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1

Texture Evolution and Residual Stress Relaxation in a Cold-Rolled Al-Mg-Si-Cu Alloy Using Vibratory Stress Relief Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last half century, vibratory stress relief (VSR) has come to be recognized as a technique with several unique benefits, and it has found applications in various industries. However, the mechanisms involved remain unclear, and the textures corresponding to residual stress relaxation were rarely reported in the existing literature. The purpose of this study is to discuss the texture evolution and residual stress relaxation in a cold-rolled Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy using VSR technique. All the residual stress measurements were performed using a standard X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Measurement of texture was performed on the specimen surface using conventional pole figure (PF) as well as orientation distribution functions (ODFs) methods. Results indicate that the VSR technique can be applied to weaken the ?-fiber and cause the residual stress of the rolled samples to gradually approach uniformity in XRD analysis. The best relaxation of the compressive residual stress reaches about 52.6 pct, but relaxation of the tensile residual stress is less than 10 pct. After the VSR process for 20 minutes, the texture intensities of PFs (200) and (220) as compared to those in nonvibration are nearly homogeneously distributed. Furthermore, the texture of (111) PF perpendicular to normal direction (ND), which is affected by vibratory force parallel to ND, almost disappears.

Wang, Jia-Siang; Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lin, Chi-Ming; Kuo, Che-Wei; Wu, Weite

2013-02-01

2

Stress relief of transition zones  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment.

Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.

1984-01-01

3

Effect of vibratory weld conditioning on the residual stresses and distortion in multipass girth-butt welded pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a fully welded body valve, the last procedure is welding, so it is important to control the residual stress and distortion in order to assure spool rotation, valve watertightness, stress corrosion resistance and non-deformability in active service. In this study, the effects of vibratory weld conditioning (VWC) on the residual stress and distortion were studied in multipass girth-butt welded

Jijin Xu; Ligong Chen; Chunzhen Ni

2007-01-01

4

46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

2011-10-01

5

46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

2012-10-01

6

46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

2009-10-01

7

46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

2010-10-01

8

46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

2013-10-01

9

Residual stress relief in MAG welded joints of dissimilar steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the relief of residual stress in welded joints between austenitic and non-alloyed ferritic–pearlitic steels. A series of similar and dissimilar steel joints based on the 18G2A (ferritic–pearlitic) and 1H18N10T (austenitic) steels were produced, some of which were stress relieved by annealing and some by mechanical prestressing. For the as-welded and stress relieved test joints the residual stresses

P Sedek; J. Brózda; L. Wang; P. J. Withers

2003-01-01

10

Hillock Growth and Stress Relief in Sputtered Au Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of hillocks has been observed during annealing of sputtered Au films. The height of a hillock is proportional to the area it occupies in the film. This empirical relationship has been used in a model which postulates that hillock growth is associated with stress relief in the Au. The model is able to relate the sign and magnitude of

W. B. Pennebaker

1969-01-01

11

Stress and Relief: Parents Attending a Respite Program  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine changes in stress among parents of children with special needs in a respite service and consider parental experience of the service. Methods: Families who were enrolled in a ten-month centre-based respite program were invited to participate in the evaluation. Change in parent stress, indexed by the Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), was determined. These results were compared with findings from exploratory qualitative interviews with a subset of parents and a small comparison group who also completed the PSI-SF. Results: At baseline, 69% of parents (n=45) had high total stress scores on the PSI-SF. No significant improvements were detected on parent stress over time or differences from improvements in the comparison group. In contrast, the subgroup of parents (n=10) who participated in the qualitative interviews described substantial benefits from the respite program including a sense of relief and having time for other activities. Conclusions: It is proposed that the respite program may have provided a temporary break to parents thereby bestowing a sense of relief, but was not adequate to impact on more chronic stress patterns, suggesting that these are related but separate constructs and experiences.

McLennan, John D.; Doig, Jenna; Rasmussen, Carmen; Hutcheon, Emily; Urichuk, Liana

2012-01-01

12

High voltage bushing having weathershed and surrounding stress relief collar  

DOEpatents

A high voltage electric bushing comprises a hollow elongated dielectric weathershed which encloses a high voltage conductor. A collar formed of high voltage dielectric material is positioned over the weathershed and is bonded thereto by an interface material which precludes moisture-like contaminants from entering between the bonded portions. The collar is substantially thicker than the adjacent weathershed which it surrounds, providing relief of the electric stresses which would otherwise appear on the outer surface of the weathershed. The collar may include a conductive ring or capacitive foil to further relieve electric stresses experienced by the bushing.

Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1981-01-01

13

46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

2011-10-01

14

46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

2012-10-01

15

Effect of various stress-relief annealing treatments on permeability and aging of grain-oriented electrical steel strips  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of controlled experiments was performed to investigate the effect of various stress-relief annealing treatments on magnetic permeability and tendency to aging of grain-oriented electrical steel strips M5, 0.30 mm. The best quality is produced by stress-relief annealing in a continuous roller type furnace. However, wound transformer cores have to be stress-relief annealed in a batch type furnace. Stress-relief

ZDENKO GODEC

1978-01-01

16

Cavity stress relief method to stimulate demethanation boreholes  

SciTech Connect

Most demethanation programs which use boreholes from the surface to access the coal, incorporate a stimulation program to enhance the well production. In most cases, the stimulation selected is a frac using nitrogen foam or other fluids. Novacorp has determined that fracing the coal may not be the best technique to apply to a well. Novacorp, whose experience includes over eighteen (18) fracs on demethanation wells, has developed and patented an alternative stimulation method, called the Cavity Stress Relief (CSR) technique, which it believes is more effective than the frac, in most cases. Through a review of the basic parameters which affect the desorbtion of gas from coal, a comparison is made between the frac and CSR stimulation techniques. A description of the conditions and results of two field tests of CSR are given. Also, the areas which need further development will be discussed. Although still not totally proven, the CSR stimulation technique promises to be a very effective method of stimulating most demethanation wells.

Alain, A.K.; Denes, G.M.

1984-05-01

17

MODELLING OF STRESS DEVELOPMENT DURING DRYING AND RELIEF DURING STEAMING IN PINUS RADIATA LUMBER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A one-dimensional stress model was proposed for drying of radiata pine lumber, which has considered wood moisture shrinkage, instantaneous stress-strain relationships, mechano-sorptive creep, time-induced creep and temperature effects. In addition, wood hardening behaviour in the plastic region and differences between stress increase and decrease have been taken into account. The proposed Stress model can predict stress development and relief in

S. Pang

2000-01-01

18

Stress-relief displacements induced by drilling--applications to holographic measurements of in situ stress  

SciTech Connect

The holographic stressmeter is an instrument which has been developed at Caltech to allow determination of the complete stress tensor from in situ borehole measurements. The stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a small sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses, concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall in the vicinity of the sidehole. The first part of this study uses a thin infinite elastic plate subjected to plane stress at infinity to model the displacements at the borehole wall. However, the existence of some holograms which were difficult to model closely led us to examine the validity of this model. In order to investigate the problem further, we performed a two-dimensional finite element analysis for an elastic box with a terminated hole. We varied the dimensions of the hole to see what effect the radius and depth of the hole might have on the displacements. The plate model predicts that the depth of the hole should have no effect on the horizontal components of displacement, but the finite element results show that the magnitude of both components of the displacement depends on the depth of the sidehole. After considering these results, we developed a new model for the analysis of stress-relief displacements, following the work of Youngdahl and Sternberg (1965). For holes with a depth-to-diameter ratio greater than unity, the simple plane stress elastic plate solution breaks down and does not adequately model the displacements at the surface of the body and near the hole. Since these are the areas most critical to calculate accurately with the holographic technique, the revised model does a better job of fitting the observed data.

Ahrens, T.J.; Smither, C.L.

1992-04-24

19

Mechanisms of stress relief cracking in titanium stabilised austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat affected zone (HAZ) of AISI 321 welds may exhibit a serious form of cracking during service at high temperature. This form of damage, called ‘stress relief cracking’, is known to be due to work hardening but also to aging due to Ti(C,N) precipitation on dislocations which modifies the mechanical behaviour of the HAZ. The present study aims to

M. Chabaud-Reytier; L. Allais; C. Caes; P. Dubuisson; A. Pineau

2003-01-01

20

Effect of stress relief annealing temperature and atmosphere on the magnetic properties of silicon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully processed non-oriented silicon steel samples 0.50 mm thick were sheared and submitted to stress relief annealing under different conditions of temperature and atmosphere to investigate the effect of this treatment on the recovery of magnetic properties. Two different compositions were used, with different Si and Al contents. Temperature was varied in the range of 600 900 °C and four

Sebastião C. Paolinelli; Marco A. da Cunha

2006-01-01

21

Stress Relief during Solid-State Transformations in Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work estimates the power dissipated by solid-state phase changes in the transition layer of the mantle. Earlier studies have shown these transitions occur by nucleation and growth, and that dislocations are induced in the matrix around the grain during growth. The small-scale flow allowed by the dislocations dissipates power as a sample transforms. This dissipation is easily found in high-pressure experiments by studying the growth of an isolated grain in a rigid, perfectly plastic solid, and using the observed dislocation densities to infer the yield stress. Extrapolation of this result to the mantle raises a difficulty. If the deviatoric stress depends on the strain rate, the high shear stresses inferred around the grains in the experiments may not occur at the low dilatation rates typical of the transition layer. This difficulty is treated here by studying growth in two limits. Either the growth rate is determined by: (i) the kinetics of interface propagation, or (ii) the kinetics of matrix deformation. In case (i) it is argued that the deviatoric stress in the matrix can be taken as independent of strain rate, and the problem of extrapolation is trivial. It is shown that some form of layered convection is likely in case (i), because the yield stress inferred from experiments is such that if all the volume flow in the mantle were to cross the transition layer, the extra power loss would exceed the total viscous dissipation outside the transition layer. In case (ii), the difficulty of extrapolation is significant, and a test is given to identify this case in practice. Such `slip-controlled' growth is shown to have a characteristic signature: if the pressure is fixed, the volume of an isolated spherical grain grows exponentially with time if the matrix is isotropic, and the deviatoric stress is a functional of the strain history. The small-scale flow can then be used as a rheometer.

Morris, S.

1992-02-01

22

Effect of stress relief annealing temperature and atmosphere on the magnetic properties of silicon steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fully processed non-oriented silicon steel samples 0.50 mm thick were sheared and submitted to stress relief annealing under different conditions of temperature and atmosphere to investigate the effect of this treatment on the recovery of magnetic properties. Two different compositions were used, with different Si and Al contents. Temperature was varied in the range of 600-900 °C and four atmospheres were used: N 2 and N 2+10%H 2 combined with dew points of -10 and 15 °C. The results showed that annealing atmosphere has very important effect on the magnetic properties and that the beneficial effect of stress relief annealing can be overcome by the detrimental effect of the atmosphere under certain conditions, due to oxidation and nitration.

Paolinelli, Sebastião C.; da Cunha, Marco A.

2006-09-01

23

Stress relief of tetrahedral amorphous carbon films by post-deposition thermal annealing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stress relief of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films by post-deposition thermal annealing was investigated. The films were subjected to rapid thermal annealing (RTA) for 2min and conventional furnace annealing (CFA) for 30min. In both cases, the films were annealed in vacuum with argon (4×10?2Torr) at successive higher temperatures ranging from 500 to 800°C. It was found that annealing by

B. K. Tay; X. Shi; E. Liu; S. P. Lau; L. K. Cheah; Z. Sun; J. Shi

1999-01-01

24

Effect of stress relief annealing temperature and atmosphere on the magnetic properties of silicon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully processed non-oriented silicon steel samples 0.50mm thick were sheared and submitted to stress relief annealing under different conditions of temperature and atmosphere to investigate the effect of this treatment on the recovery of magnetic properties. Two different compositions were used, with different Si and Al contents. Temperature was varied in the range of 600–900°C and four atmospheres were used:

Sebastião C. Paolinelli; Marco A. da Cunha

2006-01-01

25

Relief of patellofemoral contact stress by anterior displacement of the tibial tubercle.  

PubMed

Elevation of the patellar tendon by means of displacement of the tibial tubercle has been advocated by Maquet, Ficat and Hungerford, and Murray as an alternative to patellectomy for the treatment of patellofemoral arthralgias. Although tubercle elevation certainly reduces the over-all patellofemoral contact force, its effects on the complex local patterns of contact stress are of more direct significance. In a laboratory series using fresh amputation material, arrays of six miniature contact stress sensors were embedded in the retropatellar cartilage of knees subjected to isometric quadriceps-extension forces. The experimental data revealed that elevation of the patellar tendon generally afforded relief of local contact stress regardless of the joint configuration (zero degrees, 45 degrees, or 90 degrees of flexion), but that its effects were most pronounced at 90 degrees of flexion. Progressive increase in the tendon elevation caused progressive reduction in the contact stress. Most of the contact stress relief was achieved, however, with the first one-half inch of tendon elevation; further elevations to one and one and one-half inches were only marginally useful. In view of the increased superior patellar pole contact associated with distal pole flotation, the results indicate that under most circumstances the optimum amount of elevation of the tibial tubercle is about one-half inch. PMID:422601

Ferguson, A B; Brown, T D; Fu, F H; Rutkowski, R

1979-03-01

26

Cloverleaf Vibratory Microgyroscope with Integrated Post  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified design and fabrication sequence has been devised to improve the performance of a cloverleaf vibratory microgyroscope that includes an axial rod or post rigidly attached to the center of the cloverleaf structure. The basic concepts of cloverleaf vibratory microgyroscopes, without and with rods or posts, were described in two prior articles in NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 21, No. 9 (September 1997): Micromachined Planar Vibratory Microgyroscopes (NPO-19713), page 68 and Planar Vibratory Microgyroscope: Alternative Configuration (NPO-19714), page 70. As described in more detail in the second-mentioned prior article, the cloverleaf-shaped structure and the rod or post are parts of a vibratory element that senses rotation via the effect of the Coriolis force upon its vibrations. Heretofore, the posts for devices of this type have been fabricated separately, then assembled manually onto the cloverleaf structures. The resulting imperfections in the assembled units have given rise to asymmetric stresses in the cloverleaf structures and, consequently, to changes in resonant frequencies of vibration and in shapes of vibration modes. These changes, in turn, have caused variations in performance among nominally identical devices. The modified design provides for the fabrication of the upper half of the post as an integral part of the cloverleaf structure; this is accomplished by reactive-ion etching of a single-piece half-post-and-cloverleaf structure from a wafer of silicon. The lower half of the post and a baseplate are also a single piece made by reactive-ion etching from a wafer of silicon. The two pieces are bonded together (see figure) by a thermal-compression metal-to-metal bonding technique to form a cloverleaf gyroscope with an integrated post structure..

Tang, Tony K.; Gutierrez, Roman; Roger, Damien

2003-01-01

27

Effect of stress-relief annealing on the inverse Swift effect in steel and iron  

SciTech Connect

The Swift effect (1) refers to the length changes that take place in metal bars and hollow tubes during torsional deformation to large strains. The inverse Swift effect reverse to the twisting that accompanies axial elongation when pretwisted samples are loaded in free extension. In this work, free end tensile tests were performed on plain carbon steel and commercially pure iron (99.9 %) wires pretwisted at room temperature. Results similar to those observed on the copper wires pretwisted at room temperature were obtained. In another set of experiments, pretwisted steel wires were given a stress relief annealing treatment and then stretched as before. Differences were observed in the twisting behaviors of the annealed and twisted wires. These give credence to the residual stress explanation proposed by Toth et al. in other work for the reverse shear behavior at low strains.

Rohatgi, A.; Jonas, J.J.; Shrivastava, S. (McGill Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1995-03-01

28

Stress relief patterns of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films grown by dc-pulse plasma chemical vapor deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrogenated amorphous carbon films were prepared on Si (1 0 0) substrates by dc-pulse plasma chemical vapor deposition. The nature of the deposited films was characterized by Raman spectra and the stress relief patterns were observed by scanning electron microscope. Besides the well-known sinusoidal type and flower type patterns, etc., two different stress relief patterns, ring type and peg-top shape with exiguous tine on the top, were observed. The ring type in this paper was a clear ridge-cracked buckle and unusual. Two competing buckle delamination morphologies ring and sinusoidal buckling coexist. The ridge-cracked buckle in ring type was narrower than the sinusoidal buckling. Meanwhile peg-top shape with exiguous tine on the top in this paper was unusual. These different patterns supported the approach in which the stress relief forms have been analyzed using the theory of plate buckling.

Wang, Qi; Wang, Chengbing; Wang, Zhou; Zhang, Junyan; He, Deyan

2008-12-01

29

Vibratory stimulation. Part III. Possible applications of vibration in treatment of motor dysfunctions.  

PubMed

Vibratory stimulation holds promise of becoming a useful therapeutic tool in the treatment of motor disorders. The benefits of vibratory treatment are predictable on the basis of current knowledge about the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the motor effects of vibration. Actual results of vibratory treatment are described for patients with a wide variety of motor disorders. The importance of attending to practical details such as the proper selection of both stimulus parameters and patients is stressed. Specific recommendations are offered for learning to use vibratory stimulation effectively safely, and intelligently. PMID:1144517

Bishop, B

1975-02-01

30

Effect of the heating rate used during stress relief annealing on the magnetic properties of amorphous alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the heating rate used during stress relief annealing of amorphous alloy toroids on the final soft magnetic properties has been investigated by comparing three different annealing techniques. Batch furnace annealing of a completely formed toroid provides the slowest heating rate and the poorest properties. The hot block method tested in this study, provides a faster heating rate

A. I. Taub

1984-01-01

31

Development of Controlled Cooled HT 50 Steels (CLC HT 50) for Stress-Relief Annealing and Large Heat Input Welding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Controlled cooled HT 50 steels may decrease in tensile strength when exposed to such thermal hysteresis as large-heat input welding or stress-relief annealing. The strength properties of CLC (Continuous on-Line Control process) steels of the medium carbon...

S. Harada Y. Kawashima K. Moriyama K. Konno S. Imai

1986-01-01

32

STUDY OF THE EMBRITTLEMENT OF MANGANESE-MOLYBDENUM WELDABLE STEELS DURING STRESS-RELIEF ANNEALING AFTER WELDING  

Microsoft Academic Search

A shift in the curves for the change in toughness was observed for three ; typical steels after being held for 1 to 100 hours at temperatures from 400 to ; 700 deg C and after cycling corresponding to stress-relief anneals at 625 deg C. ; A comparison is made with carbon- manganese steels. Embrittlement increases with ; the temperature

P. F. Martin; C. Roques; P. Bastien

1962-01-01

33

Quasi-static intergranular cracking in a Cu-Sn alloy: An analog of stress relief cracking of steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Intergranular cracking in a laboratory-made Cu-8wt%Sn alloy at 265 to 300(degree)C in vacuum was studied in order to explore the hypothesis that this could serve as an analog to the brittle mode of stress-relief cracking in steels and to test the mechanis...

E. V. Barrera M. Menyhard D. Bika B. Rothman C. J. McMahon

1991-01-01

34

Increasing heat stress relief produced by coupled coat wetting and forced ventilation.  

PubMed

Coupling repeated wetting of the coat and forced ventilation is most efficient in removing heat stress in more humid climates. The procedure was initiated approximately 24 yr ago and is widely used, but the impact of air velocity on the efficiency of heat stress relief has not been examined. This study examined the feasibility of using surface temperature for real-time estimation of heat stress relief. It was carried out in midsummer in Israel on 6 mature lactating Holsteins. A 15 x 15 cm area on the right side of the body was thoroughly wetted. Hair surface and skin temperature on the wetted area and adjacent dry area were measured at 1-min intervals for 15 min while air movement was less than 0.1 m/s, and the sequence was repeated with air velocities of 0.5 to 3 m/s perpendicular to the body surface. Because the cooled surface was small, the response to cooling was local. In 3 animals, the whole left side of the body also was wetted and exposed to forced ventilation (1.5 m/s) to combine local cooling with larger body surface cooling. The air temperature was 29.5 +/- 0.05 degrees C, and the relative humidity was 56.7 +/- 0.2%. Rectal temperature and respiratory frequency indicated minor heat stress. Mean wet hair surface temperature (Thw) and wet skin temperature were 2.1 and 1.5 degrees C lower than the respective dry hair surface temperature (Thd) and dry skin temperature. At an air velocity of 0.5 m/s, Thw was practically identical to that in still air and to Thd. At greater air velocities, Thw decreased immediately after wetting, and minimal values were reached within 1 min, were maintained for 6 to 7 min after wetting, and reached 95% of the mean Thd value by 8 and 11 min after wetting at 1 and 2 m/s, respectively. Wetting the coat had the potential to reduce Thd temperature by 10 to 11 degrees C. The relatively small difference between Thd and Thw probably is due to heat flow from the body. The latter was estimated by comparing enthalpies at Thd, at Thw, and in the wet bulb temperature predicted for Thd. Predicted heat loss rates were 736 and 1,012 W/m(2) at air velocities of 1 and 2 m/s, respectively, compared with 164 W/m(2) predicted for the dry surface from the thermal balance model. Increasing heat loss from the left side reduced wet surface temperatures on right side, indicating that larger body surface cooling reduced heat flow to the skin on the right body surface. Heat extraction from the wet body surface is thus reduced by large body surface cooling and depends on the thermal state. The efficiency of heat stress relief may be detected by surface temperature monitoring and may be improved by adjusting the interval between wettings to the changes in surface temperature. PMID:19038932

Berman, A

2008-12-01

35

Vibratory Spiral Blancher-Cooler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the demonstration project was to test the commercial feasibility of the vibratory spiral blancher-cooler, a newly designed steam blancher and air cooler that previous small scale tests showed could reduce the wasteload and energy consumpt...

J. L. Bomben J. S. Hudson W. C. Dietrich R. Rand J. W. Farquhar

1978-01-01

36

Quasi-static intergranular cracking in a Cu-Sn alloy: An analog of stress relief cracking of steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intergranular cracking in a laboratory-made Cu-8wt%Sn alloy at 265 to 300°C in vacuum was studied in order to explore the hypothesis that this could serve as an analog to the brittle mode of stress-relief cracking in steels and to test the mechanism proposed earlier to explain that phenomenon. This mechanism involves the stress-induced intergranular penetration along grain boundaries of a

E. V. Barrera; M. Menyhard; D. Bika; B. Rothman; C. J. Jr. McMahon

1991-01-01

37

Analysis of rotor vibratory loads using higher harmonic pitch control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experimental studies of isolated rotors in forward flight have indicated that higher harmonic pitch control can reduce rotor noise. These tests also show that such pitch inputs can generate substantial vibratory loads. The modification is summarized of the RotorCRAFT (Computation of Rotor Aerodynamics in Forward flighT) analysis of isolated rotors to study the vibratory loading generated by high frequency pitch inputs. The original RotorCRAFT code was developed for use in the computation of such loading, and uses a highly refined rotor wake model to facilitate this task. The extended version of RotorCRAFT incorporates a variety of new features including: arbitrary periodic root pitch control; computation of blade stresses and hub loads; improved modeling of near wake unsteady effects; and preliminary implementation of a coupled prediction of rotor airloads and noise. Correlation studies are carried out with existing blade stress and vibratory hub load data to assess the performance of the extended code.

Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Wachspress, Daniel A.

1992-01-01

38

The Meta-Lax method of stress reduction in welds. Phase 2 study  

SciTech Connect

This study is the second phase of ongoing research into the mechanics and feasibility of using the Meta-Lax method of vibratory stress relief in place of thermal methods of stress relief. The first phase of this research revealed results that were similar to, and even superior to those achieved using thermal methods. The testing here was designed to eliminate the effects of interbead tempering by utilizing single pass bead-on-plate welds only. A metallurgical explanation for the success of the Meta-Lax method was not found. No significant structure or chemical changes were noted when used with ASTM A36 or AISI 4140 materials, and the phenomena noted in phase I was apparently due to interbead tempering. The theory of accelerated aging has been proposed and studies exist which observed dislocation motion as a result of vibratory treatment. It is evident that the vibratory stress relief system does not impart sufficient energy to bring about the magnitude of change seen with thermal methods. however the physical improvement is a reality, and vibratory methods should be evaluated further.

Smith, S.M.

