test machines have been in use for durability and dynamics testing of both parallel- and cross-axis gear set. The basic layout of these machines is illustrated. The test rig is formed by two gear pairs, of the same reduction ratio, a test gear pair and a reaction gear pair, connected to each other through shafts of certain torsional flexibility to form an efficient, closed-loop system. A desired level of constant torque is input to the circuit through mechanical (a split coupling with a torque arm) or hydraulic (a hydraulic actuator) means. The system is then driven at any desired speed by a small DC motor. The main task in hand is the isolation of the test gear pair from the reaction gear pair under dynamic conditions. Any disturbances originated at the reaction gear mesh might potentially travel to the test gearbox, altering the dynamic loading conditions of the test gear mesh, and hence, influencing the outcome of the durability or dynamics test. Therefore, a proper design of connecting structures becomes a major priority. Also, equally important is the issue of how close the operating speed of the machine is to the resonant frequencies of the gear meshes. This study focuses on a detailed analysis of the current NASA Glenn Research Center gear pitting test machine for evaluation of its resonance and vibration isolation characteristics. A number of these machines as the one illustrated has been used over last 30 years to establish an extensive database regarding the influence of the gear materials, processes surface treatments and lubricants on gear durability. This study is intended to guide an optimum design of next generation test machines for the most desirable dynamic characteristics.

  10. Effects of Vibration and G-Loading on Heart Rate, Breathing Rate, and Response Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godinez, Angelica; Ayzenberg, Ruthie; Liston, Dorian B.; Stone, Leland S.

    2013-01-01

    Aerospace and applied environments commonly expose pilots and astronauts to G-loading and vibration, alone and in combination, with well-known sensorimotor (Cohen, 1970) and performance consequences (Adelstein et al., 2008). Physiological variables such as heart rate (HR) and breathing rate (BR) have been shown to increase with G-loading (Yajima et al., 1994) and vibration (e.g. Guignard, 1965, 1985) alone. To examine the effects of G-loading and vibration, alone and in combination, we measured heart rate and breathing rate under aerospace-relevant conditions (G-loads of 1 Gx and 3.8 Gx; vibration of 0.5 gx at 8, 12, and 16 Hz).

  11. Fretting wear damage of heat exchanger tubes: A proposed damage criterion based on tube vibration response

    SciTech Connect

    Yetisir, M.; McKerrow, E.; Pettigrew, M.J.

    1998-08-01

    A simple criterion is proposed to estimate fretting wear damage in heat exchanger tubes with clearance supports. The criterion is based on parameters such as vibration frequency, midspan vibration amplitude, span length, tube mass, and an empirical wear coefficient. It is generally accepted that fretting wear damage is proportional to a parameter called work rate. Work rate is a measure of the dynamic interaction between a vibrating tube and its supports. Due to the complexity of the impact-sliding behavior at the clearance supports, work rate calculations for heat exchanger tubes require specialized nonlinear finite element codes. These codes include contact models for various clearance support geometries. Such nonlinear finite element analyses are complex, expensive and time consuming. The proposed criterion uses the results of linear vibration analysis (i.e., vibration frequency and mid-span vibration amplitude due to turbulence) and does not require a nonlinear analysis. It can be used by nonspecialists for a quick evaluation of the expected work rate, and hence, the fretting wear damage of heat exchanger tubes. The proposed criterion was obtained from an extensive parametric study that was conducted using a nonlinear finite element program. It is shown that, by using the proposed work rate criteria, work rate can be estimated within a factor of two. This result, however, requires further testing with more complicated flow patterns.

  12. Energy conservation in the transient response of nonlinear beam vibration problems subjected to pulse loading - A numerical approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, E. T., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The nonlinear vibration response of a double cantilevered beam subjected to pulse loading over a central sector is studied. The initial response is generated in detail to ascertain the energetics of the response. The total energy is used as a gauge of the stability and accuracy of the solution. It is shown that to obtain accurate and stable initial solutions an extremely high spatial and time resolution is required. This requirement was only evident through an examination of the energy of the system. It is proposed, therefore, to use the total energy of the system as a necessary stability and accuracy criterion for the nonlinear response of conservative systems. The results also demonstrate that even for moderate nonlinearities, the effects of membrane forces have a significant influence on the system. It is also shown that while the fundamental response is contained in a first mode envelope, the fluctuations caused by the higher order modes must be resolved.

  13. Vibration characteristics of 1/8-scale dynamic models of the space-shuttle solid-rocket boosters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leadbetter, S. A.; Stephens, W.; Sewall, J. L.; Majka, J. W.; Barret, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Vibration tests and analyses of six 1/8 scale models of the space shuttle solid rocket boosters are reported. Natural vibration frequencies and mode shapes were obtained for these aluminum shell models having internal solid fuel configurations corresponding to launch, midburn (maximum dynamic pressure), and near endburn (burnout) flight conditions. Test results for longitudinal, torsional, bending, and shell vibration frequencies are compared with analytical predictions derived from thin shell theory and from finite element plate and beam theory. The lowest analytical longitudinal, torsional, bending, and shell vibration frequencies were within + or - 10 percent of experimental values. The effects of damping and asymmetric end skirts on natural vibration frequency were also considered. The analytical frequencies of an idealized full scale space shuttle solid rocket boosted structure are computed with and without internal pressure and are compared with the 1/8 scale model results.

  14. The negative and positive electrorheological behavior and vibration damping characteristics of colemanite and polyindene/colemanite conducting composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, B.; Unal, H. I.; Erol, O.

    2012-12-01

    In this study, the electrorheological (ER) properties of colemanite and polyindene (94.8% PIn)/colemanite (5.2%) conducting composite were investigated by dispersion in silicone oil (SO). The zeta (?)-potentials and antisedimentation ratios of the materials were determined. Some parameters which affect the ER properties of all the dispersions such as the volume fraction, electric field strength (E), shear rate, frequency and temperature were investigated. The rather unusual behavior known as the negative ER effect was observed for colemanite/SO above E = 1.5 kV mm-1 and for PIn/colemanite/SO under all values of the electric field strength even at high volume fraction. This negative ER response was converted to a positive one by the addition of non-ionic surfactant. Furthermore, glycerol was used as a polar promoter and observed to enhance the ER activity of the colemanite/SO system. Creep-recovery tests were applied to all the dispersions studied to investigate their behavior under sustained shear stress. Finally, 28% and 30% vibration damping capacities were achieved using an automobile shock absorber for the glycerol/colemanite/SO and non-ionic surfactant/PIn/colemanite/SO systems under the E = 0.17 kV mm-1 condition, respectively.

  15. Vibration and buckling characteristics of functionally graded nanoplates subjected to thermal loading based on surface elasticity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, R.; Ashrafi, M. A.; Pourashraf, T.; Sahmani, S.

    2015-04-01

    The buckling and vibration responses of nanoplates made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) subjected to thermal loading are studied in prebuckling domain with considering the effect of surface stress. To accomplish this purpose, Gurtin-Murdoch elasticity theory is incorporated into the classical plate theory to develop a non-classical plate model including the surface effects. The material properties of FGM nanoplate are considered to be graded in the thickness direction on the basis of the power law function. Hamilton's principle is utilized to derive size-dependent governing differential equations of motion and associated boundary conditions. Selected numerical results are presented to indicate the importance of surface stress effect. It is revealed that in the presence of surface stress effect, the influence of material property gradient index on the critical thermal buckling load is more prominent for FGM nanoplates with lower length-to-thickness ratios. Also, by increasing the natural frequency of FGM nanoplate, the role of surface stress effect in the value of critical thermal buckling load is more prominent.

  16. Sweeping tuneable vibration absorbers for low-mid frequencies vibration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardonio, P.; Zilletti, M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a simulation study concerning the low-mid frequencies control of flexural vibration in a lightly damped thin plate, which is equipped with three sweeping tuneable vibration absorbers and is excited by a rain on the roof broad frequency band stationary disturbance. The sweeping tuneable vibration absorbers are semi-active mass-spring-dashpot systems whose stiffness and damping properties can be varied uniformly within given ranges. They are operated in such a way as their characteristic natural frequencies are continuously varied to control the response of flexural modes that resonate within given frequency bands. More specifically, in this study the three sweeping tuneable vibration absorbers are operated asynchronously, each within one of three sequential frequency bands comprised between 20 and 120, 120 and 220, 220 and 320 Hz. The flexural vibration control effects produced by the three sweeping tuneable vibration absorbers are compared to those produced by three classical tuneable vibration absorbers, each set to control the response of a specific flexural mode of the plate resonating in one of these three frequency bands. The study shows that the proposed sweeping tuneable vibration absorbers outperform the classical tuneable vibration absorbers and produce about 6, 5, 4 dB reduction of the plate overall flexural response in the three frequency bands of operation. Also, the study indicates that the sweeping tuneable vibration absorbers are robust to variations in the plate flexural response. For instance they still produce about 5.1, 5.3, 4.6 dB reductions of the flexural response in the three frequency bands of operation when the plate is tensioned such that the flexural natural frequencies are shifted up from about 40 percent, for the first resonance, to 7 percent, for the tenth resonance.

  17. An experimental study for determining human discomfort response to roll vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.; Clevenson, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental study using a passenger ride quality apparatus (PRQA) was conducted to determine the subjective reactions of passengers to roll vibrations. The data obtained illustrate the effect upon human comfort of several roll-vibration parameters: namely, roll acceleration level, roll frequency, and seat location (i.e., distance from axis of rotation). Results of an analysis of variance indicated that seat location had no effect on discomfort ratings of roll vibrations. The effect of roll acceleration level was significant, and discomfort ratings increased markedly with increasing roll acceleration level at all roll frequencies investigated. Of particular interest, is the fact that the relationship between discomfort ratings and roll acceleration level was linear in nature. The effect of roll frequency also was significant as was the interaction between roll acceleration level and roll frequency.

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation studies of dielectric response and vibrational energy relaxation in photoactive yellow protein and green fluorescent protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yao; Gnanasekaran, Ramachandran; Leitner, David

    2012-02-01

    The first step in the photocycle of many proteins involves conformational change of a chromophore or a charge transfer reaction following photoexcitation. To explore the response of the protein and solvent environment to photoexcitation of the chromophore in photoactive yellow protein (PYP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) we carried out molecular dynamics simulations of the dielectric response and vibrational energy relaxation (VER) from the chromophore to the protein and solvent. In PYP the time scale of the protein response, mainly contributed by Tyr42 and Glu46, to photoexcitation appears prominently between 0.1 and 0.3 picoseconds. The frequency-dependent VER rate also reveals dynamic coupling between the chromophore and residues that hydrogen bond to it. Resonances in the VER rate appear at frequencies comparable to the oscillations observed in recent fluorescence decay studies. In GFP, which undergoes excited state proton transfer about 10 ps following photoexcitation that may be assisted by specific chromophore vibrations, both the protein and water molecules inside the ?-barrel surrounding the chromophore mediate the dielectric response.

  19. The Effect of Vibration on Postural Response of Down Syndrome Individuals on the Seesaw

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Regiane Luz; Almeida, Gil Lucio

    2009-01-01

    In order to better understand the role of proprioception in postural adjustments on unstable surfaces, we analyzed the effect of vibration on the pattern of muscle activity and joint displacements (ankle, knee and hip) of eight intellectually normal participants (control group-CG) and eight individuals with Down syndrome (DS) while balancing on…

  20. Responses of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to conspecific vibrational signals and synthetic mimics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mate-seeking in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, a vector of the economically damaging huanglongbing citrus disease, typically includes male-female duetting behaviors. First, the male calls by beating its wings at ca. 170-250 Hz, producing vibrations that are transmitted along the host tree branches to th...

  1. 14 CFR 33.43 - Vibration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...must undergo a vibration survey to establish the torsional and bending vibration characteristics of the crankshaft...which is used for the endurance test. (b) The torsional and bending vibration stresses of the crankshaft...

  2. 14 CFR 33.43 - Vibration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...must undergo a vibration survey to establish the torsional and bending vibration characteristics of the crankshaft...which is used for the endurance test. (b) The torsional and bending vibration stresses of the crankshaft...

  3. 14 CFR 33.43 - Vibration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...must undergo a vibration survey to establish the torsional and bending vibration characteristics of the crankshaft...which is used for the endurance test. (b) The torsional and bending vibration stresses of the crankshaft...

  4. 14 CFR 33.43 - Vibration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...must undergo a vibration survey to establish the torsional and bending vibration characteristics of the crankshaft...which is used for the endurance test. (b) The torsional and bending vibration stresses of the crankshaft...

  5. Correlation of finite-element structural dynamic analysis with measured free vibration characteristics for a full-scale helicopter fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenigsberg, I. J.; Dean, M. W.; Malatino, R.

    1974-01-01

    The correlation achieved with each program provides the material for a discussion of modeling techniques developed for general application to finite-element dynamic analyses of helicopter airframes. Included are the selection of static and dynamic degrees of freedom, cockpit structural modeling, and the extent of flexible-frame modeling in the transmission support region and in the vicinity of large cut-outs. The sensitivity of predicted results to these modeling assumptions are discussed. Both the Sikorsky Finite-Element Airframe Vibration analysis Program (FRAN/Vibration Analysis) and the NASA Structural Analysis Program (NASTRAN) have been correlated with data taken in full-scale vibration tests of a modified CH-53A helicopter.

  6. EFFECTS OF 6?WEEK WHOLE BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON THE REFLEX RESPONSE OF THE ANKLE MUSCLES: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Jacobo A.; Ramos, Domingo J.; Esteban, Paula; Mendizábal, Susana; Jiménez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Background: The ligament sprain of the lateral ankle is the most frequent injury that occurs when participating in sports. Whole body vibration (WBV) is a training method that has been recently introduced as a rehabilitative tool for treatment of athletes. It has been hypothesized that the transmission of mechanical oscillations from the vibrating platform may lead to physiological changes in muscle spindles, joint mechanoreceptors, as well as improve balance. Propose: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 6?week WBV training program on the reflex response mechanism of the peroneus longus (PL), peroneus brevis (PB) and anterior tibialis (AT) muscles in ankle inversion at 30º from horizontal, in a static position. Methods: This study was a single?blinded and randomized controlled trial. Forty?four healthy, physically active participants were randomly split into two groups: the experimental group (n = 26) (the WBV training) and control group (n = 18). Reaction time (RT), maximum electromyographic (EMG) peak (peak EMG), time to the maximum peak EMG (peak EMG time) and reflex electrical activity of all the muscles were assessed before and after the WBV training through surface EMG. Results: After 6?weeks WBV training, there were no significant changes in the variables analysed for all the muscles involved. Conclusion: A 6?week WBV training does not improve the reflex response mechanism of the lateral stabilizing muscles of the ankle. Level of evidence: 1b PMID:23439725

  7. Response of the rf-extraction-wing balcony and floor, and the storage ring to forced and ambient vibration excitation and coupling to tunnel/basemat

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.; Rosas-Velez, P.

    1993-08-01

    To ensure successful operation of the APS, vibration of the storage ring quadrupole magnets must be limited to very low levels for frequencies >10 Hz. There will be many sources of vibration, such as pumps, fans, compressors, generators, and other rotating and reciprocating machinery when the APS is operational. In general, such vibration sources are isolated from the structural components and base foundations by vibration dampers and isolators. Pumps are typically mounted on seismic isolators, which are massive bases with response frequencies of <10 Hz, and fans are mounted with elastic-type isolators to minimize vibration coupling. The attenuation of expansion/isolation joints is a very important factor in predicting the response of the storage ring basemat to the various excitation sources. Several 75-hp pumps are located on the balcony of the rf extraction wing, which is close to the storage ring basemat. The pumps per se may prove to be a vibration excitation source of concern. Additional pumps will be placed in the RF extraction building and could add to the vibration levels. If the dynamic unbalance force of the pump motor, and the efficiency of the associated expansion joints were known, one could predict the response of the storage ring basemat. This information would also be useful in determining the placement of additional pumps. This report discusses vibration tests and measurements that were performed on July 28, 1993, in the rf extraction building. The purpose of the investigation was to study the efficiency of two specific expansion joints: (1) the joint that separates a structural column pad from the extraction wing floor, and (2) the joint that separates the extraction wing floor from the roof of the storage ring tunnel. A small electrodynamic exciter, with a maximum RMS force output of {approx}0.5 lb at the frequencies of interest, was used.

  8. Seasonal variations in vibrational spectra of the sea surface nanolayer and their relation to characteristic parameters for phytoplankton activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laß, Kristian; Bange, Hermann W.; Friedrichs, Gernot

    2013-04-01

    The sea surface nanolayer is a very thin organic substance layer, down to monomolecular thickness. It is found on top of the sea surface microlayer, which in turn comprises roughly the uppermost millimeter of the water column. The nanolayer constitutes the actual interface between ocean and atmosphere and plays an important role in all exchange processes of matter and energy between ocean and atmosphere. Nevertheless, knowledge about formation and development of the sea surface nanolayer in the course of the year is very limited. In this study we present surface-specific observations of the sea surface nanolayer development over a period of three and a half years. Samples of the sea surface have been taken monthly at Boknis Eck Time Series Station (Eckernförde Bay, southwestern Baltic Sea) by screen sampling. From surface-sensitive vibrational spectra obtained by nonlinear sum frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG), information on amount, structure and composition of the organic nanolayer material was extracted. SFG has been introduced by us as a new method to study the ocean nanolayer quite recently [1,2]. The abundance of nanolayer material was found to follow a pronounced yearly periodicity, with larger amounts of material present from mid to end of summer. A substantial time lag of about 2.5 months between spring algal bloom maxima and abundance maxima of nanolayer material has been observed. In contrast to common perception, this shows that high phytoplankton abundance and pronounced nanolayers are not directly related to each other. Variations in the appearance of the spectra serve as indicators for changes in structure and chemical composition of the nanolayer. The accumulation of carbohydrate-rich material in late summer provides a possible explanation for the observed spectral changes. We propose that sloppy feeding of zooplankton as well as photochemical and/or microbial processing of organic material present in the microlayer is responsible for the periodicity of nanolayer intensity and its temporal shift with respect to other influential factors. References [1] K. Laß, G. Friedrichs, J. Geophys. Res. 116 (2011) C08042/1-15 [2] K. Laß, J. Kleber, G. Friedrichs, Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 8 (2010) 216-228

  9. Dynamic Responses and Vibration Control of the Transmission Tower-Line System: A State-of-the-Art Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Guo, Wei-hua; Li, Peng-yun; Xie, Wen-ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an overview on the dynamic analysis and control of the transmission tower-line system in the past forty years. The challenges and future developing trends in the dynamic analysis and mitigation of the transmission tower-line system under dynamic excitations are also put forward. It also reviews the analytical models and approaches of the transmission tower, transmission lines, and transmission tower-line systems, respectively, which contain the theoretical model, finite element (FE) model and the equivalent model; shows the advances in wind responses of the transmission tower-line system, which contains the dynamic effects under common wind loading, tornado, downburst, and typhoon; and discusses the dynamic responses under earthquake and ice loads, respectively. The vibration control of the transmission tower-line system is also reviewed, which includes the magnetorheological dampers, friction dampers, tuned mass dampers, and pounding tuned mass dampers. PMID:25105161

  10. Dynamic responses and vibration control of the transmission tower-line system: a state-of-the-art review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Guo, Wei-hua; Li, Peng-yun; Xie, Wen-ping

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented an overview on the dynamic analysis and control of the transmission tower-line system in the past forty years. The challenges and future developing trends in the dynamic analysis and mitigation of the transmission tower-line system under dynamic excitations are also put forward. It also reviews the analytical models and approaches of the transmission tower, transmission lines, and transmission tower-line systems, respectively, which contain the theoretical model, finite element (FE) model and the equivalent model; shows the advances in wind responses of the transmission tower-line system, which contains the dynamic effects under common wind loading, tornado, downburst, and typhoon; and discusses the dynamic responses under earthquake and ice loads, respectively. The vibration control of the transmission tower-line system is also reviewed, which includes the magnetorheological dampers, friction dampers, tuned mass dampers, and pounding tuned mass dampers. PMID:25105161

  11. LINKING WITHIN-FIELD CROP RESPONSE WITH SOIL CHARACTERISTICS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management zones for precision farming can be determined by identifying areas where soil, water, and management factors result in similar crop responses. Given the spatial distribution of LAI of a field, factors determining response patterns may be obtained via inversion of a model linking environme...

  12. Cosine response characteristics of radiometric and photometric sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.J.; Harrison, L.C.; Berkheiser, W.E. III

    1992-05-01

    Global and diffuse irradiance and illuminance are measured with instruments that are assumed to have true cosine responses. It is known, largely from reports with a limited distribution or by word of mouth, that no instrument is perfect in this regard. This paper reports on measurements of cosine responses for several instrument types and manufacture familiar to the solar radiation measurement community. The measurements were made with an automated cosine response test bench using the same protocol for each instrument. The cosine bench measures with variable angular resolution as fine as 0.25 degrees. The automated rotation is in one plane. A manual rotation allows measurements for other azimuths. 6 refs.

  13. Cosine response characteristics of radiometric and photometric sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Michalsky, J.J.; Harrison, L.C.; Berkheiser, W.E. III.

    1992-01-01

    Global and diffuse irradiance and illuminance are measured with instruments that are assumed to have true cosine responses. It is known, largely from reports with a limited distribution or by word of mouth, that no instrument is perfect in this regard. This paper reports on measurements of cosine responses for several instrument types and manufacture familiar to the solar radiation measurement community. The measurements were made with an automated cosine response test bench using the same protocol for each instrument. The cosine bench measures with variable angular resolution as fine as 0.25 degrees. The automated rotation is in one plane. A manual rotation allows measurements for other azimuths. 6 refs.

  14. Estimates of site response based on spectral ratio between horizontal and vertical components of ambient vibrations in the source zone of 2001 Bhuj earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarajan, Thulasiraman; Rajendran, Kusala

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the site response characteristics of Kachchh rift basin over the meizoseismal area of the 2001, Mw 7.6, Bhuj (NW India) earthquake using the spectral ratio of the horizontal and vertical components of ambient vibrations. Using the available knowledge on the regional geology of Kachchh and well documented ground responses from the earthquake, we evaluated the H/V curves pattern across sediment filled valleys and uplifted areas generally characterized by weathered sandstones. Although our H/V curves showed a largely fuzzy nature, we found that the hierarchical clustering method was useful for comparing large numbers of response curves and identifying the areas with similar responses. Broad and plateau shaped peaks of a cluster of curves within the valley region suggests the possibility of basin effects within valley. Fundamental resonance frequencies (f0) are found in the narrow range of 0.1-2.3 Hz and their spatial distribution demarcated the uplifted regions from the valleys. In contrary, low H/V peak amplitudes (A0 = 2-4) were observed on the uplifted areas and varying values (2-9) were found within valleys. Compared to the amplification factors, the liquefaction indices (kg) were able to effectively indicate the areas which experienced severe liquefaction. The amplification ranges obtained in the current study were found to be comparable to those obtained from earthquake data for a limited number of seismic stations located on uplifted areas; however the values on the valley region may not reflect their true amplification potential due to basin effects. Our study highlights the practical usefulness as well as limitations of the H/V method to study complex geological settings as Kachchh.

  15. Genetically engineered protein in hydrogels tailors stimuli-responsive characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrick, Jason D.; Deo, Sapna K.; Browning, Tyler W.; Bachas, Leonidas G.; Madou, Marc J.; Daunert, Sylvia

    2005-04-01

    Certain proteins undergo a substantial conformational change in response to a given stimulus. This conformational change can manifest in different manners and result in an actuation, that is, catalytic or signalling event, movement, interaction with other proteins, and so on. In all cases, the sensing-actuation process of proteins is initiated by a recognition event that translates into a mechanical action. Thus, proteins are ideal components for designing new nanomaterials that are intelligent and can perform desired mechanical actions in response to target stimuli. A number of approaches have been undertaken to mimic nature's sensing-actuating process. We now report a new hybrid material that integrates genetically engineered proteins within hydrogels capable of producing a stimulus-responsive action mechanism. The mechanical effect is a result of an induced conformational change and binding affinities of the protein in response to a stimulus. The stimuli-responsive hydrogel exhibits three specific swelling stages in response to various ligands offering additional fine-tuned control over a conventional two-stage swelling hydrogel. The newly prepared material was used in the sensing, and subsequent gating and transport of biomolecules across a polymer network, demonstrating its potential application in microfluidics and miniaturized drug-delivery systems.

  16. Genetically engineered protein in hydrogels tailors stimuli-responsive characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ehrick, Jason D; Deo, Sapna K; Browning, Tyler W; Bachas, Leonidas G; Madou, Marc J; Daunert, Sylvia

    2005-04-01

    Certain proteins undergo a substantial conformational change in response to a given stimulus. This conformational change can manifest in different manners and result in an actuation, that is, catalytic or signalling event, movement, interaction with other proteins, and so on. In all cases, the sensing-actuation process of proteins is initiated by a recognition event that translates into a mechanical action. Thus, proteins are ideal components for designing new nanomaterials that are intelligent and can perform desired mechanical actions in response to target stimuli. A number of approaches have been undertaken to mimic nature's sensing-actuating process. We now report a new hybrid material that integrates genetically engineered proteins within hydrogels capable of producing a stimulus-responsive action mechanism. The mechanical effect is a result of an induced conformational change and binding affinities of the protein in response to a stimulus. The stimuli-responsive hydrogel exhibits three specific swelling stages in response to various ligands offering additional fine-tuned control over a conventional two-stage swelling hydrogel. The newly prepared material was used in the sensing, and subsequent gating and transport of biomolecules across a polymer network, demonstrating its potential application in microfluidics and miniaturized drug-delivery systems. PMID:15765106

  17. Psycho-vibratory evaluation of timber floors - Towards the determination of design indicators of vibration acceptability and vibration annoyance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negreira, J.; Trollé, A.; Jarnerö, K.; Sjökvist, L.-G.; Bard, D.

    2015-03-01

    In timber housing constructions, vibrations can be a nuisance for inhabitants. Notably, the vibrational response of wooden floor systems is an issue in need of being dealt with more adequately in the designing of such buildings. Studies addressing human response to vibrations are needed in order to be able to better estimate what level of vibrations in dwellings can be seen as acceptable. In the present study, measurements on five different wooden floors were performed in a laboratory environment at two locations in Sweden (SP in Växjö and LU in Lund). Acceleration measurements were carried out while a person either was walking on a particular floor or was seated in a chair placed there as the test leader was walking on the floor. These participants filled out a questionnaire regarding their perception and experiencing of the vibrations in question. Independently of the subjective tests, several static and dynamic characteristics of the floors were determined through measurements. The ultimate aim was to develop indicators of human response to floor vibrations, specifically those regarding vibration acceptability and vibration annoyance, their being drawn based on relationships between the questionnaire responses obtained and the parameter values determined on the basis of the measurements carried out. To that end, use was made of multilevel regression. Although the sample of floors tested was small, certain clear trends could be noted. The first eigenfrequency (calculated in accordance with Eurocode 5) and Hu and Chui's criterion (calculated from measured quantities) proved to be the best indicators of vibration annoyance, and the Maximum Transient Vibration Value (computed on the basis of the accelerations experienced by the test subjects) to be the best indicator of vibration acceptability.

  18. Nonlinear terahertz spectroscopy of electronic and vibrational responses in condensed matter systems

    E-print Network

    Hwang, Harold Young

    2012-01-01

    In this work, I describe experiments utilizing high-field terahertz (THz) pulses to initiate nonlinear responses in several classes of materials. We have developed several methods for interrogating the nonlinear THz response ...

  19. Structural characteristic responses for finite element model updating of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Linren; Wang, Lei; Ou, Jinping

    2014-04-01

    The field measurements of structures are very important to the structural finite element (FE) model updating because the errors and uncertainties of a FE model are corrected directly through closing the discrepancies between the analytical responses from FE model and the measurements from field testing of a structure. Usually, the accurate and reliable field measurements are very limited. Therefore, it is very important to make full use of the limited and valuable field measurements in structural model updating to achieve a best result with the lowest cost. In this paper, structural FE model updating is investigated in the point of view of solving a mathematical problem, and different amount and category of structural dynamic responses and static responses are considered as constraints to explore their effects on the updated results of different degree and types of structural damages. The numerical studies are carried out on a space truss. Accounting for the numerical results, some inherent phenomena and connections taking account of the updating parameters, output responses and the updated results are revealed and discussed. Some useful and practicable suggestions about using the field measurements for FE model updating are provided to achieve efficient and reliable results.

  20. Flow-induced vibration and instability of some nuclear-reactor-system components. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    The high-velocity coolant flowing through a reactor system component is a source of energy that can induce component vibration and instability. In fact, many reactor components have suffered from excessive vibration and/or dynamic instability. The potential for detrimental flow-induced vibration makes it necessary that design engineers give detailed considerations to the flow-induced vibration problems. Flow-induced-vibration studies have been performed in many countries. Significant progress has been made in understanding the different phenomena and development of design guidelines to avoid damaging vibration. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the recent progress in several selected areas, to discuss some new results and to indentify future research needs. Specifically, the following areas will be presented: examples of flow-induced-vibration problems in reactor components; excitation mechanisms and component response characteristics; instability mechanisms and stability criteria; design considerations; and future research needs.

  1. Thermal response and ablation characteristics of light weight ceramic ablators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Huy K.; Rasky, Daniel J.; Esfahani, Lili

    1993-01-01

    An account is given of the thermal performance and ablation characteristics of the NASA-Ames Lightweight Ceramic Ablators (LCAs) in supersonic, high-enthalpy convective environments, which use low density ceramic or carbon fiber matrices as substrates for main structural support, with organic resin fillers. LCA densities are in the 0.224-1.282 g/cu cm range. In-depth temperature data have been obtained to determine thermal penetration depths and conductivity. The addition of SiC and PPMA is noted to significantly improve the ablation performance of LCAs with silica substrates. Carbon-based LCAs are the most mass-efficient at high flux levels.

  2. Research on relation between bending stress and characteristic frequency of H-shaped beam by free vibration deflection

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2014-05-27

    In order to investigate a relation between a bending stress and a characteristic frequency of a beam, 4-point loading which had constant moment region was conducted to a beam with H shape configuration experimentally and numerically. H-shaped beam has many characteristic deformation modes. Axial tensile stress in the beam made its characteristic frequency higher, and compressive stress lower. In the experiment, some characteristic frequencies got higher by a bending stress, and the others stayed in a small frequency fluctuation. The distinction is anticipated as a capability to measure a bending stress of a beam by its characteristic frequencies.

  3. Vibration of Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leissa, A. W.

    1973-01-01

    The vibrational characteristics and mechanical properties of shell structures are discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) fundamental equations of thin shell theory, (2) characteristics of thin circular cylindrical shells, (3) complicating effects in circular cylindrical shells, (4) noncircular cylindrical shell properties, (5) characteristics of spherical shells, and (6) solution of three-dimensional equations of motion for cylinders.

  4. Exploring Modeling Options and Conversion of Average Response to Appropriate Vibration Envelopes for a Typical Cylindrical Vehicle Panel with Rib-stiffened Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Phil; LaVerde, Bruce; Teague, David

    2009-01-01

    Although applications for Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) techniques are more widely used in the aerospace industry today, opportunities to anchor the response predictions using measured data from a flight-like launch vehicle structure are still quite valuable. Response and excitation data from a ground acoustic test at the Marshall Space Flight Center permitted the authors to compare and evaluate several modeling techniques available in the SEA module of the commercial code VA One. This paper provides an example of vibration response estimates developed using different modeling approaches to both approximate and bound the response of a flight-like vehicle panel. Since both vibration response and acoustic levels near the panel were available from the ground test, the evaluation provided an opportunity to learn how well the different modeling options can match band-averaged spectra developed from the test data. Additional work was performed to understand the spatial averaging of the measurements across the panel from measured data. Finally an evaluation/comparison of two conversion approaches from the statistical average response results that are output from an SEA analysis to a more useful envelope of response spectra appropriate to specify design and test vibration levels for a new vehicle.

  5. Roman Catholic beliefs produce characteristic neural responses to moral dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    Flexas, Albert; de Miguel, Pedro; Cela-Conde, Camilo J.; Munar, Enric

    2014-01-01

    This study provides exploratory evidence about how behavioral and neural responses to standard moral dilemmas are influenced by religious belief. Eleven Catholics and 13 Atheists (all female) judged 48 moral dilemmas. Differential neural activity between the two groups was found in precuneus and in prefrontal, frontal and temporal regions. Furthermore, a double dissociation showed that Catholics recruited different areas for deontological (precuneus; temporoparietal junction) and utilitarian moral judgments [dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC); temporal poles], whereas Atheists did not (superior parietal gyrus for both types of judgment). Finally, we tested how both groups responded to personal and impersonal moral dilemmas: Catholics showed enhanced activity in DLPFC and posterior cingulate cortex during utilitarian moral judgments to impersonal moral dilemmas and enhanced responses in anterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal sulcus during deontological moral judgments to personal moral dilemmas. Our results indicate that moral judgment can be influenced by an acquired set of norms and conventions transmitted through religious indoctrination and practice. Catholic individuals may hold enhanced awareness of the incommensurability between two unequivocal doctrines of the Catholic belief set, triggered explicitly in a moral dilemma: help and care in all circumstances—but thou shalt not kill. PMID:23160812

  6. NIST torsion oscillator viscometer response: Performance on the LeRC active vibration isolation platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.

    1992-01-01

    Critical point viscosity measurements are limited to their reduced temperature approach to T(sub c) in an Earth bound system, because of density gradients imposed by gravity. Therefore, these classes of experiments have been proposed as good candidates for 'microgravity' science experiments where this limitation is not present. The nature of these viscosity measurements dictate hardware that is sensitive to low frequency excitations. Because of the vibratory acceleration sensitivity of a torsion oscillator viscometer, used to acquire such measurements, a vibration isolation sensitivity test was performed on candidate 'microgravity' hardware to study the possibility of meeting the stringent oscillatory sensitivity requirements of a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) torsion oscillator viscometer. A prototype six degree of freedom active magnetic isolation system, developed at NASA Lewis Research Center, was used as the isolation system. The ambient acceleration levels of the platform were reduced to the noise floor levels of its control sensors, about one microgravity in the 0.1 to 10 Hz bandwidth.

  7. Power-Generation Characteristics After Vibration and Thermal Stresses of Thermoelectric Unicouples with CoSb3/Ti/Mo(Cu) Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Kwang Ho; Choi, Soon-Mok; Kim, Kyung-Hun; Choi, Hyoung-Seuk; Seo, Won-Seon; Kim, Il-Ho; Lee, Soonil; Hwang, Hae Jin

    2015-06-01

    Reliability tests for thermoelectric unicouples were carried out to investigate the adhesion properties of CoSb3/Ti/Mo(Cu) interfaces. The n-type In0.25 Co3.95Ni0.05Sb12 and p-type In0.25Co3FeSb12 bulks were prepared for fabricating a thermoelectric unicouple (one p- n couple) by an induction melting and a spark plasma sintering process. Mo-Cu alloy was selected as an electrode for the unicouples due to its high melting temperature and proper work function value. Many thermoelectric unicouples with the CoSb3/Ti/Mo(Cu) interfaces were fabricated with the proper brazing materials by means of a repeated firing process. Reliability of the unicouples with the interfaces was evaluated by a vibration test and a thermal cycling test. After the thermal cycling and vibration tests, the power-generation characteristics of the unicouples were compared with the unicouples before the tests. Even after the vibration test, electrical power with a power density of 0.5 W/cm2 was generated. The Ti-interlayer is considered as a possible candidate for making a reliable unicouple with high adhesion strength. With the thermal cycling test, the resistance of the unicouple increased and the electrical power from the unicouple decreased. A failure mode by the thermal cycling test was ascribed to a complex effect of micro-cracks originated from the thermal stress and oxidation problem of the thermoelectric materials; that is, a thick oxide layer more than 300 ?m was detected after a high-temperature durability test of n-type In0.25Co3.95Ni0.05Sb12 material at 773 K in air for 7 days.

  8. 'Nordic' hamstrings exercise - engagement characteristics and training responses.

    PubMed

    Iga, J; Fruer, C S; Deighan, M; Croix, M D S; James, D V B

    2012-12-01

    The present study examined the neuromuscular activation characteristics of the hamstrings during the 'Nordic' hamstrings exercise (NHE) and changes in the eccentric strength of the knee flexors with NHE training. Initially, the normalised root mean square electromyographic (EMG) activity of the hamstrings of both limbs during various phases (90-61°, 60-31° and 30-0° of knee extension) of the NHE were determined in 18 soccer players. Subsequently participants were randomly allocated to either a training (n=10) or control group. The isokinetic eccentric peak torques of the dominant and non-dominant limbs were recorded at 60, 120 and 240°/s pre- and post-training. The EMG values of both limbs were comparable (P=0.184) and greater EMG activity was recorded at more extended knee positions of the NHE (P=0.001). 4 weeks of NHE training significantly improved peak torque by up to 21% in all assessment conditions. Data indicate the hamstrings of both limbs are engaged identically during the NHE and training results in gains in the eccentric peak torque of the hamstrings of both limbs; these gains may augment the force that the hamstrings can withstand when forcefully stretched, attenuating injury risk. PMID:22895870

  9. Characteristic responses of a phospholipid molecular layer to polyols.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Satoshi; Deguchi, Ayano; Seki, Yota; Furuta, Miyuki; Fukuhara, Koichi; Nishihara, Sadafumi; Inoue, Katsuya; Kumazawa, Noriyuki; Mashiko, Shun; Fujihira, Shota; Goto, Makiko; Denda, Mitsuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Polyols (sugar alcohols) are widely used in foods, pharmaceutical formulations and cosmetics, and therefore it is important to understand their effects on cell membranes and skin. To address this issue, we examined the effect of polyols (1,2-ethanediol (ethylene glycol), 1,3-butanediol, 1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol), and 1,2,3,4-butanetetraol) on artificial membrane systems (liposomes, monolayers, or dry films) prepared from phospholipid (1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC)). 1,2-Ethanediol and 1,3-butanediol had little effect on the size of the DMPC liposomes or the surface pressure (?)-surface area (A) isotherm of DMPC monolayers at an air-water interface, whereas 1,2,3-propanetriol or 1,2,3,4-butanetetraol increased both liposome size and surface pressure. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to evaluate the interaction between DMPC and polyols. These experimental results suggest that the chemical structure of polyol plays an important role in the characteristic interaction between polyol and DMPC. PMID:26454550

  10. Migration Characteristics of Prostate Cancer Cells in Response to Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)

    E-print Network

    Chiao, Jung-Chih

    Migration Characteristics of Prostate Cancer Cells in Response to Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) S. The main cause of mortality is metastasis of cancer cells from primary sites to secondary sites Receptor (EGF-R). In this study, we have demonstrated the differences in response of prostate cancer cells

  11. Operating Characteristics of Six Response Distortion Indicators for the Personality Assessment Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Leslie C.; Lanier, V. Whitson

    1998-01-01

    Characteristics of six different indicators of response distortion on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) (L. Morey, 1991) were evaluated by having 134 college students complete the PAI under positive impression management, malingering, and honest responding conditions. All six indicators could distinguish actual and feigned responses. (SLD)

  12. Plant growth in controlled environments in response to characteristics of nutrient solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Plant growth in controlled environments in response to characteristics of nutrient solutions is discussed. Descriptions of experimental results concerning root acclimation to temperature, root and shoot acclimation to nitrogen stress, and growth response to NH4(+) and NO3(-) nutrition are included. A preliminary model validation to changing temperatures is presented.

