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1

Feeling Stressed? Stress Relief Might Help Your Health  

MedlinePLUS

... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Feeling Stressed? Stress Relief Might Help Your Health Winter holidays—do they fill you ... that the agitation brought on by stress might help to burn calories. But evidence hints that the ...

2

FREEZE-FRAME: Fast Action Stress Relief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent scientific research has proven that we can, not only manage our stress, we can even prevent it. Ways to achieve stress management are presented in this book. It details a method called FREEZE-FRAME, a process in which individuals mentally stop the chaos that surrounds them and then calmly contemplate their situation. The text opens with an…

Childre, Doc Lew

3

Stress-relief cracking of a new ferritic steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism of stress-relief cracking in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of low-alloy ferritic steels was studied through a tempering study, stress-relaxation testing, and detailed microstructural characterization. A new ferritic alloy steel, HCM2S, was used as the model system. Common 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel, which is susceptible to stress-relief cracking, was used for comparison to HCM2S. The CGHAZ was simulated using Gleeble techniques. A dense distribution of small tungsten-rich carbides within the prior austenite grains induced secondary hardening in the CGHAZ of HCM2S. The CGHAZ of 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel exhibited secondary hardening due to the intragranular precipitation of many Fe-rich M3C carbides. The hardness of HCM2S was more stable at longer times and high temperatures than 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel due to the intragranular precipitation of small W and V-rich carbides. The CGHAZs of HCM2S and 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel were susceptible to stress-relief cracking between 575 and 725°C. HCM2S exhibited C-curve behavior with respect to the time to failure as a function of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) temperature. No segregation of tramp elements to prior austenite grain boundaries was detected in HCM2S. Both intergranular and intragranular carbide precipitation controlled the stress-relief cracking behavior. The amount of intergranular failure increased with test temperature due to the increasing amounts of Fe-rich M3C carbides at the prior austenite grain boundaries. These carbides acted as cavity nucleation sites. The cavities coalesced to form microcracks along prior austenite grain boundaries. Eventually, the remaining uncracked areas could not support the load and failed by ductile rupture. The balance of intergranular and intragranular carbide precipitation resulted in the C-curve behavior. The nose of the C-curve occurred at 675°C. The intragranular regions were strong because of a dense distribution of W/Fe-rich carbides, but the prior austenite grain boundaries were weak due to a large amount of intergranular M3C carbides. A mechanism for stress-relief cracking in the CGHAZ of HCM2S has been proposed. The results of this study form a basis for heat treating and welding processing variables for HCM2S and 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel to avoid stress-relief cracking. In addition, these results can be applied to other materials to avoid microstructures susceptible to stress-relief cracking.

Nawrocki, Jesse Gerald

4

18-s | JANUARY 2001 ABSTRACT. The stress-relief cracking  

E-print Network

. The use of multipass or temper bead proce- dures can reduce the need for expensive, time-consuming PWHT) were produced using two- and three-pass thermal cycle simulations and tested at various postweld heat that stress-relief cracking was avoided with the use of multipass simulations. The times to fail- ure, when

DuPont, John N.

5

Stress Relief Do you like dogs? Do you  

E-print Network

Paws for Stress Relief Do you like dogs? Do you miss your pets at home? Take a break from studying therapy, meditation, mindfulness, Reiki, Hatha Yoga, and FREE Massages! February 7th 11:00am-1:00pm WC

Mahon, Bradford Z.

6

Stress Relief Week T U E S D AY  

E-print Network

Stress Relief Week MON D AY D E C 9 T U E S D AY D E C 1 0 W E D NE S D AY D E C 1 1 T H U R S D AY D E C 1 2 F R I D AY D E C 1 3 Mat Pilates with Corinne 12:00-1:00pm Studio 311 Yoga with Laura 12:00-1:00pm Studio 414 Yoga with Paula 12:00-1:00pm Studio 414 Yoga with Haley 12:00-1:00pm Studio 414 Tower

Plotkin, Joshua B.

7

Stress and Stress Relief in the Educational Research Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Factors that increase stress and those that decrease stress were studied with 33 graduate students in an introductory educational research course. Participants completed the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) (R. Cruse, R. Cash, and D. Bolton, 1985) and were asked to rate their anxiety daily during the 4 weeks of the class. The instructor's…

Wilson, Vicki A.

8

Comparison of Stress Relief Procedures for Cryogenic Aluminum Mirrors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Infrared Multi-Object Spectrograph (IRMOS) is a facility instrument for the Kitt Peak National Observatory Mayall Telescope (3.8 meter) and an engineering prototype for a potential design for the Next Generation Space Telescope/Multi-Object Spectrograph. IRMOS is a low-to mid-resolution (R = lambda/delta-lambda = 300-3800), near-IR (0.8-2.5 micron) spectrograph which produces simultaneous spectra of approximately 100 objects in its 2.8 x 2.0 arcmin field of view using a commercial MEMS multimirror array device. The instrument operating temperature is 80 K and the design is athermal --- the optical bench and mirrors are machined from aluminum 6061-T651. In spite of its baseline mechanical stress relief, aluminum 6061-T651 harbors some residual stress, which, unless relieved during fabrication, may relieve and distort mirror figure to unacceptable levels at the operating temperature. Other cryogenic instruments using aluminum mirrors for both ground-based and space IR astronomy have employed a variety of heat treatment formulae, with mixed results. We present the results of a test program designed to empirically determine the best stress relief procedure for the IRMOS mirrors. Identical test mirrors with spherical and flat optical prescriptions are processed with five different heat treatment formulae from the literature and compared to samples with out any additional processing. After figuring via diamond turning, the mirrors are tested for figure error and radius of curvature at room temperature and at 80 K for several thermal cycles. The heat treatment procedure for the mirrors that yielded the least and most repeatable change in figure error and radius is applied to the IRMOS mirror blanks. We correlate the results of our optical testing with heat treatment and metallographic data.

Ohl, Raymond G.; Barthelmy, Michael P.; Zewari, S. Wahid; Toland, Ronald; Mink, Ronald; Mentzell, J. Eric; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; McMann, Joseph C.; Hylan, Jason; Hagopian, John G.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

9

Thermal stress-relief treatments for 2219 aluminum alloy are evaluated  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evaluation of three thermal stress relief treatments for 2219 aluminum alloy in terms of their effect on residual stress, mechanical properties, and stress corrosion resistance. The treatments are post aging and stress relieving fullscale and subscale parts formed in the aged T81 condition, and aging subscale parts formed in the unaged T31 condition.

1966-01-01

10

Fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements: Defining role of stress relief annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study involved fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements. Uranium silicide of actual fuel elements was replaced with yttria. The fabrication stages were otherwise identical. The final cold rolled and/or straightened plates, without stress relief, showed an inverse relationship between bond strength and out of plane residual shear stress (?13). Stress relief of ?13 was conducted over a range of temperatures/times (200-500 °C and 15-240 min) and led to corresponding improvements in bond strength. Fastest ?13 relief was obtained through 300 °C annealing. Elimination of microscopic shear bands, through recovery and partial recrystallization, was clearly the most effective mechanism of relieving ?13.

Kohli, D.; Rakesh, R.; Sinha, V. P.; Prasad, G. J.; Samajdar, I.

2014-04-01

11

The Meta-Lax method of stress reduction in welds. Phase 2 study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is the second phase of ongoing research into the mechanics and feasibility of using the Meta-Lax method of vibratory stress relief in place of thermal methods of stress relief. The first phase of this research revealed results that were similar to, and even superior to those achieved using thermal methods. The testing here was designed to eliminate the

1992-01-01

12

The Meta-Lax method of stress reduction in welds. [ASTM A36; AISI 4140  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is the second phase of ongoing research into the mechanics and feasibility of using the Meta-Lax method of vibratory stress relief in place of thermal methods of stress relief. The first phase of this research revealed results that were similar to, and even superior to those achieved using thermal methods. The testing here was designed to eliminate the

1992-01-01

13

Thermo-mechanical stress relief analysis in PMMA and 6000 series aluminum  

E-print Network

Stress relief of materials produced in bulk is a key part of the manufacturing process. The most common kinds are either thermal or mechanical and are commonly applied to commercial metal alloys. A third type, thermo-mechanical, ...

Stephens, Scott, S.B. (Scott A.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

14

Mechanism of Improving Fretting Fatigue Strength by Stress-Relief Groove  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of stress-relief groove that significantly improves the fretting fatigue strength has been validated through many fatigue tests using a full-scale railway wheelset. However, the reason for this increase has not been yet fully understood. The objective of this study is to clarify the mechanism responsible for the improvement of the fretting fatigue strength by a stress-relief groove. In this study, fretting fatigue tests using a pre-cracked specimen was done based on the assumption that the fretting fatigue phenomenon can be regarded as a crack propagation problem. In the experiment, the fretting fatigue strength was improved by the stress-relief groove. The result suggested that the propagation of the pre-crack was suppressed by the stress-relief groove. An FEM analysis showed the reason for the suppression of the crack propagation. The mode I stress intensity factor of the pre-crack was reduced by the stress-relief groove. This was achieved by both relaxation of the stress around the contact edge and development of static compressive stress field by severe concentration of the contact pressure due to overhang.

Kataoka, Shunsuke; Ono, Hiroaki; Kawakami, Kota; Kubota, Masanobu; Kondo, Yoshiyuki

15

46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.  

...C (14 °F), an independent tank type C of: (a) Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat treatment under § 54.25-7 of this chapter or by mechanical stress relief under subpart 54.30 of this chapter;...

2014-10-01

16

Stress-relief displacements induced by drilling--applications to holographic measurements of in situ stress  

SciTech Connect

The holographic stressmeter is an instrument which has been developed at Caltech to allow determination of the complete stress tensor from in situ borehole measurements. The stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a small sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses, concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall in the vicinity of the sidehole. The first part of this study uses a thin infinite elastic plate subjected to plane stress at infinity to model the displacements at the borehole wall. However, the existence of some holograms which were difficult to model closely led us to examine the validity of this model. In order to investigate the problem further, we performed a two-dimensional finite element analysis for an elastic box with a terminated hole. We varied the dimensions of the hole to see what effect the radius and depth of the hole might have on the displacements. The plate model predicts that the depth of the hole should have no effect on the horizontal components of displacement, but the finite element results show that the magnitude of both components of the displacement depends on the depth of the sidehole. After considering these results, we developed a new model for the analysis of stress-relief displacements, following the work of Youngdahl and Sternberg (1965). For holes with a depth-to-diameter ratio greater than unity, the simple plane stress elastic plate solution breaks down and does not adequately model the displacements at the surface of the body and near the hole. Since these are the areas most critical to calculate accurately with the holographic technique, the revised model does a better job of fitting the observed data.

Ahrens, T.J.; Smither, C.L.

1992-04-24

17

Experimental and analytical evaluation of the effects of simulated engine inlets on the blade vibratory stresses of the SR-3 model prop-fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cooperative wind tunnel test program, referred to as GUN-3, had been conducted previously to assess the effect of inlet configuration and location on the inlet face pressure recovery and inlet drag in the presence of a high-speed advanced turboprop. These tests were conducted with the inlets located just downstream of the SR-3 model Prop-Fan, a moderately swept, eight-bladed 62.2 cm (24.5 inch) diameter advanced, high-speed turboprop model fabricated from titanium. During these tests, two blades of the SR-3 model Prop-Fan were strain gaged to measure the vibratory blade stresses occurring during the inlet aerodynamic test program. The purpose of the effort reported herein was to reduce and analyze the test results related to the vibratory strain gage measurements obtained. Three inlet configurations had been tested. These were: (1) single scoop, (2) twin scoop, and (3) annular. Each of the three inlets was tested at a position just behind the rotor. The single scoop inlet was also tested at a position further aft. Tests were also done without an inlet. These results emphasize the importance of avoiding critical speeds in the continuous operating range.

Bansal, Prem N.

1985-01-01

18

The effectiveness of stress relief etching for improving bipolar device characteristics  

E-print Network

dislocations is believed to be the main reason why no difference in device characteristics was seen between the Sirtl etched and the control devices. It is also believed that the primary cause for the variations observed in the device characteristics result...THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STRESS RELIEF ETCHING FOR IMPROVING BIPOLAR DEVICE CHARACTERISTICS A Thesis by LYNN GILLESPIE REED Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&N University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree...

Reed, Lynn Gillespie

2012-06-07

19

Stress Relief Week FREE Programming & Events from Dec 8 to Dec 12  

E-print Network

Stress Relief Week FREE Programming & Events from Dec 8 to Dec 12 M O N D A Y D E C 8 T U E S D A Y Pilates 101 w/ Angie Studio 305 7:30am-8:30am Yoga 101 w/ Matt Studio 414 7:30am-8:15am Pilates 101 w:30pm-1:30pm Hatha Yoga w/ Kathy Studio 414 12:00pm-1:00pm Gentle Yoga w/ Laura Studio 414 12:00pm-12

Sharp, Kim

20

Advanced turboprop vibratory characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The assembly of SR5 advanced turboprop blades to develop a structural dynamic data base for swept props is reported. Steady state blade deformation under centrifugal loading and vibratory characteristics of the rotor assembly were measured. Vibration was induced through a system of piezoelectric crystals attached to the blades. Data reduction procedures are used to provide deformation, mode shape, and frequencies of the assembly at predetermined speeds.

Srinivasan, A. V.; Fulton, G. B.

1984-01-01

21

Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12th, 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors. PMID:25206499

Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng

2013-01-01

22

Hydrologic effects of stress-relief fracturing in an Appalachian Valley  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A hydrologic study at Twin Falls State Park, Wyoming County, West Virginia, was made to determine how fracture systems affect the occurrence and movement of ground water in a typical valley of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province. Twin Falls was selected because it is generally unaffected by factors that would complicate an analysis of the data. The study area was the Black Fork Valley at Twin Falls. The valley is about 3 miles long and 400 to 600 feet wide and is cut into massive sandstone units interbedded with thin coal and shale beds. The study was made to determine how aquifer characteristics were related to fracture systems in this valley, so that the relation could be applied to studies of other valleys. Two sites were selected for test drilling, pumping tests, and geophysical studies. One site is in the upper part of the valley, and the second is near the lower central part. At both sites, ground water occurs mainly in horizontal bedding-plane fractures under the valley floor and in nearly vertical and horizontal slump fractures along the valley wall. The aquifer is under confined conditions under the valley floor and unconfined conditions along the valley wall. The fractures pinch out under the valley walls, which form impermeable barriers. Tests of wells near the valley center indicated a change in storage coefficient as the cone of depression caused by pumping reached the confined-unconfined boundaries; the tests also indicated barrier-image effects when the cone reached the impermeable boundaries. Drawdown from pumping near the center of the valley affected water levels at both sites, indicating a hydraulic connection from the upper to the lower end of the valley. Stream gain-and-loss studies show that ground water discharges to the stream from horizontal fractures beneath Black Fork Falls, near the mouth of Black Fork. The fracture systems that constitute most of the transmissive part of the aquifer at Twin Falls are like those described as being formed from stress relief. As stress-relief fractures have been described in other valleys of the Appalachian Plateaus, the same aquifer conditions may exist in those valleys.

Wyrick, Granville G.; Borchers, James W.

1981-01-01

23

Does Daily Kangaroo Care Provide Sustained Pain and Stress Relief in Preterm Infants?  

PubMed Central

Objectives 1. Determine whether stress in preterm infants, measured with salivary cortisol, decreases after five days of Kangaroo Care (KC) compared to five days of Standard Care (SC). 2. To determine whether kangaroo care provides sustainable pain relief beyond the period of skin-to-skin holding. Study Design Preterm infants (n=38) born at 27-30 weeks gestational age were randomized to either the KC or the SC group and received the allocated intervention starting on day of life (DOL) five and continuing for five days. Salivary cortisol was collected on DOL five and again on DOL ten. Differences were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and t tests. Pain during nasal suctioning over five days was assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). Result 1. Adequate saliva samples for salivary cortisol were collected for 13 KC infants and 11 SC infants. There was no main effect of group (p=0.49), but there was a significant main effect of age (DOL five versus DOL ten), with salivary cortisol levels decreasing in both groups (p=0.02). 2. Pain scores for both groups (n=38) indicted mild to moderate pain during suctioning, with no significant difference in pain scores between groups. Conclusion 1. KC did not affect salivary cortisol levels in preterm neonates, but levels in both the KC and SC groups decreased over time from DOL five to ten. Salivary cortisol may vary with age of infant. 2. Infants experience pain during routine suctioning and may require pain management. PMID:24246458

Mitchell, Anita J.; Yates, Charlotte C.; Williams, D. Keith; Chang, Jason Y.; Hall, Richard Whit

2014-01-01

24

Silicon Bulk Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports on design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a novel silicon bulk micromachined vibratory rate gyroscope designed for microspacecraft applications. The new microgyroscope consists of a silicon four leaf cloverstructure with a post attached to the center.

Tang, T. K.; Gutierrez, R. C.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Stell, C.; Vorperian, V.; Calvet, R.; Li, W. J.; Charkaborty, I.; Bartman, R.; Kaiser, W. J.

1996-01-01

25

The Meta-Lax method of stress reduction in welds. Phase 2 study  

SciTech Connect

This study is the second phase of ongoing research into the mechanics and feasibility of using the Meta-Lax method of vibratory stress relief in place of thermal methods of stress relief. The first phase of this research revealed results that were similar to, and even superior to those achieved using thermal methods. The testing here was designed to eliminate the effects of interbead tempering by utilizing single pass bead-on-plate welds only. A metallurgical explanation for the success of the Meta-Lax method was not found. No significant structure or chemical changes were noted when used with ASTM A36 or AISI 4140 materials, and the phenomena noted in phase I was apparently due to interbead tempering. The theory of accelerated aging has been proposed and studies exist which observed dislocation motion as a result of vibratory treatment. It is evident that the vibratory stress relief system does not impart sufficient energy to bring about the magnitude of change seen with thermal methods. however the physical improvement is a reality, and vibratory methods should be evaluated further.

Smith, S.M.

1992-07-31

26

The Meta-Lax method of stress reduction in welds. [ASTM A36; AISI 4140  

SciTech Connect

This study is the second phase of ongoing research into the mechanics and feasibility of using the Meta-Lax method of vibratory stress relief in place of thermal methods of stress relief. The first phase of this research revealed results that were similar to, and even superior to those achieved using thermal methods. The testing here was designed to eliminate the effects of interbead tempering by utilizing single pass bead-on-plate welds only. A metallurgical explanation for the success of the Meta-Lax method was not found. No significant structure or chemical changes were noted when used with ASTM A36 or AISI 4140 materials, and the phenomena noted in phase I was apparently due to interbead tempering. The theory of accelerated aging has been proposed and studies exist which observed dislocation motion as a result of vibratory treatment. It is evident that the vibratory stress relief system does not impart sufficient energy to bring about the magnitude of change seen with thermal methods. however the physical improvement is a reality, and vibratory methods should be evaluated further.

Smith, S.M.

1992-07-31

27

Mechanical characterization and modeling of brazed tungsten and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy using stress relief interlayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapidly solidified foil-type Ti-Zr based amorphous filler with a melting temperature of 850 °C was used to braze tungsten to Cu-Cr-Zr alloy for water cooled divertors and plasma facing components application. Brazed joints of dissimilar materials suffer from a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion. In order to release the residual stress caused by the mismatch, brazed joints of tungsten and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy using different interlayers were studied. The shear strength tests of brazed W/Cu joints show that the average strength of the joint with a W70Cu30 composite plate interlayer reached 119.8 MPa, and the average strength of the joint with oxygen free high conductivity copper (OFHC Cu)/Mo multi-interlayers reached 140.8 MPa, while the joint without interlayer was only 16.6 MPa. Finite element method (FEM) has been performed to investigate the stress distribution and effect of stress relief interlayers. FEM results show that the maximum von Mises stress occurs in the tungsten/filler interface and that the filler suffers the peak residual stresses and becomes the weakest zone. And the use of OFHC Cu/Mo multi-interlayers can reduce the residual stress significantly, which agrees with the mechanical experiment data.

Qu, Dandan; Zhou, Zhangjian; Yum, Youngjin; Aktaa, Jarir

2014-12-01

28

How Do You Spell Relief? Alleviating Job Stress Caused by Organizations and Executives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College business officers should examine whether they and their institutions are practicing stress-inducing activities, and modify current practice to reduce stress on employees. Stresses can originate in the organizational framework, managerial style, or manager personality. Review of individual and organizational actions possible causing stress

Ginsburg, Sigmund G.

1991-01-01

29

Light-induced stress relief to improve flaw tolerance in network polymers  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the ability to use photoactivated stress relaxation to improve flaw tolerance in network polymers. Unlike most self-healing polymers, which effectively close flaws by locally introducing healing agents (such as uncured resins), here light is used to relax elevated stresses around a flaw before it reaches a critical state, which reduces the threat that the flaw poses to the structural integrity of the material. In this study, we fabricate specimens with well-defined flaws and uniaxially stretch them to failure. By irradiating the specimens with UV light (365 nm) before failure, the nominal strain at failure is increased by 70% and the corresponding nominal stress is increased by 30% compared with nonirradiated specimens. To better understand the phenomena that occur at the multiaxial stress state at the flaw, we model the photomechanics using a recently developed finite element approach that accurately describes the light propagation, photochemistry, radical-induced network evolution, and the mechanical behavior of the material. Model predictions agree well with the experimental results and elucidate the role that photoinduced stress relaxation has on improving flaw tolerance.

Long, Kevin N.; Dunn, Martin L.; Scott, Timothy F.; Turpin, Lucas P.; Qi, H. Jerry [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

2010-03-15

30

Trap Design for Vibratory Bowl Feeders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibratory bowl feeder is the oldest and still most common ap- proach to the automated feeding (orienting) of industrial parts. In this paper we consider a class of vibratory bowl lters that can be described by removing polygonal sections from the track; we refer to this class of lters as traps. For an n-sided polygonal part and an m-sided

Robert-paul Berretty; Kenneth Y. Goldberg; Lawrence Cheung; Mark H. Overmars; Gordon Smith; A. Frank Van Der Stappen

1999-01-01

31

Trap Design for Vibratory Bowl Feeders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibratory bowl feeder is the oldest and still most common ap- proach to the automated feeding (orienting) of industrial parts. In this paper, the authors consider a class of vibratory bowl filters that can be described by removing polygonal sections from the track; this class of filters is referred to as traps. For an n-sided polygonal part and an

Robert-paul Berretty; Kenneth Y. Goldberg; Mark H. Overmars; A. Frank Van Der Stappen

2001-01-01

32

Stress-relief displacements induced by drilling--applications to holographic measurements of in situ stress. Final technical report, August 15, 1988--August 14, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The holographic stressmeter is an instrument which has been developed at Caltech to allow determination of the complete stress tensor from in situ borehole measurements. The stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a small sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses, concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall in the vicinity of the sidehole. The first part of this study uses a thin infinite elastic plate subjected to plane stress at infinity to model the displacements at the borehole wall. However, the existence of some holograms which were difficult to model closely led us to examine the validity of this model. In order to investigate the problem further, we performed a two-dimensional finite element analysis for an elastic box with a terminated hole. We varied the dimensions of the hole to see what effect the radius and depth of the hole might have on the displacements. The plate model predicts that the depth of the hole should have no effect on the horizontal components of displacement, but the finite element results show that the magnitude of both components of the displacement depends on the depth of the sidehole. After considering these results, we developed a new model for the analysis of stress-relief displacements, following the work of Youngdahl and Sternberg (1965). For holes with a depth-to-diameter ratio greater than unity, the simple plane stress elastic plate solution breaks down and does not adequately model the displacements at the surface of the body and near the hole. Since these are the areas most critical to calculate accurately with the holographic technique, the revised model does a better job of fitting the observed data.

Ahrens, T.J.; Smither, C.L.

1992-04-24

33

Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

1941-01-01

34

Disability and posttraumatic stress disorder in disaster relief workers responding to September 11, 2001 World Trade Center disaster.  

PubMed

Empirical evidence suggests that social and occupational disability plays a significant role in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study was to assess the role of social/occupational disability and to identify predictors of the development of PTSD in a group of disaster relief workers (DRWs) who had been deployed to the World Trade Center (WTC) following September 11, 2001. Eight hundred forty-two utility workers completed a battery of comprehensive tests measuring PTSD and social occupational functioning. Results indicated a significant association between PTSD symptoms and impaired social/occupational functioning. Symptomatic workers were also more likely to have a history of trauma, panic disorder, and depression. Those with a history of trauma, depression, generalized anxiety disorder or panic reported significantly more disability than those without a psychiatric history. Careful screening of PTSD and social/occupational functioning in DRWs following a disaster is warranted so that early treatment can be undertaken to prevent a chronic and disabling course. PMID:19388060

Evans, Susan; Patt, Ivy; Giosan, Cezar; Spielman, Lisa; Difede, JoAnn

2009-07-01

35

Fracture properties of hydrided Zircaloy-4 cladding in recrystallization and stress-relief anneal conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the stress-relieved (SRA) and recrystallized (RXA) Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens were hydrogen-charged to the target concentration of 300 wppm and then manufactured into X-specimens for fracture toughness test. The hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens in both SRA and RXA conditions were investigated. At the hydrogen concentration level of 300 wppm, J-integral values for RXA cladding were higher than those for SRA cladding at both 25 °C and 300 °C. The formation of brittle zirconium hydrides had a significant impact on the fracture toughness of Zircaloy-4 cladding in both SRA and RXA states, especially at 25 °C. Among all the tests, SRA cladding tested at 25 °C exhibited a great loss of the fracture toughness. The micrographic and fractographic observations further demonstrated that the fracture toughness of Zircaloy-4 cladding would be improved by the coarse grains in RXA cladding, but degraded by zirconium hydrides precipitated along the grain boundary.

Hsu, Hsiao-Hung; Tsay, Leu-Wen

2012-03-01

36

Dry period heat stress relief effects on prepartum progesterone, calf birth weight, and milk production.  

PubMed

Effects of cooling high producing dairy cows during the dry period were examined in 84 pluriparous Israeli-Holstein cows. Cooling was by a combination of wetting and forced ventilation from 0600 to 1800 h until parturition and common management afterwards for both groups. Cooling maintained diurnal increase in rectal temperature within .2 degrees C as compared with .5 degrees C in control cows in warmer months, Mean rectal temperatures at 1400 h in control cows were moderate, within 39.2 degrees C. Cooling did not affect prepartum or postpartum body condition score or mean blood progesterone during the dry period. Results suggested a possible increase in blood progesterone in later pregnancy by cooling during hot weather. Cooling increased mean 150-d milk production by 3.6 kg/d (3.1 kg FCM/d). Prepartum cooling negatively affected first lactation month yield in cows calving in early summer. Prepartum cooling might prevent adaptation to heat and impair subsequent postpartum performance. Prepartum progesterone was not related to milk yield. Calves' birth weight increased by cooling, but the effect was mostly in older cows. Birth weight was related to milk yield, independently of cooling effect, mostly in older cows. Cooling during the dry period might increase milk yield as it does during lactation. Results indicate possible benefit of cooling dry cows even under mild heat stress. PMID:3372821

Wolfenson, D; Flamenbaum, I; Berman, A

1988-03-01

37

GEC Ferranti piezo vibratory gyroscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prototypes of a piezo-electric vibratory angular rate transducer (gyroscope) (PVG) have been constructed and evaluated. The construction is on the lines suggested by Burdess. The sensitive element is a cylinder of radially poled piezo-electric ceramic. The cylinder is metallized inside and out, and the outer metallization is divided into eight electrodes. The metallization on the inside is earthed. A phase locked loop, using pairs of the electrodes, causes the cylinder to vibrate in one of its two fundamental, degenerate modes. In the presence of rotation, some of the vibration is coupled into the outer mode. This can be detected, or suppressed with a closed-up technique and provides a measure of rotation rate. The gyroscope provides a number of advantages over rotating mass and optical instruments: low size and mass, lower power consumption, potentially high reliability, potentially good dormancy, low cost and high maximum rate.

Nuttall, J. D.

1993-01-01

38

Electromechanical emulation of active vibratory Wenyuan Chena...  

E-print Network

Electromechanical emulation of active vibratory systems Wenyuan Chena... and Pierre E. Dupont in the second step to achieve active equiva- lence. Implementation of the active emulation step is achieved 1. Introduction The electromechanical emulation problem concerns the design and fabrication

Dupont, Pierre

39

Non-inertial calibration of vibratory gyroscopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrostatic elements already present in a vibratory gyroscope are used to simulate the Coriolis forces. An artificial electrostatic rotation signal is added to the closed-loop force rebalance system. Because the Coriolis force is at the same frequency as the artificial electrostatic force, the simulated force may be introduced into the system to perform an inertial test on MEMS vibratory gyroscopes without the use of a rotation table.

Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

40

Type I and Type II Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes  

E-print Network

Type I and Type II Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes Andrei M. Shkel Mechanical & Aerospace-mail: ashkel@uci.edu Abstract-- All Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes (MVG) are based on the principle of vibration. Vibratory Gyroscopes can be classified into two broad types, angle gyroscopes (or Type I

Tang, William C

41

Silicon bulk micromachined vibratory gyroscope for microspacecraft  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a novel silicon bulk micromachined vibratory rate gyroscope and a 3-axes rotation sensing system using this new type of microgyroscopes designed for microspacecraft applications. The new microgyroscope consists of a silicon four leaf clover structure with a post attached to the center. The whole structure is suspended by four

Tony K. Tang; Roman C. Gutierrez; Jaroslava Z. Wilcox; Christopher Stell; Vatche Vorperian; Mike Dickerson; Barry Goldstein; Joseph L. Savino; Wen J. Li; Robert J. Calvet; Indrani Charkaborty; Randall K. Bartman; William J. Kaiser

1996-01-01

42

Vibratory finishing as a decontamination process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective of this research is to develop vibratory finishing into a large-scale decontamination technique that can economicaly remove transuranic and other surface contamination from large volumes of waste produced by the operation and decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities. The successful development and widespread application of this decontamination technique would substantially reduce the volume of waste requiring expensive geologic

M. W. McCoy; H. W. Arrowsmith; R. P. Allen

1980-01-01

43

Responses to Changes in Ca2+ Supply in Two Mediterranean Evergreens, Phillyrea latifolia and Pistacia lentiscus, During Salinity Stress and Subsequent Relief  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Changes in root-zone Ca2+ concentration affect a plant's performance under high salinity, an issue poorly investigated for Mediterranean xerophytes, which may suffer from transient root-zone salinity stress in calcareous soils. It was hypothesized that high-Ca2+ supply may affect differentially the response to salinity stress of species differing in their strategy of Na+ allocation at organ level. Phillyrea latifolia and Pistacia lentiscus, which have been reported to greatly differ for Na+ uptake and transport rates to the leaves, were studied. Methods In plants exposed to 0 mm or 200 mm NaCl and supplied with 2·0 mm or 8·0 mm Ca2+, under 100 % solar irradiance, measurements were conducted of (a) gas exchange, PSII photochemistry and plant growth; (b) water and ionic relations; (c) the activity of superoxide dismutase and the lipid peroxidation; and (d) the concentration of individual polyphenols. Gas exchange and plant growth were also estimated during a period of relief from salinity stress. Key Results The performance of Pistacia lentiscus decreased to a significantly smaller degree than that of Phillyrea latifolia because of high salinity. Ameliorative effects of high-Ca2+ supply were more evident in Phillyrea latifolia than in Pistacia lentiscus. High-Ca2+ reduced steeply the Na+ transport to the leaves in salt-treated Phillyrea latifolia, and allowed a faster recovery of gas exchange and growth rates as compared with low-Ca2+ plants, during the period of relief from salinity. Salt-induced biochemical adjustments, mostly devoted to counter salt-induced oxidative damage, were greater in Phillyrea latifolia than in Pistacia lentiscus. Conclusions An increased Ca2+ : Na+ ratio may be of greater benefit for Phillyrea latifolia than for Pistacia lentiscus, as in the former, adaptive mechanisms to high root-zone salinity are primarily devoted to restrict the accumulation of potentially toxic ions in sensitive shoot organs. PMID:18701601

Tattini, Massimiliano; Traversi, Maria Laura

2008-01-01

44

Effect of long-term stress relief annealing on properties of low-alloy weld deposit of covered electrodes for welding of thick-walled nuclear constructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article discusses the results of tests on the impact of long-term stress relief annealing at 620-650°C and cooling at a rate of 10°C/h on the mechanical properties of low-alloy weld deposits of covered electrodes containing 1.5-3% Ni, 0-0.3% Mo and 0.01-0.03% P. The article also contains information on the most advantageous nickel content for obtaining the highest impact energy (KV) values in subzero temperatures. X-ray structural analysis revealed that such weld deposits contain solely Fe3C carbides, which prevents the impact of molybdenum carbides on the change of KV. The study also confirmed the adverse effect of phosphorus on the weld deposit impact energy after long-lasting heat treatment.