1992-07-31

39

The Meta-Lax method of stress reduction in welds. [ASTM A36; AISI 4140  

SciTech Connect

This study is the second phase of ongoing research into the mechanics and feasibility of using the Meta-Lax method of vibratory stress relief in place of thermal methods of stress relief. The first phase of this research revealed results that were similar to, and even superior to those achieved using thermal methods. The testing here was designed to eliminate the effects of interbead tempering by utilizing single pass bead-on-plate welds only. A metallurgical explanation for the success of the Meta-Lax method was not found. No significant structure or chemical changes were noted when used with ASTM A36 or AISI 4140 materials, and the phenomena noted in phase I was apparently due to interbead tempering. The theory of accelerated aging has been proposed and studies exist which observed dislocation motion as a result of vibratory treatment. It is evident that the vibratory stress relief system does not impart sufficient energy to bring about the magnitude of change seen with thermal methods. however the physical improvement is a reality, and vibratory methods should be evaluated further.

Smith, S.M.

1992-07-31

40

A simple estimating method for reduction of welding residual stresses in thick welded joint from stress-relief annealing. Part 2: The characteristics of reduction of welding residual stresses in very thick joints during SR treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress-relief annealing (SR treatment) is often applied to relieve welding residual stresses in the fabrication process of pressure vessels, etc. This study aims at development of an efficient method as simple as hand calculation to estimate reduction of residual stresses of very thick welded joint by SR treatment. In the first report, an estimating method was developed for relaxation tests,

K. Nakacho; Y. Ueda

1999-01-01

41

Quasi-static intergranular cracking in a Cu-Sn alloy: An analog of stress relief cracking of steels  

SciTech Connect

Intergranular cracking in a laboratory-made Cu-8wt%Sn alloy at 265 to 300{degree}C in vacuum was studied in order to explore the hypothesis that this could serve as an analog to the brittle mode of stress-relief cracking in steels and to test the mechanism proposed earlier to explain that phenomenon. This mechanism involves the stress-induced intergranular penetration along grain boundaries of a surface-adsorbed embrittling element. Sulfur is the active element in this regard in steels, and tin was envisioned as playing the same role in Cu-Sn alloys. Auger spectroscopy was used to confirm earlier reports of the surface activity of tin and to determine the segregation kinetics in the present polycrystals; no other elements were found to segregate to surfaces to any significant degree in the present alloy. Crack growth measurements showed that intergranular cracking occurs in an intermittent manner at an average rate on the order of 0.1 {mu}m/sec over a range of crack length. Crack initiation was found to be remarkably sensitive to the stress intensity, implying the existence of a threshold. The fracture appearance in the regions of slow crack growth was similar to that observed in steels undergoing stress-relief cracking at 500--600{degree}C. It was concluded that the quasi-static intergranular cracking in the steels and in the Cu-Sn alloy represent two aspects of the same generic phenomenon and that the proposed mechanism of stress-induced intergranular impurity penetration is valid. It is believed that liquid-and solid-metal embrittlement are closely related to the type of intergranular cracking described here.

Barrera, E.V.; Menyhard, M.; Bika, D.; Rothman, B.; McMahon, C.J. Jr.

1991-12-31

42

Quasi-static intergranular cracking in a Cu-Sn alloy: An analog of stress relief cracking of steels  

SciTech Connect

Intergranular cracking in a laboratory-made Cu-8wt%Sn alloy at 265 to 300{degree}C in vacuum was studied in order to explore the hypothesis that this could serve as an analog to the brittle mode of stress-relief cracking in steels and to test the mechanism proposed earlier to explain that phenomenon. This mechanism involves the stress-induced intergranular penetration along grain boundaries of a surface-adsorbed embrittling element. Sulfur is the active element in this regard in steels, and tin was envisioned as playing the same role in Cu-Sn alloys. Auger spectroscopy was used to confirm earlier reports of the surface activity of tin and to determine the segregation kinetics in the present polycrystals; no other elements were found to segregate to surfaces to any significant degree in the present alloy. Crack growth measurements showed that intergranular cracking occurs in an intermittent manner at an average rate on the order of 0.1 {mu}m/sec over a range of crack length. Crack initiation was found to be remarkably sensitive to the stress intensity, implying the existence of a threshold. The fracture appearance in the regions of slow crack growth was similar to that observed in steels undergoing stress-relief cracking at 500--600{degree}C. It was concluded that the quasi-static intergranular cracking in the steels and in the Cu-Sn alloy represent two aspects of the same generic phenomenon and that the proposed mechanism of stress-induced intergranular impurity penetration is valid. It is believed that liquid-and solid-metal embrittlement are closely related to the type of intergranular cracking described here.

Barrera, E.V.; Menyhard, M.; Bika, D.; Rothman, B.; McMahon, C.J. Jr.

1991-01-01

43

Mechanical characterization and modeling of brazed tungsten and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy using stress relief interlayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapidly solidified foil-type Ti-Zr based amorphous filler with a melting temperature of 850 °C was used to braze tungsten to Cu-Cr-Zr alloy for water cooled divertors and plasma facing components application. Brazed joints of dissimilar materials suffer from a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion. In order to release the residual stress caused by the mismatch, brazed joints of tungsten and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy using different interlayers were studied. The shear strength tests of brazed W/Cu joints show that the average strength of the joint with a W70Cu30 composite plate interlayer reached 119.8 MPa, and the average strength of the joint with oxygen free high conductivity copper (OFHC Cu)/Mo multi-interlayers reached 140.8 MPa, while the joint without interlayer was only 16.6 MPa. Finite element method (FEM) has been performed to investigate the stress distribution and effect of stress relief interlayers. FEM results show that the maximum von Mises stress occurs in the tungsten/filler interface and that the filler suffers the peak residual stresses and becomes the weakest zone. And the use of OFHC Cu/Mo multi-interlayers can reduce the residual stress significantly, which agrees with the mechanical experiment data.

Qu, Dandan; Zhou, Zhangjian; Yum, Youngjin; Aktaa, Jarir

2014-12-01

44

A comprehensive model of stress generation and relief processes in thin films deposited with energetic ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of intrinsic stress in thin films deposited using energetic condensation of ions and\\/or atoms are known to depend strongly on the energy of the depositing species. At low energies (up to a few eV) thin films are often observed to have a large number of voids and show tensile stress. As the energy increases, the stress is observed to

M. M. M. Bilek; D. R. McKenzie

2006-01-01

45

Vibratory tactile display for textures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have developed a tactile display that produces vibratory stimulus to a fingertip in contact with a vibrating tactor matrix. The display depicts tactile surface textures while the user is exploring a virtual object surface. A piezoelectric actuator drives the individual tactor in accordance with both the finger movement and the surface texture being traced. Spatiotemporal display control schemes were examined for presenting the fundamental surface texture elements. The temporal duration of vibratory stimulus was experimentally optimized to simulate the adaptation process of cutaneous sensation. The selected duration time for presenting a single line edge agreed with the time threshold of tactile sensation. Then spatial stimulus disposition schemes were discussed for representation of other edge shapes. As an alternative means not relying on amplitude control, a method of augmented duration at the edge was investigated. Spatial resolution of the display was measured for the lines presented both in perpendicular and parallel to a finger axis. Discrimination of texture density was also measured on random dot textures.

Ikei, Yasushi; Ikeno, Akihisa; Fukuda, Shuichi

1994-01-01

46

A simple estimating method for reduction of welding residual stresses in thick welded joint from stress-relief annealing. Part 1: Development of the analytical method for relaxation tests and its applicability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress-relief annealing (SR treatment) is often applied to relieve welding residual stresses in the fabrication process of pressure vessels etc. This study aims at development of an efficient method as simple as hand calculation to estimate reduction of residual stresses of very thick welded joint by SR treatment. In this first report, an estimating method is developed for relaxation tests,

K. Nakacho; Y. Ueda

1996-01-01

47

Stress-relief displacements induced by drilling and three-dimensional modeling of planetary impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The holographic stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses, concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall near the sidehole. To interpret the data, it is essential to understand this deformation.

Smither

1992-01-01

48

GEC Ferranti piezo vibratory gyroscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prototypes of a piezo-electric vibratory angular rate transducer (gyroscope) (PVG) have been constructed and evaluated. The construction is on the lines suggested by Burdess. The sensitive element is a cylinder of radially poled piezo-electric ceramic. The cylinder is metallized inside and out, and the outer metallization is divided into eight electrodes. The metallization on the inside is earthed. A phase locked loop, using pairs of the electrodes, causes the cylinder to vibrate in one of its two fundamental, degenerate modes. In the presence of rotation, some of the vibration is coupled into the outer mode. This can be detected, or suppressed with a closed-up technique and provides a measure of rotation rate. The gyroscope provides a number of advantages over rotating mass and optical instruments: low size and mass, lower power consumption, potentially high reliability, potentially good dormancy, low cost and high maximum rate.

Nuttall, J. D.

1993-01-01

49

Stress relief and magnetic properties of magnetostrictive Fe 79B 16Si 5 amorphous magnetic ribbons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The in-plane magnetic anisotropy constant and surface magnetization curves have been measured for magnetostrictive Fe79B16Si5 amorphous ribbon in the as-quenched state and after two isothermal annealing treatments. The variation of the residual stress distribution with the thermal treatments has been obtained and related to the changes in the magnetic properties. The results obtained show that the residual stresses are the

M. Tejedor; J. A Garc??a; J. Carrizo; L. Elbaile; J. D Santos

1999-01-01

50

Light-induced stress relief to improve flaw tolerance in network polymers  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the ability to use photoactivated stress relaxation to improve flaw tolerance in network polymers. Unlike most self-healing polymers, which effectively close flaws by locally introducing healing agents (such as uncured resins), here light is used to relax elevated stresses around a flaw before it reaches a critical state, which reduces the threat that the flaw poses to the structural integrity of the material. In this study, we fabricate specimens with well-defined flaws and uniaxially stretch them to failure. By irradiating the specimens with UV light (365 nm) before failure, the nominal strain at failure is increased by 70% and the corresponding nominal stress is increased by 30% compared with nonirradiated specimens. To better understand the phenomena that occur at the multiaxial stress state at the flaw, we model the photomechanics using a recently developed finite element approach that accurately describes the light propagation, photochemistry, radical-induced network evolution, and the mechanical behavior of the material. Model predictions agree well with the experimental results and elucidate the role that photoinduced stress relaxation has on improving flaw tolerance.

Long, Kevin N.; Dunn, Martin L.; Scott, Timothy F.; Turpin, Lucas P.; Qi, H. Jerry [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

2010-03-15

51

Stress relief and magnetic properties of magnetostrictive Fe 79B 16Si 5 amorphous magnetic ribbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in-plane magnetic anisotropy constant and surface magnetization curves have been measured for magnetostrictive Fe 79B 16Si 5 amorphous ribbon in the as-quenched state and after two isothermal annealing treatments. The variation of the residual stress distribution with the thermal treatments has been obtained and related to the changes in the magnetic properties. The results obtained show that the residual stresses are the main source of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy, they act as pinning centers for the wall displacements, and they are mainly near the surface.

Tejedor, M.; Garc?´a, J. A.; Carrizo, J.; Elbaile, L.; Santos, J. D.

1999-08-01

52

Vibratory Finishing as a Decontamination Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The major objective of this research is to develop vibratory finishing into a large-scale decontamination technique that can economicaly remove transuranic and other surface contamination from large volumes of waste produced by the operation and decommiss...

M. W. McCoy H. W. Arrowsmith R. P. Allen

1980-01-01

53

Health monitoring during vibratory compaction of soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibratory compaction is a proven and commonly adopted densification technique applicable for a wide variety of soil types and compositions. There is a clear need to develop performance-based intelligent vibratory soil compaction techniques wherein the state of the soil is determined during compaction (i.e., health monitoring, continuous quality control). The application of vibration-based structural health monitoring strategies utilized in damage

Michael A. Mooney; Essam F. Tawfik; Godfrey B. Chan; Jie L. Pan

2002-01-01

54

Non-inertial calibration of vibratory gyroscopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrostatic elements already present in a vibratory gyroscope are used to simulate the Coriolis forces. An artificial electrostatic rotation signal is added to the closed-loop force rebalance system. Because the Coriolis force is at the same frequency as the artificial electrostatic force, the simulated force may be introduced into the system to perform an inertial test on MEMS vibratory gyroscopes without the use of a rotation table.

Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

55

Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain ?{111} and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{200} in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the ?{111}-cos2 ? plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90° ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{200}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

Hall, D. A.; Mori, T.; Comyn, T. P.; Ringgaard, E.; Wright, J. P.

2013-07-01

56

Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{l_brace}200{r_brace}in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}-cos{sup 2} {psi} plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90 Degree-Sign ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{l_brace}200{r_brace}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

Hall, D. A.; Mori, T. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Comyn, T. P. [Institute for Materials Research, Woodhouse Lane, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ringgaard, E. [Meggitt Sensing Systems, Hejreskovvej 18A, 3490 Kvistgaard (Denmark); Wright, J. P. [ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

2013-07-14

57

Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

1941-01-01

58

Stress-relief displacements induced by drilling--applications to holographic measurements of in situ stress. Final technical report, August 15, 1988--August 14, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The holographic stressmeter is an instrument which has been developed at Caltech to allow determination of the complete stress tensor from in situ borehole measurements. The stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a small sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses, concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall in the vicinity of the sidehole. The first part of this study uses a thin infinite elastic plate subjected to plane stress at infinity to model the displacements at the borehole wall. However, the existence of some holograms which were difficult to model closely led us to examine the validity of this model. In order to investigate the problem further, we performed a two-dimensional finite element analysis for an elastic box with a terminated hole. We varied the dimensions of the hole to see what effect the radius and depth of the hole might have on the displacements. The plate model predicts that the depth of the hole should have no effect on the horizontal components of displacement, but the finite element results show that the magnitude of both components of the displacement depends on the depth of the sidehole. After considering these results, we developed a new model for the analysis of stress-relief displacements, following the work of Youngdahl and Sternberg (1965). For holes with a depth-to-diameter ratio greater than unity, the simple plane stress elastic plate solution breaks down and does not adequately model the displacements at the surface of the body and near the hole. Since these are the areas most critical to calculate accurately with the holographic technique, the revised model does a better job of fitting the observed data.

Ahrens, T.J.; Smither, C.L.

1992-04-24

59

Dry period heat stress relief effects on prepartum progesterone, calf birth weight, and milk production.  

PubMed

Effects of cooling high producing dairy cows during the dry period were examined in 84 pluriparous Israeli-Holstein cows. Cooling was by a combination of wetting and forced ventilation from 0600 to 1800 h until parturition and common management afterwards for both groups. Cooling maintained diurnal increase in rectal temperature within .2 degrees C as compared with .5 degrees C in control cows in warmer months, Mean rectal temperatures at 1400 h in control cows were moderate, within 39.2 degrees C. Cooling did not affect prepartum or postpartum body condition score or mean blood progesterone during the dry period. Results suggested a possible increase in blood progesterone in later pregnancy by cooling during hot weather. Cooling increased mean 150-d milk production by 3.6 kg/d (3.1 kg FCM/d). Prepartum cooling negatively affected first lactation month yield in cows calving in early summer. Prepartum cooling might prevent adaptation to heat and impair subsequent postpartum performance. Prepartum progesterone was not related to milk yield. Calves' birth weight increased by cooling, but the effect was mostly in older cows. Birth weight was related to milk yield, independently of cooling effect, mostly in older cows. Cooling during the dry period might increase milk yield as it does during lactation. Results indicate possible benefit of cooling dry cows even under mild heat stress. PMID:3372821

Wolfenson, D; Flamenbaum, I; Berman, A

1988-03-01

60

Fracture properties of hydrided Zircaloy-4 cladding in recrystallization and stress-relief anneal conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the stress-relieved (SRA) and recrystallized (RXA) Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens were hydrogen-charged to the target concentration of 300 wppm and then manufactured into X-specimens for fracture toughness test. The hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens in both SRA and RXA conditions were investigated. At the hydrogen concentration level of 300 wppm, J-integral values for RXA cladding were higher than those for SRA cladding at both 25 °C and 300 °C. The formation of brittle zirconium hydrides had a significant impact on the fracture toughness of Zircaloy-4 cladding in both SRA and RXA states, especially at 25 °C. Among all the tests, SRA cladding tested at 25 °C exhibited a great loss of the fracture toughness. The micrographic and fractographic observations further demonstrated that the fracture toughness of Zircaloy-4 cladding would be improved by the coarse grains in RXA cladding, but degraded by zirconium hydrides precipitated along the grain boundary.

Hsu, Hsiao-Hung; Tsay, Leu-Wen

2012-03-01

61

Effect of angular inflow on the vibratory response of a counter-rotating propeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a propeller vibratory stress survey on the Fairey Gannet aircraft aimed at giving an assessment of the difference in vibratory response between single and counter-rotating propeller operation in angular inflow. The survey showed that counter-rotating operation of the propeller had the effect of increasing the IP response of the rear propeller by approximately 25 percent over comparable single-rotation operation while counter-rotating operation did not significantly influence the IP response of the front propeller.

Turnberg, J. E.; Brown, P. C.

1985-01-01

62

A simple estimating method for reduction of welding residual stresses in thick welded joint from stress-relief annealing. Part 2: The characteristics of reduction of welding residual stresses in very thick joints during SR treatment  

SciTech Connect

Stress-relief annealing (SR treatment) is often applied to relieve welding residual stresses in the fabrication process of pressure vessels, etc. This study aims at development of an efficient method as simple as hand calculation to estimate reduction of residual stresses of very thick welded joint by SR treatment. In the first report, an estimating method was developed for relaxation tests, in uniaxial stress state, at changing and constant temperatures because the stress relaxation phenomenon is considerably similar to that observed in the SR treatment of a joint. In this report, the stresses relaxed by SR treatment in a very thick welded joint are analyzed accurately by the finite element method based on thermal elastic-plastic-creep theory. The characteristics of the changes of the welding residual stresses in multiaxial stress state are studied in detail for further development of the estimating method to SR treatment of a very thick welded joint, of which the stress state and boundary condition are very complex.

Nakacho, K.; Ueda, Y. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan). Joining and Welding Research Inst.

1999-02-01

63

Dynamic analysis of vibratory insertion process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to investigate theoretically and experimentally the process of compliantly supported peg insertion into a bush for high-speed assembly, when vibrations are provided to the bush in the axial direction, and to analyse the influence of the parameters of the dynamic system and excitation on the assembly process. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The mathematical model of parts vibratory

Sigitas Kilikevicius; Bronius Baksys

2011-01-01

64

Vibratory finishing as a decontamination process  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of this research is to develop vibratory finishing into a large-scale decontamination technique that can economicaly remove transuranic and other surface contamination from large volumes of waste produced by the operation and decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities. The successful development and widespread application of this decontamination technique would substantially reduce the volume of waste requiring expensive geologic disposal. Other benefits include exposure reduction for decontamination personnel and reduced risk of environmental contamination. Laboratory-scale studies showed that vibratory finishing can rapidly reduce the contamination level of transuranic-contaminated stainless steel and Plexiglas to well below the 10-nCi/g limit. The capability of vibratory finishing as a decontamination process was demonstrated on a large scale. The first decontamination demonstration was conducted at the Hanford N-Reactor, where a vibratory finisher was installed to reduce personnel exposure during the summer outage. Items decontaminated included fuel spacers, process-tube end caps, process-tube inserts, pump parts, ball-channel inspection tools and miscellaneous hand tools. A second demonstration is currently being conducted in the decontamination facility at the Hanford 231-Z Building. During this demonstration, transuranic-contaminated material from decommissioned plutonium facilities is being decontaminated to <10 nCi/g to minimize the volume of material that will require geologic disposal. Items that are being decontaminated include entire glove boxes, process-hood structural material and panels, process tanks, process-tank shields, pumps, valves and hand tools used during the decommissioning work.

McCoy, M.W.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Allen, R.P.

1980-10-01

65

Vibratory finishing as a decontamination process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objective of this research is to develop vibratory finishing into a large-scale decontamination technique that can economicaly remove transuranic and other surface contamination from large volumes of waste produced by the operation and decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities. The successful development and widespread application of this decontamination technique would substantially reduce the volume of waste requiring expensive geologic

M. W. McCoy; H. W. Arrowsmith; R. P. Allen

1980-01-01

66

Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream  

DOEpatents

A vibratory fluid pump having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments.

Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM); Woloshun, Keith A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

67

Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream  

DOEpatents

A vibratory fluid pump is described having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments. 3 figs.

Merrigan, M.A.; Woloshun, K.A.

1990-11-13

68

Responses to Changes in Ca2+ Supply in Two Mediterranean Evergreens, Phillyrea latifolia and Pistacia lentiscus, During Salinity Stress and Subsequent Relief  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Changes in root-zone Ca2+ concentration affect a plant's performance under high salinity, an issue poorly investigated for Mediterranean xerophytes, which may suffer from transient root-zone salinity stress in calcareous soils. It was hypothesized that high-Ca2+ supply may affect differentially the response to salinity stress of species differing in their strategy of Na+ allocation at organ level. Phillyrea latifolia and Pistacia lentiscus, which have been reported to greatly differ for Na+ uptake and transport rates to the leaves, were studied. Methods In plants exposed to 0 mm or 200 mm NaCl and supplied with 2·0 mm or 8·0 mm Ca2+, under 100 % solar irradiance, measurements were conducted of (a) gas exchange, PSII photochemistry and plant growth; (b) water and ionic relations; (c) the activity of superoxide dismutase and the lipid peroxidation; and (d) the concentration of individual polyphenols. Gas exchange and plant growth were also estimated during a period of relief from salinity stress. Key Results The performance of Pistacia lentiscus decreased to a significantly smaller degree than that of Phillyrea latifolia because of high salinity. Ameliorative effects of high-Ca2+ supply were more evident in Phillyrea latifolia than in Pistacia lentiscus. High-Ca2+ reduced steeply the Na+ transport to the leaves in salt-treated Phillyrea latifolia, and allowed a faster recovery of gas exchange and growth rates as compared with low-Ca2+ plants, during the period of relief from salinity. Salt-induced biochemical adjustments, mostly devoted to counter salt-induced oxidative damage, were greater in Phillyrea latifolia than in Pistacia lentiscus. Conclusions An increased Ca2+ : Na+ ratio may be of greater benefit for Phillyrea latifolia than for Pistacia lentiscus, as in the former, adaptive mechanisms to high root-zone salinity are primarily devoted to restrict the accumulation of potentially toxic ions in sensitive shoot organs.

Tattini, Massimiliano; Traversi, Maria Laura

2008-01-01

69

21 CFR 884.4270 - Vibratory cervical dilators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...884.4270 Vibratory cervical dilators. (a) Identification. A vibratory cervical dilator is a device designed to dilate the cervical os by stretching it with a power-driven vibrating probe head. The device is used to gain access to the...

2010-04-01

70

Type I and Type II Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

All Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes (MVG) are based on the principle that the Coriolis forces produced by rotation of the gyro cause a transfer of energy between two of the gyro's modes of vibration. Vibratory Gyroscopes can be classified into two broad types, angle gyroscopes (or Type I) and rate gyroscopes (or Type II). Gyroscopes of the first type measure orientation

Andrei M. Shkel

2006-01-01

71

Vibratory Separation of Plastic Mixtures Using Triboelectric Charging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of experimental and analytical studies of the performance of a novel vibratory separator of plastic mixtures for recycling. The separator unit consists of a vibratory conveyor equipped with two plate electrodes. The principle behind the separation technique is based on the difference in Coulomb force acting on the plastic particles after triboelectric charging. The separation

Masato Saeki

2006-01-01

72

Innovative decontamination technology by abrasion in vibratory vessels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The possibility of using conventional vibratory vessel technology as a decontamination technique is the motivation for the development of this project. The objective is to explore the feasibility of applying the vibratory vessel technology for decontamination of radioactively-contaminated materials such as pipes and metal structures. The research and development of

Silvio Fabbri; Sergio Ilarri

2007-01-01

73

Micromachined Vibratory Diffraction Grating Scanner for Multiwavelength Collinear Laser Scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an effective method to achieve multiwavelength collinear laser scanning using micromachined vibratory grating scanners, which have the potential to scan at high frequencies without the optical performance degradation resulting from dynamic nonrigid-body deformation. An optical simulation model has been developed to predict the scanning patterns of the vibratory grating scanners. The proposed multiwavelength collinear scanning method was

Guangya Zhou; Fook Siong Chau

2006-01-01

74

Vibratory stimulation of expiratory muscles inhibits respiration.  