  13. Documented Characteristics of Labor Market-Responsive Community Colleges and a Review of Supporting Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Robert; MacAllum, Keith

    This paper discusses the mission of the market-responsive community college. These colleges include mid- and high-level workforce training in their curriculum. Some of the characteristics of a market-responsive community college detailed here include: (1) allocating resources to develop training programs; (2) reaching out to businesses and other…

  14. Plant characteristic estimation using sonar, multispectral reflectance, and electromagnetic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Carol L.

    Scope and method of study. The goal of this study was to design, test and validate three methods of remotely estimating plant physical and physiological characteristics. A free-space parallel plate electrostatic sensing system operating at medium radio frequency range was used to estimate water content and plant dry biomass. An ultrasound distance sensing system and a multispectral imaging system was used to directly estimate plant height and top view surface area and indirectly estimate plant biomass. NDVI was calculated from the multispectral imaging system data. Combining NDVI with the plant height and top view surface area estimates, a correlation was observed between plant biomass, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll concentration. Findings and conclusions. Plant water content and dry biomass of greenhouse grown spinach were estimated using a free-space electrostatic sensing system (r2 = 0.95). Ultrasonic sensor-based height estimates and top view surface area multispectral image data provided plant biomass estimates in corn and spinach (r 2 = 0.85 and 0.88). Estimates for snap beans were not as convincing (r2 = 0.52). Combining biomass estimates from the height and surface area data obtained by the ultrasonic distance sensor and the multispectral imaging system with NDVI670 calculated from reflectance data from the imaging system provided strong correlations with chlorophyll content in spinach (r 2 = 0.91). This was an improvement from the chlorophyll content estimates using only NDVI670. Correlations with chlorophyll concentration were weak. The strongest correlation was found using the reflectance ratio, NIR/Green (r2 = 0.30).

  15. Road condition evaluation using the vibration response of ordinary vehicles and synchronously recorded movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, Tomonori; Miyajima, Akira; Kimura, Shunya; Shimada, Yuuki; Fujino, Yozo

    2013-04-01

    Frequent and quantitative assessment of road condition is important as the maintenance of the road infrastructure needs to be performed with a limited budget. Vehicle Intelligent Monitoring System (VIMS) has been developed to estimate an index of road ride comfort (International Roughness Index; IRI) by obtaining the acceleration responses of ordinary vehicles together with GPS position data. VIMS converts the vertical acceleration of the measurement vehicle to acceleration RMS of the sprung mass of the standard Quarter Car model, and then to IRI using an approximate expression. By driving over a hump of a known profile and comparing the responses with Quarter Car simulation responses, a variety of vehicles can be calibrated; a non-linear quarter car model equivalent to the vehicle is identified. By performing numerical simulation using the nonlinear vehicle model, the difference in driving speed can also be calibrated. The measurement results can be exported to maps to comprehend road condition in a geographical view and to other data base systems. In addition, smartphones which can record motions, GPS data, and movies synchronously are utilized to improve VIMS. Because practical installation locations of smartphones are limited and because angular velocity responses are less subjective to difference in installation locations, VIMS is extended to utilize the pitching angular velocity. Furthermore, high frequency components of acceleration responses are analyzed to distinguish local pavement damages or joints from rough road sections. The examination of synchronously recorded movies confirmed the capability to distinguish the local conditions.

  16. Influence of immobilization strategies on biosensing response characteristics: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Saha, Shibu; Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay

    2016-01-01

    The immobilization technique plays an important role in fabrication of a biosensor. NiO based cholesterol biosensor has been used to study the effect of various immobilization techniques on the biosensing response characteristics. The biosensors were fabricated by immobilizing cholesterol oxidase on NiO thin films by three different immobilization techniques viz. physisorption, cross-linking and covalent binding. The study reveals a strong dependence of biosensing response on corresponding immobilization technique. The biosensor based on immobilization by covalent bonding shows superior response characteristics as compared to others owing to its zero length. The results highlight the significance of immobilization technique for biosensor fabrication. PMID:26672461

  17. 14 CFR 33.83 - Vibration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.83 Section 33.83... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.83 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo vibration surveys to establish that the vibration characteristics of those components...

  18. 14 CFR 33.83 - Vibration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.83 Section 33.83... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.83 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo vibration surveys to establish that the vibration characteristics of those components...

  19. 14 CFR 33.83 - Vibration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.83 Section 33.83... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.83 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo vibration surveys to establish that the vibration characteristics of those components...

  20. 14 CFR 33.83 - Vibration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.83 Section 33.83... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.83 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo vibration surveys to establish that the vibration characteristics of those components...

  1. 14 CFR 33.83 - Vibration test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vibration test. 33.83 Section 33.83... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.83 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo vibration surveys to establish that the vibration characteristics of those components...

  2. The influence of higher harmonic flow forces on the response of a curved circular cylinder undergoing vortex-induced vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed-Aghazadeh, Banafsheh; Budz, Collin; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2015-09-01

    Vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a curved circular cylinder (a quarter of a ring, with no extension added to either end) free to oscillate in the crossflow direction was studied experimentally. Both the concave and the convex orientations (with respect to the oncoming flow direction) were considered. As expected, the amplitude of oscillations in both configurations was decreased compared to a vertical cylinder with the same mass ratio. Flow visualizations showed that the vortices were shed in parallel to the curved cylinder, when the cylinder was free to oscillate. The sudden jump in the phase difference between the flow forces and the cylinder displacement observed in the VIV of vertical cylinders was not observed in the curved cylinders. Higher harmonic force components at frequencies twice and three times the frequency of oscillations were observed in flow forces acting on the vertical cylinder, as well as the curved cylinder. Asymmetry in the wake was responsible for the 2nd harmonic force component and the relative velocity of the structure with respect to the oncoming flow was responsible for the 3rd harmonic force component. The lock-in occurred over the same range of reduced velocities for the curved cylinder in the convex orientation as for a vertical cylinder, but it was extended to higher reduced velocities for a curved cylinder in the concave orientation. Higher harmonic force components were found to be responsible for the extended lock-in range in the concave orientation. Within this range, the higher harmonic forces were even larger than the first harmonic force and the structure was being excited mainly by these higher harmonic forces.

  3. Experimental Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System for Harmonic, Random, and Sine on Random Vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Cryns, Jackson W.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Silvers, Kurt L.

    2013-07-01

    Formal journal article Experimental analysis of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system for harmonic, random, and sine on random vibration Abstract: Harvesting power with a piezoelectric vibration powered generator using a full-wave rectifier conditioning circuit is experimentally compared for varying sinusoidal, random and sine on random (SOR) input vibration scenarios. Additionally, the implications of source vibration characteristics on harvester design are discussed. Studies in vibration harvesting have yielded numerous alternatives for harvesting electrical energy from vibrations but piezoceramics arose as the most compact, energy dense means of energy transduction. The rise in popularity of harvesting energy from ambient vibrations has made piezoelectric generators commercially available. Much of the available literature focuses on maximizing harvested power through nonlinear processing circuits that require accurate knowledge of generator internal mechanical and electrical characteristics and idealization of the input vibration source, which cannot be assumed in general application. In this manuscript, variations in source vibration and load resistance are explored for a commercially available piezoelectric generator. We characterize the source vibration by its acceleration response for repeatability and transcription to general application. The results agree with numerical and theoretical predictions for in previous literature that load optimal resistance varies with transducer natural frequency and source type, and the findings demonstrate that significant gains are seen with lower tuned transducer natural frequencies for similar source amplitudes. Going beyond idealized steady state sinusoidal and simplified random vibration input, SOR testing allows for more accurate representation of real world ambient vibration. It is shown that characteristic interactions from more complex vibrational sources significantly alter power generation and power processing requirements by increasing harvested power, shifting optimal conditioning impedance, inducing significant voltage supply fluctuations and ultimately rendering idealized sinusoidal and random analyses insufficient.

  4. Vibration isolation of automotive vehicle engine using periodic mounting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiri, S.

    2005-05-01

    Customer awareness and sensitivity to noise and vibration levels have been raised through increasing television advertisement, in which the vehicle noise and vibration performance is used as the main market differentiation. This awareness has caused the transportation industry to regard noise and vibration as important criteria for improving market shares. One industry that tends to be in the forefront of the technology to reduce the levels of noise and vibration is the automobile industry. Hence, it is of practical interest to reduce the vibrations induced structural responses. The automotive vehicle engine is the main source of mechanical vibrations of automobiles. The engine is vulnerable to the dynamic action caused by engine disturbance force in various speed ranges. The vibrations of the automotive vehicle engines may cause structural failure, malfunction of other parts, or discomfort to passengers because of high level noise and vibrations. The mounts of the engines act as the transmission paths of the vibrations transmitted from the excitation sources to the body of the vehicle and passengers. Therefore, proper design and control of these mounts are essential to the attenuation of the vibration of platform structures. To improve vibration resistant capacities of engine mounting systems, vibration control techniques may be used. For instance, some passive and semi-active dissipation devices may be installed at mounts to enhance vibration energy absorbing capacity. In the proposed study, a radically different concept is presented whereby periodic mounts are considered because these mounts exhibit unique dynamic characteristics that make them act as mechanical filters for wave propagation. As a result, waves can propagate along the periodic mounts only within specific frequency bands called the "Pass Bands" and wave propagation is completely blocked within other frequency bands called the "Stop Bands". The experimental arrangements, including the design of mounting systems with plain and periodic mounts will be studied first. The dynamic characteristics of such systems will be obtained experimentally in both cases. The tests will be then carried out to study the performance characteristics of periodic mounts with geometrical and/or material periodicity. The effectiveness of the periodicity on the vibration levels of mounting systems will be demonstrated theoretically and experimentally. Finally, the experimental results will be compared with the theoretical predictions.

  5. Dynamic response characteristics of high temperature superconducting maglev systems: Comparison between Halbach-type and normal permanent magnet guideways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Zheng, J.; Che, T.; Zheng, B. T.; Si, S. S.; Deng, Z. G.

    2015-12-01

    The permanent magnet guideway (PMG) is very important for the performance of the high temperature superconducting (HTS) system in terms of electromagnetic force and operational stability. The dynamic response characteristics of a HTS maglev model levitating on two types of PMG, which are the normal PMG with iron flux concentration and Halbach-type PMG, were investigated by experiments. The dynamic signals for different field-cooling heights (FCHs) and loading/unloading processes were acquired and analyzed by a vibration analyzer and laser displacement sensors. The resonant frequency, stiffness and levitation height of the model were discussed. It was found that the maglev model on the Halbach-type PMG has higher resonant frequency and higher vertical stiffness compared with the normal PMG. However, the low lateral stiffness of the model on the Halbach-type PMG indicates poor lateral stability. Besides, the Halbach-type PMG has better loading capacity than the normal PMG. These results are helpful to design a suitable PMG for the HTS system in practical applications.

  6. Nonlinear vibration characteristics of graphene/piezoelectric sandwich films under electric loading based on nonlocal elastic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. B.; Li, Y. D.; Wang, X.; Huang, X.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports the result of an investigation into the nonlinear vibration frequencies of graphene/piezoelectric sandwich films under electrical loading based on nonlocal elastic theory by utilizing a global residual harmonic balance method. Based on the Galerkin method and global residual harmonic balance method, the nonlinear resonant frequencies of graphene/piezoelectric sandwich films under electric exciting loads are obtained with a set of factors: the ratio of the oscillating amplitude to the thickness of sandwich films, small scale effect, electric loading exerted on piezoelectric layer, mode number and size length. Results indicate that the electric exciting load enhances the nonlinear resonant frequency of graphene/piezoelectric sandwich films, the nonlinear resonant frequency decreases as the scale effect increases, the scale effect has a more significant effect on higher mode resonant frequency and linear resonant frequency, and the effect of scale on the nonlinear resonant frequency is independent on the electric exciting load and the boundary conditions exerted on the sandwich films.

  7. Vibrational signaling in the agonistic interactions of red-eyed treefrogs.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Michael S; Johnston, Gregory R; McDaniel, J Gregory; Warkentin, Karen M

    2010-06-01

    Sensitivity to substrate-borne vibrations is widespread in animals and evolutionarily precedes hearing but, compared with other sensory modalities, we know little about vibrational communication, particularly in vertebrates. For plant-dwelling arthropods, vibrations are likely as important as sound. Arboreal vertebrates excite plant vibrations with most movements, but the behavioral relevance of these vibrations has not been tested experimentally. In playback experiments using a robotic model frog and an electrodynamic shaker, we demonstrate that plant-borne vibrations generated by the shaking (tremulation) display of male red-eyed treefrogs (Agalychnis callidryas) are a vibrational signal, necessary and sufficient to elicit tremulations in response. A trend toward increased aggression during visual playbacks suggests that the visual component of tremulations may also convey information. In male-male contests, tremulations were the most frequent aggressive display, and their use and vibrational characteristics varied with male size and conflict context. Nearly all of A. callidryas' signaling behaviors, including tremulations and acoustic calls, excite strong, stereotyped vibrations that travel through plants and could be informative to receivers. Our results demonstrate that vibrational signals serve a key role in the biology of one well-known arboreal frog and suggest that consideration of the vibrational modality may significantly broaden our appreciation of the behavior and evolution of arboreal vertebrates. PMID:20493702

  8. Measuring Fluctuating Pressure Levels and Vibration Response in a Jet Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osterholt, Douglas J.; Knox, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    The characterization of loads due to solid rocket motor plume impingement allows for moreaccurate analyses of components subjected to such an environment. Typically, test verification of predicted loads due to these conditions is widely overlooked or unsuccessful. ATA Engineering, Inc., performed testing during a solid rocket motor firing to obtain acceleration and pressure responses in the hydrodynamic field surrounding the jet plume. The test environment necessitated a robust design to facilitate measurements being made in close proximity to the jet plume. This paper presents the process of designing a test fixture and an instrumentation package that could withstand the solid rocket plume environment and protect the required instrumentation.

  9. Flapping response characteristics of hingeless rotor blades by a gereralized harmonic balance method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, D. A.; Ormiston, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Linearized equations of motion for the flapping response of flexible rotor blades in forward flight are derived in terms of generalized coordinates. The equations are solved using a matrix form of the method of linear harmonic balance, yielding response derivatives for each harmonic of the blade deformations and of the hub forces and moments. Numerical results and approximate closed-form expressions for rotor derivatives are used to illustrate the relationships between rotor parameters, modeling assumptions, and rotor response characteristics. Finally, basic hingeless rotor response derivatives are presented in tabular and graphical form for a wide range of configuration parameters and operating conditions.

  10. Wake structures and vortex-induced vibrations of a long flexible cylinder—Part 1: Dynamic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huera-Huarte, F. J.; Bearman, P. W.

    2009-08-01

    Results showing the dynamic response of a vertical long flexible cylinder vibrating at low mode numbers are presented in this paper. The model had an external diameter of 16 mm and a total length of 1.5 m giving an aspect ratio of about 94, with Reynolds numbers between 1200 and 12 000. Only the lower 40% of its length was exposed to the water current in the flume and applied top tensions varied from 15 to 110 N giving fundamental natural frequencies in the range from 3.0 to 7.1 Hz. Reduced velocities based on the fundamental natural frequency up to 16 were reached. The mass ratio was 1.8 and the combined mass-damping parameter about 0.05. Cross-flow and in-line amplitudes, x-y trajectories and phase synchronisation, dominant frequencies and modal amplitudes are reported. Cross-flow amplitudes up to 0.7 diameters and in-line amplitudes over 0.2 were observed with dominant frequencies given by a Strouhal number of 0.16.

  11. Effect of granular media on the vibrational response of a resonant structure: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Valenza, John J; Hsu, Chaur-Jian; Johnson, David Linton

    2010-11-01

    The acoustic response of a structure that contains a cavity filled with a loose granular material is analyzed. The inputs to the theory are the effective masses of each subsystem: that of the empty-cavity resonating structure and that of the granular medium within the cavity. This theory accurately predicts the frequencies, widths, and relative amplitudes of the various flexural mode resonances observed with rectangular bars, each having a cavity filled with loose tungsten granules. Inasmuch as the dominant mechanism for damping is due to adsorbed water at the grain-grain contacts, the significant effects of humidity on both the effective mass of the granular medium as well as on the response of the grain-loaded bars are monitored. Here, depending upon the humidity and the preparation protocol, it is possible to observe one, two, or three distinct resonances in a wide frequency range (1-5 kHz) over which the empty bar has but one resonance. These effects are understood in terms of the theoretical framework, which may simplify in terms of perturbation theories. PMID:21110572

  12. Vibration control in piping system by dual dynamic absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Sodeyama, H.; Ikahata, N.; Sunakoda, K.; Seto, K.

    1995-12-31

    This paper deals with the applicability of a seismic response reduction method with a dual dynamic absorber for equipment, piping system, etc. in a nuclear power plant. The dual dynamic absorber which utilizes a magnetic damping effect was developed and the investigation was done to the characteristics of vibration controllability through excitation tests. As the primary stage of this study, a simple vertical straight pipe with a diameter of 60.8 mm and a length of 2,000 mm was excited by random vibration input, and amplitude of vibration level was reduced by the dual dynamic absorber mounted on the pipe. The mass ratio of the dual dynamic absorber to the straight pipe was 0.05. The result of this test was that the response reduction effect of the dual dynamic absorber for random excitations was verified. Also, the damping characteristic with fine linearity for the input level was obtained.

  13. Demonstrating the Effect of Particle Impact Dampers on the Random Vibration Response and Fatigue Life of Printed Wiring Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Brent; Montgomery, Randall; Geist, David; Hunt, Ron; LaVerde, Bruce; Towner, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In a recent experimental study, small Particle Impact Dampers (PID) were bonded directly to the surface of printed circuit board (PCB) or printed wiring assemblies (PWA), reducing the random vibration response and increasing the fatigue life. This study provides data verifying practicality of this approach. The measured peak strain and acceleration response of the fundamental out of plane bending mode was significantly attenuated by adding a PID device. Attenuation of this mode is most relevant to the fatigue life of a PWA because the local relative displacements between the board and the supported components, which ultimately cause fatigue failures of the electrical leads of the board-mounted components are dominated by this mode. Applying PID damping at the board-level of assembly provides mitigation with a very small mass impact, especially as compared to isolation at an avionics box or shelf level of assembly. When compared with other mitigation techniques at the PWA level (board thickness, stiffeners, constrained layer damping), a compact PID device has the additional advantage of not needing to be an integral part of the design. A PID can simply be bonded to heritage or commercial off the shelf (COTS) hardware to facilitate its use in environments beyond which it was originally qualified. Finite element analysis and test results show that the beneficial effect is not localized and that the attenuation is not due to the simple addition of mass. No significant, detrimental reduction in frequency was observed. Side-by-side life testing of damped and un-damped boards at two different thicknesses (0.070" and 0.090") has shown that the addition of a PID was much more significant to the fatigue life than increasing the thickness. High speed video, accelerometer, and strain measurements have been collected to correlate with analytical results.

  14. Toward an ecological analysis of Bayesian inferences: how task characteristics influence responses

    PubMed Central

    Hafenbrädl, Sebastian; Hoffrage, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In research on Bayesian inferences, the specific tasks, with their narratives and characteristics, are typically seen as exchangeable vehicles that merely transport the structure of the problem to research participants. In the present paper, we explore whether, and possibly how, task characteristics that are usually ignored influence participants’ responses in these tasks. We focus on both quantitative dimensions of the tasks, such as their base rates, hit rates, and false-alarm rates, as well as qualitative characteristics, such as whether the task involves a norm violation or not, whether the stakes are high or low, and whether the focus is on the individual case or on the numbers. Using a data set of 19 different tasks presented to 500 different participants who provided a total of 1,773 responses, we analyze these responses in two ways: first, on the level of the numerical estimates themselves, and second, on the level of various response strategies, Bayesian and non-Bayesian, that might have produced the estimates. We identified various contingencies, and most of the task characteristics had an influence on participants’ responses. Typically, this influence has been stronger when the numerical information in the tasks was presented in terms of probabilities or percentages, compared to natural frequencies – and this effect cannot be fully explained by a higher proportion of Bayesian responses when natural frequencies were used. One characteristic that did not seem to influence participants’ response strategy was the numerical value of the Bayesian solution itself. Our exploratory study is a first step toward an ecological analysis of Bayesian inferences, and highlights new avenues for future research. PMID:26300791

  15. Vibration Response Models of a Stiffened Aluminum Plate Excited by a Shaker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical models of structural-acoustic interactions are of interest to aircraft designers and the space program. This paper describes a comparison between two energy finite element codes, a statistical energy analysis code, a structural finite element code, and the experimentally measured response of a stiffened aluminum plate excited by a shaker. Different methods for modeling the stiffeners and the power input from the shaker are discussed. The results show that the energy codes (energy finite element and statistical energy analysis) accurately predicted the measured mean square velocity of the plate. In addition, predictions from an energy finite element code had the best spatial correlation with measured velocities. However, predictions from a considerably simpler, single subsystem, statistical energy analysis model also correlated well with the spatial velocity distribution. The results highlight a need for further work to understand the relationship between modeling assumptions and the prediction results.

  16. Characteristics of V/H response spectral ratio with recent Korean Peninsula events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.

    2010-12-01

    The vertical response spectra using the observed ground motion from the recent more than 30 macro earthquakes were analysed and then were compared to both the seismic design response spectra (Reg Guide 1.60), applied to the domestic nuclear power plants, and the Korean Standard Design Response Spectrum for general structures and buildings(1997). 176 vertical ground motions, without considering soil types, were used for normalization with respect to the peak acceleration value of each ground motion. The results showed that response spectrum has strong dependency on epicentral distance. The results also showed that the vertical response spectra revealed much higher values for frequency bands above 5-7 Hz than Reg. Guide(1.60). The results were also compared to the Korean Standard Response Spectrum for the 3 different soil types and showed that the vertical response spectra revealed much higher values for the frequency bands below 0.2 second (5Hz) than the Korean Standard Response Spectrum(SD soil condition). These spectral values dependent on frequency could be related to characteristics of the domestic crustal attenuation and the effect of each site amplification. However, through the qualitative improvements and quantitative enhancement of the observed ground motions, the conservation of vertical seismic design response spectrum should be considered more significantly for the frequency bands above 5 Hz. Vertical Response Spectrum Comparison of 0- 200km Response Spectrum with UBC Standard Response Spectrum.

  17. A Study of the Characteristics of Human-Pilot Control Response to Simulated Aircraft Lateral Motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, Donald C

    1954-01-01

    Report presents the results of studies made in an attempt to provide information on the control operations of the human pilot. These studies included an investigation of the ability of pilots to control simulated unstable yawing oscillations, a study of the basic characteristics of human-pilot control response, and a study to determine whether and to what extent pilot control response can be represented in an analytical form.

  18. Force limited vibration testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharton, Terry D.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of conducting lab vibration tests of spacecraft equipment was developed to more closely simulate the vibration environment experienced when the spacecraft is launched on a rocket. The improved tests are tailored to identify equipment design and workmanship problems without inducing artificial failures that would not have occurred at launch. These new, less destructive types of vibration tests are essential to JPL's protoflight test approach in which lab testing is conducted using the flight equipment, often one of a kind, to save time and money. In conventional vibration tests, only the input vibratory motion is specified; the feedback, or reaction force, between the test item and the vibration machine is ignored. Most test failures occur when the test item goes into resonance, and the reaction force becomes very large. It has long been recognized that the large reaction force is a test artifact which does not occur with the lightweight, flexible mounting structures characteristic of spacecraft and space vehicles. In new vibration tests, both the motion and the force provided to the test item by the vibration machine are controlled, so that the vibration ride experienced by the test item is as in flight.

  19. Estimating residual stress, curvature and boundary compliance of doubly clamped MEMS from their vibration response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Ryan C.; Garg, Anurag; Kovacs, Andrew; Peroulis, Dimitrios; Raman, Arvind

    2013-04-01

    Structural parameters of doubly clamped microfabricated beams such as initial curvature, boundary compliance, thickness and mean residual stress are often critical to the performance of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and need to be estimated as a part of quality control of the microfabrication process. However, these parameters couple and influence many metrics of device response and thus are very difficult to disentangle and estimate using conventional methods such as the M-test, static mechanical tests, pull-in measurements or dynamic mechanical tests. Here we present a simple, non-destructive experimental method to extract these parameters based on the non-contact measurement of the natural frequencies of the lowest few eigenmodes of the microfabricated beam, and knowledge of Young's modulus and plan dimensions of the beam alone. The method exploits the fact that certain eigenmodes are insensitive to some of these structural parameters which enable a convenient decoupling and estimation of the parameters. As a result, the method does not require complicated finite element analysis, is insensitive to the gap height and introduces no contact wear or dielectric charging effects. Experiments are performed using laser Doppler vibrometry to measure the natural frequencies of doubly clamped, nickel, RF-MEMS capacitive switches and the method is applied to extract the residual stress, beam thickness, boundary compliance and post-release curvature.

  20. Vibration analysis by time-average holography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprahamian, R.; Evensen, D. A.

    1971-01-01

    Method photographs vibration modes as high as 100 kHz. Technique also measures vibration decay and damping characteristics. Compensation techniques for structural size limitations and for background noise excitations are discussed.

  1. Multivariate analysis and prediction of wind turbine response to varying wind field characteristics based on machine learning

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    Multivariate analysis and prediction of wind turbine response to varying wind field characteristics characteristics have a significant impact on the structural response and the lifespan of wind turbines. This paper presents a machine learning approach towards analyzing and predicting the response of wind turbine

  2. Step Response Characteristics of Polymer/Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Anshuman; Gregory, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations have been used in this work to understand the step response characteristics of Polymer/Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PC-PSP). A recently developed analytical model describing the essential physics in PC-PSP quenching kinetics is used, which includes the effect of both diffusion time scale and luminescent lifetime on the net response of PC-PSP. Step response simulations using this model enables an understanding of the effects of parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient of O2 in the polymer/ceramic coating, attenuation of excitation light, ambient luminescent lifetime, sensitivity, and the magnitude and direction of pressure change on the observed response time scales of PC-PSP. It was found that higher diffusion coefficient and greater light attenuation lead to faster response, whereas longer ambient lifetime and larger sensitivity lead to slower response characteristics. Due to the inherent non-linearity of the Stern-Volmer equation, response functions also change with magnitude and direction of the pressure change. Experimental results from a shock tube are presented where the effects of varying the roughness, pressure jump magnitude and luminophore probe have been studied. Model parameters have been varied to obtain a good fit to experimental results and this optimized model is then used to obtain the response time for a step decrease in pressure, an estimate of which is currently not obtainable from experiments. PMID:26404294

  3. Step Response Characteristics of Polymer/Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Anshuman; Gregory, James W

    2015-01-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations have been used in this work to understand the step response characteristics of Polymer/Ceramic Pressure-Sensitive Paint (PC-PSP). A recently developed analytical model describing the essential physics in PC-PSP quenching kinetics is used, which includes the effect of both diffusion time scale and luminescent lifetime on the net response of PC-PSP. Step response simulations using this model enables an understanding of the effects of parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient of O? in the polymer/ceramic coating, attenuation of excitation light, ambient luminescent lifetime, sensitivity, and the magnitude and direction of pressure change on the observed response time scales of PC-PSP. It was found that higher diffusion coefficient and greater light attenuation lead to faster response, whereas longer ambient lifetime and larger sensitivity lead to slower response characteristics. Due to the inherent non-linearity of the Stern-Volmer equation, response functions also change with magnitude and direction of the pressure change. Experimental results from a shock tube are presented where the effects of varying the roughness, pressure jump magnitude and luminophore probe have been studied. Model parameters have been varied to obtain a good fit to experimental results and this optimized model is then used to obtain the response time for a step decrease in pressure, an estimate of which is currently not obtainable from experiments. PMID:26404294

  4. Vibration Characteristics Determined for Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels With a Metal Foam Core for Lightweight Fan Blade Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Min, James B.; Raj, Sai V.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Holland, Frederic A., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project at the NASA Glenn Research Center is to provide fan materials that are safer, weigh less, and cost less than the currently used titanium alloy or polymer matrix composite fans. The proposed material system is a sandwich fan construction made up of thin solid face sheets and a lightweight metal foam core. The stiffness of the sandwich structure is increased by separating the two face sheets by the foam layer. The resulting structure has a high stiffness and lighter weight in comparison to the solid facesheet material alone. The face sheets carry the applied in-plane and bending loads (ref. 1). The metal foam core must resist the transverse shear and transverse normal loads, as well as keep the facings supported and working as a single unit. Metal foams have ranges of mechanical properties, such as light weight, impact resistance, and vibration suppression (ref. 2), which makes them more suitable for use in lightweight fan structures. Metal foams have been available for decades (refs. 3 and 4), but the difficulties in the original processes and high costs have prevented their widespread use. However, advances in production techniques and cost reduction have created a new interest in this class of materials (ref. 5). The material chosen for the face sheet and the metal foam for this study was the aerospace-grade stainless steel 17-4PH. This steel was chosen because of its attractive mechanical properties and the ease with which it can be made through the powder metallurgy process (ref. 6). The advantages of a metal foam core, in comparison to a typical honeycomb core, are material isotropy and the ease of forming complex geometries, such as fan blades. A section of a 17-4PH sandwich structure is shown in the following photograph. Part of process of designing any blade is to determine the natural frequencies of the particular blade shape. A designer needs to predict the resonance frequencies of a new blade design to properly identify a useful operating range. Operating a blade at or near the resonance frequencies leads to high-cycle fatigue, which ultimately limits the blade's durability and life. So the aim of this study is to determine the variation of the resonance frequencies for an idealized sandwich blade as a function of its face-sheet thickness, core thickness, and foam density. The finite element method is used to determine the natural frequencies for an idealized rectangular sandwich blade. The proven Lanczos method (ref. 7) is used in the study to extract the natural frequency.

  5. Noninvasive Determination of Bone Mechanical Properties using Vibration Response: A Refined Model and Validation in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, S. G.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Arnaud, S. B.; Steele, C. R.; Kiratli, B. J.; Martin, R. B.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate non-invasive mechanical measurement of long bones is made difficult by the masking effect of surrounding soft tissues. Mechanical Response Tissue Analysis (MRTA) offers a method for separating the effects of the soft tissue and bone; however, a direct validation has been lacking. A theoretical analysis of wave propagation through the compressed tissue revealed a strong mass effect dependent on the relative accelerations of the probe and bone. The previous mathematical model of the bone and overlying tissue system was reconfigured to incorporate the theoretical finding. This newer model (six-parameter) was used to interpret results using MRTA to determine bone cross-sectional bending stiffness, EI(sub MRTA). The relationship between EI(MRTA) and theoretical EI values for padded aluminum rods was R(exp 2) = 0.999. A biological validation followed using monkey tibias. Each bone was tested in vivo with the MRTA instrument. Postmortem, the same tibias were excised and tested to failure in three-point bending to determine EI(sub 3-PT) and maximum load. Diaphyseal Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurements were also made. The relationship between E(sub 3-PT) and in vivo EI(sub MRTA) using the six-parameter model is strong (R(exp 2) = 0.947) and better than that using the older model (R(exp 2) = 0.645). EI(MRTA) and BMD are also highly correlated (R(exp 2) = 0.853). MRTA measurements in vivo and BMD ex vivo are both good predictors of scaled maximum strength (R(exp 2) = 0.915 and R(exp 2) = 0.894, respectively). This is the first biological validation of a non-invasive mechanical measurement of bone by comparison to actual values. The MRTA technique has potential clinical value for assessing long-bone mechanical properties.

  6. Noninvasive Determination of Bone Mechanical Properties Using Vibration Response: A Refined Model and Validation in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, S. G.; Hutchinson, T. M.; Arnaud, S. B.; Kiratli, B. J; Steele, C. R.

    1996-01-01

    Accurate non-invasive mechanical measurement of long bones is made difficult by the masking effect of surrounding soft tissues. Mechanical response tissue analysis (MRTA) offers a method for separating the effects of the soft tissue and bone; however, a direct validation has been lacking. A theoretical analysis of wave propagation through the compressed tissue revealed a strong mass effect dependent on the relative accelerations of the probe and bone. The previous mathematical model of the bone and overlying tissue system was reconfigured to incorporate the theoretical finding. This newer model (six-parameter) was used to interpret results using MRTA to determine bone cross-sectional bending stiffness, EI(sub MRTA). The relationship between EI(sub MRTA) and theoretical EI values for padded aluminum rods was R(sup 2) = 0.999. A biological validation followed using monkey tibias. Each bone was tested in vivo with the MRTA instrument. Postmortem, the same tibias were excised and tested to failure in three-point bending to determine EI(sub 3-PT) and maximum load. Diaphyseal bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were also made. The relationship between EI(sub 3-PT) and in vivo EI(sub MRTA) using the six-parameter model is strong (R(sup 2) = 0.947) and better than that using the older model (R(sup 2) = 0.645). EI(sub MRTA) and BMD are also highly correlated (R(sup 2) = 0.853). MRTA measurements in vivo and BMD ex vivo are both good predictors of scaled maximum strength (R(sup 2) = 0.915 and R(sup 2) = 0.894, respectively). This is the first biological validation of a non- invasive mechanical measurement of bone by comparison to actual values. The MRTA technique has potential clinical value for assessing long-bone mechanical properties.

  7. Response Characteristics of Single Cells in the Monkey Superior Colliculus Following Ablation or

    E-print Network

    Stryker, Michael

    Response Characteristics of Single Cells in the Monkey Superior Colliculus Following Ablation the contribution of visual cortex to collicular function in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), a species whose that in the monkey, as in the cat, retina and visual cortex project densely on the superior colliculus (8

  8. Relationships of Examinee Pair Characteristics and Item Response Similarity. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (8)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Detecting unusual similarity in the item responses of a pair of examinees usually conditions on the pair's overall test performance (e.g., raw scores). Doing this, however, often requires assumptions about the invariance of other examinee pair characteristics. In this study, we examined the appropriateness of such assumptions about selected…

  9. The Association between SAT Prompt Characteristics, Response Features, and Essay Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobrin, Jennifer L.; Deng, Hui; Shaw, Emily J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of prompt characteristics and response features with essay scores on the SAT Reasoning Test. A sample of essays was coded on a variety of features regarding their length and content. Analyses included descriptive statistics and computation of effect sizes, correlations between essay features and scores, and…

  10. Preference for Anonymous Classroom Participation: Linking Student Characteristics and Reactions to Electronic Response Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latham, Alyson; Hill, N. Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Electronic response systems (ERS) are a means to foster class participation by students who are reluctant to participate in class. In this study, we identify individual characteristics that relate to students' preference for anonymous classroom participation, and we also examine the extent to which preference for anonymity is related to their…

  11. Are Child Cognitive Characteristics Strong Predictors of Responses to Intervention? A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    STUEBING, KARLA K.; BARTH, AMY E.; TRAHAN, LISA H.; REDDY, RADHIKA R.; MICIAK, JEREMY; FLETCHER, JACK M.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of 28 studies comprising 39 samples to ask the question, “What is the magnitude of the association between various baseline child cognitive characteristics and response to reading intervention?” Studies were located via literature searches, contact with researchers in the field, and review of references from the National Reading Panel Report. Eligible participant populations included at-risk elementary school children enrolled in the third grade or below. Effects were analyzed using a shifting unit of analysis approach within three statistical models: cognitive characteristics predicting growth curve slope (Model 1, mean r = .31), gain (Model 2, mean r = .21), or postintervention reading controlling for preintervention reading (Model 3, mean r = .15). Effects were homogeneous within each model when effects were aggregated within study. The small size of the effects calls into question the practical significance and utility of using cognitive characteristics for prediction of response when baseline reading is available. PMID:26535015

  12. Characteristic responses of a semiconductor gas sensor depending on the frequency of a periodic temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Satoshi; Okunishi, Hirokazu

    2005-02-01

    A novel gas-sensing system based on a dynamic nonlinear response is reported to enhance the selectivity toward sample gases using a single detector. A periodic temperature change was applied to a semiconductor gas sensor and the resulting conductance of the sensor was evaluated by fast Fourier transformation (FFT). The dynamic nonlinear response to the sample gases was further characterized depending on the frequency of the temperature change. The characteristic sensor response under the application of a temperature change was theoretically simulated by considering the kinetics of gas molecules on the semiconductor surface.

  13. An experimental investigation into the use of scaling laws for predicting vibration responses of rectangular thin plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhatanadgid, Pairod; Na Songkhla, Anawat

    2008-03-01

    A scaling law for the vibration response of rectangular plates along with a similarity requirement was derived and validated with the experimental results in this study. The scaling law was derived from the governing equation of the problem and was found to be exact after verifying with a closed-form solution. An experimental investigation was conducted on several model and prototype specimens using an impact test method. The natural frequencies of the models were substituted into the scaling law to obtain the scaling natural frequencies of the prototypes, which were then compared with the measured natural frequencies. In the first part of the study, a total of nine aluminum rectangular plates with various boundary conditions were tested for natural frequencies to determine the size effect on the accuracy of the scaling law. From a total of 108 comparisons, the average percentage discrepancy of the scaling natural frequencies was 4.90% with a standard deviation of 6.45%. Therefore, the scaling law is satisfactorily accurate for a pair of models and prototypes of the same material but of different size. The other part of the study involved the investigation of the material's effect on the accuracy of the scaling law. The experimental results showed that, unlike theoretical verification, using model and prototype systems with different materials resulted in an erroneous scaling natural frequency. The predicted natural frequency was inaccurate in this case because the boundary conditions enforced by the supports on the models and prototypes of different materials were significantly different. Consequently, the similarity requirement between the model and prototype is violated in the case of this study. With an additional experiment, the scaling law was found to be practically accurate for model-prototype pairs of different materials if their similitude requirements were fulfilled. The possible sources of discrepancy of the scaling natural frequency include uncertainties of the experiment, incomplete similarity of plate configurations and non-identical boundary conditions between the prototype and its model.

  14. Frequency-response method for determination of dynamic stability characteristics of airplanes with automatic controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Harry

    1947-01-01

    A frequency-response method for determining the critical control-gearing and hunting oscillations of airplanes with automatic pilots is presented. The method is graphical and has several advantages over the standard numerical procedure based on Routh's discriminant. The chief advantage of the method is that direct use can be made of the measured response characteristics of the automatic pilot. This feature is especially useful in determining the existence, amplitude, and frequency of the hunting oscillations that may be present when the automatic pilot has nonlinear dynamic characteristics. Several examples are worked out to illustrate the application of the frequency-response method in determining the effect of automatic-pilot lag or lead on critical control gearing and in determining the amplitude and frequency hunting. It is shown that the method may be applied to the case of a control geared to airplane motions about two axes.