Niagaj, Jerzy

2012-09-01

45

Damage tolerance based life prediction in gas turbine engine blades under vibratory high cycle fatigue  

SciTech Connect

A novel fracture mechanics approach has been used to predict crack propagation lives in gas turbine engine blades subjected to vibratory high cycle fatigue (HCF). The vibratory loading included both a resonant mode and a nonresonant mode, with one blade subjected to only the nonresonant mode and another blade to both modes. A life prediction algorithm was utilized to predict HCF propagation lives for each case. The life prediction system incorporates a boundary integral element (BIE) derived hybrid stress intensity solution, which accounts for the transition from a surface crack to corner crack to edge crack. It also includes a derivation of threshold crack length from threshold stress intensity factors to give crack size limits for no propagation. The stress intensity solution was calibrated for crack aspect ratios measured directly from the fracture surfaces. The model demonstrates the ability to correlate predicted missions to failure with values deduced from fractographic analysis. This analysis helps to validate the use of fracture mechanics approaches for assessing damage tolerance in gas turbine engine components subjected to combined steady and vibratory stresses.

Walls, D.P.; deLaneuville, R.E.; Cunningham, S.E. [United Technologies Pratt and Whitney, West Palm Beach, FL (United States)

1997-01-01

46

Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream  

DOEpatents

A vibratory fluid pump is described having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments. 3 figs.

Merrigan, M.A.; Woloshun, K.A.

1990-11-13

47

Continuous Tuning and Calibration of Vibratory Gyroscopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method of control and operation of an inertial reference unit (IRU) based on vibratory gyroscopes provides for continuously repeated cycles of tuning and calibration. The method is intended especially for application to an IRU containing vibratory gyroscopes that are integral parts of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and that have cloverleaf designs, as described in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The method provides for minimization of several measures of spurious gyroscope output, including zero-rate offset (ZRO), angle random walk (ARW), and rate drift. These benefits are afforded both at startup and thereafter during continuing operation, in the presence of unknown rotation rates and changes in temperature. A vibratory gyroscope contains a precision mechanically resonant structure containing two normal modes of vibration nominally degenerate in frequency and strongly coupled via a Coriolis term. In the case of the cloverleaf design MEMS gyro, these normal modes of vibration are plate rocking modes. The rocking motion of the plate is described by giving two angles, theta(sub 1) and theta(sub 2). A proof mass consisting of a post orthogonal to the plate ensures a high degree of Coriolis coupling of vibratory energy from one mode into the other under inertial rotation. The plate is driven and sensed capacitively across a few-microns-wide gap, and the normal mode frequencies can be tuned electrostatically by DC voltages applied across this gap. In order to sense rotation, the resonator plate is caused to rock in the theta(sub 1) direction, then any small motions in the theta(sub 2) direction are sensed, rebalanced, and interpreted as inertial rotation. In this scenario, the "drive" has been assigned to the theta(sub 1) direction, and the "sense" has been assigned to the theta(sub 2) direction.

Hayworth, Ken

2003-01-01

48

A surface-micromachined tunable vibratory gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tunable vibratory microgyroscope was fabricated by surface micromachining technology. The 7.5 ?m-thick polysilicon structural layer was deposited using LPCVD at 625°C. The resonant frequency in the detection mode was higher than that in the driving mode so that gyroscope could be tuned to the resonant frequencies by applying the inter-plate DC bias. The gyroscope was driven in a resonant

Yongsoo Oh; Byeungleul Lee; Seogsoon Baek; Hosuk Kim; Jeonggon Kim; Seokjin Kang; Cimoo Song

1997-01-01

49

Trap Design for Vibratory Bowl Feeders Robert-Paul Berretty  

E-print Network

Trap Design for Vibratory Bowl Feeders Robert-Paul Berretty Ken Goldberg §¶ Mark H. Overmars A. Frank van der Stappen Abstract The vibratory bowl feeder is the oldest and still most common approach are exponential in the number of trap parameters, many indus- trial part feeders use few-parameter traps

Utrecht, Universiteit

50

LOX, GOX and Pressure Relief  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen relief systems present a serious fire hazard risk with often severe consequences. This presentation offers a risk management solution strategy which encourages minimizing ignition hazards, maximizing best materials, and utilizing good practices. Additionally, the relief system should be designed for cleanability and ballistic flow. The use of the right metals, softgoods, and lubricants, along with the best assembly techniques, is stressed. Materials should also be tested if data is not available and a full hazard analysis should be conducted in an effort to minimize risk and harm.

McLeod, Ken; Stoltzfus, Joel

2006-01-01

51

Normative values of vibratory perception in 530 children, juveniles and adults aged 3–79 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impaired vibratory perception is an early and frequent finding in various neuropathies. Quantitative vibratory threshold assessment refines the diagnosis of neuropathies but is based on psychophysical techniques requiring patient cooperation. Large, age and sex matched normative data bases are needed to better identify abnormal vibratory perception. In this study vibratory perception was tested at the second metacarpal bone and above

Max J Hilz; Felicia B Axelrod; Kerstin Hermann; Ursula Haertl; Matthias Duetsch; Bernhard Neundörfer

1998-01-01

52

Making Precise Resonators for Mesoscale Vibratory Gyroscopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative approach to the design and fabrication of vibratory gyroscopes is founded on the use of fabrication techniques that yield best results in the mesoscopic size range, which is characterized by overall device dimensions of the order of a centimeter. This approach stands in contradistinction to prior approaches in (1) the macroscopic size range (the size range of conventional design and fabrication, characterized by overall device dimensions of many centimeters) and (2) the microscopic size range [the size range of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), characterized by overall device dimensions of the order of a millimeter or less]. The mesoscale approach offers some of the advantage of the MEMS approach (sizes and power demands smaller than those of the macroscale approach) and some of the advantage of the macroscale approach (the possibility of achieving relative dimensional precision greater than that of the MEMS approach). Relative dimensional precision is a major issue in the operation of a vibratory gyroscope. The heart of a vibratory gyroscope is a mechanical resonator that is required to have a specified symmetry in a plane orthogonal to the axis about which rotation is to be measured. If the resonator could be perfectly symmetrical, then in the absence of rotation, a free vibration of the resonator could remain fixed along any orientation relative to its housing; that is, the gyroscope could exhibit zero drift. In practice, manufacturing imprecision gives rise to some asymmetry in mass, flexural stiffness or dissipation, resulting in a slight drift or beating motion of an initial vibration pattern that cannot be distinguished from rotation. In the mesoscale approach, one exploits the following concepts: For a given amount of dimensional error generated in manufacturing, the asymmetry and hence the rate-of-rotation drift of the gyroscope can be reduced by increasing the scale. The decrease in asymmetry also reduces coupling of vibrations to the external environment. Mechanical thermal noise and electronic measurement noise and drift can also be reduced by increasing the size of the resonator and its associated sensors.

Yang, Eui-Hyeok

2004-01-01

53

Research on Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro's Character of Resonator  

PubMed Central

Bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a new type Coriolis vibratory gyro that was inspired by Chinese traditional clocks. The resonator fuses based on a variable thickness axisymmetric multicurved surface shell. Its characteristics can directly influence the performance of BVG. The BVG structure not only has capabilities of bearing high overload, high impact and, compared with the tuning fork, vibrating beam, shell and a comb structure, but also a higher frequency to overcome the influence of the disturbance of the exterior environment than the same sized hemispherical resonator gyroscope (HRG) and the traditional cylinder vibratory gyroscope. It can be widely applied in high dynamic low precision angular rate measurement occasions. The main work is as follows: the issue mainly analyzes the structure and basic principle, and investigates the bell-shaped resonator's mathematical model. The reasonable structural parameters are obtained from finite element analysis and an intelligent platform. Using the current solid vibration gyro theory analyzes the structural characteristics and principles of BVG. The bell-shaped resonator is simplified as a paraboloid of the revolution mechanical model, which has a fixed closed end and a free opened end. It obtains the natural frequency and vibration modes based on the theory of elasticity. The structural parameters are obtained from the orthogonal method by the research on the structural parameters of the resonator analysis. It obtains the modal analysis, stress analysis and impact analysis with the chosen parameters. Finally, using the turntable experiment verifies the gyro effect of the BVG. PMID:23575033

Su, Zhong; Fu, Mengyin; Li, Qing; Liu, Ning; Liu, Hong

2013-01-01

54

Fast Laser Shutters With Low Vibratory Disturbances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype vacuum-compatible, fast-acting, long-life shutter unit that generates very little vibratory disturbance during switching is reviewed. This is one of a number of shutters designed to satisfy requirements specific to an experiment, to be performed aboard a spacecraft in flight, in which laser beams must be blocked rapidly and completely, without generating a vibratory disturbance large enough to adversely affect the power and frequency stability of the lasers. Commercial off-the-shelf laboratory shutter units -- typically containing electromagnet-coil-driven mechanisms -- were found not to satisfy the requirements because they are not vacuum-compatible, their actuators engage in uncompensated motions that generate significant vibrations, and their operational lifetimes are too short. Going beyond the initial outerspace application, the present vacuum-compatible, fast-acting, long-life shutter units could also be used in terrestrial settings in which there are requirements for their special characteristics. In designing these shutter units, unbalanced, electromagnetically driven mechanisms were replaced with balanced mechanisms that include commercial piezoelectric bending actuators. In each shutter unit, the piezoelectric bending actuators are configured symmetrically as opposing cantilever beams within a housing that contains integral mounts for lenses that focus a laser beam to a waist at the shutter location. In operation, the laser beam is blocked by titanium blades bonded near the free ends of the piezoelectric benders. The benders are driven by shaped electrical pulses with a maximum voltage differential of less than 60 V. Preliminary measurements indicate that rise and fall times are less than 1 ms.

Brinza, David; Moore, Donald; Hochberg, Eric; Radey, Tom; Chen, Albert

2005-01-01

55

Vertical-plane pendulum absorbers for minimizing helicopter vibratory loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of pendulum dynamic absorbers mounted on the blade root and operating in the vertical plane to minimize helicopter vibratory loads was discussed. A qualitative description was given of the concept of the dynamic absorbers and some results of analytical studies showing the degree of reduction in vibratory loads attainable are presented. Operational experience of vertical plane dynamic absorbers on the OH-6A helicopter is also discussed.

Amer, K. B.; Neff, J. R.

1974-01-01

56

Analysis of rabbit intervertebral disc physiology based on water metabolism. II. Changes in normal intervertebral discs under axial vibratory load  

SciTech Connect

Metabolic changes induced by axial vibratory load to the spine were investigated based on water metabolism in normal intervertebral discs of rabbits with or without pentobarbital anesthesia. Tritiated water concentration in the intervertebral discs of unanesthetized rabbits was reduced remarkably by axial vibration for 30 minutes using the vibration machine developed for this study. Repeated vibratory load for 18 and 42 hours duration showed the recovery of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration of the intervertebral disc without anesthesia. Computer simulation suggested a reduction of blood flow surrounding the intervertebral disc following the vibration stress. However, no reduction of the /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration in the intervertebral disc was noted under anesthesia. Emotional stress cannot be excluded as a factor in water metabolism in the intervertebral disc.

Hirano, N.; Tsuji, H.; Ohshima, H.; Kitano, S.; Itoh, T.; Sano, A.

1988-11-01

57

Adaptable design of a flexible vibratory bowel-feeder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel vibratory bowel-feeder with decoupled mechanical structure and digital coupled controller was investigated, utilizing decoupled principles and product platform concepts. To realize the independent controlling and synthesizing of rotate vibration and rectilinear vibration, the uncoupled mechanical structure was designed and working principles of the vibration platform was analyzed. The dynamics model was set up, analyzed and calculated using analytic and numeric simulation software respectively. The work space of the ellipse vibration with relation to vibratory angle was put forward. A prototype vibratory bowel feeder for magnetic pieces was built based on the vibration platform. The results show that composite motion of the feeding parts is working in line by the fact that two control systems for both the magnitude and phase can be changed independently. The feeder can meet the request to high speed, low worn-out, low noise part feeding, as well as adaptation the best out demand of feeding series parts and parts with different material.

Chen, Yongliang; Chu, Weili; Li, Yunmei

2005-12-01

58

Late-Cenozoic relief evolution under evolving climate: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present review is an attempt to summarize quantitative evidence of Late Cenozoic changes in topographic relief on Earth. We first define different meanings of the word "relief", as it is commonly used, and detail the metrics used to quantify it. We then specify methodological tools used to quantify relief change (primarily lowtemperature thermochronometry and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides), and analyze published evidence for different regions. Our review first show that relief changes and rates of changes are more important at mid-, than high- or low-latitudes, and appear to be insensitive to mean precipitation rates. We also show that relief change is positive (relief increases) in most of the reported cases (~80%). We subsequently define two functional relationships between relief and erosion, depending on the chosen definition of relief, and propose a conceptual model of landscape memory. We conclude, following others, that erosion rates depends non-linearly on relief evolution, itself being a function of the spatial distribution and rates of erosion. The relief increases documented in this review may be related led to erosion rate increases during the same timescales. Lastly, we discuss the importance of glacial and periglacial processes on Late Cenozoic relief and erosion rate changes, and stress the importance of frost shattering and glacial erosion at mid- and high-latitudes.

Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Valla, Pierre; Herman, Fred

2014-05-01

59

On the design of guillotine traps for vibratory bowl feeders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibratory bowl feeder remains the most common approach to the automated feeding (orienting) of industrial parts. We study the algorithmic design of a trap in the bowl feeder track that filters out all but one orientation of a given polygonal part. We propose a new class of traps that we call guillotine traps, which remove a portion of the

Onno C. Goemans; Anthony Levandowski; Ken Goldberg; A. Frank Van Der Stappen

2005-01-01

60

On the Design of Guillotine Traps for Vibratory Bowl Feeders  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó The vibratory bowl feeder remains the most com- mon approach to the automated feeding (orienting) of industrial parts. We study the algorithmic design of a trap in the bowl feeder track that lters out all but one orientation of a given polygonal part. We propose a new class of traps that we call guillotine traps, which remove a portion

Onno C. Goemans; Anthony Levandowskiz; Ken Goldbergz; A. Frank van der Stappen

61

Active structural error suppression in MEMS vibratory rate integrating gyroscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to restrictive tolerancing in microfabrication, structural imperfections that reduce performance of fabricated micro devices are typical. In microelectromechanical vibratory gyroscopes, feedback control is a common strategy in attempting to correct the imperfections. However, a purely feedback control can be insufficient for compensation of all the errors, requiring post processing in the form of laser trimming to achieve higher levels

C. C. Painter; A. M. Shkel

2003-01-01

62

Two Types of Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes Andrei M. Shkel  

E-print Network

Two Types of Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes Andrei M. Shkel Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Gyroscopes (MVG) can be classified into two broad types, angle gyroscopes (or Type I) and rate gyroscopes (or Type II). Gyroscopes of the first type measure orientation angles directly, while gyroscopes

Tang, William C

63

Modification of piezoelectric vibratory gyroscope resonator parameters by feedback control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for analyzing the effect of feedback control on the dynamics of piezoelectric resonators used in vibratory gyroscopes has been developed. This method can be used to determine the feasibility of replacing the traditional mechanical balancing operations, used to adjust the resonant frequency, by displacement feedback and for determining the velocity feedback required to produce a particular bandwidth. Experiments

Philip W. Loveday; Craig A. Rogers

1998-01-01

64

AUTONOMOUS CRACK MEASUREMENT FOR COMPARISON OF VIBRATORY COMPACTION EXCITATION AND  

E-print Network

width (or distance between sensor and target- i.e. displacement) provides a comparison of the potentialAUTONOMOUS CRACK MEASUREMENT FOR COMPARISON OF VIBRATORY COMPACTION EXCITATION AND CLIMATOLOGICAL displacement or proximity sensors used with the Autonomous Crack Measurement (ACM) system is then compared

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

65

Characterization of relief printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relief printing technology developed by Océ allows the superposition of several layers of colorant on different types of media which creates a variation of the surface height defined by the input to the printer. Evaluating the reproduction accuracy of distinct surface characteristics is of great importance to the application of the relief printing system. Therefore, it is necessary to develop quality metrics to evaluate the relief process. In this paper, we focus on the third dimension of relief printing, i.e. height information. To achieve this goal, we define metrics and develop models that aim to evaluate relief prints in two aspects: overall fidelity and surface finish. To characterize the overall fidelity, three metrics are calculated: Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), difference and root-mean-squared error (RMSE) between the input height map and scanned height map, and print surface angle accuracy. For the surface finish property, we measure the surface roughness, generate surface normal maps and develop a light reflection model that serves as a simulation of the differences between ideal prints and real prints that may be perceived by human observers. Three sets of test targets are designed and printed by the Océ relief printer prototypes for the calculation of the above metrics: (i) twisted target, (ii) sinusoidal wave target, and (iii) ramp target. The results provide quantitative evaluations of the printing quality in the third dimension, and demonstrate that the height of relief prints is reproduced accurately with respect to the input design. The factors that affect the printing quality include: printing direction, frequency and amplitude of the input signal, shape of relief prints. Besides the above factors, there are two additional aspects that influence the viewing experience of relief prints: lighting condition and viewing angle.

Liu, Xing; Chen, Lin; Ortiz-Segovia, Maria-Valezzka; Ferwerda, James; Allebach, Jan

2014-03-01

66

Magnets for Pain Relief  

MedlinePLUS

Magnets for Pain Relief On this page: Introduction Key Points About Magnets Safety and Side Effects What ... help ensure coordinated and safe care. Top About Magnets A magnet produces a measurable force called a ...

67

Magnets for Pain Relief  

MedlinePLUS

... our disclaimer about external links Menu Magnets for Pain Relief On this page: Introduction Key Points About ... Top What the Science Says About Magnets for Pain Scientific evidence does not support the use of ...

68

Speeding earthquake disaster relief  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

1995-01-01

69

Stress-relaxation and tension relief system for immediate primary closure of large and huge soft tissue defects: an old-new concept: new concept for direct closure of large defects.  

PubMed

Stress-relaxation is a well-established mechanism for laboratory skin stretching, with limited clinical application in conventional suturing techniques due to the inherent, concomitant induction of ischemia, necrosis and subsequent suture failure. Skin defects that cannot be primarily closed are a common difficulty during reconstructive surgery. The TopClosure tension-relief system (TRS) is a novel device for wound closure closure, providing secured attachment to the skin through a wide area of attachment, in an adjustable manner, enabling primary closure of medium to large skin defects.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the TopClosure TRS as a substitute for skin grafting and flaps for primary closure of large soft tissue defects by stress-relaxation.We present three demonstrative cases requiring resection of large to huge tumors customarily requiring closure by skin graft or flaps. TRS was applied during surgery serving as a tension-relief platform for tension sutures, to enable primary skin-defect closure by cycling of stress-relaxation, and following surgery as skin-secure system until complete wound closure.All skin defects ranging from 7 to 26?cm in width were manipulated by the TRS through stress-relaxation, without undermining of skin, enabling primary skin closure and eliminating the need for skin grafts and flaps. Immediate wound closure ranged 26 to 135?min. TRS was applied for 3 to 4 weeks. Complications were minimal and donor site morbidity was eliminated. Surgical time, hospital stay and costs were reduced and wound aesthetics were improved.In this case series we present a novel technology that enables the utilization of the viscoelastic properties of the skin to an extreme level, extending the limits of primary wound closure by the stress-relaxation principle. This is achieved via a simple device application that may aid immediate primary wound closure and downgrade the complexity of surgical procedures for a wide range of applications on a global scale. PMID:25526444

Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin Nard; Topaz, Guy; Li, Mingsen; Li, Yong Zhong

2014-12-01

70

Mechanical Assessment of the Waste Package Subject to Vibratory Motion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide an integrated overview of the calculation reports that define the response of the waste package and its internals to vibratory ground motion. The calculation reports for waste package response to vibratory ground motion are identified in Table 1-1. Three key calculation reports describe the potential for mechanical damage to the waste package, fuel assemblies, and cladding from a seismic event. Three supporting documents have also been published to investigate sensitivity of damage to various assumptions for the calculations. While these individual reports present information on a specific aspect of waste package and cladding response, they do not describe the interrelationship between the various calculations and the relationship of this information to the seismic scenario class for Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report is designed to fill this gap by providing an overview of the waste package structural response calculations.

M. Gross

2004-10-14

71

Characterization of the bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro.  

PubMed

The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements. PMID:23966183

Liu, Ning; Su, Zhong; Li, Qing; Fu, MengYin; Liu, Hong; Fan, JunFang

2013-01-01

72

Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro  

PubMed Central

The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements. PMID:23966183

Liu, Ning; Su, Zhong; Li, Qing; Fu, MengYin; Liu, Hong; Fan, JunFang

2013-01-01

73

High Relief Block Printing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

Foster, Michael

1989-01-01

74

[Mental health support for disaster relief personnel].  

PubMed

The Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, caused serious damage and resulted in numerous fatalities and almost 20,000 missing persons. Furthermore, a major accident accompanied by exudation of radioactive material occurred in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A statement regarding the victims' mental health was issued by the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology on May 21, 2011, which established the Department of Disaster Psychiatry for the provision and assurance of long-term mental care support for the victims. The Department of Disaster Psychiatry was consequently reformed in April 2012, focusing on the following objectives: to verify the validity of current mental support methods; to ensure disaster psychiatry and medical care in Japan; and to promote human resource development that can respond to future large-scale disasters. Mental health support for disaster victims is of highest priority. However, the mental health of relief personnel, who act as front liners during disasters (i. e., police officers, fire fighters, Self-Defense Forces, and health care workers), has often been neglected. Therefore, countermeasures for the problems faced by relief personnel are indispensable for a more effective reconstruction. Volunteers are also important members of the disaster relief team and they have witnessed the actual tragedy, and some have experienced burnout. Thus, they require sufficient mental health support, as do relief personnel. We thought that the mental health of disaster relief personnel is an important issue; thus, we report their mental health needs, the systematic correspondence to disaster stress, and our works for relief assistance. As first responders, relief personnel even without prior disaster education proceed to the area of disaster and may get injured. We therefore suggest that prior to the occurrence of any disaster, networking, education, and disaster awareness should be advocated among relief personnel and volunteers to safeguard their mental health. However, programs on these subjects remain insufficient. We extend our utmost respect and appreciation to the disaster relief workforce for doing their best to save lives. We hope that this aids in the reconstruction process of such affected areas. PMID:24783446

Takahashi, Sho

2014-01-01

75

Relief in Ink and Metal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All ages can enjoy printmaking activities, from a simple glue line relief print to an aluminum foil relief which gives the impression of metal embossing. Projects which can be geared to all levels of elementary education are described. (RM)

Sheahan, Lael M.

1983-01-01

76

OMP Peptide Signals Initiate the Envelope-Stress Response by Activating DegS Protease via Relief of Inhibition Mediated by Its PDZ Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transmembrane signaling between intracellular compartments is often controlled by regulated proteolysis. Escherichia coli respond to misfolded or unfolded outer-membrane porins (OMPs) in the periplasm by inducing ?E-dependent transcription of stress genes in the cytoplasm. This process requires a proteolytic cascade initiated by the DegS protease, which destroys a transmembrane protein (RseA) that normally binds to and inhibits ?E. Here, we

Nathan P Walsh; Benjamin M Alba; Baundauna Bose; Carol A Gross; Robert T Sauer

2003-01-01

77

Trap Design for Vibratory Bowl Feeders # RobertPaul Berretty +# Ken Goldberg Mark H. Overmars +  

E-print Network

Trap Design for Vibratory Bowl Feeders # Robert­Paul Berretty +# Ken Goldberg §¶ Mark H. Overmars + A. Frank van der Stappen + Abstract The vibratory bowl feeder is the oldest and still most common are exponential in the number of trap parameters, many indus­ trial part feeders use few­parameter traps

Utrecht, Universiteit

78

NON-AXISYMMETRIC CORIOLIS VIBRATORY GYROSCOPE WITH WHOLE ANGLE, FORCE REBALANCE, AND SELF-CALIBRATION  

E-print Network

NON-AXISYMMETRIC CORIOLIS VIBRATORY GYROSCOPE WITH WHOLE ANGLE, FORCE REBALANCE, AND SELF detailed performance status and projections for the silicon MEMS Quadruple Mass Gyroscope (QMG) ­ a unique high Q, lumped mass, mode-symmetric Class II Coriolis Vibratory Gyroscope (CVG) with interchangeable

Tang, William C

79

Utilization of Mechanical Quadrature in Silicon MEMS Vibratory Gyroscope to Increase and  

E-print Network

Utilization of Mechanical Quadrature in Silicon MEMS Vibratory Gyroscope to Increase and Expand of the long term in-run bias stability of Coriolis vibratory gyroscopes. The approach is based on utilization of the mechanical quadra- ture error in gyroscopes to compensate for variation in system parameters. The proposed

Tang, William C

80

Typing vocal fold vibratory patterns in excised larynx experiments via digital kymography  

PubMed Central

Objective Signal typing is central to the understanding of vocal fold vibratory patterns. Digital kymography (DKG) allows the direct observation of vocal fold vibratory patterns, and therefore, using DKG for vibratory signal typing may provide a useful complement to traditional signal typing techniques. Methods Video data collected from twenty larynges excised from mongrel dogs were observed using DKG in order to find examples of type 1 (nearly periodic), type 2 (subharmonic), and type 3 (aperiodic) vibratory patterns. Time series, frequency spectra, and correlation dimensions were calculated for each signal type. Results The type 1 pattern showed a periodic time series of glottal edge and discrete frequency spectrum. The type 2 vibratory pattern displayed a time series of alternating high and low amplitude waves and a frequency spectrum that included a subharmonic (f0/2) frequency component. Regular and symmetric vibratory patterns were observed in the type 1 and type 2 patterns. The type 3 vibratory pattern was characterized by an aperiodic time series of glottal edge, broadband frequency spectrum, and irregular and asymmetric vibratory patterns. Correlation dimension estimates increased from type 1 to type 2 to type 3. Conclusions DKG imaging demonstrated an ability to assign a signal type to various laryngeal vibrations. Signal typing techniques utilizing direct observations of the vocal folds could be useful to determine valid methods for the analysis of vocal fold vibrations. PMID:19746760

Zhang, Yu; Krausert, Christopher R.; Kelly, Michael P.; Jiang, Jack J.

2010-01-01

81

Investigation of the Effect of Blade Sweep on Rotor Vibratory Loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of helicopter rotor blade planform sweep on rotor vibratory hub, blade, and control system loads has been analytically investigated. The importance of sweep angle, sweep initiation radius, flap bending stiffness and torsion bending stiffness is discussed. The mechanism by which sweep influences the vibratory hub loads is investigated.

Tarzanin, F. J., Jr.; Vlaminck, R. R.

1983-01-01

82

pain relief after surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A two-phase, double-blind study was performed to assess the efficacy of various drugs in the relief of postoperative pain. Oral analgesia with two compounds (paracetamol 320 mg, caffeine 32 mg, codeine phosphate 8 mg and meprobamate 150 mg (Stopayne; Rio Ethicals) and dipyrone 500 mg, pitofenone hydrochloride 5 mg and fenpiverinium bromide 0,1 mg (Baralgan HS; Albert» was found

B. BLOCH; ELSABE SMYTHE

83

Modeling vibratory damage with reduced-order models and the generalized finite element method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates a coupled computational analysis framework that uses reduced-order models and the generalized finite element method to model vibratory induced stress near local defects. The application area of interest is the life prediction of thin gauge structural components exhibiting nonlinear, path-dependent dynamic response. Full-order finite element models of these structural components can require prohibitively large amounts of processor time. Recent developments in nonlinear reduced-order models have demonstrated efficient computation of the dynamic response. These models are relatively insensitive to small imperfections. Conversely, the generalized finite element method provides the ability to model local defects without geometric dependency on the mesh. A more robust version of the method, with numerically built enrichment functions, provides a multiple-scale modeling capability through direct coupling of global and local finite element models. Replacing the component finite element model with a reduced-order model allows for efficient computation of dynamic response while providing the necessary information to drive local, solid analyses which can zoom in on regions containing stress risers or cracks. This paper describes the coupling of these approaches to enable fatigue and crack propagation predictions. Numerical/experimental examples are provided.

O'Hara, Patrick J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.

2014-12-01

84

ReliefWeb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of ReliefWeb is to provide "reliable and relevant humanitarian information and analysis" and "help [people] make sense of humanitarian crises worldwide." ReliefWeb is administered by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), and was started in 1996. The "Countries & Emergencies" tab across the top of the page allows visitors to choose countries on a map or from a list, and get many pieces of information. Once they have clicked on a country, visitors will find the latest updates on the situation from "NGOs", "News", "Gov'ts", and the "Academic World". In addition, they will find "Background Information" on the country, the "Latest Maps" that might show road conditions or shelter/home conditions; and job "Vacancies" available in the area for humanitarian professionals. Back on the homepage, the "Policy & Issues" tab takes visitors to a large list of topics and thematic documents. Malaria, water scarcity, food insecurity and land mines are just some of the many issues addressed in these documents, which are produced by many different non-profits, non-government groups, and humanitarian organizations.

85

Fluid relief and check valve  

DOEpatents

A passive fluid pressure relief and check valve allows the relief pressure to be slaved to a reference pressure independently of the exhaust pressure. The pressure relief valve is embodied by a submerged vent line in a sealing fluid, the relief pressure being a function of the submerged depth. A check valve is embodied by a vertical column of fluid (the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of fluid). The pressure is vented into an exhaust system which keeps the exhaust out of the area providing the reference pressure.

Blaedel, K.L.; Lord, S.C.; Murray, I.

1986-07-17

86

Analysis of the vibratory excitation arising from spiral bevel gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tools required to understand and predict in terms of its underlying causes the vibratory excitation arising from meshing spiral bevel gears are developed. A generalized three component transmission error of meshing spiral bevel gears is defined. Equations are derived that yield the three components of the generalized transmission error in terms of deviations of tooth running surfaces from equispaced perfect spherical involute surfaces and tooth/gearbody elastic deformations arising from the three components of the generalized force transmitted by the meshing gears. A method for incorporating these equations into the equations of motion of a gear system is described. Equations are derived for the three components of the generalized force transmitted by the gears which are valid whenever inertial effects of the meshing gears and their supports are negligible. Bearing offsets from the positions occupied by the shaft centerlines of perfect spherical involute bevel gears and bearing/bearing support flexibilities enter into the computation of these forces.

Mark, William D.

1987-01-01

87

Split-Resonator, Integrated-Post Vibratory Microgyroscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved design for a capacitive-sensing, rocking-mode vibratory microgyroscope is more amenable to mass production, relative to a prior design. Both the improved design and the prior design call for a central post that is part of a resonator that partly resembles a cloverleaf or a flower. The prior design is such that the post has to be fabricated as a separate piece, then bonded to the rest of the resonator in the correct position and orientation. The improved design provides for fabrication of the post as an integral part of the resonator and, in so doing, makes it possible to produce a waferful of microgyroscopes, without need to fabricate, position, and attach posts.

Bae, Youngsam; Hayworth, Ken; Shcheglov, Kirill

2005-01-01

88

Adaptive Control of a Vibratory Angle Measuring Gyroscope  

PubMed Central

This paper presents an adaptive control algorithm for realizing a vibratory angle measuring gyroscope so that rotation angle can be directly measured without integration of angular rate, thus eliminating the accumulation of numerical integration errors. The proposed control algorithm uses a trajectory following approach and the reference trajectory is generated by an ideal angle measuring gyroscope driven by the estimate of angular rate and the auxiliary sinusoidal input so that the persistent excitation condition is satisfied. The developed control algorithm can compensate for all types of fabrication imperfections such as coupled damping and stiffness, and mismatched stiffness and un-equal damping term in an on-line fashion. The simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed control algorithm that is capable of directly measuring rotation angle without the integration of angular rate. PMID:22163667

Park, Sungsu

2010-01-01

89

Chemical Comic Relief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

John Selegue and James Holler at the University of Kentucky have provided this ingenious learning resource, Chemical Comic Relief. Visitors to the site click on an element on the periodic table to see a list of comic pages involving that element. For example, clicking on Oxygen brings up a list of comics including Four Color: Ricky Nelson, which shows Ricky discussing oxygen to attempt (unsuccessfully) to impress a girl. Some pages include a summary discussing both the comic as well as the element it features, and the site also offers a chronological History of Chemistry in the Comics -- an album of comic pages from the 1930s to the present. To gain a greater understanding of the technical aspects (atomic weight, key data and description, and history) of each element, the user can link to the WebElements Website.