PubMed

Induced vibration of the respiratory muscles alters the breathing pattern but controversy persists concerning the most effective site to vibrate, the relative merits of sustained versus phase-locked vibration, and the neural mechanisms involved. In this study we applied a sustained vibratory stimulus to the expiratory intercostal or the external oblique abdominal muscle and compared its effects on tidal volume, inspiratory duration and mean inspiratory flow. Our objective was to deduce from the changes in these respiratory variables whether the sensory input evoked by the vibratory stimulation modulated the central inspiratory drive, the termination of inspiration, or both. Subjects rebreathed from a spirometer which initially contained pure oxygen without a CO2 absorber. Either unilateral or bilateral sustained vibration (100 Hz, 2 mm amplitude) was applied to the 7th or 8th intercostal space anterior to the midaxillary line where the intercostal muscle is a single layer and functions in expiration. Bilateral chest wall vibration suppressed the tidal volume in 7 of 9 subjects. In 4 of 9 subjects, the inspiratory duration was shortened, reflecting premature termination of inspiration. In 5 of 9 subjects, the mean inspiratory flow was reduced, reflecting depression of the central inspiratory drive. Sustained abdominal vibration suppressed tidal volume and reduced inspiratory duration in 4 of 5 subjects. Thus, sustained vibration of either of the expiratory muscles resulted in a reduction in tidal volume. We concluded that sensory input initiated by sustained vibration of abdominal muscles acts centrally to suppress the level of activity in inspiratory neurons. PMID:2487972

Kondo, T; Bishop, B; Suzuki, H

1989-09-01

75

Vibratory Shock Compaction of Granular Nuclear Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibratory Shock Compaction (VSC) is a proven means for quickly forming strong, durable solids from a wide variety of granular materials[1]. Calcination of tank and other forms of high level radioactive wastes results in fine granular material that is quite amenable to volume reduction and stabilization. We have employed utilities coal ash as a calcine waste surrogate, blended with a quartz/feldspar-rich sand and 0-20% proportions of a borosilicate glass. The blends were compacted at room temperature and fired so that the glass melt could form an efficient binder. Included in the blend are small quantities of three RCRA metals, chromium, cadmium and lead, to permit testing for heavy metal stability. The VSC process is described and the results presented in terms of the waste form dissolution rates, compressive strengths, elastic moduli as determined from resonant frequency measurements, and heavy metal leach rates from Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure measurements. Vibratory shock compaction employing glass binders appears to be a viable alternative to traditional vitrification processes for granular waste forms. [1] See http://www.resonantshockcompact.com

Amme, Robert C.

2004-05-01

76

A simple estimating method for reduction of welding residual stresses in thick welded joint from stress-relief annealing. Part 1: Development of the analytical method for relaxation tests and its applicability  

SciTech Connect

Stress-relief annealing (SR treatment) is often applied to relieve welding residual stresses in the fabrication process of pressure vessels etc. This study aims at development of an efficient method as simple as hand calculation to estimate reduction of residual stresses of very thick welded joint by SR treatment. In this first report, an estimating method is developed for relaxation tests, in uniaxial stress state, at changing and constant temperatures because the stress relaxation phenomenon is very similar to that observed in the SR treatment of a joint. Using the various relations between stress and strains in the relaxation tests, estimating equations are formulated in order to simply calculate the change of the stress. The results obtained by applying the equations are compared with the highly accurate analytical result based on the finite element method. Both results show such a good coincidence that the appropriateness of the adopted method is confirmed. In the next report, this method is extended to SR treatment of a very thick welded joint, of which the stress state and boundary condition are very complex.

Nakacho, K.; Ueda, Y. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan). Joint and Welding Research Inst.

1996-08-01

77

Stress concentration factors of flat end to cylindrical shell connection with a fillet or stress relief groove subjected to internal pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

For fatigue assessment of pressure vessels (parts), as proposed by the CEN Technical Committee 54, the knowledge of some stress quantities in the structure is necessary, e.g. equivalent stresses according to Tresca's yield criterion and principal stresses at welds. In this article, these quantities are given in the form of stress concentration factors for the flat end to cylindrical shell

Reinhard Preiss

1997-01-01

78

Making Precise Resonators for Mesoscale Vibratory Gyroscopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative approach to the design and fabrication of vibratory gyroscopes is founded on the use of fabrication techniques that yield best results in the mesoscopic size range, which is characterized by overall device dimensions of the order of a centimeter. This approach stands in contradistinction to prior approaches in (1) the macroscopic size range (the size range of conventional design and fabrication, characterized by overall device dimensions of many centimeters) and (2) the microscopic size range [the size range of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), characterized by overall device dimensions of the order of a millimeter or less]. The mesoscale approach offers some of the advantage of the MEMS approach (sizes and power demands smaller than those of the macroscale approach) and some of the advantage of the macroscale approach (the possibility of achieving relative dimensional precision greater than that of the MEMS approach). Relative dimensional precision is a major issue in the operation of a vibratory gyroscope. The heart of a vibratory gyroscope is a mechanical resonator that is required to have a specified symmetry in a plane orthogonal to the axis about which rotation is to be measured. If the resonator could be perfectly symmetrical, then in the absence of rotation, a free vibration of the resonator could remain fixed along any orientation relative to its housing; that is, the gyroscope could exhibit zero drift. In practice, manufacturing imprecision gives rise to some asymmetry in mass, flexural stiffness or dissipation, resulting in a slight drift or beating motion of an initial vibration pattern that cannot be distinguished from rotation. In the mesoscale approach, one exploits the following concepts: For a given amount of dimensional error generated in manufacturing, the asymmetry and hence the rate-of-rotation drift of the gyroscope can be reduced by increasing the scale. The decrease in asymmetry also reduces coupling of vibrations to the external environment. Mechanical thermal noise and electronic measurement noise and drift can also be reduced by increasing the size of the resonator and its associated sensors.

Yang, Eui-Hyeok

2004-01-01

79

Fast Laser Shutters With Low Vibratory Disturbances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype vacuum-compatible, fast-acting, long-life shutter unit that generates very little vibratory disturbance during switching is reviewed. This is one of a number of shutters designed to satisfy requirements specific to an experiment, to be performed aboard a spacecraft in flight, in which laser beams must be blocked rapidly and completely, without generating a vibratory disturbance large enough to adversely affect the power and frequency stability of the lasers. Commercial off-the-shelf laboratory shutter units -- typically containing electromagnet-coil-driven mechanisms -- were found not to satisfy the requirements because they are not vacuum-compatible, their actuators engage in uncompensated motions that generate significant vibrations, and their operational lifetimes are too short. Going beyond the initial outerspace application, the present vacuum-compatible, fast-acting, long-life shutter units could also be used in terrestrial settings in which there are requirements for their special characteristics. In designing these shutter units, unbalanced, electromagnetically driven mechanisms were replaced with balanced mechanisms that include commercial piezoelectric bending actuators. In each shutter unit, the piezoelectric bending actuators are configured symmetrically as opposing cantilever beams within a housing that contains integral mounts for lenses that focus a laser beam to a waist at the shutter location. In operation, the laser beam is blocked by titanium blades bonded near the free ends of the piezoelectric benders. The benders are driven by shaped electrical pulses with a maximum voltage differential of less than 60 V. Preliminary measurements indicate that rise and fall times are less than 1 ms.

Brinza, David; Moore, Donald; Hochberg, Eric; Radey, Tom; Chen, Albert

2005-01-01

80

Electrodeposition on Ni from a Sulfamate Electrolyte Part 1: Effect of a Stress Relief on Annealing Behavior and Film Metallurgy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ni and Ni alloys are being developed as baseline materials for LIGA technology and prototyping at Sandia National Laboratories. A conventional, additive-free sulfamate electrolyte has been chosen for pure Ni electrodeposition due to its simplicity and ability to produce ductile, low-stress films. When depositing certain Ni alloys, saccharin is typically employed as an electrolyte bath additive. While saccharin is well

James J. Kelly

2002-01-01

81

Prediction of turbine blade vibratory response due to upstream vane distress  

SciTech Connect

Turbine blades and vanes operate in a hostile environment, which leads to deterioration of these components over time. This paper describes detailed calculations to predict the vibratory response of a high-pressure turbine blade due to the excitation produced by a single distressed upstream vane in a modern turbofan engine. The approach includes detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the steady flowfield produced by the distressed vane, Fourier decomposition of the flow variables to determine the harmonic content, unsteady CFD analysis to determine the resulting vibratory response of the blade, and crack propagation analysis to determine blade life. Predictions of vibratory stress and threshold crack size are summarized as functions of vane distress level. The results, which indicate that this type of vane distress can indeed be a significant excitation source for the blades, are shown to be in good agreement with engine experience. The method provides, for the first time, a quantitative approach to setting limits for acceptable levels of vane distress in the field.

Panovsky, J.; Carson, S.M. [GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1998-07-01

82

Research on Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro's Character of Resonator  

PubMed Central

Bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a new type Coriolis vibratory gyro that was inspired by Chinese traditional clocks. The resonator fuses based on a variable thickness axisymmetric multicurved surface shell. Its characteristics can directly influence the performance of BVG. The BVG structure not only has capabilities of bearing high overload, high impact and, compared with the tuning fork, vibrating beam, shell and a comb structure, but also a higher frequency to overcome the influence of the disturbance of the exterior environment than the same sized hemispherical resonator gyroscope (HRG) and the traditional cylinder vibratory gyroscope. It can be widely applied in high dynamic low precision angular rate measurement occasions. The main work is as follows: the issue mainly analyzes the structure and basic principle, and investigates the bell-shaped resonator's mathematical model. The reasonable structural parameters are obtained from finite element analysis and an intelligent platform. Using the current solid vibration gyro theory analyzes the structural characteristics and principles of BVG. The bell-shaped resonator is simplified as a paraboloid of the revolution mechanical model, which has a fixed closed end and a free opened end. It obtains the natural frequency and vibration modes based on the theory of elasticity. The structural parameters are obtained from the orthogonal method by the research on the structural parameters of the resonator analysis. It obtains the modal analysis, stress analysis and impact analysis with the chosen parameters. Finally, using the turntable experiment verifies the gyro effect of the BVG.

Su, Zhong; Fu, Mengyin; Li, Qing; Liu, Ning; Liu, Hong

2013-01-01

83

Comparison and combination of several stress relief methods for cubic boron nitride films deposited by ion beam assisted deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cubic boron nitride (c-BN) films were prepared by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technique, and the stresses were primary estimated by measuring the frequency shifts in the infrared-absorption peaks of c-BN samples. To test the possible effects of other factors, dependencies of the c-BN transversal optical mode position on film thickness and c-BN content were investigated. Several methods for reducing

Y. M. Fan; X. W. Zhang; J. B. You; H. R. Tan; N. F. Chen

2009-01-01

84

Use of Vibratory Coring Samplers for Sediment Surveys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vibratory coring apparatus was developed about 30 years ago by Soviet engineers to increase existing capabilities to penetrate and recover cohesionless soil samples. In 1963, the original Soviet design was used by personnel at Alpine Geophysical Assoc...

E. P. meisburger S. J. Williams

1981-01-01

85

On the theoretical analysis of vibratory flame propagation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The condition is established under which the mutual effect between wave generation at a flame surface and periodic accelerations in the surrounding medium may become an essential feedback mechanism in the vibratory propagation of the flame along ducts.

I. A. Chuchkalov; S. A. Abrukov

1970-01-01

86

About the Vibratory Instability of the Superphenix Reactor Weir.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A vibratory instability was discovered during the hot tests of Superphenix. This instability is due to the fluid discharge over a flexible weir which separates two thin fluid sheets (the feeding and restitution collectors). A large investigation program w...

S. Attia R. J. Gibert

1986-01-01

87

Vertical-plane pendulum absorbers for minimizing helicopter vibratory loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of pendulum dynamic absorbers mounted on the blade root and operating in the vertical plane to minimize helicopter vibratory loads was discussed. A qualitative description was given of the concept of the dynamic absorbers and some results of analytical studies showing the degree of reduction in vibratory loads attainable are presented. Operational experience of vertical plane dynamic absorbers on the OH-6A helicopter is also discussed.

Amer, K. B.; Neff, J. R.

1974-01-01

88

Numerical Simulation of Stress-Relief Effects of Protective Layer Extraction / Symulacja numeryczna skutków odpr??enia warstwy zabezpieczaj?cej w trakcie jej wybierania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field test and laboratory analog model test on the stress-relief effects of protective layer extraction are time-consuming and laborious. In this paper, on the basis of full consideration of rock heterogeinity and in combination with gas geology at Pingdingshan Mine 5, a numerical model was estalished with the gas-solid coupling rock failure process analysis system RFPA-Gas to simulate the stress variation law, roof and floor deformation, fracture evolution law, displacement in the protected seam, change in gas permeability and gas migration law during protective layer extraction. The simulation results repoduced stress variations in coal and rock strata, roof and floor deformation and fracture evolution process during protective layer extraction. The movement of rock strata were characterized by upper three zones and lower two zones: caving zone, fracture zone and bending subsidence zone in the vertical direction in the overlying strata; floor deformation and failure zone and elasto-plastic deformation zone in the vertical direction in the underlying strata. It showed that stress relief occurred in the protected seam, which led to vertical and horizontal displacements, significant increase in gas permeability, gas desorption and migration. Hence, the outburst threat in the protected seam was eliminated. Meanwhile, with comprehensive analysis of variaition of stress state, deformation characteristics and fracture distribution in coal seam and with consideration of changes in gas leakage rate, gas pressure and permeability, according to gas leakage rate, the floor strata of the protecive layer were divided into four leakage zones. They corresponded to four zones with different stress states and fracture development: original leakage zone - slow reducing leakage zone - dramatic increasing leakage zone- steady increasing leakage zone. This classification provides a clear direction for gas control in the protective layer. The simulation results are in good agreement with the stress-relief effects in field. Badania terenowe oraz modelowanie w warunkach laboratoryjnych skutków odpr??enia warstwy zabezpieczaj?cej w trakcie wydobycia s? niezwykle czasoch?onne i skomplikowane. Uwzgl?dniaj?c niejednorodno?? ska? i wykorzystuj?c dane geologiczne i o obecno?ci gazów w kopalni Pindingshan 5, opracowano model numeryczny p?kania ska? w uk?adzie gaz-cia?o sta?e w oparciu o analiz? uk?adu RFPA-Gaz. Model wykorzystano do symulacji zmian napr??e?, odkszta?ce? stropu i sp?gu, propagacji p?kni??, przemieszcze? w pok?adach zabezpieczonych, zmian w przepuszczalno?ci gazów oraz migracji gazów w trakcie wybierania warstwy zabezpieczaj?cej. Wyniki symulacji odwzorowuj? zmiany napr??e?, odkszta?ce? stropu i sp?gu, propagacji p?kni?? w trakcie wybierania warstwy ochronnej. Ruchy warstw górotworu scharakteryzowano poprzez analiz? trzech stref nadk?adu i dwóch stref lez?cych poni?ej: w warstwach nadk?adu: strefy zawa?u, strefy sp?ka? oraz strefy osiadania (przemieszczenia w kierunku pionowym), w warstwach le??cych poni?ej: strefy odkszta?cenia i p?kania sp?gu, oraz strefy odkszta?ce? elastyczno- plastycznych w kierunku pionowym. Wykazano, ?e odpr??anie mia?o miejsce w pok?adzie zabezpieczaj?cym, co prowadzi?o do powstania przemieszcze? pionowych oraz poziomych, zanotowano tak?e znaczny wzrost przepuszczalno?ci gazów, desorpcji gazów oraz ich transportu. Z tych wzgl?dów zagro?enie wybuchem w pok?adzie ochronnym zosta?o wyeliminowane. Ca?o?ciowa analiza zmian stanu napr??enia, charakterystyki odkszta?ce? i rozk?adu p?kni?? w pok?adzie w?gla przeprowadzona zosta?a dla czterech stref przecieku gazów, wydzielonych w oparciu zmiany nat??enia wyp?ywu gazów, ci?nienia gazów oraz przepuszczalno?ci w odniesieniu do nat??enia przep?ywu gazu w sp?gu w warstwie ochronnej. Te cztery strefy odpowiada?y czterem strefom w których zanotowano odmienne stany napr??e? i rozk?adu sp?ka?: pierwotna strefa wycieku, powoli zmniejszaj?ca si? strefa wycieku, gram

Tian-Rang, Jia; Zi-Min, Zhang; Chun-An, Tang; Yong-Jun, Zhang

2013-06-01

89

OMP Peptides Activate the DegS Stress-Sensor Protease by a Relief of Inhibition Mechanism  

SciTech Connect

In the E. coli periplasm, C-terminal peptides of misfolded outer-membrane porins (OMPs) bind to the PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease, triggering cleavage of a transmembrane regulator and transcriptional activation of stress genes. We show that an active-site DegS mutation partially bypasses the requirement for peptide activation and acts synergistically with mutations that disrupt contacts between the protease and PDZ domains. Biochemical results support an allosteric model, in which these mutations, active-site modification, and peptide/substrate binding act in concert to stabilize proteolytically active DegS. Cocrystal structures of DegS in complex with different OMP peptides reveal activation of the protease domain with varied conformations of the PDZ domain and without specific contacts from the bound OMP peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the binding of OMP peptides activates proteolysis principally by relieving inhibitory contacts between the PDZ domain and the protease domain of DegS.

Sohn, Jungsan; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.; MIT

2010-03-19

90

Analysis of rabbit intervertebral disc physiology based on water metabolism. II. Changes in normal intervertebral discs under axial vibratory load  

SciTech Connect

Metabolic changes induced by axial vibratory load to the spine were investigated based on water metabolism in normal intervertebral discs of rabbits with or without pentobarbital anesthesia. Tritiated water concentration in the intervertebral discs of unanesthetized rabbits was reduced remarkably by axial vibration for 30 minutes using the vibration machine developed for this study. Repeated vibratory load for 18 and 42 hours duration showed the recovery of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration of the intervertebral disc without anesthesia. Computer simulation suggested a reduction of blood flow surrounding the intervertebral disc following the vibration stress. However, no reduction of the /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration in the intervertebral disc was noted under anesthesia. Emotional stress cannot be excluded as a factor in water metabolism in the intervertebral disc.

Hirano, N.; Tsuji, H.; Ohshima, H.; Kitano, S.; Itoh, T.; Sano, A.

1988-11-01

91

Miniaturized quartz vibratory gyrosensor with hammer-headed arms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly designed vibratory gyrosensor using a quartz crystal was developed for electronic image stabilizing technology in video cameras and digital camera systems. These systems require low driving voltage for low power consumption and small size for compact assembly. Conventional gyrosensors for these systems use the PZT ceramic vibrator, which is too large to be assembled into recent digital camera

T. Kikuchi; S. Gouji; T. Tai; S. Hayashi; N. Okada; M. Tani; S. Ishikawa; S. Yokoi; T. Enokijima; Y. Kawamura; Y. Osugi; M. Masuda; H. Katsukawa; Y. Kobayashi; Y. Morita

2004-01-01

92

Reliable Relief Sculpture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contends that the principles of unity, variety, and balance can be taught to elementary school students through the production of relief sculptures. Describes how students were introduced to relief sculpture and how they created sculptures using common materials. Relates how painting the sculptures was related to a lesson on color. (DSK)

Chrisman, Karen A.

1998-01-01

93

Mechanical Assessment of the Waste Package Subject to Vibratory Motion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide an integrated overview of the calculation reports that define the response of the waste package and its internals to vibratory ground motion. The calculation reports for waste package response to vibratory ground motion are identified in Table 1-1. Three key calculation reports describe the potential for mechanical damage to the waste package, fuel assemblies, and cladding from a seismic event. Three supporting documents have also been published to investigate sensitivity of damage to various assumptions for the calculations. While these individual reports present information on a specific aspect of waste package and cladding response, they do not describe the interrelationship between the various calculations and the relationship of this information to the seismic scenario class for Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report is designed to fill this gap by providing an overview of the waste package structural response calculations.

M. Gross

2004-10-14

94

Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro  

PubMed Central

The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements.

Liu, Ning; Su, Zhong; Li, Qing; Fu, MengYin; Liu, Hong; Fan, JunFang

2013-01-01

95

Deburring die-castings by wet vibratory plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wet vibratory procedure for the removal of burrs from die castings is described. In this process synthetic abrasive chips and detergent solutions are agitated with the work in such a way as to produce a spiral circulatory movement. Details of various forms of vibrator basin and shapes of abrasive are illustrated. The automation of deburring is illustrated through the application of vibrators of spiral design in combination with transport and drying devices.

Loeschbart, H. M.

1980-01-01

96

Probabilistic Model of Fruit Removal during Vibratory Morello Harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantity of the fruit removed under specified harvest conditions and duration of the vibratory impact on a fruit-bearing tree are analysed in the present study, considering the harvest duration as a random variable. Defined are basic probabilistic-statistical characteristics of the removal of a fruit set belonging to a fruit-bearing tree subjected to vibrations, thus establishing a probabilistic model describing

L. M Mateev; G. D Kostadinov

2004-01-01

97

Synthesis of blade flutter vibratory patterns using stationary transducers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Flutter frequency was determined and rotor vibratory amplitude and phase distributions during flutter were reconstructed from stationary aerodynamic type measurements. A previously reported optical method for measuring blade-tip displacement during flutter was extended by means of digital analysis. Displacement amplitudes and phase angles were determined based on this method. For selected blades, spectral results were also obtained from strain gage measurements. The results from these three types of measurement were compared and critically evaluated.

Kurkov, A.; Dicus, J.

1977-01-01

98

Innovative decontamination technology by abrasion in vibratory vessels  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The possibility of using conventional vibratory vessel technology as a decontamination technique is the motivation for the development of this project. The objective is to explore the feasibility of applying the vibratory vessel technology for decontamination of radioactively-contaminated materials such as pipes and metal structures. The research and development of this technology was granted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Abrasion processes in vibratory vessels are widely used in the manufacture of metals, ceramics, and plastics. Samples to be treated, solid abrasive media and liquid media are set up into a vessel. Erosion results from the repeated impact of the abrasive particles on the surface of the body being treated. A liquid media, generally detergents or surfactants aid the abrasive action. The amount of material removed increases with the time of treatment. The design and construction of the machine were provided by Vibro, Argentina private company. Tests with radioactively-contaminated aluminum tubes and a stainless steel bar, were performed at laboratory level. Tests showed that it is possible to clean both the external and the internal surface of contaminated tubes. Results show a decontamination factor around 10 after the first 30 minutes of the cleaning time. (authors)

Fabbri, Silvio; Ilarri, Sergio [National Atomic Energy Commission - CNEA, Avda. del Libertador 8250, CP 1429, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2007-07-01

99

Effects of vibratory actuation on endoscopic capsule vision.  

PubMed

Current research in capsule endoscopy aims at endowing the capsules with some means of actively propelling themselves inside the gastrointestinal (GO tract, as opposed Advantages of these active capsules are the sipificant potential in the duration of the associated diagnostic procedures. as well as the oossihilitv to direct the line-of-sieht of the oh-hoard cameras towards interesting features of the GI tissue. One such means of active propulsion is by vibratory actuation, employing eccentric-mass micromotors, which is shown to reduce the friction of the capsule with the GI tract. The effect of vibrations on the quality of the acquired images is explored in the present study, which demonstrates that such vibrations do not affect adversely the diagnostic effectiveness of the endoscopic capsules. The parameters of vibratory actuation are evaluated as to the loss bf high-frequency information in the acquired images, due to the induced motion blur, and appropriate design guidelines for the vibratory actuation system are established. The validity of this study has been evaluated by ex-vivo and in-vivo experiments. PMID:19164060

Zabulis, Xenophon; Sfakiotakis, Michael; Tsakiris, Dimih-Is P

2008-01-01

100

Speeding earthquake disaster relief  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

1995-01-01

101

What a Relief!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Middle school students in a rural Illinois school visualized and learned more about landforms after making a relief model from a topographic map. They achieved a deeper understanding of topography as the representation of the features and configuration of

Tucker, Richard H.

2001-10-01

102

Dry Skin Relief  

MedlinePLUS

... a soft fabric underneath. Don’t skimp on hand washing , which can remove harmful bacteria and viruses. If ... a good alternative. Apply hand cream after each hand washing. If more relief is needed, dab petroleum jelly ...

103

Mechanisms of pain relief by vibration and movement.  

PubMed Central

Mechanisms of pain relief induced by vibration and movement were investigated. A CO2 laser beam, which is useful for pure nociceptive stimulation, was used for recording pain-related somatosensory evoked potentials (pain SEPs) and for measuring pain threshold and reaction time (RT). Concurrently applied vibratory stimuli to and active movements of the fingers significantly reduced and prolonged pain SEPs, increased pain threshold, and prolonged RT, indicating that an increase in the inhibitory mechanisms of painful feeling was induced by the concurrently adopted sensory inputs mediated by large myelinated fibres. In contrast, continuous cooling enhanced pain SEPs and decreased pain threshold, probably due to the spatial summation of two kinds of nociceptive impulses mediated by the same pathways. The results of this investigation throw light on the mechanisms of the alleviation of pain by vibration and movement.