  15. Using Surface Electromyography To Assess Sex Differences in Neuromuscular Response Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Sandra J.; Perrin, David H.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the continuum of muscular responses that typically occur with joint perturbation. The applications and limitations of surface electromyography (sEMG) in evaluating these responses are also addressed. Research applications assessing sex differences in these neuromuscular response characteristics are discussed along with suggestions for future research. Data Sources: MEDLINE was searched from 1969 through 1998. Sport DISCUS was searched from 1975 through 1998. Terms searched included “anterior cruciate ligament,” “epidemiology,” “neuromuscular control,” “neuromuscular performance,” “electromyography,” “latency,” “reflex,” “electromechanical delay,” “dynamic stability,” “intrinsic stiffness,” “short-range stiffness,” “muscle,” “mechanoreceptors,” and “reaction time.” Data Synthesis: It is widely accepted that efficient neuromuscular control is essential to dynamic joint stability and protection. Many studies have established the significant role of the muscles, and particularly the hamstrings, in providing knee stability. By observing the timing, phasing, and recruitment of reflexive muscular activation after a loading stress to the knee, we can better understand the coordinative mechanisms necessary to protect the joint and prevent ligament injury. A number of research models have employed the use of sEMG to evaluate neuromuscular responses at the knee after joint loading or perturbation. However, very few studies have specifically addressed potential sex differences in these response characteristics. Conclusions/Recommendations: From the limited research available, it appears that a sex difference may exist in some aspects of neuromuscular responses. However, further research is needed to explore these differences at the knee and their potential role as predisposing factors to the higher incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females. Future studies should examine sex differences in neuromuscular response characteristics at the knee under functional, weight-bearing conditions while controlling for training and other confounding variables. The limitations of sEMG should be considered when interpreting neuromuscular response studies. PMID:16558560

  16. A Patch Density Recommendation based on Convergence Studies for Vehicle Panel Vibration Response resulting from Excitation by a Diffuse Acoustic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas; Towner, Robert; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Producing fluid structural interaction estimates of panel vibration from an applied pressure field excitation are quite dependent on the spatial correlation of the pressure field. There is a danger of either over estimating a low frequency response or under predicting broad band panel response in the more modally dense bands if the pressure field spatial correlation is not accounted for adequately. It is a useful practice to simulate the spatial correlation of the applied pressure field over a 2d surface using a matrix of small patch area regions on a finite element model (FEM). Use of a fitted function for the spatial correlation between patch centers can result in an error if the choice of patch density is not fine enough to represent the more continuous spatial correlation function throughout the intended frequency range of interest. Several patch density assumptions to approximate the fitted spatial correlation function are first evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative illustrations. The actual response of a typical vehicle panel system FEM is then examined in a convergence study where the patch density assumptions are varied over the same model. The convergence study results illustrate the impacts possible from a poor choice of patch density on the analytical response estimate. The fitted correlation function used in this study represents a diffuse acoustic field (DAF) excitation of the panel to produce vibration response.

  17. Human response to vibration stress in Japanese workers: lessons from our 35-year studies A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Matoba, Tsunetaka

    2015-12-01

    The occupational uses with vibratory tools or vehicles provoked health disorders of users. We reviewed narratively our articles of 35?yr studies and their related literatures, and considered the pathophysiology of the hand-arm vibration disorders. Concerning the risk factors of health impairments in workers with vibratory tools, there are two conflicting schools of the researchers: The peripheral school emphasizes that vibration only makes predominant impairments on hands and arms, showing typically Raynaud's phenomenon in the fingers. In the systemic school, the health disorders are produced by combination with vibration, noise and working environment, namely vibratory work itself, leading to diversified symptoms and signs in relation to systemic impairments. Our 35?yr studies have evidently supported the systemic school, including disorders of the central and autonomic nervous systems. The genesis is vibratory work itself, including vibration, noise, cold working environment, ergonomic and biodynamic conditions, and emotional stress in work. Because the health disorders yield in the whole body, the following measures would contribute to the prevention of health impairments: the attenuation of vibration and noise generated form vibratory machines and the regulations on operating tool hours. In conclusion, this occupational disease results from systemic impairments due to long-term occupational work with vibratory tools. PMID:26460379

  18. Human response to vibration stress in Japanese workers: lessons from our 35-year studies A narrative review

    PubMed Central

    MATOBA, Tsunetaka

    2015-01-01

    The occupational uses with vibratory tools or vehicles provoked health disorders of users. We reviewed narratively our articles of 35?yr studies and their related literatures, and considered the pathophysiology of the hand-arm vibration disorders. Concerning the risk factors of health impairments in workers with vibratory tools, there are two conflicting schools of the researchers: The peripheral school emphasizes that vibration only makes predominant impairments on hands and arms, showing typically Raynaud’s phenomenon in the fingers. In the systemic school, the health disorders are produced by combination with vibration, noise and working environment, namely vibratory work itself, leading to diversified symptoms and signs in relation to systemic impairments. Our 35?yr studies have evidently supported the systemic school, including disorders of the central and autonomic nervous systems. The genesis is vibratory work itself, including vibration, noise, cold working environment, ergonomic and biodynamic conditions, and emotional stress in work. Because the health disorders yield in the whole body, the following measures would contribute to the prevention of health impairments: the attenuation of vibration and noise generated form vibratory machines and the regulations on operating tool hours. In conclusion, this occupational disease results from systemic impairments due to long-term occupational work with vibratory tools. PMID:26460379

  19. Enertech High Reliability prototype vibration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexton, J. H.

    Modal analysis techniques were experimentally applied to study the dynamic interaction between a wind turbine generator and its support tower. Details of the techniques applied and corresponding results are discussed. Results of vibration tests indicate the Enertech High-Reliability wind turbine generator (WTG/support structure) second mode bending was 13.2 Hz, while the blade's first mode bending frequencies were 12.4 Hz for blade two and 14.6 Hz for blade one. Significant WTG/tower response was observed and recorded during WTG operation which was traced to this system response characteristic.

  20. A Patch Density Recommendation based on Convergence Studies for Vehicle Panel Vibration Response resulting from Excitation by a Diffuse Acoustic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas; Towner, Robert; Hunt, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Fluid structural interaction problems that estimate panel vibration from an applied pressure field excitation are quite dependent on the spatial correlation of the pressure field. There is a danger of either over estimating a low frequency response or under predicting broad band panel response in the more modally dense bands if the pressure field spatial correlation is not accounted for adequately. Even when the analyst elects to use a fitted function for the spatial correlation an error may be introduced if the choice of patch density is not fine enough to represent the more continuous spatial correlation function throughout the intended frequency range of interest. Both qualitative and quantitative illustrations evaluating the adequacy of different patch density assumptions to approximate the fitted spatial correlation function are provided. The actual response of a typical vehicle panel system is then evaluated in a convergence study where the patch density assumptions are varied over the same finite element model. The convergence study results are presented illustrating the impact resulting from a poor choice of patch density. The fitted correlation function used in this study represents a Diffuse Acoustic Field (DAF) excitation of the panel to produce vibration response.

  1. Neural Heterogeneities Determine Response Characteristics to Second-, but Not First-Order Stimulus Features

    PubMed Central

    Metzen, Michael G.; Chacron, Maurice J.

    2015-01-01

    Neural heterogeneities are seen ubiquitously, but how they determine neural response properties remains unclear. Here we show that heterogeneities can either strongly, or not at all, influence neural responses to a given stimulus feature. Specifically, we recorded from peripheral electroreceptor neurons, which display strong heterogeneities in their resting discharge activity, in response to naturalistic stimuli consisting of a fast time-varying waveform (i.e., first-order) whose amplitude (i.e., second-order or envelope) varied slowly in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus. Although electroreceptors displayed relatively homogeneous responses to first-order stimulus features, further analysis revealed two subpopulations with similar sensitivities that were excited or inhibited by increases in the envelope, respectively, for stimuli whose frequency content spanned the natural range. We further found that a linear–nonlinear cascade model incorporating the known linear response characteristics to first-order features and a static nonlinearity accurately reproduced experimentally observed responses to both first- and second-order features for all stimuli tested. Importantly, this model correctly predicted that the response magnitude is independent of either the stimulus waveform’s or the envelope’s frequency content. Further analysis of our model led to the surprising prediction that the mean discharge activity can be used to determine whether a given neuron is excited or inhibited by increases in the envelope. This prediction was validated by our experimental data. Thus, our results provide key insight as to how neural heterogeneities can determine response characteristics to some, but not other, behaviorally relevant stimulus features. PMID:25698748

  2. Vibration analysis of a trimorph plate as a precursor model for smart automotive bodywork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Big-Alabo, A.; Cartmell, M. P.

    2012-08-01

    This study investigates the vibration characteristics of a proposed candidate structure for smarter car bodies. The material is conceived as a three-layer laminated structure in the form of a trimorph plate. The vibration response of the plate is investigated for large deflections by considering the effects of geometric nonlinearity. First, the governing equation for the mid-point deflection of the plate is developed based on classical laminate plate theory (CLPT). The governing equation is solved, and a simulation is run for different possible layer-stacking sequences. Comparisons are made between the nonlinear vibration response of this trimorph plate both with and without the effects of the von Kármán geometric nonlinearity. The results show that for the same material properties the different layer-stacking sequences produce different vibration responses, and from there it is concluded that layer-stacking sequencing is a basis for the definition of a suitable material configuration for high performance automotive applications.

  3. PREFACE: Vibrations at surfaces Vibrations at surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Talat S.

    2011-12-01

    This special issue is dedicated to the phenomenon of vibrations at surfaces—a topic that was indispensible a couple of decades ago, since it was one of the few phenomena capable of revealing the nature of binding at solid surfaces. For clean surfaces, the frequencies of modes with characteristic displacement patterns revealed how surface geometry, as well as the nature of binding between atoms in the surface layers, could be different from that in the bulk solid. Dispersion of the surface phonons provided further measures of interatomic interactions. For chemisorbed molecules on surfaces, frequencies and dispersion of the vibrational modes were also critical for determining adsorption sites. In other words, vibrations at surfaces served as a reliable means of extracting information about surface structure, chemisorption and overlayer formation. Experimental techniques, such as electron energy loss spectroscopy and helium-atom-surface scattering, coupled with infra-red spectroscopy, were continually refined and their resolutions enhanced to capture subtleties in the dynamics of atoms and molecules at surfaces. Theoretical methods, whether based on empirical and semi-empirical interatomic potential or on ab initio electronic structure calculations, helped decipher experimental observations and provide deeper insights into the nature of the bond between atoms and molecules in regions of reduced symmetry, as encountered on solid surfaces. Vibrations at surfaces were thus an integral part of the set of phenomena that characterized surface science. Dedicated workshops and conferences were held to explore the variety of interesting and puzzling features revealed in experimental and theoretical investigations of surface vibrational modes and their dispersion. One such conference, Vibrations at Surfaces, first organized by Harald Ibach in Juelich in 1980, continues to this day. The 13th International Conference on Vibrations at Surfaces was held at the University of Central Florida, Orlando, in March 2010. Several speakers at this meeting were invited to contribute to the special section in this issue. As is clear from the articles in this special section, the phenomenon of vibrations at surfaces continues to be a dynamic field of investigation. In fact, there is a resurgence of effort because the insights provided by surface dynamics are still fundamental to the development of an understanding of the microscopic factors that control surface structure formation, diffusion, reaction and structural stability. Examination of dynamics at surfaces thus complements and supplements the wealth of information that is obtained from real-space techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy. Vibrational dynamics is, of course, not limited to surfaces. Surfaces are important since they provide immediate deviation from the bulk. They display how lack of symmetry can lead to new structures, new local atomic environments and new types of dynamical modes. Nanoparticles, large molecules and nanostructures of all types, in all kinds of local environments, provide further examples of regions of reduced symmetry and coordination, and hence display characteristic vibrational modes. Given the tremendous advance in the synthesis of a variety of nanostructures whose functionalization would pave the way for nanotechnology, there is even greater need to engage in experimental and theoretical techniques that help extract their vibrational dynamics. Such knowledge would enable a more complete understanding and characterization of these nanoscale systems than would otherwise be the case. The papers presented here provide excellent examples of the kind of information that is revealed by vibrations at surfaces. Vibrations at surface contents Poisoning and non-poisoning oxygen on Cu(410)L Vattuone, V Venugopal, T Kravchuk, M Smerieri, L Savio and M Rocca Modifying protein adsorption by layers of glutathione pre-adsorbed on Au(111)Anne Vallée, Vincent Humblot, Christophe Méthivier, Paul Dumas and Claire-Marie Pradier Relating temperature dependence of atom

  4. Glycemic responses and sensory characteristics of whole yellow pea flour added to novel functional foods.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Christopher P F; Kassis, Amira N; Jones, Peter J H

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental understanding regarding postprandial glycemic responses to foods containing whole yellow-pea flour (WYPF) remains unknown. This, alongside concerns that WYPF possesses unfavorable sensory characteristics has limited the incorporation of WYPF into new functional food products as a healthy novel ingredient. The objective of this study was to evaluate how WYPF modulates postprandial glycemic responses as well as sensory characteristics in novel foods. In a single-blind crossover trial, the present study assessed postprandial glycemic responses of banana bread, biscotti, and spaghetti containing either WYPF or whole wheat flour (WWF). Boiled yellow peas (BYP) and white bread (WB) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. On day 1, subjects evaluated appearance, taste, texture, smell as well as overall acceptance of each WYPF and WWF food on a 5-point hedonic scale. WYPF banana bread (97.9 +/- 17.8 mmol x min/L) and biscotti (83 +/- 13 mmol x min/L), as well as BYP (112.3 +/- 19.9 mmol x min/L), reduced (P < 0.05) glycemic responses compared to WB (218.1 +/- 29.5 mmol x min/L). The glycemic response of WYPF pasta (160.7 +/- 19.4 mmol x min/L) was comparable to WB. WYPF biscotti produced a lower (P = 0.019) postprandial glycemic response compared to WWF biscotti (117.2 +/- 13.1 mmol x min/L). Hedonic responses between corresponding foods were similar except for the WYPF pasta (2.9 +/- 0.9) which possessed a lower sensory score (P = 0.02) for smell compared to WWF pasta (3.6 +/- 1). WYPF can be used to produce low-glycemic functional foods possessing sensory attributes that are comparable to identical food products containing WWF. PMID:20492127

  5. Evaluation of the possibility and response characteristics of laser-induced tactile sensation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Ji-Sun; Jung, Gu-In; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Rak; Kim, Sung-Phil; Choi, Seungmoon; Park, Sung-Jun; Choi, Mi-Hyun; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2015-08-18

    In this study, we examined the possibility and perceptual response characteristics of tactile sense induced by laser stimulation to the finger with different laser energy densities through human response experiments. 15 healthy adult males and 4 healthy adult females with an age of 22.6±2.2 years were tested. A frequency-doubled Q-switched laser was used with a wavelength of 532 nm and a 5 ns pulse width. The experimental trial spanned a total of 30 s and included a rest phase (19 s), a stimulation phase (7 s), and a response phase (4 s). During the rest phase, subjects kept their fingers comfortable. During the stimulation phase, one of three types of laser energy density (13.5, 16.6, 19.8 mJ/cm(2)) or a sham stimulation was used to irradiate the distal phalanx on the right index finger. During the response phase, the cognitive response to the laser stimulation was recorded by a PC by pressing the response button. The confusion matrix was configured to evaluate the possibility that the tactile sense was caused by the laser. In addition, changes in the response characteristics were observed according to three types of laser energy densities. From the analysis of the confusion matrix, the accuracy and sensitivity were not high. In contrast, precision and specificity were found to be high. Furthermore, there was a strong positive correlation between the laser irradiation and tactile perception, indicating that tactile sense can be induced using a laser in a mid-air manner. In addition, it was found that as the laser energy density increased, the tactile perception possibility also increased. PMID:26145316

  6. Fear responses and postmortem muscle characteristics of turkeys of two genetic lines.

    PubMed

    Erasmus, M A; Lee, H C; Kang, I; Swanson, J C

    2015-09-01

    Commercial turkey production has increased greatly in recent decades. Along with increased production, problems with turkey meat quality have also increased. Research with other species has demonstrated that differences in meat quality exist among pigs and cattle differing in characteristics such as fearfulness. However, associations between fear responses and postmortem (PM) muscle characteristics related to the meat quality of turkeys have not been examined. This study evaluated the test-retest repeatability of responses of male commercial (COMM) and randombred (RB) turkeys in an open field (OF) test, which is used to assess fear and activity levels of poultry. Another objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between behavioral OF responses and PM breast muscle characteristics (pH and R-value) that are related to meat quality. Thirdly, this study evaluated differences in pH and R-value between the turkey lines. Male COMM and RB turkeys were each housed in groups in 4 pens. Turkeys were individually tested in an OF (2.74×2.74 m, divided into 81 squares) at 1, 4, and 11 wk (COMM N=27; RB N=33). Turkeys were then grouped into clusters based on a cluster analysis of OF behavior. Turkeys were processed and meat quality characteristics were evaluated at 15-17 wk for COMM and 20-21 wk for RB turkeys. Results were analyzed using a mixed model (SAS 9.4). Breast muscle pH and R-value did not differ between genetic lines, and there were no differences in pH and R-value among clusters within genetic lines. These findings suggest that OF responses measured during rearing are not related to PM breast muscle pH and R-value, which ultimately affect meat quality. Further research is needed to assess whether other types of fear responses are associated with meat quality and whether differences in R-value between genetic lines are associated with differences in other meat quality characteristics. PMID:26195807

  7. The response characteristics of long cylindrical marine structures under different excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.I.

    1994-12-31

    Long cylindrical marine structures such as risers, TLP tendons, ocean pipes are subjected to several kinds of excitations of forcing, parametric, combined, self-excited etc. In this work, the response characteristics of the slender marine structures is investigated for the first three excitations. The governing partial differential equation of lateral motion of a slender structure is reduced to a non-linear differential equation with an integrand. The non-linear equation is solved numerically. The time histories of response amplitudes of the three excitations are obtained for actual TLP tethers: Hutton, Jolliet and Snoore TLPs. The response of combined excitation is most dominant for all three tethers. The total displacement is largest in the case of the Jolliet tether which corresponds to the second instability region. The response curves of combined excitation are also obtained. When the strength of forcing excitation is increased, the response amplitude of combined excitation evenly increases. However, when the strength of parametric excitation is increased, the response amplitude of combined excitation increases strongly and slightly in the even and odd numbers of instability regions, respectively.

  8. Ride quality criteria. [transportation system interior and passenger response to environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. G.

    1977-01-01

    Ride quality refers to the interior or passenger environment of a transportation system as well as the passenger response to the environment. Ride quality factors are illustrated with the aid of a diagram presenting inputs to vehicle, the vehicle transfer function, the ride environment, the passenger response function, and the passenger ride response. The reported investigation considers the ride environment as measured on a variety of air and surface vehicles, the passenger response to the environment as determined from laboratory and field surveys, and criteria/standards for vibration, noise, and combined stimuli. Attention is given to the vertical vibration characteristics in cruise for aircraft and automobile, the aircraft vibration levels for various operating regimes, comparative noise levels during cruise, the discomfort level for a 9 Hz sinusoidal vibration, equal discomfort contours for vertical vibration, subjective response to noise in a speech situation, and noise and vibration levels for constant discomfort contours.

  9. Postural proprioceptive reflexes in standing human subjects: bandwidth of response and transmission characteristics.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, R C; Gorman, R B; Burke, D; Gandevia, S C

    1992-01-01

    1. This study investigated the reflex control of postural sway during human bipedal stance. The experiments were designed to: (i) find evidence for the operation of 'stretch reflex' pathways during quiet stance, (ii) determine the bandwidth of the reflex response, (iii) describe the reflex transmission characteristics in standing subjects, and (iv) assess the ability of subjects to make a task-dependent change in the reflex. 2. A continuous random perturbation that did not threaten stability was applied at waist level to nine standing subjects. The effects of the perturbation on ankle torque, ankle movement and soleus electromyographic activity (EMG) were identified by cross-correlation. The bandwidth of the reflex response and the transmission characteristics of reflexes that respond to ankle movement were identified by spectral analysis. Changes in these reflex responses were investigated when subjects attempted to stand as still as possible, had their eyes closed, or balanced a load equivalent to their own body in a situation in which neither visual nor vestibular reflexes would be activated. 3. When standing, a reflex response coherent with the perturbation was seen in soleus EMG at frequencies up to 5 Hz, with maximal coherence at 1.0-2.0 Hz. Reflex gain increased with frequency, and there was a frequency-dependent phase advance of soleus EMG on ankle movement reaching 135 deg at 3 Hz. When attempting to minimize sway, subjects produced a more coherent reflex response and significantly increased reflex gain. 4. The response and transmission characteristics of the lower limb proprioceptive reflex in freely standing subjects were similar to those in subjects balancing a load at the ankle, a situation in which vestibular and visual inputs could not contribute. 5. It is concluded that reflex feedback related to ankle movement contributes significantly to maintaining stance, and that much of the reflex response originates from lower limb mechanoreceptors stimulated by ankle rotation. Although reflex gain may be relatively low during quiet stance it can be increased when necessary to maintain stability. PMID:1338796

  10. Time-domain parameter identification of aeroelastic loads by forced-vibration method for response of flexible structures subject to transient wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Bochao

    Slender structures representing civil, mechanical and aerospace systems such as long-span bridges, high-rise buildings, stay cables, power-line cables, high light mast poles, crane-booms and aircraft wings could experience vortex-induced and buffeting excitations below their design wind speeds and divergent self-excited oscillations (flutter) beyond a critical wind speed because these are flexible. Traditional linear aerodynamic theories that are routinely applied for their response prediction are not valid in the galloping, or near-flutter regime, where large-amplitude vibrations could occur and during non-stationary and transient wind excitations that occur, for example, during hurricanes, thunderstorms and gust fronts. The linear aerodynamic load formulation for lift, drag and moment are expressed in terms of aerodynamic functions in frequency domain that are valid for straight-line winds which are stationary or weakly-stationary. Application of the frequency domain formulation is restricted from use in the nonlinear and transient domain because these are valid for linear models and stationary wind. The time-domain aerodynamic force formulations are suitable for finite element modeling, feedback-dependent structural control mechanism, fatigue-life prediction, and above all modeling of transient structural behavior during non-stationary wind phenomena. This has motivated the developing of time-domain models of aerodynamic loads that are in parallel to the existing frequency-dependent models. Parameters defining these time-domain models can be now extracted from wind tunnel tests, for example, the Rational Function Coefficients defining the self-excited wind loads can be extracted using section model tests using the free vibration technique. However, the free vibration method has some limitations because it is difficult to apply at high wind speeds, in turbulent wind environment, or on unstable cross sections with negative aerodynamic damping. In the current research, new algorithms were developed based on forced vibration technique for direct extraction of the Rational Functions. The first of the two algorithms developed uses the two angular phase lag values between the measured vertical or torsional displacement and the measured aerodynamic lift and moment produced on the section model subject to forced vibration to identify the Rational Functions. This algorithm uses two separate one-degree-of-freedom tests (vertical or torsional) to identify all the four Rational Functions or corresponding Rational Function Coefficients for a two degrees-of-freedom (DOF) vertical-torsional vibration model. It was applied to a streamlined section model and the results compared well with those obtained from earlier free vibration experiment. The second algorithm that was developed is based on direct least squares method. It uses all the data points of displacements and aerodynamic lift and moment instead of phase lag values for more accurate estimates. This algorithm can be used for one-, two- and three-degree-of-freedom motions. A two-degree-of-freedom forced vibration system was developed and the algorithm was shown to work well for both streamlined and bluff section models. The uniqueness of the second algorithms lies in the fact that it requires testing the model at only two wind speeds for extraction of all four Rational Functions. The Rational Function Coefficients that were extracted for a streamlined section model using the two-DOF Least Squares algorithm were validated in a separate wind tunnel by testing a larger scaled model subject to straight-line, gusty and boundary-layer wind.

  11. Numerical modeling of the dynamic response of prone-to-fall columns to ambient vibrations: comparison with measurements and potential application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capron, Alexandre; Valentin, Johann; Jongmans, Denis; Baillet, Laurent; Larose, Eric; Bottelin, Pierre; Donze, Frédéric; Mangeney, Anne

    2015-04-01

    During the last two decades, seismic noise measurements have been increasingly used in gravitational hazard assessment for both investigation and monitoring purposes. The wide frequency range allows ambient vibrations to be applied for investigating geological and civil engineering structures in a great variety of sizes, from the lithospheric or crust scale to a few m-thick landslide and rock column or buildings. On unstable slopes, ambient vibrations have been applied in very different ways for reconnaissance, depending on the investigation purpose and the landslide type. The simplest way to extract information from ambient vibrations on a given site is to perform single-station measurements with a 3-C sensor and to process the records computing Fourier spectra of the three components or the spectral ratio between the horizontal and vertical components (the so-called H/V method). On landslide sites, several studies revealed significant spectral amplification at given frequency and polarization of the wave-field in the direction of maximum slope displacement. They show that different characteristics of the seismic noise (resonant frequencies, polarization, and spectral amplification) could be used from the spectral analysis of the motion or of spectral ratios for characterizing the landslides. For cliff-like sites, this study aims to identify the pertinent and applicable parameters that could be extracted from ambient vibrations and used to gain information on the prone-to-fall column geometry. We first use 2D numerical modeling for better understanding the influence of the rear fracture characteristics (wideness w and depth L) on the horizontal motion H(f), as well as on the spectral ratios H(f)/V(f) and H(f)/Hr(f), where Hr(f) is the horizontal motion measured at a reference site. We then identify the seismic parameters able to characterize the column decoupling and we compare numerical results to data acquired at two rocky sites exhibiting cliff-like geometry. During this study, the influence of other internal factors like presence of additional fractures and of an interbedded soft layer (Figure 1) is also tested.

  12. The characteristic time scale for basin hydrological response using radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Efrat; Enzel, Yehouda; Shamir, Uri; Garti, Rami

    2001-10-01

    The transformation of rainfall into runoff at a basin outlet is the combined effect of many hydrological processes, which occur at a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. However, determining the scale of the combined hydrological response of the basin is still problematic and concepts for its definition are yet to be identified. In this paper high-resolution meteorological radar data are used for the determination of a characteristic temporal scale for the hydrological response of the basin — the 'response time scale' (T s?). T s? is defined as the time scale at which the pattern of the time-averaged radar rainfall hietograph is most similar to the pattern of the measured outlet runoff hydrograph. The existence of such similarity at a relatively stable time scale for a specific basin indicates that it is an intrinsic property of the basin and is related to its hydrological response. The identification of the response time scale is carried out by analysis of observations only, without assuming a specific rainfall-runoff model. T s? is examined in four small basins (10-100 km 2) in Israel. The spatial scale is assumed as the entire basin. For all analyzed basins a stable response time scale is identified. Relatively short time scales are found for the urban and arid basins (15-30 min), while for the rural basins longer time scale are identified (90-180 min). The issues of relationship between the response time scale and basin properties and modeling at the response time scale have yet to be determined.

  13. Differential Responses to Food Price Changes by Personal Characteristic: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mizdrak, Anja; Scarborough, Peter; Waterlander, Wilma E.; Rayner, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background Fiscal interventions to improve population diet have been recommended for consideration by many organisations including the World Health Organisation and the United Nations and policies such as sugar-sweetened beverage taxes have been implemented at national and sub-national levels. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the differential impact of fiscal interventions on population sub-groups and this remains a barrier to implementation. Objective To examine how personal characteristics (such as socioeconomic status, sex, impulsivity, and income) moderate changes in purchases of targeted foods in response to food and beverage price changes in experimental settings. Design Systematic review Data Sources Online databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EconLit and PsycInfo), reference lists of previous reviews, and additional data from study authors. Study Selection We included randomised controlled trials where food and beverage prices were manipulated and reported differential effects of the intervention on participant sub-groups defined according to personal characteristics. Data Analysis Where possible, we extracted data to enable the calculation of price elasticities for the target foods by personal characteristic. Results 8 studies were included in the review. Across studies, the difference in price elasticity varied from 0.02 to 2.43 between groups within the same study. 11 out of the total of 18 comparisons of own-price elasticity estimates by personal characteristic differed by more than 0.2 between groups. Income related factors were the most commonly considered and there was an indication that own-price elasticity estimates do vary by income but the direction of this effect was not clear. Conclusion Experimental studies provide an opportunity to examine the differential effects of fiscal measures to improve population diets. Patterns in price sensitivity by personal characteristics are complex. General conclusions pertaining to the effects of personal characteristics on price sensitivity are not supported by the evidence, which shows heterogeneity between studies and populations. Trial Registration PROSPERO CRD42014009705 PMID:26151133

  14. Force Limited Vibration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharton, Terry; Chang, Kurng Y.

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concept and applications of Force Limited Vibration Testing. The goal of vibration testing of aerospace hardware is to identify problems that would result in flight failures. The commonly used aerospace vibration tests uses artificially high shaker forces and responses at the resonance frequencies of the test item. It has become common to limit the acceleration responses in the test to those predicted for the flight. This requires an analysis of the acceleration response, and requires placing accelerometers on the test item. With the advent of piezoelectric gages it has become possible to improve vibration testing. The basic equations have are reviewed. Force limits are analogous and complementary to the acceleration specifications used in conventional vibration testing. Just as the acceleration specification is the frequency spectrum envelope of the in-flight acceleration at the interface between the test item and flight mounting structure, the force limit is the envelope of the in-flight force at the interface . In force limited vibration tests, both the acceleration and force specifications are needed, and the force specification is generally based on and proportional to the acceleration specification. Therefore, force limiting does not compensate for errors in the development of the acceleration specification, e.g., too much conservatism or the lack thereof. These errors will carry over into the force specification. Since in-flight vibratory force data are scarce, force limits are often derived from coupled system analyses and impedance information obtained from measurements or finite element models (FEM). Fortunately, data on the interface forces between systems and components are now available from system acoustic and vibration tests of development test models and from a few flight experiments. Semi-empirical methods of predicting force limits are currently being developed on the basis of the limited flight and system test data. A simple two degree of freedom system is shown and the governing equations for basic force limiting results for this system are reviewed. The design and results of the shuttle vibration forces (SVF) experiments are reviewed. The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) also was used to validate force limiting. Test instrumentation and supporting equipment are reviewed including piezo-electric force transducers, signal processing and conditioning systems, test fixtures, and vibration controller systems. Several examples of force limited vibration testing are presented with some results.

  15. Integrated tuned vibration absorbers: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Gardonio, Paolo; Zilletti, Michele

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a simulation study on two integrated tuned vibration absorbers (TVAs) designed to control the global flexural vibration of lightly damped thin structures subject to broad frequency band disturbances. The first one consists of a single axial switching TVA composed by a seismic mass mounted on variable axial spring and damper elements so that the characteristic damping and natural frequency of the absorber can be switched iteratively to control the resonant response of three flexural modes of the hosting structure. The second one consists of a single three-axes TVA composed by a seismic mass mounted on axial and rotational springs and dampers, which are arranged in such a way that the suspended mass is characterized by uncoupled heave and pitch-rolling vibrations. In this case the three damping and natural frequency parameters of the absorber are tuned separately to control three flexural modes of the hosting structure. The simulation study shows that the proposed single-unit absorbers produce, respectively, 5.3 and 8.7?dB reductions of the global flexural vibration of a rectangular plate between 20 and 120?Hz. PMID:24180774

  16. Research and optimization of the ESD response characteristic in a ps-LDMOS transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Wang; Siyang, Liu; Weifeng, Sun; Tingting, Huang

    2014-01-01

    The ESD response characteristic in a p-type symmetric lateral DMOS (ps-LDMOS) has been investigated. The experimental results show that the ps-LDMOS has weak ESD robustness due to an absence of the “snapback" characteristic. In addition, the location of the hot spot changes little for the special device. The method for reducing the lattice temperature of the hot spot can be used to enhance the ESD capacity of the ps-LDMOS, thereby, a novel and easily-achievable ps-LDMOS structure with a p-type lightly doped drain (p-LDD) has been proposed. The special region p-LDD lowers the electric field at the edge of the poly gate, making the whole distribution of the surface electric field more uniform. Therefore, the ESD robustness is improved two times and no obvious change of other electric parameters is introduced.

  17. Parametric Optimization of Ares I Propellant Slosh Characteristics Using Frequency Response Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Jeb S.; Hall, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    A novel technique for developing propellant slosh damping requirements with respect to the stability characteristics of large flexible launch vehicles is presented. A numerical algorithm is devised which allows an automated software program to rapidly converge to pseudo-optimal solutions that minimize required propellant slosh damping for multiple tanks while maintaining constraints on the frequency response characteristics of a particular open-loop plant transfer function. An implementation of the algorithm using a high-order linear model of the Ares I plant dynamics considers all relevant dynamic interactions of flexible body modes, propellant slosh, and nozzle inertia effects. A high-resolution propellant damping requirements table is produced that can be used for baffle design. The method is demonstrated to provide exceptional speed and accuracy when compared with the alternative human-in-the-loop approach.

  18. Vibrational Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    By homing in on the distribution patterns of electrons around an atom, a team of scientists team with Berkeley Lab's Molecular Foundry showed how certain vibrations from benzene thiol cause electrical charge to "slosh" onto a gold surface (left), while others do not (right). The vibrations that cause this "sloshing" behavior yield a stronger SERS signal.

  19. Energy harvesting from an autoparametric vibration absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhimiao; Hajj, Muhammad R.

    2015-11-01

    The combined control and energy harvesting characteristics of an autoparametric vibration absorber consisting of a base structure subjected to the external force and a cantilever beam with a tip mass are investigated. The piezoelectric sheets are attached to the cantilever beam to convert the vibrations of the base structure into electrical energy. The coupled nonlinear representative model is developed by using the extended Hamiton’s principle. The effects of the electrical load resistance on the frequency and damping ratio of the cantilever beam are analyzed. The impacts of the external force and load resistance on the structural displacements of the base structure and the beam and on the level of harvested energy are determined. The results show that the initial conditions have a significant impact on the system’s response. The relatively high level of energy harvesting is not necessarily accompanied with the minimum displacements of the base structure.

  20. Obesity and inflammatory arthritis: impact on occurrence, disease characteristics and therapeutic response

    PubMed Central

    Daïen, Claire I; Sellam, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are increasing worldwide and now reach about one-third of the world's population. Obesity also involves patients with inflammatory arthritis. Knowing the impact of obesity on rheumatic diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis) is thus an important issue. This article first reviews the epidemiological and clinical data available on obesity in inflammatory rheumatic diseases, that is, its impact on incident disease, disease characteristics and the therapeutic response. The second part of this review gives an overview of the factors potentially involved in the specifics of inflammatory arthritis in patients with obesity, such as limitations in the clinical assessment, diet, microbiota and adipokines. PMID:26509048

  1. Course Information Course Name Mechanical Vibrations

    E-print Network

    vibrations (4.4­4.5) · Response spectrum and analysis of one-dof-systems - free vibrations, transient and steady-state forced vibrations, viscous and hysteric damping. (A, E, L) ii. Become proficient in the modeling and analysis of multi-dof systems

  2. Fourier Analysis Of Vibrations Of Round Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    Fourier-series representation developed for analysis of vibrations in complicated, round structures like turbopump impellers. Method eliminates guesswork involved in characterization of shapes of vibrational modes. Easy way to characterize complicated modes, leading to determination of responsiveness of given mode to various forcing functions. Used in conjunction with finite-element numerical simulation of vibrational modes of structure.

  3. Characteristics of sulfur response in a micro-flame photometric detector.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Taylor C; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2006-02-10

    A recently reported micro-flame photometric detector (microFPD) has been examined in greater detail for its sulfur response characteristics. While supporting an "upside down" flame on a stainless steel capillary burner (delivering oxygen) in a counter flowing stream of premixed hydrogen and oxygen, the extremely small flame of the muFPD (30 nL) was observed to produce linear sulfur emission as HSO(*). In this mode, linear sulfur response was obtained over four orders of magnitude with a minimum detectable flow of 2 x 10(-10) g S/s. Additionally, a broad series of sulfur compounds ranging in chemical structure were examined in the microFPD in order to determine the extent of equimolarity and reproducibility of response toward this element. Results of exploring both the linear (HSO(*)) and quadratic (S(2)(*)) modes indicate that the %RSD and equimolarity of sulfur response are comparable between that of the microFPD and a conventional flame photometric detector (FPD). PMID:16191432

  4. Nonlinear response and failure characteristics of internally pressurized composite cylindrical panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boitnott, R. L.; Johnson, E. R.; Starnes, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    Results of an experimental and analytical study of the nonlinear response and failure characteristics of internally pressurized 4- to 16-ply-thick graphite-epoxy cylindrical panels are presented. Specimens with clamped boundaries simulating the skin between two frames and two stringers of a typical transport fuselage were tested to failure. Failure results of aluminum specimens are compared with the graphite-epoxy test results. The specimens failed at their edges where the local bending gradients and interlaminar stresses are maximum. STAGS nonlinear two-dimensional shell analysis computer code results are used to identify regions of the panels where the response is independent of the axial coordinate. A geometrically nonlinear one-dimensional cylindrical panel analysis was derived and used to determine panel response and interlaminar stresses. Inclusion of the geometric nonlinearity was essential for accurate prediction of panel response. The maximum stress failure criterion applied to the predicted tensile stress in the fiber direction agreed best with the experimentally determined first damage pressures.

  5. Comprehensive studies of response characteristics of organic photodetectors based on rubrene and C60

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dezhi; Xu, Kai; Zhou, Xiaokang; Wang, Yanping; Ma, Dongge

    2014-06-01

    We studied the transient response characteristics of organic photodetectors composing of high mobility materials of rubrene and C60, respectively, as donor and acceptor. It was found that the response speed was limited by the delay time of both exciton diffusion and transit, and an anomalous phenomenon that the bandwidth decreases as the reverse bias increases was found for the first time. The investigation of frequency dependence at different device structures and light excitations demonstrated that the light absorption of rubrene prevents the photodetector from obtaining a fast response. With the help of magnetic field effect study, it was clearly elucidated that the slow diffusion time of the long lifetime triplet excitons generated from singlet fission in rubrene limited the bandwidth of the device. Moreover, the simulation of the response of photodetector under transient and steady state by exciton transport-diffusion equation showed that the exciton dissociation efficiency in rubrene increases more quickly than that in C60, which should account for the negative dependence of bandwidth on the reverse bias in rubrene-based device.

  6. Poroelastic response of articular cartilage by nanoindentation creep tests at different characteristic lengths.

    PubMed

    Taffetani, M; Gottardi, R; Gastaldi, D; Raiteri, R; Vena, P

    2014-07-01

    Nanoindentation is an experimental technique which is attracting increasing interests for the mechanical characterization of articular cartilage. In particular, time dependent mechanical responses due to fluid flow through the porous matrix can be quantitatively investigated by nanoindentation experiments at different penetration depths and/or by using different probe sizes. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework for the quantitative interpretation of the poroelastic response of articular cartilage subjected to creep nanoindentation tests. To this purpose, multiload creep tests using spherical indenters have been carried out on saturated samples of mature bovine articular cartilage achieving two main quantitative results. First, the dependence of indentation modulus in the drained state (at equilibrium) on the tip radius: a value of 500 kPa has been found using the large tip (400 ?m radius) and of 1.7 MPa using the smaller one (25 ?m). Secon, the permeability at microscopic scale was estimated at values ranging from 4.5×10(-16) m(4)/N s to 0.1×10(-16) m(4)/N s, from low to high equivalent deformation. Consistently with a poroelastic behavior, the size-dependent response of the indenter displacement disappears when characteristic size and permeability are accounted for. For comparison purposes, the same protocol was applied to intrinsically viscoelastic homogeneous samples of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS): both indentation modulus and time response have been found size-independent. PMID:24814573

  7. Comprehensive studies of response characteristics of organic photodetectors based on rubrene and C{sub 60}

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Dezhi; Xu, Kai; Zhou, Xiaokang; Wang, Yanping; Ma, Dongge

    2014-06-28

    We studied the transient response characteristics of organic photodetectors composing of high mobility materials of rubrene and C{sub 60}, respectively, as donor and acceptor. It was found that the response speed was limited by the delay time of both exciton diffusion and transit, and an anomalous phenomenon that the bandwidth decreases as the reverse bias increases was found for the first time. The investigation of frequency dependence at different device structures and light excitations demonstrated that the light absorption of rubrene prevents the photodetector from obtaining a fast response. With the help of magnetic field effect study, it was clearly elucidated that the slow diffusion time of the long lifetime triplet excitons generated from singlet fission in rubrene limited the bandwidth of the device. Moreover, the simulation of the response of photodetector under transient and steady state by exciton transport-diffusion equation showed that the exciton dissociation efficiency in rubrene increases more quickly than that in C{sub 60}, which should account for the negative dependence of bandwidth on the reverse bias in rubrene-based device.