90

Amitriptyline and bromazepam in the treatment of vibratory angioedema: which role for neuroinflammation?  

PubMed

Vibratory angioedema is a rare form of physical urticaria, hereditary or acquired, which occurs at body sites exposed to vibrations. Pathogenic mechanisms of disease are not completely clear and, consequently, current pharmacological treatment is sometimes unsatisfactory. We report the case of a horn player affected by acquired vibratory angioedema, relapsing after prolonged use of the instrument and resistant to systemic antihistamines and corticosteroids, which successfully responded to therapy with low doses of amitriptyline and bromazepam. A neuroinflammatory mechanism can be likely implicated in the pathogenesis of vibratory angioedema, in line with many different cutaneous/mucosal diseases involving a complex interplay of homeostatic/allostatic systems. Furthermore, in mucosal diseases, such as vibratory angioedema, physical/psychological stressors have a relevant role. In such cases, because of the complex interplay between nervous and immune system, the pharmacological activity of benzodiazepines and typical antidepressants may downregulate neuroinflammation. PMID:25052839

Guarneri, Fabrizio; Guarneri, Claudio; Marini, Herbert Ryan

2014-11-01

91

Jean-Martin Charcot and his vibratory chair for Parkinson disease.  

PubMed

Vibration therapy is currently used in diverse medical specialties ranging from orthopedics to urology to sports medicine. The celebrated 19th-century neurologist, J.-M. Charcot, used vibratory therapy to treat Parkinson disease (PD). This study analyzed printed writings by Charcot and other writers on vibratory therapy and accessed unpublished notes from the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris. Charcot lectured on several occasions on vibratory therapy and its neurologic applications. He developed a vibration chair for patients with PD after he observed that patients were more comfortable and slept better after a train or carriage ride. He replicated this experience by having patients undergo daily 30-minute sessions in the automated vibratory chair (fauteuil trépidant). His junior colleague, Gilles de la Tourette, extended these observations and developed a helmet that vibrated the head on the premise that the brain responded directly to the pulsations. Although after Charcot's death vibratory therapy was not widely pursued, vibratory appliances are reemerging in 21st century medicine and can be retested using adaptations of Charcot's neurologic protocols. PMID:19667323

Goetz, Christopher G

2009-08-11

92

Separation of transuranic radionuclides from soil by vibratory grinding  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of a vibratory grinder (Roto-Finish - Spiratron ST-1) for the separation of transuranic elements such as plutonium from contaminated soil. Four scrubbing solutions were tested to add varying degrees of chemical action to the physical action of the attrition grinder. The scrub solutions were: water, aqueous NaOH - pH 12.5 (high pH solution), 2% HNO/sub 3/, 0.2% HF, 5 wt % Calgon, 2 vol % pine oil (weak acid plus surfactant), and 2N HCl (strong acid). All four scrub solutions reduced the greater than 35 mesh portion of the test soil from approximately 7000 dpm/g /sup 239/Pu to approximately 30 dpm/g or less. The weak acid/surfactant and the strong acid solutions produced the best decontamination. The high pH, weak acid/surfactant, and strong acid solutions all appeared to increase the rate of decontamination as compared to water only. These experiments decontaminated 85% of the Rocky Flats soil tested to levels which could meet EPA screening levels for unrestricted use.

Stevens, J.R.; Rutherford, D.W.

1982-08-13

93

Statistically linearized optimal control of an electromagnetic vibratory energy harvester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an extension of linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) control theory is used to determine the optimal state feedback controller for a vibratory energy harvesting system with Coulomb friction. Specifically, the energy harvester is a base-excited single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) resonant oscillator with an electromagnetic transducer attached between the base and the moving mass. The development of the optimal controller for this system is based on statistical linearization, whereby the Coulomb friction force is replaced by an equivalent linear viscous damping term, which is calculated from the stationary covariance of the closed-loop system. It is shown that the covariance matrix and optimal feedback gain matrix can be computed by implementing an iterative algorithm involving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Furthermore, this theory is augmented to account for a non-quadratic dissipation in the electronics used to control the energy conversion. Simulation results are presented for the SDOF energy harvester in which the performance of the optimal state feedback control law is compared to the performance of the optimal static admittance over a range of disturbance bandwidths.

Cassidy, Ian L.; Scruggs, Jeffrey T.

2012-08-01

94

Mental health risks in the local workforce engaged in disaster relief and reconstruction.  

PubMed

To build a sustainable workforce for long-term disaster relief and reconstruction, more effort must be made to promote local relief workers' mental health. We conducted 25 semistructured interviews with local relief officials 10 months after the 2008 earthquake in China to investigate the stress and coping experiences in their personal lives as survivors. We conducted thematic analysis of interview transcripts. Traumatic bereavement and grief, housing and financial difficulties, and work-family conflict were the three main sources of stress in the respondents' personal lives. The coping themes were finding meaning and purpose in life through relief work, colleagues' support and understanding, suppression or avoidance of grief, appreciation for life, hardiness, optimism, letting nature take its course, and making up for loss. We suggest that relief work has a double-edged-sword effect on workers' coping abilities. We discuss the implications of this effect for work-life balance measures and trauma and grief counseling services. PMID:23188384

Wang, Xiao L; Chan, Cecilia L W; Shi, Zhan B; Wang, Bin

2013-02-01

95

Effect of Axial Force on the Performance of Micromachined Vibratory Rate Gyroscopes  

PubMed Central

It is reported in the published literature that the resonant frequency of a silicon micromachined gyroscope decreases linearly with increasing temperature. However, when the axial force is considerable, the resonant frequency might increase as the temperature increases. The axial force is mainly induced by thermal stress due to the mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of the structure and substrate. In this paper, two types of micromachined suspended vibratory gyroscopes with slanted beams were proposed to evaluate the effect of the axial force. One type was suspended with a clamped-free (C-F) beam and the other one was suspended with a clamped-clamped (C-C) beam. Their drive modes are the bending of the slanted beam, and their sense modes are the torsion of the slanted beam. The relationships between the resonant frequencies of the two types were developed. The prototypes were packaged by vacuum under 0.1 mbar and an analytical solution for the axial force effect on the resonant frequency was obtained. The temperature dependent performances of the operated mode responses of the micromachined gyroscopes were measured. The experimental values of the temperature coefficients of resonant frequencies (TCF) due to axial force were 101.5 ppm/°C for the drive mode and 21.6 ppm/°C for the sense mode. The axial force has a great influence on the modal frequency of the micromachined gyroscopes suspended with a C-C beam, especially for the flexure mode. The quality factors of the operated modes decreased with increasing temperature, and changed drastically when the micromachined gyroscopes worked at higher temperatures. PMID:22346578

Hou, Zhanqiang; Xiao, Dingbang; Wu, Xuezhong; Dong, Peitao; Chen, Zhihua; Niu, Zhengyi; Zhang, Xu

2011-01-01

96

Vibratory noise in anthropogenic habitats and its effect on prey detection in a web-building spider  

E-print Network

: anthropogenic substrate garden spider habitat change prey detection seismic noise substrate-borne vibration sounds, water) or anthropogenic (e.g. traffic, construction) sources. The vibratory sensory modality has garden spider, Araneus diadematus. We tested whether changes in vibratory noise profiles consistent

Elias, Damian Octavio

97

Damage identification in plates using vibratory power estimated from measured accelerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibratory power is defined as the rate of energy transmitted through a cross section of unit width in a vibrating structure. It is known that the vibratory power is a function of the source and travel path. Therefore the spatial distribution of the vibratory power may contain information on the state of a structure. Vibratory power can be estimated experimentally by measuring accelerations. By combining numerical predictions with experimental measurements the location and severity of damage can be identified. This method has been successfully applied to prismatic beam problems. In the present work, the idea is extended to identifying damage in thin plate problems. To identify damage in thin plates by the proposed vibratory power method, the two-dimensional damage index and damage index ratio are newly introduced. The plate is assumed to be of uniform thickness and damaged in the form of a crack simulated as a straight cut of finite length. The vibratory power of the plate is estimated from frequency response functions to random excitations. First, the proposed method is applied numerically and then verified experimentally. Both numerical and experimental results show the present method can identify not only the location of damage but also its direction. The location and direction can be identified by investigating the damage index, the damage index ratio, and local principal axes of the index peak in the vicinity of the damage. The spatial distribution of the damage index, newly introduced in beam problems, can be considered as a scalar field in plate problems. In the neighborhood of the damage, the damage index has the shape of a semi-ellipsoid or a semi-ovoid, and it is found that the major principal axis corresponds to the direction of the crack. It enables us to identify the damage direction correctly without ambiguity.

Huh, Young Cheol; Chung, Tae Young; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Jae Kwan

2015-02-01

98

STRESS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this activity, students will use the available resources to learn more about stress, the effects of stress and how to handle stress. This activity focuses on the Utah fifth grade health core Standard 1: The students will learn ways to improve mental health and manage stress. During this project, students are given two different scenarios and ...

Hancey, Ms.

2010-04-27

99

The monitoring system for vibratory disturbance detection in microgravity environment aboard the international space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists in the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications within the Microgravity Research Division oversee studies in important physical, chemical, and biological processes in microgravity environment. Research is conducted in microgravity environment because of the beneficial results that come about for experiments. When research is done in normal gravity, scientists are limited to results that are affected by the gravity of Earth. Microgravity provides an environment where solid, liquid, and gas can be observed in a natural state of free fall and where many different variables are eliminated. One challenge that NASA faces is that space flight opportunities need to be used effectively and efficiently in order to ensure that some of the most scientifically promising research is conducted. Different vibratory sources are continually active aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Some of the vibratory sources include crew exercise, experiment setup, machinery startup (life support fans, pumps, freezer/compressor, centrifuge), thruster firings, and some unknown events. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMs), which acts as the hardware and carefully positioned aboard the ISS, along with the Microgravity Environment Monitoring System MEMS), which acts as the software and is located here at NASA Glenn, are used to detect these vibratory sources aboard the ISS and recognize them as disturbances. The various vibratory disturbances can sometimes be harmful to the scientists different research projects. Some vibratory disturbances are recognized by the MEMS's database and some are not. Mainly, the unknown events that occur aboard the International Space Station are the ones of major concern. To better aid in the research experiments, the unknown events are identified and verified as unknown events. Features, such as frequency, acceleration level, time and date of recognition of the new patterns are stored in an Excel database. My task is to carefully synthesize frequency and acceleration patterns of unknown events within the Excel database into a new file to determine whether or not certain information that is received i s considered a real vibratory source. Once considered as a vibratory source, further analysis is carried out. The resulting information is used to retrain the MEMS to recognize them as known patterns. These different vibratory disturbances are being constantly monitored to observe if, in any way, the disturbances have an effect on the microgravity environment that research experiments are exposed to. If the disturbance has little or no effect on the experiments, then research is continued. However, if the disturbance is harmful to the experiment, scientists act accordingly by either minimizing the source or terminating the research and neither NASA's time nor money is wasted.

Laster, Rachel M.

2004-01-01

100

Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas.

Not Available

1992-09-14

101

47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I triggers specified...available to all similarly situated customers; and (ii) The price cap... (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers...

2010-10-01

102

47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I triggers specified...available to all similarly situated customers; and (ii) The price cap... (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers...

2013-10-01

103

47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.  

... (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I triggers specified...available to all similarly situated customers; and (ii) The price cap... (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers...

2014-10-01

104

47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I triggers specified...available to all similarly situated customers; and (ii) The price cap... (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers...

2012-10-01

105

47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I triggers specified...available to all similarly situated customers; and (ii) The price cap... (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers...

2011-10-01

106

Analysis of vibratory states in phonation using spectral features of the electroglottographic signal.  

PubMed

The vocal folds can oscillate in several different ways, manifest to practitioners and clinicians as "registers" or "mechanisms," of which the two most often considered are modal voice and falsetto voice. Here these will be taken as instances of different "vibratory states," i.e., distinct quasi-stationary patterns of vibration of the vocal folds. State transitions are common in biomechanical nonlinear oscillators, and they are often abrupt and impossible to predict exactly. Therefore, vibratory states are a source of confounding variation, for instance when acquiring a voice range profile (VRP). In the quest for a state-based, non-invasive VRP, a semi-automatic method based on the short-term spectrum of the electroglottographic (EGG) signal was developed. The method identifies rapid vibratory state transitions, such as the modal-falsetto switch, and clusters the EGG data based on their similarities in the relative levels and phases of the lower frequency components. Productions of known modal and falsetto voice were accurately clustered by a Gaussian mixture model. When mapped into the VRP, this EGG-based clustering revealed connected regions of different vibratory sub-regimes in both modal and falsetto. PMID:25373977

Selamtzis, Andreas; Ternström, Sten

2014-11-01

107

Research on the signal process of a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro.  

PubMed

A bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell, is a kind of axisymmetric shell resonator gyroscope. Its sensitive element is a vibratory-like Chinese traditional bell, using a piezoelectric element on the wall of the vibrator to detect the standing wave's precession to solve the input angular rate. This work mainly studies the circuit system of a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro. It discusses the process of circuit system design, analysis and experiment, in detail, providing the foundation to develop a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro. Since the bell-shaped resonator's curved structure has the characteristics of large noise in the piezoelectric signal and large harmonics, this paper analyzes its working and signal detection method, then gives the whole plan of the circuit system, including the drive module, the detection module and the control loop. It also studies every part of the whole system, gives a detailed design and analysis process and proves part of the circuit system using digital simulation. At the end of the article, the test result of the circuit system shows that it can remove the disadvantages of the curved structure having large noise in the piezoelectric signal and large harmonics and is more effective at solving the input angular rate. PMID:24633451

Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning; Li, Qing; Fu, Mengyin; Liu, Hong; Fan, Junfang

2014-01-01

108

Robust design of a tuning fork vibratory microgyroscope considering microfabrication errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the influence of microfabrication errors on the design performance of a tuning fork vibratory micromachined gyroscope, and to enhance the performance robustness in the volume production environment, the limited key parameters with great influences on the fabricated performance stability are taken as the design variables at first, and then the constraint conditions of dimension, modal performance

Tao Jiang; Guangjun Liu; Anlin Wang; Jiwei Jiao

2008-01-01

109

Integrated Behavior Simulation and Verification for a MEMS Vibratory Gyroscope Using Parametric Model Order Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a parameterized reduced model of a vibratory microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) gyroscope is established using a parametric model order reduction algorithm. In the reduction process, not only the input angular velocity, material density, Young's modulus, and Rayleigh damping coefficient but also the coefficient of thermal expansion and the change in temperature were all preserved. Based on this model,

Honglong Chang; Yafei Zhang; Jianbing Xie; Zhiguang Zhou; Weizheng Yuan

2010-01-01

110

Precision dosing of powders by vibratory and screw feeders: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The addition of small amounts of very precisely dosed powdery ingredients into bulk powders and\\/or liquid mixtures is important in such industrial operations as mixing, granulation and crystallization. The general practice is to use a screw, vibration or belt feeder combined with a loss by weight device and an appropriate controller. The present work concentrates on two vibratory feeders, one

Gabriel I. Tardos; Quingyang Lu

1996-01-01

111

Laterally oscillated and force-balanced micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs, where the oscillating position sensing and force balancing take place on the wafer surface, has been developed. The gyroscope consists of: a grid-type planar mass; LT shape position sense electrodes for detecting the Coriolis motion; pairs of force-balancing electrodes to improve the linearity and dynamic range; prominence

K. Y. Park; C. W. Lee; Y. S. Oh; Y. H. Cho

1997-01-01

112

Metallographic holding fixture permits polishing of soft metals on vibratory lapping machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circular fixture which mounts several specimens within a single turret prevents specimen smearing during grinding and polishing operations performed on a vibratory lapping machine. Each specimen is loaded individually with a weight small enough to prevent smearing but large enough to promote polishing.

Matras, S.

1966-01-01

113

Research of piezoelectric vibratory angular rate sensors with improved metrological characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric vibratory angular rate sensors are widely used in different applications. The current article presents and discusses a theoretical research of scale factor temperature drift of the piezoelectric gyroscope. Numerical simulation of scale factor temperature sensitivity using ANSYS finite element software package is also considered. The theoretical results are compared with the experimentally obtained values.

Marinushkin, Pavel; Bedareva, Elena

2014-10-01

114

Enveloping relief surfaces of landslide terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two relief surfaces that envelop the rock fall region in a part of Garhwal Himalayas around Chamoli have been identified.\\u000a Relative relief and absolute relief have been analyzed and the enveloping surfaces recorded at two levels of relief in the\\u000a landscape. All landslide activity lies within these surfaces. The lower enveloping surface (800 m) dips due south by 7–8 degrees,

A. K. Pachauri; Abhirup Chatterjee; Reeta Gaur

2007-01-01

115

Control of Vibratory Energy Harvesters in the Presence of Nonlinearities and Power-Flow Constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, a significant amount of research activity has been devoted to developing electromechanical systems that can convert ambient mechanical vibrations into usable electric power. Such systems, referred to as vibratory energy harvesters, have a number of useful of applications, ranging in scale from self-powered wireless sensors for structural health monitoring in bridges and buildings to energy harvesting from ocean waves. One of the most challenging aspects of this technology concerns the efficient extraction and transmission of power from transducer to storage. Maximizing the rate of power extraction from vibratory energy harvesters is further complicated by the stochastic nature of the disturbance. The primary purpose of this dissertation is to develop feedback control algorithms which optimize the average power generated from stochastically-excited vibratory energy harvesters. This dissertation will illustrate the performance of various controllers using two vibratory energy harvesting systems: an electromagnetic transducer embedded within a flexible structure, and a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam. Compared with piezoelectric systems, large-scale electromagnetic systems have received much less attention in the literature despite their ability to generate power at the watt--kilowatt scale. Motivated by this observation, the first part of this dissertation focuses on developing an experimentally validated predictive model of an actively controlled electromagnetic transducer. Following this experimental analysis, linear-quadratic-Gaussian control theory is used to compute unconstrained state feedback controllers for two ideal vibratory energy harvesting systems. This theory is then augmented to account for competing objectives, nonlinearities in the harvester dynamics, and non-quadratic transmission loss models in the electronics. In many vibratory energy harvesting applications, employing a bi-directional power electronic drive to actively control the harvester is infeasible due to the high levels of parasitic power required to operate the drive. For the case where a single-directional drive is used, a constraint on the directionality of power-flow is imposed on the system, which necessitates the use of nonlinear feedback. As such, a sub-optimal controller for power-flow-constrained vibratory energy harvesters is presented, which is analytically guaranteed to outperform the optimal static admittance controller. Finally, the last section of this dissertation explores a numerical approach to compute optimal discretized control manifolds for systems with power-flow constraints. Unlike the sub-optimal nonlinear controller, the numerical controller satisfies the necessary conditions for optimality by solving the stochastic Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

Cassidy, Ian L.

116

49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...system. (6) The pressure relief system must be...relief devices. Each pressure relief device must communicate with the vapor space above the lading...which deflect the flow of vapor are permissible provided... (d) Settings of pressure relief system....

2012-10-01

117

49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.  

...system. (6) The pressure relief system must be...relief devices. Each pressure relief device must communicate with the vapor space above the lading...which deflect the flow of vapor are permissible provided... (d) Settings of pressure relief system....

2014-10-01

118

49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...system. (6) The pressure relief system must be...relief devices. Each pressure relief device must communicate with the vapor space above the lading...which deflect the flow of vapor are permissible provided... (d) Settings of pressure relief system....

2013-10-01

119

46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.57 Acceptance of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

2012-10-01

120

46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.57 Acceptance of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

2011-10-01

121

46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...for MPTs § 64.71 Marking of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

2010-10-01

122

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

2013-10-01

123

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

2011-10-01

124

46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.57 Acceptance of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

2010-10-01

125

46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...for MPTs § 64.71 Marking of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

2013-10-01

126

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

2010-10-01

127

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

2012-10-01

128

46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...for MPTs § 64.71 Marking of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

2011-10-01

129

46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.57 Acceptance of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

2013-10-01

130

46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...for MPTs § 64.71 Marking of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

2012-10-01

131

ReliefWeb Map Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a project of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, ReliefWeb has a mandate to strengthen the response capacity of the humanitarian relief community through the timely dissemination of reliable information on response, preparedness, and disaster prevention. The Map Centre page of the Web site contains links to a wealth of informative maps that carry on the organizations mandate by providing humanitarian content in cartographic form. Some of the maps available include Iraq food storage sites, Argentina flood location map, an overview of Liberian conflict, landslides in Papua New Guinea, and many more. The maps can be browsed by geographic location and subject, or searched by various parameters, making it an easy-to-use and helpful resource for anyone seeking informative maps that can be freely downloaded.

132

Stress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project collects resources for studying mental health and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. Watch the following video for positive things teens do to reduce the stress ...

Deaton, Mrs.

2011-06-10

133

Experimental Investigation of Vibratory Peg-in-Hole Insertion for Robotic Assembly  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper aims to experimentally investigate the process of a compliantly supported peg insertion into a bush with clearance by a robot, when vibrations are provided to the bush in the axial direction. The experimental setup of robotic vibratory assembly and the investigation methodology are presented. The experiments were performed by inserting the peg which is attached to a remote center compliance device by a robot into the bush mounted on an electrodynamic shaker. Durations of insertion process stages were measured under various combinations of excitation parameters of the bush. The experiments show that parameters of vibratory excitation have an influence on the duration of insertion process. By selecting suitable excitation parameters it is possible to shorten the insertion process duration and avoid jamming of the parts to be assembled.

Kilikevi?ius, Sigitas; Bakšys, Bronius

134

Stress  

MedlinePLUS

... breathing exercises at least once a day. Progressive relaxation therapy In this technique, which you can learn ... a new sport, it takes practice to learn relaxation. Dealing with Diabetes-Related Stress Some sources of ...

135

Cost-benefits of a mobile, trailer-contained, vibratory finishing decontamination facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the cost-benefits of a vibratory finishing process, developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which has been used successfully to remove a variety of transuranic (TRU) contaminants from surfaces of metallic and nonmetallic wastes. Once TRU contaminants are removed, the metallic and nonmetallic materials can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW). Otherwise, these materials would be disposed of in geologic repositories. This study provides an economic evaluation of the vibratory finishing process as a possible method for use in decontaminating and decommissioning retired facilities at Hanford and oher sites. Specifically, the economic evaluation focuses on a scoping design for a mobile, trailer-contained facility, which could be used in the field in conjunction with decontamination and decommissioning operations. The capital cost of the mobile facility is estimated to be about $1.09 million including contingency and working capital. Annual operating costs, including disposal costs, are estimated to be $440,000 for processing about 6340 ft/sup 3//yr of pre-sectioned, TRU-contaminated material. Combining the operating cost and the capital cost, annualized at a discount rate of 10%, the total annual cost estimate is $602,000. The unit cost for vibratory finishing is estimated to be about $11/ft/sup 3/ of original reference glove box volume (Abrams et at. 1980). All costs are in first quarter 1981 dollars. Although not directly comparable, the unit cost for the vibratory finishing process is very favorable when considered beside typical, substantially higher, unit costs for processing and geologically disposing of TUR-contaminated materials. The probable accuracy of this study cost estimate is about +- 30%. It is therefore recommended that a detailed cost estimate be prepared if a mobile facility is designed.

Hazelton, R.F.; McCoy, M.W.

1982-07-01

136

Mechanical Assessment of the Drep Shield Subject to Vibratory Motion and Dynamic and Static Rock Loading  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the drip shield (DS) is to divert water that may seep into emplacement drifts from contacting the waste packages, and to protect the waste packages from impact or static loading from rockfall. The objective of this document is to summarize, into one location, the results of a series of supporting engineering calculations that were developed to study the effect of static and dynamic loads on the mechanical performance of the DS. The potential DS loads are a result of: (1) Potential earthquake vibratory ground motion, and resulting interaction of the DS, waste package and pallet, and drift invert; (2) Dynamic impacts of rockfall resulting from emplacement drift damage as a result of earthquake vibratory motion; and (3) Static load of the caved rock rubble that may come to rest on the DS as a result of vibratory motion or from time-dependent yielding of the rock mass surrounding the emplacement drift. The potential mechanical failure mechanisms that may result from these loads include: (1) Overturning and/or separation of the interlocking DS segments; (2) Loss of structural integrity and stability of the DS, including excessive deformation or buckling; and (3) Localized damage to the top and side-wall plates of the DS. The scope of this document is limited to summarizing results presented in the supporting calculations in the areas of analysis of the potential for DS collapse, and determination of the damaged surface area of the DS plates. New calculations are presented to determine whether or not separation of DSs occur under vibratory motion.

R.C. Quittmeyer

2005-11-16

137

Balance control and adaptation during vibratory perturbations in middle-aged and elderly humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to investigate if healthy elderly people respond and adapt differently to postural disturbances compared to middle-aged people. Thirty middle-aged (mean age 37.8 years, range 24–56 years) and forty healthy elderly subjects (mean age 74.6 years, range 66–88 years) were tested with posturography. Body sway was evoked by applying pseudorandom vibratory stimulation to the belly of the gastrocnemius muscles of both legs

P.-A. Fransson; E. K. Kristinsdottir; A. Hafström; M. Magnusson; R. Johansson

2004-01-01

138

Effect of vocal fold injury location on vibratory parameters in excised canine larynges  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect of vocal fold injury location on vibratory amplitude and lateral phase difference. Study design Repeated measures with each excised canine larynx serving as own control. Setting Basic science study conducted in university laboratory. Methods Vocal fold vibration of excised canine larynges was recorded with a high speed camera before and after inducing vocal fold injury at one of five locations: anterior, middle, posterior, medial, or superior. Medial and superior injuries were created within the middle third of the vocal fold. Five larynges were used for each of the five injury locations. Kymography was performed at the midpoint of the vocal folds for each video. Pre- and post-injury vibratory amplitude and lateral phase difference were compared for each location. Results The anterior and medial injuries produced consistent decreases in vibratory amplitude. Middle and posterior injuries may slightly decrease amplitude. Superior injuries seemed to have no effect on amplitude. Anterior and medial injuries induce phase asymmetry between the right and left vocal folds. Middle injuries appeared to affect phase difference slightly, whereas posterior and superior injuries had no effect. Conclusion Injury to the anterior or medial portions of the vocal fold may be most likely to cause abnormal vocal fold vibration. Using caution in these locations during phonosurgery may favor superior post-operative vocal outcomes. PMID:23070053

Krausert, Christopher R.; Ying, Di; Choi, Seong Hee; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Jiang, Jack J.

2013-01-01

139

Relaxation relief/relaxation/reduction/improvement offers relief for  

E-print Network

for physical training and can provide an immune system boost. It can also reduce anxiety, fatigue, and stress specializes in Thai Yoga Massage, which is an Eastern tradition that incorporates gentle pressure and passive stretching to increase flexibility, improve posture, and relieve stress. Jeffrey Cottrell Jeffrey Cottrell

Maxwell, Bruce D.

140

Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 158 km (98 miles) x 122 km (77 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North approximately at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

2000-01-01

141

Bathymetry, Topography, and Relief Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive site from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center provides a collection of bathymetry, topography, and relief data from a variety of sources and environments including coastlines, the Great Lakes, and the seafloor. The site also features the National Ocean Service (NOS) hydrographic database. Some images and data can be downloaded at no charge, while others may be purchased on CD-ROM or DVD. The site can be searched for downloadable data using the GEODAS Data Search and Retrieval System. Data products from NOS surveys, including Descriptive Reports (DRs), smooth sheet images, survey data images, textual gridded data, and sidescan sonar mosaics, are available for download using the National Ocean Service Hydrographic Survey Data Map Service, an ArcIMS interactive map and data discovery tool.

Center, National G.; Noaa

142

Relief and Distress after Marital Separation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relief and distress as responses to the termination of marriage in a study of 205 individuals soon after their final separation. Results showed that relief is a frequent response to marital separation. Group differences in response were associated with the rewards and costs of ending a marriage. (JAC)

Spanier, Graham B.; Thompson, Linda

1983-01-01

143

Decide whether to use thermal relief valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even experienced engineers sometimes don't consider thermal relief devices in their designs. Besides that, the literature about this topic is incredibly meager. However, in some cases the lack of these devices can have catastrophic consequences. In this article, the application and sizing of thermal relief valves will be explored with emphasis on the calculation of thermal expansion coefficients (also useful

F. Bravo; B. D. Beatty

1993-01-01

144

Analysis of inservice inspection relief requests  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require inspection (ISI) of boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power plants be performed in accordance with a referenced edition and addenda of Section XI, ``Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components,`` of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The regulations permit licensees to request relief from the NRC from specific ASME Code requirements that are determined to be impractical for the specific licensee. The NRC evaluates these requests and may grant such relief, but the NRC may also impose alternative or augmented inspections to assure structural reliability. The purpose,of this task was to evaluate the basis for ISI nondestructive examination (NDE) relief requests and to evaluate the effect of proposed ASME Code changes that would reduce the need for such requests or provide for more complete information in relief requests. This report contains the results of an analysis of an ISI relief request data base that has been expanded to include 1195 ISI relief requests versus the 296 relief requests covered in the first report in April 1987, EGG-SD-7430. Also relief requests were added to the data base which came from both first and second 10-year inspection intervals for several facilities. This provided the means to analyze the effect of recently approved ASME Code cases and updated Code requirements, some of which have been published as a result of earlier work on this task.

Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.

1989-08-01

145

Earthquake relief in less industrialized areas  

SciTech Connect

This symposium was organized by the Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects and by the Specialized Group for Bridge and Structural Engineering. Authors are specialists from private and governmental disaster relief organizations, earthquake engineers and suppliers of products for rescue operations and reconstruction. Case histories include; Economic consequences of earthquakes; Reconstruction with indigenous and intermediate technology; General aspects of relief operations and reconstruction.

Not Available

1984-01-01

146

Relief device for a vacuum vessel  

DOEpatents

A pressure relief device for a vessel having redundant pressure relief capabilities is disclosed. An annular plate overlies a surface which has an aperture to the vessel. A seal is formed between the surface and annular plate. A solid plate overlies the annular plate. A seal is formed between the solid plate and annular plate. The relief device will open at a first predetermined pressure by lifting the solid plate. In the event the seal between solid plate and annular plate should stick the relief device will open at a second slightly higher, predetermined pressure by lifting the annular plate and solid plate together. Hinging means are provided to reclose the pressure relief device when conditions return to normal. 2 figs.

Fast, R.W.

1987-04-28

147

Relief device for a vacuum vessel  

DOEpatents

A pressure relief device 5 for a vessel having redundant pressure relief capabilities. An annular plate 12 overlies a surface 11 which has an aperature to the vessel. A seal is formed between the surface 11 and annular plate 12. A solid plate 13 overlies the annular plate 12. A seal is formed between the solid plate 13 and annular plate 12. The relief device 5 will open at a first predetermined pressure by lifting the solid plate 13. In the event the seal between solid plate 13 and annular plate 12 should stick the relief device 5 will open at a second slightly higher, predetermined pressure by lifting the annular plate 12 and solid plate 13 together. Hinging means 6 are provided to reclose the pressure relief device 5 when conditions return to normal.