Kakigi, R; Shibasaki, H

1992-01-01

104

Hydrogen gas relief valve  

DOEpatents

An improved battery stack design for an electrochemical system having at least one cell from which a gas is generated and an electrolyte in communication with the cell is described. The improved battery stack design features means for defining a substantially closed compartment for containing the battery cells and at least a portion of the electrolyte for the system, and means in association with the compartment means for selectively venting gas from the interior of the compartment means in response to the level of the electrolyte within the compartment means. The venting means includes a relief valve having a float member which is actuated in response to the level of the electrolyte within the compartment means. This float member is adapted to close the relief valve when the level of the electrolyte is above a predetermined level and open the relief valve when the level of electrolyte is below this predetermined level.

Whittlesey, Curtis C. (Birmingham, MI)

1985-01-01

105

Influence of long-time stress relief treatments on the dynamic fracture toughness properties of ASME SA508 C1 2a and ASME SA533 GR B C12 pressure vessel steels  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic fracture toughness tests were performed on materials which had been subjected to one of three long-time post weld type stress relief heat treatments: 48 hours at 1000/degree/F (538/degree/C), 24 hours at 1125/degree/F (607/degree/C), and 48 hours at 1125/degree/F (607/degree/C). Linear elastic K/sub Id/ results were obtained at low temperatures while J-integral techniques were utilized to evaluate dynamic fracture toughness over the transition and upper shelf temperature ranges. Tensile, Charpy impact, and drop weight nil-ductility transition tests as well as room temperature, air environment fatigue crack growth rate tests (SA508 Cl 2a only) were also performed. The fracture toughness of both materials exceeded the ASME specified minimum reference toughness K/sub IR/ curve. 17 refs.

Logsdon, W.A.

1982-03-01

106

A systematic method for tuning the dynamics of electrostatically actuated vibratory gyros  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-performance vibratory gyroscopes require two degenerate modal frequencies for maximizing the rate-induced signals relative to noise produced by signal conditioning electronics. The present paper introduces a systematic approach for tuning these modes in vibratory gyros that employ electrostatic actuation. The key contribution shows how a parametric model, which captures the dependence of the sensor dynamics on the bias electrodes' potentials,

Dong Joon Kim; R. T. M'Closkey

2006-01-01

107

A Method of Hub Vibratory Load Prediction under High Speed State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research of hub vibratory loads is a very complicated problem of blade aeroelastic response. Based on the airflow environment of blade, the method of hub vibratory loads prediction will be produced when the helicopter flights forward with high speed. It involves the Leishman-Beddoes unsteady model and dynamic stall model, the dynamic inflow theory, the Piters He generalized dynamic wake

Bo WANG; Shu LI; Wen-yuan CHENG; Ji-zhong HU

2005-01-01

108

Investigation of the Effect of Blade Sweep on Rotor Vibratory Loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of helicopter rotor blade planform sweep on rotor vibratory hub, blade, and control system loads has been analytically investigated. The importance of sweep angle, sweep initiation radius, flap bending stiffness and torsion bending stiffness is discussed. The mechanism by which sweep influences the vibratory hub loads is investigated.

Tarzanin, F. J., Jr.; Vlaminck, R. R.

1983-01-01

109

Automated Measurement of Vocal Fold Vibratory Asymmetry from High-Speed Videoendoscopy Recordings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In prior work, a manually derived measure of vocal fold vibratory phase asymmetry correlated to varying degrees with visual judgments made from laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) recordings. This investigation extended this work by establishing an automated HSV-based framework to quantify 3 categories of vocal fold vibratory

Mehta, Daryush D.; Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Quatieri, Thomas F.; Hillman, Robert E.

2011-01-01

110

High Relief Block Printing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

Foster, Michael

1989-01-01

111

Vent Relief Valve Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Shown is the disassembly, examination, refurbishment and testing of the LH2 ( liquid hydrogen) and LOX (liquid oxygen) vent and relief valves for the S-IVB-211 engine stage in support of the Constellation/Ares project. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

2008-01-01

112

Capacity of relief valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of relief values (RV) for an actual system is made on the basis of working pressure, the adjustment pressure, the pressure of the onset of opening, the pressure of full opening, and the closing pressure. The hydraulic quality of an RV is characterized by the capacity for the mass flow rate of the working medium through the RV

T. F. Kondrateva; V. N. Mamontov; M. G. Myasnikov; E. G. Pinaeva; Y. I. Tarasev

1986-01-01

113

Relief texture mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an extension to texture mapping that supports the representation of 3-D surface details and view motion parallax. The results are correct for viewpoints that are static or moving, far away or nearby. Our approach is very simple: a relief texture (texture extended with an orthogonal displacement per texel) is mapped onto a polygon using a two-step process: First,

Manuel M. Oliveira; Gary Bishop; David F. McAllister

2000-01-01

114

Relief in Ink and Metal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All ages can enjoy printmaking activities, from a simple glue line relief print to an aluminum foil relief which gives the impression of metal embossing. Projects which can be geared to all levels of elementary education are described. (RM)

Sheahan, Lael M.

1983-01-01

115

[Mental health support for disaster relief personnel].  

PubMed

The Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, caused serious damage and resulted in numerous fatalities and almost 20,000 missing persons. Furthermore, a major accident accompanied by exudation of radioactive material occurred in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A statement regarding the victims' mental health was issued by the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology on May 21, 2011, which established the Department of Disaster Psychiatry for the provision and assurance of long-term mental care support for the victims. The Department of Disaster Psychiatry was consequently reformed in April 2012, focusing on the following objectives: to verify the validity of current mental support methods; to ensure disaster psychiatry and medical care in Japan; and to promote human resource development that can respond to future large-scale disasters. Mental health support for disaster victims is of highest priority. However, the mental health of relief personnel, who act as front liners during disasters (i. e., police officers, fire fighters, Self-Defense Forces, and health care workers), has often been neglected. Therefore, countermeasures for the problems faced by relief personnel are indispensable for a more effective reconstruction. Volunteers are also important members of the disaster relief team and they have witnessed the actual tragedy, and some have experienced burnout. Thus, they require sufficient mental health support, as do relief personnel. We thought that the mental health of disaster relief personnel is an important issue; thus, we report their mental health needs, the systematic correspondence to disaster stress, and our works for relief assistance. As first responders, relief personnel even without prior disaster education proceed to the area of disaster and may get injured. We therefore suggest that prior to the occurrence of any disaster, networking, education, and disaster awareness should be advocated among relief personnel and volunteers to safeguard their mental health. However, programs on these subjects remain insufficient. We extend our utmost respect and appreciation to the disaster relief workforce for doing their best to save lives. We hope that this aids in the reconstruction process of such affected areas. PMID:24783446

Takahashi, Sho

2014-01-01

116

In-situ Stress Measurement Program-Field Results. Determination of the Regional Stress Field in New York State and Adjacent Areas by In-Situ Strain Relief Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mapping of stress orientations and magnitudes in rock outcrops may identify domains of uniform stress. These uniform stress domains may help to redefine uniform stress field domains in rock outcrops of tectonic provinces to be more applicable to the p...

M. Sbar T. Engelder W. Prell

1975-01-01

117

Adaptive Control of a Vibratory Angle Measuring Gyroscope  

PubMed Central

This paper presents an adaptive control algorithm for realizing a vibratory angle measuring gyroscope so that rotation angle can be directly measured without integration of angular rate, thus eliminating the accumulation of numerical integration errors. The proposed control algorithm uses a trajectory following approach and the reference trajectory is generated by an ideal angle measuring gyroscope driven by the estimate of angular rate and the auxiliary sinusoidal input so that the persistent excitation condition is satisfied. The developed control algorithm can compensate for all types of fabrication imperfections such as coupled damping and stiffness, and mismatched stiffness and un-equal damping term in an on-line fashion. The simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed control algorithm that is capable of directly measuring rotation angle without the integration of angular rate.

Park, Sungsu

2010-01-01

118

Split-Resonator, Integrated-Post Vibratory Microgyroscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved design for a capacitive-sensing, rocking-mode vibratory microgyroscope is more amenable to mass production, relative to a prior design. Both the improved design and the prior design call for a central post that is part of a resonator that partly resembles a cloverleaf or a flower. The prior design is such that the post has to be fabricated as a separate piece, then bonded to the rest of the resonator in the correct position and orientation. The improved design provides for fabrication of the post as an integral part of the resonator and, in so doing, makes it possible to produce a waferful of microgyroscopes, without need to fabricate, position, and attach posts.

Bae, Youngsam; Hayworth, Ken; Shcheglov, Kirill

2005-01-01

119

Influence of the ploughing effect on the dynamic behaviour of the self-vibratory drilling head  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibratory drilling process enables the chip to be split into small elements thanks to axial vibrations of the drill self-maintained by the cutting energy. The vibrations should remain stable when machining, and damping be removed or very limited—particularly the ploughing force induced by the chisel edge and the flank face. To predict the behaviour of the self-vibratory drilling head,

D. Brissaud; A. Gouskov; N. Guibert; J. Rech

2008-01-01

120

Disturbances in Self-Synchronisation of Vibrators in Vibratory Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An influence of elastic support elements arrangements and ratios of elasticity and damping constants in vertical and horizontal direction on self-synchronisation accuracy was investigated in the paper. The obtained results of the other factors influence on disturbances in self-synchronisation of vibrators in vibratory machines are also presented. Especially, influence of a diversification of driving and anti-torque moments, not central direction of the resulting force of the vibrators set , the local flexibility of mounting of vibrators to the machine body and influence of collisions with a feed were described. W pracy zbadano wp?yw rozmieszczenia elementów spr??ystych zawieszenia i proporcji pomi?dzy sta?ymi spr??ysto?ci i t?umienia tych elementów na kierunkach pionowym i poziomym na dok?adno?? samosynchronizacji wibratorów. Przytoczono te? rezultaty bada? autorów nad wp?ywem innych przyczyn na zaburzenia samosynchronizacji wibratorów maszyn wibracyjnych. W szczególno?ci okre?lono wp?yw na zjawisko samosynchronizacji takich zjawisk jak: zró?nicowanie momentów nap?dowych i oporowych, niecentralne ukierunkowanie wypadkowej si?y wymuszaj?cej zespo?u wibratorów, lokalna podatno?? zamocowania wibratorów do korpusu maszyny i oddzia?ywanie zderze? z nadaw?

Michalczyk, Jerzy; Cieplok, Grzegorz

2014-03-01

121

7 CFR 760.106 - Equitable relief.  

...2014-01-01 false Equitable relief. 760.106 Section 760...for Supplemental Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.106 Equitable relief. (a) The Secretary may provide equitable relief on a case-by-case...

2014-01-01

122

7 CFR 760.106 - Equitable relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Equitable relief. 760.106 Section 760...for Supplemental Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.106 Equitable relief. (a) The Secretary may provide equitable relief on a case-by-case...

2012-01-01

123

7 CFR 760.106 - Equitable relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Equitable relief. 760.106 Section 760...for Supplemental Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.106 Equitable relief. (a) The Secretary may provide equitable relief on a case-by-case...

2011-01-01

124

7 CFR 760.106 - Equitable relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Equitable relief. 760.106 Section 760...for Supplemental Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.106 Equitable relief. (a) The Secretary may provide equitable relief on a case-by-case...

2013-01-01

125

7 CFR 760.106 - Equitable relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 760.106 Section 760...for Supplemental Agricultural Disaster Assistance Programs § 760.106 Equitable relief. (a) The Secretary may provide equitable relief on a case-by-case...

2010-01-01

126

30 CFR Relief - Act Deep Water Leases  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1999-07-01 1999-07-01 false Act Deep Water Leases Relief Royalty Relief For Deep Water Expansion Projects And Pre Mineral Resources...lease assignment. Royalty Relief For Deep Water Expansion Projects And Pre-Act Deep...

1999-07-01

127

30 CFR Relief - Act Deep Water Leases  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1998-07-01 1998-07-01 false Act Deep Water Leases Relief Royalty Relief For Deep Water Expansion Projects And Pre ROYALTY MANAGEMENT...lease assignment. Royalty Relief For Deep Water Expansion Projects And Pre-Act Deep...

1998-07-01

128

Compression relief engine brake  

SciTech Connect

A compression relief brake is described for four cycle internal-combustion engines, comprising: a pressurized oil supply; means for selectively pressurizing a hydraulic circuit with oil from the oil supply; a master piston and cylinder communicating with a slave piston and cylinder via the hydraulic circuit; an engine exhaust valve mechanically coupled to the engine and timed to open during the exhaust cycle of the engine the exhaust valve coupled to the slave piston. The exhaust valve is spring-based in a closed state to contact a valve seat; a sleeve frictionally and slidably disposed within a cavity defined by the slave piston which cavity communicates with the hydraulic circuit. When the hydraulic circuit is selectively pressurized and the engine is operating the sleeve entraps an incompressible volume of oil within the cavity to generate a displacement of the slave piston within the slave cylinder, whereby a first gap is maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat; and means for reciprocally activating the master piston for increasing the pressure within the previously pressurized hydraulic circuit during at least a portion of the expansion cycle of the engine whereby a second gap is reciprocally maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat.

Meneely, V.A.

1987-10-06

129

Pressure relief subsystem design description.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary function of the Pressure Relief Subsystem, a subsystem of the Vessel System, is to provide overpressure protection to the Vessel System. When the overpressure setpoint is reached, pressure is reduced by permitting the flow of primary coolant o...

1986-01-01

130

Pupal vibratory signals of a group-living beetle that deter larvae  

PubMed Central

Pupae of some insects produce sounds or vibrations, but the function of the sounds/vibrations has not been clarified in most cases. Recently, we found vibratory communication between pupae and larvae of a group-living beetle Trypoxylus dichotoma, which live in humus soil. The vibratory signals produced by pupae were shown to deter approaching larvae, thereby protecting themselves. In the present study, we tested our hypothesis that pupal signals are mimics of vibratory noises associated with foraging of moles, the most common predators of T. dichotoma. Mole vibrations played back in laboratory experiments deterred larval approaches in the same way as pupal signals. These findings suggest that to deter conspecific larvae, pupae of T. dichotoma may have exploited a preexisting response of larvae to predator vibrations by emitting deceptive signals.

Kojima, Wataru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

2012-01-01

131

Effect of Axial Force on the Performance of Micromachined Vibratory Rate Gyroscopes  

PubMed Central

It is reported in the published literature that the resonant frequency of a silicon micromachined gyroscope decreases linearly with increasing temperature. However, when the axial force is considerable, the resonant frequency might increase as the temperature increases. The axial force is mainly induced by thermal stress due to the mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of the structure and substrate. In this paper, two types of micromachined suspended vibratory gyroscopes with slanted beams were proposed to evaluate the effect of the axial force. One type was suspended with a clamped-free (C-F) beam and the other one was suspended with a clamped-clamped (C-C) beam. Their drive modes are the bending of the slanted beam, and their sense modes are the torsion of the slanted beam. The relationships between the resonant frequencies of the two types were developed. The prototypes were packaged by vacuum under 0.1 mbar and an analytical solution for the axial force effect on the resonant frequency was obtained. The temperature dependent performances of the operated mode responses of the micromachined gyroscopes were measured. The experimental values of the temperature coefficients of resonant frequencies (TCF) due to axial force were 101.5 ppm/°C for the drive mode and 21.6 ppm/°C for the sense mode. The axial force has a great influence on the modal frequency of the micromachined gyroscopes suspended with a C-C beam, especially for the flexure mode. The quality factors of the operated modes decreased with increasing temperature, and changed drastically when the micromachined gyroscopes worked at higher temperatures.

Hou, Zhanqiang; Xiao, Dingbang; Wu, Xuezhong; Dong, Peitao; Chen, Zhihua; Niu, Zhengyi; Zhang, Xu

2011-01-01

132

The monitoring system for vibratory disturbance detection in microgravity environment aboard the international space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists in the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications within the Microgravity Research Division oversee studies in important physical, chemical, and biological processes in microgravity environment. Research is conducted in microgravity environment because of the beneficial results that come about for experiments. When research is done in normal gravity, scientists are limited to results that are affected by the gravity of Earth. Microgravity provides an environment where solid, liquid, and gas can be observed in a natural state of free fall and where many different variables are eliminated. One challenge that NASA faces is that space flight opportunities need to be used effectively and efficiently in order to ensure that some of the most scientifically promising research is conducted. Different vibratory sources are continually active aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Some of the vibratory sources include crew exercise, experiment setup, machinery startup (life support fans, pumps, freezer/compressor, centrifuge), thruster firings, and some unknown events. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMs), which acts as the hardware and carefully positioned aboard the ISS, along with the Microgravity Environment Monitoring System MEMS), which acts as the software and is located here at NASA Glenn, are used to detect these vibratory sources aboard the ISS and recognize them as disturbances. The various vibratory disturbances can sometimes be harmful to the scientists different research projects. Some vibratory disturbances are recognized by the MEMS's database and some are not. Mainly, the unknown events that occur aboard the International Space Station are the ones of major concern. To better aid in the research experiments, the unknown events are identified and verified as unknown events. Features, such as frequency, acceleration level, time and date of recognition of the new patterns are stored in an Excel database. My task is to carefully synthesize frequency and acceleration patterns of unknown events within the Excel database into a new file to determine whether or not certain information that is received i s considered a real vibratory source. Once considered as a vibratory source, further analysis is carried out. The resulting information is used to retrain the MEMS to recognize them as known patterns. These different vibratory disturbances are being constantly monitored to observe if, in any way, the disturbances have an effect on the microgravity environment that research experiments are exposed to. If the disturbance has little or no effect on the experiments, then research is continued. However, if the disturbance is harmful to the experiment, scientists act accordingly by either minimizing the source or terminating the research and neither NASA's time nor money is wasted.

Laster, Rachel M.

2004-01-01

133

Strain-Relief Inserts for Composite Fasteners An Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stress and strain distributions in the vicinity of single-pin lap joints in a glass-epoxy laminate were studied in a combined experimental-theoretical program. One objective was to evaluate the possibility of obtaining significant stress concentration relief through the use of isotropic material inserts. This paper concentrates on some experimen tal results. High sensitivity Moire interferometry was employed to measure surface

Pedro J. Herrera-Franco; Gary L. Cloud

1992-01-01

134

Thresholds for detection of constant rotary acceleration during vibratory rotary acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of vibratory angular acceleration on detection thresholds for constant angular acceleration in a dynamic flight simulator are reported in three experiments. Detection thresholds were determined for 10 pilots and four nonpilots using a random, double-staircase procedure while the subjects sat erect in a device which rotated about an earth-vertical axis. Constant angular acceleration were presented for 0.5 and 1.0 s with concurrent, vibratory angular acceleration at 1 and 5 Hz, and thresholds with no vibratory angular acceleration were established. The thresholds were obtained while the subjects observed a visual reference in the enclosed cockpit in two experiments and in total darkness in a third. The results confirmed earlier experiments showing an inverse relationship between the duration of constant angular acceleration and detection threshold and showed that the detection thresholds in darkness were higher than with a visual reference present. Two analyses of variance revealed no significant differences in thresholds across the three vibration conditions. These results indicate that vibratory angular acceleration of fairly high levels can be present in a dynamic flight simulator without masking the pilot's ability to detect either maneuver or disturbance motions.

Clark, B.; Stewart, J. D.; Phillips, N. H.

1980-01-01

135

Deceptive vibratory communication: pupae of a beetle exploit the freeze response of larvae to protect themselves  

PubMed Central

It is argued that animal signals may have evolved so as to manipulate the response of receivers in a way that increases the fitness of the signallers. In deceptive communication, receivers incur costs by responding to false signals. Recently, we reported that pupae of the soil-inhabiting Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotoma produce vibratory signals to deter burrowing larvae, thereby protecting themselves. In the present study, monitoring of vibrations associated with larval movement revealed that T. dichotoma larvae remained motionless for ca 10 min when pupal vibratory signals were played back transiently (freeze response). Furthermore, pupal signals of T. dichotoma elicited a freeze response in three other scarabaeid species, whose pupae do not produce vibratory signals. This indicates that the freeze response to certain types of vibration evolved before the divergence of these species and has been evolutionarily conserved, presumably because of the fitness advantage in avoiding predators. Pupae of T. dichotoma have probably exploited pre-existing anti-predator responses of conspecific larvae to protect themselves by emitting deceptive vibratory signals.

Kojima, Wataru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

2012-01-01

136

Research on the Signal Process of a Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro  

PubMed Central

A bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell, is a kind of axisymmetric shell resonator gyroscope. Its sensitive element is a vibratory-like Chinese traditional bell, using a piezoelectric element on the wall of the vibrator to detect the standing wave's precession to solve the input angular rate. This work mainly studies the circuit system of a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro. It discusses the process of circuit system design, analysis and experiment, in detail, providing the foundation to develop a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro. Since the bell-shaped resonator's curved structure has the characteristics of large noise in the piezoelectric signal and large harmonics, this paper analyzes its working and signal detection method, then gives the whole plan of the circuit system, including the drive module, the detection module and the control loop. It also studies every part of the whole system, gives a detailed design and analysis process and proves part of the circuit system using digital simulation. At the end of the article, the test result of the circuit system shows that it can remove the disadvantages of the curved structure having large noise in the piezoelectric signal and large harmonics and is more effective at solving the input angular rate.

Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning; Li, Qing; Fu, Mengyin; Liu, Hong; Fan, Junfang

2014-01-01

137

Temporal patterns in the vibratory courtship signals of the wandering spider Cupiennius salei Keys  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibratory courtship signal generated by abdominal and leg movements of male Cupiennius salei on plants consists of impulses, which in groups of about ten form syllables. A syllable together with the preceding “silent” pause is called a sequence. Up to 50 sequences chained together form a series. A series together with the preceding silent period is called an interseries.

Wolfgang Schiich; Friedrich G. Barth

1985-01-01

138

Clinical observations in vibratory stimulation of the penis of men with spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Less than 10% of men with complete spinal cord injury experience ejaculation in intercourse. Vibratory stimulation of the penis triggers a predictable series of body reactions in most men with lessions above the thoracic 11th spinal cord level. These reactions are very similar to the physical manifestations of the sexual response in men with intact nervous systems. Between half and

George Szasz; Chris Carpenter

1989-01-01

139

Metallographic holding fixture permits polishing of soft metals on vibratory lapping machine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Circular fixture which mounts several specimens within a single turret prevents specimen smearing during grinding and polishing operations performed on a vibratory lapping machine. Each specimen is loaded individually with a weight small enough to prevent smearing but large enough to promote polishing.

Matras, S.

1966-01-01

140

Research on the signal process of a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro.  

PubMed

A bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell, is a kind of axisymmetric shell resonator gyroscope. Its sensitive element is a vibratory-like Chinese traditional bell, using a piezoelectric element on the wall of the vibrator to detect the standing wave's precession to solve the input angular rate. This work mainly studies the circuit system of a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro. It discusses the process of circuit system design, analysis and experiment, in detail, providing the foundation to develop a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro. Since the bell-shaped resonator's curved structure has the characteristics of large noise in the piezoelectric signal and large harmonics, this paper analyzes its working and signal detection method, then gives the whole plan of the circuit system, including the drive module, the detection module and the control loop. It also studies every part of the whole system, gives a detailed design and analysis process and proves part of the circuit system using digital simulation. At the end of the article, the test result of the circuit system shows that it can remove the disadvantages of the curved structure having large noise in the piezoelectric signal and large harmonics and is more effective at solving the input angular rate. PMID:24633451

Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning; Li, Qing; Fu, Mengyin; Liu, Hong; Fan, Junfang

2014-01-01

141

Transient response and stability of the AGC-PI closed-loop controlled MEMS vibratory gyroscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a detailed study on the transient response and stability of the automatic gain control (AGC) with a proportion-integral (PI) controller for a MEMS vibratory gyroscope, which constructs a closed-loop control system to make the gyroscope achieve a constant amplitude vibration at its resonant frequency. The nonlinear mathematical model for the control system is established by applying the

J. Cui; X. Z. Chi; H. T. Ding; L. T. Lin; Z. C. Yang; G. Z. Yan

2009-01-01

142

Auditory/Vibratory Perception of Syllabic Structure in Words by Profoundly Hearing-Impaired Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty monosyllabic, disyllabic, and trisyllabic words were recorded and presented at different times through earphones and vibrators to 20 normal adults and 20 profoundly hearing impaired children (ages 8 to 15 years) to evaluate perception of number of syllables. Vibratory perception by profoundly hearing impaired and normal Ss and auditory…

Zeiser, M. Lynn; Erber, Norman P.