  8. Comparison of aortic and carotid baroreflex stimulus-response characteristics in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. A.; Querry, R. G.; Fadel, P. J.; Weiss, M. W.; Olivencia-Yurvati, A.; Shi, X.; Raven, P. B.

    2001-01-01

    In order to characterize the stimulus-response relationships of the arterial, aortic, and carotid baroreflexes in mediating cardiac chronotropic function, we measured heart rate (HR) responses elicited by acute changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and carotid sinus pressure (CSP) in 11 healthy individuals. Arterial (aortic + carotid) baroreflex control of HR was quantified using ramped changes in MAP induced by bolus injection of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SN). To assess aortic-cardiac responses, neck pressure (NP) and suction (NS) were applied during PE and SN administration, respectively, to counter alterations in CSP thereby isolating the aortic baroreflex. Graded levels of NP and NS were delivered to the carotid sinus using a customized neck collar device to assess the carotid-cardiac baroreflex, independent of drug infusion. The operating characteristics of each reflex were determined from the logistic function of the elicited HR response to the induced change in MAP. The arterial pressures at which the threshold was located on the stimulus-response curves determined for the arterial, aortic and carotid baroreflexes were not significantly different (72+/-4, 67+/-3, and 72+/-4 mm Hg, respectively, P > 0.05). Similarly, the MAP at which the saturation of the reflex responses were elicited did not differ among the baroreflex arcs examined (98+/-3, 99+/-2, and 102+/-3 mm Hg, respectively). These data suggest that the baroreceptor populations studied operate over the same range of arterial pressures. This finding indicates each baroreflex functions as both an important anti-hypotensive and anti-hypertensive mechanism. In addition, this investigation describes a model of aortic baroreflex function in normal healthy humans, which may prove useful in identifying the origin of baroreflex dysfunction in disease- and training-induced conditions.

  9. Compact Vibration Damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanco, Thomas G. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A vibration damper includes a rigid base with a mass coupled thereto for linear movement thereon. Springs coupled to the mass compress in response to the linear movement along either of two opposing directions. A converter coupled to the mass converts the linear movement to a corresponding rotational movement. A rotary damper coupled to the converter damps the rotational movement.

  10. A Gaussian model for predicting the effect of unsteady windspeed on the vortex-induced vibration response of structural members

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, C.Y.; Vandiver, J.K.

    1995-12-31

    In a previous study the authors have shown that the expected duration of visit by the windspeed to the critical velocity interval of a structural member is an important time scale in determining the ultimate fatigue damage of the member due to vortex-induced vibration in naturally time varying winds. In this paper, a Gaussian windspeed assumption is introduced in which the expected duration of visit can be expressed explicitly in terms of simple wind statistics. This assumption is verified with high sampling rate maritime wind data. The wind statistics necessary for calculation of the expected duration of visit are extracted from the raw wind data.

  11. Influence of activated carbon characteristics on toluene and hexane adsorption: Application of surface response methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izquierdo, Mª Teresa; de Yuso, Alicia Martínez; Valenciano, Raquel; Rubio, Begoña; Pino, Mª Rosa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the adsorption capacity of toluene and hexane over activated carbons prepared according an experimental design, considering as variables the activation temperature, the impregnation ratio and the activation time. The response surface methodology was applied to optimize the adsorption capacity of the carbons regarding the preparation conditions that determine the physicochemical characteristics of the activated carbons. The methodology of preparation produced activated carbons with surface areas and micropore volumes as high as 1128 m2/g and 0.52 cm3/g, respectively. Moreover, the activated carbons exhibit mesoporosity, ranging from 64.6% to 89.1% the percentage of microporosity. The surface chemistry was characterized by TPD, FTIR and acid-base titration obtaining different values of surface groups from the different techniques because the limitation of each technique, but obtaining similar trends for the activated carbons studied. The exhaustive characterization of the activated carbons allows to state that the measured surface area does not explain the adsorption capacity for either toluene or n-hexane. On the other hand, the surface chemistry does not explain the adsorption results either. A compromise between physical and chemical characteristics can be obtained from the appropriate activation conditions, and the response surface methodology gives the optimal activated carbon to maximize adsorption capacity. Low activation temperature, intermediate impregnation ratio lead to high toluene and n-hexane adsorption capacities depending on the activation time, which a determining factor to maximize toluene adsorption.

  12. Evaluation of space shuttle main engine fluid dynamic frequency response characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, T. G.

    1980-01-01

    In order to determine the POGO stability characteristics of the space shuttle main engine liquid oxygen (LOX) system, the fluid dynamic frequency response functions between elements in the SSME LOX system was evaluated, both analytically and experimentally. For the experimental data evaluation, a software package was written for the Hewlett-Packard 5451C Fourier analyzer. The POGO analysis software is documented and consists of five separate segments. Each segment is stored on the 5451C disc as an individual program and performs its own unique function. Two separate data reduction methods, a signal calibration, coherence or pulser signal based frequency response function blanking, and automatic plotting features are included in the program. The 5451C allows variable parameter transfer from program to program. This feature is used to advantage and requires only minimal user interface during the data reduction process. Experimental results are included and compared with the analytical predictions in order to adjust the general model and arrive at a realistic simulation of the POGO characteristics.

  13. Response characteristics of esophageal balloon catheters handmade using latex and nonlatex materials

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Troy J; Lalande, Sophie; Hyatt, Robert E; Johnson, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of esophageal pressure allows for the calculation of several important and clinically useful parameters of respiratory mechanics. Esophageal pressure is often measured with balloon-tipped catheters. These catheters may be handmade from natural latex condoms and polyethylene tubing. Given the potential of natural latex to cause allergic reaction, it is important to determine whether esophageal catheter balloons can be fabricated, by hand, using nonlatex condoms as construction materials. To determine the static and dynamic response characteristics of esophageal balloon catheters handmade from latex and nonlatex materials, six esophageal catheter balloons were constructed from each of the following condom materials: natural latex, synthetic polyisoprene, and polyurethane (18 total). Static compliance and working volume range of each balloon catheter was obtained from their pressure-volume characteristics in water. The dynamic response of balloon catheters were measured via a pressure “step” test, from which a third-order underdamped transfer function was modeled. The dynamic ranges of balloon catheters were characterized by the frequencies corresponding to ±5% amplitude- and phase-distortion (fA5% and f?5%). Balloon catheters handmade from polyurethane condoms displayed the smallest working volume range and lowest static balloon compliance. Despite this lower compliance, fA5% and f?5% were remarkably similar between all balloon materials. Our findings suggest that polyisoprene condoms are an ideal nonlatex construction material to use when fabricating esophageal catheter balloons by hand. PMID:26077619

  14. Response characteristics of esophageal balloon catheters handmade using latex and nonlatex materials.

    PubMed

    Cross, Troy J; Lalande, Sophie; Hyatt, Robert E; Johnson, Bruce D

    2015-06-01

    The measurement of esophageal pressure allows for the calculation of several important and clinically useful parameters of respiratory mechanics. Esophageal pressure is often measured with balloon-tipped catheters. These catheters may be handmade from natural latex condoms and polyethylene tubing. Given the potential of natural latex to cause allergic reaction, it is important to determine whether esophageal catheter balloons can be fabricated, by hand, using nonlatex condoms as construction materials. To determine the static and dynamic response characteristics of esophageal balloon catheters handmade from latex and nonlatex materials, six esophageal catheter balloons were constructed from each of the following condom materials: natural latex, synthetic polyisoprene, and polyurethane (18 total). Static compliance and working volume range of each balloon catheter was obtained from their pressure-volume characteristics in water. The dynamic response of balloon catheters were measured via a pressure "step" test, from which a third-order underdamped transfer function was modeled. The dynamic ranges of balloon catheters were characterized by the frequencies corresponding to ±5% amplitude- and phase-distortion (fA5% and f?5%). Balloon catheters handmade from polyurethane condoms displayed the smallest working volume range and lowest static balloon compliance. Despite this lower compliance, fA 5% and f?5% were remarkably similar between all balloon materials. Our findings suggest that polyisoprene condoms are an ideal nonlatex construction material to use when fabricating esophageal catheter balloons by hand. PMID:26077619

  15. Redox-responsive nanoparticles with Aggregation-Induced Emission (AIE) characteristic for fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiren; Wang, Guan; Pan, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Yong; Tang, Ben Zhong; Liu, Ye

    2014-08-01

    The redox environment between intracellular compartments and extracellular matrix is significantly different, and the cellular redox homeostasis determines many physiological functions. Here, redox-responsive nanoparticles with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristic for fluorescence imaging are developed by encapsulation of fluorophore with redox "turn-on" AIE characteristic, TPE-MI, into the micelles of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)- and cholesterol (CE)-conjugated disulfide containing poly(amido amine)s. The redox-responsive fluorescence profiles of the nanoparticles are investigated after reaction with glutathione (GSH). The encapsulation of TPE-MI in micelles leads to a higher efficiency and red shift in emission, and the fluorescence intensity of the nanoparticles increases with the concentration of GSH. Confocal microscopy imaging shows that the nanoparticles can provide obvious contrast between the intracellular compartments and the extracellular matrix in MCF-7 and HepG2 cells. So the nanoparticles with PEG shells and low cytotoxicity are promising to provide fluorescence bioimaging with a high contrast and for differentiation of cellular redox environment. PMID:24771703

  16. Discomfort criteria for single-axis vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the fundamental relationships governing human subjective discomfort response to single-axis vibrations. The axes investigated were vertical, lateral, longitudinal, roll, and pitch, and the vibrations used were both sinusoidal and random in nature. Results of these investigations provided the basis for: (1) development of a scale of passenger discomfort that is common to all axes of vibration; and (2) generation of discomfort criteria for each axis of each axis and for both types of vibration. Furthermore, empirical equations describing discomfort responses within each axis of vibration are included.

  17. Leaf gas exchange characteristics of three neotropical mangrove species in response to varying hydroperiod

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krauss, K.W.; Twilley, R.R.; Doyle, T.W.; Gardiner, E.S.

    2006-01-01

    We determined how different hydroperiods affected leaf gas exchange characteristics of greenhouse-grown seedlings (2002) and saplings (2003) of the mangrove species Avicennia germinans (L.) Stearn., Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. f., and Rhizophora mangle L. Hydroperiod treatments included no flooding (unflooded), intermittent flooding (intermittent), and permanent flooding (flooded). Plants in the intermittent treatment were measured under both flooded and drained states and compared separately. In the greenhouse study, plants of all species maintained different leaf areas in the contrasting hydroperiods during both years. Assimilation-light response curves indicated that the different hydroperiods had little effect on leaf gas exchange characteristics in either seedlings or saplings. However, short-term intermittent flooding for between 6 and 22 days caused a 20% reduction in maximum leaf-level carbon assimilation rate, a 51% lower light requirement to attain 50% of maximum assimilation, and a 38% higher demand from dark respiration. Although interspecific differences were evident for nearly all measured parameters in both years, there was little consistency in ranking of the interspecific responses. Species by hydroperiod interactions were significant only for sapling leaf area. In a field study, R. mangle saplings along the Shark River in the Everglades National Park either demonstrated no significant effect or slight enhancement of carbon assimilation and water-use efficiency while flooded. We obtained little evidence that contrasting hydroperiods affect leaf gas exchange characteristics of mangrove seedlings or saplings over long time intervals; however, intermittent flooding may cause short-term depressions in leaf gas exchange. The resilience of mangrove systems to flooding, as demonstrated in the permanently flooded treatments, will likely promote photosynthetic and morphological adjustment to slight hydroperiod shifts in many settings. ?? 2006 Heron Publishing.

  18. A Canonical Response in Rainfall Characteristics to Global Warming: Projections by IPCC CMIP5 Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Wu, H. T.; Kim, K. M.

    2012-01-01

    Changes in rainfall characteristics induced by global warming are examined based on probability distribution function (PDF) analysis, from outputs of 14 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), CMIP (5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) models under various scenarios of increased CO2 emissions. Results show that collectively CMIP5 models project a robust and consistent global and regional rainfall response to CO2 warming. Globally, the models show a 1-3% increase in rainfall per degree rise in temperature, with a canonical response featuring large increase (100-250 %) in frequency of occurrence of very heavy rain, a reduction (5-10%) of moderate rain, and an increase (10-15%) of light rain events. Regionally, even though details vary among models, a majority of the models (>10 out of 14) project a consistent large scale response with more heavy rain events in climatologically wet regions, most pronounced in the Pacific ITCZ and the Asian monsoon. Moderate rain events are found to decrease over extensive regions of the subtropical and extratropical oceans, but increases over the extratropical land regions, and the Southern Oceans. The spatial distribution of light rain resembles that of moderate rain, but mostly with opposite polarity. The majority of the models also show increase in the number of dry events (absence or only trace amount of rain) over subtropical and tropical land regions in both hemispheres. These results suggest that rainfall characteristics are changing and that increased extreme rainfall events and droughts occurrences are connected, as a consequent of a global adjustment of the large scale circulation to global warming.

  19. Prediction of Linear Cationic Antimicrobial Peptides Based on Characteristics Responsible for Their Interaction with the Membranes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Most available antimicrobial peptides (AMP) prediction methods use common approach for different classes of AMP. Contrary to available approaches, we suggest that a strategy of prediction should be based on the fact that there are several kinds of AMP that vary in mechanisms of action, structure, mode of interaction with membrane, etc. According to our suggestion for each kind of AMP, a particular approach has to be developed in order to get high efficacy. Consequently, in this paper, a particular but the biggest class of AMP, linear cationic antimicrobial peptides (LCAP), has been considered and a newly developed simple method of LCAP prediction described. The aim of this study is the development of a simple method of discrimination of AMP from non-AMP, the efficiency of which will be determined by efficiencies of selected descriptors only and comparison the results of the discrimination procedure with the results obtained by more complicated discriminative methods. As descriptors the physicochemical characteristics responsible for capability of the peptide to interact with an anionic membrane were considered. The following characteristics such as hydrophobicity, amphiphaticity, location of the peptide in relation to membrane, charge density, propensities to disordered structure and aggregation were studied. On the basis of these characteristics, a new simple algorithm of prediction is developed and evaluation of efficacies of the characteristics as descriptors performed. The results show that three descriptors, hydrophobic moment, charge density and location of the peptide along the membranes, can be used as discriminators of LCAPs. For the training set, our method gives the same level of accuracy as more complicated machine learning approaches offered as CAMP database service tools. For the test set accuracy obtained by our method gives even higher value than the one obtained by CAMP prediction tools. The AMP prediction tool based on the considered method is available at http://www.biomedicine.org.ge/dbaasp/. PMID:24730612

  20. Potentiometric Response Characteristics of Membrane-Based Cs + -Selective Electrodes Containing Ionophore-Functionalized Polymeric Microspheres

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Peper, Shane; Gonczy, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Cs + -selective solvent polymeric membrane-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) were developed by doping ethylene glycol-functionalized cross-linked polystyrene microspheres (P-EG) into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrix containing sodium tetrakis-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl) borate (TFPB) as the ion exchanger. A systematic study examining the effects of the membrane plasticizers bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (DOS), 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE), and 2-fluorophenyl nitrophenyl ether (FPNPE) on the potentiometric response and selectivity of the corresponding electrodes was performed. Under certain conditions, P-EG-based ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) containing TFPB and plasticized with NPOE exhibited a super-Nernstian response between 1 × 10 ? 3 andmore » 1 × 10 ? 4 ?M Cs + , a response characteristic not observed in analogous membranes plasticized with either DOS or FPNPE. Additionally, the performance of P-EG-based ISEs was compared to electrodes based on two mobile ionophores, a neutral lipophilic ethylene glycol derivative (ethylene glycol monooctadecyl ether (U-EG)) and a charged metallacarborane ionophore, sodium bis(dicarbollyl)cobaltate(III) (CC). In general, P-EG-based electrodes plasticized with FPNPE yielded the best performance, with a linear range from 10 -1 –10 -5 ?M Cs + , a conventional lower detection limit of 8.1 × 10 ? 6 ?M Cs + , and a response slope of 57.7?mV/decade. The pH response of P-EG ISEs containing TFPB was evaluated for membranes plasticized with either NPOE or FPNPE. In both cases, the electrodes remained stable throughout the pH range 3–12, with only slight proton interference observed below pH 3. « less

  1. Study on DFIG wind turbines control strategy for improving frequency response characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongmei; Wu, Di; Liu, Yanhua; Zhou, Zhiyu

    2012-01-01

    The active and reactive power decoupling control for the double-fed induction generator wind turbines(DFIG) does not play a positive role to the frequency response ability of power grid because it performs as the hidden inertia for the power grid. If we want to improve the transient frequency stability of the wind turbine when it is integrated with the system, we must ameliorate its frequency response characteristics. The inability of frequency control due to DFIG decoupling control could be overcome through releasing (or absorbing) a part of the kinetic energy stored in the rotor, so as to increase (or decrease) active power injected to the power system when the deviation of power system frequency appears. This paper discusses the mathematical model of the variable speed DFIG, including the aerodynamic model, pitch control system model, shaft model, generator model and inverter control model, and other key components, focusing on the mathematical model of the converters in rotor side and grid side. Based on the existing model of wind generator, the paper attaches the frequency control model on the platform of the simulation software DIgSILENT/PowerFactory. The simulation results show that the proposed control strategy can response quickly to transient frequency deviation and prove that wind farms can participate in the system frequency regulation to a certain extent. Finally, the result verifies the accuracy and plausibility of the inverter control model which attaches the frequency control module.

  2. Study on DFIG wind turbines control strategy for improving frequency response characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dongmei; Wu, Di; Liu, Yanhua; Zhou, Zhiyu

    2011-12-01

    The active and reactive power decoupling control for the double-fed induction generator wind turbines(DFIG) does not play a positive role to the frequency response ability of power grid because it performs as the hidden inertia for the power grid. If we want to improve the transient frequency stability of the wind turbine when it is integrated with the system, we must ameliorate its frequency response characteristics. The inability of frequency control due to DFIG decoupling control could be overcome through releasing (or absorbing) a part of the kinetic energy stored in the rotor, so as to increase (or decrease) active power injected to the power system when the deviation of power system frequency appears. This paper discusses the mathematical model of the variable speed DFIG, including the aerodynamic model, pitch control system model, shaft model, generator model and inverter control model, and other key components, focusing on the mathematical model of the converters in rotor side and grid side. Based on the existing model of wind generator, the paper attaches the frequency control model on the platform of the simulation software DIgSILENT/PowerFactory. The simulation results show that the proposed control strategy can response quickly to transient frequency deviation and prove that wind farms can participate in the system frequency regulation to a certain extent. Finally, the result verifies the accuracy and plausibility of the inverter control model which attaches the frequency control module.

  3. Vibration sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Amita; Singh, Ranvir; Ahmad, Amir; Kumar, Mahesh

    2003-10-01

    Today, vibration sensors with low and medium sensitivities are in great demand. Their applications include robotics, navigation, machine vibration monitoring, isolation of precision equipment & activation of safety systems e.g. airbags in automobiles. Vibration sensors have been developed at SSPL, using silicon micromachining to sense vibrations in a system in the 30 - 200 Hz frequency band. The sensing element in the silicon vibration sensor is a seismic mass suspended by thin silicon hinges mounted on a metallized glass plate forming a parallel plate capacitor. The movement of the seismic mass along the vertical axis is monitored to sense vibrations. This is obtained by measuring the change in capacitance. The movable plate of the parallel plate capacitor is formed by a block connected to a surrounding frame by four cantilever beams located on sides or corners of the seismic mass. This element is fabricated by silicon micromachining. Several sensors in the chip sizes 1.6 cm x 1.6 cm, 1 cm x 1 cm and 0.7 cm x 0.7 cm have been fabricated. Work done on these sensors, techniques used in processing and silicon to glass bonding are presented in the paper. Performance evaluation of these sensors is also discussed.

  4. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, J.B.; Muhs, J.D.; Tobin, K.W.

    1995-01-10

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity. 2 figures.

  5. Fiber optic vibration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Dooley, Joseph B. (Harriman, TN); Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Tobin, Kenneth W. (Harriman, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A fiber optic vibration sensor utilizes two single mode optical fibers supported by a housing with one optical fiber fixedly secured to the housing and providing a reference signal and the other optical fiber having a free span length subject to vibrational displacement thereof with respect to the housing and the first optical fiber for providing a signal indicative of a measurement of any perturbation of the sensor. Damping or tailoring of the sensor to be responsive to selected levels of perturbation is provided by altering the diameter of optical fibers or by immersing at least a portion of the free span length of the vibration sensing optical fiber into a liquid of a selected viscosity.

  6. Molecular dynamics study of early picosecond events in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle: dielectric response, vibrational cooling and the J, K intermediates.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, D; Martin, C; Schulten, K

    1996-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out to study the J625 and K590 intermediates of bacteriorhodopsin's (bRs) photocycle starting from a refined structure of bR568. The coupling between the electronic states of retinal and the protein matrix is characterized by the energy difference delta E(t) between the excited state and the ground state to which the protein contributes through the Coulomb interaction. Our simulations indicate that the J625 intermediate is related to a polarization of the protein matrix due to the brief (200 fs) change of retinal's charge distribution in going to the excited state and back to the ground state, and that the rise time of the K590 intermediate is determined by vibrational cooling of retinal. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8770221

  7. Shaping frequency response of a vibrating plate for passive and active control applications by simultaneous optimization of arrangement of additional masses and ribs. Part I: Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, Stanislaw; Pawelczyk, Marek

    2016-03-01

    An ability to shape frequency response of a vibrating plate according to precisely defined demands has a very high practical potential. It can be applied to improve acoustic radiation of the plate for required frequencies or enhance acoustic isolation of noise barriers and device casings by using both passive and active control. The proposed method is based on mounting severaladditional ribs and masses (passive and/or active) to the plate surface at locations followed from an optimization process. This paper, Part I, concerns derivation of a mathematical model of the plate with attached elements in the function of their shape and placement. The model is validated by means of simulations and laboratory experiments, and compared with models known from the literature. This paper is followed by a companion paper, Part II, where the optimization process is described. It includes arrangement of passive elements as well as actuators and sensors to improve controllability and observability measures, if active control is concerned.

  8. Clinical characteristics and treatment response to SSRI in a female pedophile.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eva W C; Choy, Alberto L

    2002-04-01

    Although much investigation has been done with male sex offenders, there have been few studies on female sex offenders. Female sex offenders have been reported as having a high incidence of psychiatric disorders, but female paraphilics were rarely described. The literature on the treatment of female sex offenders is also limited and treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) has not been reported. This paper presents the case of a woman with DSM-IV pedophilia. Her clinical characteristics, her offense history, and her positive response to treatment with sertraline (a SSRI) are described. This case adds to the limited literature on female pedophiles and suggests that SSRIs may be an effective treatment for paraphilic disorders in female sex offenders. PMID:11974646

  9. CHARADE: A characteristic code for calculating rate-dependent shock-wave response

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.N.; Tonks, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    In this report we apply spatially one-dimensional methods and simple shock-tracking techniques to the solution of rate-dependent material response under flat-plate-impact conditions. This method of solution eliminates potential confusion of material dissipation with artificial dissipative effects inherent in finite-difference codes, and thus lends itself to accurate calculation of elastic-plastic deformation, shock-to-detonation transition in solid explosives, and shock-induced structural phase transformation. Equations are presented for rate-dependent thermoelastic-plastic deformation for (100) planar shock-wave propagation in materials of cubic symmetry (or higher). Specific numerical calculations are presented for polycrystalline copper using the mechanical threshold stress model of Follansbee and Kocks with transition to dislocation drag. A listing of the CHARADE (for characteristic rate dependence) code and sample input deck are given. 26 refs., 11 figs.

  10. Comparison of the frequency response characteristics of catheter-mounted piezoelectric and micromanometric phonotransducers.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J C; Layton, S A; Rubal, B J

    1989-05-01

    This study compares the frequency response characteristics of catheter-mounted piezoelectric sound transducers with micromanometric transducers. The tip of a 8F catheter with two piezoelectric transducers and two micromanometers was inserted into a water-filled chamber that had a speaker fixed at one end. The speaker was driven by a power amplifier and sine wave generator. The outputs of the transducers were connected to a low-level amplifier. The piezoelectric transducer behaved as a tunable high-pass filter that could be modified by altering the input impedance of the low level amplifier; the frequency response characteristics were examined at five input impedances ranging from 0.96 to 11.8 megohms. The peak-to-peak outputs of the piezoelectric and pressure transducers were recorded at frequency ranges from DC to 1 kHz with a wide-band oscilloscope. The ratio of the outputs from the piezotransducer and micromanometer (Vph/Vpr) was plotted vs. frequency for each input impedance and analyzed to determine the piezotransducer's output resistance and equivalent capacitance; roll-off frequencies were then calculated. The equivalent capacitance of the piezo-element was determined to be 500-700 picofarads. Series capacitance acted with network resistance to produce a predictable frequency-dependent change in signal amplitude and phase angle. The inherent noise of the pressure transducer was found to be approximately 0.2 mm Hg, while the noise of the piezoelectric transducer was immeasurably low. The piezoelectric phonotransducers were superior to micromanometer transducers in their higher gain and lower noise, suggesting that these transducers may prove useful to physiologic and clinical studies for measuring intravascular sound. PMID:2720766

  11. Random Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messaro. Semma; Harrison, Phillip

    2010-01-01

    Ares I Zonal Random vibration environments due to acoustic impingement and combustion processes are develop for liftoff, ascent and reentry. Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components are developed by enveloping the applicable zonal environments where each component is located. Random vibration tests will be conducted to assure that these components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments. Methodology: Random Vibration test criteria for Ares I Upper Stage pyrotechnic components were desired that would envelope all the applicable environments where each component was located. Applicable Ares I Vehicle drawings and design information needed to be assessed to determine the location(s) for each component on the Ares I Upper Stage. Design and test criteria needed to be developed by plotting and enveloping the applicable environments using Microsoft Excel Spreadsheet Software and documenting them in a report Using Microsoft Word Processing Software. Conclusion: Random vibration liftoff, ascent, and green run design & test criteria for the Upper Stage Pyrotechnic Components were developed by using Microsoft Excel to envelope zonal environments applicable to each component. Results were transferred from Excel into a report using Microsoft Word. After the report is reviewed and edited by my mentor it will be submitted for publication as an attachment to a memorandum. Pyrotechnic component designers will extract criteria from my report for incorporation into the design and test specifications for components. Eventually the hardware will be tested to the environments I developed to assure that the components will survive and function appropriately after exposure to the expected vibration environments.

  12. Apparatus and method of preloading vibration-damping bellows

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W. (Tracy, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An improved vibration damping bellows mount or interconnection is disclosed. In one aspect, the bellows is compressively prestressed along its length to offset vacuum-generated tensile loads and thereby improve vibration damping characteristics.

  13. Experimental validation of a numerical model for subway induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Degrande, G.; Lombaert, G.

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents the experimental validation of a coupled periodic finite element-boundary element model for the prediction of subway induced vibrations. The model fully accounts for the dynamic interaction between the train, the track, the tunnel and the soil. The periodicity or invariance of the tunnel and the soil in the longitudinal direction is exploited using the Floquet transformation, which allows for an efficient formulation in the frequency-wavenumber domain. A general analytical formulation is used to compute the response of three-dimensional invariant or periodic media that are excited by moving loads. The numerical model is validated by means of several experiments that have been performed at a site in Regent's Park on the Bakerloo line of London Underground. Vibration measurements have been performed on the axle boxes of the train, on the rail, the tunnel invert and the tunnel wall, and in the free field, both at the surface and at a depth of 15 m. Prior to these vibration measurements, the dynamic soil characteristics and the track characteristics have been determined. The Bakerloo line tunnel of London Underground has been modelled using the coupled periodic finite element-boundary element approach and free field vibrations due to the passage of a train at different speeds have been predicted and compared to the measurements. The correspondence between the predicted and measured response in the tunnel is reasonably good, although some differences are observed in the free field. The discrepancies are explained on the basis of various uncertainties involved in the problem. The variation in the response with train speed is similar for the measurements as well as the predictions. This study demonstrates the applicability of the coupled periodic finite element-boundary element model to make realistic predictions of the vibrations from underground railways.

  14. Assessing the Value of Regulation Resources Based on Their Time Response Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Lu, Shuai; Ma, Jian; Nguyen, Tony B.

    2008-06-01

    Fast responsive regulation resources are potentially more valuable as a power system regulation resource (more efficient) because they allow applying controls at the exact moment and in the exact amount as needed. Faster control is desirable because it facilitates more reliable compliance with the NERC Control Performance Standards at relatively lesser regulation capacity procurements. The current California ISO practices and markets do not provide a differentiation among the regulation resources based on their speed of response (with the exception of some minimum ramping capabilities). Some demand response technologies, including some generation and energy storage resources, can provide quicker control actions. California ISO practices and markets could be updated to welcome more fast regulation resources into the California ISO service area. The project work reported in this work was pursuing the following objectives: • Develop methodology to assess the relative value of generation resources used for regulation and load following California ISO functions • This assessment should be done based on physical characteristics including the ability to quickly change their output following California ISO signals • Evaluate what power is worth on different time scales • Analyze the benefits of new regulation resources to provide effective compliance with the mandatory NERC Control Performance Standards • Evaluate impacts of the newly proposed BAAL and FRR standards on the potential value of fast regulation and distributed regulation resources • Develop a scope for the follow-up projects to pave a road for the new efficient types of balancing resources in California. The work included the following studies: • Analysis of California ISO regulating units characteristics • California ISO automatic generation system (AGC) analysis • California ISO regulation procurement and market analysis • Fast regulation efficiency analysis • Projection of the California ISO load following and regulation requirements into the future • Value of fast responsive resources depending on their ramping capability • Potential impacts of the balancing authority area control error limit (BAAL), which is a part of the newly proposed NERC standard “Balancing Resources and Demand” • Potential impacts of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) frequency responsive reserve (FRR) standard • Recommendations for the next phase of the project. The following main conclusions and suggestions for the future have been made: • The analysis of regulation ramping requirements shows that the regulation system should be able to provide ramps of at least 40-60 MW per minute for a period up to 6 minutes. • Evaluate if changes are needed in the California ISO AGC system to effectively accommodate new types of fast regulation resources and minimize the California ISO regulation procurement. • California ISO may consider creating better market opportunities for and incentives for fast responsive resources. • An additional study of low probability high ramp events can be recommended to the California ISO. • The California ISO may be willing to consider establishing a more relaxed target CPS2 compliance level. • A BAAL-related study can be recommended for the California ISO as soon as more clarity is achieved concerning the actual enforcement of the BAAL standard and its numerical values for the California ISO. The study may involve an assessment of advantages of the distributed frequency-based control for the California ISO system. The market-related issues that arise in this connection can be also investigated. • A FRR-related study can be recommended for the California ISO as soon as more clarity is achieved concerning the actual enforcement of the FRR standard and its numerical values for the California ISO.

  15. Dynamic characteristics of otolith ocular response during counter rotation about dual yaw axes in mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, N; Wood, S; Kushiro, K; Yanai, S; Perachio, A; Makishima, T

    2015-01-29

    The central vestibular system plays an important role in higher neural functions such as self-motion perception and spatial orientation. Its ability to store head angular velocity is called velocity storage mechanism (VSM), which has been thoroughly investigated across a wide range of species. However, little is known about the mouse VSM, because the mouse lacks typical ocular responses such as optokinetic after nystagmus or a dominant time constant of vestibulo-ocular reflex for which the VSM is critical. Experiments were conducted to examine the otolith-driven eye movements related to the VSM and verify its characteristics in mice. We used a novel approach to generate a similar rotating vector as a traditional off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) but with a larger resultant gravito-inertial force (>1g) by using counter rotation centrifugation. Similar to results previously described in other animals during OVAR, two components of eye movements were induced, i.e. a sinusoidal modulatory eye movement (modulation component) on which a unidirectional nystagmus (bias component) was superimposed. Each response is considered to derive from different mechanisms; modulations arise predominantly through linear vestibulo-ocular reflex, whereas for the bias, the VSM is responsible. Data indicate that the mouse also has a well-developed vestibular system through otoliths inputs, showing its highly conserved nature across mammalian species. On the other hand, to reach a plateau state of bias, a higher frequency rotation or a larger gravito-inertial force was considered to be necessary than other larger animals. Compared with modulation, the bias had a more variable profile, suggesting an inherent complexity of higher-order neural processes in the brain. Our data provide the basis for further study of the central vestibular system in mice, however, the underlying individual variability should be taken into consideration. PMID:25446357

  16. THz lattice vibrations for active plasmonics with light: Ultrafast optical response in gold/telluride hybrid plasmonic crystals

    E-print Network

    Kreilkamp, Lars E; Belotelov, Vladimir I; Glavin, Boris A; Litvin, Leonid; Rudzinski, Axel; Kahl, Michael; Jede, Ralf; Wiater, Maciej; Wojtowicz, Tomasz; Karczewski, Grzegorz; Yakovlev, Dmitri R; Bayer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Excitation of coherent optical phonons in solids provides a pathway for ultrafast modulation of light on a sub-ps timescale. Here, we report on efficient 3.6 THz modulation of light reflected from hybrid metal/semiconductor plasmonic crystals caused by lattice vibrations in a few nm thick layer of elemental tellurium. We observe that surface plasmon polaritons contribute significantly to photoinduced formation of this thin layer at the interface between a telluride-based II-VI semiconductor, such as (Cd,Mg)Te or (Cd,Mn)Te, and a one-dimensional gold grating. The change in interface composition is monitored via the excitation and detection of coherent optical tellurium phonons of $A_1$ symmetry by femtosecond laser pulses in a pump-probe experiment. The patterning of a plasmonic grating onto the semiconductor enhances the transient signal which originates from the interface region. This allows monitoring the layer formation and observing the shift of the phonon frequency caused by confinement of the lattice vi...

  17. Chaotic vortex induced vibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.; Sheridan, J.; Leontini, J. S.; Lo Jacono, D.

    2014-12-15

    This study investigates the nature of the dynamic response of an elastically mounted cylinder immersed in a free stream. A novel method is utilized, where the motion of the body during a free vibration experiment is accurately recorded, and then a second experiment is conducted where the cylinder is externally forced to follow this recorded trajectory. Generally, the flow response during both experiments is identical. However, particular regimes exist where the flow response is significantly different. This is taken as evidence of chaos in these regimes.

  18. Chaotic vortex induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, J.; Leontini, J. S.; Lo Jacono, D.; Sheridan, J.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the nature of the dynamic response of an elastically mounted cylinder immersed in a free stream. A novel method is utilized, where the motion of the body during a free vibration experiment is accurately recorded, and then a second experiment is conducted where the cylinder is externally forced to follow this recorded trajectory. Generally, the flow response during both experiments is identical. However, particular regimes exist where the flow response is significantly different. This is taken as evidence of chaos in these regimes.

  19. Estimating the Single-Trial Characteristics of Event-Related Responses: Evaluation of the MCERP Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knuth, K. H.; Shah, A. S.; Truccolo, W. A.; Ding, M.; Bressler, S. L.; Schroeder, C. E.; Korsmey, Dave (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Single-trial event-related responses collected during the course of an experiment are typically averaged before analysis resulting in a rather crude picture of event-related brain dynamics. It has been quite clear for some time that these responses exhibit trial-to-trial variability: however, the computational techniques necessary to deal with such responses in noisy conditions have not been available. To this end we have developed the multiple-component, event-related potential model (mcERP), which assumes that the each event-related response consists of a sum of multiple evoked components each described by a stereotypical waveshape. These waveshapes are allowed to vary in amplitude and onset latency from trial to trial, which allows us to capture, to first-order, the trial-dependent variations in event-related brain dynamics. We have constructed many sets of synthetic data designed to simulate intracortical recordings from a 15 channel, linear-array multielectrode implanted acutely in V1 of an awake-behaving macaque undergoing visual stimulation with a red light flash. This synthetic data was used to characterize the performance of the mcERP algorithm. First we quantified the degree to which such trial-to-trial variability aids in the identification of multiple components, and we demonstrate that amplitude variability is a more important factor in component separation than latency variability. Second, we quantified the behavior of the algorithm under two distinct signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions: Gaussian noise independently present in each channel, and highly correlated (1/f distributed), far-field noise presented identically in each channel of the array. The mcERP algorithm was found to be robust to noise accurately identifying all component waveshapes and their associated single-trial characteristics down to SNR levels of -20dB for Gaussian noise and -7dB for 1/f far-field noise. Comparisons of the performance of this algorithm with factor analysis (FA) and independent component analysis (ICA) will be described by Knuth et al. (SFN abstracts, 2002). In addition, the advantages of application of mcERP to real data will be described by Shah et al, (these abstracts, 2002: SFN abstracts, 2002).

  20. Helicopter rotor blade design for minimum vibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of blade design parameters in rotor vibratory response and the design of a minimum vibration blade based upon this understanding are examined. Various design approaches are examined for a 4 bladed articulated rotor operating at a high speed flight condition. Blade modal shaping, frequency placement, structural and aerodynamic coupling, and intermodal cancellation are investigated to systematically identify and evaluate blade design parameters that influence blade airloads, blade modal response, hub loads, and fuselage vibration. The relative contributions of the various components of blade force excitation and response to the vibratory hub loads transmitted to the fuselage are determined in order to isolate primary candidates for vibration alleviation. A blade design is achieved which reduces the predicted fuselage vibration from the baseline blade by approximately one half. Blade designs are developed that offer significant reductions in vibration (and fatigue stresses) without resorting to special vibration alleviation devices, radical blade geometries, or weight penalties.