Fast, Ronald W. (Batavia, IL)

1987-04-28

148

Vibratory sources as compound stimuli for the octavolateralis systems: Dissection of specific stimulation channels using multiple behavioral approaches  

PubMed Central

An underwater vibratory source simultaneously presents acoustic and hydrodynamic disturbances. Because vibratory dipole sources are poor sonic projectors, most researchers have assumed that such sources are of greatest relevance to the lateral line system (LL). Both hydroacoustic principles and empirical studies have shown that vibratory dipole sources are also a potent stimulus to the inner ear of fishes. Responses to vibratory sources in mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi) were assessed using unconditioned orienting, differential and non-differential-classical conditioning. Orienting responses are dominated by LL inputs and eliminated by LL pharmacological inactivation. Simple conditioning depends on inputs from other systems and was not affected by LL inactivation. Differential conditioning alters behavioral control, and sculpin could be conditioned to ignore substrate borne vibrations and respond only to hydroacoustic stimulation of the ear. The lateral line and inner ear of mottled sculpin do not necessarily exhibit range fractionation, as both systems operate over a similar distance from the animal (within 1.5 body lengths) and respond to many of the same sources. Vibratory dipole sources generate compound stimuli that simultaneously activate multiple octavolateralis systems, and animals make use of the channels differentially under different behavioral tasks. PMID:20384404

Braun, Christopher B.; Coombs, Sheryl

2010-01-01

149

Correct Diagnosis Provides Relief for Those with Dry Mouth  

MedlinePLUS

... Correct Diagnosis Provides Relief for Those with Dry Mouth Article Chapters Correct Diagnosis Provides Relief for Those ... dentist regularly Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Dry Mouth (Xerostomia) Acupuncture May Provide Relief from Dry Mouth ...

150

49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178...Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with §...

2010-10-01

151

49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178...Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with §...

2011-10-01

152

49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178...Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with §...

2013-10-01

153

49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178...Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with §...

2012-10-01

154

46 CFR 154.1846 - Relief valves: Changing set pressure.  

...false Relief valves: Changing set pressure. 154.1846 Section 154.1846...1846 Relief valves: Changing set pressure. The master shall: (a) Supervise the changing of the set pressure of relief valves under §...

2014-10-01

155

Reconstruction of Dislocation Potential Relief by Means of Self-Blocking Effect  

SciTech Connect

The effect of dislocation self-blocking in intermetallic compounds with an anomalous temperature dependence of yield stress has been theoretically and experimentally analyzed. In essence, this effect is a dislocation self-immersion in a deep potential relief valley (without external stress). The possibility of reconstructing the relief shape (from one-valley to two-valley) is shown and the relief parameters are reported. The allowed and forbidden regions for self-blocking are revealed. The method for determining the ratio of the valley depths by measuring the self-blocking limiting angles between the dislocation segments is proposed. Transmission electron microscopy images of the dislocation structure can be used to this end. As an example, this ratio is estimated for a superpartial dislocation sliding in the cube plane in Ni{sub 3}Ge.

Greenberg, B. A., E-mail: bella@imp.uran.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division (Russian Federation); Ivanov, M. A., E-mail: ivanov@imp.kiev.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kurdjumov Institute of Metal Physics (Ukraine); Plotnikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division (Russian Federation)

2010-11-15

156

Unilateral contact induced blade/casing vibratory interactions in impellers: Analysis for rigid casings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This contribution addresses the vibratory analysis of unilateral-contact induced structural interactions between a bladed impeller and its surrounding rigid casing. Such assemblies can be found in helicopter or small aircraft engines for instance and the interactions of interest shall arise due to the always tighter operating clearances between the rotating and stationary components. The investigation is conducted by extending to cyclically symmetric structures an in-house time-marching based tool dedicated to unilateral contact occurrences in turbomachines. The main components of the considered impeller together with the associated assumptions and modelling principles considered in this work are detailed. Typical dynamical features of cyclically symmetric structures, such as the aliasing effect and frequency clustering are explored in this nonlinear framework by means of thorough frequency-domain analyses and harmonic trackings of the numerically predicted impeller displacements. Additional contact maps highlight the existence of critical rotational velocities at which displacements potentially reach high amplitudes due to the synchronization of the bladed assembly vibratory pattern with the shape of the rigid casing. The proposed numerical investigations are also compared to a simpler and (almost) empirical criterion: it is suggested, based on nonlinear numerical simulations with a linear reduced order model of the impeller and a rigid casing, that this criterion may miss important critical velocities emanating from the unfavorable combination of aliasing and contact-induced higher harmonics in the vibratory response of the impeller. Overall, this work suggests a way to enhance guidelines to improve the design of impellers in the context of nonlinear and nonsmooth dynamics.

Batailly, Alain; Meingast, Markus; Legrand, Mathias

2015-02-01

157

Mating Behaviour and Vibratory Signalling in Non-Hearing Cave Crickets Reflect Primitive Communication of Ensifera  

PubMed Central

In Ensifera, the lack of well-supported phylogeny and the focus on acoustic communication of the terminal taxa hinders understanding of the evolutionary history of their signalling behaviour and the related sensory structures. For Rhaphidophoridae, the most relic of ensiferans following morphology-based phylogenies, the signalling modes are still unknown. Together with a detailed description of their mating process, we provide evidence on vibratory signalling for the sympatric European species Troglophilus neglectus and T. cavicola. Despite their temporal shift in reproduction, the species’ behaviours differ significantly. Signalling by abdominal vibration constitutes an obligatory part of courtship in T. neglectus, while it is absent in T. cavicola. Whole-body vibration is expressed after copulation in both species. While courtship signalling appears to stimulate females for mating, the function of post-copulation signals remains unclear. Mating and signalling of both species were found to take place in most cases on bark, and less frequently on other available substrates, like moss and rock. The signals’ frequency spectra were substrate dependent, but with the dominant peak always expressed below 120 Hz. On rock, the intensity of T. neglectus courtship signals was below the species’ physiological detection range, presumably constraining the evolution of such signalling in caves. The species’ behavioural divergence appears to reflect their divergent mating habitats, in and outside caves. We propose that short-range tremulation signalling in courtship, such as is expressed by T. neglectus, represents the primitive mode and context of mechanical signalling in Ensifera. The absence of high-frequency components in the signals may be related to the absence of the crista acoustica homologue (CAH) in the vibratory tibial organ of Rhaphidophoridae. This indirectly supports the hypothesis proposing that the CAH, as an evolutionary precursor of the ear, evolved in Ensifera along the (more) complex vibratory communication, also associated with signals of higher carrier frequency. PMID:23094071

Stritih, Nataša; ?okl, Andrej

2012-01-01

158

Fundamental understanding, prediction and validation of rotor vibratory loads in steady-level flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work isolates the physics of aerodynamics and structural dynamics from the helicopter rotor aeromechanics problem, investigates them separately, identifies the prediction deficiencies in each, improves upon them, and couples them back together. The objective is to develop a comprehensive analysis capability for accurate and consistent prediction of rotor vibratory loads in steady level flight. The rotor vibratory loads are the dominant source of helicopter vibration. There are two critical vibration regimes for helicopters in steady level flight: (1) low speed transition and (2) high speed forward flight. The mechanism of rotor vibration at low speed transition is well understood---inter-twinning of blade tip vortices below the rotor disk. The mechanism of rotor vibration at high speed is not clear. The focus in this research is on high speed flight. The goal is to understand the key mechanisms involved and accurately model them. Measured lift, chord force, pitching moment and damper force from the UH-60A Flight Test Program are used to predict, validate and refine the rotor structural dynamics. The prediction errors originate entirely from structural modeling. Once validated, the resultant blade deformations are used to predict and validate aerodynamics. Air loads are calculated using a table look up based unsteady lifting-line model and compared with predictions from a 3-dimensional unsteady CFD model. Both Navier-Stokes and Euler predictions are studied. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) The 3D Navier-Stokes CFD analysis is then consistently coupled with a rotor comprehensive analysis to improve prediction of rotor vibratory loads at high speed. The CFD-comprehensive code coupling is achieved using a loose coupling methodology. The CFD analysis significantly improves section pitching moment prediction near the blade tip, because it captures the steady and unsteady 3D transonic effects. Accurate pitching moments drive elastic twist deformations which together with a refined rotor wake model generate the right vibratory airload harmonics at all radial stations. The flap bending moments, torsion bending moments and pitch link load predictions are significantly improved by CFD coupling. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Datta, Anubhav

159

An examination of the relations between rotor vibratory loads and airframe vibrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Harmonic rotor hub loads and airframe interactions in steady flight are reviewed, with regard to the objective of achieving lower airframe vibration by modifying blade root loads. Flight test and wind tunnel data are reviewed, along with sample fuselage response data. Trends which could provide a generalized approach to the above objective are found to be very limited. Recent analytical and corresponding experimental blade tuning modifications are reviewed and compared. Rotor vibratory load modification and substantial vibration changes were achieved over a wide range of rotor operating conditions.

Niebanck, C. F.

1985-01-01

160

Local shape of pictorial relief  

PubMed Central

How is pictorial relief represented in visual awareness? Certainly not as a “depth map,” but perhaps as a map of local surface attitudes (Koenderink & van Doorn, 1995). Here we consider the possibility that observers might instead, or concurrently, represent local surface shape, a geometrical invariant with respect to motions. Observers judge local surface shape, in a picture of a piece of sculpture, on a five-point categorical scale. Categories are cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup–flat, where “flat” denotes the absence of shape. We find that observers readily perform such a task, with full resolution of a shape index scale (cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup), and with excellent self-consistency over days. There exist remarkable inter-observer differences. Over a group of 10 naive observers we find that the dispersion of judgments peaks at the saddle category. There may be a relation of this finding to the history of the topic—Alberti's (1827) omission of the saddle category in his purportedly exhaustive catalog of local surface shapes. PMID:25469225

Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Wagemans, Johan

2014-01-01

161

Relief of Pain and Suffering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The symposium and exhibit titled Pain and Suffering in History - Narrative Science, Medicine and Culture marks the dedication of the John C. Liebeskind History of Pain Collection at the Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library, UCLA. The Relief of Pain and Suffering site, prepared in conjunction with the aforementioned symposium and exhibit, gives us plenty for which to be thankful in terms of advancements in the area of pain management. Tracing the modern roots of this field back to the nineteenth century and earlier, users can view historical pictures of botanicals, tools, and early writings all related to the alleviation of pain and suffering. Descriptions of syndromes like phantom limbs and causalgia abound as users travel towards the 21st century. Modern methods discussed include interdisciplinary team approaches to pain management and the Hospice movement's philosophies on pain treatment. Users can navigate the site in a variety of ways: through a series of topical links off of the main page, by moving through the site using arrow buttons, or through an index of illustrations and keywords. A final page of links to professional organizations related to the field nicely rounds out the site.

1998-01-01

162

Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery  

MedlinePLUS

PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery This handout is for informational purposes only. Talk with your doctor or health care team if you have any questions about ...

163

29 CFR 553.225 - Early relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early relief. It is a common practice among employees engaged in fire protection activities to relieve employees on the previous shift prior to the scheduled...

2012-07-01

164

29 CFR 553.225 - Early relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early relief. It is a common practice among employees engaged in fire protection activities to relieve employees on the previous shift prior to the scheduled...

2011-07-01

165

29 CFR 553.225 - Early relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early relief. It is a common practice among employees engaged in fire protection activities to relieve employees on the previous shift prior to the scheduled...

2013-07-01

166

29 CFR 553.225 - Early relief.  

...of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early relief. It is a common practice among employees engaged in fire protection activities to relieve employees on the previous shift prior to the scheduled...

2014-07-01

167

29 CFR 553.225 - Early relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early relief. It is a common practice among employees engaged in fire protection activities to relieve employees on the previous shift prior to the scheduled...

2010-07-01

168

7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.20 Equitable relief. (a) If a participant relied upon the advice or action...

2012-01-01

169

7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.20 Equitable relief. (a) If a participant relied upon the advice or action...

2010-01-01

170

7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.  

...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.20 Equitable relief. (a) If a participant relied upon the advice or action...

2014-01-01

171

Estimating Attributes: Analysis and Extensions of RELIEF  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of machine learning from examples this paper deals with the problem of estimating the quality of attributes with and without dependencies among them. Kira and Rendell (1992a,b) developed an algorithm called RELIEF, which was shown to be very efficient in estimating attributes. Original RELIEF can deal with discrete and continuous attributes and is limited to only two-class

Igor Kononenko

1994-01-01

172

Dispersive and non-dispersive waves through plants: implications for arthropod vibratory communication  

PubMed Central

Vibratory communication in arthropods is a widespread phenomenon. Arthropods living on plants have been reported to use only dispersive bending waves in the context of prey–predator, competition, social and sexual interactions. Differences in signal structure have also been postulated to work as species recognition mechanisms and speciation agents. Using two identical laser Doppler vibrometers and a wavelet analysis, we quantified the wave propagation modes in rush stems (Juncus effusus) over the whole range of frequencies used by arthropods. A non-dimensionalized analysis shows that mechanical waves propagate not only as dispersive bending waves, but also as non-dispersive waves. Our analysis implies that an arthropod can communicate through non-dispersive bending waves by either producing signals of high frequencies or by choosing large stems, two widely different options tapping into the physiological and the behavioural repertoires, respectively. Non-dispersive waves, unreported so far in insect vibratory communication in plants, present serious advantages over dispersive bending waves in terms of signal integrity and may well be much more widely used than anticipated, in particular for species recognition. PMID:17284408

Casas, Jérôme; Magal, Christelle; Sueur, Jérôme

2007-01-01

173

Dispersive and non-dispersive waves through plants: implications for arthropod vibratory communication.  

PubMed

Vibratory communication in arthropods is a widespread phenomenon. Arthropods living on plants have been reported to use only dispersive bending waves in the context of prey-predator, competition, social and sexual interactions. Differences in signal structure have also been postulated to work as species recognition mechanisms and speciation agents. Using two identical laser Doppler vibrometers and a wavelet analysis, we quantified the wave propagation modes in rush stems (Juncus effusus) over the whole range of frequencies used by arthropods. A non-dimensionalized analysis shows that mechanical waves propagate not only as dispersive bending waves, but also as non-dispersive waves. Our analysis implies that an arthropod can communicate through non-dispersive bending waves by either producing signals of high frequencies or by choosing large stems, two widely different options tapping into the physiological and the behavioural repertoires, respectively. Non-dispersive waves, unreported so far in insect vibratory communication in plants, present serious advantages over dispersive bending waves in terms of signal integrity and may well be much more widely used than anticipated, in particular for species recognition. PMID:17284408

Casas, Jérôme; Magal, Christelle; Sueur, Jérôme

2007-04-22

174

Structural-Acoustic Coupling Effects on the Non-Vacuum Packaging Vibratory Cylinder Gyroscope  

PubMed Central

The resonant shells of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes are commonly packaged in metallic caps. In order to lower the production cost, a portion of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes do not employ vacuum packaging. However, under non-vacuum packaging conditions there can be internal acoustic noise leading to considerable acoustic pressure which is exerted on the resonant shell. Based on the theory of the structural-acoustic coupling, the dynamical behavior of the resonant shell under acoustic pressure is presented in this paper. A finite element (FE) model is introduced to quantitatively analyze the effect of the structural-acoustic coupling. Several main factors, such as sealing cap sizes and degree of vacuum which directly affect the vibration of the resonant shell, are studied. The results indicate that the vibration amplitude and the operating frequency of the resonant shell will be changed when the effect of structural-acoustic coupling is taken into account. In addition, an experiment was set up to study the effect of structural-acoustic coupling on the sensitivity of the gyroscope. A 32.4 mV/°/s increase of the scale factor and a 6.2 Hz variation of the operating frequency were observed when the radial gap size between the resonant shell and the sealing cap was changed from 0.5 mm to 20 mm. PMID:24351631

Xi, Xiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Wu, Yulie; Zhang, Yongmeng; Tao, Yi; Zheng, Yu; Xiao, Dingbang

2013-01-01

175

A Study of the Temperature Characteristics of Vibration Mode Axes for Vibratory Cylinder Gyroscopes  

PubMed Central

The zero bias stability, which is an important performance parameter for vibratory cylinder gyroscopes, is high sensitive to temperature change. It is considered that the varying temperature makes the vibration mode axes unstable, which has significant influence on the zero bias stability. This paper will investigate this problem in detail. First, the relationships between the angular positions of vibration mode axes and the zero bias are analyzed. Secondly, the thermal-modal model of the cylinder resonator with several defects such as mass imbalance, frequency split (FS), and geometry errors are developed by ANSYS. Simulation results show that with the increase of temperature, angular positions of the vibration mode axes obviously change, which leads to a dramatic zero bias drift. Finally, several major influence factors on the angular position stability of vibration mode axes, including frequency split, geometry errors, thermal elastic modulus coefficient (TEMC) and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) are analyzed in detail. Simulation results in this paper will be helpful for deep understanding of the drift principle of zero bias induced by temperature for vibratory cylinder gyroscopes and also be helpful for further temperature compensation or control. PMID:22164038

Wu, Yulie; Xi, Xiang; Tao, Yi; Wu, Xiaomei; Wu, Xuezhong

2011-01-01

176

Effect On The Processing Characteristics Of ZnO Varistors Produced Using Vibratory Milling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each manufacturing stage in the production of zinc oxide varistors from powder preparation to the final encapsulated device is important not only for the formation of the varistor component with optimum microstructure and thus electrical characteristics but also for avoiding the introduction of flaws and reduced yield. In this paper the authors describe and discuss the effect of multi-elemental oxide additives having been milled for different durations using a vibratory mill with cylindrical zirconia media on the powder characteristics of the subsequent processing stages. A commercial ZnO varistor formulation was used. The subsequent processing stages that are given particular attention include first spray drying and second milling. The characteristics include agglomerate size, powder density and elemental uniformity of the first spray-dried powders, and particle size, specific surface area, zirconium concentration and pore size of the second milled powders. They were evaluated using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopic, mercury porosimetry, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. Some interesting correlations are observed between the powder properties and vibratory milling durations of the mixed metal oxide additives (MMOA).

Kelleher, M. C.; Hashmi, M. S. J.

2011-01-01

177

Structural-acoustic coupling effects on the non-vacuum packaging vibratory cylinder gyroscope.  

PubMed

The resonant shells of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes are commonly packaged in metallic caps. In order to lower the production cost, a portion of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes do not employ vacuum packaging. However, under non-vacuum packaging conditions there can be internal acoustic noise leading to considerable acoustic pressure which is exerted on the resonant shell. Based on the theory of the structural-acoustic coupling, the dynamical behavior of the resonant shell under acoustic pressure is presented in this paper. A finite element (FE) model is introduced to quantitatively analyze the effect of the structural-acoustic coupling. Several main factors, such as sealing cap sizes and degree of vacuum which directly affect the vibration of the resonant shell, are studied. The results indicate that the vibration amplitude and the operating frequency of the resonant shell will be changed when the effect of structural-acoustic coupling is taken into account. In addition, an experiment was set up to study the effect of structural-acoustic coupling on the sensitivity of the gyroscope. A 32.4 mV/°/s increase of the scale factor and a 6.2 Hz variation of the operating frequency were observed when the radial gap size between the resonant shell and the sealing cap was changed from 0.5 mm to 20 mm. PMID:24351631

Xi, Xiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Wu, Yulie; Zhang, Yongmeng; Tao, Yi; Zheng, Yu; Xiao, Dingbang

2013-01-01

178

Vibratory Loads Reduction Testing of the NASA/Army/MIT Active Twist Rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies have indicated that controlled strain-induced blade twisting can be attained using piezoelectric active fiber composite technology, and that such advancement may provide a mechanism for reduced rotorcraft vibrations and increased rotor performance. In order to validate these findings experimentally, a cooperative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center, the Army Research Laboratory, and the MIT Active Materials and Structures Laboratory has been developed. As a result of this collaboration a four-bladed, aeroelastically-scaled, active-twist model rotor has been designed and fabricated for testing in the heavy gas test medium of the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. Initial wind tunnel testing has been conducted to assess the impact of active blade twist on both fixed- and rotating-system vibratory loads in forward flight. The active twist control was found to have a pronounced effect on all system loads and was shown to generally offer reductions in fixed-system loads of 60% to 95%, depending upon flight condition, with 1.1 to 1.4 of dynamic blade twist observed. A summary of the systems developed and the vibratory loads reduction results obtained are presented in this paper.

Wilbur, Matthew; Mirick, Paul H.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Langston, Chester W.; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Shin, SangJoon

2001-01-01

179

Rain Hampers Tsunami Relief Efforts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The cleanup and relief efforts from the recent tsunamis continue in coastal communities that were ravaged by the waves all across the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains have further complicated the matter and added to the misery in parts of eastern Sri Lanka. Between December 28, 2004, and January 5, 2005, up to 10 to 15 inches of rain may have fallen along the southeast coast of the island, and as much as 20 inches (red areas) fell just offshore. This rainfall map was created by the TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which monitors rainfall over the global tropics. The map shows that many other regions around the Indian Ocean were also affected by the rains, including Malaysia and parts of Sumatra. The heaviest rains fell on December 31 and January 4. The rains were likely the result of a combination of the northeast monsoon interacting with the topography and an active phase of what is known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (or 30-60 day oscillation). The MJO is a large-scale disturbance that propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean into the West Pacific Ocean, bringing extended periods of unsettled weather with it. Individual convective complexes within the MJO can last on the order of a day. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. NASA image produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) and caption by Steve Lang (SSAI/NASA GSFC).

2005-01-01

180

Menopause: Symptom Relief and Treatments  

MedlinePLUS

... of menopause and tips for dealing with them. Hot flashes Try to notice what triggers your hot flashes and avoid those things. Possible triggers to ... foods, alcohol, caffeine, stress, or being in a hot place. Dress in layers and remove some when ...

181

Component lead wire strain relief for random vibration environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Printed circuit boards exposed to severe random vibration environments for prolonged periods often experience fatigue failures. The failures occur in connection with severed circuit traces, fractured solder joints, fretting corrosion of connector contact pins, or broken lead wires on electronic components. The present investigation is mainly concerned with the latter cause of failure. Aspects of lead wire geometry are defined and factors contributing to the development of bending stress in the lead wires are examined. Such factors are related to environmental load applications, board-specific characteristics, and component-specific characteristics. Attention is given to effects of component location, questions concerning the selection of the proper strain relief, the effects of lead length on stresses, the proper component orientation, and the characteristics of different types of components. A sample problem is also discussed.

Scardina, V. M.

182

Authority in Online Disaster Relief Communities 1 Running Head: AUTHORITY IN ONLINE DISASTER RELIEF COMMUNITIES  

E-print Network

COMMUNITIES Approaches to Authority in Online Disaster Relief Communities after Hurricane Katrina Cristen study of distributed networks of volunteers that emerged online following Hurricane Katrina. Online Disaster Relief Communities after Hurricane Katrina Hurricane Katrina flooded 80% of New Orleans and left

Kiesler, Sara

183

Glovebox pressure relief and check valve  

SciTech Connect

This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

Blaedel, K.L.

1986-03-17

184

Sectioning of contaminated components for decontamination by vibratory finishing and electropolishing  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work conducted to develop, adapt, and evaluate a variety of techniques for sectioning glove boxes, chemical processing equipment, pipes, ducts, and other contaminated components in preparation for decontamination by vibratory finishing and electropolishing. These sectioning studies were conducted with a special 10-ft x 20-ft x 10-ft stainless-steel, walk-in glove box equipped for either hands-on operation via gloves and personnel entry, or remote operation using master slave manipulators and a bridge crane. Several sectioning techniques have been evaluated with respect to effectiveness, versatility, secondary waste generation, and capability for remote operation. The methods include wet and dry plasma arc torch cutting, mechanical sawing and nibbling, abrasive cutting, and hydraulic shearing and punching. The results of these comparison studies show that the plasma arc torch is a very rapid and effective metal cutting tool for size reduction applications. However, its use to prepare material for decontamination should be minimized because of problems with smoke generation, torch manipulation, waste generation, and entrainment of contamination. Mechanical saws eliminate all but the waste generation problem, but are very slow and labor intensive. Mechanical nibblers are fast and produce a waste form that can be decontaminated, but are limited with respect to the geometry and thickness of material that can be sectioned. High-speed abrasive saws provide high cutting rates, but produce nontreatable waste from the cut as well as from blade wear. Hydraulic shearing rapidly produces sectioned material in the small sizes required for decontamination by vibratory finishing. The kerf material also can be decontaminated. However, the glove box first must be sectioned into relatively narrow strips by one of the other techniques.

Fetrow, L.K.; Allen, R.P.

1981-09-01

185

Relief diffracted elements recorded on absorbent photopolymers.  

PubMed

Relief surface changes provide interesting possibilities for storing diffractive optical elements on photopolymers and are an important source of information for characterizing and understanding the material behavior. In this paper we use a 3-dimensional model, based on direct parameter measurements, for predicting the relief structures generated on without-coverplate photopolymers. We have analyzed different spatial frequency and recording intensity distributions such as binary and blazed periodic patterns. This model was successfully applied to different photopolymers with different values of monomer diffusion. PMID:22565744

Gallego, S; Márquez, A; Ortuño, M; Francés, J; Pascual, I; Beléndez, A

2012-05-01

186

Sapphire substrates with a regular surface relief  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lithography-free technique is proposed to obtain a regular relief in the form of a regular 2D system of 25-nm protrusions on a sapphire plate surface. The use of grid masks allows one to form a regular relief on the sapphire substrates of arbitrary area. The structure of crystal films formed by the sputtering of metal aluminum onto sapphire substrates with subsequent oxidation and annealing is thoroughly investigated and compared with the nanostructured (0001) sapphire wafer surface in the form of regular steps up to 5 nm in height with atomically smooth terraces.

Butashin, A. V.; Kanevsky, V. M.; Muslimov, A. E.; Vasilyev, A. L.; Emirov, Yu. N.; Rakova, E. V.; Golubeva, A. S.; Klevachev, A. M.

2014-09-01

187

Alfentanil as procedural pain relief in newborn infants.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To assess the need for, and the suitability of, alfentanil for pain relief during tracheal suction used in assisted ventilation in newborn infants. METHODS: In a randomised, controlled, double blind, crossover trial, placebo (10 micrograms/kg) and 20 micrograms/kg alfentanil were infused in random order two minutes before three separate endotracheal suctions, at least six hours apart, to 10 infants. Measurements were made of physiological variables, behaviour, and stress hormones. RESULTS: After placebo infusion heart rate significantly increased (median 14; interquartile range 12-16 beats/minute) as did behavioural pain score (5; 3-5). Alfentanil (20 micrograms/kg) attenuated the heart rate increase, normalised the pain score, and caused a decrease in plasma adrenaline activity (0.3; 0.2-0.7 nmol/l). Noradrenaline concentration showed a nonsignificant decreasing trend with increasing alfentanil dose and beta endorphin was unchanged. Rigidity was noted in the placebo (n = 2), 10 micrograms/kg (n = 2), and 20 micrograms/kg (n = 5) alfentanil groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheal suction is a painful procedure. The dose of alfentanil required for pain relief (20 micrograms/kg) causes a high incidence of rigidity and thus should be used only with muscle relaxant. PMID:8949692

Saarenmaa, E; Huttunen, P; Leppäluoto, J; Fellman, V

1996-01-01

188

Elastomeric binary phase gratings for measuring acceleration, displacement, strain, and stress  

E-print Network

Elastomeric binary phase gratings for measuring acceleration, displacement, strain, and stress John element having a relief grating embossed on its surface--for measuring displacements, strains, stresses for measuring displacements, strains, stresses, and accelerations. Optical interferometry, one of the most

Prentiss, Mara

189

Prescription opioid use among addictions treatment patients : Nonmedical use for pain relief vs. other forms of nonmedical use  

PubMed Central

Background Differences between those who engage in nonmedical prescription opioid use for reasons other than pain relief and those who engage in nonmedical use for reasons related to pain only are not well understood. Methods Adults in a residential treatment program participated in a cross-sectional self-report survey. Participants reported whether they used opioids for reasons other than pain relief (e.g., help sleep, improve mood, or relieve stress). Within those with past-month nonmedical opioid use (n=238), logistic regression tested differences between those who reported use for reasons other than pain relief and those who did not. Results Nonmedical use of opioids for reasons other than pain relief was more common (66%) than nonmedical use for pain relief only (34%), and those who used for reasons other than pain relief were more likely to report heavy use (43% vs. 11%). Nonmedical use for reasons other than pain relief was associated with having a prior overdose (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.54), 95% CI:1.36-4.74) and use of heroin (OR=4.08, 95% CI:1.89-8.79), barbiturates (OR=6.44, 95% CI:1.47, 28.11), and other sedatives (OR=5.80, 95% CI: 2.61, 12.87). Individuals who reported nonmedical use for reasons other than pain relief had greater depressive symptoms (13.1 vs. 10.5) and greater pain medication expectancies across all three domains (pleasure/social enhancement, pain reduction, negative experience reduction). Conclusions Among patients in addictions treatment, individuals who report nonmedical use of prescription opioids for reasons other than pain relief represent an important clinical sub-group with greater substance use severity and poorer mental health functioning. PMID:23254228

Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Eisenberg, Anna; Whiteside, Lauren; Price, Amanda; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Ilgen, Mark A.

2012-01-01

190

Stress relief cracking in creep resisting low alloy ferritic steels.  

E-print Network

of microstructure and carbide morphology in com- mercial 2~% Cr - 1% Mo creep resisting steel, and by Smith and Nutting7 to study the tempering of low alloy steels containing chromium, molybdenum and vanadium. Parallel work by Seal and 8 Honeycombe provided... respectively. Both car­ bides alloo some solubility of chromium§, molybdenum or vanadium but in Cr - ~10 - V steels, the main secondary hardening carbide is V'/3 which is formed coherent ;rith the ferrite matrix in the 1 t f .. . 19 ear y sages 0 prec...

Tait, Robert Andrew

1976-10-26

191

Lake Tahoe Faults, Shaded Relief Map  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Shaded relief map of western part of the Lake Tahoe basin, California. Faults lines are dashed where approximately located, dotted where concealed, bar and ball on downthrown side. Heavier line weight shows principal range-front fault strands of the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone (TSFFZ). Opaque wh...

192

Quaternary relief generation by polythermal glacier ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The juxtaposition of wet-based erosive ice in valleys and cold-based, non-erosive ice atop felsenmeer-covered interfluve plateaus has generated relief in the Torngat Mountains of northeastern Canada. Measurements of in situ terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) con- centrations from 31 bedrock sites, coupled with soils and geomorphology, indicate that erosion of the valleys has been > > > > > 2m during

Jane K. W. Staiger; John C. Gosse; Jesse V. Johnson; James Fastook; James T. Gray; Daniel F. Stockli; Lisa Stockli; Robert Finkel

2005-01-01

193

75 FR 10707 - MORTGAGE ASSISTANCE RELIEF SERVICES  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...industry and will likely push many scam artists out of...relief services from seeking up-front payments. Prohibiting...prohibition or low fee cap on up-front fees is of primary...according to its guidelines an up-front fee of $1,000...Merle, Lenders to Get Push to Help Homeowners,...

2010-03-09

194

Tsunami-Relief Groups Advise K-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As American schools pitch in with an array of charitable projects in response to the tsunami in South Asia, experts say educators and students should consider carefully how they can most effectively support relief groups, avoid fund-raising scams, and incorporate their efforts into service-learning programs. When students returned to school after…

Hurst, Marianne D.

2005-01-01

195

Suicide Prevention for Local Public and Volunteer Relief Workers in Disaster-Affected Areas.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES:: Local workforces play a critical role in disaster relief and reconstruction. However, the mental health of local relief workers might be affected by disasters, threatening the sustainability of local workforces. In this study, we tried to address this concern by investigating the well-being of local relief workers and its association with suicidal ideation. DESIGN:: A retrospective study was conducted. Surveys were designed to collect data from a purposive sample of local disaster relief workers who survived a disaster. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to test hypotheses. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:: The study sample was from a population of local relief workers in the worst quake-hit regions in China in 2008. The respondents were local relief workers from a town in these regions. All of the 83 local relief workers were invited 11 months after the earthquake, and 70 joined the study, resulting in a response rate of 84.3%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: The dependent variable was postdisaster suicidal ideation. The independent variables were bereavement, depression and posttraumatic stress, daily work hours, job burnout, work-family conflict, and work engagement. RESULTS:: Approximately 21.4% of participants reported suicidal ideation after the earthquake in comparison with 7.1% before the earthquake. One potential risk factor was an interaction effect of job burnout and work-family conflict (odds ratio [OR] = 3.738; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.086-12.868). Potential protective factors included daily work hours (OR = 0.317; 95% CI, 0.106-0.952) and work engagement (OR = 0.297; 95% CI, 0.091-0.969). CONCLUSIONS:: Findings suggest that for local relief workers who are also disaster survivors, meaningful engagement such as participation in disaster relief could be salutary to their mental health, but overwork and interference with personal life could be harmful and increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Discretion is needed in managing local workforces, particularly with long work hours and work-family balance. PMID:23760310

Wang, Xiao Lu; Yip, Paul S F; Chan, Cecilia L W

2013-06-11

196

Reading, Writing and Drawing in Relief: The IPO Relief-Drawing Set.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes an improved relief drawing set designed for use with visually impaired persons that allows durable, tangible, and visible embossed images to be made with a ball-point pen. (Author/PHR)

Melotte, H. E. M.; Engel, F. L.