1977-01-01

143

Nonlinear instabilities in ring-based vibratory angular rate sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear dynamic response and associated instabilities of rotating thin circular rings for use in vibratory angular rate sensors is investigated via analytical and experimental methods. The governing equations of in-plane motion of rotating thin circular rings are developed via the Hamilton's principle for the purpose of investigating nonlinear dynamic behaviour and associated instabilities of rotating thin circular rings. Effects of input angular rate fluctuations have been incorporated in the model by considering the input angular rate as a time-periodic function. The derived ordinary differential equations represent a two-degree-of-freedom time-varying nonlinear gyroscopic system. The effect of imperfection due to the ring asymmetry is considered for quantifying its effects on the nonlinear dynamic response and associated instabilities. In addition, the effect of the elastic support of the ring, and the thermal expansion effect is included in the model. Nonlinear dynamic behaviour of the system which is subjected to external excitations is examined via analytical and experimental methods. When the ring is subjected to an input angular rate, the natural frequency variations caused by gyroscopic coupling in the system matrix have been investigated. Then, the approximate solutions obtained via the method of averaging have been shown to exhibit the presence of softening type of nonlinearities. A decoupling technique suitable for decoupling the gyroscopic coupling is employed in the present analysis. Further effect of sensor parameters, such as presence of mass mismatch, stiffness of elastic foundation, and presence of thermal expansion, are quantified. In addition, an experimental setup is built for examining the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of a rotating cylindrical structure. Using a precision rate table which is fitted with a slip ring and non-contact sensors/actuators, an experiment which closely represents the actual physical operating condition of angular rate sensors is developed. A thin cylindrical structure is employed for examining the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of rotating thin circular rings via experiments. Natural frequency variations due to the input angular rate changes are observed in the time and the frequency domains. Typical nonlinear phenomena of a rotating thin circular cylinder are observed experimentally. In particular, the jump phenomena and the presence of softening-type of nonlinearities are observed and have been compared with the theoretical predictions. The calculated predictions and measured values are generally found to be in good agreement. For the system under an influence of periodic input angular speed perturbations of small-intensity, nonlinear dynamic behaviour is investigated via an analytical method. Approximate steady state solutions and associated stability conditions are shown to depend on the excitation as well as system natural frequencies. The cases of subharmonic as well as combination resonance have been considered for this purpose. Subsequently, the presence of softening type of nonlinearity in the system is observed, and associated stability conditions are found and illustrated. Further effects of sensor parameters such as presence of mass mismatch and stiffness of elastic foundation, are quantified. Results from the present study, in particular, the effects of sensor parameters on the response and stability are expected to provide further insight into the design and operation of this class of devices. Keywords. nonlinear dynamic response; dynamic stability; rotating thin circular ring; MEMS angular rate sensor; gyroscopic system; method of averaging; external harmonic excitation; parametric harmonic perturbation.

Cho, Jihyun

144

Segmenting Geometric Reliefs from Textured Background Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Segmentation of geometric reliefs from a textured background has various applications in reverse engineering. We consider two approaches to solve this problem. The first classifies parts of a surface mesh as relief or background, and then uses a snake which moves inwards towards the desired relief boundary, which is coarsely located using an energy based on the classification. The second

Shenglan Liu; Ralph R. Martin; Frank C. Langbein; Paul L. Rosin

2007-01-01

145

29 CFR 4041.4 - Disaster relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disaster relief. 4041.4 Section 4041...General Provisions § 4041.4 Disaster relief. When the President...States declares that, under the Disaster Relief Act (42 U.S.C....

2013-07-01

146

Issues in managing disaster relief inventories  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay is concerned with the inventories that are held for disaster relief and the need for research into their management. Though forecasting is difficult, the evidence is that the number of disasters, natural and political, is increasing. Thus the need for disaster relief is increasing along with the desire to improve the process, including management of disaster relief inventories.

D. Clay Whybark

2007-01-01

147

Argon Dewar Required Relief Flow Capacity  

SciTech Connect

This report calculates the required fire relief valve flow capacity, the required vaporizer failure relief valve flow capacity, and the required loss of vacuum relief valve flow capacity of the liquid argon storage tank in use at the D-Zero site.

Fitzpatrick, J.B.; /Fermilab

1987-09-28

148

29 CFR 4041.4 - Disaster relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disaster relief. 4041.4 Section 4041...General Provisions § 4041.4 Disaster relief. When the President of the...States declares that, under the Disaster Relief Act (42 U.S.C....

2011-07-01

149

29 CFR 4041.4 - Disaster relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disaster relief. 4041.4 Section 4041...General Provisions § 4041.4 Disaster relief. When the President of the...States declares that, under the Disaster Relief Act (42 U.S.C....

2010-07-01

150

29 CFR 4041.4 - Disaster relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disaster relief. 4041.4 Section 4041...General Provisions § 4041.4 Disaster relief. When the President of the...States declares that, under the Disaster Relief Act (42 U.S.C....

2012-07-01

151

Last Mile Distribution in Humanitarian Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Last mile distribution is the final stage of a humanitarian relief chain; it refers to delivery of relief supplies from local distribution centers (LDCs) to beneficiaries affected by disasters. In this study, we consider a vehicle-based last mile distribution system, in which an LDC stores and distributes emergency relief supplies to a number of demand locations. The main decisions are

Burcu Balcik; Benita M. Beamon; Karen Smilowitz

2008-01-01

152

ReliefWeb Map Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a project of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, ReliefWeb has a mandate to strengthen the response capacity of the humanitarian relief community through the timely dissemination of reliable information on response, preparedness, and disaster prevention. The Map Centre page of the Web site contains links to a wealth of informative maps that carry on the organizations mandate by providing humanitarian content in cartographic form. Some of the maps available include Iraq food storage sites, Argentina flood location map, an overview of Liberian conflict, landslides in Papua New Guinea, and many more. The maps can be browsed by geographic location and subject, or searched by various parameters, making it an easy-to-use and helpful resource for anyone seeking informative maps that can be freely downloaded.

153

Vibratory Loads Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Structurally Tailored Model Helicopter Rotors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental study was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to investigate the use of a Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) rotor structural tailoring concept, known as rotor nodalization, in conjunction with advanced blade aerodynamics as well as to evaluate rotor blade aerodynamic design methodologies. A 1/5-size, four-bladed bearingless hub, three sets of Mach-scaled model rotor blades were tested in forward flight from transition up to an advance ratio of 0.35. The data presented pertain only to the evaluation of the structural tailoring concept and consist of fixed-system and rotating system vibratory loads. These data will be useful for evaluating the effects of tailoring blade structural properties on fixed-system vibratory loads, as well as validating analyses used in the design of advanced rotor systems.

Yeager, William T., Jr.; Hamouda, M-Nabil H.; Idol, Robert F.; Mirick, Paul H.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

1991-01-01

154

Vibratory response modeling and verification of a high precision optical positioning system.  

SciTech Connect

A generic vibratory-response modeling program has been developed as a tool for designing high-precision optical positioning systems. Based on multibody dynamics theory, the system is modeled as rigid-body structures connected by linear elastic elements, such as complex actuators and bearings. The full dynamic properties of each element are determined experimentally or theoretically, then integrated into the program as inertial and stiffness matrices. Utilizing this program, the theoretical and experimental verification of the vibratory behavior of a double-multilayer monochromator support and positioning system is presented. Results of parametric design studies that investigate the influence of support floor dynamics and highlight important design issues are also presented. Overall, good matches between theory and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the program as a dynamic modeling tool.

Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T.; Royston, T. J.; Shu, D.

1999-06-18

155

Vibratory sensory testing in acute compartment syndromes: a clinical and experimental study.  

PubMed

Invasive and noninvasive diagnostic testing was correlated in 11 patients with acute compartmental syndromes of the forearm. The excellent correlation between diminished perception of vibration and increasing compartmental pressure suggested that 256 cycle per second (cps) vibratory stimuli may be useful clinically in determining the appropriate time for surgical intervention in the acute compartmental syndrome. In 12 adult male volunteers, elevated compartment pressures were created in the anterior tibial compartment of the leg. A decrease in perception to 256 cycle per second (cps) vibratory stimulus was the earliest sensory abnormality to occur with elevated tissue compartment pressures. Analysis of variance showed significantly that 256-cps vibration was the most reliable and earliest sensory modality to change at pressures of 35 to 40 mmHg. These clinical and experimental findings support the use of the 256-cps tuning fork as a noninvasive diagnostic test in the evaluation of the patient with suspected acute compartment syndrome. PMID:3575525

Phillips, J H; Mackinnon, S E; Beatty, S E; Dellon, A L; O'Brien, J P

1987-05-01

156

Photovoltaic application for disaster relief  

SciTech Connect

Hurricanes, floods, tornados, and earthquakes are natural disasters that can happen at any time destroying homes, businesses, and natural surroundings. One such disaster, Hurricane Andrew, devastated South Florida leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless. Many people were without electrical service, functioning water and sewage systems, communications, and medical services for days, even weeks in the aftermath of the storm. Emergency management teams, the military, and countless public and private organizations staged a massive relief effort. Dependency on electrical utility power became a pronounced problem as emergency services were rendered to survivors and the rebuilding process started. Many of the energy needs of emergency management organizations, relief workers, and the general public can be satisfied with solar electric energy systems. Photovoltaic (PV) power generated from solar energy is quiet, safe, inexhaustible and pollution-free. Previously, photovoltaics have supplied emergency power for Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew, and the earthquake at Northridge in Southern California. This document focuses on photovoltaic technology and its application to disaster relief efforts.

Young, W.R. Jr.

1995-11-01

157

46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.57 Acceptance of pressure relief devices. A pressure relief device for an MPT must...

2013-10-01

158

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring loaded pressure relief valve...

2013-10-01

159

46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.71 Marking of pressure relief devices. A pressure relief device must be plainly and...

2013-10-01

160

Robust Design of a Decoupled Vibratory Microgyroscope Considering Over-Etching as a Fabrication Tolerance Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust optimal design of a bulk-micromachined, decoupled vibratory microgyroscope was carried out to determine geometric dimensions such that the gyroscopic performance is least affected by a fabrication tolerance. Electro-mechanical vibration analysis considering the sensing electrodes and the electronic signal processing were performed to obtain the frequency responses that influence the gyroscopic performance. A statistically distributed lateral over-etching (LOE) developed

Sung Kyu Ha; Hee-Moon Jeong; Juno Kim

2006-01-01

161

Performance of VSEP vibratory membrane filtration system during the treatment of landfill leachates  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the performance of a vibratory shear enhanced unit (VSEP) for the treatment of raw stabilized leachate produced during landfill of municipal wastes was assessed. For this purpose, four different membrane types were examined for the treatment of leachates, i.e., one for microfiltration (with mean pore diameter 0.1 ?m), two for ultrafiltration (with molecular cut-off 100 kDa and

A. I. Zouboulis; M. D. Petala

2008-01-01

162

High speed laser scanning using MEMS driven in-plane vibratory grating: Design, modeling and fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we report a design, modeling and fabrication of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based in-plane vibratory sub-wavelength diffraction grating scanner for high optical efficiency, high speed laser scanning applications. This paper demonstrates that with careful design, optical efficiency of more than 75% is experimentally achievable with a simple gold-coated binary sub-wavelength grating. High frequency scanning of 55.01kHz with

Yu Du; Guangya Zhou; Kelvin K. L. Cheo; Qingxin Zhang; Hanhua Feng; Bin Yang; Fook Siong Chau

2009-01-01

163

Double-Layered Vibratory Grating Scanners for High-Speed High-Resolution Laser Scanning  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel micromachined electrostatic double-layered vibratory grating scanner has been successfully developed for high-speed high-resolution laser scanning applications. This paper presents its design, modeling, fabrication, and measurement results. A comprehensive dynamic model considering the geometric nonlinearity of the platform suspension flexures is also proposed to predict the dynamic performance of the device at large scanning amplitudes. Compared with previously reported

Yu Du; Guangya Zhou; Koon Lin Cheo; Qingxin Zhang; Hanhua Feng; Fook Siong Chau

2010-01-01

164

Effect of vocal fold injury location on vibratory parameters in excised canine larynges  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect of vocal fold injury location on vibratory amplitude and lateral phase difference. Study design Repeated measures with each excised canine larynx serving as own control. Setting Basic science study conducted in university laboratory. Methods Vocal fold vibration of excised canine larynges was recorded with a high speed camera before and after inducing vocal fold injury at one of five locations: anterior, middle, posterior, medial, or superior. Medial and superior injuries were created within the middle third of the vocal fold. Five larynges were used for each of the five injury locations. Kymography was performed at the midpoint of the vocal folds for each video. Pre- and post-injury vibratory amplitude and lateral phase difference were compared for each location. Results The anterior and medial injuries produced consistent decreases in vibratory amplitude. Middle and posterior injuries may slightly decrease amplitude. Superior injuries seemed to have no effect on amplitude. Anterior and medial injuries induce phase asymmetry between the right and left vocal folds. Middle injuries appeared to affect phase difference slightly, whereas posterior and superior injuries had no effect. Conclusion Injury to the anterior or medial portions of the vocal fold may be most likely to cause abnormal vocal fold vibration. Using caution in these locations during phonosurgery may favor superior post-operative vocal outcomes.

Krausert, Christopher R.; Ying, Di; Choi, Seong Hee; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Jiang, Jack J.

2013-01-01

165

Pressure relief subsystem design description  

SciTech Connect

The primary function of the Pressure Relief Subsystem, a subsystem of the Vessel System, is to provide overpressure protection to the Vessel System. When the overpressure setpoint is reached, pressure is reduced by permitting the flow of primary coolant out of the Vessel System. This subsystem also provides the flow path by which purified helium is returned to the vessel system, either as circulating purge/flow from the Helium Purification Subsystem or make-up helium from the Helium Storage and Transfer Subsystem.

NONE

1986-07-01

166

STRESS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this activity, students will use the available resources to learn more about stress, the effects of stress and how to handle stress. This activity focuses on the Utah fifth grade health core Standard 1: The students will learn ways to improve mental health and manage stress. During this project, students are given two different scenarios and ...

Hancey, Ms.

2010-04-27

167

Stress  

PubMed Central

The concept of stress is often mistaken. Its correct usage stems from the meaning in physical medicine, and many facets of stress are missed because this is not generally realized. This paper defines a psychiatric model of stress and describes a method by which stress can be quantified in various individuals.

Pearce, K. I.

1973-01-01

168

High-performance micromachined vibratory rate- and rate-integrating gyroscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of vibratory micromachined gyroscopes has been continuously improving for the past two decades. However, to further improve performance of the MEMS gyroscope in harsh environment, it is necessary for gyros to reduce the sensitivity to environmental parameters, including vibration and temperature change. In addition, conventional rate-mode MEMS gyroscopes have limitation in performance due to tradeoff between resolution, bandwidth, and full-scale range. In this research, we aim to reduce vibration sensitivity by developing gyros that operate in the balanced mode. The balanced mode creates zero net momentum and reduces energy loss through an anchor. The gyro can differentially cancel measurement errors from external vibration along both sensor axes. The vibration sensitivity of the balanced-mode gyroscope including structural imbalance from microfabrication reduces as the absolute difference between in-phase parasitic mode and operating mode frequencies increases. The parasitic sensing mode frequency is designed larger than the operating mode frequency to achieve both improved vibration insensitivity and shock resistivity. A single anchor is used in order to minimize thermoresidual stress change. We developed two gyroscope based on these design principles. The Balanced Oscillating Gyro (BOG) is a quad-mass tuning-fork rate gyroscope. The relationship between gyro design and modal characteristics is studied extensively using finite element method (FEM). The gyro is fabricated using the planar Si-on-glass (SOG) process with a device thickness of 100microm. The BOG is evaluated using the first-generation analog interface circuitry. Under a frequency mismatch of 5Hz between driving and sense modes, the angle random walk (ARW) is measured to be 0.44°/sec/?Hz. The performance is limited by quadrature error and low-frequency noise in the circuit. The Cylindrical Rate-Integrating Gyroscope (CING) operates in whole-angle mode. The gyro is completely axisymmetric and self-aligned to maximize mechanical isotropy. The gyro offers a large frequency ratio of ˜1.7 between parasitic and the wineglass modes. The CING is fabricated using the 3D Si-on-glass (SOG) process with a device thickness of 300microm. The 1st and 2nd generation CINGs operate at 18kHz and 3kHz, respectively and demonstrate a frequency mismatch of < 1% and a large Q (˜20,000 at 18kHz and ˜100,000 at 3kHz under exact mode matching). In the rate-sensing mode, the first-generation CING (18kHz) demonstrates an Ag of 0.05, an angle random walk (ARW) of 7°/?hr, and a bias stability of 72°/hr without temperature compensation. The performance is limited by the Ag, white noise in the phase-lock loop (PLL) in the interface circuitry, and temperature control. In the rate-sensing mode, the second-generation CING measures an Ag of 0.0065, an ARW of 0.09°/?hr, and a bias stability of 129°/hr without temperature compensation. The performance is limited by A g and XXVI temperature compensation. In the rate-integration mode, the gyro demonstrates precession with an Ag of 0.011+/-0.001 under a frequency mismatch of 20˜80mHz during several hours of operation.

Cho, Jae Yoong

169

Strain relief of heteroepitaxial bcc-Fe(001) films.  

PubMed

The strain relief of heteroepitaxial bcc-Fe(001) films, deposited at 520-570 K onto MgO(001), has been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. In accordance with real-time stress measurements, the tensile misfit strain is relieved during coalescence of flat, mainly 2-3 monolayers (ML) high Fe islands at the high thickness of approximately 20 ML. To accommodate the misfit between merging strain-relaxed islands, a network of 1/2[111] screw dislocations is formed. A strong barrier for dislocation glide--which is typical for bcc metals--is most likely responsible for the big delay in strain relief of Fe/MgO(001), since only the elastic energy of the uppermost layer(s) is available for the formation of an energy-costly intermediate layer. PMID:15601175

Wedler, G; Schneider, C M; Trampert, A; Koch, R

2004-12-01

170

Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 158 km (98 miles) x 122 km (77 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North approximately at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

2000-01-01

171

Mating Behaviour and Vibratory Signalling in Non-Hearing Cave Crickets Reflect Primitive Communication of Ensifera  

PubMed Central

In Ensifera, the lack of well-supported phylogeny and the focus on acoustic communication of the terminal taxa hinders understanding of the evolutionary history of their signalling behaviour and the related sensory structures. For Rhaphidophoridae, the most relic of ensiferans following morphology-based phylogenies, the signalling modes are still unknown. Together with a detailed description of their mating process, we provide evidence on vibratory signalling for the sympatric European species Troglophilus neglectus and T. cavicola. Despite their temporal shift in reproduction, the species’ behaviours differ significantly. Signalling by abdominal vibration constitutes an obligatory part of courtship in T. neglectus, while it is absent in T. cavicola. Whole-body vibration is expressed after copulation in both species. While courtship signalling appears to stimulate females for mating, the function of post-copulation signals remains unclear. Mating and signalling of both species were found to take place in most cases on bark, and less frequently on other available substrates, like moss and rock. The signals’ frequency spectra were substrate dependent, but with the dominant peak always expressed below 120 Hz. On rock, the intensity of T. neglectus courtship signals was below the species’ physiological detection range, presumably constraining the evolution of such signalling in caves. The species’ behavioural divergence appears to reflect their divergent mating habitats, in and outside caves. We propose that short-range tremulation signalling in courtship, such as is expressed by T. neglectus, represents the primitive mode and context of mechanical signalling in Ensifera. The absence of high-frequency components in the signals may be related to the absence of the crista acoustica homologue (CAH) in the vibratory tibial organ of Rhaphidophoridae. This indirectly supports the hypothesis proposing that the CAH, as an evolutionary precursor of the ear, evolved in Ensifera along the (more) complex vibratory communication, also associated with signals of higher carrier frequency.

Stritih, Natasa; Cokl, Andrej

2012-01-01

172

An examination of the relations between rotor vibratory loads and airframe vibrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Harmonic rotor hub loads and airframe interactions in steady flight are reviewed, with regard to the objective of achieving lower airframe vibration by modifying blade root loads. Flight test and wind tunnel data are reviewed, along with sample fuselage response data. Trends which could provide a generalized approach to the above objective are found to be very limited. Recent analytical and corresponding experimental blade tuning modifications are reviewed and compared. Rotor vibratory load modification and substantial vibration changes were achieved over a wide range of rotor operating conditions.

Niebanck, C. F.

1985-01-01

173

Process for forming integral edge seals in porous gas distribution plates utilizing a vibratory means  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for producing an integral edge seal in a gas distribution plate for a fuel cell comprising providing a porous gas distribution plate; and forming a sealing layer along an edge thereof by impregnating the pores in the layer with a material adapted to provide a seal which is operative dry. When wetted by an electrolyte of the cell, the impregnating step is carried out while vibratory energy is applied to the material whereby the pores in the edge are more uniformly sealed throughout the cross-section of the edge plate.

Feigenbaum, H.; Pudick, S.

1988-03-01

174

Stress  

MedlinePLUS

... sudden negative change, such as losing a job, divorce, or illness Traumatic stress, which happens when you ... stress, so you can avoid more serious health effects. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health

175

Stress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief section describes some areas of possible military interest in studies of stress--selection, classification, training, human factors and systems research and, of course, stress as related to the combat situation, among others. Since there is diffic...

J. Weitz

1966-01-01

176

Earthquake relief in less industrialized areas  

SciTech Connect

This symposium was organized by the Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects and by the Specialized Group for Bridge and Structural Engineering. Authors are specialists from private and governmental disaster relief organizations, earthquake engineers and suppliers of products for rescue operations and reconstruction. Case histories include; Economic consequences of earthquakes; Reconstruction with indigenous and intermediate technology; General aspects of relief operations and reconstruction.

Not Available

1984-01-01

177

The Voluntary Effort in Disaster Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disaster relief service of the American National Red Cross is seventy-five years old. During this period it has engaged in over 6,700 disaster relief operations, all financed by voluntary contributions. The principles gov erning the work of the Red Cross in these operations are explained, and a de scription is given of the national, regional, and local structure and

Ellsworth Bunker

1957-01-01

178

Humanitarian logistics in disaster relief operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper aims to further the understanding of planning and carrying out logistics operations in disaster relief. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Topical literature review of academic and practitioner journals. Findings – Creates a framework distinguishing between actors, phases, and logistical processes of disaster relief. Drawing parallels of humanitarian logistics and business logistics, the paper discovers and describes the unique characteristics

Gyöngyi Kovács; Karen M. Spens

2007-01-01

179

Formulating disaster relief when needs are unknown  

Microsoft Academic Search

As in most cases of natural disasters, relief needs arising out of the Mount St. Helens volcanic eruptions in May 1980 were greatly overestimated. Technical, bureaucratic, and political considerations all contribute to the upward bias in such cases. The errors in early estimates of relief needs can be reduced by systematic means. But more important than obtaining good early estimates

Peter J. May

1982-01-01

180

Safety\\/relief-valve test program  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to the NRC's Task 2.1.2 following the TMI-2 accident, government and industry programs were formulated to address the performance of safety and relief valve systems for pressurized and boiling water reactors. Objective is to demonstrate by testing and analysis that safety and relief valve systems in the reactor coolant system are qualified for the anticipated full range of

1982-01-01

181

Slipping processes in residual badlands reliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define slips as structures developed by more or less saturated colloidal suspension that slide down the walls of residual reliefs found in badlands. These suspensions seem to originate in the soils crowning gully reliefs and also from rainwater dripping onto the walls of poorly cemented sediments such as siltstone. We call this process slipping and the resulting morphologies represent

Jose Luis Díaz-Hernández; Jorge Yepes

2010-01-01

182

Federal Policy Options for Property Tax Relief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four policy alternatives could be used by the Federal Government for State and local property tax relief. Such relief has been sought to reduce the regressivity of the property tax, shield low - income households from large tax liabilities, enable the eld...