  1. Food vibrations: Asian spice sets lips trembling

    PubMed Central

    Hagura, Nobuhiro; Barber, Harry; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Szechuan pepper, a widely used ingredient in the cuisine of many Asian countries, is known for the tingling sensation it induces on the tongue and lips. While the molecular mechanism by which Szechuan pepper activates tactile afferent fibres has been clarified, the tingling sensation itself has been less studied, and it remains unclear which fibres are responsible. We investigated the somatosensory perception of tingling in humans to identify the characteristic temporal frequency and compare this to the established selectivity of tactile afferents. Szechuan pepper was applied to the lower lip of participants. Participants judged the frequency of the tingling sensation on the lips by comparing this with the frequencies of mechanical vibrations applied to their right index finger. The perceived frequency of the tingling was consistently at around 50 Hz, corresponding to the range of tactile RA1 afferent fibres. Furthermore, adaptation of the RA1 channel by prolonged mechanical vibration reliably reduced the tingling frequency induced by Szechuan pepper, confirming that the frequency-specific tactile channel is shared between Szechuan pepper and mechanical vibration. Combining information about molecular reactions at peripheral receptors with quantitative psychophysical measurement may provide a unique method for characterizing unusual experiences by decomposing them into identifiable minimal units of sensation. PMID:24026819

  2. Food vibrations: Asian spice sets lips trembling.

    PubMed

    Hagura, Nobuhiro; Barber, Harry; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Szechuan pepper, a widely used ingredient in the cuisine of many Asian countries, is known for the tingling sensation it induces on the tongue and lips. While the molecular mechanism by which Szechuan pepper activates tactile afferent fibres has been clarified, the tingling sensation itself has been less studied, and it remains unclear which fibres are responsible. We investigated the somatosensory perception of tingling in humans to identify the characteristic temporal frequency and compare this to the established selectivity of tactile afferents. Szechuan pepper was applied to the lower lip of participants. Participants judged the frequency of the tingling sensation on the lips by comparing this with the frequencies of mechanical vibrations applied to their right index finger. The perceived frequency of the tingling was consistently at around 50 Hz, corresponding to the range of tactile RA1 afferent fibres. Furthermore, adaptation of the RA1 channel by prolonged mechanical vibration reliably reduced the tingling frequency induced by Szechuan pepper, confirming that the frequency-specific tactile channel is shared between Szechuan pepper and mechanical vibration. Combining information about molecular reactions at peripheral receptors with quantitative psychophysical measurement may provide a unique method for characterizing unusual experiences by decomposing them into identifiable minimal units of sensation. PMID:24026819

  3. Criteria for Control and Response Characteristics of Helicopters and VTOL Aircraft in Hovering and Low-Speed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapscott, Robert J.

    1960-01-01

    Criteria for satisfactory control and response characteristics of low-speed aircraft are presented and discussed. The basis for the discussion is the results of a study of the effects of various control power (angular acceleration per unit control deflection) and angular velocity damping on pilots' opinions and on pilots' ability to perform precision tasks during hovering and low speed. The control response characteristics resulting in large improvements in the capability of the pilot-helicopter combination, particularly during instrument flight are discussed. A variation of the criteria with aircraft size is presented. The applicability of the criteria to aircraft of varying types is illustrated.

  4. Influence of In doping on the structural, photo-luminescence and alcohol response characteristics of the SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, R.K.; Pandey, Shiv K.; Sahay, P.P.

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: When the sample is exposed to air, the atmospheric oxygen O{sub 2} adsorbs on the sample surface in the form of ionic species O{sup ?} by capturing electrons from the conduction band. The adsorbed ionic species O{sup ?} react with the test alcohol molecules and are responsible for sensing mechanism. - Highlights: • In-doped SnO{sub 2} samples show smaller crystallinity with crystallite size: ?7–9 nm. • EDX analyses confirm the incorporation of indium ions in the SnO{sub 2} lattice. • Raman spectra are consistent with the results of XRD and SAED pattern. • Alcohol response has been found to increase with the indium dopant concentration. • 3 at% In-doped sample exhibits maximum response (96.5%) to propan-2-ol at 250 °C. - Abstract: Undoped and In-doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized by the co-precipitation method. Upon In doping, the samples exhibit reduced crystallinity as compared to the undoped SnO{sub 2}. The Raman spectra of the undoped samples exhibit three fundamental peaks at 467.3, 633.4 and 774.6 cm{sup ?1} corresponding to E{sub g}, A{sub 1g} and B{sub 2g} vibration modes, respectively. The PL spectra show two strong emission bands at the wavelengths 417 nm and 479 nm, along with five weak emission peaks in the visible region. Alcohol response characteristics of the In-doped SnO{sub 2} samples were investigated for various concentrations (10–50 ppm) at different operating temperatures (150–250 °C). Among all the samples examined, the 3 at% In-doped SnO{sub 2} sample shows maximum response (96.5%) to propan-2-ol, followed by ethanol (92%) and methanol (90%) at the operating temperature of 250 °C for 50 ppm concentration. For each test alcohol, the response has been found to increase with the In dopant concentration.

  5. Component mode synthesis and large deflection vibration of complex structures. Volume 2: Single-mode large deflection vibrations of beams and plates using finite element method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh

    1987-01-01

    A finite element method is presented for the large amplitude vibrations of complex structures that can be modelled with beam and rectangular plate elements subjected to harmonic excitation. Both inplane deformation and inertia are considered in the formulation. Derivation of the harmonic force and nonlinear stiffness matrices for a beam and a rectangular plate element are presented. Solution procedures and convergence characteristics of the finite element method are described. Nonlinear response to uniform and concentrated harmonic loadings and improved nonlinear free vibration results are presented for beams and rectangular plates of various boundary conditions.

  6. Interpreting broad emission-line variations - II. Tensions between luminosity, characteristic size, and responsivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goad, M. R.; Korista, K. T.

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the variability behaviour of the broad H ? emission-line to driving continuum variations in the best-studied AGN NGC 5548. For a particular choice of broad emission-line region (BLR) geometry, H ? surface emissivity based on photoionization models, and using a scaled version of the 13-yr optical continuum light-curve as a proxy for the driving ionizing continuum, we explore several key factors that determine the broad emission-line luminosity L, characteristic size RRW, and variability amplitude (i.e. responsivity) ?, as well as the interplay between them. For fixed boundary models which extend as far as the hot dust the predicted delays for H ? are on average too long. However, the predicted variability amplitude of H ? provides a remarkably good match to observations except during low-continuum states. We suggest that the continuum flux variations which drive the redistribution in H ? surface emissivity F(r) do not on their own lead to large enough changes in RRW or ?eff. We thus investigate dust-bounded BLRs for which the location of the effective outer boundary is modulated by the continuum level and the dust-sublimation and dust-condensation time-scales. We find that in order to match the observed variability amplitude of broad H ? in NGC 5548 a rather static outer boundary is preferred. Intriguingly, we show that the most effective way of reducing the H ? delay, while preserving its responsivity and equivalent width, is to invoke a smaller value in the incident ionizing photon flux ?H for a given ionizing source-cloud radial distance r, than is normally inferred from the observed UV continuum flux and typical models of the continuum spectral energy distribution.

  7. Experimental Studies on Dynamic Vibration Absorber using Shape Memory Alloy (NiTi) Springs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, V. Raj; Kumar, M. B. Bharathi Raj; Kumar, M. Senthil

    2011-10-20

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) springs have been used as actuators in many applications although their use in the vibration control area is very recent. Since shape memory alloys differ from conventional alloy materials in many ways, the traditional design approach for springs is not completely suitable for designing SMA springs. Some vibration control concepts utilizing unique characteristics of SMA's will be presented in this paper.A dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator is developed for attenuation of vibration in a cantilever beam. The design procedure of the DVA is presented. The system consists of a cantilever beam which is considered to generate the real-time vibration using shaker. A SMA spring is used with a mass attached to its end. The stiffness of the SMA spring is dynamically varied in such a way to attenuate the vibration. Both simulation and experimentation are carried out using PID controller. The experiments were carried out by interfacing the experimental setup with a computer using LabVIEW software, Data acquisition and control are implemented using a PCI data acquisition card. Standard PID controllers have been used to control the vibration of the beam. Experimental results are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers designed and the usefulness of the proposed test platform by exciting the structure at resonance. In experimental setup, an accelerometer is used to measure the vibration which is fed to computer and correspondingly the SMA spring is actuated to change its stiffness to control the vibration. The results obtained illustrate that the developed DVA using SMA actuator is very effective in reducing structural response and have great potential to be an active vibration control medium.

  8. Life-history traits and landscape characteristics predict macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Slade, Eleanor M; Merckx, Thomas; Riutta, Terhi; Bebber, Daniel P; Redhead, David; Riordan, Philip; Macdonald, David W

    2013-07-01

    How best to manage forest patches, mitigate the consequences of forest fragmentation, and enable landscape permeability are key questions facing conservation scientists and managers. Many temperate forests have become increasingly fragmented, resulting in reduced interior forest habitat, increased edge habitats, and reduced connectivity. Using a citizen science landscape-scale mark-release-recapture study on 87 macro-moth species, we investigated how both life-history traits and landscape characteristics predicted macro-moth responses to forest fragmentation. Wingspan, wing shape, adult feeding, and larval feeding guild predicted macro-moth mobility, although the predictive power of wingspan and wing shape depended on the species' affinity to the forest. Solitary trees and small fragments functioned as "stepping stones," especially when their landscape connectivity was increased, by being positioned within hedgerows or within a favorable matrix. Mobile forest specialists were most affected by forest fragmentation: despite their high intrinsic dispersal capability, these species were confined mostly to the largest of the forest patches due to their strong affinity for the forest habitat, and were also heavily dependent on forest connectivity in order to cross the agricultural matrix. Forest fragments need to be larger than five hectares and to have interior forest more than 100 m from the edge in order to sustain populations of forest specialists. Our study provides new insights into the movement patterns of a functionally important insect group, with implications for the landscape-scale management of forest patches within agricultural landscapes. PMID:23951712

  9. Negative differential resistance and characteristic nonlinear electromagnetic response of a Topological Insulator.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching Hua; Zhang, Xiao; Guan, Bochen

    2015-01-01

    Materials exhibiting negative differential resistance have important applications in technologies involving microwave generation, which range from motion sensing to radio astronomy. Despite their usefulness, there has been few physical mechanisms giving rise to materials with such properties, i.e. GaAs employed in the Gunn diode. In this work, we show that negative differential resistance also generically arise in Dirac ring systems, an example of which has been experimentally observed in the surface states of Topological Insulators. This novel realization of negative differential resistance is based on a completely different physical mechanism from that of the Gunn effect, relying on the characteristic non-monotonicity of the response curve that remains robust in the presence of nonzero temperature, chemical potential, mass gap and impurity scattering. As such, it opens up new possibilities for engineering applications, such as frequency upconversion devices which are highly sought for terahertz signal generation. Our results may be tested with thin films of Bi2Se3 Topological Insulators, and are expected to hold qualitatively even in the absence of a strictly linear Dirac dispersion, as will be the case in more generic samples of Bi2Se3 and other materials with topologically nontrivial Fermi sea regions. PMID:26657341

  10. Negative differential resistance and characteristic nonlinear electromagnetic response of a Topological Insulator

    E-print Network

    Ching Hua Lee; Xiao Zhang; Bochen Guan

    2015-05-10

    Materials exhibiting negative differential resistance have important applications in technologies involving microwave generation, which range from motion sensing to radio astronomy. Despite their usefulness, there has been few physical mechanisms giving rise to materials with such properties, i.e. GaAs employed in the Gunn diode. In this work, we show that negative differential resistance also generically arise in Dirac ring systems, an example of which has been experimentally observed in the surface states of Topological Insulators. This novel realization of negative differential resistance is based on a completely different physical mechanism from that of the Gunn effect, relying on the characteristic non-monotonicity of the response curve that remains robust in the presence of nonzero temperature, chemical potential, mass gap and impurity scattering. As such, it opens up new possibilities for engineering applications, such as frequency upconversion devices which are highly sought for terahertz signal generation. Our results may be tested with thin films of Bi2Se3 Topological Insulators, and are expected to hold qualitatively even in the absence of a strictly linear Dirac dispersion, as will be the case in more generic samples of Bi2Se3 and other materials with topologically nontrivial Fermi sea regions.

  11. Interpreting broad emission-line variations II: Tensions between luminosity, characteristic size and responsivity

    E-print Network

    Goad, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the variability behaviour of the broad Hb emission-line to driving continuum variations in the best-studied AGN NGC 5548. For a particular choice of BLR geometry, Hb surface emissivity based on photoionization models, and using a scaled version of the 13 yr optical continuum light curve as a proxy for the driving ionizing continuum, we explore several key factors that determine the broad emission line luminosity L, characteristic size R(RW), and variability amplitude (i.e., responsivity) eta, as well as the interplay between them. For fixed boundary models which extend as far as the hot-dust the predicted delays for Hb are on average too long. However, the predicted variability amplitude of Hb provides a remarkably good match to observations except during low continuum states. We suggest that the continuum flux variations which drive the redistribution in Hb surface emissivity F(r) do not on their own lead to large enough changes in R(RW) or eta(eff). We thus investigate dust-bounded BLRs for w...

  12. Negative differential resistance and characteristic nonlinear electromagnetic response of a Topological Insulator

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ching Hua; Zhang, Xiao; Guan, Bochen

    2015-01-01

    Materials exhibiting negative differential resistance have important applications in technologies involving microwave generation, which range from motion sensing to radio astronomy. Despite their usefulness, there has been few physical mechanisms giving rise to materials with such properties, i.e. GaAs employed in the Gunn diode. In this work, we show that negative differential resistance also generically arise in Dirac ring systems, an example of which has been experimentally observed in the surface states of Topological Insulators. This novel realization of negative differential resistance is based on a completely different physical mechanism from that of the Gunn effect, relying on the characteristic non-monotonicity of the response curve that remains robust in the presence of nonzero temperature, chemical potential, mass gap and impurity scattering. As such, it opens up new possibilities for engineering applications, such as frequency upconversion devices which are highly sought for terahertz signal generation. Our results may be tested with thin films of Bi2Se3 Topological Insulators, and are expected to hold qualitatively even in the absence of a strictly linear Dirac dispersion, as will be the case in more generic samples of Bi2Se3 and other materials with topologically nontrivial Fermi sea regions. PMID:26657341

  13. Blade Vibration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Phase I project successfully demonstrated that an advanced noncontacting stress measurement system (NSMS) could improve classification of blade vibration response in terms of mistuning and closely spaced modes. The Phase II work confirmed the microwave sensor design process, modified the sensor so it is compatible as an upgrade to existing NSMS, and improved and finalized the NSMS software. The result will be stand-alone radar/tip timing radar signal conditioning for current conventional NSMS users (as an upgrade) and new users. The hybrid system will use frequency data and relative mode vibration levels from the radar sensor to provide substantially superior capabilities over current blade-vibration measurement technology. This frequency data, coupled with a reduced number of tip timing probes, will result in a system capable of detecting complex blade vibrations that would confound traditional NSMS systems. The hardware and software package was validated on a compressor rig at Mechanical Solutions, Inc. (MSI). Finally, the hybrid radar/tip timing NSMS software package and associated sensor hardware will be installed for use in the NASA Glenn spin pit test facility.

  14. Vibrations transmitted to human subjects through passenger seats and considerations of passenger comfort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the vertical and lateral vibration-transmission characteristics of several types of transport vehicle seats (two aircraft and one bus) to obtain preliminary estimates and comparisons of the ride acceptability of the various seat types. Results of this investigation indicate that from the standpoint of human comfort the seats exhibit undesirable dynamic response characteristics. Amplification of floor vibrations occurred at the frequencies known to be most critical for human comfort in both vertical and lateral axes. An average transmissibility function for aircraft seats was tabulated together with the associated variability for use by designers who incorporate similar types of seats in their vehicles. The acceptability of vibrations resulting from floor inputs of 0.10g and 0.15g was low over a broad range of frequencies for both axes and all seat types, and was especially low at frequencies where the input was being amplified.

  15. 2011 Vibrations -1 VIBRATION OF PLATES & BARS

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    2011 Vibrations - 1 VIBRATION OF PLATES & BARS The objectives of this experiment are: To observe and short flat bars, Chladni plates, salt, salt trays INTRODUCTION he equations of vibrational motion;2011 Vibrations - 2 2f 6.27 1f 3f 17.55 1f etc. Where y = transverse displacement of bar element x = distance

  16. Polarimetric fiber vibration sensor based on polarization-diversity loop structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoungsoo; Kim, Young Suk; Jo, Songhyun; Lee, Yong Wook

    2015-07-01

    Here, we demonstrated a polarimetric fiber vibration sensor based on a polarization-diversity loop structure (PDLS) by using polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PM-PCF). The PDLS is composed of a polarization beam splitter, PM-PCF, and polarization controllers, forming a Sagnac birefringence interferometer (SBI) that has periodic interference spectra. When static strain is applied to PM-PCF used as a sensor head, spectral shift is observed in the output interference spectrum of the SBI of the sensor. If a monochromatic light source such as a laser diode is introduced into the SBI, the output optical power of the SBI is determined by its wavelength-dependent transmittance. If the wavelength of the light source is properly located at a spectral region where the transmittance of the SBI linearly varies, therefore, the magnitude of strain applied to PM-PCF can be found by observing the output voltage variation of a photodetector connected to the output port of the SBI. To investigate the vibration response of the proposed sensor with respect to various types of vibration, vibration diverse in the amplitude and frequency was applied to 8-cm-long PM-PCF by using a cylindrical piezoelectric transducer or a metal cantilever. First, vibration characteristics were examined for single frequency vibration in a range of 1-3000 Hz. Then, the sensor response to naturally damped vibration was explored. It was experimentally observed that the cut-off frequency was ~1900 Hz in the frequency response, and the peak value of the sensor output signal increased with the amount of impulse for naturally damped vibration.

  17. Analysis on pseudo excitation of random vibration for structure of time flight counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiong; Li, Dapeng

    2015-03-01

    Traditional computing method is inefficient for getting key dynamical parameters of complicated structure. Pseudo Excitation Method(PEM) is an effective method for calculation of random vibration. Due to complicated and coupling random vibration in rocket or shuttle launching, the new staging white noise mathematical model is deduced according to the practical launch environment. This deduced model is applied for PEM to calculate the specific structure of Time of Flight Counter(ToFC). The responses of power spectral density and the relevant dynamic characteristic parameters of ToFC are obtained in terms of the flight acceptance test level. Considering stiffness of fixture structure, the random vibration experiments are conducted in three directions to compare with the revised PEM. The experimental results show the structure can bear the random vibration caused by launch without any damage and key dynamical parameters of ToFC are obtained. The revised PEM is similar with random vibration experiment in dynamical parameters and responses are proved by comparative results. The maximum error is within 9%. The reasons of errors are analyzed to improve reliability of calculation. This research provides an effective method for solutions of computing dynamical characteristic parameters of complicated structure in the process of rocket or shuttle launching.

  18. Coupling between plate vibration and acoustic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frendi, Abdelkader; Maestrello, Lucio; Bayliss, Alvin

    1992-01-01

    A detailed numerical investigation of the coupling between the vibration of a flexible plate and the acoustic radiation is performed. The nonlinear Euler equations are used to describe the acoustic fluid while the nonlinear plate equation is used to describe the plate vibration. Linear, nonlinear, and quasi-periodic or chaotic vibrations and the resultant acoustic radiation are analyzed. We find that for the linear plate response, acoustic coupling is negligible. However, for the nonlinear and chaotic responses, acoustic coupling has a significant effect on the vibration level as the loading increases. The radiated pressure from a plate undergoing nonlinear or chaotic vibrations is found to propagate nonlinearly into the far-field. However, the nonlinearity due to wave propagation is much weaker than that due to the plate vibrations. As the acoustic wave propagates into the far-field, the relative difference in level between the fundamental and its harmonics and subharmonics decreases with distance.

  19. Biocompatibility, Inflammatory Response, and Recannalization Characteristics of Nonradioactive Resin Microspheres: Histological Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbao, Jose I.; Martino, Alba de; Luis, Esther de; Diaz-Dorronsoro, Lourdes; Alonso-Burgos, Alberto; Martinez de la Cuesta, Antonio; Sangro, Bruno; Garcia de Jalon, Jose A.

    2009-07-15

    Intra-arterial radiotherapy with yttrium-90 microspheres (radioembolization) is a therapeutic procedure exclusively applied to the liver that allows the direct delivery of high-dose radiation to liver tumors, by means of endovascular catheters, selectively placed within the tumor vasculature. The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of spheres within the precapillaries, inflammatory response, and recannalization characteristics after embolization with nonradioactive resin microspheres in the kidney and liver. We performed a partial embolization of the liver and kidney vessels in nine white pigs. The left renal and left hepatic arteries were catheterized and filled with nonradioactive resin microspheres. Embolization was defined as the initiation of near-stasis of blood flow, rather than total occlusion of the vessels. The hepatic circulation was not isolated so that the effects of reflux of microspheres into stomach could be observed. Animals were sacrificed at 48 h, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks, and tissue samples from the kidney, liver, lung, and stomach evaluated. Microscopic evaluation revealed clusters of 10-30 microspheres (15-30 {mu}m in diameter) in the small vessels of the kidney (the arciform arteries, vasa recti, and glomerular afferent vessels) and liver. Aggregates were associated with focal ischemia and mild vascular wall damage. Occlusion of the small vessels was associated with a mild perivascular inflammatory reaction. After filling of the left hepatic artery with microspheres, there was some evidence of arteriovenous shunting into the lungs, and one case of cholecystitis and one case of marked gastritis and ulceration at the site of arterial occlusion due to the presence of clusters of microspheres. Beyond 48 h, microspheres were progressively integrated into the vascular wall by phagocytosis and the lumen recannalized. Eight-week evaluation found that the perivascular inflammatory reaction was mild. Liver cell damage, bile duct injury, and portal space fibrosis were not observed. In conclusion, resin microspheres (15-30 {mu}m diameter) trigger virtually no inflammatory response in target tissues (liver and kidney). Clusters rather than individual microspheres were associated with a mild to moderate perivascular inflammatory reaction. There was no evidence of either a prolonged inflammatory reaction or fibrosis in the liver parenchyma following recannalization.

  20. Whole-body vibration perception thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, K. C.; Griffin, M. J.

    1988-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of laboratory experiments concerned with perception thresholds for whole-body vibration. The nature of absolute perception thresholds is discussed and a method of determining vibration thresholds, based upon signal detection theory, is proposed. Thresholds of subjects exposed to x-, y- and z-axis sinusoidal vibration were determined for sitting and standing subjects (from 2 to 100 Hz). Perception thresholds have also been determined for supine subjects exposed to vertical ( x-axis) sinusoidal vibration (10-63 Hz). In additional experiments the effects of complex (e.g., random) vibration and the effects of duration on the perception thresholds were investigated. The relation between perception thresholds and vibration levels, said by subjects to be unacceptable if they occurred in their own homes, was investigated as well as the effects of subjects' personality and the visual and acoustic conditions in the laboratory. For the vertical vibration of seated subjects no significant differences were found between the responses of male and female subjects. Significant differences were found between perception thresholds for sitting and standing postures. The median threshold was approximately 0·01 m/s 2 r.m.s. between 2 and 100 Hz. Perception thresholds for x-axis and y-axis vibration were not significantly different in either sitting or standing subjects but significant differences in thresholds were found between sitting and standing positions for both x-axis and y-axis vibration. Subjects tended to be more sensitive to vibration when lying than when sitting or standing. The results suggested that the perception of random vibrations can be predicted from a knowledge of the perception of its component vibrations. The number of cycles of vibration did not affect perception thresholds for vibration durations of more than about 0·25 s. Some assessments suggested that vibration at more than twice the perception threshold may not be acceptable if it occurs in the home.

  1. Theoretical analysis of linear and nonlinear piezoelectric vibrational energy harvesters for human walking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltanany, Ali M.; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Fujimura, Norifumi; Elsayed, Nour Z.; Ebied, Mohamed R.; Ali, Mohamed G. S.

    2015-10-01

    The role of nonlinear stiffness in the performance of the piezoelectric vibrational energy harvester (pVEH) was discussed. Harmonic balance and numerical methods are applied to characterize the electromechanical response of pVEHs based on Duffing oscillator at a deterministic harmonic excitation of fundamental vibration characteristics (2 Hz, 1 m·s-2), which corresponds to human walking. Then, the response to a vibration with two harmonic waves, which has a fixed fundamental frequency (2 Hz, 1 m·s-2) and a frequency varied from 1.5 to 2.5 Hz. The numerical results obtained in this study indicate that nonlinearity does not have a significant advantage on the energy harvesting from human walking.

  2. Influence of support properties on the sound radiated from the vibrations of rectangular plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Mongeau, L.; Siegmund, T.

    2003-07-01

    The control of the forced vibration response of structures through the optimal tuning of its supports is desirable in many applications. Tuning may enhance the dissipation of vibration energy within the supports, thereby reducing fatigue and structure-borne noise. Two different models were developed to calculate the optimal support stiffness that minimizes the velocity response of homogeneous plates. The first model, based on the wave propagation at the edge, yields a good first cut approximation of the optimal properties. The optimal viscous and viscoelastic support stiffness for minimal reflection at the edge was calculated. Maximum absorption of the incident waves occurs when the viscous support stiffness matches the characteristic mechanical impedances of the plate. The second model, based on the Rayleigh-Ritz method, yields more accurate estimates of the optimal support stiffness required to minimize the forced velocity response of the finite rectangular plate. The optimal support properties calculated from the two different methods were in good agreement. This suggested that the modal response of the plate is strongly influenced by the wave reflections at the edges. Finally, the effects of support properties on the sound radiated from the plate were investigated. The optimal support stiffness that minimizes the radiated sound power was found to be smaller than the value that minimizes the velocity response. The results show that both the velocity response and sound radiation are strongly influenced by dissipation of vibration energy at the edges, and demonstrate that support tuning can yield significant noise and vibration reduction.

  3. Vibration Responses of Test Structure No. 2 During the Edward Air Force Base Phase of the National Sonic Boom Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findley, D. S.; Huckel, V.; Hubbard, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    In order to evaluate reaction of people to sonic booms of varying overpressures and time durations, a series of closely controlled and systematic flight tests/studies were conducted from June 3 to June 23, 1966. The dynamic responses of several building structures were measured, with emphasis on a two-story residence structure. Sample acceleration and strain recordings from F-104, B-58, and XB-70 sonic boom exposures are included, along with tabulations of the maximum acceleration and strain values measured for each one of about 140 flight tests. These data are compared with similar measurements for engine noise exposures of the building during simulated landing approaches and takeoffs of KC-135 aircraft.

  4. Coupled rotor/airframe vibration analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sopher, R.; Studwell, R. E.; Cassarino, S.; Kottapalli, S. B. R.

    1982-01-01

    A coupled rotor/airframe vibration analysis developed as a design tool for predicting helicopter vibrations and a research tool to quantify the effects of structural properties, aerodynamic interactions, and vibration reduction devices on vehicle vibration levels is described. The analysis consists of a base program utilizing an impedance matching technique to represent the coupled rotor/airframe dynamics of the system supported by inputs from several external programs supplying sophisticated rotor and airframe aerodynamic and structural dynamic representation. The theoretical background, computer program capabilities and limited correlation results are presented in this report. Correlation results using scale model wind tunnel results show that the analysis can adequately predict trends of vibration variations with airspeed and higher harmonic control effects. Predictions of absolute values of vibration levels were found to be very sensitive to modal characteristics and results were not representative of measured values.

  5. Dynamic vibration absorber using magnetic spring and damper

    SciTech Connect

    Aida, Y.; Niwa, H.; Miyano, H.; Ozaki, O.; Kitada, Y.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a dynamic vibration absorber based on a magnetic spring and damper system. A pair of double cylindrical magnets face each other across a gap, with one magnet fixed to the target structure and the other to the moving mass of the dynamic vibration absorber. The magnetic restoring force characteristics of the proposed system are examined through static loading tests and analysis. The dynamic characteristics are also tested in vibration tests. Furthermore, application of the proposed dynamic vibration absorber to a rotating machinery model demonstrates that the system gives effective two-dimensional vibration control.

  6. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    DOEpatents

    Cornelius, Charles C. (San Diego, CA); Pytanowski, Gregory P. (San Diego, CA); Vendituoli, Jonathan S. (San Diego, CA)

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass "M" or combined mass "CM" of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics.

  7. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    DOEpatents

    Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.

  8. Random vibration and reliability of composite structures

    SciTech Connect

    Cederbaum, G.; Elishakoff, I.; Aboudi, J.; Librescu, L. Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton Tel Aviv University, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg )

    1992-01-01

    A presentation is given of a wide spectrum of problems related to the random response and the reliability of composite structures. The general topics addressed include: random vibration of laminated composite plates, dynamic response of moderately thick laminated composite shells to random excitation, response of laminated plates to nonstationary random excitation, reliability of composite laminated plates, micromechanics of fiber-reinforced composites, random vibration of viscoelastic laminated plates, reliability of composites based on micromechanically predicted strength and fatigue criteria. 231 refs.

  9. Investigation of Gearbox Vibration Transmission Paths on Gear Condition Indicator Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Islam, AKM Anwarul; Feldman, Jason; Larsen, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Helicopter health monitoring systems use vibration signatures generated from damaged components to identify transmission faults. For damaged gears, these signatures relate to changes in dynamics due to the meshing of the damaged tooth. These signatures, referred to as condition indicators (CI), can perform differently when measured on different systems, such as a component test rig, or a full-scale transmission test stand, or an aircraft. These differences can result from dissimilarities in systems design and environment under dynamic operating conditions. The static structure can also filter the response between the vibration source and the accelerometer, when the accelerometer is installed on the housing. To assess the utility of static vibration transfer paths for predicting gear CI performance, measurements were taken on the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Test Rig. The vibration measurements were taken to determine the effect of torque, accelerometer location and gearbox design on accelerometer response. Measurements were taken at the housing and compared while impacting the gear set near mesh. These impacts were made at gear mesh to simulate gear meshing dynamics. Data measured on a helicopter gearbox installed in a static fixture were also compared to the test rig. The behavior of the structure under static conditions was also compared to CI values calculated under dynamic conditions. Results indicate that static vibration transfer path measurements can provide some insight into spiral bevel gear CI performance by identifying structural characteristics unique to each system that can affect specific CI response.

  10. Using Monte Carlo Ray tracing to Understand the Vibrational Response of UN as Measured by Neutron Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J. Y. Y.; Aczel, A. A.; Abernathy, D. L.; Nagler, S. E.; Buyers, W. J. L.; Granroth, G. E.

    2014-03-01

    Recently neutron spectroscopy measurements, using the ARCS and SEQUOIA time-of-flight chopper spectrometers, observed an extended series of equally spaced modes in UN that are well described by quantum harmonic oscillator behavior of the N atoms. Additional contributions to the scattering are also observed. Monte Carlo ray tracing simulations with various sample kernels have allowed us to distinguish between the response from the N oscillator scattering, contributions that arise from the U partial phonon density of states (PDOS), and all forms of multiple scattering. These simulations confirm that multiple scattering contributes an ~ Q -independent background to the spectrum at the oscillator mode positions. All three of the aforementioned contributions are necessary to accurately model the experimental data. These simulations were also used to compare the T dependence of the oscillator modes in SEQUOIA data to that predicted by the binary solid model. This work was sponsored by the Scientific User Facilities Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. Interpretation of DNA vibrational spectra by normal coordinate analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghomi, M; Letellier, R; Liquier, J; Taillandier, E

    1990-01-01

    1. In the following article we undertake a brief review of the most prominent DNA vibrational markers as observed experimentally by Raman and i.r. spectroscopies on polynucleotides and explain how a simplified valence force field can account for the evolution of the DNA vibrational spectra. 2. Our discussion made as a review of our previous investigations on the interpretation of DNA vibration modes, is based on some of the most characteristic and structure dependent DNA vibrational markers. PMID:2205520

  12. Investigation of crystal structure, vibrational characteristics and molecular conductivity of 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyno-p-benzoquinone.

    PubMed

    Rani, Poonam; Rajput, Gunjan; Yadav, R A

    2015-02-25

    Molecular geometries and vibrational spectra for the ground state of 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyno-p-benzoquinone (DDQ) and its anion (DDQ(-)) were computed using DFT method at the B3LYP level employing 6-311++G(d,p) basis set whereas for the first excited state (DDQ(?)), these were calculated using TD-DFT at the B3LYP level employing the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set available with the Gaussian 09 package. The spectra have been experimentally investigated and the observed IR and Raman bands have been assigned to different normal modes on the basis of the calculated potential energy distributions (PEDs). XRD of single crystal has been investigated to determine molecular and crystal structures of DDQ. In order to elucidate the transfer of electrons, electronic structure and electronic absorption have been calculated with the TD-DFT method. Vibronic interaction and its role in the appearance of superconductivity in the DDQ, DDQ(-) and DDQ(?) molecules have been investigated. The present XRD, molecular, electronic and vibronic studies indicate that mainly the ag C=O stretching and ring stretching modes participate in the charge transfer process. PMID:25305626

  13. General vibration monitoring: Utility Building, August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; Wambsganss, M.W.; Smith, R.K.

    1993-10-01

    This vibration data was generated from measurements made on 8/12/92. The contents are self explanatory. They are baseline measurements and no exceptionally large vibration amplitude or response was observed. These measurements represent baseline measurements, i.e., measurements with no driving forces active, made on the utility building, a service building for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.

  14. Automated Characterization Of Vibrations Of A Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, David S.; Yam, Yeung; Mettler, Edward; Hadaegh, Fred Y.; Milman, Mark H.; Scheid, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    Automated method of characterizing dynamical properties of large flexible structure yields estimates of modal parameters used by robust control system to stabilize structure and minimize undesired motions. Based on extraction of desired modal and control-design data from responses of structure to known vibrational excitations. Applicable to terrestrial structures where vibrations are important - aircraft, buildings, bridges, cranes, and drill strings.

  15. Multiscale Mechanical Model of the Pacinian Corpuscle Shows Depth and Anisotropy Contribute to the Receptor’s Characteristic Response to Indentation

    PubMed Central

    Quindlen, Julia C.; Lai, Victor K.; Barocas, Victor H.

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous mechanoreceptors transduce different tactile stimuli into neural signals that produce distinct sensations of touch. The Pacinian corpuscle (PC), a cutaneous mechanoreceptor located deep within the dermis of the skin, detects high frequency vibrations that occur within its large receptive field. The PC is comprised of lamellae that surround the nerve fiber at its core. We hypothesized that a layered, anisotropic structure, embedded deep within the skin, would produce the nonlinear strain transmission and low spatial sensitivity characteristic of the PC. A multiscale finite-element model was used to model the equilibrium response of the PC to indentation. The first simulation considered an isolated PC with fiber networks aligned with the PC’s surface. The PC was subjected to a 10 ?m indentation by a 250 ?m diameter indenter. The multiscale model captured the nonlinear strain transmission through the PC, predicting decreased compressive strain with proximity to the receptor’s core, as seen experimentally by others. The second set of simulations considered a single PC embedded epidermally (shallow) or dermally (deep) to model the PC’s location within the skin. The embedded models were subjected to 10 ?m indentations at a series of locations on the surface of the skin. Strain along the long axis of the PC was calculated after indentation to simulate stretch along the nerve fiber at the center of the PC. Receptive fields for the epidermis and dermis models were constructed by mapping the long-axis strain after indentation at each point on the surface of the skin mesh. The dermis model resulted in a larger receptive field, as the calculated strain showed less indenter location dependence than in the epidermis model. PMID:26390130

  16. Microelectromechanical power generator and vibration sensor

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-11-28

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which can be used to generate electrical power in response to an external source of vibrations, or to sense the vibrations and generate an electrical output voltage in response thereto. The MEM apparatus utilizes a meandering electrical pickup located near a shuttle which holds a plurality of permanent magnets. Upon movement of the shuttle in response to vibrations coupled thereto, the permanent magnets move in a direction substantially parallel to the meandering electrical pickup, and this generates a voltage across the meandering electrical pickup. The MEM apparatus can be fabricated by LIGA or micromachining.

  17. Engineering characterization of ground motion. Task I. Effects of characteristics of free-field motion on structural response

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.; Merz, K.L.; Tokarz, F.J.; Idriss, I.M.; Power, M.S.; Sadigh, K.

    1984-05-01

    This report presents the results of the first task of a two-task study on the engineering characterization of earthquake ground motion for nuclear power plant design. The overall objective of this study is to develop recommendations for methods for selecting design response spectra or acceleration time histories to be used to characterize motion at the foundation level of nuclear power plants. Task I of the study develops a basis for selecting design response spectra, taking into account the characteristics of free-field ground motion found to be significant in causing structural damage.

  18. Impaired response inhibition in juvenile delinquents with antisocial personality characteristics: A preliminary ERP study in a Go/Nogo task.

    PubMed

    Guan, Muzhen; Liao, Yang; Ren, Huijuan; Wang, Xiuchao; Yang, Qun; Liu, Xufeng; Wang, Wei

    2015-08-31

    The present study explored the time course of response inhibition function in juvenile delinquents with antisocial personality characteristics (JDAP) by recording the event-related potentials in a Go/Nogo task. Compared to healthy participants, JDAP participants showed similar performance to controls for the Go trails, but worse performance for the Nogo trails. Both N2nogo and P3nogo components showed reduction of the amplitudes in JDAP participants, reflecting the early stage of associated with conflict monitoring and the late stage of inhibition processing, respectively. These data suggest that JDAP participants exhibited impaired response inhibition function. PMID:26189594

  19. Nonlinear Vibration in Gear Systems

    E-print Network

    Grzegorz Litak; Michael I. Friswell

    2003-02-22

    Gear box dynamics is characterised by a periodically changing stiffness and a backlash which can lead to a loss of the contact between the teeth. Due to backlash, the gear system has piecewise linear stiffness characteristics and, in consequence, can vibrate regularly or chaoticaly depending on the system parameters and the initial conditions. We examine the possibility of a nonfeedback system control by introducing a weak resonant excitation term and through adding an additional degree of freedom to account for shaft flexibility on one side of the gearbox. We shall show that by correctly choosing the coupling values the system vibrations may be controlled.

  20. Downhole vibration sensing by vibration energy harvesting

    E-print Network

    Trimble, A. Zachary

    2007-01-01

    This thesis outlines the design of a prototype electromagnetic induction vibration energy harvesting device for use in a downhole environment. First order models of the necessary components for a generic vibration energy ...

  1. Actively controlled vibration welding system and method

    DOEpatents

    Cai, Wayne W.; Kang, Bongsu; Tan, Chin-An

    2013-04-02

    A vibration welding system includes a controller, welding horn, an active material element, and anvil assembly. The assembly may include an anvil body connected to a back plate and support member. The element, e.g., a piezoelectric stack or shape memory alloy, is positioned with respect to the assembly. The horn vibrates in a desirable first direction to form a weld on a work piece. The element controls any vibrations in a second direction by applying calibrated response to the anvil body in the second direction. A method for controlling undesirable vibrations in the system includes positioning the element with respect to the anvil assembly, connecting the anvil body to the support member through the back plate, vibrating the horn in a desirable first direction, and transmitting an input signal to the element to control vibration in an undesirable second direction.

  2. [Characteristics of the human cardiovascular system in the human diving response].

    PubMed

    Baranova, T I

    2004-01-01

    Comparative-evolutional research of diving response showed that mechanisms of its expression had much in common in humans and in animals. Firstly, it involves a reflex bradycardia, vasoconstriction of peripheral vessels, and blood flow centralization. But, unlike animals whose diving response has some typical species peculiarities, human diving response is rather diverse. Four types of cardiovascular system response to face submersion were revealed: over-reactive, reactive, paradoxical, and nonreactive. These types were chosen according to the bradycardia character. It is also supposed that the occurrence of individual maximal R--R-interval, while serving as a signal to apnea stopping, is among the reasons of apnea activity limitation. PMID:15143489

  3. Study of molecular vibration by coupled cluster method: Bosonic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banik, Subrata; Pal, Sourav; Prasad, M. Durga

    2015-01-01

    The vibrational coupled cluster method in bosonic representation is formulated to describe the molecular anharmonic vibrational spectra. The vibrational coupled cluster formalism is based on Watson Hamiltonian in normal coordinates. The vibrational excited states are described using coupled cluster linear response theory (CCLRT). The quality of the coupled cluster wave function is analyzed. Specifically, the mean displacement values of the normal coordinates and expectation values of the square of the normal coordinates of different vibrational states are calculated. A good agreement between the converged full CI results and coupled cluster results is found for the lower lying vibrational states.