1980-01-01

197

49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.  

...Materials. Materials used in pressure relief devices must be suitable...lading in both the liquid and vapor phases. (c) Inner tank. Pressure relief devices for the inner tank must be attached to vapor phase piping and mounted...

2014-10-01

198

46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves...maximum attainable working pressure of the cargo tank inerting system exceeds the set pressure of the relief valves...15-25 of this chapter. Atmospheric Control in Cargo...

2011-10-01

199

46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves...maximum attainable working pressure of the cargo tank inerting system exceeds the set pressure of the relief valves...15-25 of this chapter. Atmospheric Control in Cargo...

2012-10-01

200

46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves...maximum attainable working pressure of the cargo tank inerting system exceeds the set pressure of the relief valves...15-25 of this chapter. Atmospheric Control in Cargo...

2010-10-01

201

46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves...maximum attainable working pressure of the cargo tank inerting system exceeds the set pressure of the relief valves...15-25 of this chapter. Atmospheric Control in Cargo...

2013-10-01

202

49 CFR 601.42 - Emergency relief docket.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency relief docket. 601.42 Section...ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Emergency Procedures for Public Transportation Systems § 601.42 Emergency relief docket. (a) By...

2010-10-01

203

43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL GUIDANCE Disaster Relief § 1815.1-1 Relief granted...facility and, as a result of a major disaster, a major physical change results...change are so great that restoration, reconstruction, or construction is not practical...

2012-10-01

204

43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL GUIDANCE Disaster Relief § 1815.1-1 Relief granted...facility and, as a result of a major disaster, a major physical change results...change are so great that restoration, reconstruction, or construction is not practical...

2013-10-01

205

43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.  

... INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL GUIDANCE Disaster Relief § 1815.1-1 Relief granted...facility and, as a result of a major disaster, a major physical change results...change are so great that restoration, reconstruction, or construction is not practical...

2014-10-01

206

43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL GUIDANCE Disaster Relief § 1815.1-1 Relief granted...facility and, as a result of a major disaster, a major physical change results...change are so great that restoration, reconstruction, or construction is not practical...

2011-10-01

207

Acoustic properties and geographic variation in the vibratory courtship signals of the european chloropid fly, Lipara lucens meigen (Diptera, Chloropidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic variation in courtship vibratory signals inLipara lucens from 7 disjunctive European populations were examined. Simple female responding signals showed significant interlocal difference\\u000a in the pulse-group intervals only in the English population. More differentiated male courtship signals were separated into\\u000a anterior “preliminary vibration” and posterior “main vibration”. The latter, composed of a train of bursts, showed significant\\u000a differences among populations

Kenkichi Kanmiya

1990-01-01

208

Towards Optimal Pain Relief: Acupuncture and Spinal Cord Stimulation  

E-print Network

Towards Optimal Pain Relief: Acupuncture and Spinal Cord Stimulation Richard Al'o 1 , Kenneth Al is a discrete optimization problem, e.g., for pain relief methodologies such as acupuncture and spinal cord problems related to pain relief: ffl problems of acupuncture, and ffl problems related to spinal cord

Kreinovich, Vladik

209

Building Pressure Control in VAV System with Relief Air Fan  

E-print Network

Air Volume System for Environmental Quality.” McGraw-Hill, 1995, pp. 64-77. Where, = Relief air flow set point, CFM. spr Q , A PI control loop will be applied to modulate the relief fan VFD speed to maintain this relief air flow set point. 2...

Pang, X.; Liu, M.; Zheng, B.

2005-01-01

210

49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of approved...

2013-10-01

211

49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of approved...

2011-10-01

212

49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of approved...

2010-10-01

213

49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of approved...

2012-10-01

214

49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section...General Design Requirements § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class...and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material...

2010-10-01

215

49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section...General Design Requirements § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class...and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material...

2012-10-01

216

49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section...General Design Requirements § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class...and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material...

2011-10-01

217

46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154.806...Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have...

2014-10-01

218

49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section...General Design Requirements § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class...and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material...

2013-10-01

219

46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section... Cargo Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo...3 ) or less must have at least one pressure relief valve. (b) Each cargo...

2014-10-01

220

Motor task performance under vibratory feedback early poststroke: single center, randomized, cross-over, controled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Stroke rehabilitation is far from meeting patient needs in terms of timing, intensity and quality. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of an innovative technological tool, combining 3D motion analysis with targeted vibratory feedback, on upper-limb task performance early poststroke (<4 weeks). The study design was a two-sequence, two-period, randomized, crossover trial (NCT01967290) in 44 patients with upper-limb motor deficit (non-plegic) after medial cerebral artery ischemia. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the experimental session (repetitive motor task under vibratory feedback and 3D motor characterization) or the active comparator (3D motor characterization only). The primary outcome was the number of correct movements per minute on a hand-to-mouth task measured independently. Vibratory feedback was able to modulate motor training, increasing the number of correct movements by an average of 7.2/min (95%CI [4.9;9.4]; P < 0.001) and reducing the probability of performing an error from 1:3 to 1:9. This strategy may improve the efficacy of training on motor re-learning processes after stroke, and its clinical relevance deserves further study in longer duration trials. PMID:25011667

Cruz, Vítor Tedim; Bento, Virgílio; Ruano, Luís; Ribeiro, David Dieteren; Fontão, Luís; Mateus, Cátia; Barreto, Rui; Colunas, Márcio; Alves, Ana; Cruz, Bárbara; Branco, Catarina; Rocha, Nelson P.; Coutinho, Paula

2014-01-01

221

Investigating acoustic correlates of human vocal fold vibratory phase asymmetry through modeling and laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopya  

PubMed Central

Vocal fold vibratory asymmetry is often associated with inefficient sound production through its impact on source spectral tilt. This association is investigated in both a computational voice production model and a group of 47 human subjects. The model provides indirect control over the degree of left–right phase asymmetry within a nonlinear source–filter framework, and high-speed videoendoscopy provides in vivo measures of vocal fold vibratory asymmetry. Source spectral tilt measures are estimated from the inverse-filtered spectrum of the simulated and recorded radiated acoustic pressure. As expected, model simulations indicate that increasing left–right phase asymmetry induces steeper spectral tilt. Subject data, however, reveal that none of the vibratory asymmetry measures correlates with spectral tilt measures. Probing further into physiological correlates of spectral tilt that might be affected by asymmetry, the glottal area waveform is parameterized to obtain measures of the open phase (open/plateau quotient) and closing phase (speed/closing quotient). Subjects’ left–right phase asymmetry exhibits low, but statistically significant, correlations with speed quotient (r?=?0.45) and closing quotient (r?=??0.39). Results call for future studies into the effect of asymmetric vocal fold vibration on glottal airflow and the associated impact on voice source spectral properties and vocal efficiency. PMID:22225054

Mehta, Daryush D.; Zañartu, Matías; Quatieri, Thomas F.; Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Hillman, Robert E.

2011-01-01

222

Perception of Frequency, Amplitude and Azimuth of a Vibratory Dipole-Source by the Octavolateralis System of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)  

PubMed Central

Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were conditioned to suppress respiration to a 40 Hz vibratory source and subsequently tested for stimulus generalization to frequency, stimulus amplitude and position (azimuth). Animals completely failed to generalize to frequencies separated by octave intervals, both lesser and greater than the CS. However they did appear to generalize weakly to an aerial loudspeaker stimulus of the same frequency (40 Hz) after conditioning with an underwater vibratory source. Animals had a gradually decreasing amount of generalization to amplitude changes, suggesting a perceptual dimension of loudness. Animals generalized largely or completely to the same underwater source presented at a range of source azimuths. When these azimuths were presented at a transect of 3 cm, some animals did show decrements in generalization, while others did not. This suggests that although azimuth may be perceived more saliently at distances closer to a dipole source, perception of position is not immediately salient in conditioned vibratory source detection. Differential responding to test stimuli located towards the head or tail suggests the presence of perceptual differences between sources that are rostral or caudal with respect to the position of the animal or perhaps the head. PMID:21574689

Dailey, Deena D.; Braun, Christopher B.

2011-01-01

223

30 CFR 204.203 - What is the other relief option?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.203 What is the other relief option? ...this relief option, you may request any type of accounting and auditing relief that is appropriate for production from your...

2010-07-01

224

The President's Agenda for Tax Relief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In early 2001, President Bush released a summary of his agenda for tax relief. He claims to offer a "bold and fair tax relief plan that will reduce the inequities of the current tax code and help ensure that America remains prosperous." Highlights of Bush's proposal include doubling the child care credit to $1,000 per child, reinstating the ten percent deduction for two-earner couples, thus reducing the "marriage penalty," and eliminating inheritance taxes. The rather celebratory summary provides a short explanation of each element of the new tax plan, along with several charts on topics including consumer debt, tax rates for Americans on the edge of poverty, and the tax reduction for the poorest families. Finally, the report offers an easy-to-understand, side-by-side comparison of the current tax code and the Bush plan.

2001-01-01

225

Improve safety with pilot operated relief valves  

SciTech Connect

A weakness inherent in balanced bellows pressure relief valves (PRVs) that can cause premature failure can be avoided by using pilot operated PRVs as an alternative. Now better able to handle adverse service conditions, pilot operated PRVs are suitable for a wide range of gas, liquid and mixed-phase services. Traditionally, however, balanced bellows PRVs have been applied as overpressure protection for three notable reasons: a constant PRV set pressure with the presence of variable, superimposed back pressure (at the PRV outlet prior to its opening); valve stability and adequate capacity when built-up back pressure (at the PRV outlet during its relief cycle) exceeds 10%; and spring and guided parts barriered from the process fluid. With these benefits in mind, balanced bellows PRVs have been generally adapted by many hydrocarbon processing companies that have experienced costly, and often dangerous, premature bellows failures. Corrosion, valve instability and/or bellows flutter are causes of these failures.

Emerson, G. [Anderson, Greenwood and Co., Stafford, TX (United States)

1996-10-01

226

Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

Whipple, Kelin X.

2004-01-01

227

Programmable Mechanobioreactor for Exploration of the Effects of Periodic Vibratory Stimulus on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Abstract A programmable bioreactor using a voice-coil actuator was developed to enable research on the effects of periodic vibratory stimulus on human and porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We hypothesized that low frequency vibrations would result in a cartilage phenotype and higher frequency vibrations would result in a bone phenotype. The mechanical stimulation protocol is adjusted from a computer external to the incubator via a USB cable. Once programmed, the embedded microprocessor and sensor system on the bioreactor execute the protocol independent of the computer. In each test, a sinusoidal stimulus was applied to a culture plate in 1-min intervals with a 15-min rest following each, for a total of 15?h per day for 10 days. Frequencies of 1 and 100?Hz were applied to cultures of both human and porcine umbilical cord–derived MSCs. Chondrogenesis was determined by Alcian blue staining for glycosaminoglycans and an increased differentiation index (ratio of mRNA for collagen II and collagen I). Osteogenic differentiation was indicated with Alizarin red for calcium staining and increased bone morphogenetic protein 2 mRNA. One-hertz stimulation resulted in a cartilage phenotype for both human and porcine MSCs, while 100-Hz stimulation resulted in a bone phenotype. PMID:24570842

Cashion, Avery T.; Caballero, Montserrat; Halevi, Alexandra; Pappa, Andrew; Dennis, Robert G.

2014-01-01

228

Programmable mechanobioreactor for exploration of the effects of periodic vibratory stimulus on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.  

PubMed

A programmable bioreactor using a voice-coil actuator was developed to enable research on the effects of periodic vibratory stimulus on human and porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We hypothesized that low frequency vibrations would result in a cartilage phenotype and higher frequency vibrations would result in a bone phenotype. The mechanical stimulation protocol is adjusted from a computer external to the incubator via a USB cable. Once programmed, the embedded microprocessor and sensor system on the bioreactor execute the protocol independent of the computer. In each test, a sinusoidal stimulus was applied to a culture plate in 1-min intervals with a 15-min rest following each, for a total of 15?h per day for 10 days. Frequencies of 1 and 100?Hz were applied to cultures of both human and porcine umbilical cord-derived MSCs. Chondrogenesis was determined by Alcian blue staining for glycosaminoglycans and an increased differentiation index (ratio of mRNA for collagen II and collagen I). Osteogenic differentiation was indicated with Alizarin red for calcium staining and increased bone morphogenetic protein 2 mRNA. One-hertz stimulation resulted in a cartilage phenotype for both human and porcine MSCs, while 100-Hz stimulation resulted in a bone phenotype. PMID:24570842

Cashion, Avery T; Caballero, Montserrat; Halevi, Alexandra; Pappa, Andrew; Dennis, Robert G; van Aalst, John A

2014-02-01

229

Two novel measurements for the drive-mode resonant frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope.  

PubMed

To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG), one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and inconvenient because of the requirements of many test points, a lot of data storage and off-line analyses. In this paper, we propose two novel measurement methods, the search method and track method, respectively. The former is based on the magnitude-frequency characteristics of the drive mode, utilizing a one-dimensional search technique. The latter is based on the phase-frequency characteristics, applying a feedback control loop. Their performances in precision, noise resistivity and efficiency are analyzed through detailed simulations. A test system is implemented based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and experiments are carried out. By comparing with the common approach, feasibility and superiorities of the proposed methods are validated. In particular, significant efficiency improvements are achieved whereby the conventional frequency method consumes nearly 5,000 s to finish a measurement, while only 5 s is needed for the track method and 1 s for the search method. PMID:24256977

Wang, Ancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Luo, Bing; Jiang, Mingming; He, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kanghua

2013-01-01

230

Localization and quantification of vibratory sources: Application to the predictive maintenance of rolling bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the methods which make it possible to establish a diagnosis on the operating condition of a mechanism, the vibratory techniques seem very promising and are booming. The signals collected by accelerometers are the result of a mixture of various sources each of which corresponds to operation of a component. The diagnosis and monitoring of each component require the determination of the contribution of each source in the signal collected. The objective of this work is to use and optimize the techniques applied to the inverse problems with the aim of quantifying the contribution of each source in the obtained mixture, more particularly, the sources which are characteristic of a damaged element. However, the inverse problems are generally unstable. These instabilities are often related to the errors of measurement or the parasites contained in the signals and require methods of stabilization. This paper proposes a methodology, based on the restitution of the sources. Thus, the methodology ensures the detection and the localization of a defect of a component by the optimization of the position of a limited number of sensors. Two approaches are then proposed: the numerical approach which employs an updated numerical model of the studied structure and the experimental approach based on the correlation between the position of the sensors and the modal parameters of this same structure. The experimental validation of this methodology is carried out on a casing made up of two bearings.

Chiementin, X.; Bolaers, F.; Rasolofondraibe, L.; Dron, J.-P.

2008-09-01

231

Optimization of partial-state feedback for vibratory energy harvesters subjected to broadband stochastic disturbances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many applications of vibratory energy harvesting, the external disturbance is most appropriately modeled as a broadband stochastic process. Optimization of the average power generated from such disturbances is a feedback control problem, and solvable via LQG (linear-quadratic-Gaussian) control theory. Implementing the optimal feedback controller requires a power electronic drive capable of two-way power flow, which can impose dynamic relationships between the voltage and current of the transducer. Determining the optimal energy harvesting current control is accomplished by solving a nonstandard Riccati equation. In this paper we show that appropriate tuning of the passive parameters in the harvesting system results in a decoupled solution to the Riccati equation and a corresponding controller that only requires half of the states for feedback. However, even when such tuning methods are not used and the solution to the Riccati equation does not decouple, it is possible to determine the states in the feedback law that contribute the most to the average power generated by the harvester. As such, partial-state feedback gains can be optimized using a gradient descent method. Two energy harvesting examples are presented, including a single-degree-of-freedom oscillator with an electromagnetic actuator and a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam, to demonstrate these concepts.

Cassidy, Ian L.; Scruggs, Jeffrey T.; Behrens, Sam

2011-08-01

232

Two Novel Measurements for the Drive-Mode Resonant Frequency of a Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope  

PubMed Central

To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG), one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and inconvenient because of the requirements of many test points, a lot of data storage and off-line analyses. In this paper, we propose two novel measurement methods, the search method and track method, respectively. The former is based on the magnitude-frequency characteristics of the drive mode, utilizing a one-dimensional search technique. The latter is based on the phase-frequency characteristics, applying a feedback control loop. Their performances in precision, noise resistivity and efficiency are analyzed through detailed simulations. A test system is implemented based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and experiments are carried out. By comparing with the common approach, feasibility and superiorities of the proposed methods are validated. In particular, significant efficiency improvements are achieved whereby the conventional frequency method consumes nearly 5,000 s to finish a measurement, while only 5 s is needed for the track method and 1 s for the search method. PMID:24256977

Wang, Ancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Luo, Bing; Jiang, Mingming; He, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kanghua

2013-01-01

233

Relief of some small landforms on Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three sets of radar images have been acquired under different viewing conditions by the Magellan synthetic aperture radar: (1) left-looking with varied incidence angles (cycle 1); (2) right-looking with nearly constant incidence angles (cycle 2); and (3) left-looking with varied incidence angles, most of which were smaller than those in (1) except for those acquired on passes across Maxwell Montes with incidence angles larger than those in (1) (cycle 3). Image displacements in the radar images that are caused by the relief of landforms provide several methods of estimating this relief: (1) monoscopic measurements of foreshortening of landforms that are symmetrical in the plane of the look-direction of the radar (includes radial symmetry); (2) stereoscopic measurements of parallax in same-side image pairs (cycles 1-2 and 3); and (3) measurements of parallax in opposite-side image pairs (cycles 1-2 and/or 2-3). Success in methods 2 and 3 (especially 3) depends on identifying conjugate image points in the two images. Here, we report our preliminary results for five impact craters, seven small volcanic edifices, and two lava flows. The three methods mentioned above lead to the interesting result that Venusian impact craters have depth-diameter ratios like those on Mars rather than those on Earth, but some appear partly filled. Our results for de Lalande and Melba also suggest filling, but there may be other causes for their relatively small depth-diameter ratios. A host of small volcanic edifices have relief that can be crudely estimated using the above methods. Relief/diameter ratios for our cratered cones are about the same as those of Icelandic lava shields; some Venusian cones resemble the Martian shields of Mareotis-Tempe and Ceraunius Fossae, but the Venusian relief diameter ratios are larger. The smallest cratered dome is similar in size and profile to a Martian dome north of Uranius Patera; the smallest cratered cone resembles one in Chryse Planitia. Lava flows on Venus that are thick enough to measure are rare, but we have applied methods 1 and 3 to the huge flow of Ovda Regio and flows of an unusual volcano, Mahuea Tholus.

Moore, H. J.; Plaut, J. J.; Parker, T. J.

1993-01-01

234

Feelings, Body Changes and Stress. A Curriculum for Pre-Schoolers on Stress Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pre-School Stress Relief Project (PSSRP) is a primary mental health and substance abuse prevention project developed to provide training, consultation and educational resources in stress management. The Project's goal is to enable teachers to instruct high risk pre-schoolers in developing positive coping skills for stress reduction in their…

Humphrey, Gloria S.; Trotter, Jennie C.

235

Angular circulation speed of tablets in a vibratory tablet coating pan.  

PubMed

In this work, a single tablet model and a discrete element method (DEM) computer simulation are developed to obtain the angular circulation speed of tablets in a vibratory tablet coating pan for range of vibration frequencies and amplitudes. The models identify three important dimensionless parameters that influence the speed of the tablets: the dimensionless amplitude ratio (a/R), the Froude number (a?2/g), and the tablet-wall friction coefficient, where a is the peak vibration amplitude at the drum center, ? is the vibration angular frequency, R is the drum radius, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The models predict that the angular circulation speed of tablets increases with an increase in each of these parameters. The rate of increase in the angular circulation speed is observed to decrease for larger values of a/R. The angular circulation speed reaches an asymptote beyond a tablet-wall friction coefficient value of about 0.4. Furthermore, it is found that the Froude number should be greater than one for the tablets to start circulating. The angular circulation speed increases as Froude number increases but then does not change significantly at larger values of the Froude number. Period doubling, where the motion of the bed is repeated every two cycles, occurs at a Froude number larger than five. The single tablet model, although much simpler than the DEM model, is able to predict the maximum circulation speed (the limiting case for a large value of tablet-wall friction coefficient) as well as the transition to period doubling. PMID:23325382

Kumar, Rahul; Wassgren, Carl

2013-03-01

236

Digital shaded-relief map of Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Digital Shaded-Relief Map of Venezuela is a composite of more than 20 tiles of 90 meter (3 arc second) pixel resolution elevation data, captured during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. The SRTM, a joint project between the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), provides the most accurate and comprehensive international digital elevation dataset ever assembled. The 10-day flight mission aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour obtained elevation data for about 80% of the world's landmass at 3-5 meter pixel resolution through the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. SAR is desirable because it acquires data along continuous swaths, maintaining data consistency across large areas, independent of cloud cover. Swaths were captured at an altitude of 230 km, and are approximately 225 km wide with varying lengths. Rendering of the shaded-relief image required editing of the raw elevation data to remove numerous holes and anomalously high and low values inherent in the dataset. Customized ArcInfo Arc Macro Language (AML) scripts were written to interpolate areas of null values and generalize irregular elevation spikes and wells. Coastlines and major water bodies used as a clipping mask were extracted from 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Venezuela (Bellizzia and others, 1976). The shaded-relief image was rendered with an illumination azimuth of 315? and an altitude of 65?. A vertical exaggeration of 2X was applied to the image to enhance land-surface features. Image post-processing techniques were accomplished using conventional desktop imaging software.

Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

2004-01-01

237

What a Relief: Using Paper Relief Sculpture to Teach Topographic Map Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While the struggle persists in science classes to help students visualize in three dimensions, art classes are creating unique sculptures out of paper that produce three-dimensional displays from two-dimensional resources. The translation of paper relief sculpting from the art classroom to the science classroom adds dimension to the teaching of…

Price, Kelly

2005-01-01

238

Dynamical behavior of a class of vibratory systems with symmetrical rigid stops near the point of codimension two bifurcation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-degree-of-freedom vibratory system having symmetrically placed rigid stops is considered. The system consists of linear components, but the maximum displacement of one of the masses is limited to a threshold value by the symmetrical rigid stops. Repeated impacts usually occur in the vibratory system due to the rigid amplitude constraints. Such models play an important role in the studies of mechanical systems with clearances or gaps. Local codimension two bifurcation of maps, involving a real eigenvalue and a complex conjugate pair escaping the unit circle simultaneously, is analyzed by using the center manifold theorem technique and normal form method for maps. Symmetrical double-impact periodic motion and Poincaré map of the system are derived analytically. A center manifold theorem technique is applied to reduce the Poincaré map to a three-dimensional one, and the normal form map associated with the codimension two bifurcation is obtained. Local behaviors of the vibratory systems with symmetrical rigid stops, near the points of codimension two bifurcations, are reported by the presentation of results for a two-degree-of-freedom vibratory system with symmetrical stops. The existence and stability of symmetrical double-impact periodic motion are analyzed explicitly. Also, local bifurcations at the points of change in stability, are analyzed. Near the point of codimension two bifurcation, there exists not only Hopf bifurcation of period-one double-impact motion, but also pitchfork bifurcation of the motion. Pitchfork bifurcation of period-one double-impact symmetrical motion results in the period-one double-impact unsymmetrical motion. The unsymmetrical double-impact motion is of two antisymmetrical forms due to different initial conditions and symmetrical stops. With change of the forcing frequency, the unsymmetrical double-impact periodic motion will undergo Hopf bifurcation. Moreover the period-one double-impact symmetrical motion will undergo Hopf bifurcation directly as the forcing frequency is changed in the contrary direction. The routes of quasi-periodic impact motions to chaos are observed by results from simulation.

Luo, G. W.; Zhang, Y. L.; Zhang, J. G.

2006-10-01

239

Global Emergency Observation, Warning and Relief Network  

SciTech Connect

The decade of the 1990`s has been proclaimed by the United Nations to be the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). There exists a documented need for improved communications and information distribution to provide adequate warning in the face of impending disasters and facilitate the response after a disaster has occurred. The Global Emergency Observation Warning and Relief Network (GEOWARN) is proposed as a system that can potentially fill the existing gaps in the disaster management capabilities by providing a mechanism for the timely processing of information both before and after an event has occurred. A system design is proposed that would utilize existing remote sensing resources augmented by additional satellites and airborne sensor platforms linked together via a computer network. This network would be configured around five control centers called Multi-National Centers which would host an extensive Geographical Information System to perform the task of providing global disaster warning and relief support. To support the potential development of GEOWARN, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center performed a study to assess concept feasibility. This study has resulted in several recommended modifications to the ISU system concept. It was concluded that a system design which optimizes the use of existing resources can result in significant improvements in disaster warning and management capabilities for most of the world. This paper presents the results of the feasibility study, including a general overview of the GEOWARN concept and the elements comprising the system.

Bukley, A.P.; Mulqueen, J.A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States)

1995-12-31

240

Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This shaded relief topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are five rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, Zhilovaya, and Kakhtana. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in yellow. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from red through green back to red) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet)similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 240 km (150 miles) x 122 km (77 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

2000-01-01

241

Shaded relief, color as height Patagonia, Argentina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image of Patagonia, Argentina shows a spectacular landscape formed by volcanoes, rivers, and wind. The area is located just east of the narrow range of the Andes Mountains, about 100 kilometers (62 miles) east of the border with Chile. Interesting features include basalt-capped mesas with sinkholes (lower center), arcuate ridges of windblown beach sands downwind from a salty desert lake (upper center), young volcanic cones(right), and at least one case of what geologists call 'inverted relief'. This happens when lava flows down a valley in soft material and then the soft material is eroded away leaving the former valley as a ridge of lava. These ridges can be seen on the slopes of the volcano in the upper right. Geologists will use SRTM topographic data to study the interaction of volcanic, climatic and erosional processes.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1100 meters(3600 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 225 km (140 miles) x 170 km (105 miles) Location: 41 deg. South lat., 69 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper right Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

242

46 CFR 64.69 - Location of the pressure relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Location of the pressure relief device. 64.69 Section 64...PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.69 Location of the pressure relief device. A pressure relief...

2012-10-01

243

46 CFR 64.69 - Location of the pressure relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Location of the pressure relief device. 64.69 Section 64...PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.69 Location of the pressure relief device. A pressure relief...

2010-10-01

244

46 CFR 64.69 - Location of the pressure relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Location of the pressure relief device. 64.69 Section 64...PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.69 Location of the pressure relief device. A pressure relief...

2013-10-01

245

46 CFR 64.69 - Location of the pressure relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Location of the pressure relief device. 64.69 Section 64...PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.69 Location of the pressure relief device. A pressure relief...

2011-10-01

246

Fluctuating Wall Pressure and Vibratory Response of a Cylindrical Elastic Shell due to Confined Jet Excitations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical and experimental study was conducted to investigate the flow-induced noise and vibration caused by confined jet flows in a cylindrical duct. Unrestricted pipe flow and flows restricted by various orifices were tested for a wide range of velocities to simulate the flow in piping systems. Wall pressure data showed that the noise levels vary with the pipe's axial location and the peak noise is located at the vicinity of the end of the jet potential core. A non-dimensional wall pressure spectrum was established for the various confined jets by the Strouhal relationship, where the length scale is the jet hydraulic diameter. This jet pressure spectrum agrees with the wall pressure spectrum of a turbulent boundary layer above a rigid plane. Correlations of wall pressure fluctuations and pipe wall acceleration signals showed that jet flows generate more deterministic features than pipe flow. The coherence functions of the wall pressure and pipe wall acceleration signals are relatively high near the exit of the jet. The high coherence is probably due to the large-scale coherent structures. An analytical model was developed to study the effect of the turbulent jet flow field on the wall pressure and vibratory motion of the duct wall. Based on flow field measurements, the blocked surface pressure was calculated using Lighthill's method, and then used to drive the fluid -filled shell. The wall pressure and pipe wall acceleration were determined by solving the coupled fluid solid interaction problem. The wall pressure was obtained by summing the blocked surface pressure and the pressure due to the wall vibration. An amplitude modulated convecting wave field was used to simulate the moving acoustic sources of the jet. The random nature of the turbulent jet was incorporated into the analytical model. Specifically, the acoustic pressure was assumed to result from hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations which are uncorrelated in the radial direction, but are correlated in the axial direction near the jet exit. Analytical and experimental results for wall pressure and acceleration then were compared for a wide range of parameters of interest. Results from comparisons showed reasonably good agreement.

Ng, Kam Wing

247

Frequency split elimination method for a solid-state vibratory angular rate gyro with an imperfect axisymmetric-shell resonator.  

PubMed

The resonator of a solid-state vibratory gyro is responsible for sensing angular motion. Frequency splitting of an axisymmetric-shell resonator is a common problem caused by manufacturing defects. The defect causes a frequency difference between two working modes which consist of two nodes and two antinodes. The difference leads to the loss of gyroscopic effect, and thus the resonator cannot sense angular motion. In this paper, the resonator based on an axisymmetric multi-curved surface shell structure is investigated and an approach to eliminate frequency splits is proposed. Since axisymmetric multi-curved surface shell resonators are too complex to be modeled, this paper proposes a simplified model by focusing on a common property of the axisymmetric shell. The resonator with stochastic imperfections is made equivalent to a perfect shell with an imperfect mass point. Rayleigh's energy method is used in the theoretical analysis. Finite element modeling is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the elimination approach. In real cases, a resonator's frequency split is eliminated by the proposed approach. In this paper, errors in the theoretical analysis are discussed and steps to be taken when the deviation between assumptions and the real situation is large are figured out. The resonator has good performance after processing. The elimination approach can be applied to any kind of solid-state vibratory gyro resonators with an axisymmetric shell structure. PMID:25648707

Lin, Zhen; Fu, Mengyin; Deng, Zhihong; Liu, Ning; Liu, Hong

2015-01-01

248

Topographic relief driven by variations in surface rock density  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earth's surface topography is generated by tectonically induced variations in crustal thickness combined with erosion and, to a lesser degree, by vertical stresses caused by convection in the underlying mantle. Rock hardness and resistance to erosion are also commonly thought to influence topography because hard rocks, such as granites and basalts, usually form topographic highs in the landscape. Here we use analytical and numerical models to simulate the erosion-induced isostatic rebound of rocks. We find that the isostatic rebound that accompanies erosion causes denser rocks to occupy higher elevations in the landscape, thereby creating topographic relief that is proportional to surface rock density differences rather than rock hardness. We quantify this effect, taking into account the flexural strength of the continental lithosphere. We show that in a steady-state erosional setting, density-dependent isostatic rebound can cause the densest rocks to be exhumed at double the rate of surrounding, less-dense rocks and has a stronger effect than typical rock hardness variations. The results imply that denser rock formations should erode faster and therefore be characterized by younger thermochronological ages. Thermochronological data sets from the Kinabalu granite in Borneo and the Shakhdara-Alichur gneiss domes in Pamir confirm this counter-intuitive result. Our findings imply that lateral variations in surface rock density have significant control on the shaping of the large-scale features of Earth's surface.

Braun, Jean; Simon-Labric, Thibaud; Murray, Kendra E.; Reiners, Peter W.

2014-07-01

249

Correlations between climate network and relief data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, the scientific community has witnessed an ongoing trend of using ideas developed in the study of complex networks to analyze climate dynamics. This powerful combination, usually called climate networks, can be used to uncover non-trivial patterns of weather changes throughout the years. Here we investigate the temperature network of the North American region and show that two network characteristics, namely degree and clustering, have marked differences between the eastern and western regions. We show that such differences are a reflection of the presence of a large network community on the western side of the continent. Moreover, we provide evidence that this large community is a consequence of the peculiar characteristics of the western relief of North America.