1977-01-01

183

The Armed Forces in Disaster Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the basic responsibility for disaster relief lies with civil agencies, national, state, local, and private, the Armed Forces, because of their mobility and organization, are frequently utilized to lend urgently needed aid in emergency situations. National disaster relief, including military, is authorized by the Federal Disaster Act of 1950 and co-ordinated by the Federal Civil De fense Administration when

Carter L. Burgess

1957-01-01

184

Improving relief classification with contextual merging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic classification of relief attributes into meaningful morphological units has a great potential within the field of geomorphology. When applying common classification algorithms such an iterative cluster analysis to relief data, the result is often a set of classes with a marked lack of coherence in geographical space. The scattering of classes occurs because there is an authentic overlap between

Bård Romstad

2001-01-01

185

Famine Relief in Bihar: A Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a sociological study of the recent Bihar Famine and of the organization and operation of relief. Though one chapter in this study deals with relief measures organized by the state government, it is mainly devoted to the study of the work of the vo...

1967-01-01

186

Relief device for a vacuum vessel  

DOEpatents

A pressure relief device 5 for a vessel having redundant pressure relief capabilities. An annular plate 12 overlies a surface 11 which has an aperature to the vessel. A seal is formed between the surface 11 and annular plate 12. A solid plate 13 overlies the annular plate 12. A seal is formed between the solid plate 13 and annular plate 12. The relief device 5 will open at a first predetermined pressure by lifting the solid plate 13. In the event the seal between solid plate 13 and annular plate 12 should stick the relief device 5 will open at a second slightly higher, predetermined pressure by lifting the annular plate 12 and solid plate 13 together. Hinging means 6 are provided to reclose the pressure relief device 5 when conditions return to normal.

Fast, Ronald W. (Batavia, IL)

1987-04-28

187

Relief device for a vacuum vessel  

DOEpatents

A pressure relief device for a vessel having redundant pressure relief capabilities is disclosed. An annular plate overlies a surface which has an aperture to the vessel. A seal is formed between the surface and annular plate. A solid plate overlies the annular plate. A seal is formed between the solid plate and annular plate. The relief device will open at a first predetermined pressure by lifting the solid plate. In the event the seal between solid plate and annular plate should stick the relief device will open at a second slightly higher, predetermined pressure by lifting the annular plate and solid plate together. Hinging means are provided to reclose the pressure relief device when conditions return to normal. 2 figs.

Fast, R.W.

1987-04-28

188

An Overview of A Perturbation Analysis for Uni-directionally Coupled Vibratory Gyroscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complex behaviours of gyroscope systems have been scientifically researched and thoroughly studied for decades. Most of scientific research involving gyroscopes specifically concentrates on studying the designs and fabrications at the circuitry level. Although gaining a recent popularity with the low cost of MEMS device that offers an attractive approach for gyroscope fabrications, its performance is far from meeting the requirements for an inertial grade guidance system. To improve the performance, our current research is theoretically focusing upon investigating the dynamics of vibratory gyroscopes coupled in a ring configuration. Particularly, a certain topology of arrangements among coupled gyroscopes can be designed and studied to enhance robustness. The main operation depends mostly on an external source for a stable oscillation in the drive axis, while an oscillatory motion in the sense axis, which is used to detect an angular rate of rotation, is enabled through the transfers of energy from the drive via the Coriolis force. With the mathematical model depicted as Duffing oscillators, however, by adding a certain coupling among gyroscopes, a similar behavior to a Duffing oscillator is expected, only with more complicated dynamics at a higher dimension. A number of Perturbation methods have popularly been carried out, to seek for a general asymptotic solution of typical Duffing oscillators. In this work as an overview, the two-time scale Perturbation expansion is asymptotically applied on the uni-directionally coupled vibratory gyroscopes to find an analytical solution which is then compared to the numerical one.

Vu, Huy; Palacios, Antonio; in, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Neff, Joseph

2011-04-01

189

A Study of the Temperature Characteristics of Vibration Mode Axes for Vibratory Cylinder Gyroscopes  

PubMed Central

The zero bias stability, which is an important performance parameter for vibratory cylinder gyroscopes, is high sensitive to temperature change. It is considered that the varying temperature makes the vibration mode axes unstable, which has significant influence on the zero bias stability. This paper will investigate this problem in detail. First, the relationships between the angular positions of vibration mode axes and the zero bias are analyzed. Secondly, the thermal-modal model of the cylinder resonator with several defects such as mass imbalance, frequency split (FS), and geometry errors are developed by ANSYS. Simulation results show that with the increase of temperature, angular positions of the vibration mode axes obviously change, which leads to a dramatic zero bias drift. Finally, several major influence factors on the angular position stability of vibration mode axes, including frequency split, geometry errors, thermal elastic modulus coefficient (TEMC) and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) are analyzed in detail. Simulation results in this paper will be helpful for deep understanding of the drift principle of zero bias induced by temperature for vibratory cylinder gyroscopes and also be helpful for further temperature compensation or control.

Wu, Yulie; Xi, Xiang; Tao, Yi; Wu, Xiaomei; Wu, Xuezhong

2011-01-01

190

Analysis of the vibratory excitation of gear systems. II - Tooth error representations, approximations, and application  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The second part of a theory for predicting the vibratory excitation of gear systems from fundamental descriptions of gear tooth elastic properties and deviations of tooth faces from perfect involute surfaces is presented. The first part of the theory provides expressions for the Fourier-series coefficients of the vibratory excitation, and this paper gives expressions for these Fourier-series coefficients in terms of easily interpreted gear tooth metrics that are readily evaluated from tooth-face measurements. Results are given for rectangular tooth-face contact regions using two-dimensional Legendre polynomial expansions of local tooth-pair stiffnesses and stiffness-weighted deviations of tooth faces from perfect involute surfaces. A rigorous transfer function approach is developed that permits separation of the effects of gear tooth errors and gear design parameters; the theory is applicable to helical and spur gears and is illustrated with measurements of tooth-spacing errors and tooth profiles obtained from a pair of spur gears.

Mark, W. D.

1979-01-01

191

Effect On The Processing Characteristics Of ZnO Varistors Produced Using Vibratory Milling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each manufacturing stage in the production of zinc oxide varistors from powder preparation to the final encapsulated device is important not only for the formation of the varistor component with optimum microstructure and thus electrical characteristics but also for avoiding the introduction of flaws and reduced yield. In this paper the authors describe and discuss the effect of multi-elemental oxide additives having been milled for different durations using a vibratory mill with cylindrical zirconia media on the powder characteristics of the subsequent processing stages. A commercial ZnO varistor formulation was used. The subsequent processing stages that are given particular attention include first spray drying and second milling. The characteristics include agglomerate size, powder density and elemental uniformity of the first spray-dried powders, and particle size, specific surface area, zirconium concentration and pore size of the second milled powders. They were evaluated using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopic, mercury porosimetry, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. Some interesting correlations are observed between the powder properties and vibratory milling durations of the mixed metal oxide additives (MMOA).

Kelleher, M. C.; Hashmi, M. S. J.

2011-01-01

192

Structural-acoustic coupling effects on the non-vacuum packaging vibratory cylinder gyroscope.  

PubMed

The resonant shells of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes are commonly packaged in metallic caps. In order to lower the production cost, a portion of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes do not employ vacuum packaging. However, under non-vacuum packaging conditions there can be internal acoustic noise leading to considerable acoustic pressure which is exerted on the resonant shell. Based on the theory of the structural-acoustic coupling, the dynamical behavior of the resonant shell under acoustic pressure is presented in this paper. A finite element (FE) model is introduced to quantitatively analyze the effect of the structural-acoustic coupling. Several main factors, such as sealing cap sizes and degree of vacuum which directly affect the vibration of the resonant shell, are studied. The results indicate that the vibration amplitude and the operating frequency of the resonant shell will be changed when the effect of structural-acoustic coupling is taken into account. In addition, an experiment was set up to study the effect of structural-acoustic coupling on the sensitivity of the gyroscope. A 32.4 mV/°/s increase of the scale factor and a 6.2 Hz variation of the operating frequency were observed when the radial gap size between the resonant shell and the sealing cap was changed from 0.5 mm to 20 mm. PMID:24351631

Xi, Xiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Wu, Yulie; Zhang, Yongmeng; Tao, Yi; Zheng, Yu; Xiao, Dingbang

2013-01-01

193

20 CFR 631.86 - Limitations on disaster relief employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Limitations on disaster relief employment. 631.86 Section...JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.86 Limitations on disaster relief employment. No...

2010-04-01

194

20 CFR 631.86 - Limitations on disaster relief employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Limitations on disaster relief employment. 631.86 Section...JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.86 Limitations on disaster relief employment. No...

2009-04-01

195

7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.  

...2014-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 3201.59...Items § 3201.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition...used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as well as sprains,...

2014-01-01

196

7 CFR 2902.59 - Topical pain relief products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 2902.59...Items § 2902.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition...used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as well as sprains,...

2011-01-01

197

7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 3201.59...Items § 3201.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition...used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as well as sprains,...

2013-01-01

198

7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 3201.59...Items § 3201.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition...used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as well as sprains,...

2012-01-01

199

49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Setting of safety relief valves. 230.49 Section 230.49 Transportation... Boilers and Appurtenances Safety Relief Valves § 230.49 Setting of safety relief valves. (a) Qualifications of individual...

2013-10-01

200

20 CFR 631.86 - Limitations on disaster relief employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Limitations on disaster relief employment. 631.86 Section...JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.86 Limitations on disaster relief employment. No...

2012-04-01

201

20 CFR 631.86 - Limitations on disaster relief employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Limitations on disaster relief employment. 631.86 Section...JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.86 Limitations on disaster relief employment. No...

2011-04-01

202

Stress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project collects resources for studying mental health and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. Watch the following video for positive things teens do to reduce the stress ...

Deaton, Mrs.

2011-06-10

203

Relief of Pain and Suffering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The symposium and exhibit titled Pain and Suffering in History - Narrative Science, Medicine and Culture marks the dedication of the John C. Liebeskind History of Pain Collection at the Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library, UCLA. The Relief of Pain and Suffering site, prepared in conjunction with the aforementioned symposium and exhibit, gives us plenty for which to be thankful in terms of advancements in the area of pain management. Tracing the modern roots of this field back to the nineteenth century and earlier, users can view historical pictures of botanicals, tools, and early writings all related to the alleviation of pain and suffering. Descriptions of syndromes like phantom limbs and causalgia abound as users travel towards the 21st century. Modern methods discussed include interdisciplinary team approaches to pain management and the Hospice movement's philosophies on pain treatment. Users can navigate the site in a variety of ways: through a series of topical links off of the main page, by moving through the site using arrow buttons, or through an index of illustrations and keywords. A final page of links to professional organizations related to the field nicely rounds out the site.

1998-01-01

204

OPEC reorganization could spell relief  

SciTech Connect

Last year proved to be one of carnage in the oil industry, with only the large, vertically integrated, international oil companies showing strength during the oil price collapse. Independent producers and the manufacturing/service sector watched 50% or greater reductions in income. And this year holds little prospect for significant relief during its first half, although the last half could be better if and when Opec decides to once again test its strength. An Iranian victory in the Iran/Iraq war could also cause an upward movement in price. However, price instability should be less than in 1986, as the business heads toward a consensus price via political factors. The U.S. economy again showed improvement through 1986, with moderate growth of 2.6% in Gross National Product (GNP). The ongoing expansion has lasted four years and is already 17 months longer than the average peacetime expansion. However, important energy components did not show strength, and industrial production continued at level rates for the past two years.

Crouse, P.C.

1987-02-01

205

Application of Computer Modelling Technique to the Study of the Effect of Vibratory Rooftop Equipment on Indoor Acoustical Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the benefits of thermal comfort provided by rooftop equipment such as air-conditioning equipment, vibratory equipment can cause problems in indoor acoustical environment. The building structure where the rooftop equipment is placed vibrates and emits sound into indoor space. Although considerable engineering works such as installation of vibration isolators are employed, the amount of the sound emitted by the building

G. S. Jiang; C. M. Mak

2003-01-01

206

Seismic exploration using vibratory sources, sign-bit recording, and processing that maximizes the obtained subsurface information  

SciTech Connect

The disclosed invention is a method of seismic exploration using vibratory sources activated by stationary, gaussian codes. The method has the channel-capacity economy of sign-bit recording, at both the sources and receivers, without the sacrifice of any desired seismic information in the final processed records. Even the relative amplitudes between traces may be recovered in the method.

Muir, F.

1982-08-24

207

Vibratory shear enhanced processing membrane filtration applied for the removal of natural organic matter from surface waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the performance of a vibratory shear enhanced unit (termed hereafter as VSEP) was evaluated for the removal of humic acids in the presence of inorganic particles (clays) from synthetic aqueous dispersions, simulating contaminated surface waters. For this purpose, several major parameters were examined, such as the specific membrane type, the feed quality (i.e. the concentration of main

M. D. Petala; A. I. Zouboulis

2006-01-01

208

Neptune Clouds Showing Vertical Relief  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This Voyager 2 high resolution color image, taken 2 hours before closest approach, provides obvious evidence of vertical relief in Neptune's bright cloud streaks. These clouds were observed at a latitude of 29 degrees north near Neptune's east terminator. The linear cloud forms are stretched approximately along lines of constant latitude and the sun is toward the lower left. The bright sides of the clouds which face the sun are brighter than the surrounding cloud deck because they are more directly exposed to the sun. Shadows can be seen on the side opposite the sun. These shadows are less distinct at short wavelengths (violet filter) and more distinct at long wavelengths (orange filter). This can be understood if the underlying cloud deck on which the shadow is cast is at a relatively great depth, in which case scattering by molecules in the overlying atmosphere will diffuse light into the shadow. Because molecules scatter blue light much more efficiently than red light, the shadows will be darkest at the longest (reddest) wavelengths, and will appear blue under white light illumination. The resolution of this image is 11 kilometers (6.8 miles per pixel) and the range is only 157,000 kilometers (98,000 miles). The width of the cloud streaks range from 50 to 200 kilometers (31 to 124 miles), and their shadow widths range from 30 to 50 kilometers (18 to 31 miles). Cloud heights appear to be of the order of 50 kilometers (31 miles). This corresponds to 2 scale heights. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

1989-01-01

209

The Team Approach to Pain Relief  

MedlinePLUS

... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table ... is an example of a relatively new team approach to pain treatment, especially for cases of chronic ...

210

Supply Chain Management in Humanitarian Relief Logistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hundreds of millions of people are affected by disasters each year. This thesis explores the use of supply chain management techniques to overcome the barriers encountered by logistics managers during humanitarian relief operations. Using grounded theory ...

W. K. Rodman

2004-01-01

211

Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery  

MedlinePLUS

... and language needs, call (614) 293-3259. Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery Relaxation helps lessen tension. One ... your pain. Imagery does not replace your pain medicine. It works with your pain medicine to help ...

212

44 CFR 68.12 - Relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INSURANCE AND HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program ADMINISTRATIVE HEARING PROCEDURES § 68.12 Relief. The final determination may be appealed by...

2013-10-01

213

Arthrocentesis: the latest on joint pain relief.  

PubMed

Arthrocentesis is a procedure in the diagnostic workup and treatment of joint pain that has few complications. Analysis of joint fluid yields important treatment data. Corticosteroid and local anesthetic injections provide longer pain relief. PMID:23958670

Voll, Sandra K; Walsh, Joseph

2013-09-10

214

The negative relief of large river floodplains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large floodplains have multiple and complex negative relief assemblages in which depressions fall below local or general floodplain surfaces at a variety of scales. The generation and dynamics of negative relief along major alluvial corridors are described and compared. Such depressions are significant for the storage and passage of surface waters, the creation of a range of riparian, wetland, lacustrine and flowing-water habitats, and the long-term accumulation of organic materials.

Lewin, John; Ashworth, Philip J.

2014-02-01

215

Understanding the role of nonlinearities in the transduction of vibratory energy harvesters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last two decades have witnessed several advances in micro-fabrication technologies and electronics, leading to the development of small, low-power devices for wireless sensing, data transmission, actuation, and medical implants. Unfortunately, the actual implementation of such devices in their respective environment has been hindered by the lack of scalable energy sources that are necessary to power and maintain them. Batteries, which remain the most commonly used power source, have not kept pace with the demands of these devices, especially in terms of energy density. In light of this challenge, the concept of vibratory energy harvesting has flourished in recent years as a possible alternative to power and maintain low-power electronics. While linear vibratory energy harvesters have received the majority of the literature's attention, a significant body of the current research activity is focused on the concept of purposeful inclusion of nonlinearities for broadband transduction. When compared to their linear resonant counterparts, nonlinear energy harvesters have a wider steady-state frequency bandwidth, leading to the common belief that they can be utilized to improve performance especially in random and non-stationary vibratory environments. This dissertation aims to critically investigate this belief by drawing a clearer picture of the role of nonlinearities in the transduction of energy harvesters and by defining the conditions under which nonlinearities can be used to enhance performance. To achieve this goal, the Thesis is divided into three parts. The first part investigates the performance of mono- and bi-stable energy harvesters under harmonic excitations and carries a detailed analysis of their relative performance. The second part investigates their response to broadband and narrowband random excitations and again analyzes their relative behavior. The third part exploits the super-harmonic resonance bands of bi-stable energy harvesters for the purpose of scavenging energy from low-frequency excitations. As a platform to achieve the Thesis objectives, a piezoelectric energy harvester consisting of an axially loaded clamped-clamped beam bi-morph is considered. The harvester can operate with mono- (pre-buckling) and bi-stable (post-buckling) characteristics with minimal alterations to the design. Theoretical and experimental studies performed on the proposed harvester are presented to delineate the influence of the nonlinearity on its performance, in particular, and nonlinear vibratory energy harvesters in general. It is demonstrated that the intentional inclusion of nonlinearities in energy harvesters makes these devices more tolerant to variations in the excitation and design parameters around their nominal values as compared to a linear device. However, the Thesis also pointed out many issues that can result from the complexity and non-uniqueness of solutions associated with nonlinear systems. It became apparent that the performance of a nonlinear energy harvester is very much dependent on the level and nature of the excitation in conjunction with the potential shape of the harvester. This makes developing direct performance metrics, similar to what has been done for linear harvesters, a challenging problem which should constitute a major avenue of future research efforts.

Masana, Ravindra Shiva Charan

216

Single Trial Analysis of ERP Using Test Technique and Difference Evaluation of Modulated Vibratory Stimuli  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to develop the tactile display which consists of a single vibrator by using the modulated vibration. To achieve this purpose, we must evaluate the stimulus difference of the tactile in the modulated vibratory stimuli. In this study, the stimulus difference has been estimated by detecting the P300 wave in the averaged waveform of the ERP. However, it is indispensable to evaluate the stimulus difference efficiently to make the differential limen in the frequency region to express the modulated vibration clear. In this paper, the single trial analysis on the ERP that the significant difference of the EEG before and after the stimulus presentation is evaluated by the test technique is proposed.

Uchida, Masafumi; Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

217

Efficient model updating using Bayesian probabilistic framework based on measured vibratory response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the deviation between the model and an actual structure is generally identified through a so-called model updating process, in which a set of experimental measurement of structural dynamic response is used in combination with the model prediction to facilitate an inverse analysis that is usually deterministic. In reality, however, structural properties, such as mass and stiffness, are inevitably subject to variation/uncertainties. As such, the identification of property variations in a probabilistic manner can truly reveal the underlying physical characteristics of the structure involved. In this research, we adopt the Bayesian probabilistic framework to conduct stochastic model updating using measured vibratory response. Furthermore, this paper proposes an efficient scheme to facilitate such procedures by incorporating the Gaussian process and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) into the Bayesian framework. The feasibility of this presented methodology is validated by case studies.

Zhou, K.; Liang, G.; Tang, J.

2014-04-01

218

[Application of preparations relief ultra and relief advance in practice of coloproctological department].  

PubMed

Efficacy of application of preparations Relief Ultra and Relief Advance as pathogenetically directed medicines was established, basing on analysis of the examination and treatment results in 133 patients with anal region diseases (acute and chronic hemorrhoids, nonspeciphic ulcerative colitis, the Crohn's disease, acute paraproctitis, rectal polyp). For local conservative treatment it is expedient to apply preparations in various pharmacological forms in complex. Application of preparation Relief Ultra endorectally in conjunction with preparation Relief Advance endorectally and locally on the wound surface is indicated after performance of elective and urgent operative interventions for rectal and anal zone diseases. PMID:16509076

Zakharash, M P; Po?da, O I

2005-10-01

219

Sensory nerve conduction velocity and vibratory sensibility in juvenile diabetics. Relationship to endogenous insulin.  

PubMed

Sensory nerve conduction velocity (NCV) and the vibratory sense (biothesiometry) were determined in 67 children and adolescents with insulin dependent diabetes. Age at onset of diabetes varied between 1-14 years (mean +/- S.D. 6.5 +/- 3.6) and the duration of diabetes between 4-17 years (7.7 +/- 3.4). Within +/- 3 months of the nerve function tests blood was drawn for determination of C-peptide and insulin antibodies (IgG and IRI). A low NCV (less than 50 m/s) in the sural nerve and/or an abnormal vibratory sense (greater than or equal to 1.0 microns) were found in 34 patients (50.7%). Measurable fasting serum C-peptide 0.04-0.60 pmol/ml (0.17 +/- 0.15) was found in 16 patients (23.9%). All but one patients had insulin antibodies with IgG 0.130-11.029 mU/ml (2.957 +/- 2.509) and total IRI 10-9120 muU/ml (1204 +/- 1723). In multiple regression analysis we did not find any correlation between nerve function and sex, age, or age at onset of diabetes, and there was only a weak relationship between NCV and duration. However, there was a positive correlation between NCV and C-peptide (p less than 0.001). Vibration sense was also better among patients with C-peptide (p less than 0.05). The results support the view that insulin deficiency contributes to peripheral diabetic neuropathy. PMID:525341

Ludvigsson, J; Johannesson, G; Heding, L; Häger, A; Larsson, Y

1979-09-01

220

Sectioning of contaminated components for decontamination by vibratory finishing and electropolishing  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work conducted to develop, adapt, and evaluate a variety of techniques for sectioning glove boxes, chemical processing equipment, pipes, ducts, and other contaminated components in preparation for decontamination by vibratory finishing and electropolishing. These sectioning studies were conducted with a special 10-ft x 20-ft x 10-ft stainless-steel, walk-in glove box equipped for either hands-on operation via gloves and personnel entry, or remote operation using master slave manipulators and a bridge crane. Several sectioning techniques have been evaluated with respect to effectiveness, versatility, secondary waste generation, and capability for remote operation. The methods include wet and dry plasma arc torch cutting, mechanical sawing and nibbling, abrasive cutting, and hydraulic shearing and punching. The results of these comparison studies show that the plasma arc torch is a very rapid and effective metal cutting tool for size reduction applications. However, its use to prepare material for decontamination should be minimized because of problems with smoke generation, torch manipulation, waste generation, and entrainment of contamination. Mechanical saws eliminate all but the waste generation problem, but are very slow and labor intensive. Mechanical nibblers are fast and produce a waste form that can be decontaminated, but are limited with respect to the geometry and thickness of material that can be sectioned. High-speed abrasive saws provide high cutting rates, but produce nontreatable waste from the cut as well as from blade wear. Hydraulic shearing rapidly produces sectioned material in the small sizes required for decontamination by vibratory finishing. The kerf material also can be decontaminated. However, the glove box first must be sectioned into relatively narrow strips by one of the other techniques.

Fetrow, L.K.; Allen, R.P.

1981-09-01

221

A comparison between seismicity, topographic relief, and gravity anomalies of the Iranian Plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both theoretical treatment and observed data have demonstrated that the stresses induced by topography are appreciable and may cause seismicity to concentrate in regions of large topographic and\\/or gravity anomalies corresponding to isostatic anomalies. Their magnitudes range from a few to hundreds of MPa. Data on seismicity, topographic relief, isostatic and Bouguer anomalies of the Iranian Plateau were correlated with

A. Zamani; N Hashemi

2000-01-01

222

Housing environment influences the need for pain relief during post-operative recovery in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of invasive experimental procedures on perceived stress and pain may be dependent on both physical and social environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a physically and a socially enriched environment on the need for pain relief following painful experimental procedures. A non-invasive method to administer analgesics post-operatively is by means of

T. M. Pham; B. Hagman; A. Codita; P. L. P. Van Loo; L. Strömmer; V. Baumans

2010-01-01

223

43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Relief granted. 1815.1-1...AND GENERAL GUIDANCE Disaster Relief § 1815.1-1 Relief...contract does not provide relief to the timber purchaser...as a result of a major disaster, a major...