  4. Numerical investigation on flow-induced vibration of a triangular cylinder at a low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huakun; Zhao, Dongliang; Yang, Wenyu; Yu, Guoliang

    2015-02-01

    Flow-induced vibration (FIV) of a triangular cylinder is numerically investigated at a Reynolds number of Re = 100. The four-step fractional finite element method is employed to solve the two-dimensional (2D) incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The cylinder is endowed with a two-degree-of-freedom motion with the reduced mass ratio of Mr = 2. Three typical flow incidence angles, ? = 0°, 30° and 60°, are examined to identify the effect of incidence angle on the vibration characteristics of the cylinder. For each ?, computations are conducted in a wide range of reduced velocities 2 Ur ? 18. The numerical results show that at ? = 0° and 30°, the responses of the cylinder are dominated by vortex-induced vibration which resembles that of a circular cylinder. At ? = 0°, the peak amplitude of transverse vibration is the smallest among the three investigated ?, and most of the cylinder motions exhibit a regular figure-eight trajectory. Some single-loop trajectories are observed at ? = 30°, where the vibration frequency in the in-line direction is always identical to that in the transverse direction. At ? = 60°, the triangular cylinder undergoes a typical transverse galloping with large amplitude and low frequency, and the vibration trajectories appear to be regular or irregular figure-eight patterns, which are strongly affected by the reduced velocity.

  5. The effect of damping layers on vibration of laminated thick plates

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, Yoshiki; Narita, Yoshihiro

    1995-11-01

    This paper deals with the effect of damping layers on vibration characteristics of cross-ply laminated, fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) thick plates with damping interleaves. For this purpose, the laminated plates are modeled by using the Multi-Layer (Individual-Layer) Theory. In this theory, a coordinate system is individually taken in each FRP layer or damping layer, and in-plane and out-of-plane displacements are assumed in the polynomial forms of third and second order, respectively. A set of governing equations for the whole laminated plate is derived from the equations of motion and other interfacial conditions. The free vibration and steady state vibration problems of the laminated plate are thus solved by the multi-layer theory. For comparison, an analysis is also presented by using the Lamination Theory, which uses only a single displacement field for the whole plate. Natural frequencies and steady state responses are calculated in numerical examples for the plates with various stacking sequence and thickness ratios of damping layers to FRP layers, and the effects of location and thickness of the damping layers on vibration characteristics are studied. Furthermore, the applicability of both the multi-layer and the lamination theories in the vibration analysis is discussed by comparing two sets of results.

  6. Mathematical formalism and characteristics of four basic models of indirect pharmacodynamic responses for drug infusions.

    PubMed

    Krzyzanski, W; Jusko, W J

    1998-08-01

    Indirect response models require differential equations to describe the nonlinear inhibition or stimulation of the production or loss (kout) of the response variable. Partially integrated solutions for these models developed previously for i.v. bolus or biphasic pharmacokinetics were extended to consider drug infusions for limited or extended durations. Qualitative examination was made of the role of infusion rate and duration, type and rate of drug disposition, Imax or Smax capacity factors, IC50 or SC50 sensitivity factors, and Kout values. Properties of the response curves characterized include curve shapes, maximum or minimum response, onset rate, steady-state, and return to baseline. Some comparisons were made with behavior of i.v. bolus doses. These relationships provide both a formal and practical basis for better understanding of the time-course of basic indirect response models. PMID:10214559

  7. Do Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs use vibrational communication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2011-07-01

    Small Auchenorrhyncha use substrate-borne vibrations to communicate. Although this behaviour is well known in adult leafhoppers, so far no studies have been published on nymphs. Here we checked the occurrence of vibrational communication in Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs as a possible explanation of their aggregative distributions on host plants. We studied possible vibratory emissions of isolated and grouped nymphs, as well as their behavioural responses to vibration stimuli that simulated presence of conspecifics, to disturbance noise, white noise and predator spiders. None of our synthetic stimuli or pre-recorded substrate vibrations from nymphs elicited specific vibration responses and only those due to grooming or mechanical contacts of the insect with the leaf were recorded. Thus, S. titanus nymphs showed to not use species-specific vibrations neither for intra- nor interspecific communication and also did not produce alarm vibrations when facing potential predators. We conclude that their aggregative behaviour is independent from a vibrational communication.

  8. Response characteristics of pruriceptive and nociceptive trigeminoparabrachial tract neurons in the rat.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Nico A; Giesler, Glenn J

    2015-01-01

    We tested the possibility that the trigeminoparabrachial tract (VcPbT), a projection thought to be importantly involved in nociception, might also contribute to sensation of itch. In anesthetized rats, 47 antidromically identified VcPbT neurons with receptive fields involving the cheek were characterized for their responses to graded mechanical and thermal stimuli and intradermal injections of pruritogens (serotonin, chloroquine, and ?-alanine), partial pruritogens (histamine and capsaicin), and an algogen (mustard oil). All pruriceptive VcPbT neurons were responsive to mechanical stimuli, and more than half were additionally responsive to thermal stimuli. The majority of VcPbT neurons were activated by injections of serotonin, histamine, capsaicin, and/or mustard oil. A subset of neurons were inhibited by injection of chloroquine. The large majority of VcPbT neurons projected to the ipsilateral and/or contralateral external lateral parabrachial and Kölliker-Fuse nuclei, as evidenced by antidromic mapping techniques. Analyses of mean responses and spike-timing dynamics of VcPbT neurons suggested clear differences in firing rates between responses to noxious and pruritic stimuli. Comparisons between the present data and those previously obtained from trigeminothalamic tract (VcTT) neurons demonstrated several differences in responses to some pruritogens. For example, responses of VcPbT neurons to injection of serotonin often endured for nearly an hour and showed a delayed peak in discharge rate. In contrast, responses of VcTT neurons endured for roughly 20 min and no delayed peak of firing was noted. Thus the longer duration responses to 5-HT and the delay in peak firing of VcPbT neurons better matched behavioral responses to stimulation in awake rats than did those of VcTT neurons. The results indicate that VcPbT neurons may have important roles in the signaling of itch as well as pain. PMID:25298386

  9. Response and characteristics of structures subjected to S-H waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the dynamic characteristics of a coupled translational-rotational system is given. The formulation of the problem considers the soil-structure interaction effects by utilizing the impedance functions at the foundation of a structure. Due to the fact that the coefficient matrix in the characteristic equation is frequency dependent in nature, iterations have to be performed to find the nature frequencies of the system. Examples and discussions are presented. Comparisons of the analytical results from various approaches are also given.

  10. Passively damped vibration welding system and method

    DOEpatents

    Tan, Chin-An; Kang, Bongsu; Cai, Wayne W.; Wu, Tao

    2013-04-02

    A vibration welding system includes a controller, welding horn, an anvil, and a passive damping mechanism (PDM). The controller generates an input signal having a calibrated frequency. The horn vibrates in a desirable first direction at the calibrated frequency in response to the input signal to form a weld in a work piece. The PDM is positioned with respect to the system, and substantially damps or attenuates vibration in an undesirable second direction. A method includes connecting the PDM having calibrated properties and a natural frequency to an anvil of an ultrasonic welding system. Then, an input signal is generated using a weld controller. The method includes vibrating a welding horn in a desirable direction in response to the input signal, and passively damping vibration in an undesirable direction using the PDM.

  11. Analytical and experimental study of vibrations in a gear transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choy, F. K.; Ruan, Y. F.; Zakrajsek, J. J.; Oswald, Fred B.; Coy, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical simulation of the dynamics of a gear transmission system is presented and compared to experimental results from a gear noise test rig at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The analytical procedure developed couples the dynamic behaviors of the rotor-bearing-gear system with the response of the gearbox structure. The modal synthesis method is used in solving the overall dynamics of the system. Locally each rotor-gear stage is modeled as an individual rotor-bearing system using the matrix transfer technique. The dynamics of each individual rotor are coupled with other rotor stages through the nonlinear gear mesh forces and with the gearbox structure through bearing support systems. The modal characteristics of the gearbox structure are evaluated using the finite element procedure. A variable time steping integration routine is used to calculate the overall time transient behavior of the system in modal coordinates. The global dynamic behavior of the system is expressed in a generalized coordinate system. Transient and steady state vibrations of the gearbox system are presented in the time and frequency domains. The vibration characteristics of a simple single mesh gear noise test rig is modeled. The numerical simulations are compared to experimental data measured under typical operating conditions. The comparison of system natural frequencies, peak vibration amplitudes, and gear mesh frequencies are generally in good agreement.

  12. An adaptive beam model and dynamic characteristics of magnetorheological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qing; Zhou, Jin-Xiong; Zhang, Ling

    2003-03-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) materials show variations in their rheological properties when subjected to varying magnetic fields. They have quick time response, in the order of milliseconds, and thus are potentially applicable to structures and devices when a tunable system response is required. When incorporated into an adaptive structural system, they can yield higher variations in the dynamic response of the structure. This study presents a detailed analysis of dynamic characteristics of adaptive beam based on MR materials. The relationship between the magnetic field and the complex shear modulus of MR materials in the pre-yield regime is researched using oscillatory rheometry techniques. A structural dynamic modelling approach is discussed and vibration characteristics of MR adaptive structures are predicted for different magnetic field levels. In addition to the model predictions, actual MR adaptive beam is fabricated and tested. Both studies illustrate the vibration minimization capabilities of the MR adaptive beam at different magnetic field levels.

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of a stack/cable system subjected to vortex-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.

    1997-08-01

    A model of a stack/wire system, wind-induced vibration of the stack based on an unsteady-flow theory, and nonlinear dynamics of the stack`s heavy elastic suspended cables was developed in this study. The response characteristics of the stack and cables are presented for different conditions. The dominant excitation mechanisms are lock-in resonance of the stack by vortex shedding and parametric resonance of suspended cables by stack motion at their support ends.

  14. Nonlinear dynamics of a stack/cable system subjected to vortex-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    A model of a stack/wire system, wind-induced vibration of the stack based on an unsteady-flow theory, and nonlinear dynamics of the stack`s heavy elastic suspended cables was developed in this study. The response characteristics of the stack and cables are presented for different conditions. The dominant excitation mechanisms are lock-in resonance of the stack by vortex shedding and parametric resonance of suspended cables by stack motion at their support ends.

  15. Stress response effects on growth, carcass characteristics, and tenderness in Bonsmara-influenced steers 

    E-print Network

    Falkenberg, Shollie Marie

    2006-08-16

    they reached approximately 7 mm of backfat as determined by visual assessment and ultrasound. In experiments 1 and 2, behavioral or temperament measures and hormonal responses were related to each other. It appeared as cattle become acclimated to the production...

  16. Cognitive and Psychosocial Characteristics of Gifted Students with Written Language Disability: A Reply to Lovett's Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assouline, Susan G.; Nicpon, Megan Foley; Whiteman, Claire S.

    2011-01-01

    Our article describing the characteristics of gifted students with a specific learning disability (SLD) in written language was criticized for emphasizing an ability achievement discrepancy as an indication of a written language disability and for not ruling out alternative explanations for the observed difficulties. The three primary alternative…

  17. Reductions in finger blood flow in men and women induced by 125-Hz vibration: association with vibration perception thresholds.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ying; Griffin, Michael J

    2011-12-01

    Vibration of one hand reduces blood flow in the exposed hand and in the contralateral hand not exposed to vibration, but the mechanisms involved are not understood. This study investigated whether vibration-induced reductions in finger blood flow are associated with vibrotactile perception thresholds mediated by the Pacinian channel and considered sex differences in both vibration thresholds and vibration-induced changes in digital circulation. With force and vibration applied to the thenar eminence of the right hand, finger blood flow and finger skin temperature were measured in the middle fingers of both hands at 30-s intervals during seven successive 4-min periods: 1) pre-exposure with no force or vibration, 2) pre-exposure with force, 3) vibration 1, 4) rest with force, 5) vibration 2, 6) postexposure with force, and 7) recovery with no force or vibration. A 2-N force was applied during periods 2-6 and 125-Hz vibration at 0.5 and 1.5 ms(-2) root mean square (r.m.s.; unweighted) was applied during periods 3 and 5, respectively. Vibrotactile thresholds were measured at the thenar eminence of right hand using the same force, contact conditions, and vibration frequency. When the vibration magnitude was greater than individual vibration thresholds, changes in finger blood flow were correlated with thresholds (with both 0.5 and 1.5 ms(-2) r.m.s. vibration): subjects with lower thresholds showed greater reductions in finger blood flow. Women had lower vibrotactile thresholds and showed greater vibration-induced reductions in finger blood flow. It is concluded that mechanoreceptors responsible for mediating vibration perception are involved in the vascular response to vibration. PMID:21921246

  18. Noncontact Electromagnetic Vibration Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namkung, Min; Fulton, James P.; Wincheski, Buzz A.

    1994-01-01

    Metal aircraft skins scanned rapidly in vibration tests. Relatively simple combination of permanent magnets and electromagnet serves as noncontact vibration source for nondestructive testing of metal aircraft skins. In test, source excites vibrations, and vibration waveforms measured, then analyzed for changes in resonances signifying cracks and other flaws.

  19. Modular Wideband Active Vibration Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zewari, Wahid; Lee, Kenneth Y.; Smith, David R.

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of space experiments with previous missions shows a common theme. Some of the recent experiments are based on the scientific fundamentals of instruments of prior years. However, the main distinguishing characteristic is the embodiment of advances in engineering and manufacturing in order to extract clearer and sharper images and extend the limits of measurement. One area of importance to future missions is providing vibration free observation platforms at acceptable costs. It has been shown by researchers that vibration problems cannot be eliminated by passive isolation techniques alone. Therefore, various organizations have conducted research in the area of combining active and passive vibration control techniques. The essence of this paper is to present progress in what is believed to be a new concept in this arena. It is based on the notion that if one active element in a vibration transmission path can provide a reasonable vibration attenuation, two active elements in series may provide more control options and better results. The paper presents the functions of a modular split shaft linear actuator developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and University of Massachusetts Lowell. It discusses some of the control possibilities facilitated by the device. Some preliminary findings and problems are also discussed.

  20. Ambient vibration testing for story stiffness estimation of a heritage timber building.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Won; Kim, Junhee; Park, Sung-Ah; Park, Chan-Soo

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates dynamic characteristics of a historic wooden structure by ambient vibration testing, presenting a novel estimation methodology of story stiffness for the purpose of vibration-based structural health monitoring. As for the ambient vibration testing, measured structural responses are analyzed by two output-only system identification methods (i.e., frequency domain decomposition and stochastic subspace identification) to estimate modal parameters. The proposed methodology of story stiffness is estimation based on an eigenvalue problem derived from a vibratory rigid body model. Using the identified natural frequencies, the eigenvalue problem is efficiently solved and uniquely yields story stiffness. It is noteworthy that application of the proposed methodology is not necessarily confined to the wooden structure exampled in the paper. PMID:24227999

  1. Ambient Vibration Testing for Story Stiffness Estimation of a Heritage Timber Building

    PubMed Central

    Min, Kyung-Won; Kim, Junhee; Park, Sung-Ah; Park, Chan-Soo

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates dynamic characteristics of a historic wooden structure by ambient vibration testing, presenting a novel estimation methodology of story stiffness for the purpose of vibration-based structural health monitoring. As for the ambient vibration testing, measured structural responses are analyzed by two output-only system identification methods (i.e., frequency domain decomposition and stochastic subspace identification) to estimate modal parameters. The proposed methodology of story stiffness is estimation based on an eigenvalue problem derived from a vibratory rigid body model. Using the identified natural frequencies, the eigenvalue problem is efficiently solved and uniquely yields story stiffness. It is noteworthy that application of the proposed methodology is not necessarily confined to the wooden structure exampled in the paper. PMID:24227999

  2. Vibration analysis of sandwich rectangular plates with magnetorheological elastomer damping treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Jia-Yi

    2013-03-01

    In this study, the vibration analysis of sandwich rectangular plates with magnetorheological (MR) elastomer damping treatment is presented. The rectangular plate is combined with a magnetorheological elastomer core layer and a constraining layer to improve the vibration behaviors of the sandwich system. The MR material shows variations in the rheological properties when subjected to varying magnetic fields. Additionally, the MR material exhibits a rapid time response and is applicable to structures or devices when a tunable system is required. The magnetorheological elastomer is found to have a significant effect on the vibration characteristics of the sandwich rectangular plate. The modal damper and the natural frequencies for the sandwich plate system are calculated for various magnetic fields and some designed parameters by utilizing the finite element method. The damping effects of the sandwich plate system can be controlled and changed when different magnetic field strengths are applied.

  3. Flow-induced vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Blevins, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on dimensional analysis; ideal fluid models; vortex-induced vibration; galloping and flutter; instability of tube and cylinder arrays; vibrations induced by oscillating flow; vibration induced by turbulence and sound; damping of structures; sound induced by vortex shedding; vibrations of a pipe containing a fluid flow; indices. It covers the analysis of the vibrations of structures exposed to fluid flows; explores applications for offshore platforms and piping; wind-induced vibration of buildings, bridges, and towers; and acoustic and mechanical vibration of heat exchangers, power lines, and process ducting.

  4. A comparison of power output from linear and nonlinear kinetic energy harvesters using real vibration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeby, Stephen P.; Wang, Leran; Zhu, Dibin; Weddell, Alex S.; Merrett, Geoff V.; Stark, Bernard; Szarka, Gyorgy; Al-Hashimi, Bashir M.

    2013-07-01

    The design of vibration energy harvesters (VEHs) is highly dependent upon the characteristics of the environmental vibrations present in the intended application. VEHs can be linear resonant systems tuned to particular frequencies or nonlinear systems with either bistable operation or a Duffing-type response. This paper provides detailed vibration data from a range of applications, which has been made freely available for download through the Energy Harvesting Network’s online data repository. In particular, this research shows that simulation is essential in designing and selecting the most suitable vibration energy harvester for particular applications. This is illustrated through C-based simulations of different types of VEHs, using real vibration data from a diesel ferry engine, a combined heat and power pump, a petrol car engine and a helicopter. The analysis shows that a bistable energy harvester only has a higher output power than a linear or Duffing-type nonlinear energy harvester with the same Q-factor when it is subjected to white noise vibration. The analysis also indicates that piezoelectric transduction mechanisms are more suitable for bistable energy harvesters than electromagnetic transduction. Furthermore, the linear energy harvester has a higher output power compared to the Duffing-type nonlinear energy harvester with the same Q factor in most cases. The Duffing-type nonlinear energy harvester can generate more power than the linear energy harvester only when it is excited at vibrations with multiple peaks and the frequencies of these peaks are within its bandwidth. Through these new observations, this paper illustrates the importance of simulation in the design of energy harvesting systems, with particular emphasis on the need to incorporate real vibration data.

  5. Optical response and magnetic characteristic of samarium doped zinc phosphate glasses containing nickel nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Siti Amlah M.; Sahar, M. R.

    2015-11-01

    A magnetic glass of composition 40ZnO-(58-x) P2O5-1Sm2O3-xNiO, with x=0.0, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mol% is prepared by melt-quenching technique. The glass is characterized by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis. The X-rays diffraction confirms the amorphous nature of the glass while the HRTEM analysis reveals the presence of nickel nanoparticles in the glass samples. High-resolution TEM reveals that the lattice spacing of nickel nanoparticles is 0.35 nm at (100) plane. Photoluminescence emission shows the existence of four peaks that correspond to the transition from the upper level of 4G5/2 to the lower level of 6H5/2, 6H7/2, 6H9/2, and 6H11/2. It is observed that all peaks experience significant quenching effect with the increasing concentration of nickel nanoparticles, suggesting a strong energy transfer from excited samarium ions to the nickel ions. The glass magnetization and susceptibility at 12 kOe at room temperature are found to be in the range of (3.87±0.17×10-2-7.19±0.39×10-2) emu/g and (3.24±0.16×10-6-5.99±0.29×10-6) emu/Oe g respectively. The obtained hysteresis curve indicates that the glass samples are paramagnetic materials. The studied glass can be further used towards the development of magneto-optical functional glass.

  6. Nonstationarities in Catchment Response According to Basin and Rainfall Characteristics: Application to Korean Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyun-Han; Kim, Jin-Guk; Jung, Il-Won

    2015-04-01

    It must be acknowledged that application of rainfall-runoff models to simulate rainfall-runoff processes are successful in gauged watershed. However, there still remain some issues that will need to be further discussed. In particular, the quantitive representation of nonstationarity issue in basin response (e.g. concentration time, storage coefficient and roughness) along with ungauged watershed needs to be studied. In this regard, this study aims to investigate nonstationarity in basin response so as to potentially provide useful information in simulating runoff processes in ungauged watershed. For this purpose, HEC-1 rainfall-runoff model was mainly utilized. In addition, this study combined HEC-1 model with Bayesian statistical model to estimate uncertainty of the parameters which is called Bayesian HEC-1 (BHEC-1). The proposed rainfall-runofall model is applied to various catchments along with various rainfall patterns to understand nonstationarities in catchment response. Further discussion about the nonstationarity in catchment response and possible regionalization of the parameters for ungauged watershed are discussed. KEYWORDS: Nonstationary, Catchment response, Uncertainty, Bayesian Acknowledgement This research was supported by a Grant (13SCIPA01) from Smart Civil Infrastructure Research Program funded by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (MOLIT) of Korea government and the Korea Agency for Infrastructure Technology Advancement (KAIA).

  7. The dynamic-response characteristics of a 35 degree swept-wing airplane as determined from flight measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Triplett, William C; Brown, Stuart C; Smith, G Allan

    1955-01-01

    The longitudinal and lateral-directional dynamic-response characteristics of a 35 degree swept-wing fighter-type airplane determined from flight measurements are presented and compared with predictions based on theoretical studies and wind-tunnel data. Flights were made at an altitude of 35,000 feet covering the Mach number range of 0.50 to 1.04. A limited amount of lateral-directional data were also obtained at 10,000 feet. The flight consisted essentially of recording transient responses to pilot-applied pulsed motions of each of the three primary control surfaces. These transient data were converted into frequency-response form by means of the Fourier transformation and compared with predicted responses calculated from the basic equations. Experimentally determined transfer functions were used for the evaluation of the stability derivatives that have the greatest effect on the dynamic response of the airplane. The values of these derivatives, in most cases, agreed favorably with predictions over the Mach number range of the test.

  8. Dose Response and Post-irradiation Characteristics of the Sunna 535-nm Photo-Fluorescent Film Dosimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Mark K.; Kovacs, Andras; Miller, Steven D.; Mclaughlin, William L.

    2003-06-09

    Results of characterization studies on one of the first versions of the Sunna photo-fluorescent dosimeter ? have previously been reported, and describe the performance of the red fluorescence component. This present paper describes dose response and post-irradiation characteristics of the green fluorescence component from the same dosimeter film (Sunna Model ?), which is manufactured using the injection molding technique. This production method may supply batch sizes on the order of 1 million dosimeter film elements while maintaining a signal precision (1?) on the order of ?1% without the need to correct for variability of film thickness. The dosimeter is a 1-cm by 3-cm polymeric film of 0.5-mm thickness that emits green fluorescence at intensities increasing almost linearly with dose. The data presented include dose response, post-irradiation growth, heat treatment, dosimeter aging, dose rate dependence, energy dependence, dose fractionation, variation of response within a batch, and the stability of the fluorimeter response. The results indicate that, as a routine dosimeter, the green signal provides a broad range of response at food irradiation (0.3 to 5 kGy), medical sterilization (5 to 40 kGy), and polymer cross-linking (40 to 250 kGy) dose levels.

  9. [Individual typological characteristics of hormonal responses in dogs during psychoemotional stress].

    PubMed

    Shaliapina, V G; Vo?lokova, N L; Suvorov, N F; Rakitskaia, V V

    2001-07-01

    Effects of psycho-emotional stress on contents of steroid hormones in the blood were studied in dogs with different typological properties of the higher nervous activity. Under stress condition, a significant correlation between the cortisol and testosterone levels and the dogs' typological characteristics was found. The more obvious fluctuations in the hormones level occurred in animals with strong and excitable type of the nervous system as compared with dogs belonging to weak and inert type. PMID:11575126

  10. Bone Response to Surface-Modified Titanium Implants: Studies on the Early Tissue Response to Implants with Different Surface Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Larsson Wexell, C.; Thomsen, P.; Aronsson, B.-O.; Tengvall, P.; Rodahl, M.; Lausmaa, J.; Kasemo, B.; Ericson, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    In a series of experimental studies, the bone formation around systematically modified titanium implants is analyzed. In the present study, three different surface modifications were prepared and evaluated. Glow-discharge cleaning and oxidizing resulted in a highly stoichiometric TiO2 surface, while a glow-discharge treatment in nitrogen gas resulted in implants with essentially a surface of titanium nitride, covered with a very thin titanium oxide. Finally, hydrogen peroxide treatment of implants resulted in an almost stoichiometric TiO2, rich in hydroxyl groups on the surface. Machined commercially pure titanium implants served as controls. Scanning Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy revealed no significant differences in oxide thickness or surface roughness parameters, but differences in the surface chemical composition and apparent topography were observed. After surface preparation, the implants were inserted in cortical bone of rabbits and evaluated after 1, 3, and 6 weeks. Light microscopic evaluation of the tissue response showed that all implants were in contact with bone and had a large proportion of newly formed bone within the threads after 6 weeks. There were no morphological differences between the four groups. Our study shows that a high degree of bone contact and bone formation can be achieved with titanium implants of different surface composition and topography. PMID:24174936

  11. Surfactant effect on functionalized carbon nanotube coated snowman-like particles and their electro-responsive characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ke; Liu, Ying Dan; Choi, Hyoung Jin

    2012-10-15

    The core–shell structured snowman-like (SL) microparticles coated by functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) were prepared in the presence of different surfactants including cationic surfactant-cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and anionic surfactant-sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS). The effect of surfactants on adsorption onto SL particles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and conductivity. The cationic surfactant is found to be more effective than anionic surfactant for helping nanotube adsorbed onto microparticle due to the presence of electrostatic interaction between the functionalized MWNT and the surfactant. Furthermore, the MWNT/SL particles dispersed in silicone oil exhibited a typical fibril structure of the electrorheological characteristics under an applied electric field observed by an optical microscope (OM), in which the state of nanotubes wrapped on the particles strongly affects their electro-responsive characteristics.

  12. [Light response characteristics of photosynthesis and model comparison of Distylium chinense in different flooding durations].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-bin; Cheng, Rui-mei; Xiao, Wen-fa; Guo, Quan-shui; Wang, Na

    2015-04-01

    The light responses of photosynthesis of two-year-old Distytum chinense seedlings subjected to a simulated reservoir flooding environment in autumn and winter seasons were measured by using a Li-6400 XT portable photosynthesis system, and the light response curves were fitted and analyzed by three models of the rectangular hyperbola, non-rectangular hyperbola and modified rectangular hyperbola to investigate the applicability of different light response models for the D. chinense in different flooding durations and the adaption regulation of light response parameters to flooding stress. The results showed that the fitting effect of the non-rectangular hyperbola model for light response process of D. chinense under normal growth condition and under short-term flooding (15 days of flooding) was better than that of the other two models, while the fitting effect of the modified rectangular hyperbola model for light response process of D. chinense under longer-term flooding (30, 45 and 60 days of flooding) was better than that of the other two models. The modified rectangular hyperbola model gave the best fitted results of light compensation point (LCP) , maximum net photosynthetic rate (P(n max)) and light saturation point (LSP), and the non-rectangular hyperbola model gave the best fitted result of dark respiration rate (R(d)). The apparent quantum yield (?), P(n max) and LSP of D. chinense gradually decreased, and the LCP and R(d) of D. chinense gradually increased in early flooding (30 days), but D. chinense gradually produced adaptability for flooding as the flooding duration continued to increase, and various physiological indexes were gradually stabilized. Thus, this species has adaptability to some degree to the flooding environment. PMID:26259450

  13. Manipulating the jasmonate response: How do methyl jasmonate additions mediate characteristics of

    E-print Network

    , 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2 Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Science, University experimentally manipulate the host's jasmonate response and document the impact on two key plant mutualisms: (i of aboveground and belowground mutualisms? E. Toby Kiers*,1,2 , Lynn S. Adler2 , Emily L. Grman3 and Marcel G. A

  14. "Can't Nobody Sleep" and Other Characteristics of Culturally Responsive English Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Theresa A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author presents a collective case study of two English teachers identified as particularly successful with Black students. Through the use of ethnographic techniques, the study provides a snapshot of how these teachers facilitated academic gains in urban high schools through their use of culturally responsive English…

  15. Optimal ossicular site for maximal vibration transmissions to coupled transducers.

    PubMed

    Chung, Juyong; Song, Won Joon; Sim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Wandoo; Oh, Seung-Ha

    2013-07-01

    Totally implantable middle-ear prosthetic devices, such as the Esteem system (Envoy Medical Corporation), detect vibrational motion of the middle-ear ossicles rather than acoustic stimulation to the eardrum. This eliminates the need for a subcutaneous microphone, which is susceptible to interference by ambient noises. Study of the vibrational characteristics of the human ossicles provides valuable information for determining the site of maximum ossicular motion that would be optimal for attachment of the sensor portion of the prosthesis. In this study, vibrational responses at seven locations on the middle-ear ossicles (i.e., the malleus head, 4 different points on the incus body, middle of the incus long process, tip of the incus long process) in human temporal bones (n = 6) were measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer. The measurements were repeated after separating the incudostapedial joint (ISJ). Measured displacement at each location was normalized with the sound pressure level near the tympanic membrane (TM) for representation in the form of a displacement transfer function (DTF). The normalized squared sum of the DTFs (NSSDTF) was then calculated as a measure of vibration motion through a specific frequency range at the considered sites. The relatively large NSSDTF was observed at the sites on the superior part of the malleus head (MH), on the lateral part of the incus body (IBL), and on the superior part of the incus body near the incudomalleal joint (IBS1) for the frequency ranges of 1-4 kHz and 1-9 kHz, regardless of the condition of the ISJ. This indicates that maximum vibrational motion of the middle-ear is deliverable to the piezoelectric transducer of totally implantable devices through these sites. This article is part of a special issue entitled "MEMRO 2012". PMID:23337694

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of shape memory alloy oscillators in tuning structural vibration frequencies

    E-print Network

    Melnik, Roderick

    Nonlinear dynamics of shape memory alloy oscillators in tuning structural vibration frequencies 2010 Accepted 8 September 2012 Available online 18 October 2012 Keywords: Vibration tuning Frequency and vibration tuning of various structures, seismic response mitigation, and others. In vibration tuning in many

  17. Culture and characteristics of hormone-responsive neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamprecht, B.; Glaser, T.; Reiser, G.; Bayer, E.; Propst, F.

    1985-01-01

    Neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells were generated by cell fusion of the 6-thioguanine-resistant clonal mouse neuroblastoma cells and the bromodeoxyuridine-resistant rat glioma cells, selection, and cloning. Every characteristics generally ascribed to neurons has been observed with the hybrid cells. The paper explores the morphological differentiation of hybrid cells, procedures for testing the hormonal regulation of intracellular levels of cyclic, (/sup 3/H)AMP in hybrid cells, hormonal regulation of adenylate cyclase in homogenates of hyrbid cells, intracellular levels of cyclic GMP, and uptake of guanidinium ions in hybrid cells.

  18. Vibration modeling and supression in tennis racquets.

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C. R.; Buechler, M. A.; Espino, Luis; Thompson, G. A.

    2003-01-01

    The size of the 'sweet spot' is one measure of tennis racquet performance. In terms of vibration, the sweet spot is determined by the placement of nodal lines across the racquet head. In this studx the vibrational characteristics of a tennis racquet are explorod to discover the size and location of the sweet spot. A numerical model of the racquet is developed using finite element analysis and the model is verified using the results from an experimental modal analysis. The affects of string tension on the racquet's sweet spot and mode shapes are then quantified. An investigation is also carried out to determine how add-on vibrational datnpers affect the sweet spot.

  19. Learner characteristics associated with responses to film and interactive video lessons on smokeless tobacco.

    PubMed

    Levenson, P M; Morrow, J R

    1987-01-01

    To determine college students' cognitive and affective responses to alternative technologies for presenting a lesson on smokeless tobacco, and to learn if responses to experimental conditions were associated with gender, ethnicity, tobacco-use practices, and the practices of significant others, 162 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to either a control group (questionnaire only) or one of two experimental groups. Experimental subjects viewed a videotape or an interactive video version of the lesson and then completed a questionnaire to ascertain knowledge and attitude. Each main effect was significant for knowledge about smokeless tobacco [experimental condition (P less than 0.001); gender (P less than 0.024); and ethnicity (P less than 0.003)]. The interactive video group demonstrated the most accurate and comprehensive recall. Neither gender nor ethnicity interacted significantly with experimental condition, indicating that the effect of experimental condition is constant across gender and ethnicity. Attitudes to instructional formats did not vary significantly as a function of experimental condition or gender, but were associated with ethnicity (P less than 0.034). Again, neither gender nor ethnicity interacted significantly with experimental condition, suggesting that attitudes reflect a generalized view toward content irrespective of presentation mode. Responses to both experimental conditions were quite favorable. Items about present and past experiences with tobacco, with the exception of the "Do you smoke?" item, were not associated with total cognitive score or attitude. PMID:3547386

  20. Modified ventilatory response characteristics to exercise in breath-hold divers.

    PubMed

    Roecker, Kai; Metzger, Jule; Scholz, Tobias; Tetzlaff, Kay; Sorichter, Stephan; Walterspacher, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    Specific adjustments to repeated extreme apnea are not fully known and understood. While a blunted ventilatory chemosensitivity to CO2 is described for elite breath-hold divers (BHDs) at rest, it is unclear whether specific adaptations affect their response to dynamic exercise. Eight elite BHDs with a previously validated decrease in CO2 chemosensitivity, 8 scuba divers (SCDs), and 8 matched control subjects were included in a study where markers of ventilatory response, Fowler's dead space, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), and blood lactate concentrations during cycle exercise were measured. Maximal power output did not differ between the groups, but lactate threshold (?L) appeared at a significantly lowered respiratory compensation point (RCP) and at a higher VO2 for the BHDs. End-tidal (petCO2) and estimated arterial pCO2 (paCO2) were significantly higher in BHDs at ?L, the RCP, and maximum exhaustion. BHDs showed a significantly (P < .01) slower breathing pattern in relation to a given tidal volume at a specific work rate. In summary, BHDs presented signs of a metabolic shift from aerobic to anaerobic energy supply, decreased chemosensitivity during exercise, and a distinct ventilatory-response pattern during cycle exercise that differs from SCDs and controls. PMID:24231513

  1. Spent fuel waste form characteristics: Grain and fragment size statistical dependence for dissolution response

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, R.B.; Leider, H.; Weed, H.; Nguyen, S.; McKenzie, W.; Prussin, S.; Wilson, C.N.; Gray, W.J.

    1991-04-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project of the US Department of Energy is investigating the suitability of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, NV, for a high-level nuclear waste repository. All of the nuclear waste will be enclosed in a container package. Most of the nuclear waste will be in the form of fractured UO{sub 2} spent fuel pellets in Zircaloy-clad rods from electric power reactors. If failure of both the container and its enclosed clad rods occurs, then the fragments of the fractured UO{sub 2} spent fuel will be exposed to their surroundings. Even though the surroundings are an unsaturated zone, a possibility of water transport exists, and consequently, UO{sub 2} spent fuel dissolution may occur. A repository requirement imposes a limit on the nuclide release per year during a 10,000 year period; thus the short term dissolution response from fragmented fuel pellet surfaces in any given year must be understood. This requirement necessitates that both experimental and analytical activities be directed toward predicting the relatively short term dissolution response of UO{sub 2} spent fuel. The short term dissolution response involves gap nuclides, grain boundary nuclides, and grain volume nuclides. Analytical expressions are developed that describe the combined geometrical influences of grain boundary nuclides and grain volume nuclides on the dissolution rate of spent fuel. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Interfacial adsorption and surfactant release characteristics of magnetically functionalized halloysite nanotubes for responsive emulsions.

    PubMed

    Owoseni, Olasehinde; Nyankson, Emmanuel; Zhang, Yueheng; Adams, Daniel J; He, Jibao; Spinu, Leonard; McPherson, Gary L; Bose, Arijit; Gupta, Ram B; John, Vijay T

    2016-02-01

    Magnetically responsive oil-in-water emulsions are effectively stabilized by a halloysite nanotube supported superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle system. The attachment of the magnetically functionalized halloysite nanotubes at the oil-water interface imparts magnetic responsiveness to the emulsion and provides a steric barrier to droplet coalescence leading to emulsions that are stabilized for extended periods. Interfacial structure characterization by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy reveals that the nanotubes attach at the oil-water interface in a side on-orientation. The tubular structure of the nanotubes is exploited for the encapsulation and release of surfactant species that are typical of oil spill dispersants such as dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt and polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate. The magnetically responsive halloysite nanotubes anchor to the oil-water interface stabilizing the interface and releasing the surfactants resulting in reduction in the oil-water interfacial tension. The synergistic adsorption of the nanotubes and the released surfactants at the oil-water interface results in oil emulsification into very small droplets (less than 20?m). The synergy of the unique nanotubular morphology and interfacial activity of halloysite with the magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles has potential applications in oil spill dispersion, magnetic mobilization and detection using magnetic fields. PMID:26555959

  3. A systematic review of the influence of rice characteristics and processing methods on postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses.

    PubMed

    Boers, Hanny M; Seijen Ten Hoorn, Jack; Mela, David J

    2015-10-14

    Rice is an important staple food for more than half of the world's population. Especially in Asian countries, rice is a major contributor to dietary glycaemic load (GL). Sustained consumption of higher-GL diets has been implicated in the development of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. Given that a reduction in postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses is generally seen as a beneficial dietary change, it is useful to determine the variation in the range of postprandial glucose (PPG) and insulin (PPI) responses to rice and the primary intrinsic and processing factors known to affect such responses. Therefore, we identified relevant original research articles on glycaemic response to rice through a systematic search of the literature in Scopus, Medline and SciFinder databases up to July 2014. Based on a glucose reference value of 100, the observed glycaemic index values for rice varieties ranged from 48 to 93, while the insulinaemic index ranged from 39 to 95. There are three main factors that appear to explain most of the variation in glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to rice: (1) inherent starch characteristics (amylose:amylopectin ratio and rice cultivar); (2) post-harvest processing (particularly parboiling); (3) consumer processing (cooking, storage and reheating). The milling process shows a clear effect when compared at identical cooking times, with brown rice always producing a lower PPG and PPI response than white rice. However, at longer cooking times normally used for the preparation of brown rice, smaller and inconsistent differences are observed between brown and white rice. PMID:26310311

  4. Ross ice shelf vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromirski, P. D.; Diez, A.; Gerstoft, P.; Stephen, R. A.; Bolmer, T.; Wiens, D. A.; Aster, R. C.; Nyblade, A.