Peron, T. K. D.; Comin, C. H.; Amancio, D. R.; Costa, L. da F.; Rodrigues, F. A.; Kurths, J.

2014-11-01

250

Pain relief by touch: a quantitative approach.  

PubMed

Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch-pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending A? pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch-pain interactions. PMID:24361816

Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

2014-03-01

251

Jacketed cryogenic piping is stress relieved  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Jacketed design of piping used to transfer cryogenic fluids, relieves severe stresses associated with the temperature gradients that occur during transfer cycles and ambient periods. The inner /transfer/ pipe is preloaded in such a way that stress relief takes place automatically as cycling occurs.

Bowers, W. M.

1967-01-01

252

Application of Surface Relief Hologram Using Azobenzene Containing Polymer Film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface relief holograms are fabricated by irradiation of laser interference patterns on an azobenzene polymer film. The hologram needs no post-treatment, and can be erased by heating the films to above its glass transition temperature. Rewritable Fresnel holograms are fabricated on azo-polymer film. Replication of the surface relief hologram is also demonstrated. An application for business cards is considered.

Harada, Kenji; Itoh, Masahide; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Kamemaru, Shun-Ichi

2005-03-01

253

78 FR 49242 - Relief From Joint and Several Liability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...REG-132251-11] RIN 1545-BK51 Relief From Joint and Several Liability AGENCY: Internal...proposed regulations relating to relief from joint and several tax liability under section...taxpayers who are husband and wife to file a joint Federal income tax return. Married...

2013-08-13

254

7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 3201.59 Section...Designated Items § 3201.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition...of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as well as sprains, bruises,...

2013-01-01

255

7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 3201.59 Section...Designated Items § 3201.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition...of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as well as sprains, bruises,...

2012-01-01

256

7 CFR 2902.59 - Topical pain relief products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 2902.59 Section...Designated Items § 2902.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition...of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as well as sprains, bruises,...

2011-01-01

257

7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 3201.59 Section...Designated Items § 3201.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition...of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as well as sprains, bruises,...

2014-01-01

258

49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pressure relief valve —(i) Inlet piping. (A) The opening...the pressure relief device inlet, and the flow characteristics...placed on one connection, the inlet internal cross-sectional...must be designed to prevent distortion of the rupture disc when...

2013-10-01

259

49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...pressure relief valve —(i) Inlet piping. (A) The opening...the pressure relief device inlet, and the flow characteristics...placed on one connection, the inlet internal cross-sectional...must be designed to prevent distortion of the rupture disc when...

2011-10-01

260

49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...pressure relief valve —(i) Inlet piping. (A) The opening...the pressure relief device inlet, and the flow characteristics...placed on one connection, the inlet internal cross-sectional...must be designed to prevent distortion of the rupture disc when...

2012-10-01

261

49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pressure relief valve —(i) Inlet piping. (A) The opening...the pressure relief device inlet, and the flow characteristics...placed on one connection, the inlet internal cross-sectional...must be designed to prevent distortion of the rupture disc when...

2010-10-01

262

Emergency relief venting of the infrared telescope liquid helium dewar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is made of the emergency relief venting of the liquid helium dewar of the Spacelab 2 infrared telescope experiment in the event of a massive failure of the dewar guard vacuum. Such a failure, resulting from a major accident, could cause rapid heating and pressurization of the liquid helium in the dewar and lead to relief venting through the emergency relief system. The heat input from an accident is estimated for various fluid conditions in the dewar and the relief process as it takes place through one or both of the emergency relief paths is considered. It is shown that under all reasonable circumstances the dewar will safely relieve itself, and the pressure will not exceed 85 percent of the proof pressure or 63 percent of the burst pressure.

Urban, E. W.

1980-01-01

263

21 CFR 358.350 - Labeling of ingrown toenail relief drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Labeling of ingrown toenail relief drug products. 358...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Ingrown Toenail Relief Drug Products § 358.350 Labeling of ingrown toenail relief drug products....

2010-04-01

264

21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5870 Section 882.5870...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to...

2010-04-01

265

21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5870 Section 882.5870...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to...

2012-04-01

266

21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5890 Section 882.5890...Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an...

2013-04-01

267

21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. 882.5840 Section 882.5840...intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An...intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies...

2012-04-01

268

21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. 882.5880 Section 882... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used...

2012-04-01

269

21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5890 Section 882.5890...Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an...

2011-04-01

270

21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5870 Section 882.5870...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to...

2014-04-01

271

21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5870 Section 882.5870...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to...

2011-04-01

272

21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5870 Section 882.5870...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to...

2013-04-01

273

21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. 882.5840 Section 882.5840...intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An...intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies...

2011-04-01

274

21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.  

... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. 882.5880 Section 882... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used...

2014-04-01

275

21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. 882.5880 Section 882... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used...

2011-04-01

276

21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. 882.5880 Section 882... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used...

2013-04-01

277

21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. 882.5880 Section 882... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used...

2010-04-01

278

21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. 882.5840 Section 882.5840...intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An...intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies...

2013-04-01

279

21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5890 Section 882.5890...Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an...

2010-04-01

280

21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5890 Section 882.5890...Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an...

2012-04-01

281

21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. 882.5840 Section 882.5840...intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An...intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies...

2010-04-01

282

21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

...Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5890 Section 882.5890...Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an...

2014-04-01

283

30 CFR 204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not...

2010-07-01

284

30 CFR 204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 204.201 ...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

2010-07-01

285

30 CFR 1204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.201...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

2011-07-01

286

30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.205...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

2011-07-01

287

30 CFR 1204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not...

2011-07-01

288

30 CFR 204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 204.205 ...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

2010-07-01

289

30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section...28 Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices... (b) Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be...

2011-07-01

290

30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section...28 Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices... (b) Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be...

2012-07-01

291

30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section...28 Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices... (b) Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be...

2013-07-01

292

30 CFR 204.212 - What if I took relief for which I was ineligible?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.212 What if I took relief for which I was ineligible? If you took relief under this subpart for a...

2010-07-01

293

76 FR 4149 - Notice of Establishment of Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration...establishing an Emergency Relief Docket for calendar year 2011 so grantees and subgrantees...establishing an Emergency Relief Docket for calendar year 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2011-01-24

294

77 FR 5088 - Notice of Establishment of Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration...establishing an Emergency Relief Docket for calendar year 2012 so grantees and subgrantees...establishing an Emergency Relief Docket for calendar year 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2012-02-01

295

78 FR 11268 - Notice of Establishment of Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration...establishing an Emergency Relief Docket for calendar year 2013 so grantees and subgrantees...establishing an Emergency Relief Docket for calendar year 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

2013-02-15

296

40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2010-07-01

297

40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2011-07-01

298

40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2011-07-01

299

40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

...2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Sources) § 61.242-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2014-07-01

300

40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2013-07-01

301

40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Sources) § 61.242-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2011-07-01

302

40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2013-07-01

303

40 CFR 60.482-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...2006 § 60.482-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2012-07-01

304

40 CFR 60.482-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...2006 § 60.482-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2011-07-01

305

40 CFR 60.482-4a - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...2006 § 60.482-4a Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2010-07-01

306

40 CFR 60.482-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

...2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...2006 § 60.482-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2014-07-01

307

40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

...2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2014-07-01

308

40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Sources) § 61.242-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2012-07-01

309

40 CFR 60.482-4a - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...2006 § 60.482-4a Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2013-07-01

310

40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

...2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2014-07-01

311

40 CFR 60.482-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...2006 § 60.482-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2013-07-01

312

40 CFR 60.482-4a - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...2006 § 60.482-4a Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2012-07-01

313

40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Sources) § 61.242-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2010-07-01

314

40 CFR 60.482-4a - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...2006 § 60.482-4a Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2011-07-01

315

40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2012-07-01

316

40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2010-07-01

317

40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2012-07-01

318

40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Sources) § 61.242-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2013-07-01

319

40 CFR 60.482-4a - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

...2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...2006 § 60.482-4a Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2014-07-01

320

Shaded relief, color as height, Fiji  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930's. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations top ink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters(4300 feet) of total relief.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 192 km (119 miles) x 142 km (88 miles) Location: 17.8 deg. South lat., 178.0 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

321

78 FR 32296 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response...3.7 billion under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program...

2013-05-29

322

Slipping processes in residual badlands reliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define slips as structures developed by more or less saturated colloidal suspension that slide down the walls of residual reliefs found in badlands. These suspensions seem to originate in the soils crowning gully reliefs and also from rainwater dripping onto the walls of poorly cemented sediments such as siltstone. We call this process slipping and the resulting morphologies represent a group of minor badlands forms, often linked to piping and fluting. Slipping occurs according to the following sequence of forms: 1. Mud droplets. These are irregular linear structures caused by mud droplets sliding down sub-vertical walls. The droplet is usually found at the end of a small channel. These morphologies represent the course of the sliding droplets that become fossilized and not the impact of the droplets on the sediment. 2. Slips sensu stricto. These are uninterrupted surface structures covering sub-vertical walls to a greater or lesser extent. The thickness of this type of covering varies from a few millimetres to 5cm. The inner structure of the slips consists of small laminas (» 100mm) and on the exterior they often present drip channels. A special case of these forms is butterfly structures, which appear in isolation, with repetitive patterns and the appearance of a winged insect stuck to the wall. 3. Pseudo-stalactites. These are free-standing conical regrowths with some similarity to stalactites in a karst cave. They occur when slips grow to over 5cm thick. The growth of these forms is similar to that of slips, with external superposition of fine, concentric layers with no central pore. A variety of these pseudo-stalactites are nodulous stalactites whose genesis is unknown. In this context, we should mention the existence of occasional stalagmites. In other cases, curtains of pseudo-stalactites can be found where these patterns are repeated finely. A more evolved stage of this form is the coalescence of pseudo-stalactites, representing a massive advance of this process. Pseudo-stalactites are normally found as vertical, but occasionally they lean, indicating movement of unstable blocks. The process can present recycling when some of the forms described become detached and fall. This is more likely on poorly sheltered surfaces, exposed to wind and the direct impact of rain and frost. All forms of slips suggests that these morphologies depend on the varying characteristics of the colloidal suspensions causing them, and constitute intermediate stages in the retention of sediments from erosion, which are very different to the alluvial sediments stored in the drainage network.

Díaz-Hernández, Jose Luis; Yepes, Jorge

2010-05-01

323

Collaborative Geospatial Data as Applied to Disaster Relief: Haiti 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aftermath of Haiti's January 12 earthquake typified disaster relief in that efficiency and situational awareness were reduced by the chaotic, uncoordinated influx of relief and aid. The lack of an environment in which information could be shared was a major component of this chaos. The application of geographic information (GIS) technology was a significant contribution to the relief efforts due to the centrality of location to issues of danger, resources, safety, communications, and so on, and due to the universal understanding of information rendered geospatially using 3-D globes.

Clark, A. J.; Holliday, Patton; Chau, Robyn; Eisenberg, Harris; Chau, Melinda

324

Cartographic Relief Presentation Revisited - Forty Years after Eduard Imhof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographic maps represent in a symbolised way the main features of the Earth's surface shape as well as the major, mostly visible objects covering the topography. The clear and readable depiction of the relief is one of the main challenges in topographic cartography. The Swiss cartographer Eduard Imhof had a significant influence on the development of modern topographic cartography. He published his trend-setting findings 40 years ago in his textbook "Cartographic Relief Presentation". This overview paper reviews his major contributions to topographic cartography and presents today's state of cartographic relief depiction, illustrated by current map examples and projects elaborated at Imhof's Alma Mater, the Institute of Cartography of ETH Zurich.

Hurni, Lorenz

325

Evaluation of reward from pain relief  

PubMed Central

The human experience of pain is multidimensional and comprises sensory, affective, and cognitive dimensions. Preclinical assessment of pain has been largely focused on the sensory features that contribute to nociception. The affective (aversive) qualities of pain are clinically significant but have received relatively less mechanistic investigation in preclinical models. Recently, operant behaviors such as conditioned place preference, avoidance, escape from noxious stimulus, and analgesic drug self-administration have been used in rodents to evaluate affective aspects of pain. An important advance of such operant behaviors is that these approaches may allow the detection and mechanistic investigation of spontaneous neuropathic or ongoing inflammatory/nociceptive (i.e., nonevoked) pain that is otherwise difficult to assess in nonverbal animals. Operant measures may allow the identification of mechanisms that contribute differentially to reflexive hypersensitivity or to pain affect and may inform the decision to progress novel mechanisms to clinical trials for pain therapy. Additionally, operant behaviors may allow investigation of the poorly understood mechanisms and neural circuits underlying motivational aspects of pain and the reward of pain relief. PMID:23496247

Navratilova, Edita; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

2014-01-01

326

The transducer vibratory profile effects on the detection of the transient ultrasonic field scattered by a rigid point reflector.  

PubMed

In this study a generalized approach, based on the impulse response technique, is developed to evaluate the transient ultrasonic field scattered by a rigid point reflector and detected by a planar circular transducer characterized by a non-uniform vibratory profile. For this purpose, several analytical functions are used to represent the non-uniform vibration amplitude of the transducer. All these functions have maximum amplitude at the transducer's center and decrease monotonically away from axis. The amplitude variation of these functions has a direct effect on the shape of the average pressure detected by the transducer. Some numerical results are presented to illustrate the effects of a non-uniformly vibrating source on the detected transient pressure. The results show the relative importance of the edge wave modifications in the case of source having non-uniform vibration amplitude distribution. PMID:19906391

Khelladi, Hassina; Djelouah, Hakim

2010-04-01

327

Modulating the behaviors of mesenchymal stem cells via the combination of high-frequency vibratory stimulations and fibrous scaffolds.  

PubMed

We are interested in the in vitro engineering of artificial vocal fold tissues via the strategic combination of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), physiologically relevant mechanical stimulations, and biomimetic artificial matrices. We have constructed a vocal fold bioreactor that is capable of imposing vibratory stimulations on the cultured cells at human phonation frequencies. Separately, fibrous poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds emulating the ligamentous structure of the vocal fold were prepared by electrospinning, were incorporated in the vocal fold bioreactor, and were driven into a wave-like motion in an axisymmetrical fashion by the oscillating air. MSC-laden PCL scaffolds were subjected to vibrations at 200?Hz with a normal center displacement of ?40??m for a total of 7 days. A continuous (CT) or a 1?h-on-1?h-off (OF) regime with a total dynamic culture time of 12?h per day was applied. The dynamic loading did not cause any physiological trauma to the cells. Immunohistotochemical staining revealed the reinforcement of the actin filament and the enhancement of ?5?1 integrin expression under selected dynamic culture conditions. Cellular expression of essential vocal fold extracellular matrix components, such as elastin, hyaluronic acid, and matrix metalloproteinase-1, was significantly elevated as compared with the static controls, and the OF regime is more conducive to matrix production than the CT vibration mode. Analyses of genes of typical fibroblast hallmarks (tenascin-C, collagen III, and procollagen I) as well as markers for MSC differentiation into nonfibroblastic lineages confirmed MSCs' adaptation of fibroblastic behaviors. Overall, the high-frequency vibratory stimulation, when combined with a synthetic fibrous scaffold, serves as a potent modulator of MSC functions. The novel bioreactor system presented here, as a versatile, yet well-controlled model, offers an in vitro platform for understanding vibration-induced mechanotransduction and for engineering of functional vocal fold tissues. PMID:23516973

Tong, Zhixiang; Duncan, Randall L; Jia, Xinqiao

2013-08-01

328

49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.  

...padding pressure and the lading vapor pressure at the following reference temperatures...burst pressure. (3) The vapor tight pressure of a reclosing pressure relief...transportation. (3) The vapor tight pressure and the...

2014-10-01

329

49 CFR 178.348-4 - Pressure relief.  

...vacuum capability of the cargo tank. (2) If pressure loading or unloading devices are provided, the pressure relief system must have adequate vapor and liquid capacity to limit tank pressure to the cargo tank test pressure at the...

2014-10-01

330

SHADED RELIEF, HILLSHADE, DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM), ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

Shaded relief of the state of Arizona developed from 1-degree US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEM is a terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. ...

331

SHADED RELIEF, HILLSHADE, DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM), NEVADA  

EPA Science Inventory

Shaded relief of the state of Nevada developed from 1-degree US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEM is a terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. ...

332

46 CFR 98.25-60 - Safety relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-60 Safety relief valves. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with two or more approved safety...

2010-10-01

333

46 CFR 98.25-60 - Safety relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-60 Safety relief valves. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with two or more approved safety...

2012-10-01

334

46 CFR 98.25-60 - Safety relief valves.  

...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-60 Safety relief valves. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with two or more approved safety...

2014-10-01

335

46 CFR 98.25-60 - Safety relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-60 Safety relief valves. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with two or more approved safety...

2013-10-01

336

46 CFR 98.25-60 - Safety relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-60 Safety relief valves. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with two or more approved safety...

2011-10-01

337

Blast overpressure relief using air vacated buffer medium  

E-print Network

Blast waves generated by intense explosions cause damage to structures and human injury. In this thesis, a strategy is investigated for relief of blast overpressure resulting from explosions in air. The strategy is based ...

Avasarala, Srikanti Rupa

2009-01-01

338

Parents: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Acetaminophen (a?SEET?a?MIN?o?fen) ... whole word or may have the abbreviation "APAP." Liver damage: Giving your child more acetaminophen than directed ...

339

Careful: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage  

MedlinePLUS

... Careful: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Acetaminophen (a?SEET?a?MIN?o?fen) ... word or may have the abbreviation "APAP." Severe liver damage may occur and may lead to death ...

340

49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...vehicle orientation. This capability must be demonstrated by testing...the operation or discharge capability of the system by freezing...must certify that the device model was designed and tested...Each pressure relief device model must be successfully...

2010-10-01

341

49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...vehicle orientation. This capability must be demonstrated by testing...the operation or discharge capability of the system by freezing...must certify that the device model was designed and tested...Each pressure relief device model must be successfully...

2011-10-01

342

Rectangular Relief Diffraction Gratings for Coherent Lidar Beam Scanning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of specialized rectangular relief transmission gratings to coherent lidar beam scanning is presented. Two types of surface relief transmission grating approaches are studied with an eye toward potential insertion of a constant thickness, diffractive scanner where refractive wedges now exist. The first diffractive approach uses vertically oriented relief structure in the surface of an optical flat; illumination of the diffractive scanner is off-normal in nature. The second grating design case describes rectangular relief structure slanted at a prescribed angle with respect to the surface. In this case, illumination is normal to the diffractive scanner. In both cases, performance predictions for 2.0 micron, circularly polarized light at beam deflection angles of 30 or 45 degrees are presented.

Cole, H. J.; Chambers, D. M.; Dixit, S. N.; Britten, J. A.; Shore, B. W.; Kavaya, M. J.

1999-01-01

343

Surface relief model for photopolymers without cover plating.  

PubMed

Relief surface changes provide interesting possibilities for storing diffractive optical elements on photopolymers and are an important source of information to characterize and understand the material behaviour. In this paper we present a 3-dimensional model based on direct measurements of parameters to predict the relief structures generated on the material. This model is successfully applied to different photopolymers with different values of monomer diffusion. The importance of monomer diffusion in depth is also discussed. PMID:21643349

Gallego, S; Márquez, A; Ortuño, M; Francés, J; Marini, S; Beléndez, A; Pascual, I

2011-05-23

344

Revving up for Relief: Harley-Davidson at the ITC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published in 1986, this Kennedy School case tells the story of Harley-Davidson's application to the ITC for temporary relief from high levels of imported Japanese motorcycles. The case lays out, in considerable detail, Harley's justification for protection and the Japanese manufacturers' counterarguments. The case is presented in two parts, the first focusing on the extent of the "injury" an the second on the nature of the relief Harley requested.

Dorothy Robyn, For T.

345

Sample Filtering Relief Algorithm: Robust Algorithm for Feature Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feature selection (FS) plays a crucial role in machine learning to build a robust model for either learning or classification\\u000a from a large amount of data. Among feature selection techniques, the Relief algorithm is one of the most common due to its\\u000a simplicity and effectiveness. The performance of the Relief algorithm, however, could be dramatically affected by the consistency\\u000a of

Thammakorn Saethang; Santitham Prom-on; Asawin Meechai; Jonathan Hoyin Chan

2008-01-01

346

Caudal epidural buprenorphine for postoperative pain relief in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postoperative pain relief by caudal epidural buprenorphine, a highly lipid-soluble, semisynthetic derivative of thebaine, has not been reported in children. Over a period of 1 year, 58 children undergoing various surgical procedures were given 3 g\\/kg epidural buprenorphine via the caudal route. No serious side effects were encountered; on the contrary, the excellent and long-lasting pain relief (about 7 days)

A. N. Gangopadhyay; P. Bhattacharya; A. Sinhal; A. Digar; S. C. Gopall; G. D. Singhall

1992-01-01

347

Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief Anaglyph  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1,200 meters (about 4,000 feet).

Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: 98.1 kilometers (60.8 miles) by 148.1 kilometers (91.8 miles) Location: 27.3 degrees North latitude, 54.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

348

Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1200 meters (about 4000 feet).

Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

This shaded relief image was created directly from an SRTM elevation model by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: 98.1 kilometers (60.8 miles) by 148.1 kilometers (91.8 miles) Location: 27.3 degrees North latitude, 54.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

349

Shaded relief, color as height, Salalah, Oman  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This elevation map shows a part of the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula including parts of the countries of Oman and Yemen. The narrow coastal plain on the right side of the image includes the city of Salahlah, the second largest city in Oman. Various crops, including coconuts, papayas and bananas, are grown on this plain. The abrupt topography of the coastal mountains wrings moisture from the monsoon, enabling agriculture in the otherwise dry environment of the Arabian Peninsula. These mountains are historically significant as well: Some scholars believe these mountains are the 'southern mountains' of the book of Genesis.

This image brightness corresponds to shading illumination from the right, while colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to brown at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1400 meters (4600 feet) of total relief. The Arabian Sea is colored blue.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 149 by 40 kilometers (92 by 25 miles) Location: 16.9 deg. North lat., 53.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top right Date Acquired: February 15, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

350

Sound-suppressing structure with thermal relief  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sound-suppressing structure comprising stacked acoustic panels wherein the inner high frequency panel is mounted for thermal expansion with respect to the outer low frequency panel is discussed. Slip joints eliminate the potential for thermal stresses, and a thermal expansion gap between the panels provides for additional relative thermal growth while reducing heat convection into the low frequency panel.

Nash, D. O.; Holowach, J. (inventors)

1978-01-01

351

Statistical Performance Evaluation Of Soft Seat Pressure Relief Valves  

SciTech Connect

Risk-based inspection methods enable estimation of the probability of failure on demand for spring-operated pressure relief valves at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This paper presents a statistical performance evaluation of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves. These pressure relief valves are typically smaller and of lower cost than hard seat (metal to metal) pressure relief valves and can provide substantial cost savings in fluid service applications (air, gas, liquid, and steam) providing that probability of failure on demand (the probability that the pressure relief valve fails to perform its intended safety function during a potentially dangerous over pressurization) is at least as good as that for hard seat valves. The research in this paper shows that the proportion of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves failing is the same or less than that of hard seat valves, and that for failed valves, soft seat valves typically have failure ratios of proof test pressure to set pressure less than that of hard seat valves.

Harris, Stephen P.; Gross, Robert E.

2013-03-26

352

Neotectonic stresses in Fennoscandia: field observations and modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present-day stress state of Fennoscandia is traditionally viewed as the combination of far field sources and residual glacial loading stresses. Investigations were conducted in different regions of Norway with the purpose of detecting and measuring stress-relief features and to derive from them valuable information on the crustal stress state. Stress-relief features are induced by blasting and sudden rock unloading in road construction and quarrying operations and are common in Norway and very likely in other regions of Fennoscandia. Stress relief at the Earth's surface is diagnostic of anomalously high stress levels at shallow depths in the crust and appears to be a characteristic of the formerly glaciated Baltic and Canadian Precambrian shields. The studied stress-relief features are, in general, indicative of NW-SE compression, suggesting ridge-push as the main source of stress. Our derived stress directions are also in excellent agreement with the ones derived from other kinds of stress indicators, including focal mechanisms from deep earthquakes, demonstrating that stress-relief features are valuable for neotectonic research. As a second step we applied numerical modelling techniques to simulate the neotectonic stress field in Fennoscandia with particular emphasis to southern Norway. A numerical method was used to reconstruct the structure of the Fennoscandian lithosphere. The numerical method involves classical steady-state heat equations to derive lithosphere thickness, geotherm and density distribution and, in addition, requires the studied lithosphere to be isostatically compensated at its base. The a priori crustal structure was derived from previous geophysical studies. Undulations of the geoid were used to calibrate the models. Once the density structure of the Fennoscandian lithosphere is reconstructed it is straightforward to quantify its stress state and compare modelling results with existing stress indicators. The modelling suggests that present-day stress magnitudes are far to be uniform in Scandinavia. For example the modelling predicts that the topography of the southern Norwegian Mountains creates Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) levels higher than the ones characterising the surrounding regions. This results in significant buoyancy forces competing locally with the regional ridge-push. GPE decreases almost gradually towards the Gulf of Bothnia where strong compressive stresses are predicted. A local departure from the regional NW-SE trend for the maximum horizontal stress axes is simulated in Trøndelag, Norway. This local stress deviation is supported by stress-relief observations and in situ stress measurements. Our modelling suggests that it results from the combined effects of the weak rheology of the Møre-Trøndelag Fault Complex and topographic stresses associated with the southern Norwegian Scandes mountains.

Pascal, Christophe

2013-04-01

353

Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.

The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.

Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Location: 8.33 degrees South latitude, 115.17 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 153 by 112 kilometers (95 by 69 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

354

Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.

The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases.

Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

Location: 30 degrees north latitude, 34 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 289 by 445 kilometers (180 by 277 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

355

Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice.

Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Location: 53.5 degrees North latitude, 8 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2005-01-01

356

Gulf Coast, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

The topography of the Gulf Coast states is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image on the top (see Figure 1) is a standard view showing southern Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and the panhandle of Florida. Green colors indicate low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

For the view on the bottom (see Figure 2), elevations below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored light blue. These low coastal elevations are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges. Planners can use data like these to predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

Location: 31 degrees north latitude, 88 degrees west longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 702 by 433 kilometers (435 by 268 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

357

Southern Florida, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The very low topography of southern Florida is evident in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image on the left is a standard view, with the green colors indicating low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. In this exaggerated view even those highest elevations are only about 60 meters (197 feet) above sea level.

For the view on the right, elevations below 5 meters (16 feet) above sea level have been colored dark blue, and lighter blue indicates elevations below 10 meters (33 feet). This is a dramatic demonstration of how Florida's low topography, especially along the coastline, make it especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges. Planners can use data like these to predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

Location: 27 degrees north latitude, 81 degrees west longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 397 by 445 kilometers (246 by 276 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

358

Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique.

Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area.

The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water.

The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago.

Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Location: 3 degrees south latitude, 35 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 223 by 223 kilometers (138 by 138 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

359

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

DeBusk, Wesley M.

2009-01-01

360

DepRelief: training programme for primary care.  

PubMed

We live in an ageing society. Depression is common in old age and is a major cause of reduced well-being. The DepRelief programme has been developed to improve awareness, recognition and management of depression in old age by general practitioners and general physicians in Europe. At its core is a CD ROM interactive programme designed to support seminars for groups of up to 25 participants. The programme has extensive moderator notes and a large and up-to-date reference list. It can be customised to meet the needs of of the group. Special features include video clips and the production of customised materials including a care pathway for best practice in managing depression based on participation in the programme and local knowledge. It is anticipated that the DepRelief programme will become the key resource for the relief of depression through education. PMID:9817622

Philp, I

1998-09-01

361

Cartographic Relief Presentation Revisited - Forty Years after Eduard Imhof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographic maps represent in a symbolised way the main features of the Earth’s surface shape as well as the major, mostly visible objects covering the topography. The clear and readable depiction of the relief is one of the main challenges in topographic cartography. The Swiss cartographer Eduard Imhof had a significant influence on the development of modern topographic cartography. He published his trend-setting findings 40 years ago in his textbook “Cartographic Relief Presentation”. This overview paper reviews his major contributions to topographic cartography and presents today’s state of cartographic relief depiction, illustrated by current map examples and projects elaborated at Imhof’s Alma Mater, the Institute of Cartography of ETH Zurich.

Hurni, Lorenz

362

Turbofan blade stresses induced by the flow distortion of a VTOL inlet at high angles of attack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 51-cm-diameter turbofan with a tilt-nacelle VTOL inlet was tested in the Lewis Research Center's 9- by 15-Ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel at velocities up to 72 m/s and angles of attack up to 120 deg. Fan-blade vibratory stress levels were investigated over a full aircraft operating range. These stresses were due to inlet air flow distortion resulting from (1) internal flow separation in the inlet, and (2) ingestion of the exterior nacelle wake. Stress levels are presented, along with an estimated safe operating envelope, based on infinite blade fatigue life.

Williams, R. C.; Diedrich, J. H.; Shaw, R. J.

1983-01-01

363

Possibility of application of small-size robots with vibratory piezoelectric actuators for inspection of physical state of surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article describes design and principle of control of small-size inspection robot with vibratory piezoelectric actuator and possibility of its application for non-destructive evaluation (NDE). Controlled movement of robot is implemented using single bimorph piezoelement by means of frequency control of electric voltage applied to piezoelement. Such scheme of control is realized as a result of application of structural asymmetry principle consisting in relative shift of resonant characteristics of robot supporting elements (legs) by means of imparting geometric asymmetry to them. During movement of robot upon inspected surface each of its legs excites in substrate elastic waves which can be registered by another robot as a consequence of piezoelectric effect reversibility. As a result group of communicating robots (robotic swarm) will be able to distribute over the surface of inspected object and perform its multiagent control. This will give possibility to accelerate and simplify inspection of large and geometrically-complex objects. Autonomy and compactness of the described robots will also make reasonable their application for NDE of hard-to-access surfaces and potentially hazardous objects.

Stepanenko, D. A.; Minchenya, V. T.; Asimov, R. M.; Zimmermann, K.

2012-05-01

364

Analysis and Design of a 3rd Order Velocity-Controlled Closed-Loop for MEMS Vibratory Gyroscopes  

PubMed Central

The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model's transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop's performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 ?m complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term. PMID:24051522

Wu, Huan-ming; Yang, Hai-gang; Yin, Tao; Jiao, Ji-wei

2013-01-01

365

Preliminary evaluation of cavitation resistance of type 316LN stainless steel in mercury using a vibratory horn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type 316LN stainless steel in a variety of conditions (annealed, cold-worked, surface-modified) was exposed to cavitation conditions in stagnant mercury using a vibratory horn. The test conditions included peak-to-peak displacement of the specimen surface of 25 ?m at a frequency of 20 kHz and a mercury temperature in the range -5 to 80 °C. Following a brief incubation period in which little or no damage was observed, specimens of annealed 316LN exhibited increasing weight loss and surface roughening with increasing exposure times. Examination of test surfaces with the scanning electron microscope revealed primarily general/uniform wastage in all cases but, for long exposure times, a few randomly oriented 'pits' were also observed. Type 316LN that was 50% cold-worked was considerably more resistant to cavitation erosion damage than annealed material, but the surface modifications (CrN coating, metallic glass coating, laser treatment to form a diamond-like surface) provided little or no protection for the substrate. In addition, the cavitation erosion resistance of other materials - Inconel 718, Nitronic 60, and Stellite 3 - was also compared with that of 316LN for identical screening test conditions.

Pawel, S. J.; Manneschmidt, E. T.

2003-05-01

366

Optimal and sub-optimal power management in broadband vibratory energy harvesters with one-directional power flow constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many applications of vibratory energy harvesting, the external disturbance are most appropriately modeled as broadband stochastic processes. Optimization of power generation from such disturbances is a feedback control problem, and solvable via a LQG control theory. However, attainment of this performance requires the power conversion system which interfaces the transducers with energy storage to be capable of bi-directional power flow, and there are many applications where this is infeasible. One of the most common approaches to power extraction with one-directional power flow constraints is to control the power conversion system to create a purely resistive input impedance, and then to optimize this effective resistance for maximal absorption. This paper examines the optimization of broadband energy harvesting controllers, subject to the constraint of one-directional power flow. We show that as with the unconstrained control problem, it can be framed as a "Quadratic-Gaussian" stochastic optimal control problem, although its solution is nonlinear and does not have a closed-form. This paper discusses the mathematics for obtaining the optimal power extraction controller for this problem, which involves the stationary solution to an associated Bellman-type partial differential equation. Because the numerical solution to this PDE is computationally prohibitive for harvester dynamics of even moderate complexity, a sub-optimal control design technique is presented, which is comparatively simple to compute and which exhibits analyticallycomputable lower bounds on generated power Examples focus a nondimensionalized, ideal, base-excited SDOF resonator with electromagnetic transduction.