2013-10-01

224

The Use of Knowledge in Natural Disaster Relief Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

To successfully coordinate natural disaster relief, society must solve Hayek’s “knowledge, problem” at three critical information nodes: (1) identification of disaster; (2) determination of what relief is needed and who needs which relief resources; and (3) evaluation of on-going relief efforts. This paper investigates the comparative ability of government and the private sector to do this. We find that government

Russell S. Sobel; Peter T. Leeson

2006-01-01

225

43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Relief granted. 1815.1-1...AND GENERAL GUIDANCE Disaster Relief § 1815.1-1 Relief...contract does not provide relief to the timber purchaser...as a result of a major disaster, a major...

2012-10-01

226

43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Relief granted. 1815.1-1...AND GENERAL GUIDANCE Disaster Relief § 1815.1-1 Relief...contract does not provide relief to the timber purchaser...as a result of a major disaster, a major...

2011-10-01

227

46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65...HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that...

2013-10-01

228

Vibratory Massage in Mechanically Ventilated Patients – A Pilot Study on Heart and Lung-Transplanted Patients and Patients with Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryIntroduction: The manual vibratory massage is part of the pneumotherapeutic concept besides autogenic drainage, the thorax-extend positioning, the ‘pursed lips’, pack grips and special exercises applied to improve the costo-abdominal and costo-sternal mechanism of respiration. Objective: Our aim was to examine the influence of manual vibratory massage on the respiratory situation of postoperative patients under mechanical ventilation with special interest

Th. J. Doering; H. G. Fieguth; B. Stevernagel; J. Brix; M. Konitzer; B. Schneider; G. C. Fischer

1997-01-01

229

Satellite communications for disaster relief operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of communication satellite systems to provide assistance in disaster relief operations on a global basis is presented. Disaster problem phases such as detection, warning, and relief; requirements for the communication capability including remote data collection, imaging and voice broadcast; and the global disaster network are discussed. Utilization of Intelsat and Marisat systems and the size and type of ground terminals required for satellite access is considered, and estimates of communication requirements for a global system and of costs for satellite services to support relief operations are given. NASA disaster related activities including studies of direct-to-home disaster warning and determination of disaster response times are described, and it is concluded that existing international satellite communication systems offer real potential for the establishment of a reliable and flexible network devoted to disaster related communication services.

Sivo, J. N.

1979-01-01

230

Glovebox pressure relief and check valve  

SciTech Connect

This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

Blaedel, K.L.

1986-03-17

231

Finite Element Method Simulation of Double-Ended Tuning-Fork Quartz Resonator for Application to Vibratory Gyro-Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we propose a double-ended tuning-fork quartz resonator for a flatly supported vibratory gyro-sensor in parallel with its rotating plane. The resonator has the advantages of ease of miniaturization and high resistance to external shock, because the height of the proposed resonator is less than that of the conventional vertical-type tuning-fork. In addition, the proposed resonator has

Kenji Sato; Atsushi Ono; Yoshiro Tomikawa

2003-01-01

232

Preliminary evaluation of cavitation resistance of type 316LN stainless steel in mercury using a vibratory horn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 316LN stainless steel in a variety of conditions (annealed, cold-worked, surface-modified) was exposed to cavitation conditions in stagnant mercury using a vibratory horn. The test conditions included peak-to-peak displacement of the specimen surface of 25 ?m at a frequency of 20 kHz and a mercury temperature in the range ?5 to 80 °C. Following a brief incubation period in

S. J. Pawel; E. T. Manneschmidt

2003-01-01

233

Motor task performance under vibratory feedback early poststroke: single center, randomized, cross-over, controled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Stroke rehabilitation is far from meeting patient needs in terms of timing, intensity and quality. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of an innovative technological tool, combining 3D motion analysis with targeted vibratory feedback, on upper-limb task performance early poststroke (<4 weeks). The study design was a two-sequence, two-period, randomized, crossover trial (NCT01967290) in 44 patients with upper-limb motor deficit (non-plegic) after medial cerebral artery ischemia. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the experimental session (repetitive motor task under vibratory feedback and 3D motor characterization) or the active comparator (3D motor characterization only). The primary outcome was the number of correct movements per minute on a hand-to-mouth task measured independently. Vibratory feedback was able to modulate motor training, increasing the number of correct movements by an average of 7.2/min (95%CI [4.9;9.4]; P < 0.001) and reducing the probability of performing an error from 1:3 to 1:9. This strategy may improve the efficacy of training on motor re-learning processes after stroke, and its clinical relevance deserves further study in longer duration trials.

Cruz, Vitor Tedim; Bento, Virgilio; Ruano, Luis; Ribeiro, David Dieteren; Fontao, Luis; Mateus, Catia; Barreto, Rui; Colunas, Marcio; Alves, Ana; Cruz, Barbara; Branco, Catarina; Rocha, Nelson P.; Coutinho, Paula

2014-01-01

234

Vibratory response of a mirror support/positioning system for the Advanced Photon Source project at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The vibratory response of a typical mirror support/positioning system used at the experimental station of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) project at Argonne National Laboratory is investigated. Positioning precision and stability are especially critical when the supported mirror directs a high-intensity beam aimed at a distant target. Stability may be compromised by low level, low frequency seismic and facility-originated vibrations traveling through the ground and/or vibrations caused by flow-structure interactions in the mirror cooling system. The example case system has five positioning degrees of freedom through the use of precision actuators and rotary and linear bearings. These linkage devices result in complex, multi-dimensional vibratory behavior that is a function of the range of positioning configurations. A rigorous multibody dynamical approach is used for the development of the system equations. Initial results of the study, including estimates of natural frequencies and mode shapes, as well as limited parametric design studies, are presented. While the results reported here are for a particular system, the developed vibratory analysis approach is applicable to the wide range of high-precision optical positioning systems encountered at the APS and at other comparable facilities.

Basdogan, I.; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Royston, T.J.; Shabana, A.A. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-08-01

235

Investigating acoustic correlates of human vocal fold vibratory phase asymmetry through modeling and laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopya  

PubMed Central

Vocal fold vibratory asymmetry is often associated with inefficient sound production through its impact on source spectral tilt. This association is investigated in both a computational voice production model and a group of 47 human subjects. The model provides indirect control over the degree of left–right phase asymmetry within a nonlinear source–filter framework, and high-speed videoendoscopy provides in vivo measures of vocal fold vibratory asymmetry. Source spectral tilt measures are estimated from the inverse-filtered spectrum of the simulated and recorded radiated acoustic pressure. As expected, model simulations indicate that increasing left–right phase asymmetry induces steeper spectral tilt. Subject data, however, reveal that none of the vibratory asymmetry measures correlates with spectral tilt measures. Probing further into physiological correlates of spectral tilt that might be affected by asymmetry, the glottal area waveform is parameterized to obtain measures of the open phase (open/plateau quotient) and closing phase (speed/closing quotient). Subjects’ left–right phase asymmetry exhibits low, but statistically significant, correlations with speed quotient (r?=?0.45) and closing quotient (r?=??0.39). Results call for future studies into the effect of asymmetric vocal fold vibration on glottal airflow and the associated impact on voice source spectral properties and vocal efficiency.

Mehta, Daryush D.; Zanartu, Matias; Quatieri, Thomas F.; Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Hillman, Robert E.

2011-01-01

236

Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens  

PubMed Central

Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress), sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care.

Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara M; Mulvogue, Tamsin

2009-01-01

237

Ant colony optimization for disaster relief operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a meta-heuristic of ant colony optimization (ACO) for solving the logistics problem arising in disaster relief activities. The logistics planning involves dispatching commodities to distribution centers in the affected areas and evacuating the wounded people to medical centers. The proposed method decomposes the original emergency logistics problem into two phases of decision making, i.e., the vehicle route

Wei Yi; Arun Kumar

2007-01-01

238

History of Federal Drought Relief Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Federal drought relief has had an increasingly important role in the 20th century in contrast to earlier years when the Government assumed no responsibility. A variety of programs has been used, especially in the severe drought years of the 1930s, 1950s, ...

L. K. Dyson

1988-01-01

239

Quaternary relief generation by polythermal glacier ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The juxtaposition of wet-based erosive ice in valleys and cold-based, non-erosive ice atop felsenmeer-covered interfluve plateaus has generated relief in the Torngat Mountains of northeastern Canada. Measurements of in situ terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) con- centrations from 31 bedrock sites, coupled with soils and geomorphology, indicate that erosion of the valleys has been > > > > > 2m during

Jane K. W. Staiger; John C. Gosse; Jesse V. Johnson; James Fastook; James T. Gray; Daniel F. Stockli; Lisa Stockli; Robert Finkel

2005-01-01

240

Pressure relief device for sealed electric cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A normally sealed electric cell has a container subject to internal gas pressure. The container includes a cylindrical wall, a gas-tight closure, and pressure relief device comprising the following components: an annular gasket of dielectric material fitting within the cylindrical wall and having an annular inwardly projecting flange; a thin metallic diaphragm supported at the outer side of the flange

Nordvik

1962-01-01

241

Electrophysiological responses to vibratory stimulation in the brainstem of the tadpole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maturation of saccular responses to vibratory stimuli in 3 axes was measured in the Rana catesbeiana tadpole across metamorphic development. The animal was suspended in a water-filled circular aluminum dish attached to a shaker table system consisting of 5 vibration exciters producing sinusoidal, translational movements in the x, y, and z planes. Multi-unit responses were recorded from the medulla with tungsten or platinum-iridium microelectrodes. Recording sites were electrolytically marked to verify electrode placement. Data were collected from 16 animals in late larval stages, before onset of metamorphic climax. Most recording sites were sensitive to vibrations in the z (vertical) direction, indicating a saccular origin of the response. Vibration frequencies of 40 Hz or below produced the strongest activity, with thresholds below a displacement of 10 nm. Secondary sensitivity was sometimes observed to either x (body-longitudinal) or y (body-lateral) directions of movement. Although some sites produced strong phase-locked activity to the stimulation, others showed more diverse temporal patterns of response. Active recording sites were found in the medial vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, reticular gray, and dorsal superior olivary nucleus. These data suggest that tadpole saccule is functional early in larval development, with sensitivity similar to that observed in adult bullfrogs.

Simmons, Andrea M.; Two, Aimee; Horowitz, Seth S.

2005-04-01

242

Two novel measurements for the drive-mode resonant frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope.  

PubMed

To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG), one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and inconvenient because of the requirements of many test points, a lot of data storage and off-line analyses. In this paper, we propose two novel measurement methods, the search method and track method, respectively. The former is based on the magnitude-frequency characteristics of the drive mode, utilizing a one-dimensional search technique. The latter is based on the phase-frequency characteristics, applying a feedback control loop. Their performances in precision, noise resistivity and efficiency are analyzed through detailed simulations. A test system is implemented based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and experiments are carried out. By comparing with the common approach, feasibility and superiorities of the proposed methods are validated. In particular, significant efficiency improvements are achieved whereby the conventional frequency method consumes nearly 5,000 s to finish a measurement, while only 5 s is needed for the track method and 1 s for the search method. PMID:24256977

Wang, Ancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Luo, Bing; Jiang, Mingming; He, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kanghua

2013-01-01

243

Two Novel Measurements for the Drive-Mode Resonant Frequency of a Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope  

PubMed Central

To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG), one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and inconvenient because of the requirements of many test points, a lot of data storage and off-line analyses. In this paper, we propose two novel measurement methods, the search method and track method, respectively. The former is based on the magnitude-frequency characteristics of the drive mode, utilizing a one-dimensional search technique. The latter is based on the phase-frequency characteristics, applying a feedback control loop. Their performances in precision, noise resistivity and efficiency are analyzed through detailed simulations. A test system is implemented based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and experiments are carried out. By comparing with the common approach, feasibility and superiorities of the proposed methods are validated. In particular, significant efficiency improvements are achieved whereby the conventional frequency method consumes nearly 5,000 s to finish a measurement, while only 5 s is needed for the track method and 1 s for the search method.

Wang, Ancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Luo, Bing; Jiang, Mingming; He, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kanghua

2013-01-01

244

Nonlinear stochastic controllers for power-flow-constrained vibratory energy harvesters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addresses the formulation of nonlinear feedback controllers for stochastically excited vibratory energy harvesters. Maximizing the average power generated from such systems requires the transducer current to be regulated using a bi-directional power electronic converter. There are many applications where the implementation of these types of converters is infeasible, due to the higher parasitic losses they must sustain. If instead the transducer current is regulated using a converter capable of single-directional power-flow, then these parasitic losses can be reduced significantly. However, the constraint on the power-flow directionality restricts the domain of feasible feedback laws. The only feasible linear feedback law imposes a static relationship between current and voltage, i.e., a static admittance. In stochastic response, the power generation performance can be enhanced significantly beyond that of the optimal static admittance, using nonlinear feedback. In this paper, a general approach to nonlinear control synthesis for power-flow-constrained energy harvesters is presented, which is analytically guaranteed to outperform the optimal static admittance in stationary stochastic response. Simulation results are presented for a single-degree-of-freedom resonant oscillator with an electromagnetic transducer, as well as for a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam.

Cassidy, Ian L.; Scruggs, Jeffrey T.

2013-06-01

245

Programmable mechanobioreactor for exploration of the effects of periodic vibratory stimulus on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.  

PubMed

A programmable bioreactor using a voice-coil actuator was developed to enable research on the effects of periodic vibratory stimulus on human and porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We hypothesized that low frequency vibrations would result in a cartilage phenotype and higher frequency vibrations would result in a bone phenotype. The mechanical stimulation protocol is adjusted from a computer external to the incubator via a USB cable. Once programmed, the embedded microprocessor and sensor system on the bioreactor execute the protocol independent of the computer. In each test, a sinusoidal stimulus was applied to a culture plate in 1-min intervals with a 15-min rest following each, for a total of 15?h per day for 10 days. Frequencies of 1 and 100?Hz were applied to cultures of both human and porcine umbilical cord-derived MSCs. Chondrogenesis was determined by Alcian blue staining for glycosaminoglycans and an increased differentiation index (ratio of mRNA for collagen II and collagen I). Osteogenic differentiation was indicated with Alizarin red for calcium staining and increased bone morphogenetic protein 2 mRNA. One-hertz stimulation resulted in a cartilage phenotype for both human and porcine MSCs, while 100-Hz stimulation resulted in a bone phenotype. PMID:24570842

Cashion, Avery T; Caballero, Montserrat; Halevi, Alexandra; Pappa, Andrew; Dennis, Robert G; van Aalst, John A

2014-02-01

246

Hurricane Relief Operations in the Caribbean: Is the Use of the Military in Hurricane Relief Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Considering meteorological projections, the frequency and magnitude of hurricanes in the Caribbean appear more probable in the future. Correspondingly, this necessitates a more organized response to such threats of devastation. Additional hurricane relief...

G. N. Robinson

2004-01-01

247

48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...clause: (d) Tax relief will be claimed in Germany pursuant to the provisions of the Agreement Between the United States of America and Germany Concerning Tax Relief to be Accorded by Germany to United States Expenditures in the...

2013-10-01

248

49 CFR 601.41 - Petitions for relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Systems § 601.41 Petitions for relief. In the case of a national or regional emergency or disaster, or in anticipation of such a disaster...petition the Administrator for temporary relief from the provisions of any policy...

2013-10-01

249

43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interior 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief...GENERAL GUIDANCE Disaster Relief § 1815...from major physical change, not due to negligence...result of a major disaster, a major physical change results in...

2010-10-01

250

Prescription opioid use among addictions treatment patients : Nonmedical use for pain relief vs. other forms of nonmedical use  

PubMed Central

Background Differences between those who engage in nonmedical prescription opioid use for reasons other than pain relief and those who engage in nonmedical use for reasons related to pain only are not well understood. Methods Adults in a residential treatment program participated in a cross-sectional self-report survey. Participants reported whether they used opioids for reasons other than pain relief (e.g., help sleep, improve mood, or relieve stress). Within those with past-month nonmedical opioid use (n=238), logistic regression tested differences between those who reported use for reasons other than pain relief and those who did not. Results Nonmedical use of opioids for reasons other than pain relief was more common (66%) than nonmedical use for pain relief only (34%), and those who used for reasons other than pain relief were more likely to report heavy use (43% vs. 11%). Nonmedical use for reasons other than pain relief was associated with having a prior overdose (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.54), 95% CI:1.36-4.74) and use of heroin (OR=4.08, 95% CI:1.89-8.79), barbiturates (OR=6.44, 95% CI:1.47, 28.11), and other sedatives (OR=5.80, 95% CI: 2.61, 12.87). Individuals who reported nonmedical use for reasons other than pain relief had greater depressive symptoms (13.1 vs. 10.5) and greater pain medication expectancies across all three domains (pleasure/social enhancement, pain reduction, negative experience reduction). Conclusions Among patients in addictions treatment, individuals who report nonmedical use of prescription opioids for reasons other than pain relief represent an important clinical sub-group with greater substance use severity and poorer mental health functioning.

Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Eisenberg, Anna; Whiteside, Lauren; Price, Amanda; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Ilgen, Mark A.

2012-01-01

251

Suicide Prevention for Local Public and Volunteer Relief Workers in Disaster-Affected Areas.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES:: Local workforces play a critical role in disaster relief and reconstruction. However, the mental health of local relief workers might be affected by disasters, threatening the sustainability of local workforces. In this study, we tried to address this concern by investigating the well-being of local relief workers and its association with suicidal ideation. DESIGN:: A retrospective study was conducted. Surveys were designed to collect data from a purposive sample of local disaster relief workers who survived a disaster. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to test hypotheses. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:: The study sample was from a population of local relief workers in the worst quake-hit regions in China in 2008. The respondents were local relief workers from a town in these regions. All of the 83 local relief workers were invited 11 months after the earthquake, and 70 joined the study, resulting in a response rate of 84.3%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: The dependent variable was postdisaster suicidal ideation. The independent variables were bereavement, depression and posttraumatic stress, daily work hours, job burnout, work-family conflict, and work engagement. RESULTS:: Approximately 21.4% of participants reported suicidal ideation after the earthquake in comparison with 7.1% before the earthquake. One potential risk factor was an interaction effect of job burnout and work-family conflict (odds ratio [OR] = 3.738; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.086-12.868). Potential protective factors included daily work hours (OR = 0.317; 95% CI, 0.106-0.952) and work engagement (OR = 0.297; 95% CI, 0.091-0.969). CONCLUSIONS:: Findings suggest that for local relief workers who are also disaster survivors, meaningful engagement such as participation in disaster relief could be salutary to their mental health, but overwork and interference with personal life could be harmful and increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Discretion is needed in managing local workforces, particularly with long work hours and work-family balance. PMID:23760310

Wang, Xiao Lu; Yip, Paul S F; Chan, Cecilia L W

2013-06-11

252

46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping...Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo piping system from...

2013-10-01

253

46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...except a relief valve may vent to a common tank relief valve...under § 154.806; (6) Not vent to a common header or common vent mast if the relief valves are...becoming inoperative due to ice formation; and (2) Be designed...

2009-10-01

254

46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...except a relief valve may vent to a common tank relief valve...under § 154.806; (6) Not vent to a common header or common vent mast if the relief valves are...becoming inoperative due to ice formation; and (2) Be designed...

2010-10-01

255

Improve safety with pilot operated relief valves  

SciTech Connect

A weakness inherent in balanced bellows pressure relief valves (PRVs) that can cause premature failure can be avoided by using pilot operated PRVs as an alternative. Now better able to handle adverse service conditions, pilot operated PRVs are suitable for a wide range of gas, liquid and mixed-phase services. Traditionally, however, balanced bellows PRVs have been applied as overpressure protection for three notable reasons: a constant PRV set pressure with the presence of variable, superimposed back pressure (at the PRV outlet prior to its opening); valve stability and adequate capacity when built-up back pressure (at the PRV outlet during its relief cycle) exceeds 10%; and spring and guided parts barriered from the process fluid. With these benefits in mind, balanced bellows PRVs have been generally adapted by many hydrocarbon processing companies that have experienced costly, and often dangerous, premature bellows failures. Corrosion, valve instability and/or bellows flutter are causes of these failures.

Emerson, G. [Anderson, Greenwood and Co., Stafford, TX (United States)

1996-10-01

256

The President's Agenda for Tax Relief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In early 2001, President Bush released a summary of his agenda for tax relief. He claims to offer a "bold and fair tax relief plan that will reduce the inequities of the current tax code and help ensure that America remains prosperous." Highlights of Bush's proposal include doubling the child care credit to $1,000 per child, reinstating the ten percent deduction for two-earner couples, thus reducing the "marriage penalty," and eliminating inheritance taxes. The rather celebratory summary provides a short explanation of each element of the new tax plan, along with several charts on topics including consumer debt, tax rates for Americans on the edge of poverty, and the tax reduction for the poorest families. Finally, the report offers an easy-to-understand, side-by-side comparison of the current tax code and the Bush plan.

2001-01-01

257

Efficient and effective extraction of vocal fold vibratory patterns from high-speed digital imaging  

PubMed Central

Objectives High-speed digital imaging can provide valuable information on disordered voice production in voice science. However, the large amounts of high-speed image data with limited image resolutions produce significant challenges for computer analysis, and thus effective and efficient image edge extraction methods allowing for the batch analysis of high-speed images of vocal folds is clinically important. In this paper, a novel algorithm for automatic image edge detection is proposed to effectively and efficiently process high-speed images of the vocal folds. Methods The method integrates Lagrange interpolation, differentiation, and Canny edge detection, which allow objective extraction of aperiodic vocal fold vibratory patterns from large numbers of high-speed digital images. This method and two other popular algorithms, histogram and active contour, are performed on 10 sets of high-speed video data from excised larynx experiments in order to compare their performances in analyzing high-speed images. The accuracy in computing glottal area and the computation time of these methods are investigated. Results and Discussion The results show that our proposed method provides the most accurate and efficient detection, and is applicable when processing low resolution images. In this study, we focus on developing a method to effectively and efficiently process high-speed image data from excised larynges. However in addition we show the clinical potential of this method by use of example high-speed image data obtained from a patient with vocal nodules. Conclusions The proposed automatic image-processing algorithm may provide a valuable biomedical application for the clinical assessment of vocal disorders by use of high-speed digital imaging.

Zhang, Yu; Bieging, Erik; Tsui, Henry; Jiang, Jack J.

2010-01-01

258

Two-time-scale analysis of a ring of coupled vibratory gyroscopes.  

PubMed

A coupling inertial navigation sensor (INS) system may proven to be beneficial for performance improvement, especially when the manufacturing yield is very low for meeting the specification requirement of various applications. For instance, navigation grade sensors using the current fabrication process would yield one in every few hundreds which would meet the specification requirement after careful selection process and testing. We propose to couple these sensors by putting together the "low grade" sensors in a small array of particular coupling topology to explore their stability properties of known parameter variations produced during the fabrication process. By coupling them in a particular way one may improve the system stability to effect the performance of the INS. Thus in this work we present a coupled inertial navigation sensor (CINS) system consisting of a ring of vibratory gyroscopes coupled through the driving axis of each individual gyroscope. Numerical simulations show that under certain conditions, which depend mainly on the coupling strength, the dynamics of the individual gyroscopes will synchronize with one another. The same simulations also show an optimal network size at which the effects of noise can be minimized, thus yielding a reduction in the phase drift. We quantify the reduction in the phase drift and perform an asymptotic analysis of the motion equations to determine the conditions for the existence of the synchronized state. The analysis yields an analytical expression for a critical coupling strength at which different nonzero mean oscillations merge in a pitchfork bifurcation; passed this critical coupling the synchronized state becomes locally asymptotically stable. The Liapunov-Schmidt (LS) reduction is then applied to determine the stability properties of the synchronized solution and to further show that the pitchfork bifurcation can be subcritical or supercritical, depending on the coefficient of the nonlinear terms in the equations of motion. PMID:20365698

Vu, Huy; Palacios, Antonio; In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Neff, Joseph D

2010-03-01

259

Relative performance of a vibratory energy harvester in mono- and bi-stable potentials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the need for broadband vibratory energy harvesting, many research studies have recently proposed energy harvesters with nonlinear characteristics. Based on the shape of their potential function, such devices are classified as either mono- or bi-stable energy harvesters. This paper aims to investigate the relative performance of these two classes under similar excitations and electric loading conditions. To achieve this goal, an energy harvester consisting of a clamped-clamped piezoelectric beam bi-morph is considered. The shape of the harvester's potential function is altered by applying a static compressive axial load at one end of the beam. This permits operation in the mono-stable (pre-buckling) and bi-stable (post-buckling) configurations. For the purpose of performance comparison, the axial load is used to tune the harvester's oscillation frequencies around the static equilibria such that they have equal values in the mono- and bi-stable configurations. The harvester is subjected to harmonic base excitations of different magnitudes and a slowly varying frequency spanning a wide band around the tuned oscillation frequency. The output voltage measured across a purely resistive load is compared over the frequency range considered. Two cases are discussed; the first compares the performance when the bi-stable harvester has deep potential wells, while the second treats a bi-stable harvester with shallow wells. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate the essential role that the potential shape plays in conjunction with the base acceleration to determine whether the bi-stable harvester can outperform the mono-stable one and for what range of frequencies. Results also illustrate that, for a bi-stable harvester with shallow potential wells, super-harmonic resonances can activate the inter-well dynamics even for a small base acceleration, thereby producing large voltages in the low frequency range.