    2015-09-01

    Broadband seismic stations were deployed across the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) in November 2014 to study ocean gravity wave-induced vibrations. Initial data from three stations 100 km from the RIS front and within 10 km of each other show both dispersed infragravity (IG) wave and ocean swell-generated signals resulting from waves that originate in the North Pacific. Spectral levels from 0.001 to 10 Hz have the highest accelerations in the IG band (0.0025-0.03 Hz). Polarization analyses indicate complex frequency-dependent particle motions, with energy in several frequency bands having distinctly different propagation characteristics. The dominant IG band signals exhibit predominantly horizontal propagation from the north. Particle motion analyses indicate retrograde elliptical particle motions in the IG band, consistent with these signals propagating as Rayleigh-Lamb (flexural) waves in the ice shelf/water cavity system that are excited by ocean wave interactions nearer the shelf front.

  5. Study of the dynamic characteristics of the AC dipole-girder system for CSNS/RCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ren-Hong; Qu, Hua-Min; Zhang, Jun-Song; Kang, Ling; Wang, Mo-Tuo; Wang, Guang-Yuan; Wang, Hai-Jing

    2014-07-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) is a high intensity proton accelerator-based facility. Its accelerator complex includes two main parts: an H- linac and a rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS). The RCS accumulates an 80 MeV proton beam and accelerates it to 1.6 GeV, with a repetition rate of 25 Hz. The AC dipole of the CSNS/RCS is operated at a 25 Hz sinusoidal alternating current which causes severe vibration. The vibration will influence the long-term safety and reliable operation of the magnet. The CSNS/RCS AC dipole-girder system takes vibration isolator to decrease the vibratory force and the vibration amplitude of the dipole. For the long-term safety and reliable operation of the dipole, it is very important to study the dynamic characteristics of the dipole-girder system. This paper takes the dipole-girder as a specific model system. A method for studying the dynamic characteristics of the system is put forward by combining theoretical calculation with experimental testing. The modal parameters with and without vibration isolator of the dipole-girder system are obtained through ANSYS simulation and testing. Then, the dynamic response of the system is calculated with modal analysis and vibration testing data. With the simulation and testing method, the dynamic characteristics of the AC dipole-girder are studied.

  6. Response Characteristics of Soil Fractal Features to Different Land Uses in Typical Purple Soil Watershed

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Bang-lin; Chen, Xiao-yan; Ding, Lin-qiao; Huang, Yu-han; Zhou, Ji; Yang, Tian-tian

    2015-01-01

    As a fundamental characteristic of soil physical properties, the soil Particle Size Distribution (PSD) is important in the research on soil moisture migration, solution transformation, and soil erosion. In this research, the PSD characteristics with distinct methods in different land uses are analyzed. The results show that the upper bound of the volume domain of the clay domain ranges from 5.743?m to 5.749?m for all land-use types. For the silt domain of purple soil, the value ranges among 286.852~286.966 ?m. For all purple soil land-use types, the order of the volume domain fractal dimensions is DclayDsilt(U)>Dsand (U)>Dsand and Dsilt>Dsilt(U)>Dsand>Dsand(U), respectively. As it is compared with all Dvi, the Dsilt has the most significant correlativity to the soil texture and organic matter in different land uses of the typical purple soil watersheds. Therefore, Dsilt will be a potential indictor for evaluating the proportion of fine particles in the PSD, as well as a key measurement in soil quality and productivity studies. PMID:25856376

  7. Response characteristics of soil fractal features to different land uses in typical purple soil watershed.

    PubMed

    Luo, Bang-lin; Chen, Xiao-yan; Ding, Lin-qiao; Huang, Yu-han; Zhou, Ji; Yang, Tian-tian

    2015-01-01

    As a fundamental characteristic of soil physical properties, the soil Particle Size Distribution (PSD) is important in the research on soil moisture migration, solution transformation, and soil erosion. In this research, the PSD characteristics with distinct methods in different land uses are analyzed. The results show that the upper bound of the volume domain of the clay domain ranges from 5.743 ?m to 5.749 ?m for all land-use types. For the silt domain of purple soil, the value ranges among 286.852~286.966 ?m. For all purple soil land-use types, the order of the volume domain fractal dimensions is D clayD silt(U)>D sand (U)>D sand and D silt>D silt(U)>D sand>D sand(U), respectively. As it is compared with all Dvi, the D silt has the most significant correlativity to the soil texture and organic matter in different land uses of the typical purple soil watersheds. Therefore, Dsilt will be a potential indictor for evaluating the proportion of fine particles in the PSD, as well as a key measurement in soil quality and productivity studies. PMID:25856376

  8. Gene Profiling Characteristics of Radioadaptive Response in AG01522 Normal Human Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jue; Wang, Fan; Kong, Peizhong; Yu, Peter K. N.; Wang, Hongzhi; Han, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Radioadaptive response (RAR) in mammalian cells refers to the phenomenon where a low-dose ionizing irradiation alters the gene expression profiles, and protects the cells from the detrimental effects of a subsequent high dose exposure. Despite the completion of numerous experimental studies on RAR, the underlying mechanism has remained unclear. In this study, we aimed to have a comprehensive investigation on the RAR induced in the AG01522 human fibroblasts first exposed to 5 cGy (priming dose) and then followed by 2 Gy (challenge dose) of X-ray through comparisons to those cells that had only received a single 2 Gy dose. We studied how the priming dose affected the expression of gene transcripts, and to identify transcripts or pathways that were associated with the reduced chromosomal damages (in terms of the number of micronuclei) after application of the challenging dose. Through the mRNA and microRNA microarray analyses, the transcriptome alteration in AG01522 cells was examined, and the significantly altered genes were identified for different irradiation procedures using bioinformatics approaches. We observed that a low-dose X-ray exposure produced an alert, triggering and altering cellular responses to defend against subsequent high dose-induced damages, and accelerating the cell repair process. Moreover, the p53 signaling pathway was found to play critial roles in regulating DNA damage responses at the early stage after application of the challenging dose, particularly in the RAR group. Furthermore, microRNA analyses also revealed that cell communication and intercellular signaling transduction played important roles after low-dose irradiation. We conclude that RAR benefits from the alarm mechanisms triggered by a low-dose priming radation dose. PMID:25886619

  9. Rotationally sampled wind characteristics and correlations with MOD-OA wind turbine response

    SciTech Connect

    George, R.L.; Connell, J.R.

    1984-09-01

    This report presents results of a comprehensive wind and wind turbine measurement program: the Clayton, New Mexico, vertical plane array/MOD-OA project. In this experiment, the turbulent wind was measured for a large array of fixed anemometers located two blade diameters upwind of a 200-kW horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT). Simultaneously, key wind turbine response parameters were also measured. The first of two major objectives of this experiment was to determine the turbulent wind, rotationally sampled to emulate the motion of the wind turbine blade, for the range of different wind speeds and stability classes actually experienced by the wind turbine. The second major objective was to correlate this rotationally sampled wind with the wind turbine blade stress and power, in order to assess the usefulness of the wind measurements for wind turbine loads testing a prediction. Time series of rotationally sampled winds and wind turbine blade bending moments and power were converted to frequency spectra using Fourier transform techniques. These spectra were used as the basis for both qualitative and quantitative comparisons among the various cases. A quantitative comparison between the rotationally sampled wind input and blade bending response was made, using the Fourier spectra to estimate the blade transfer function. These transfer functions were then used to calculate an approximate damping coefficient for the MOD-OA fiberglass blade.

  10. Microstructural characteristics and aging response of Zn-containing Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yuan-hua; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Ji-shan

    2013-07-01

    Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys with and without Zn addition were fabricated by conventional ingot metallurgy method. The microstructures and properties were investigated using optical microscopy (OM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), tensile test, hardness test, and electrical conductivity measurement. It is found that the as-cast Al-Mg-Si-Cu-Zn alloy is composed of coarse dendritic grains, long needle-like ?/?-AlFeSi white intermetallics, and Chinese script-like ?-AlFeSi compounds. During high temperature homogenization treatment, only harmful needle-like ?-AlFeSi phase undergoes fragmentation and spheroidizing at its tips, and the destructive needle-like ?-phase does not show any morphological and size changes. Phase transitions from ?-AlFeSi to ?-AlFeSi and from ?-AlFeSi to ?-AlFeSi are also not found. Zn addition improves the aging hardening response during the former aging stage and postpones the peak-aged hardness to a long aging time. In T4 condition, Zn addition does not obviously increase the yield strength and decrease the elongation, but it markedly improves paint-bake hardening response during paint-bake cycle. The addition of 0.5wt% Zn can lead to an increment of 99 MPa in yield strength compared with the value of 69 MPa for the alloy without Zn after paint-bake cycle.

  11. Thermal characteristics of the self-healing response in poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) copolymers.

    PubMed

    Kalista, Stephen J; Ward, Thomas C

    2007-04-22

    A class of poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (EMAA) copolymers and ionomers has shown the unique ability to instantaneously self-heal following ballistic puncture. It is noteworthy that the thermomechanical healing process active in these materials appears to be significantly different in capability and mechanism than any of the other self-repairing systems studied. To better understand this phenomenon, the thermal response during EMAA self-healing was examined. Tests of various damage types, including sawing, cutting and puncture, revealed high-energy transfer damage modes to produce heat and store energy favourable to healing. DSC probed healed specimens revealing they had reached the viscoelastic melt believed requisite to healing response. Low-temperature ballistic experiments demonstrated films continue healing even when punctured at -30 degrees C; analysis showed healing efficacy comparable to room temperature, holding significant pressures of approximately 3 MPa. At the lowest temperature, brittle fracture occurred in one material indicating insufficient heat transfer to store recoverable energy. In total, the results supported the defined healing model and provided additional information on the healing process in both its thermal dependence and general mechanism. Finally, a new DSC method was developed for probing the thermal history of healed films which may lead to a more complete mechanistic model. PMID:17251149

  12. Response characteristics of the pigeon's pretectal neurons to illusory contours and motion

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yu-Qiong; Xiao, Qian; Liu, Rui-Feng; Wu, Le-Qing; Wang, Shu-Rong

    2006-01-01

    Misinterpretations of visual information received by the retina are called visual illusions, which are known to occur in higher brain areas. However, whether they would be also processed in lower brain structures remains unknown, and how to explain the neuronal mechanisms underlying the motion after-effect is intensely debated. We show by extracellular recording that all motion-sensitive neurons in the pigeon's pretectum respond similarly to real and illusory contours, and their preferred directions are identical for both contours in unidirectional cells, whereas these directions are changed by 90 deg for real versus illusory contours in bidirectional cells. On the other hand, some pretectal neurons produce inhibitory (excitatory) after-responses to cessation of prolonged motion in the preferred (null) directions, whose time course is similar to that of the motion after-effect reported by humans. Because excitatory and inhibitory receptive fields of a pretectal cell overlap in visual space and possess opposite directionalities, after-responses to cessation of prolonged motion in one direction may create illusory motion in the opposite direction. It appears that illusory contours and motion could be detected at the earliest stage of central information processing and processed in bottom-up streams, and that the motion after-effect may result from functional interactions of excitatory and inhibitory receptive fields with opposite directionalities. PMID:17038429

  13. MARCH 2 (Meltdown Accident Response Characteristics) code description and user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Wooton, R.O.; Cybulskis, P.; Quayle, S.F.

    1984-09-01

    MARCH 2 describes the response of water-cooled reactor systems to accidents which, because of failures in engineered safety features, lead to core meltdown. The code performs the calculations from the time of accident initiation through the stages of coolant blowdown and boiloff, core heat up and meltdown, pressure vessel bottom head melting and failure, and debris-water and debris-concrete interactions in the reactor cavity. Both the primary system and the containment building are modeled. Mass and energy additions to the containment building are evaluated and the pressure-temperature response of the containment with or without engineered safety features is calculated. A maximum of eight containment sub-volumes may be modeled. Engineered safety features modeled include emergency core cooling systems, containment sprays, building coolers and fans, suppression pool and ice condenser containments, and emergency core cooling and spray heat exchangers. Effects of metal-water reactions, combustion of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, heat losses to containment structures, and redistribution of the decay heat due to loss of volatile fission products from the core are considered.

  14. Kinematic Characteristics of the Posture Corrective Responses After 6 Hours Exposure to Support Withdrawal Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayenko D.; Miller, T.; Sayenko. I.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Reschke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Posture disorders are an inevitable consequence of exposure to microgravity . However, the role of different sensorimotor and sensory factors on postural function at different stages of the exposure to microgravity still remains unknown. The results obtained in a 6 hr dry immersion (DI) study where chest pushes served as a pre- and post-immersion perturbation, and DI was used as an analog of microgravity suggest that in addition to vestibular contributions, postural control may be related to a reduction of support loading and consequent decline of the tone of anti-gravitational muscles. Analysis of postural video data in response to chest pushes obtained before and after DI indicate that the structure of corrective responses was modified so that postural perturbations from threshold to moderate pushes showed a significant rise in the amplitude of ankle and knee angular displacement. With push intensity near the submaximal level, equilibrium was maintained by the elimination of excessive degrees of freedom; as manifested by the restriction of the hip joints mobility when coupled with a reduction of the knee and ankle displacement. These results suggest that DI increases the sensitivity of the posture control system by making posture control more rigid reflecting a change of the weight bearing receptors.

  15. Research of dynamical Characteristics of slow deformation Waves as Massif Responses on Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachay, Olga; Khachay, Oleg; Shipeev, Oleg

    2013-04-01

    The research of massif state with use of approaches of open system theory [1-3] was developed for investigation the criterions of dissipation regimes for real rock massifs, which are under heavy man-caused influence. For realization of that research we used the data of seismic catalogue of Tashtagol mine. As a result of the analyze of that data we defined character morphology of phase trajectories of massif response, which was locally in time in a stable state: on the phase plane with coordinates released by the massif during the dynamic event energy E and lg(dE/dt) there is a local area as a ball of twisted trajectories and some not great bursts from that ball, which are not greater than 105 joules. In some time intervals that burst can be larger, than 105 joules, achieving 106 joules and yet 109 joules. [3]. Evidently there are two reciprocal depend processes: the energy accumulation in the attracted phase trajectories area and resonance fault of the accumulated energy. But after the fault the system returns again to the same attracted phase trajectories area. For analyzing of the thin structure of the chaotic area we decided to add the method of processing of the seismic monitoring data by new parameters. We shall consider each point of explosion as a source of seismic or deformation waves. Using the kinematic approach of seismic information processing we shall each point of the massif response use as a time point of the first arrival of the deformation wave for calculation of the wave velocity, because additionally we know the coordinates of the fixed response and the coordinates of explosion. The use of additional parameter-velocity of slow deformation wave propagation allowed us with use method of phase diagrams identify their hierarchic structure, which allow us to use that information for modeling and interpretation the propagation seismic and deformation waves in hierarchic structures. It is researched with use of that suggested processing method the thin structure of the chaotic area for two responses of the massif on a high energetic explosion in the northern and southern parts of it. The results are significant for understanding the high energetic rock shock and evaluation a criterion for massif stability estimation. The work is supported by the grant RFBR 10-05-00013 and Integration Project 2012-2014 with SB RAS Key words: massif response, slow deformation waves, seismic mine catalogue, analyze of observed data, phase diagrams. References 1. Naimark Y.I.,Landa P.S. Stochastic and chaotic oscillations//Moscow: Book House "LIBROKOM", 2009.-p.424. 2. Chulichkov A.I. Mathematical models of nonlinear dynamics.Moscow: Fizmatlit, 2003.-p.294. 3. Hachay O.A.,Khachay O.Y.,Klimko V.K.,Shipeev O.V. Reflection of synergetic features of rock massif state under man-caused influence after the data of mine seismological catalogue.// Mine informational and analytical bulletin MSMU,6, 2010,p.259-271.

  16. Characteristics of the responses of isolated and perfused canine splenic arteries to vasoactive substances and to periarterially electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ren, L M; Nakane, T; Chiba, S

    1994-01-01

    Pharmacological characteristics of the canine isolated splenic artery were investigated by the cannula insertion method for observing vascular responses to vasoactive agents and periarterial nerve stimulation. Four alpha-adrenoceptor agonists and tyramine induced vasoconstrictions in a dose-dependent manner, and the order of potency was noradrenaline (NA) > phenylephrine > clonidine > methoxamine > tyramine. Xylazine (a selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist) did not elicit any vasoconstriction. Several autacoids and KCl also constricted the splenic artery dose-dependently, and the order of potency was 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) > ATP = histamine > KCl. The dose-response curves for clonidine and NA were shifted to the right by bunazosin (a selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist), but were not affected by midaglizole (a selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist). The parameters of electrical stimulation to elicit a clear and constant vasoconstriction were 0.2 msec of pulse duration, 6 V and 0.1 Hz. The vasoconstrictive responses to electrical stimulation at 6-12 V, 0.1-10 Hz and 0.2-1 msec of pulse duration were completely inhibited by tetrodotoxin (TTX) and strongly inhibited by guanethidine. The results in this study suggest that: 1) in contrast with other regional arteries, the canine splenic artery has an alpha 1-adrenoceptor-related and clonidine-sensitive vasoconstrictive response, 2) this artery has no functional postsynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors, 3) it may be easier to observe the vascular responses to vasoactive agents in the isolated and perfused arterial segments, and 4) the isolated and perfused canine splenic artery is useful as a preparation to study the sympathetic nerve transmission. PMID:7909341

  17. Benefits of Spacecraft Level Vibration Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Scott; Kern, Dennis L.

    2015-01-01

    NASA-HDBK-7008 Spacecraft Level Dynamic Environments Testing discusses the approaches, benefits, dangers, and recommended practices for spacecraft level dynamic environments testing, including vibration testing. This paper discusses in additional detail the benefits and actual experiences of vibration testing spacecraft for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) flight projects. JPL and GSFC have both similarities and differences in their spacecraft level vibration test approach: JPL uses a random vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending to as high as 250 Hz. GSFC uses a sine sweep vibration input and a frequency range usually starting at 5 Hz and extending only to the limits of the coupled loads analysis (typically 50 to 60 Hz). However, both JPL and GSFC use force limiting to realistically notch spacecraft resonances and response (acceleration) limiting as necessary to protect spacecraft structure and hardware from exceeding design strength capabilities. Despite GSFC and JPL differences in spacecraft level vibration test approaches, both have uncovered a significant number of spacecraft design and workmanship anomalies in vibration tests. This paper will give an overview of JPL and GSFC spacecraft vibration testing approaches and provide a detailed description of spacecraft anomalies revealed.

  18. Cellular Responses Evoked by Different Surface Characteristics of Intraosseous Titanium Implants

    PubMed Central

    Feller, Liviu; Jadwat, Yusuf; Khammissa, Razia A. G.; Meyerov, Robin; Lemmer, Johan

    2015-01-01

    The properties of biomaterials, including their surface microstructural topography and their surface chemistry or surface energy/wettability, affect cellular responses such as cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. The nanotopography of moderately rough implant surfaces enhances the production of biological mediators in the peri-implant microenvironment with consequent recruitment of differentiating osteogenic cells to the implant surface and stimulates osteogenic maturation. Implant surfaces with moderately rough topography and with high surface energy promote osteogenesis, increase the ratio of bone-to-implant contact, and increase the bonding strength of the bone to the implant at the interface. Certain features of implant surface chemistry are also important in enhancing peri-implant bone wound healing. It is the purpose of this paper to review some of the more important features of titanium implant surfaces which have an impact on osseointegration. PMID:25767803

  19. Teacher Characteristics Associated with Responsiveness and Exposure to Consultation and On-line Professional Development Resources

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Jason T.; Locasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Hamre, Bridget; Pianta, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a natural follow-up to intent-to-treat findings indicating that the MyTeachingPartner Consultancy, inclusive of on-line video resources and web-mediated consultation, improved the quality of pre-k teachers’ interactions with children. This study takes a close look at implementation fidelity within the effective MTP Consultancy condition over both years of implementation, in order to learn more about the ingredients of professional development that may have contributed to the success of the intervention. Variation in teachers’ responsiveness (e.g., ratings of Consultancy worth) and exposure to the intervention (e.g., number of consultation cycles completed) are examined, with particular interest in the identification of teacher factors that may serve as supports or barriers to successfully implementing consultation supports and on-line professional development resources. PMID:25419081

  20. Heat Pump Water Heaters: Controlled Field Research of Impact on Space Conditioning and Demand Response Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Graham B.; Widder, Sarah H.; Eklund, Ken; Petersen, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Greg

    2015-10-05

    A new generation of heat pump water heaters (HPWH) has been introduced into the U.S. market that promises to provide significant energy savings for water heating. Many electric utilities are promoting their widespread adoption as a key technology for meeting energy conservation goals and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, considerable uncertainty regarding the space conditioning impact of an HPWH installed in a conditioned space. There is also uncertainty regarding the potential for deployment of HPWHs in demand response (DR) programs to help manage and balance peak utility loads in a similar manner as conventional electric resistance water heaters (ERWH). To help answer these uncertainties, controlled experiments have been undertaken over 30 months in a matched pair of unoccupied Lab Homes located on the campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington.

  1. Low-frequency response characteristics of three Grass model 7 polygraphs.

    PubMed

    Hickey, D D; Zaharkin, J

    1985-03-01

    A low-frequency response analysis of three Grass model 7 polygraphs was undertaken. Observed error was generally found to fall within the manufacturer's stated range of +5 to -10% of DC signal height over the frequency range of human respiration (0.1-3 Hz), but this was not the case for frequencies greater than 6 Hz under certain circumstances. The magnitude of error was seen to vary directly with frequency and indirectly with pen-deflection amplitude and paper speed. The pen-oscillograph apparatus was the predominant source of low-frequency error, and this is probably due to pen inertia and pen friction on the writing surface. Two schemes to reduce such error are presented. PMID:3980373

  2. Identification of a topological characteristic responsible for the biological robustness of regulatory networks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yangle; Zhang, Xiaomeng; Yu, Jianglei; Ouyang, Qi

    2009-07-01

    Attribution of biological robustness to the specific structural properties of a regulatory network is an important yet unsolved problem in systems biology. It is widely believed that the topological characteristics of a biological control network largely determine its dynamic behavior, yet the actual mechanism is still poorly understood. Here, we define a novel structural feature of biological networks, termed 'regulation entropy', to quantitatively assess the influence of network topology on the robustness of the systems. Using the cell-cycle control networks of the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and the fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) as examples, we first demonstrate the correlation of this quantity with the dynamic stability of biological control networks, and then we establish a significant association between this quantity and the structural stability of the networks. And we further substantiate the generality of this approach with a broad spectrum of biological and random networks. We conclude that the regulation entropy is an effective order parameter in evaluating the robustness of biological control networks. Our work suggests a novel connection between the topological feature and the dynamic property of biological regulatory networks. PMID:19629157

  3. Microbial characteristics of purple paddy soil in response to Pb pollution.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qiu-Ju; Zhang, Yue-Qiang; Zhang, La-Mei; Zhou, Xin-Bin; Shi, Xiao-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The study focused on the change of microbial characteristics affected by Plumbum pollution with purple paddy soil in an incubation experiment. The results showed that low concentration of Plumbum had little effect on most of microbial amounts, biological activity and enzymatic activity. However, denitrifying activity was inhibited severely, and inhibition rate was up to 98%. Medium and high concentration of Plumbum significantly reduced the amounts and activity of all microorganisms and enzymatic activity, which increased with incubation time. Negative correlations were found between Plumbum concentrations and microbial amounts, biological activity and enzymatic activities except fungi and actinomyces. Thus they can be used to indicate the Plumbum pollution levels to some extent. LD(50) of denitrifying bacteria (DB) and ED50 of denitrifying activity were 852mg/kg and 33.5mg/kg. Across all test soil microbes, denitrifying bacteria was most sensitive to Plumbum pollution in purple paddy soil. Value of early warning showed that anaerobic cellulose-decomposing bacteria (ACDB) and actinomyces were also sensitive to Plumbum pollution. We concluded that denitrifying activity, actinomyces, ACDB or DB can be chosen as predictor of Plumbum contamination in purple paddy soil. PMID:24816695

  4. [Characteristics of the preferential flow and its response to irrigation amount in oasis cropland].

    PubMed

    Yan, Jia-liang; Zhao, Wen-zhil; Zhang, Yong-yong

    2015-05-01

    Preferential flow is a physical process describing how water and solutes move aiong cer- tain pathways through soil profile. Studying the cropland preferential flow patterns and its influential factors could quantify the deep percolation, improve water and fertilizer use efficiency and reduce the risk of agrochemicals contaminating shallow groundwater in oasis cropland. The dye tracer exper- ments were carried out in field oasis cropland, using a brilliant blue FCF solution. The results showed that between ridge and furrow, the number of stained paths densities differed significantly at the 7.3-16.7 cm depth of the soil profiles, while the maximum dye depth had no significant differ- ence. The main influence factors of the maximum stained depth were the irrigation amount and the ant burrows. The maximum stained depth was (43.1 ± 5.9) cm with the mean irrigation amount of 120 mm, however, the maximum stained depth was (68.3 ± 7.6) cm with the irrigation amount of 55 mm under the influence of the ant burrows. Root played an important role in preferential flow, but only the fine roots (? ? 2 mm) were significantly related to the preferential flow in oasis cropland, while the coarse roots were not. In oasis cropland, the characteristics of the preferential flow were influenced by the irrigation amount, the furrow and ridge planting, the ant burrows and the roots, and the ant burrows were an uncertain factor which affected the maximum infiltration depth of the preferential flow. PMID:26571665

  5. Metal oxide nanomaterials in seawater: linking physicochemical characteristics with biological response in sea urchin development.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Elise A; Keller, Arturo A; Mädler, Lutz; Zhou, Dongxu; Pokhrel, Suman; Cherr, Gary N

    2011-09-15

    The fate and behavior of nanomaterials (NMs) in environmental media has important consequences for toxicity. The majority of aquatic research to date has focused on NM behavior in freshwater systems. However, pH and salinity differences of seawater affect dissolution and aggregation of NMs. In this study, physical characteristics of metal oxide NMs in seawater were linked with their toxicity to developing sea urchins. The metal oxide NMs TiO(2) and CeO(2) up to 10mg/L were not toxic to the embryos of the white sea urchin (Lytechinus pictus). In contrast, ZnO NM was highly toxic to these embryos (EC(50) = 99.5 ?g/L). The toxicity of ZnO NM was not significantly different from bulk ZnO or soluble Zn(2+) (from ZnSO(4) · 7H(2)O), suggesting that the toxicity of ZnO NM can be attributed to soluble Zn(2+). Furthermore, solubility data indicate that at the concentrations used in our sea urchin embryo experiments, ZnO NM was rapidly and completely solubilized in seawater. The present study also demonstrated that Fe-doped NMs were less soluble in seawater compared to pure ZnO NMs, but there was no concomitant reduction in toxicity. PMID:21775060

  6. Work capacity and metabolic and morphologic characteristics of the human quadriceps muscle in response to unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, H. E.; Dudley, G. A.; Hather, B.; Tesch, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    The response of skeletal muscle to unweighting was studied in six healthy males who were subjected to four weeks of lowerlimb suspension. They performed three bouts of 30 consecutive maximal concentric knee extensions, before unloading and the day after (POST 1), 4 days after (POST 2) and 7 weeks after (REC) resumed weight-bearing. Peak torque of each contraction was recorded and work was calculated as the mean of the average peak torque for the three bouts and fatigability was measured as the decline in average peak torque over bouts. Needle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis of each limb before and at POST 1. Muscle fibre type composition and area, capillarity and the enzyme activities of citrate synthase (CS) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) were subsequently analysed. Mean average peak torque for the three bouts at POST1, POST2 and REC was reduced (P < 0.05) by 17, 13 and 7%, respectively. Fatigability was greater (P < 0.05) at POST2 than before unloading. Type I, IIA and IIB percentage, Type I and II area and capillaries per fibre of Type I and II did not change (P > 0.05) in response to unloading. The activity of CS, but not PFK, decreased (P < 0.05) after unloading. The weight-bearing limb showed no changes in the variables measured. The results of this study suggest that this human lowerlimb suspension model produces substantial impairments of work and oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. The performance decrements are most likely induced by lack of weight-bearing.

  7. Characteristics necessary for an interconvertible enzyme cascade to generate a highly sensitive response to an effector.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, M L; Cornish-Bowden, A

    1989-01-15

    A monocyclic interconvertible enzyme cascade, in which active and inactive states of an enzyme are interconverted by two opposing enzyme-catalysed reactions, does not necessarily produce a greater degree of sensitivity to an effector than one could expect from direct interaction between effector and target reaction. On the contrary, a cascade in which an effector acts on one of the enzymes catalysing the interconversion reactions by altering the apparent value of its specificity constant will always generate a less sensitive response than direct interaction would give. Nonetheless, even if both interconversion reactions obey Michaelis-Menten kinetics with the ordinary types of inhibition and activation, one can easily generate an enormous sensitivity in which a 0.5% change in concentration can increase the proportion of target enzyme in the active state from 10% to 90%: this corresponds approximately to a Hill coefficient of 800. To maximize the sensitivity, the following conditions must be satisfied: (1) both modifier enzymes must act under conditions of near saturation; (2) the effector must act on both of them in opposite directions; (3) it must alter the apparent values of their catalytic constants; (4) the enzyme subject to inhibition by the effector must respond at much lower effector concentrations than the enzyme subject to activation. As the last of these conditions appears to be counter-intuitive, it suggests that feeble activation of modifier enzymes in real systems may have passed unnoticed, or been dismissed as physiologically insignificant, although in reality crucial to the effective response of the system. PMID:2930453

  8. Active vibration control of smart composites featuring electro-rheological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, J. S.; Liu, Y. J.; Du, S. Y.; Wang, L.; Wang, D. F.

    1995-01-01

    Our experimental investigations are focused on evaluating the elastodynamic response characteristics of a beam fabricated in an electrorheological fluid when the beam is subjected to forced vibration. The beam which is designed in this experiment is composed of three kinds of materials, i.e. structural material, damping material and sealant material. Different ratios of structural material to damping material have been tested in an applied electric field. The results demonstrate clearly the ability to significantly change the vibrational characteristics of a beam fabricated in a smart composite by changing the electric field intensity imposed on the fluid domains. The ASTM standard E756-83 equations are used to evaluate the Young's modulus of the beam.

  9. A piloted simulation of helicopter air combat to investigate effects of variations in selected performance and control response characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Michael S.; Mansur, M. Hossein; Chen, Robert T. N.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study investigating handling qualities and flight characteristics required for helicopter air to air combat is presented. The Helicopter Air Combat system was used to investigate this role for Army rotorcraft. Experimental variables were the maneuver envelope size (load factor and sideslip), directional axis handling qualities, and pitch and roll control-response type. Over 450 simulated, low altitude, one-on-one engagements were conducted. Results from the experiment indicate that a well damped directional response, low sideforce caused by sideslip, and some effective dihedral are all desirable for weapon system performance, good handling qualities, and low pilot workload. An angular rate command system was favored over the attitude type pitch and roll response for most applications, and an enhanced maneuver envelope size over that of current generation aircraft was found to be advantageous. Pilot technique, background, and experience are additional factors which had a significant effect on performance in the air combat tasks investigated. The implication of these results on design requirements for future helicopters is presented.

  10. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Martin E. Cobern

    2004-08-31

    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed.

  11. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Martin E. Cobern

    2004-10-13

    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed. The month of June, 2004 was primarily occupied with the writing of the Phase I Final Report, the sole deliverable of Phase I, which will be submitted in the next quarter. Redesign of the laboratory prototype and design of the downhole (Phase II) prototype was begun.

  12. Divergent physiological characteristics and responses to endurance training among inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Kilikevicius, A; Venckunas, T; Zelniene, R; Carroll, A M; Lionikaite, S; Ratkevicius, A; Lionikas, A

    2013-10-01

    Both baseline values and adaptive changes in mice can vary depending on the genetic background. We aimed to assess variation in a battery of variables and their adaptations to endurance training in six inbred mouse strains. Males, n = 184, from A/J, BALB/cByJ, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and PWD/PhJ strains were assigned to a control or an endurance group (5 weeks swimming exercise). Enzyme activity, histology of soleus (SOL) muscle, swimming endurance, cardiac ventricular and hind limb muscle weight, and femur length were examined. Endurance capacity, morphological and histological variables, and enzyme activity substantially differed among strains. For example, SOL weight was twofold higher and cross-sectional area (CSA) of fibers was ? 30% greater in C57BL/6J than in PWD/PhJ strain. The CSA of type 1 fibers were larger than type 2A in PWD/PhJ (P < 0.01); however, the reverse was true in DBA/2J and BALB/cByJ strains (P < 0.05). Swimming endurance in DBA/2J strain was ? 9 times better than in BALB/cByJ. Endurance training increased the activity of citrate synthase in gastrocnemius across strains (P < 0.01), however, changes in endurance were strain-specific; the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J strains improved substantially, whereas A/J and BALB/cByJ strains did not. In conclusion, genetic background is a potent determinant of the physiological characteristics and adaptations to training in mice. PMID:22414113

  13. Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist Overuse: Urologists’ Response to Reimbursement and Characteristics Associated with Persistent Overuse

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Shellie D.; Nielsen, Matthew E.; Carpenter, William R.; Jackson, George L.; Wheeler, Stephanie B.; Liu, Huan; Weinberger, Morris

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Medicare reimbursement cuts have been associated with declining Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) agonist overuse in localized prostate cancer. Medical school affiliation and foreign training have been associated with persistent overuse. However, physician-level prescribing changes and the practice type of persistent overusers have not been examined. We sought to describe physician-level changes in GnRH agonist overuse and test the association of time in practice and solo practice type with GnRH agonist overuse. METHODS We matched American Medical Association physician data for 2,138 urologists to SEER–Medicare data for 12,943 men diagnosed with early stage and lower grade adenocarcinoma of the prostate between 2000 and 2007. We conducted a population-based, retrospective study using multi-level modeling to control for patient and provider characteristics. RESULTS Three distinct patterns of GnRH agonist overuse were observed. Urologists’ time in practice was not associated with GnRH agonist overuse (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.75–1.05).However, solo practice type (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.34–2.02), medical school affiliation (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.55–0.77), and patient race were. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.37–2.27), Hispanics (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.12–1.79) and men of “other” race (OR 1.44; 95% CI 1.04–1.99) had greater odds of receiving unnecessary GnRH agonists. CONCLUSIONS GnRH agonist overuse remains high among some urologists who may be professionally isolated and difficult to reach. These urologists treat more vulnerable populations, which may contribute to health disparities in prostate cancer treatment quality. Nonetheless, these findings provide guidance to develop interventions to address overuse in prostate cancer. PMID:25849354

  14. Optical vibration detection spectral analysis assembly and method for detecting vibration in an object of interest

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Thomas C. (Los Alamos, NM); Telschow, Kenneth L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1998-01-01

    A vibration detection assembly is described which includes an emitter of light which has object and reference beams, the object beam reflected off of a vibrating object of interest; and a photorefractive substance having a given response time and which passes the reflected object beam and the reference beam, the reference beam and the object beam interfering within the photorefractive substance to create a space charge field which develops within the response time of the photorefractive substance.

  15. Optical vibration detection spectral analysis assembly and method for detecting vibration in an object of interest

    DOEpatents

    Hale, T.C.; Telschow, K.L.

    1998-10-27

    A vibration detection assembly is described which includes an emitter of light which has object and reference beams, the object beam reflected off of a vibrating object of interest; and a photorefractive substance having a given response time and which passes the reflected object beam and the reference beam, the reference beam and the object beam interfering within the photorefractive substance to create a space charge field which develops within the response time of the photorefractive substance. 6 figs.

  16. Vibration Analysis of Composite Laminate Plate Excited by Piezoelectric Actuators

    PubMed Central

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials can be used as actuators for the active vibration control of smart structural systems. In this work, piezoelectric patches are surface bonded to a composite laminate plate and used as vibration actuators. A static analysis based on the piezoelectricity and elasticity is conducted to evaluate the loads induced by the piezoelectric actuators to the host structure. The loads are then employed to develop the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate excited by piezoelectric patches subjected to time harmonic voltages. An analytical solution of the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate under time harmonic electrical loading is obtained and compared with finite element results to validate the present approach. The effects of location and exciting frequency of piezoelectric actuators on the vibration response of the laminate plate are investigated through a parametric study. Numerical results show that modes can be selectively excited, leading to structural vibration control. PMID:23529121

  17. Notes 10. The dynamic vibration absorber 

    E-print Network

    San Andres, Luis

    2008-01-01

    stream_source_info Notes_Vibration_Absorber_2008.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 10660 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Notes_Vibration_Absorber_2008.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...) 2008 MEEN 363 - 617 THE VIBRATION ABSORBER Preamble - A NEED arises: Consider the periodic forced response of a primary system (Kp-Mp) defined by X p (t) K p F(t) M P M p 10 3 lb?:= K p 110 5 ? lbf in ?:= Its natural frequency is: ? np K p M p...

  18. Recent Triplet Vibration Studies in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Thieberger, P.; Bonati, R.; Corbin, G.; Jain, A.; Minty, M.; McIntyre, G.; Montag, C.; Muratore, J.; Schultheiss, C.; Seberg, S.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2010-05-23

    We report on recent developments for mitigating vibrations of the quadrupole magnets near the interaction regions of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). High precision accelerometers, geophones, and a laser vibrometer were installed around one of the two interaction points to characterize the frequencies of the mechanical motion. In addition actuators were mounted directly on the quadrupole cryostats. Using as input the locally measured motion, dynamic damping of the mechanical vibrations has been demonstrated. In this report we present these measurements and measurements of the beam response. Future options for compensating the vibrations are discussed.

  19. ROTATION-VIBRATION TETRAHEDRAL

    E-print Network

    Sadovskií, Dmitrií

    ANALYSIS OF ROTATION-VIBRATION RELATIVE EQUILIBRIA ON THE EXAMPLE OF A TETRAHEDRAL FOUR ATOM (RE) of a nonrigid molecule which vibrates about a well de#12;ned equilibrium con#12;guration and rotates as a whole. Our analysis uni#12;es the theory of rotational and vibrational RE. We rely

  20. Effect of stiffness characteristics on the response of composite grid-stiffened structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Rehfield, Lawrence W.

    1991-01-01

    A study of the effect of stiffness discontinuities and structural parameters on the response of continuous-filament grid-stiffened flat panels is presented. The buckling load degradation due to manufacturing-introduced stiffener discontinuities associated with a filament cut-and-add approach at the stiffener intersections is investigated. The degradation of buckling resistance in isogrid flat panels subjected to uni-axial compression and combined axial compression and shear loading conditions and induced damage is quantified using FEM. The combined loading case is the most critical one. Nonsolid stiffener cross sections, such as a foam-filled blade or hat with a 0-deg dominant cap, result in grid-stiffened structures that are structurally very efficient for wing and fuselage applications. The results of a study of the ability of grid-stiffened structural concepts to enhance the effective Poisson's ratio of a panel are presented. Grid-stiffened concepts create a highly effective Poisson's ratio, which can produce large camber deformations for certain elastic tailoring applications.

  1. Characteristics and control response of the TOPAZ II Reactor System Real-time Dynamic Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, K.S.

    1993-11-12

    A dynamic simulator of the TOPAZ II reactor system has been developed for the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program. The simulator combines first-principle modeling and empirical correlations in its algorithm to attain the modeling accuracy and computational through-put that are required for real-time execution. The overall execution time of the simulator for each time step is 15 ms when no data is written to the disk, and 18 ms when nine double precision data points are written to the disk once in every time step. The simulation program has been tested and it is able to handle a step decrease of $8 worth of reactivity. It also provides simulations of fuel, emitter, collector, stainless steel, and ZrH moderator failures. Presented in this paper are the models used in the calculations, a sample simulation session, and a discussion of the performance and limitations of the simulator. The simulator has been found to provide realistic real-time dynamic response of the TOPAZ II reactor system under both normal and casualty conditions.