Scruggs, J. T.; Cassidy, I. L.

2010-04-01

367

Further Examination of the Vibratory Loads Reduction Results from the NASA/ARMY/MIT Active Twist Rotor Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vibration reduction capabilities of a model rotor system utilizing controlled, strain-induced blade twisting are examined. The model rotor blades, which utilize piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators, were tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using open-loop control to determine the effect of active-twist on rotor vibratory loads. The results of this testing have been encouraging, and have demonstrated that active-twist rotor designs offer the potential for significant load reductions in future helicopter rotor systems. Active twist control was found to use less than 1% of the power necessary to operate the rotor system and had a pronounced effect on both rotating- and fixed-system loads, offering reductions in individual harmonic loads of up to 100%. A review of the vibration reduction results obtained is presented, which includes a limited set of comparisons with results generated using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) rotorcraft comprehensive analysis.

Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Sekula, Martin K.

2002-01-01

368

Percutaneous Relief of Tension Pneumomediastinum in a Child  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this article was to describe the experience of relieving tension pneumomediastinum by a fluoroscopic-guided percutaneous method. We inserted a percutaneous drainage catheter with a Heimlich valve under fluoroscopic guidance to relieve the tension pneumomediastinum in a 2-year-old girl who suffered from dermatomyositis with lung involvement. This allowed immediate relief without the need for surgery. The procedure was repeated for relapsed tension pneumomediastinum. Good immediate results were achieved in each attempt. We conclude that percutaneous relief of pneumomediastinum under fluoroscopic guidance can be performed safely and rapidly in patients not fit for surgery.

Chau, Helen Hoi-lun; Kwok, Philip Chong-hei; Lai, Albert Kwok-hung; Fan, Tsz Wo; Chan, Susan Chi-hum [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 30 Gascoigne Road, Kowloon, Department of Radiology and Imaging, Hong Kong (China); Miu, Ting Yat; Chan, Grace Lai-har [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 30 Gascoigne Road, Kowloon, Pediatrics, Hong Kong (China)

2003-11-15

369

49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...valves. The setting of pressure relief valves must be in accordance...the cargo tank. (2) If pressure loading or unloading devices...system must have adequate vapor and liquid capacity to limit the tank pressure to the cargo tank test...

2010-10-01

370

49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...valves. The setting of pressure relief valves must be in accordance...the cargo tank. (2) If pressure loading or unloading devices...system must have adequate vapor and liquid capacity to limit the tank pressure to the cargo tank test...

2011-10-01

371

49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...valves. The setting of pressure relief valves must be in accordance...the cargo tank. (2) If pressure loading or unloading devices...system must have adequate vapor and liquid capacity to limit the tank pressure to the cargo tank test...

2013-10-01

372

49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...valves. The setting of pressure relief valves must be in accordance...the cargo tank. (2) If pressure loading or unloading devices...system must have adequate vapor and liquid capacity to limit the tank pressure to the cargo tank test...

2012-10-01

373

49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.  

...may be rated at these same pressures. (2) Each vacuum relief...vacuum to 1 psig. (3) If pressure loading or unloading devices...system must have adequate vapor and liquid capacity to limit the tank pressure to the cargo tank test...

2014-10-01

374

49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.  

...valves. The setting of pressure relief valves must be in accordance...the cargo tank. (2) If pressure loading or unloading devices...system must have adequate vapor and liquid capacity to limit the tank pressure to the cargo tank test...

2014-10-01

375

Parenteral opioids for labor pain relief: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parenteral opioids are commonly used for labor pain relief and have been the subject of research for many years. The objectives of this review were to determine the safety and effectiveness of parenteral opioids in this context. Of 85 trials systematically reviewed, 48 comprising more than 9800 were included, but the number of trials contributing data to individual outcome measures

Leanne Bricker; Tina Lavender

2002-01-01

376

FEMA Reorganization and the Response to Hurricane Disaster Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors offer an empirical research study intended to investigate the 2003 restructuring of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) under the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Our study explores the relationship between this restructuring and the efficiency of FEMA's response to hurricane disaster relief. We hypothesized that hurricane response prior to the 2003 reorganization was managed more efficiently than

Tonya Adamski; Beth Kline; Tanya Tyrrell

377

5. DIABLO DAM: DETAIL VIEW OF RELIEF VALVES AT ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DIABLO DAM: DETAIL VIEW OF RELIEF VALVES AT ELEVATION 1044. VALVE IN FOREGROUND IS A BUTTERFLY VALVE SIX FEET IN DIAMETER; VALVE TO THE REAR IS A JOHNSON-TYPE NEEDLE VALVE BOTH VALVES WERE MANUFACTURED BY THE PELTON WATER WHEEL COMPANY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Dam, On Skagit River, 6.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

378

How Tax Relief for Training Can Make a Real Difference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Companies received more than 5 billion British Pounds last year from the Exchequer in tax relief for work-related training. That is equivalent to the turnover of more than 250 further education colleges. And it vastly overshadows the 50 million British Pounds Growth and Innovation Fund set up to support employers' initiatives to improve skills and…

Wilson, Tom

2011-01-01

379

Bas-Relief Generation Using Adaptive Histogram Equalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is presented to automatically generate bas-reliefs based on adaptive histogram equalization (AHE), starting from an input height field. A mesh model may alternatively be provided, in which case a height field is first created via orthogonal or perspective projection. The height field is regularly gridded and treated as an image, enabling a modified AHE method to be used

Xianfang Sun; Paul L. Rosin; Ralph R. Martin; Frank C. Langbein

2009-01-01

380

Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy for Pain Relief in Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesis: Unilateral truncal thoracoscopic splanchni- cectomy (TS) provides safe and effective treatment for pain relief in patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer. Design: Before-and-after trial of 24 patients undergo- ing 25 TS procedures. Setting: Surgical unit at a university teaching hospital. Patients: A consecutive sample of 24 patients with se- vere pain due to unresectable (primary or recurrent) pan- creatic cancer

Andrea Pietrabissa; Fabio Vistoli; Andrea Carobbi; Ugo Boggi; Franco Mosca

2000-01-01

381

Ketorolac and pethidine in post-operative pain relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy and safety of ketorolac and pethidine in pain relief after major surgeries. A prospective, interventional study was conducted on 71 patients under- going major surgical intervention. Thirty six patients received ketorolac (15 mg, intramuscularly 6 hourly) and the rest 35 patients received pethidine (100 mg, intramuscularly 6 hourly) for 48 hours

AKM Mosharrof Hossain; Meer Mahbubul Alam; AZM Shakhawat Hossain

2008-01-01

382

Use of indomethacin for pain relief following scleral buckling surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND\\/AIMSPatients undergoing scleral buckling and cryotherapy suffer from mild to moderate postoperative pain. As good pain relief facilitates postoperative ocular examination, as well as patient comfort and recovery, the authors designed a prospective randomised double masked trial to evaluate the efficacy of indomethacin as a satisfactory analgesic for such patients.METHODPatients with a primary uncomplicated rhegmatogenous retinal detachment requiring scleral buckling

S A Sadiq; L Stevenson; C Gorman; G M Orr

1998-01-01

383

GIS plays key role in NYC Rescue and Relief Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

New York City, Sept. 17---The posters of missing loved ones are pasted onto New York City walls and street signs six days after 2 hijacked commercial airlines destroyed the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan on September 11. Several miles uptown from ``ground zero,'' heightened security hovers around the city's Office of Emergency Management rescue and relief command center, an

Randy Showstack

2001-01-01

384

A Closer Look: The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts may be affected by the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 with regard to fixed assets management and education entities. The act avoids the scheduled increases to individual income tax rates for most Americans and extends a host of expired and expiring tax provisions for both individuals and businesses. The provisions described…

Balmer, Mary

2013-01-01

385

Conceptual design of pressure relief systems for cryogenic application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conceptual design of pressure relief systems is an important aspect in the early phase of any cryogenic system design, because a prudent and responsible evaluation of relief systems involves much more than just relief devices. The conceptual design consists of various steps: At first, hazard scenarios must be considered and the worst-case scenario identified. Next, a staged interaction against pressure increase is to be defined. This is followed by the selection of the general type of pressure relief device for each stage, such as safety valve and rupture disc, respectively. Then, a decision concerning their locations, their capacities and specific features must be taken. Furthermore, it is mandatory to consider the inlet pressure drop and the back pressure in the exhaust line for sizing the safety devices. And last but not least, economic and environmental considerations must be made in case of releasing the medium to the atmosphere. The development of the system's safety concept calls for a risk management strategy based on identification and analysis of hazards, and consequent risk mitigation using a system-based approach in compliance with the standards.

Grohmann, S.; Süßer, M.

2014-01-01

386

The history of neurosurgical procedures for the relief of pain.  

PubMed

Pain has been a major medical problem from the beginning of recorded history. Since the earliest medical writings, there have been innumerable procedures designed to relieve pain and its suffering. In this study, we have reviewed both the early medical writings of various civilizations and the first modern publications, to compile a history of neurosurgical procedures for the relief of pain. PMID:1298112

Rawlings, C; Rossitch, E; Nashold, B S

1992-12-01

387

Continuous narcotic infusions for relief of postoperative pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relief of acute pain after surgery or trauma is still inadequate in many centres, most patients being treated with intermittent intramuscular injections of narcotic analgesics. Over the past three years continuous intravenous narcotic infusions have been used at this hospital to treat postoperative pain; recently a system has been devised whereby an hourly dose is given and the dispenser recharged

J J Church

1979-01-01

388

Conceptual design of pressure relief systems for cryogenic application  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual design of pressure relief systems is an important aspect in the early phase of any cryogenic system design, because a prudent and responsible evaluation of relief systems involves much more than just relief devices. The conceptual design consists of various steps: At first, hazard scenarios must be considered and the worst-case scenario identified. Next, a staged interaction against pressure increase is to be defined. This is followed by the selection of the general type of pressure relief device for each stage, such as safety valve and rupture disc, respectively. Then, a decision concerning their locations, their capacities and specific features must be taken. Furthermore, it is mandatory to consider the inlet pressure drop and the back pressure in the exhaust line for sizing the safety devices. And last but not least, economic and environmental considerations must be made in case of releasing the medium to the atmosphere. The development of the system's safety concept calls for a risk management strategy based on identification and analysis of hazards, and consequent risk mitigation using a system-based approach in compliance with the standards.

Grohmann, S. [Institute for Technical Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Engler-Bunte-Ring 21, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany and Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 E (Germany); Süßer, M. [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2014-01-29

389

Buprenorphine for pain relief in mice: repeated injections vs sustained-release depot formulation.  

PubMed

Sustained-release formulations of analgesic drugs are promising alternatives to repeated drug injections. Here, we compared a sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (SB, 2.2?mg/kg) with a standard protocol of three injections of buprenorphine (Temgesic, 0.1?mg/kg/8?h) in mice. Buprenorphine serum concentration and analgesic action (thermal sensitivity) were determined in healthy mice. Additionally, the pain relief properties of both protocols were assessed after laparotomy using physiological and ethological measures of pain and recovery. Serum concentrations and thermal sensitivity tests indicated duration of action of at least 4?h (but less than 8?h) with the Temgesic protocol, and 24-48?h with SB. Behavioural and clinical parameters indicated at least partial pain relief after surgery for both protocols. Observed side-effects of buprenorphine independent of the protocol were increased activity, disturbed circadian rhythm and several abnormal behaviours. A tendency for decreased food and water intake as well as body weight reduction was also seen. Body weight decreased significantly in animals that received three injections of Temgesic, regardless of whether surgery was performed or not (P?=?0.015; P?=?0.023), hinting at a stress response towards this repeated intervention. In conclusion, an application interval of 8?h (Temgesic) appears too long and might lead to repeated periods with insufficient analgesia in animals undergoing lasting and/or substantial pain after surgery. In comparison to the standard protocol, SB provided a long-lasting, assured analgesia without possible stressful repeated injections in a standard surgical model, with only limited and acceptable behavioural side-effects. PMID:25488320

Jirkof, P; Tourvieille, A; Cinelli, P; Arras, M

2014-12-01

390

76 FR 6819 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil...to participate or not participate in accounting and auditing relief for Federal oil...69 FR 55076), provide two types of accounting and auditing relief for Federal...

2011-02-08

391

30 CFR 1204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 1204.207...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.207...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

2011-07-01

392

30 CFR 204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 204.207 ...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.207 ...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

2010-07-01

393

75 FR 1654 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil...to participate or not participate in accounting and auditing relief for Federal oil...Regulations (CFR), to provide two types of accounting and auditing relief for Federal...

2010-01-12

394

40 CFR 63.1029 - Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in...  

...and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and...and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and...and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in light liquid...

2014-07-01

395

40 CFR 65.110 - Standards: Pumps, valves, connectors, and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief...  

...and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and...and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in liquid service; and...and agitators in heavy liquid service; pressure relief devices in light liquid...

2014-07-01

396

78 FR 33467 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency; Correction...recipients most severely affected by Hurricane Sandy. This amount was in addition to the initial...Relief Program Allocations for Hurricane Sandy, by...

2013-06-04

397

30 CFR 204.202 - What is the cumulative royalty reports and payments relief option?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.202 What is the cumulative royalty reports and payments relief option? (a) The cumulative...

2010-07-01

398

49 CFR 179.100-19 - Tests of safety relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Tests of safety relief valves. 179.100-19...Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 179.100-19 Tests of safety relief valves. (a)...

2010-10-01

399

76 FR 1209 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2011. The designated ERD for calendar year 2011 is docket number...

2011-01-07

400

77 FR 5293 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2012. The designated ERD for calendar year 2012 is docket number...

2012-02-02

401

78 FR 3964 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2013. The designated ERD for calendar year 2013 is docket number...

2013-01-17

402

75 FR 3782 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2010. The designated ERD for calendar year 2010 is docket number...

2010-01-22

403

77 FR 59408 - Finding of Equivalence; Alternate Pressure Relief Valve Settings on Certain Vessels Carrying...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Finding of Equivalence; Alternate Pressure Relief Valve Settings on Certain Vessels...Policy Letter 04-12, ``Alternative Pressure Relief Valve Settings on Vessels Carrying...Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) Section VIII...

2012-09-27

404

40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

...2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 63.165 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure...

2014-07-01

405

40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 63.165 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure...

2010-07-01

406

30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.  

... 2014-07-01 false Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage...Requirements § 18.28 Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage...explosion-proof enclosures to relieve pressure, ventilate, or drain will be...

2014-07-01

407

40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 63.165 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure...

2011-07-01

408

40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 65.111 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Compliance standard. Except during pressure releases as provided for in...

2010-07-01

409

40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 65.111 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Compliance standard. Except during pressure releases as provided for in...

2011-07-01

410

40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

... 2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 65.111 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Compliance standard. Except during pressure releases as provided for in...

2014-07-01

411

40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 65.111 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Compliance standard. Except during pressure releases as provided for in...

2012-07-01

412

40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 63.165 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure...

2012-07-01

413

40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 65.111 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Compliance standard. Except during pressure releases as provided for in...

2013-07-01

414

40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 63.165 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure...

2013-07-01

415

30 CFR 203.81 - What supplemental reports do royalty-relief applications require?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false What supplemental reports do royalty-relief applications require...OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Required Reports § 203.81 What supplemental reports do royalty-relief applications...

2010-07-01

416

30 CFR 203.81 - What supplemental reports do royalty-relief applications require?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false What supplemental reports do royalty-relief applications require...OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Required Reports § 203.81 What supplemental reports do royalty-relief applications...

2011-07-01

417

Calculation of Interfacial Stress in Porcelain-fused-to-metal Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is given for calculating interfacial shear stress in porcelain-fused-to-metal restorative materials. Thermal history of the porcelain and dynamic stress relief relations are utilized to predict interfacial stress as a function of temperature. Calculations are in agreement with experimental results based on the deflection of bimaterial strips and are consistent with previously reported data.

Raymond L. Bertolotti

1980-01-01

418

46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. 153.370 Section...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting...system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the cargo's...

2013-10-01

419

46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.  

...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. 153.370 Section...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting...system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the cargo's...

2014-10-01

420

46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. 153.370 Section...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting...system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the cargo's...

2010-10-01

421

46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. 153.370 Section...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting...system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the cargo's...

2012-10-01

422

46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. 153.370 Section...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting...system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the cargo's...

2011-10-01

423

46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91 Section 64.91 Shipping...Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that is—...

2010-10-01

424

30 CFR 203.51 - How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief? 203.51 Section 203...Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.51 How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief? You must submit...

2011-07-01

425

30 CFR 203.51 - How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief? 203.51 Section 203...Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.51 How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief? You must submit...

2010-07-01

426

30 CFR 203.50 - Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief? 203.50 Section 203...Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.50 Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief? You may apply for...

2011-07-01

427

30 CFR 203.50 - Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief? 203.50 Section 203...Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.50 Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief? You may apply for...

2010-07-01

428

An analysis of tomb reliefs depicting boat construction from the Old Kingdom period in Egypt  

E-print Network

Among the aspects of daily life represented on the walls of private tombs during the Old Kingdom in Egypt are reliefs depicting the construction of boat hulls. Examination of the twenty known reliefs and relief fragments which date to this period...

Rogers, Edward Morgan

1996-01-01

429

12 CFR 303.248 - Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement...PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.248 Truth in Lending Act—Relief from reimbursement...relief from reimbursement pursuant to the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1601...

2011-01-01

430

12 CFR 303.248 - Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement...PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.248 Truth in Lending Act—Relief from reimbursement...relief from reimbursement pursuant to the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1601...

2010-01-01

431

12 CFR 303.248 - Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement...PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.248 Truth in Lending Act—Relief from reimbursement...relief from reimbursement pursuant to the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1601...

2014-01-01

432

12 CFR 303.248 - Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement...PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.248 Truth in Lending Act—Relief from reimbursement...relief from reimbursement pursuant to the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1601...

2012-01-01

433

12 CFR 303.248 - Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement...PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.248 Truth in Lending Act—Relief from reimbursement...relief from reimbursement pursuant to the Truth in Lending Act (15 U.S.C. 1601...

2013-01-01

434

49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section...SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105...103-4 Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. (a) Safety relief...

2013-10-01

435

49 CFR 179.500-16 - Tests of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief devices. 179.500-16 Section...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-16 Tests of pressure relief devices. (a) Pressure relief valves shall be tested by air or...

2012-10-01

436

49 CFR 179.500-16 - Tests of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief devices. 179.500-16 Section...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-16 Tests of pressure relief devices. (a) Pressure relief valves shall be tested by air or...

2010-10-01

437

49 CFR 179.500-16 - Tests of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief devices. 179.500-16 Section...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-16 Tests of pressure relief devices. (a) Pressure relief valves shall be tested by air or...

2011-10-01

438

49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section...SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105...103-4 Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. (a) Safety relief...

2010-10-01

439

49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section...SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105...103-4 Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. (a) Safety relief...

2011-10-01

440

49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section...SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105...103-4 Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. (a) Safety relief...

2012-10-01

441

Effect of tensile stress on cavitation damage formation in mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation erosion or so called pitting damage was investigated under tensile stress conditions in mercury. In MW-class liquid metal spallation targets, pitting damage is a critical issue to satisfy required power and/or lifetime of the target vessel. Cavitation occurs by negative pressure which is induced through pressure wave propagation due to proton beam injection. Pitting damage is formed by microjet and/or shock wave during cavitation bubble collapse. A mercury target vessel suffers tensile stress due to thermal stress or welding. In order to investigate the effect of tensile stress on pitting damage formation, cavitation erosion tests were performed using stress imposed specimens in mercury. An ultrasonic vibratory horn and electro-Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM) were used to vary the cavitation intensity. In the incubation period of pitting damage, damaged area was slightly increased with increasing imposed tensile stress. In the steady state period, a mean depth of erosion was increased by the tensile stress. Additionally, in order to quantitatively evaluate the effect of tensile stress, an indentation test with Vickers indenter was carried out to quasi-statically simulate the impact load. From the measurement of the diagonal length of the indent aspect ratio and hardness, it is recognized that the threshold of the deformation, i.e. pitting damage formation, was decreased by the tensile stress.

Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshihito; Futakawa, Masatoshi

2010-03-01

442

Reward and motivation in pain and pain relief.  

PubMed

Pain is fundamentally unpleasant, a feature that protects the organism by promoting motivation and learning. Relief of aversive states, including pain, is rewarding. The aversiveness of pain, as well as the reward from relief of pain, is encoded by brain reward/motivational mesocorticolimbic circuitry. In this Review, we describe current knowledge of the impact of acute and chronic pain on reward/motivation circuits gained from preclinical models and from human neuroimaging. We highlight emerging clinical evidence suggesting that anatomical and functional changes in these circuits contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain. We propose that assessing activity in these conserved circuits can offer new outcome measures for preclinical evaluation of analgesic efficacy to improve translation and speed drug discovery. We further suggest that targeting reward/motivation circuits may provide a path for normalizing the consequences of chronic pain to the brain, surpassing symptomatic management to promote recovery from chronic pain. PMID:25254980

Navratilova, Edita; Porreca, Frank

2014-10-01

443

Developing Countries: Debt Relief Initiative for Poor Countries Facing Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released in June 2000, this 184-page report from the General Accounting Office reviews the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative. Originally undertaken by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 1996 as a way of providing financial relief to the most indebted countries in the world, the initiative was enhanced in September 1999 as a response to the continuing vulnerability of these countries. According to this report, the initiative "will provide significant debt relief . . . with the debt for six of the seven countries the GAO analyzed projected to be reduced be one-third or more. However, given the continued fragility of these countries, the initiative is not likely to provide recipients with a lasting exit from their debt problems, unless they achieve strong, sustained economic growth." For more information on the Debt Initiative for the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries, see the August 27, 1999 Scout Report.

444

Medical relief for the 2011 Japan earthquake: a nursing account.  

PubMed

In 2011 the east coast of Japan experienced a massive earthquake which triggered a devastating tsunami destroying many towns and killing over 15?000 people. The work presented in this paper is a personal account that outlines the relief efforts of the Humanitarian Medical Assistance team and describes the efforts to provide medical assistance to evacuees. The towns most affected had a large proportion of older people who were more likely to have chronic conditions and required medication to sustain their health. Since personal property was destroyed in the tsunami many older people were left without medication and also did not remember which type of medication they were taking. Some evacuees had brought a list of their medication with them, this assisted relief teams in obtaining the required medication for these people. The more successful evacuation centers had small numbers of evacuees who were given tasks to administer the center that kept them occupied and active. PMID:24305171

Mitani, Satoko; Kako, Mayumi; Mayner, Lidia

2014-03-01

445

Codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief*  

PubMed Central

This report—the third of a series on codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief—presents a detailed review of the physiology and pathophysiology of cough, the methods for the experimental and clinical measurement of the antitussive action of drugs, possible mechanisms of action of antitussive agents, and includes a compilation of experimental results and clinical experience with codeine as an antitussive. PMID:4896168

Eddy, Nathan B.; Friebel, Hans; Hahn, Klaus-Jürgen; Halbach, Hans

1969-01-01

446

Codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief*  

PubMed Central

In this report—the fourth of a series on codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief—an attempt is made to evaluate, on the basis of experimental and clinical data, and wherever possible in comparison with codeine, the effectiveness of a number of antitussive substances currently in clinical use. In the discussion of the undesired side-effects particular attention is paid to the risk of dependence and abuse. PMID:4390406

Eddy, Nathan B.; Friebel, Hans; Hahn, Klaus-Jürgen; Halbach, Hans

1969-01-01

447

Ketamine for procedural pain relief in newborn infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo assess the suitability of ketamine for relief of pain caused by tracheal suction during ventilator treatment in newborn infants.STUDY DESIGNIn a randomised, double blind, cross over trial, 16 newborn infants received placebo or 0.5, 1, or 2 mg\\/kg ketamine as two minute infusions in random order five minutes before four separate endotracheal suctions, with intervals of at least 12

E Saarenmaa; P J Neuvonen; P Huttunen; V Fellman

2001-01-01

448

NATIONAL SECURITY: Relief, Rebukes Follow Agreement on Lee.  

PubMed

What began as an explosive case of alleged nuclear espionage is expected to end quietly soon when physicist Wen Ho Lee walks free from an Albuquerque, New Mexico, courtroom after 9 months in jail. The ignominious collapse of the government's case and Lee's release have embarrassed federal prosecutors. However, the news was a relief to Asian-American researchers and others who say Lee's status as a suspect had heightened racial tensions at the national labs. PMID:17839923

Lawler, A

2000-09-15

449

Neural mechanisms underlying the induction and relief of perceptual curiosity  

PubMed Central

Curiosity is one of the most basic biological drives in both animals and humans, and has been identified as a key motive for learning and discovery. Despite the importance of curiosity and related behaviors, the topic has been largely neglected in human neuroscience; hence little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying curiosity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate what happens in our brain during the induction and subsequent relief of perceptual curiosity. Our core findings were that (1) the induction of perceptual curiosity, through the presentation of ambiguous visual input, activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), brain regions sensitive to conflict and arousal; (2) the relief of perceptual curiosity, through visual disambiguation, activated regions of the striatum that have been related to reward processing; and (3) the relief of perceptual curiosity was associated with hippocampal activation and enhanced incidental memory. These findings provide the first demonstration of the neural basis of human perceptual curiosity. Our results provide neurobiological support for a classic psychological theory of curiosity, which holds that curiosity is an aversive condition of increased arousal whose termination is rewarding and facilitates memory. PMID:22347853

Jepma, Marieke; Verdonschot, Rinus G.; van Steenbergen, Henk; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

2012-01-01

450

Nucleus caudalis lesioning: Case report of chronic traumatic headache relief  

PubMed Central

Background: The nucleus caudalis dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) surgery is used to treat intractable central craniofacial pain. This is the first journal publication of DREZ lesioning used for the long-term relief of an intractable chronic traumatic headache. Case Description: A 40-year-old female experienced new-onset bi-temporal headaches following a traumatic head injury. Despite medical treatment, her pain was severe on over 20 days per month, 3 years after the injury. The patient underwent trigeminal nucleus caudalis DREZ lesioning. Bilateral single-row lesions were made at 1-mm interval between the level of the obex and the C2 dorsal nerve roots, using angled radiofrequency electrodes, brought to 80°C for 15 seconds each, along a path 1 to 1.2 mm posterior to the accessory nerve rootlets. The headache improved, but gradually returned. Five years later, her headaches were severe on over 24 days per month. The DREZ surgery was then repeated. Her headaches improved and the relief has continued for 5 additional years. She has remained functional, with no limitation in instrumental activities of daily living. Conclusions: The nucleus caudalis DREZ surgery brought long-term relief to a patient suffering from chronic traumatic headache. PMID:22059123

Sandwell, Stephen E.; El-Naggar, Amr O.

2011-01-01

451

Oral sucrose and pain relief for preterm infants.  

PubMed

The frequency of painful procedures performed on preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) presents a challenge to nurses who are attempting to provide effective pain relief, and to the infants themselves who may suffer adverse consequences in response to repeated painful procedures. One new pain relief intervention under study is the administration of oral sucrose, which may activate endogenous opioid systems within the body. Studies with preterm infants that have examined the use of oral sucrose as an analgesic during heelsticks and venipunctures have shown that sucrose is effective in reducing pain. Sucrose may also be combined with nonnutritive sucking to provide significant pain relief. The use of oral sucrose is now recommended with a wide range of painful procedures in the NICU. Promising results have been observed in studies with both term and preterm infants, but less research has occurred with preterm infants. Additional research is warranted to determine the most effective approaches for the administration of sucrose, to examine the effectiveness of sucrose with additional types of painful procedures, and to examine the effects of long-term repeated use of sucrose. PMID:12836150

Mitchell, Anita; Waltman, Patricia A

2003-06-01

452

Effect of tip relief on endurance characteristics of super nitralloy and AISI M-50 spur gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests were conducted with two groups of 8.89-centimeter (3.5-in.) pitch diameter spur gears with standard 20 deg involute profile with tip relief made of CVM Super-Nitralloy (5Ni-2Al) and CVM AISI M-50 at a temperature of 350 K (170 F). Super-Nitralloy gears with tip relief had a life 150 percent that of gears without tip relief. An increased scoring phenomenon was noted with the Super-Nitralloy gears with tip relief. Through-hardened AISI M-50 gears with tip relief failed due to tooth fracture. AISI M-50 gears without tip relief had a life approximately 40 times greater than the AISI M-50 gears with tip relief.

Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

1974-01-01

453

Post-Nargis medical care: experience of a Korean Disaster Relief Team in Myanmar after the cyclone.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology and clinical data of patients observed by the Korean Disaster Relief Team, during its deployment in Myanmar, from 6 to 12 June 2008. A cross-sectional, medical record-based study in the Korean Disaster Relief Team clinic, established a month after the cyclone Nargis devastated Myanmar. Data collected included demographic variables, and whether or not the problem was acute or chronic, and traumatic or medical. We included 2641 patients in the study. Of those, 57.6% presented with an acute condition, and the rest had chronic conditions. Approximately 5% of the patients presented with trauma/injury; and in 29% of the trauma cases, the problem was directly related to the cyclone. The most common diagnostic category was musculoskeletal problems (21.5%), followed by respiratory (15.3%), and digestive (14.6%) abnormalities. A little over 5% of patients had posttraumatic stress disorder, and the odds ratio was 2.62 (95% confidence interval 1.63-4.21) for women to have posttraumatic stress disorder. Most of the patients (97.5%) had minor problems and were sent home. In conclusion, a huge unmet medical need in at-risk populations and a relatively large proportion of chronic medical conditions should be considered in any future planning of a similar type of disaster. PMID:19654547

Kim, Hoon; Han, Seung Baik; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Jun Sig; Hong, EunSeog

2010-02-01

454

TAX RELIEF FOR DONATIONS Section 848A of the Taxes Consolidation Act, 1997 provides for a scheme of tax relief for  

E-print Network

TAX RELIEF FOR DONATIONS Section 848A of the Taxes Consolidation Act, 1997 provides for a scheme of tax relief for certain "eligible charities" and other "approved bodies" in respect of donations is 250. Donations made by instalments (e.g. Standing Order) will also qualify. For the purposes of tax

Humphrys, Mark

455

25 CFR 170.922 - How can States get Emergency Relief Program funds to repair IRR System damage?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How can States get Emergency Relief Program funds...Provisions Emergency Relief § 170.922 How can States get Emergency Relief Program funds to repair IRR System damage? States can request emergency relief program funds...

2013-04-01

456

An Analysis of 19 International Case Studies of Stress Prevention Through Work Reorganization Using the Demand/Control Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen international case studies of workplace stress prevention initiatives are analyzed. The focus of these cases, which span a variety of workplaces and locations, is on preventing stress through work reorganization rather than remedial approaches for stress relief. It is found that the majority of the occupations represented in the case…

Karasek, Robert A.

2004-01-01

457

Glacier thickness and relief in glaciated landscapes of the western U.S.A.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of relief in glaciated landscapes plays a crucial role in hypotheses relating climate change and tectonic processes. Enhanced erosion rates and relief production, principally through more widespread glacial erosion, have been proposed to explain the apparent worldwide uplift of mountain ranges in the late Cenozoic. However, glaciers can only be responsible for peak uplift if they are capable of generating substantial relief in formerly nonglaciated landscapes. Prior theoretical work has suggested that relief production in glaciated landscapes should scale with the thickness of the ice. Here we summarise a field- based test of this hypothesis in two mountain ranges in the western United States, the Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado. We combined field surveys with aerial photograph interpretation to map LGM trimlines, and used these to reconstruct glaciers and estimate LGM ice thicknesses. A comparison of various point measures of relief (drainage basin, hillslope, and hanging valley) with our ice thickness estimates indicates that relief production in glaciated mountain belts does indeed scale with ice thickness. However, the relief produced is modest. Furthermore, considering volumes of `missing mass', fluvial and glacial landscapes lie along the same trend of geophysical relief versus drainage area. This suggests that both relief production and relief reduction must be taking place, and that glaciers have only produced net relief if they are responsible for drainage basin enlargement. Large moraines attest to significant glacial erosion on the eastern side of the Sangre de Cristo Range, but the relief structure is little different from that of the western side of the range, where glacial erosion has been much more modest. The same holds for the Bitterroot Range, Idaho/Montana. Rapid, active normal faulting on the eastern side of the Teton Range, Wyoming, however, does cause asymmetry in relief structures across the range.