  2. Behavioral characteristics of Internet gamblers who trigger corporate responsible gambling interventions.

    PubMed

    Gray, Heather M; LaPlante, Debi A; Shaffer, Howard J

    2012-09-01

    As the worldwide popularity of Internet gambling increases, concerns about the potential for gambling-related harm also increase. This paper reports the results of a study examining actual Internet gambling behavior during 10 years of play. We examined the electronic gambling records of subscribers (N=2,066) who triggered a responsible gaming alert system at a large international online gaming company. We compared these cases with control subscribers (N=2,066) who had the same amount of exposure to the Internet gambling service provider. We used discriminant function analysis to explore what aspects of gambling behavior distinguish cases from controls. Indices of the intensity of gambling activity (e.g., total number of bets made, number of bets per betting day) best distinguished cases from controls, particularly in the case of live-action sports betting. Control group players evidenced behavior similar to the population of players using this service. These results add to our understanding of behavioral markers for disordered Internet gambling and will aid in the development of behavior-based algorithms capable of predicting the presence and/or the onset of disordered Internet gambling. PMID:22686960

  3. Determining the dispersion characteristics of rivers from the frequency response of the system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambertz, Peter; Palancar, MaríA. C.; Aragón, José M.; Gil, Roberto

    2006-09-01

    A new method of determining the parameters of an aggregated dead zone model (ADZ) to predict longitudinal dispersion in rivers is presented. The method is based on the frequency response analysis (FRA) of observed field tests, which consist of tracer injections (input) and measurement of tracer in downstream sampling points (output) located downstream from the injection point. The ADZ is a combination of plug and completely mixed flow compartments. The ADZ parameters (number of compartments, mean residence time, and delay time) are evaluated by means of Bode plots that give the system order (number of compartments), gain, time constant (mean residence time of each compartment) and delay time. The FRA-ADZ method was checked with tracer data runs in two Spanish rivers, the Tagus and the Ebro rivers. The experimental tracer concentration versus time distributions were compared with the ADZ predicted curves, which were calculated using parameters obtained from the FRA method, and with curves predicted by several classical models. The residence time of several reaches within the two studied rivers was predicted by the FRA-ADZ method with a relative error lower than 10%. The method is generally applicable to ideal and nonideal inputs and is particularly well suited to arbitrary-shaped initial source concentration distributions.

  4. Comparative Characteristics of Porous Bioceramics for an Osteogenic Response In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Rim; Kim, Han-Jun; Ko, Ji-Seung; Choi, Yong-Suk; Ahn, Myun-Whan; Kim, Sukyoung; Do, Sun Hee

    2013-01-01

    Porous calcium phosphate ceramics are used in orthopedic and craniofacial applications to treat bone loss, or in dental applications to replace missing teeth. The implantation of these materials, however, does not induce stem cell differentiation, so suitable additional materials such as porous calcium phosphate discs are needed to influence physicochemical responses or structural changes. Rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) and mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1) were evaluated in vitro by the MTT assay, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and immunoblotting using cells cultured in medium supplemented with extracts from bioceramics, including calcium metaphosphate (CMP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and collagen-grafted HA (HA-col). In vivo evaluation of the bone forming capacity of these bioceramics in rat models using femur defects and intramuscular implants for 12 weeks was performed. Histological analysis showed that newly formed stromal-rich tissues were observed in all the implanted regions and that the implants showed positive immunoreaction against type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The intramuscular implant region, in particular, showed strong positive immunoreactivity for both type I collagen and ALP, which was further confirmed by mRNA expression and immunoblotting results, indicating that each bioceramic material enhanced osteogenesis stimulation. These results support our hypothesis that smart bioceramics can induce osteoconduction and osteoinduction in vivo, although mature bone formation, including lacunae, osteocytes, and mineralization, was not prominent until 12 weeks after implantation. PMID:24391927

  5. Impacts of temperament on Nellore cattle: physiological responses, feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C L; Resende, F D; Benatti, J M B; Castilhos, A M; Cooke, R F; Jorge, A M

    2015-11-01

    Forty-four feedlot-finished Nellore cattle were used to evaluate the impacts of temperament on performance, meat and carcass traits, and serum concentrations of hormones, proteins, enzymes, and immunoglobulins. Individual temperament was assessed at feedlot entry (d 0), 67 d, and 109 d, utilizing chute score (CS; 5-point scale) and exit velocity (EV). Temperament scores were calculated averaging CS and EV scores, and cattle were subsequently classified according to their temperament (an average of ?3 = adequate temperament [ADQ], or an average of >3 = excitable temperament [EXC]). At the end of the experiment (d 109), all 44 animals were slaughtered, and 16 were randomly selected for final empty body weight (EBW) estimation. Blood samples were collected at 0, 67, and 109 d and analyzed for serum variables (cortisol, insulin, haptoglobin, total protein, lactate, creatinine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], and IgA). The incidence of carcass bruises was verified immediately after the hide was removed. Carcass pH was obtained at 0 and 24 h postmortem. Samples of the LM were collected for meat quality analyses. Cattle classified as ADQ had greater final BW ( = 0.03), final EBW ( = 0.02), metabolic weight ( = 0.03), ADG ( = 0.02), feed efficiency ( = 0.03), HCW ( = 0.02), cold carcass weight ( = 0.02), and LM area ( < 0.01) compared to that of the EXC cohorts. Cattle classified as ADQ tended to have a lower percentage of cooler shrink ( = 0.06) compared to that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects were detected for initial BW ( = 0.70), DMI ( = 0.14), cold dressing percentage ( = 0.98), or backfat thickness ( = 0.29). Cattle classified as ADQ had greater marbling ( = 0.02) and meat fat content ( = 0.05) compared with that of EXC cattle. No temperament effects ( > 0.05) were detected for unsaturated fatty acid (UFA), SFA, MUFA, PUFA, and n-6:n-3 ratio. For blood parameters, EXC cattle had greater values of cortisol ( = 0.04) and haptoglobin ( = 0.05) and tended ( = 0.06) to have reduced serum insulin concentration compared with ADQ cattle. Both temperament groups had similar serum concentrations of IgA ( = 0.25) and total protein ( = 0.84). Cattle classified as EXC presented greater amounts ( = 0.05) of carcass bruises. In conclusion, an EXC temperament impaired feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality traits in finishing Nellore cattle. PMID:26641061

  6. Experimental determination of material damping using vibration analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chowdhury, Mostafiz R.; Chowdhury, Farida

    1990-01-01

    Structural damping is an important dynamic characteristic of engineering materials that helps to damp vibrations by reducing their amplitudes. In this investigation, an experimental method is illustrated to determine the damping characteristics of engineering materials using a dual channel Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analyzer. A portable Compaq III computer which houses the analyzer, is used to collect the dynamic responses of three metal rods. Time-domain information is analyzed to obtain the logarithmic decrement of their damping. The damping coefficients are then compared to determine the variation of damping from material to material. The variations of damping from one point to another of the same material, due to a fixed point excitation, and the variable damping at a fixed point due to excitation at different points, are also demonstrated.

  7. Characteristic of the Pepper CaRGA2 Gene in Defense Responses against Phytophthora capsici Leonian

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying-Li; Jia, Qing-Li; Li, Da-Wei; Wang, Jun-E; Yin, Yan-Xu; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The most significant threat to pepper production worldwide is the Phytophthora blight, which is caused by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora capsici Leonian. In an effort to help control this disease, we isolated and characterized a P. capsici resistance gene, CaRGA2, from a high resistant pepper (C. annuum CM334) and analyzed its function by the method of real-time PCR and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). The CaRGA2 has a full-length cDNA of 3,018 bp with 2,874 bp open reading frame (ORF) and encodes a 957-aa protein. The protein has a predicted molecular weight of 108.6 kDa, and the isoelectric point is 8.106. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that CaRGA2 expression was rapidly induced by P. capsici. The gene expression pattern was different between the resistant and susceptible cultivars. CaRGA2 was quickly expressed in the resistant cultivar, CM334, and reached to a peak at 24 h after inoculation with P. capsici, five-fold higher than that of susceptible cultivar. Our results suggest that CaRGA2 has a distinct pattern of expression and plays a critical role in P. capsici stress tolerance. When the CaRGA2 gene was silenced via VIGS, the resistance level was clearly suppressed, an observation that was supported by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and detached leave inoculation. VIGS analysis revealed their importance in the surveillance to P. capsici in pepper. Our results support the idea that the CaRGA2 gene may show their response in resistance against P. capsici. These analyses will aid in an effort towards breeding for broad and durable resistance in economically important pepper cultivars. PMID:23698759

  8. Vibration Analysis Reduces Computer Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engels, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Improved calculation method promises to reduce computer time by factor of 10 for vibration analysis of complex structures. Method originally developed to predict mechanical response of spacecraft to maneuvers in various cases in which same booster is used with different payloads. Method is more exact than conventional normal-mode methods; it involves no initial approximations of assumptions. Calculation cost is reduced without loss of accuracy.

  9. Effects of Control-Response Characteristics on the Capability of Helicopter for Use as a Gun Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, Robert J.; Connor, Andrew B.

    1960-01-01

    An investigation with a variable-stability helicopter was undertaken to ascertain the steadiness and ability to "hold on" to the target of a helicopter employed as a gun platform. Simulated tasks were per formed under differing flight conditions with the control-response characteristics of the helicopter varied for each task. The simulated gun-platform mission included: Variations of headings with respect to wind, constant altitude and "swing around" to a wind heading of 0 deg, and increases in altitude while performing a swing around to a wind heading of 0 deg. The results showed that increases in control power and damping increased pilot ability to hold on to the target with fewer yawing oscillations and in a shorter time. The results also indicated that wind direction must be considered in accuracy assessment. Greatest accuracy throughout these tests was achieved by aiming upwind.

  10. Global excitation of wave phenomena in a dissipative multiconstituent medium. III - Response characteristics for different sources in the earth's thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Varosi, F.; Herrero, F. A.

    1987-07-01

    A linear trasnfer function model of the earth's thermosphere which includes the electric field momentum source is used to study the differences in the response characteristics for Joule heating and momentum coupling in the thermosphere. It is found that, for Joule/particle heating, the temperature and density perturbations contain a relatively large trapped component which has the property of a low-pass filter, with slow decay after the source is turned off. The decay time is sensitive to the altitude of energy deposition and is significantly reduced as the source peak moves from 125 to 150 km. For electric field momentum coupling, the trapped components in the temperature and density perturbations are relatively small. In the curl field of the velocity, however, the trapped component dominates, but compared with the temperature and density its decay time is much shorter. Outside the source region the form of excitation is of secondary importance for the generation of the various propagating gravity wave modes.

  11. Vibrational analysis of rectangular sandwich plates resting on some elastic point supports

    SciTech Connect

    Ichinomiya, Osamu; Maruyama, Koichi; Sekine, Kouji

    1995-11-01

    An approximate solution of forced-vibration for rectangular sandwich plate resting on some elastic point supports is presented. The sandwich plate has thin, anisotropic composite laminated faces and a thick orthotropic core. The simplified sandwich plate model is used in the analysis. The governing equation of elastically point supported rectangular sandwich plate is obtained by using the Lagrange equation. The steady state response solution to a sinusoidally varying point force is also derived. The response curves of rectangular sandwich plates having CFRP laminated faces and aluminum honeycomb core is calculated. Application examples illustrate the effects of laminate lay-up of face sheets, core material properties and core thickness ratio on the vibration characteristics of rectangular sandwich plate.

  12. A review of fire effects on vegetation and soils in the Great Basin region: response and ecological site characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Richard F.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Pyke, David A.; Pierson, Fred B.; Williams, C. Jason

    2013-01-01

    This review synthesizes the state of knowledge on fire effects on vegetation and soils in semi-arid ecosystems in the Great Basin Region, including the central and northern Great Basin and Range, Columbia River Basin, and the Snake River Plain. We summarize available literature related to: (1) the effects of environmental gradients, ecological site, and vegetation characteristics on resilience to disturbance and resistance to invasive species; (2) the effects of fire on individual plant species and communities, biological soil crusts, seed banks, soil nutrients, and hydrology; and (3) the role of fire severity, fire versus fire surrogate treatments, and post-fire grazing in determining ecosystem response. From this, we identify knowledge gaps and present a framework for predicting plant successional trajectories following wild and prescribed fires and fire surrogate treatments. Possibly the three most important ecological site characteristics that influence a site’s resilience (ability of the ecological site to recover from disturbance) and resistance to invasive species are soil temperature/moisture regimes and the composition and structure of vegetation on the ecological site just prior to the disturbance event.

  13. Vibration Characteristics of Systems with Multiple Blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, G. X.; Zheng, Z. C.; Wang, W. J.

    1999-08-01

    An interesting phenomenon can be observed when the state-space dynamic substructural method is applied to the eigenproblem of bladed disk-shaft systems: whether or not the shaft is flexible, each frequency of the single root-fixed blade appears as a frequency of the whole structure with a multiplicity of at least (n-3), wheren is the number of repetitive blades. The presented result can be regarded as an extension of previous findings by the authors in the sense that the commonly interfaced repetitive substructures are allowed to be treated as a rigid body in modal analysis. The defectiveness issue of the multiple eigenvalues arising from the repetitive substructures is also addressed. Examples of rotary wing models and a simplified turbine model are presented for validation together with attempting their physical explanations.

  14. Thermowell flow-induced vibrations measured in laboratory and FFTF plant piping

    SciTech Connect

    Bartholf, L.W.

    1980-01-14

    This paper describes the various laboratory and field tests conducted to assure that flow-induced vibrations do not exist in the piping thermowells of the Fast Flux Test Facility. FFTF thermowells are subjected to a wide range of flowing sodium velocities during testing and operation. Early design work indicated a need to provide special attention to thermowell response in the drag direction at the higher sodium flow rates associated with FFTF testing. The results of this study provide some additional insight into response characteristics of a tube in liquid cross flow with emphasis on motion in the drag direction.

  15. Piezoelectric cantilevers optimization for vibration energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Junyi; Zhou, Shengxi; Ren, Xiaolong; Cao, Binggang

    2012-04-01

    Vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesters through the conversion of vibration energy to electrical energy has gained increasing attention over the past decade because of the reduced power requirements of small electronic components, especially in industrial condition monitoring applications where sensors may be embedded in machines. The structure parameters of cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters are of importance to maximize the output power in accordance with the characteristics of the ambient vibrations. Therefore, a piezoelectric cantilevers optimization method using finite element analysis and SPICE is proposed. This paper models piezoelectric cantilever using Hamilton principle and extracts the vibration modal parameters to establish the circuit model in SPICE. The numerical analysis is addressed to study the effect of parameters. Finally, the optimization analysis and experiment are carried out. The results verify that the optimized cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters can produce a 56V peak open-circuit voltage, and that the proposed method is suitable for optimization design of piezoelectric energy harvester.

  16. Piezoelectric cantilevers optimization for vibration energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Junyi; Zhou, Shengxi; Ren, Xiaolong; Cao, Binggang

    2011-11-01

    Vibration-based piezoelectric energy harvesters through the conversion of vibration energy to electrical energy has gained increasing attention over the past decade because of the reduced power requirements of small electronic components, especially in industrial condition monitoring applications where sensors may be embedded in machines. The structure parameters of cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters are of importance to maximize the output power in accordance with the characteristics of the ambient vibrations. Therefore, a piezoelectric cantilevers optimization method using finite element analysis and SPICE is proposed. This paper models piezoelectric cantilever using Hamilton principle and extracts the vibration modal parameters to establish the circuit model in SPICE. The numerical analysis is addressed to study the effect of parameters. Finally, the optimization analysis and experiment are carried out. The results verify that the optimized cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvesters can produce a 56V peak open-circuit voltage, and that the proposed method is suitable for optimization design of piezoelectric energy harvester.

  17. Anti-vibration gloves?

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren G; Welcome, Daniel E; McDowell, Thomas W

    2015-03-01

    For exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV), personal protective equipment is sold in the form of anti-vibration (AV) gloves, but it remains unclear how much these gloves actually reduce vibration exposure or prevent the development of hand-arm vibration syndrome in the workplace. This commentary describes some of the issues that surround the classification of AV gloves, the assessment of their effectiveness and their applicability in the workplace. The available information shows that AV gloves are unreliable as devices for controlling HTV exposures. Other means of vibration control, such as using alternative production techniques, low-vibration machinery, routine preventative maintenance regimes, and controlling exposure durations are far more likely to deliver effective vibration reductions and should be implemented. Furthermore, AV gloves may introduce some adverse effects such as increasing grip force and reducing manual dexterity. Therefore, one should balance the benefits of AV gloves and their potential adverse effects if their use is considered. PMID:25381184

  18. Optimized balance rehabilitation training strategy for the elderly through an evaluation of balance characteristics in response to dynamic motions

    PubMed Central

    Jung, HoHyun; Chun, Keyoung Jin; Hong, Jaesoo; Lim, Dohyung

    2015-01-01

    Balance is important in daily activities and essential for maintaining an independent lifestyle in the elderly. Recent studies have shown that balance rehabilitation training can improve the balance ability of the elderly, and diverse balance rehabilitation training equipment has been developed. However, there has been little research into optimized strategies for balance rehabilitation training. To provide an optimized strategy, we analyzed the balance characteristics of participants in response to the rotation of a base plate on multiple axes. Seven male adults with no musculoskeletal or nervous system-related diseases (age: 25.5±1.7 years; height: 173.9±6.4 cm; body mass: 71.3±6.5 kg; body mass index: 23.6±2.4 kg/m2) were selected to investigate the balance rehabilitation training using customized rehabilitation equipment. Rotation of the base plate of the equipment was controlled to induce dynamic rotation of participants in the anterior–posterior, right-diagonal, medial–lateral, and left-diagonal directions. We used a three-dimensional motion capture system employing infrared cameras and the Pedar Flexible Insoles System to characterize the major lower-extremity joint angles, center of body mass, and center of pressure. We found statistically significant differences between the changes in joint angles in the lower extremities in response to dynamic rotation of the participants (P<0.05). The maximum was greater with anterior–posterior and medial–lateral dynamic rotation than with that in other directions (P<0.05). However, there were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of center of body mass deviations from the base of support (P>0.05). These results indicate that optimizing rotation control of the base plate of balance rehabilitation training equipment to induce anterior–posterior and medial–lateral dynamic rotation preferentially can lead to effective balance training. Additional tests with varied speeds and ranges of angles of base plate rotation are expected to be useful as well as an analysis of the balance characteristics considering a balance index that reflects the muscle activity and cooperative characteristics. PMID:26508847

  19. With whom to dine? Ravens' responses to food-associated calls depend on individual characteristics of the caller

    PubMed Central

    Szipl, Georgine; Boeckle, Markus; Wascher, Claudia A.F.; Spreafico, Michela; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Upon discovering food, common ravens, Corvus corax, produce far-reaching ‘haa’ calls or yells, which are individually distinct and signal food availability to conspecifics. Here, we investigated whether ravens respond differently to ‘haa’ calls of known and unknown individuals. In a paired playback design, we tested responses to ‘haa’ call sequences in a group containing individually marked free-ranging ravens. We simultaneously played call sequences of a male and a female raven in two different locations and varied familiarity (known or unknown to the local group). Ravens responded strongest to dyads containing familiar females, performing more scan flights above and by perching in trees near the respective speaker. Acoustic analysis of the calls used as stimuli showed no sex-, age- or familiarity-specific acoustic cues, but highly significant classification results at the individual level. Taken together, our findings indicate that ravens respond to individual characteristics in ‘haa’ calls, and choose whom to approach for feeding, i.e. join social allies and avoid dominant conspecifics. This is the first study to investigate responses to ‘haa’ calls under natural conditions in a wild population containing individually marked ravens. PMID:25598542

  20. Optimization of Passive Constrained Layer Damping Treatments for Vibration Control of Cylindrical Shells

    E-print Network

    Zheng, H.

    This paper presents the layout optimization of passive constrained layer damping (PCLD) treatment for vibration control of cylindrical shells under a broadband force excitation. The equations governing the vibration responses ...

  1. Interplay of multiple vibrational spectral densities in femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy of liquids

    E-print Network

    Mukamel, Shaul

    Interplay of multiple vibrational spectral densities in femtosecond nonlinear spectroscopy oscillator model of nonlinear response functions is generalized to include a multielectronic level system interacting with several spectral densities representing solvent and vibrational coupling to electronic

  2. Eggshell Cutter Using Ultrasonic Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Hikaru

    2003-05-01

    An eggshell cutting apparatus which utilizes ultrasonic vibration was developed, replacing the conventional apparatus which uses an air cutter, to cut eggshells at the blunt end of eggs. Two ultrasonic vibration sources were used: one with longitudinal vibration only and the other with torsional vibration plus longitudinal vibration. Eggshell cutting experiments using these vibration sources were conducted. The eggshell cutting time sharply decreased with increasing longitudinal vibration amplitude as well as increasing input power. When the source with torsional vibration plus longitudinal vibration was used and the amplitude of longitudinal vibration was 12 ?m or less, the torsional vibration was effective for cutting eggshells. Furthermore, at the same input power, the eggshell cutting time by the source with longitudinal vibration only was shorter than that by the source with torsional vibration plus longitudinal vibration. When an egg was cut using the apparatus, there was essentially no cutting noise and the cut surface was smooth.

  3. Circular cylinder wakes and vortex-induced vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearman, P. W.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a selective review of recent research on vortex-induced vibrations of isolated circular cylinders and the flow and vibration of circular cylinders in a tandem arrangement; a common thread being that the topics raised are of particular interest to the author. The influence of Reynolds number on the response of isolated cylinders is presented and recent developments using forced vibration are discussed. The response of a cylinder free to respond in the in-line and transverse directions is contrasted with that of a cylinder responding in only one direction. The interference between two circular cylinders is discussed and prominence given to the case of cylinders in a tandem arrangement. The origin of the time-mean lift force on the downstream cylinder is considered together with the cause of the large amplitude transverse vibration experienced by the cylinder above vortex resonance. This wake-induced vibration is shown to be a form of vortex-induced vibration.

  4. Thermal Vibrational Convection in a Two-phase Stratified Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Qingming; Alexander, J. Iwan D.

    2007-01-01

    The response of a two-phase stratified liquid system subject to a vibration parallel to an imposed temperature gradient is analyzed using a hybrid thermal lattice Boltzmann method (HTLB). The vibrations considered correspond to sinusoidal translations of a rigid cavity at a fixed frequency. The layers are thermally and mechanically coupled. Interaction between gravity-induced and vibration-induced thermal convection is studied. The ability of applied vibration to enhance the flow, heat transfer and interface distortion is investigated. For the range of conditions investigated, the results reveal that the effect of vibrational Rayleigh number and vibrational frequency on a two-phase stratified fluid system is much different than that for a single-phase fluid system. Comparisons of the response of a two-phase stratified fluid system with a single-phase fluid system are discussed.

  5. The development of interior noise and vibration criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Clevenson, S. A.; Stephens, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    A generalized model was developed for estimating passenger discomfort response to combined noise and vibration. This model accounts for broadband noise and vibration spectra and multiple axes of vibration as well as the interactive effects of combined noise and vibration. The model has the unique capability of transforming individual components of noise/vibration environment into subjective comfort units and then combining these comfort units to produce a total index of passenger discomfort and useful sub-indices that typify passenger comfort within the environment. An overview of the model development is presented including the methodology employed, major elements of the model, model applications, and a brief description of a commercially available portable ride comfort meter based directly upon the model algorithms. Also discussed are potential criteria formats that account for the interactive effects of noise and vibration on human discomfort response.

  6. Photothermal Study of Free and Forced Elastic Vibrations of Microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorovic, D. M.; Cretin, B.; Vairac, P.; Song, Y.; Rabasovic, M. D.; Markushev, D. D.

    2015-06-01

    Dynamic free (spontaneous) and forced (optically excited) elastic vibration spectra of a cantilever (CL) were studied. The amplitude and phase elastic displacements of silicon CLs were measured as a function of the modulation frequency with and without optical excitation. Typically, four obvious peaks can be observed in the elastic vibration spectrum. The first peak represents the forced vibrations at the same frequency as the modulation of laser excitation, while two other peaks are the third and fifth harmonics. One small peak is the first natural resonance of the CL (free vibrations, spontaneous vibrations). The amplitude of elastic vibrations without optical excitation changes with frequency, and it is possible to distinguish two frequency regions. In the high frequency range above 10 kHz, the amplitude elastic vibration spectra are not a function of the frequency which is typically for white noise. The white noise level, which corresponds to the thermomechanical noise, was found. The forced vibrations are precisely studied by modulated optical excitation where the frequency is varied from 3 kHz to 45 kHz and by measuring the response with a lock-in-amplifier (measuring the amplitude and phase of the elastic vibrations). The optically excited elastic vibrations are the consequence of thermal and electronic elastic effects in the silicon CL. The mechanical response of the optically excited CL was modeled with good approximation by a damped harmonic oscillator. The experimental amplitude and phase spectra were fitted with theoretical curves, and the quality factor near the natural (resonance) frequency was obtained.

  7. Diagnosing subsynchronous vibrations in turbomachinery - stable or unstable 

    E-print Network

    Rajagopalan, Vinayaka Narayanan

    2009-05-15

    of thumb for diagnosing a true instability and at the same time is a very violent one as well. The last phenomenon to be studied is coupled lateral-torsional vibrations. A special test rig was built to study this effect, and clear indicators have been... identified to distinguish the response as resulting from torsional vibrations and also classify it as a benign source of subsynchronous vibration. The test rig is also mathematically modeled to predict its torsional natural frequencies. v...

  8. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth’s hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River. PMID:26244113

  9. Acute physiological responses and time-motion characteristics of two small-sided training regimes in youth soccer players.

    PubMed

    Hill-Haas, Stephen V; Rowsell, Greg J; Dawson, Brian T; Coutts, Aaron J

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute physiological responses and time-motion characteristics associated with continuous and intermittent small-sided games (SSGs). The continuous (SSGC) regime involved 24 minutes' playing duration (no planned rest intervals), whereas the intermittent regime (SSGI) involved 4 x 6-minute bouts with 1.5 minutes of passive planned rest (work:rest ratio 4:1). Both training regimes were implemented across 3 SSG formats, which included games with 2 vs. 2, 4 vs. 4, and 6 vs. 6 players. Sixteen men's soccer players (mean +/- SE: age = 16.2 +/- 0.2 years, height = 173.7 +/- 2.1 cm, body mass = 65.0+/- 2.5 kg, estimated VO2max = 54.8 +/- 0.7 ml x kg-1 x min-1) participated in the study. Heart rate (HR) was measured every 5 seconds during all SSGs. Global ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) were recorded immediately after the SSGs using the Borg scale (RPEs, 6-20). Capillary blood samples were drawn at rest and within 5 minutes after the end of each SSG. Time-motion characteristics were measured using portable global positioning system units. There were no significant differences between SSGC and SSGI for total distance covered or for distance traveled while walking, jogging, or running at moderate speed. However, players covered a significantly greater distance at 13.0-17.9 km x h-1, a greater total distance at higher running speed, and a greater total number of sprints (>18 km x h-1) with SSGI compared with SSGC. In contrast, global RPE and %HRmax were significantly higher in SSGC than in SSGI. Both intermittent and continuous SSG training regimes could be used during the season for match-specific aerobic conditioning. However, both training regimes used in this study seem unlikely to provide a sufficient stimulus overload for fully developing VO2max. PMID:19130642

  10. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei

    2015-01-01

    The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth's hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River. PMID:26244113

  11. A ghost story: spatio-temporal response characteristics of an indirect-detection flat-panel imager.

    PubMed

    Siewerdsen, J H; Jaffray, D A

    1999-08-01

    Spatial and temporal imaging characteristics of an amorphous silicon flat-panel imager (FPI) were investigated in terms relevant to the application of such devices in cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and other x-ray imaging modalities, including general radiography, fluoroscopy, mammography, radiotherapy portal imaging, and nondestructive testing. Specifically, issues of image lag (including the magnitude, spatial uniformity, temporal-frequency characteristics, and dependence upon exposure and frame time) and long-term image persistence ("ghosts") were investigated. As part of the basic characterization of the FPI, pixel dark signal and noise (magnitude, temporal stability, and spatial uniformity) as well as radiation response (signal size, linearity, gain, and reciprocity) were also measured. Image lag was analyzed as a function of frame time and incident exposure. First-frame lag (i.e., the relative residual signal in the first frame following readout of an exposure) was approximately 2-10%, depending upon incident exposure and was spatially nonuniform to a slight degree across the FPI; second-, third-, and fourth-frame lag were approximately 0.7%, 0.4%, and 0.3%, respectively (at 25% sensor saturation). Image lag was also analyzed in terms of the temporal-frequency-dependent transfer function derived from the radiation response, allowing a quantitative description of system components contributing to lag. Finally, the contrast of objects as a function of time following an exposure was measured in order to examine long-term image persistence ("ghosts"). Ghosts were found to persist up to 30 min or longer, depending upon the exposure and frame time. Two means of reducing the apparent contrast of ghost images were tested: (i) rapid scanning of the FPI at maximum frame rate, and (ii) flood-field exposure of the FPI; neither was entirely satisfactory. These results pose important considerations for application of FPIs in CBCT as well as other x-ray imaging modalities. For example in CBCT, the magnitude of image lag is such that significant artifacts in tomographic reconstructions may result if strategies are not adopted either to reduce or correct the lag between successive projections (e.g., rapid scanning between projections or iterative correction algorithms, respectively). Similarly, long-term image persistence may necessitate frequent recalibration of offset corrections. PMID:10501063

  12. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Martin E. Cobern

    2004-01-09

    The objective of this program is to develop a system to both monitor the vibration of a bottomhole assembly, and to adjust the properties of an active damper in response to these measured vibrations. Phase I of this program entails modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. The project continues to advance, but is behind the revised (14-month) schedule. Tasks 1-3 (Modeling, Specification and Design) are all essentially complete. The test bench for the Test and Evaluation (Tasks 4 & 5) has been designed and constructed. The design of the full-scale laboratory prototype and associated test equipment is complete and the components are out for manufacture. Barring any unforeseen difficulties, laboratory testing should be complete by the end of March, as currently scheduled. We anticipate the expenses through March to be approximately equal to those budgeted for Phase I.

  13. System and method of active vibration control for an electro-mechanically cooled device

    DOEpatents

    Lavietes, Anthony D. (Hayward, CA); Mauger, Joseph (Livermore, CA); Anderson, Eric H. (Mountain View, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A system and method of active vibration control of an electro-mechanically cooled device is disclosed. A cryogenic cooling system is located within an environment. The cooling system is characterized by a vibration transfer function, which requires vibration transfer function coefficients. A vibration controller generates the vibration transfer function coefficients in response to various triggering events. The environments may differ by mounting apparatus, by proximity to vibration generating devices, or by temperature. The triggering event may be powering on the cooling system, reaching an operating temperature, or a reset action. A counterbalance responds to a drive signal generated by the vibration controller, based on the vibration signal and the vibration transfer function, which adjusts vibrations. The method first places a cryogenic cooling system within a first environment and then generates a first set of vibration transfer function coefficients, for a vibration transfer function of the cooling system. Next, the cryogenic cooling system is placed within a second environment and a second set of vibration transfer function coefficients are generated. Then, a counterbalance is driven, based on the vibration transfer function, to reduce vibrations received by a vibration sensitive element.

  14. Nonlinear Vibration of a Magnetic Spring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Juhua; Cheng, Zhongqi; Ge, Ziming; Zhang, Yuelan; Lu, Wenqiang; Song, Feng; Li, Chuanyong

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the different vibration characteristics of a magnetic spring compared with those of a metal one, a magnetic spring apparatus was constructed from a pair of circular magnets of the same size with an inside diameter of 2.07 cm and an outside diameter of 4.50 cm. To keep the upper magnet in a suspension state, the two magnets were…

  15. Human Disturbances, Habitat Characteristics and Social Environment Generate Sex-Specific Responses in Vigilance of Mediterranean Mouflon

    PubMed Central

    Benoist, Stéphanie; Garel, Mathieu; Cugnasse, Jean-Marc; Blanchard, Pierrick

    2013-01-01

    In prey species, vigilance is an important part of the decision making process related to predation risk effects. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms shaping vigilance behavior provides relevant insights on factors influencing individual fitness. We investigated the role of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on vigilance behavior in Mediterranean mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon×Ovis sp.) in a study site spatially and temporally contrasted in human pressures. Both sexes were less vigilant in the wildlife reserve compared to surrounding unprotected areas, except for males during the hunting period. During this period, males tended to be less strictly restricted to the reserve than females what might lead to a pervasive effect of hunting within the protected area, resulting in an increase in male vigilance. It might also be a rutting effect that did not occur in unprotected areas because males vigilance was already maximal in response to human disturbances. In both sexes, yearlings were less vigilant than adults, probably because they traded off vigilance for learning and energy acquisition and/or because they relied on adult experience present in the group. Similarly, non-reproductive females benefited of the vigilance effort provided by reproductive females when belonging to the same group. However, in the absence of reproductive females, non-reproductive females were as vigilant as reproductive females. Increasing group size was only found to reduce vigilance in females (up to 17.5%), not in males. We also showed sex-specific responses to habitat characteristics. Females increased their vigilance when habitat visibility decreased (up to 13.8%) whereas males increased their vigilance when feeding on low quality sites, i.e., when concomitant increase in chewing time can be devoted to vigilance with limited costs. Our global approach was able to disentangle the sex-specific sources of variation in mouflon vigilance and stressed the importance of reserves in managing and conserving wild sheep populations. PMID:24386131

  16. Vibrating fuel grapple

    DOEpatents

    Chertock, deceased, Alan J. (late of San Francisco, CA); Fox, Jack N. (San Jose, CA); Weissinger, Robert B. (Santa Clara, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A reactor refueling method utilizing a vibrating fuel grapple for removing spent fuel assemblies from a reactor core which incorporates a pneumatic vibrator in the grapple head, enabling additional withdrawal capability without exceeding the allowable axial force limit. The only moving part in the vibrator is a steel ball, pneumatically driven by a gas, such as argon, around a track, with centrifugal force created by the ball being transmitted through the grapple to the assembly handling socket.

  17. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY WITH DOWNHOLE VIBRATION STIMULATION IN OSAGE COUNTY OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Westermark; J. Ford Brett

    2003-11-01

    This Final Report covers the entire project from July 13, 2000 to June 30, 2003. The report summarizes the details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma'' under DOE Contract Number DE-FG26-00BC15191. The project was divided into nine separate tasks. This report is written in an effort to document the lessons learned during the completion of each task. Therefore each task will be discussed as the work evolved for that task throughout the duration of the project. Most of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, but certain tasks were dependent on earlier tasks being completed. During the three years of project activities, twelve quarterly technical reports were submitted for the project. Many individual topic and task specific reports were included as appendices in the quarterly reports. Ten of these reports have been included as appendices to this final report. Two technical papers, which were written and accepted by the Society of Petroleum Engineers, have also been included as appendices. The three primary goals of the project were to build a downhole vibration tool (DHVT) to be installed in seven inch casing, conduct a field test of vibration stimulation in a mature waterflooded field and evaluate the effects of the vibration on both the produced fluid characteristics and injection well performance. The field test results are as follows: In Phase I of the field test the DHVT performed exceeding well, generating strong clean signals on command and as designed. During this phase Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory had installed downhole geophones and hydrophones to monitor the signal generated by the downhole vibrator. The signals recorded were strong and clear. Phase II was planned to be ninety-day reservoir stimulation field test. This portion of the field tests was abruptly ended after one week of operations, when the DHVT became stuck in the well during a routine removal activity. The tool cannot operate in this condition and remains in the well. There was no response measured during or afterwards to either the produced fluids from the five production wells or in the injection characteristics of the two injection wells in the pilot test area. Monitoring the pilot area injection and production wells ceased when the field test was terminated March 14, 2003. Thus, a key goal of this project, which was to determine the effects of vibration stimulation on improving oil recovery from a mature waterflood, was not obtained. While there was no improved oil recovery effect measured, there was insufficient vibration stimulation time to expect a change to occur. No conclusion can be drawn about the effectiveness of vibration stimulation in this test.

  18. Theory and Techniques for Vibration-Induced Conductivity Fluctuation testing of Soils

    E-print Network

    Hung-Chih Chang; Laszlo B. Kish; Andrea Kishne; Cristine Morgan; Chiman Kwan

    2009-01-22

    First we present and theoretically analyze the phenomenological physical picture behind Vibration-Induced Conductivity Fluctuations. We identify the relevant tensors characterizing the electromechanical response against the vibrations for both longitudinal and transversal responses. We analyze the conductivity response with acceleration type vibrations and a new scheme, measurements with more advantageous compression type vibrations that are first introduced here. Compression vibrations provide sideband spectral lines shifted by the frequency of the vibration instead of its second harmonics; moreover the application of this method is less problematic with loose electrodes. Concerning geometry and electrodes, the large measurement errors in earlier experiment indicated electrode effects which justify using four-electrode type measurements. We propose and analyze new arrangements for the longitudinal and transversal measurements with both compression vibration and acceleration vibration for laboratory and field conditions.

  19. Transversal vibrations of double-plate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedrih, Katica (Stevanovi?)

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents an analytical and numerical analysis of free and forced transversal vibrations of an elastically connected double-plate system. Analytical solutions of a system of coupled partial differential equations, which describe corresponding dynamical free and forced processes, are obtained using Bernoulli’s particular integral and Lagrange’s method of variation constants. It is shown that one-mode vibrations correspond to two-frequency regime for free vibrations induced by initial conditions and to three-frequency regime for forced vibrations induced by one-frequency external excitation and corresponding initial conditions. The analytical solutions show that the elastic connection between plates leads to the appearance of two-frequency regime of time function, which corresponds to one eigenamplitude function of one mode, and also that the time functions of different vibration modes are uncoupled, for each shape of vibrations. It has been proven that for both elastically connected plates, for every pair of m and n, two possibilities for appearance of the resonance dynamical states, as well as for appearance of the dynamical absorption, are present. Using the MathCad program, the corresponding visualizations of the characteristic forms of the plate middle surfaces through time are presented.

  20. Reduced-vibration tube array

    DOEpatents

    Bruck, Gerald J.; Bartolomeo, Daniel R.

    2004-07-20

    A reduced-vibration tube array is disclosed. The array includes a plurality of tubes in a fixed arrangement and a plurality of damping members positioned within the tubes. The damping members include contoured interface regions characterized by bracing points that selectively contact the inner surface of an associated tube. Each interface region is sized and shaped in accordance with the associated tube, so that the damping member bracing points are spaced apart a vibration-reducing distance from the associated tube inner surfaces at equilibrium. During operation, mechanical interaction between the bracing points and the tube inner surfaces reduces vibration by a damage-reducing degree. In one embodiment, the interface regions are serpentine shaped. In another embodiment, the interface regions are helical in shape. The interface regions may be simultaneously helical and serpentine in shape. The damping members may be fixed within the associated tubes, and damping member may be customized several interference regions having attributes chosen in accordance with desired flow characteristics and associated tube properties.