Brocklehurst, S. H.; Foster, D.; Whipple, K. X.

2006-12-01

458

Topography, relief, climate and glaciers: a global prespective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The examination of the relationship between Earth's topography and present and past climate (i.e. long-term elevation of glaciers Equilibrium Line Altitude) reveals that the elevation of mountain ranges may be limited or controlled by glaciations. This is of prime importance, because glacial condition would lead to a limit the mountain development, hence the accumulation of gravitational energy and prevent the development of further glacial conditions as well as setting the erosion in (peri)glacial environments. This study examines the relationships between topography and the global Equilibrium Line Altitude of alpine glaciers around the world (long term snowline, i.e. the altitude where the ice mass balance is null). Two main observations can be drawn: 1) The distance between the (averaged and maximum) topography, and the ELA decreases pole ward the poles, and even become reversed (mean elevation above to ELA) at high latitude. Correlatively, the elevation of very large portion of land at mid-latitude cannot be related to glaciations, simply because it was never glaciated (large distance between topography and long-term mean ELA). The maximum distance between the ELA and the topography is greater close to the equator and decreases poleward. In absence of glacial and periglacial erosion, this trend cannot have its origin in glacial and periglacial processes. Moreover, the ELA elevation shows a significant (1000 - 1500m) depression in the intertropical zone. This depression of the ELA is not reflected at all in the topography. 2) The distribution of relief on Earth, if normalized by the mean elevation of mountain ranges (as a proxy for available space to create relief) shows a latitudinal band of greater relief between 40° and 60° (or between ELA of 500m to 2500m a.s.l.). This mid-latitude relatively greater relief challenges the straightforward relationship between glaciations, erosion and topography. Oppositely, it suggests that glacier may be more efficient agent in temperate area, with important amplitude between glacial and interglacial climate. This is consistent with the view of a very variable glacier erodibility that can erode and protect the landscape, as well as with studies documenting a bimodal location of the preferred glacial erosion, at relatively high elevation (around the long-term ELA), and at much lower elevation (close to the glacial maximum lower reaches), thanks to efficient water lubrication of the glacier bases that greatly enhance the sliding velocity. These findings show that the relation between the mountain topography and the long term snowline is not as straightforward as previously proposed. Beside the role of tectonic forcing highlighted by several authors, the importance of the glacial erosion appears to be crucial at mid latitude, but more complex at both high and low latitude. Moreover, the relief at mid latitude appears to be higher, hence suggesting a positive correlation between relief and topographic control of glacier on the landscape.

Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Valla, Pierre; Herman, fred

2014-05-01

459

12 CFR 742.4 - RegFlex Relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...control can be delegated; (6) “Stress testing” of investments. Section 703.12(c) of this chapter concerning “stress testing” of securities holdings to...nationally-recognized statistical rating organization; (ii) The security meets the...

2010-01-01

460

The Reasons for Using Acupuncture for Pain Relief  

PubMed Central

Background: Acupuncture has recently received considerable attention around the world due to its cost-effectiveness, few side effects, and well-established analgesic properties. Objectives: The present study aimed to identify the factors that might lead to using acupuncture for pain relief. Patients and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted using conventional content analysis method. The study population included eight patients and six highly experienced acupuncturists, who were able to express their opinion and were willing to take part in the study. The inclusion criteria for patients were being under treatment with acupuncture for pain relief or a history of treatment during the last year and age > 18 years. All highly trained acupuncturists with minimum of one-year active experience were included. The data were collected via semi-structured in-depth interviews. Categories were extracted through inductive analysis and codes and eventually, themes emerged. Data rigor was assured by data collection triangulation, participants’ variety, and external and members’ check. Results: Initially, 1311 primary codes were extracted, then the related codes were divided into 127 subcategories according to their similarities, and after reduction and integration process, 16 categories were developed from subcategories and eventually five themes were determined, including conventional medicine limitation, efficacy of acupuncture, external promoters, internal promoters, and acupuncture inhibitors. Conclusions: The important factors that affect choosing acupuncture for pain relief included conventional medicine limitations, external promoters, internal promoters, acupuncture efficacy, and acupuncture inhibitors. More interest can be drawn to this technique by basic planning to enhance some of the underlying factors and eliminate obstacles to its further applicability.

Sadeghi, Roghyeh; Heidarnia, Mohamad Ali; Zagheri Tafreshi, Mansoure; Rassouli, Maryam; Soori, Hamid

2014-01-01

461

Stress and stress reduction.  

PubMed

Chronic stress contributes to preterm birth (PTB), through direct physiological mechanisms or behavioral pathways. This review identified interventions to prevent PTB through decreased maternal stress. Studies were grouped according to intervention: group prenatal care (11 studies), care coordination (8 studies), health insurance expansion (4 studies), expanded prenatal education/support in the clinic (8 studies), home visitation (9 studies), telephone contact (2 studies), or stress-reduction strategies (5 studies). Group prenatal care had the most evidence for PTB prevention. Comparative studies of PTB prevention through different models of prenatal care and maternal support, education, empowerment, stress-reduction, and coping strategies are needed. PMID:24979355

Straub, Heather; Qadir, Sameen; Miller, Greg; Borders, Ann

2014-09-01

462

Codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief*  

PubMed Central

This chapter concludes the survey of experimental and clinical data on the analgesic and antitussive properties of codeine and its potential therapeutic alternates. From an evaluation of their effectiveness on the one hand and the side-effects, including tolerance, dependence and abuse liability on the other, it would appear that the therapeutic goals of codeine could be achieved by other substances, except perhaps where analgesia, cough relief, and sedation are required simultaneously. The use of these other substances would, however, result in no particular gain and probably no particular loss. PMID:4898386

Eddy, Nathan B.; Friebel, Hans; Hahn, Klaus-Jürgen; Halbach, Hans

1969-01-01

463

Natural anti-inflammatory agents for pain relief  

PubMed Central

The use of both over-the-counter and prescription nonsteroidal medications is frequently recommended in a typical neurosurgical practice. But persistent long-term use safety concerns must be considered when prescribing these medications for chronic and degenerative pain conditions. This article is a literature review of the biochemical pathways of inflammatory pain, the potentially serious side effects of nonsteroidal drugs and commonly used and clinically studied natural alternative anti-inflammatory supplements. Although nonsteroidal medications can be effective, herbs and dietary supplements may offer a safer, and often an effective, alternative treatment for pain relief, especially for long-term use. PMID:21206541

Maroon, Joseph C.; Bost, Jeffrey W.; Maroon, Adara

2010-01-01

464

Surface of the Earth, 2 minute color relief images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the NOAA Satellite and Information Service features an image that was generated from digital databases of seafloor and land elevations on a 2-minute latitude/longitude grid (1 minute of latitude = 1 nautical mile, or 1.852 km). Clicking on a square will bring up a 512 x 512 pixel color relief image of the 45 degree area selected, clicking on the 512 x 512 image brings up the full-resolution 1350 x 1350 pixel color image of the area.

National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC)

465

A Personification of Demos on a New Attic Document Relief  

E-print Network

. Third to fourth quarter of the 4th century b.c. Figs. 1–3 P.H. 0.378; p.W. 0.218; Th. 0.118; H. of relief 0.015 m. Found May 28, 1937, built into a “late” (probably Ottoman period) wall within the cleft of the Mycenaean Fountain, near the eastern... is also full, but his lower lip is clearly articulated within the mass of facial hair. His eyes are deeply set, even at such a small scale and in this frontal view, and are framed by thick eyelids (Fig. 2). At right stands a mature male figure at a much...

Glowacki, Kevin

2003-01-01

466

Control of flow-induced vibration in safety relief valves  

SciTech Connect

A vortex shedding instability is shown to couple with the acoustic resonance of a relief valve side branch. A spectral evaluation of the vortex resonance is presented as the flow variation moves the system into and out of the locked-in resonance. A design criterion based on steam plant experience data is proposed to avoid vortex-excited resonances. Successful side branch modifications based on the design criterion are presented. The beneficial effects of nozzle entrance shape modifications are also discussed. 9 refs.

Simmons, H.R.; Baldwin, R.M.

1982-01-01

467

Horizontal motions, bedrock incision, and the structure of relief in growing folds and orogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographic divide asymmetry may arise from gradients in rock erodibility and orographic precipitation across a mountain belt, and/or tectonic displacement fields that uplift and translate rock horizontally during orogenesis. While simple models exploring relief in active orogens typically consider tectonic motions that are uniform and vertical, the displacement field at Earth's surface generated by slip on finite-length faults is inherently inhomogeneous and contains vertical and horizontal components, which may play an important role in divide asymmetry. In this study, we consider channel profiles that evolve according to the shear stress rule for bedrock fluvial erosion and that experience inhomogeneous horizontal and vertical components of tectonic motion. Dimensional analysis of our revised shear stress rule reveals a dimensionless coefficient that relates bedrock erodibility and basin geometry to slip rate on the underlying fault. We implement our model in a series of 1D non-dimensional numerical experiments that calculate river profile geometry on either side of a topographic divide that is free to advect through the model domain in response to horizontal motion. We drive the models with displacements calculated over a dipping, buried edge dislocation, and examine non-dimensional relief and divide asymmetry resulting from variations in fault dip, non-dimensional fault tip location and non-dimensional model extent. We find that asymmetry results from the full displacement field and from the vertical displacement field alone. Fault dip plays a strong role in the magnitude and direction of divide asymmetry, both in models that include the horizontal motions and those that neglect them. The greatest divide asymmetry resulting from the full displacement field is achieved over dislocations with shallow non-dimensional upper tip depths and small dip angles, although steeply-dipping faults produce asymmetry in the opposite direction. By setting the horizontal component of motion to zero, we find the greatest divide asymmetry resulting from the vertical component of motion alone to be caused by deeply-buried dislocations with low dip angles. Not surprisingly, non-dimensional model extent alters the magnitude of the asymmetry but not the way in which asymmetry varies with dip. Taken together, these results demonstrate the complexity of the surface response to heterogeneous strain and highlight the importance of considering the full deformation field in coupled tectonic and landscape analyses.

Seixas, G.; Alejandre, J.; Hilley, G. E.

2013-12-01

468

Symptom relief after large-volume thoracentesis in the absence of lung perfusion.  

PubMed

The physiologic basis for relief from dyspnea after therapeutic thoracentesis remains poorly understood. Here, we describe the case of a 46-year-old man with large recurrent pleural effusion with absent perfusion to the affected lung who experienced dramatic dyspnea relief after large-volume thoracentesis. This patient's improvement in breathlessness cannot be attributed to improved gas exchange and suggests the primary physiologic basis for the relief in dyspnea is a change in respiratory system mechanics or work of breathing. PMID:24798838

Klecka, Mary E; Maldonado, Fabien

2014-05-01

469

A multi-objective robust stochastic programming model for disaster relief logistics under uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humanitarian relief logistics is one of the most important elements of a relief operation in disaster management. The present\\u000a work develops a multi-objective robust stochastic programming approach for disaster relief logistics under uncertainty. In\\u000a our approach, not only demands but also supplies and the cost of procurement and transportation are considered as the uncertain\\u000a parameters. Furthermore, the model considers uncertainty

Ali Bozorgi-Amiri; M. S. Jabalameli; S. M. J. Mirzapour Al-e-Hashem

470

GIS plays key role in NYC Rescue and Relief Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New York City, Sept. 17—The posters of missing loved ones are pasted onto New York City walls and street signs six days after 2 hijacked commercial airlines destroyed the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan on September 11. Several miles uptown from “ground zero,” heightened security hovers around the city's Office of Emergency Management rescue and relief command center, an around-the-clock operation. Police, firefighters, military, officials with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, communications technicians, and a beehive of others work in controlled chaos in this cavernous, convention center-sized hall, lined with computers and adorned with several American flags.After the original command center at 7 World Trade Center collapsed to rubble as an after-effect of the plane strikes, city officials scrambled to recreate it. Alan Leidner, director of New York's citywide geographic information systems (GIS), and who is with the Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications, knew that maps would be an integral component of the rescue and relief efforts. Maps provide emergency workers and others with accurate and detailed scientific data in the form of visual aids upon which they can make informed decisions.

Showstack, Randy

471

Portable exothermal energy source for disaster relief operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This manuscript describes an example of transfer technology from a U.S. Government Laboratory to commercial products that meet national needs in the public safety and health care sectors. Funded by the U.S. Army, the first project is the development of a portable, non-powered food warming device for serving meals to soldiers in the field. The second project is being funded by the National Institutes of Health for development of a heat therapy device for relief from rheumatoid arthritis discomfort in the hands and other affected joints. Both of these heating devices are portable, reusable heat pack products that can be regenerated in a microwave oven or in boiling water. The knowledge developed during these two projects will be applied to many other related products. Applications in support of natural and manmade disaster relief include food warming heat packs for food service to victims and rescue workers in sustained black-out conditions, and heat pack warming blankets for emergency medical situations in which patients are in traumatic shock and the onset of hypothermia is imminent.

Zimbeck, Walter R.

1994-03-01

472

The importance of context: When relative relief renders pain pleasant  

PubMed Central

Context can influence the experience of any event. For instance, the thought that “it could be worse” can improve feelings towards a present misfortune. In this study we measured hedonic feelings, skin conductance, and brain activation patterns in 16 healthy volunteers who experienced moderate pain in two different contexts. In the “relative relief context,” moderate pain represented the best outcome, since the alternative outcome was intense pain. However, in the control context, moderate pain represented the worst outcome and elicited negative hedonic feelings. The context manipulation resulted in a “hedonic flip,” such that moderate pain elicited positive hedonics in the relative relief context. Somewhat surprisingly, moderate pain was even rated as pleasant in this context, despite being reported as painful in the control context. This “hedonic flip” was corroborated by physiological and functional neuroimaging data. When moderate pain was perceived as pleasant, skin conductance and activity in insula and dorsal anterior cingulate were significantly attenuated relative to the control moderate stimulus. “Pleasant pain” also increased activity in reward and valuation circuitry, including the medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices. Furthermore, the change in outcome hedonics correlated with activity in the periacqueductal grey (PAG) of the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS). The context manipulation also significantly increased functional connectivity between reward circuitry and the PAG, consistent with a functional change of the DPMS due to the altered motivational state. The findings of this study point to a role for brainstem and reward circuitry in a context-induced “hedonic flip” of pain. PMID:23352758

Leknes, Siri; Berna, Chantal; Lee, Michael C.; Snyder, Gregory D.; Biele, Guido; Tracey, Irene

2013-01-01

473

A Neurogenetic Dissociation between Punishment-, Reward-, and Relief-Learning in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

What is particularly worth remembering about a traumatic experience is what brought it about, and what made it cease. For example, fruit flies avoid an odor which during training had preceded electric shock punishment; on the other hand, if the odor had followed shock during training, it is later on approached as a signal for the relieving end of shock. We provide a neurogenetic analysis of such relief learning. Blocking, using UAS-shibirets1, the output from a particular set of dopaminergic neurons defined by the TH-Gal4 driver partially impaired punishment learning, but left relief learning intact. Thus, with respect to these particular neurons, relief learning differs from punishment learning. Targeting another set of dopaminergic/serotonergic neurons defined by the DDC-Gal4 driver on the other hand affected neither punishment nor relief learning. As for the octopaminergic system, the tbhM18 mutation, compromising octopamine biosynthesis, partially impaired sugar-reward learning, but not relief learning. Thus, with respect to this particular mutation, relief learning, and reward learning are dissociated. Finally, blocking output from the set of octopaminergic/tyraminergic neurons defined by the TDC2-Gal4 driver affected neither reward, nor relief learning. We conclude that regarding the used genetic tools, relief learning is neurogenetically dissociated from both punishment and reward learning. This may be a message relevant also for analyses of relief learning in other experimental systems including man. PMID:21206762

Yarali, Ayse; Gerber, Bertram

2010-01-01

474

The Effectiveness of a Computerized Self-Help Stress Coping Program with Adult Males.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined whether computerized self-help stress coping program was effective in reducing stress among 30 adult male juvenile counselors. Compared to controls, subjects who participated in program showed decreases in personal strain and state anxiety and increases in personal resources. Concluded that program could provide relief for situational…

Smith, James J.

1987-01-01

475

Relax for Success: An Educator's Guide to Stress Management. [With CD-ROM].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed as a practical, concise, easy-to-read guide for relieving stress. It is written specifically for educators, with examples and anecdotes that relate to professional educators' experiences. It assumes a holistic approach to stress relief that incorporates thought, verbal and action strategies and techniques. The harm that…

Glanz, Jeffrey

476

Little Kids, Big Worries: Stress-Busting Tips for Early Childhood Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that stress in the crucial early years of a child's life can pose dramatic, lasting challenges to development, learning, and behavior. This is the practical book early childhood professionals need to recognize stress in young children--and intervene with proven relief strategies before pressures turn into big problems. Developed by…

Honig, Alice Sterling

2010-01-01

477

Effects of pressure angle and tip relief on the life of speed increasing gearbox: a case study.  

PubMed

This paper examines failure of helical gear in speed increasing gearbox used in the wind turbine generator (WTG). In addition, an attempt has been made to get suitable gear micro-geometry such as pressure angle and tip relief to minimize the gear failure in the wind turbines. As the gear trains in the wind turbine gearbox is prearranged with higher speed ratio and the gearboxes experience shock load due to atmospheric turbulence, gust wind speed, non-synchronization of pitching, frequent grid drops and failure of braking, the gear failure occurs either in the intermediate or high speed stage pinion. KISS soft gear calculation software was used to determine the gear specifications and analysis is carried out in ANSYS software version.11.0 for the existing and the proposed gear to evaluate the performance of bending stress tooth deflection and stiffness. The main objective of this research study is to propose suitable gear micro-geometry that is tip relief and pressure angle blend for increasing tooth strength of the helical gear used in the wind turbine for trouble free operation. PMID:25674475

Shanmugasundaram, Sankar; Kumaresan, Manivarma; Muthusamy, Nataraj

2014-01-01

478

Vertebroplasty for pain relief and spinal stabilization in multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Mechanical stabilization of oncological vertebral fractures with cement augmentation is the first mechanism of pain relief, with or without restoration of vertebral body height. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of vertebroplasty for painful vertebral body fractures in patients with multiple myeloma, in each phase of the disease. The authors reviewed a consecutive group of patients with multiple myeloma who underwent vertebroplasty at our Institute between November 2003 and December 2005. Twenty-eight levels were performed on 11 patients during 14 treatment sessions. All patients suffered from intractable back pain, and presented various lesion types (with and without fractures of posterior wall, and with and without epidural disease). The preoperative median visual analog scale (VAS) score was 7. The median duration of symptoms was 1.1 months. Eight patients were ambulating with orthopaedic devices (57%) in the pre-treatment period. Improvement or complete pain relief was observed in all patients (immediately in 8 cases, and after 2 days in 6 cases). The median VAS pain score decreased to 2. There was no symptomatic procedure-related complication. There were three cases (21%) of PMMA leakage: in the disc space in one case (7%), and in the anterior spinal canal in two cases (14%). Complete removal of orthopaedic devices was obtained in five patients (36%). No new deformation or collapse of the treated vertebrae was observed during the follow-up (range 1 day-25 months). In conclusion, vertebroplasty is a safe and efficient procedure in the treatment of painful vertebral body fractures in patients with multiple myeloma, without potential contraindications, such as fractures of the posterior wall or epidural disease. We also treated three and more levels in 28% of cases in a single session without complications. Due to the early pain relief and the low complication rate, it is possible to expand the indication to vertebroplasty for the prophylactic augmentation of those vertebral bodies at risk of fracture in which significant neoplastic substitution of the body is present. PMID:20076982

Tancioni, Flavio; Lorenzetti, Martin; Navarria, Pierina; Nozza, Andrea; Castagna, Luca; Gaetani, Paolo; Aimar, Enrico; Levi, Daniel; Di Ieva, Antonio; Pisano, Patrizia; Santoro, Armando; Scorsetti, Marta; Rodriguez y Baena, Riccardo

2010-04-01

479

Diffusion bonding of aluminium oxide to stainless steel using stress relief interlayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminium oxide was diffusion bonded to AISI 304 steel using Ti, Cu or Mo as interlayer materials. It was observed that Ti joins easily to both ceramic and steel parts, giving an average shear strength equal to 20 MPa. However, within the experimental conditions applied, the adhesion between Al2O3 and Cu or Mo was unsuccessful. A finite element modelling (FEM)

Dilermando Travessa; Maurizio Ferrante; Gert den Ouden

2002-01-01

480

Dry Period Heat Stress Relief Effects on Prepartum Progesterone, Calf Birth Weight, and Milk Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of cooling high producing dairy cows during the dry' period were examined in 84 pluriparous Israeli- Holstein cows. Cooling was by a com- bination of wetting and forced ventilation from 0600 to 1800 h until parturition and common management afterwards for both groups. Cooling maintained diurnal increase in rectal temperature within .2°C as compared with .5°C in control cows

D. Wolfenson; I. Flamenbaum; A. Berman

1988-01-01

481

Spray shadowing for stress relief and mechanical locking in thick protective coatings  

DOEpatents

A method for applying a protective coating on an article, comprising the following steps: selecting an article with a surface for applying a coating thickness; creating undercut grooves on the article, where the grooves depend beneath the surface to a bottom portion with the grooves having an upper width on the surface and a lower width on the bottom portion connected by side walls, where at least one of the side walls connects the upper width and the lower width to form an undercut angle with the surface less than 90.degree.; and, applying the protective coating onto the article to fill the undercut grooves and cover the surface, thereby forming weak paths within the protective coating.

Hollis, Kendall (Los Alamos, NM); Bartram, Brian (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-05-22

482

Pain-relief learning in flies, rats, and man: basic research and applied perspectives  

PubMed Central

Memories relating to a painful, negative event are adaptive and can be stored for a lifetime to support preemptive avoidance, escape, or attack behavior. However, under unfavorable circumstances such memories can become overwhelmingly powerful. They may trigger excessively negative psychological states and uncontrollable avoidance of locations, objects, or social interactions. It is therefore obvious that any process to counteract such effects will be of value. In this context, we stress from a basic-research perspective that painful, negative events are “Janus-faced” in the sense that there are actually two aspects about them that are worth remembering: What made them happen and what made them cease. We review published findings from fruit flies, rats, and man showing that both aspects, respectively related to the onset and the offset of the negative event, induce distinct and oppositely valenced memories: Stimuli experienced before an electric shock acquire negative valence as they signal upcoming punishment, whereas stimuli experienced after an electric shock acquire positive valence because of their association with the relieving cessation of pain. We discuss how memories for such punishment- and relief-learning are organized, how this organization fits into the threat-imminence model of defensive behavior, and what perspectives these considerations offer for applied psychology in the context of trauma, panic, and nonsuicidal self-injury. PMID:24643725

Gerber, Bertram; Yarali, Ayse; Diegelmann, Sören; Wotjak, Carsten T.; Pauli, Paul; Fendt, Markus

2014-01-01

483

The Relief Canyon gold deposit, Nevada: a mineralized solution breccia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Relief Canyon gold deposit in the Humboldt Range of western Nevada is a low-grade, high-tonnage orebody of Tertiary or younger age. The host rocks include limestones of the Triassic Cane Spring Formation, which are overlain by shales of the Triassic Grass Valley Formation. Gold, fluorite, pyrite, silver, calcite, and fine-grained silica are the principal hydrothermal minerals in the deposit. The deposit formed at a relatively shallow depth. On the basis of fluid inclusion data, late-stage hydrothermal fluids related to gold and fluorite deposition were extremely dilute and had temperatures near 200??C. The fluid inclusions in fluorite show no evidence for boiling, but porous crackle breccias in the jasperoids suggest that hydrobrecciation took place. -from Author

Wallace, A.R.

1989-01-01

484

Western Tibet relief evolution, insight from sedimentary record and thermochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tibetan plateau is defined as a low relief high elevation zone, resulting from India-Asia convergence. However, its morphology is relatively heterogeneous. Especially the western Tibetan plateau is characterized by a strong relief, numerous peaks higher than 6000 m.a.s.l. and large (up to 10 km), deep (1-2 km) valleys. We investigate the origin of this particular morphology, coupling geomorphologic studies with sedimentary records and (U-Th)/He thermochronometry. The western Tibet Tertiary sedimentation is mostly characterized by conglomerates, red sandstone and siltstones related with alluvial fan deposits. Zircon U-Pb dating of interbedded trachyte flows implies that deposition started before 25 Ma and was still ongoing at 20 Ma. These continental, detrital deposits are filling wide open valleys during probable arid climatic conditions. Such valleys are thus interpreted as inherited basins, paleovalleys, formed before detrital sedimentation i.e. at ~25 Ma. Moreover, rare marine sediments were observed below the detrital deposits. Foraminifera suggest an Oligocene age, which implies that the paleovalleys already existed during the Oligocene, and that the emersion of the Western Tibetan Plateau occurred between the Oligocene and 25 Ma. This emersion thus occurred much later than the India-Asia collision (~50-45Ma) but is compatible with the onset of the main thickening phase of the Indian plate. The orientation of the inherited valley axis appears to be that of active strike slip faults that induced eastward extrusion of Western Tibet. This suggests that such extrusion was already active at the time of sedimentation (both marine and continental). Thus extrusion was also active during the plateau emersion at Oligocene time. The morphology of the valleys, and their sedimentary infilling, suggest that a significant relief, similar to present-day one (about 1000-2000m between valleys floor and surrounding peaks) already existed at the time of sedimentation. This implies that very little erosion and only uplift took place following plateau emersion. Assuming an Oligocene emersion and considering the present-day elevation of the valley floor (~ 4300-4500 m.a.s.l.) it yields a mean uplift rate of about 120-170m/Ma. In order to test the slow erosion hypothesis we performed apatite (U-Th)/He dating. Samples have been collected from a vertical profile in a Cretaceous granodiorite. Ages range from 13 to 22Ma. Based on the age variation with sampling elevation an apparent elevation rate of about 0.7 mm/yr is obtained. Modelling of age-elevation relationships indicates that the measured cooling ages are compatible with a slow, continuous exhumation/erosion rate from 25 Ma to the present time. This is similar to previous calculations obtained elsewhere on the Tibetan plateau. Today, the western Tibet is an internally drained area and local erosion induces filling of the paleovalleys. This implies that earlier erosion products were evacuated out of the plateau through the river network. Displacement along the Karakorum fault might be responsible from isolating Western Tibet from the nearby Indus drainage. In conclusion, this study suggests that western Tibet morphology is inherited from the ante-emersion relief (Oligocene?) that was preserved by combination of slow erosion and evacuation of the detrital sediments toward the Indus river network.

Mahéo, Gweltaz; Gourbet, Loraine; Hervé Leloup, Philippe; Sorrel, Philippe; Shuster, David L.; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Quillévéré, Frédéric

2014-05-01

485

Rectangular Relief Diffraction Gratings for Coherent Lidar Beam Deflection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LIDAR systems require a light transmitting system for sending a laser light pulse into space and a receiving system for collecting the retro-scattered light, separating it from the outgoing beam and analyzing the received signal for calculating wind velocities. Currently, a shuttle manifested coherent LIDAR experiment called SPARCLE (SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment) includes a silicon wedge (or prism) in its design in order to deflect the outgoing beam 30 degrees relative to the incident direction. The intent of this paper is to present two optical design approaches that may enable the replacement of the optical wedge component (in future, larger aperture, post-SPARCLE missions) with a surface relief transmission diffraction grating. Such a grating could be etched into a lightweight, flat, fused quartz substrate. The potential advantages of a diffractive beam deflector include reduced weight, reduced power requirements for the driving scanning motor, reduced optical sensitivity to thermal gradients, and increased dynamic stability.

Cole, H. J.; Dixit, S. N.; Shore, B. W.; Chambers, D. M.; Britten, J. A.; Kavaya, M. J.

1999-01-01

486

30 CFR 203.2 - How can I obtain royalty relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How can I obtain royalty relief? 203.2 Section...RATES General Provisions § 203.2 How can I obtain royalty relief? We may reduce...2000, Propose an expansion project and can demonstrate your project is uneconomic...

2012-07-01

487

30 CFR 203.2 - How can I obtain royalty relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How can I obtain royalty relief? 203.2 Section...RATES General Provisions § 203.2 How can I obtain royalty relief? We may reduce...2000 Propose an expansion project and can demonstrate your project is uneconomic...

2010-07-01

488

40 CFR 80.1335 - Can a refiner seek relief from the requirements of this subpart?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Can a refiner seek relief from the requirements...Benzene Hardship Provisions § 80.1335 Can a refiner seek relief from the requirements...1230(a) or (b) for a refinery, if it can show that— (1) Unusual...

2013-07-01

489

30 CFR 203.2 - How can I obtain royalty relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How can I obtain royalty relief? 203.2 Section...RATES General Provisions § 203.2 How can I obtain royalty relief? We may reduce...2000 Propose an expansion project and can demonstrate your project is uneconomic...

2011-07-01

490

30 CFR 203.2 - How can I obtain royalty relief?  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How can I obtain royalty relief? 203.2 Section...RATES General Provisions § 203.2 How can I obtain royalty relief? We may reduce...2000, Propose an expansion project and can demonstrate your project is uneconomic...

2014-07-01

491

30 CFR 203.2 - How can I obtain royalty relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How can I obtain royalty relief? 203.2 Section...RATES General Provisions § 203.2 How can I obtain royalty relief? We may reduce...2000, Propose an expansion project and can demonstrate your project is uneconomic...

2013-07-01

492

26 CFR 1.6015-1 - Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return. 1.6015-1 Section 1.6015-1...Returns Or Statements § 1.6015-1 Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return....

2012-04-01

493

26 CFR 1.6015-1 - Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return. 1.6015-1 Section 1.6015-1...Returns Or Statements § 1.6015-1 Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return....

2014-04-01

494

26 CFR 1.6015-1 - Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return. 1.6015-1 Section 1.6015-1...Returns Or Statements § 1.6015-1 Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return....

2013-04-01

495

26 CFR 1.6015-1 - Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return. 1.6015-1 Section 1.6015-1...Returns Or Statements § 1.6015-1 Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return....

2011-04-01

496

49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. (1) See § 173.315...pump seals and pressure relief devices, must be at least 4 times...heavier, except for sacrificial devices. Malleable metal, stainless...used in the construction of primary valve body parts and...

2010-10-01

497

An emergency logistics distribution approach for quick response to urgent relief demand in disasters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quick response to the urgent relief needs right after natural disasters through efficient emergency logistics distribution is vital to the alleviation of disaster impact in the affected areas, which remains challenging in the field of logistics and related study areas. This paper presents a hybrid fuzzy clustering-optimization approach to the operation of emergency logistics co-distribution responding to the urgent relief

Jiuh-Biing Sheu

2007-01-01

498

The Unintended Consequences of Property Tax Relief: New York's STAR Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New York's School Tax Relief Program, STAR, provides state-funded property tax relief for homeowners. Like a matching grant, STAR changes the price of education, thereby altering the incentives of voters and school officials and leading to unintended consequences. Using data for New York State school districts before and after STAR was…

Eom, Tae Ho; Duncombe, William; Nguyen-Hoang, Phuong; Yinger, John

2014-01-01

499

26 CFR 1.6015-2 - Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers. 1.6015-2...6015-2 Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers. (a) In general...knowledge, see § 1.6015-3(c)(2). All of the facts and...

2010-04-01

500

"There Is a Lot that I Want to Do": Reflections on the Relief Efforts in Haiti  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In October 2010, Harvard Educational Review editor Raygine DiAquoi interviewed Maryse Desgrottes, the mother of a close friend and a visible presence in the relief efforts in Petit Goave, Haiti. Desgrottes, a former physician's assistant turned educator and school superintendent, shares the story of her involvement in Haiti's relief efforts since…

Desgrottes, Maryse

2011-01-01