Masana, Ravindra; Daqaq, Mohammed F.

2011-11-01

260

A node architecture for disaster relief networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present node architecture for a personal node in a cognitive ad-hoc disaster relief network. This architecture is motivated from the network system requirements, especially single-hop distance and jamming-resilience requirements. It is shown that the power consumption of current-day analog to digital converters (ADCs) limits the channel bandwidth that can be used, both for a baseband processing

Fokke Hoeksema; Marnix Heskamp; Roel Schiphorst; Kees Slump

2005-01-01

261

Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

Whipple, Kelin X.

2004-01-01

262

46 CFR 64.69 - Location of the pressure relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.69 Location of the pressure relief device. A pressure relief device must beâ...

2013-10-01

263

EC Hidraulic Drive Cylinder Relief Vlave Test  

SciTech Connect

This engineering note documents the testing of the set pressure of the EC hydraulic drive cylinder relief valve. The purpose of the relief valve is to provide a safety measure in the event that oil becomes trapped in the rod side of the cylinder and pressure is applied to the cap side. The note includes an explanation of the procedure used and a summary of the result of the testing done on February 14, 1991 by Gary Trotter. The result was that the cylinder relief valve relieved at the correct set pressure of 10,500 psig. The basic concern is for the protection of the cylinder. The pump is capable of providing up to 10,500 psi of pressure to either side of the cylinder. The cylinder is rated for 10,500 psi. Under normal operating conditions, the valves would be open, and the pumping pressure would automatically flow oil into one side, and remove oil from the other side. If, however, the valve for the other side was closed, so that oil could not be removed, then the pressure would build in that side. If the rod side is pressurized to the maximum pump pressure of 10,500 psi, the cross sectional area ratio of 2.29 results in a pressure of approximately 4600 psi in the cap side, which is well under the rated pressure. If, however, the cap side is pressurized to 10,500 psi, the cross sectional area would produce a pressure of approximately 24,000 psi in the rod side, which could damage the cylinder. Therefore, the pressure on the rod side must be limited to the rated pressure of 10,500 psi. In reality, the maximum operating force on the piston would be under 11,000 Ibs., which would result in the maximum cylinder pressure being under 8000 psi to the rod side, and under 3500 psi to the cap side. Therefore, the relief is only needed as a safety precaution in the case that oil becomes trapped.

Wu, J.; /Fermilab

1991-04-03

264

[Body integrity identity disorder, relief after amputation].  

PubMed

Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a rare condition in which a person, for no apparent physical reason, is tormented by the experience that a body-part, such as a limb, does not really belong to the body. Patients experience an intense desire for the limb to be amputated (a 'desire' formerly referred to as 'apotemnophilia'). We report on a 58-year-old male patient with BIID who froze one of his legs so that he could amputate it himself. A surgeon ultimately intervened and amputated the leg professionally. The patient was extremely relieved and was still experiencing relief at a follow-up three years later. PMID:24446228

Blom, R M; Braam, A W; de Boer-Kreeft, N; Sonnen, M P A M

2014-01-01

265

Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

2000-01-01

266

On the numerical computation of nonlinear normal modes for reduced-order modelling of conservative vibratory systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical computation of nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) for conservative vibratory systems is addressed, with the aim of deriving accurate reduced-order models up to large amplitudes. A numerical method is developed, based on the center manifold approach for NNMs, which uses an interpretation of the equations as a transport problem, coupled to a periodicity condition for ensuring manifold's continuity. Systematic comparisons are drawn with other numerical methods, and especially with continuation of periodic orbits, taken as reference solutions. Three different mechanical systems, displaying peculiar characteristics allowing for a general view of the performance of the methods for vibratory systems, are selected. Numerical results show that invariant manifolds encounter folding points at large amplitude, generically (but not only) due to internal resonances. These folding points involve an intrinsic limitation to reduced-order models based on the centre manifold and on the idea of a functional relationship between slave and master coordinates. Below that amplitude limit, numerical methods are able to produce reduced-order models allowing for a precise prediction of the backbone curve.

Blanc, F.; Touzé, C.; Mercier, J.-F.; Ege, K.; Bonnet Ben-Dhia, A.-S.

2013-04-01

267

Sperm retrieval in anejaculatory diabetic men who failed in drug treatment and penile vibratory stimulation during blood sugar under control.  

PubMed

Ejaculatory dysfunction is an uncommon cause of male infertility. The aim of this study was to explore non-invasive methods for sperm retrieval in anejaculatory diabetic men who failed in drug treatment and penile vibratory stimulation during blood sugar under control. Among 21 anejaculatory diabetic men who had failed in drug treatment and penile vibratory stimulation, sperm was collected by retrograde ejaculation in 10 patients (group A), and in eight patients, sperm was collected by prostatic massage (group B). We compared the outcome of subsequent assisted reproductive treatment between the two groups; the rate of fertility in group A and in group B was 78.3% and 66.6% respectively, and the rate of good embryo was 56.6% and 48.8% respectively. Eight singleton pregnancies were achieved in the 18 anejaculatory diabetic men, 5 in group A and 3 in group B, the rate of pregnancy between the two groups was 50% and 37.5% respectively. There was no significant difference in the rate of fertility, good embryo rate and pregnancy outcome between the two groups. PMID:23488950

Lu, S; Cui, Y; Li, X; Zhang, H; Hu, J; Liu, J; Chen, Z-J

2014-05-01

268

Helium pressures in RHIC vacuum cryostats and relief valve requirements from magnet cooling line failure  

SciTech Connect

A catastrophic failure of the RHIC magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, would pressurize the insulating vacuum in the magnet and transfer line cryostats. Insufficient relief valves on the cryostats could cause a structural failure. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the vacuum cryostat and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed to calculate the helium pressure inside the cryostat. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces were included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Existing relief valve sizes were reviewed to make sure that the maximum stresses, caused by the calculated maximum pressures inside the cryostats, did not exceed the allowable stresses, based on the ASME Code B31.3 and ANSYS results. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The S/F simulation results show that the highest internal pressure in the cryostats, due to the magnet line failure, is {approx}37 psig (255115 Pa); (2) Based on the simulation, the temperature on the cryostat chamber, INJ Q8-Q9, could drop to 228 K, which is lower than the material minimum design temperature allowed by the Code; (3) Based on the ASME Code and ANSYS results, the reliefs on all the cryostats inside the RHIC tunnel are adequate to protect the vacuum chambers when the magnet cooling lines fail; and (4) In addition to the pressure loading, the thermal deformations, due to the temperature decrease on the cryostat chambers, could also cause a high stress on the chamber, if not properly supported.

Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

2011-03-28

269

Water Replacement Schedules in Heat Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although early ingestion of cold water appears to lead to greater relief from heat stress during physical exertion than late ingestion, this difference is reduced toward the end of an hour's work in high heat and humidity. (CK)

Londeree, Ben R.; and others

1969-01-01

270

Adequacy of postoperative pain relief after discharge.  

PubMed

Day care surgery has shown a remarkable development over the last two decades, comprising approximately 60-70% of all surgical procedures. Therefore major proportions of surgical patients are recovering at home and have little or no assessment of the adequacy of their pain relief. The aim of our audit was to compare suggested postoperative pain indicators with targets for best practice. This audit was done at the Aga Khan University Hospital day care unit for a period of three months. On the day of surgery patients having the contact numbers were informed about the telephone call 24 hrs after the surgery inquiring about their pain relief. Patients were shown and explained the visual analogue score from 0 to 10. The data was collected by one of the investigators on the day of surgery. We could assess 63.3% of day care patients. All patients were discharged with analgesia. Only three percent reported severe pain after 24 hrs which is according to the proposed standard for best practice that is < 5%. Sixty percent of patients had mild or no pain which is less than the proposed standard (> 85%) and 84.2% were satisfied which is almost borderline (> 85%) according to the standard of best practice. PMID:17867263

Ismail, Samina; Hussain, Aziza M

2007-07-01

271

Shaded relief, color as height Patagonia, Argentina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image of Patagonia, Argentina shows a spectacular landscape formed by volcanoes, rivers, and wind. The area is located just east of the narrow range of the Andes Mountains, about 100 kilometers (62 miles) east of the border with Chile. Interesting features include basalt-capped mesas with sinkholes (lower center), arcuate ridges of windblown beach sands downwind from a salty desert lake (upper center), young volcanic cones(right), and at least one case of what geologists call 'inverted relief'. This happens when lava flows down a valley in soft material and then the soft material is eroded away leaving the former valley as a ridge of lava. These ridges can be seen on the slopes of the volcano in the upper right. Geologists will use SRTM topographic data to study the interaction of volcanic, climatic and erosional processes.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1100 meters(3600 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 225 km (140 miles) x 170 km (105 miles) Location: 41 deg. South lat., 69 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper right Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

272

Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

2000-01-01

273

Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This shaded relief topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are five rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, Zhilovaya, and Kakhtana. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in yellow. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from red through green back to red) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet)similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 240 km (150 miles) x 122 km (77 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

2000-01-01

274

Pain relief: the perspective of Catholic tradition.  

PubMed

Efforts to study patient care from the perspective of Catholic ethics date back four centuries. In the course of this history, a prominent issue has always been management of pain and the efforts to avoid pain. Thus, Catholic theologians were concerned about the effects of pain medication upon the psychic function and considered whether or not hastening death for suffering people was allowed and the ethical norms for using opioids to remove pain when death is imminent. Moreover, the issue of "overmedication" for difficult or elderly patients has been a concern. The President's Commission on Ethics in Medicine and Human Research has utilized many of the principles developed by Catholic theologians when considering the matter of pain relief for dying persons. PMID:1287111

O'Rourke, K

1992-11-01

275

Relief of vasospasm by intravascular ultraviolet irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the photovasorelaxation with intravascular transluminal irradiation using in vivo model. A 2.5 Fr. catheter was inserted in the femoral artery of a rabbit under anesthesia. A 400 micrometers diameter quartz fiber was inserted through the catheter. The catheter was withdrawn from the distal end to the proximal end of the exposed femoral artery without laser irradiation in order to observe the mechanical dilation by the procedure. The femoral artery lumen was irradiated by a Helium-Cadmium(He-Cd) laser (wavelength; 325 nm) with 8 mW through the fiber during 30 s. We carried out that the laser irradiation produced vasorelaxation (185% on the average) compared with mechanical vasodilation (150% on the average) with angiography. The results suggest that intravascular transluminal irradiation with low-power UV laser might be applicable to the relief of acute arterial vasospasm.

Nakai, Kanji; Morimoto, Yuji; Ito, Hirotaka; Kominami, Kimito; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Arai, Tsunenori; Kikuchi, Makoto

1998-05-01

276

Miniature, shielded electrical connector with strain relief  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electrical connector assembly includes a wire bundle having at least one wire with a metal shield surrounding at least a portion of the wire. The shield has an end portion and provides electromagnetic interference protection to the wire. A backshell includes a body and a cover secured to the body together defining an internal cavity with the wire at least partially arranged within the cavity. The backshell provides EMI protection for the portion of the wire bundle not covered by the shield. The backshell includes a hole in a wall of either the body or the cover with the end portion of the shield extending through the hole. The clamp is secured about the body and the cover with the end portion of the shield arranged between the clamp and the backshell grounding the shield to the backshell. The clamp forces the backshell into engagement with the wire bundle to provide strain relief for the wire bundle.

Diep, Chuong H. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

277

Argon Dewar Relief Set Pressure Modifications  

SciTech Connect

This engineering note documents the calculations of Kelly Dixon, used to determine the maximum allowable set pressure for the argon dewar low relief valve, tag number PSV620A, Anderson Greenwood Type 526J. The original setting was 16 psig. This value was chosen in order to protect against cryostat overpressurization by the source dewar (see D0 Engineering Note 115), however, the following calculations will show that the set pressure can be raised to approximately 18.5 psig, which would result in a faster filling of the cryostat, along with a higher level of liquid argon. Three other engineering notes were revised to reflect the change in set pressure according to this note. They are notes 115, 219, and 263.

Wu, J.; /Fermilab

1991-03-19

278

Correlations between climate network and relief data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last few years, the scientific community has witnessed an ongoing trend of using ideas developed in the study of complex networks to analyze climate dynamics. This powerful combination, usually called climate networks, can be used to uncover non-trivial patterns of weather changes along the years. Here we investigate the temperature network of North America region and show that two network characteristics, namely degree and clustering, have markedly differences between the Eastern and Western regions. We show that such differences are a reflection of the presence of a large network community in the western side of the continent. Moreover, we provide evidences that this large community is a consequence of the peculiar characteristics of the western relief of North America.

Peron, T. K. D.; Comin, C. H.; Amancio, D. R.; Costa, L. da F.; Rodrigues, F. A.; Kurths, J.

2014-04-01

279

Dual-mass vibratory rate gyroscope with suppressed translational acceleration response and quadrature-error correction capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A microfabricated vibratory rate gyroscope to measure rotation includes two proof-masses mounted in a suspension system anchored to a substrate. The suspension has two principal modes of compliance, one of which is driven into oscillation. The driven oscillation combined with rotation of the substrate about an axis perpendicular to the substrate results in Coriolis acceleration along the other mode of compliance, the sense-mode. The sense-mode is designed to respond to Coriolis accelerationwhile suppressing the response to translational acceleration. This is accomplished using one or more rigid levers connecting the two proof-masses. The lever allows the proof-masses to move in opposite directions in response to Coriolis acceleration. The invention includes a means for canceling errors, termed quadrature error, due to imperfections in implementation of the sensor. Quadrature-error cancellation utilizes electrostatic forces to cancel out undesired sense-axis motion in phase with drive-mode position.

Clark, William A. (Inventor); Juneau, Thor N. (Inventor); Lemkin, Mark A. (Inventor); Roessig, Allen W. (Inventor)

2001-01-01

280

Sensitivity of vocal fold vibratory modes to their three-layer structure: Implications for computational modeling of phonation  

PubMed Central

The sensitivity of the eigenmodes and eigenfrequencies of the human vocal fold to its three-layer structure is studied using finite-element modeling. The study covers a variety of three-dimensional vocal fold models ranging from an idealized, longitudinally uniform structure to a physiologically more realistic, longitudinally varying structure. Geometric parameters including the thickness of the ligament and cover layers as well as the ligament length are varied systematically. The results indicate that vocal fold vibratory modes are quite insensitive to the longitudinal variation in the thickness of the three layers as well as the variation in ligament length. However, significant overall changes in thickness of each layer can produce noticeable changes in these modes. The implications of these findings on computational modeling of phonation are discussed.

Xue, Q.; Zheng, X.; Bielamowicz, S.; Mittal, R.

2011-01-01

281

Donation to disaster relief campaigns: Underlying social cognitive factors exposed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitudes, and the impact of media exposure. The aim was to expand and improve an

Liesbeth Oosterhof; Ard Heuvelman; Oscar Peters

2009-01-01

282

Safety and relief valves in light water reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information is presented to: provide an introduction to and descriptions of various types of safety and relief valves in both PWR and BWR plants; describe anticipated operating conditions for these valves; describe the test facilities, procedures, and major results for both types of valves; present an extensive discussion of modeling and analysis of safety and relief valve performance, including the

1985-01-01

283

49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...start-to-discharge pressure. (2) When a rupture disc is used in combination with a reclosing pressure relief valve, the rupture disc must be designed to burst at the pressure...accumulation of pressure between the rupture disc and the reclosing pressure relief...

2013-10-01

284

Issues in disaster relief: progress, perpetual problems and prospective solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the present state of international disaster relief? Seeks to answer this important inquiry because the increased emphasis on prevention does not make post-disaster response unnecessary. In so doing, this article will explore three important questions. Have practitioners overcome the obstacles to effective and efficient relief which have been identified in previous studies? What problems remain? What are the

David A. McEntire

1999-01-01

285

49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...tank must be equipped with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178...section. (b) Type and construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo...vehicles that are designed to be loaded by vacuum in accordance with §...

2013-10-01

286

Emergency relief venting of the infrared telescope liquid helium dewar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis is made of the emergency relief venting of the liquid helium dewar of the Spacelab 2 infrared telescope experiment in the event of a massive failure of the dewar guard vacuum. Such a failure, resulting from a major accident, could cause rapid heating and pressurization of the liquid helium in the dewar and lead to relief venting through the emergency relief system. The heat input from an accident is estimated for various fluid conditions in the dewar and the relief process as it takes place through one or both of the emergency relief paths is considered. It is shown that under all reasonable circumstances the dewar will safely relieve itself, and the pressure will not exceed 85 percent of the proof pressure or 63 percent of the burst pressure.

Urban, E. W.

1980-01-01

287

Shaded relief, color as height, Fiji  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930's. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations top ink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters(4300 feet) of total relief.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 192 km (119 miles) x 142 km (88 miles) Location: 17.8 deg. South lat., 178.0 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

288

Slipping processes in residual badlands reliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define slips as structures developed by more or less saturated colloidal suspension that slide down the walls of residual reliefs found in badlands. These suspensions seem to originate in the soils crowning gully reliefs and also from rainwater dripping onto the walls of poorly cemented sediments such as siltstone. We call this process slipping and the resulting morphologies represent a group of minor badlands forms, often linked to piping and fluting. Slipping occurs according to the following sequence of forms: 1. Mud droplets. These are irregular linear structures caused by mud droplets sliding down sub-vertical walls. The droplet is usually found at the end of a small channel. These morphologies represent the course of the sliding droplets that become fossilized and not the impact of the droplets on the sediment. 2. Slips sensu stricto. These are uninterrupted surface structures covering sub-vertical walls to a greater or lesser extent. The thickness of this type of covering varies from a few millimetres to 5cm. The inner structure of the slips consists of small laminas (» 100mm) and on the exterior they often present drip channels. A special case of these forms is butterfly structures, which appear in isolation, with repetitive patterns and the appearance of a winged insect stuck to the wall. 3. Pseudo-stalactites. These are free-standing conical regrowths with some similarity to stalactites in a karst cave. They occur when slips grow to over 5cm thick. The growth of these forms is similar to that of slips, with external superposition of fine, concentric layers with no central pore. A variety of these pseudo-stalactites are nodulous stalactites whose genesis is unknown. In this context, we should mention the existence of occasional stalagmites. In other cases, curtains of pseudo-stalactites can be found where these patterns are repeated finely. A more evolved stage of this form is the coalescence of pseudo-stalactites, representing a massive advance of this process. Pseudo-stalactites are normally found as vertical, but occasionally they lean, indicating movement of unstable blocks. The process can present recycling when some of the forms described become detached and fall. This is more likely on poorly sheltered surfaces, exposed to wind and the direct impact of rain and frost. All forms of slips suggests that these morphologies depend on the varying characteristics of the colloidal suspensions causing them, and constitute intermediate stages in the retention of sediments from erosion, which are very different to the alluvial sediments stored in the drainage network.

Díaz-Hernández, Jose Luis; Yepes, Jorge

2010-05-01

289

45 CFR 2524.50 - What are the guidelines for assistance with disaster relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What are the guidelines for assistance with disaster relief? 2524.50 Section 2524.50 ...What are the guidelines for assistance with disaster relief? (a) Purpose. Disaster relief funds are intended to provide...

2013-10-01

290

21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. 882... § 882.5880 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a...

2010-04-01

291

21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. 882... § 882.5880 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a...

2009-04-01

292

45 CFR 2524.50 - What are the guidelines for assistance with disaster relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What are the guidelines for assistance with disaster relief? 2524.50 Section 2524.50 Public...What are the guidelines for assistance with disaster relief? (a) Purpose. Disaster relief funds are intended to provide...

2010-10-01

293

45 CFR 2524.50 - What are the guidelines for assistance with disaster relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...What are the guidelines for assistance with disaster relief? 2524.50 Section 2524.50 Public...What are the guidelines for assistance with disaster relief? (a) Purpose. Disaster relief funds are intended to provide...

2011-10-01

294

45 CFR 2524.50 - What are the guidelines for assistance with disaster relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...What are the guidelines for assistance with disaster relief? 2524.50 Section 2524.50 Public...What are the guidelines for assistance with disaster relief? (a) Purpose. Disaster relief funds are intended to provide...

2012-10-01

295

46 CFR 64.79 - Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device. 64.79 Section 64...64.79 Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device. (a) The inspection of the pressure and vacuum relief device required in §...

2013-10-01

296

21 CFR 358.350 - Labeling of ingrown toenail relief drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Labeling of ingrown toenail relief drug products. 358...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Ingrown Toenail Relief Drug Products § 358.350 Labeling of ingrown toenail relief drug products....

2010-04-01

297

21 CFR 358.350 - Labeling of ingrown toenail relief drug products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Labeling of ingrown toenail relief drug products. 358...OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Ingrown Toenail Relief Drug Products § 358.350 Labeling of ingrown toenail relief drug products....

2009-04-01

298

21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. 882.5880 Section 882... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used...

2013-04-01

299

21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5870 Section 882.5870...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to...

2013-04-01

300

Evaluation of reward from pain relief  

PubMed Central

The human experience of pain is multidimensional and comprises sensory, affective, and cognitive dimensions. Preclinical assessment of pain has been largely focused on the sensory features that contribute to nociception. The affective (aversive) qualities of pain are clinically significant but have received relatively less mechanistic investigation in preclinical models. Recently, operant behaviors such as conditioned place preference, avoidance, escape from noxious stimulus, and analgesic drug self-administration have been used in rodents to evaluate affective aspects of pain. An important advance of such operant behaviors is that these approaches may allow the detection and mechanistic investigation of spontaneous neuropathic or ongoing inflammatory/nociceptive (i.e., nonevoked) pain that is otherwise difficult to assess in nonverbal animals. Operant measures may allow the identification of mechanisms that contribute differentially to reflexive hypersensitivity or to pain affect and may inform the decision to progress novel mechanisms to clinical trials for pain therapy. Additionally, operant behaviors may allow investigation of the poorly understood mechanisms and neural circuits underlying motivational aspects of pain and the reward of pain relief.

Navratilova, Edita; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

2014-01-01

301

Mathematical Model of a General Motion of Vibratory Machines Driven by Motors of a Limited Power / Model matematyczny ruchu ogólnego maszyn wibracyjnych nap?dzanych silnikami ograniczonej mocy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of creating the mathematical model of over-resonant vibratory machines driven in a general motion by the inertial vibrator of a limited power is presented in the paper. This model can constitute the basis for digital simulation of single- or multi-drive vibratory machines used in industry. It allows to investigate the steady and transient states of these machines as well as to investigate the advanced problems of the free synchronisation of drives. W pracy przedstawiono sposób budowy modelu matematycznego nadrezonansowej maszyny wibracyjnej w ruchu ogólnym, nap?dzanej wibratorem inercyjnym ograniczonej mocy. Model ten mo?e stanowi? podstaw? dla symulacji cyfrowej jedno-, lub wielonap?dowych maszyn wibracyjnych u?ywanych w przemy?le. Pozwala on na badanie zarówno pracy ustalonej tych maszyn jak i ich stanów przej?ciowych oraz na badanie zaawansowanych problemów synchronizacji swobodnej nap?dów.

Michalczyk, Jerzy

2013-06-01

302

Southern California Shaded Relief, Color as Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the desert to the mountains to the sea,' this image shows in striking detail the varied topography of Southern California. The data, which cover an area one and a half times the size of New Jersey, were acquired in 15 seconds by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The large V-shape across the center of the image is the intersection of the mountains uplifted along two major faults. The San Andreas Fault is the lower part of the 'V' and the Garlock Fault is the upper part. Between the faults is the western Mojave Desert, including the alternate landing site for the Shuttle at Edwards Air Force Base, near the center of the image. The Pacific Coast appears in the lower left of the image, from Oxnard at the left center edge, curving southeast to Los Angeles. The flat blue area along the top is the southern end of California's Central Valley. Along the right edge of the image is NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Tracking Station. Scientists will use data like these to study a broad range of topics, including ecology, the environment, geology, as well as to make assessments of seismic, flood, and wildfire hazards.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 3000 meters (10,000 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 250 km (155 miles) x 150 km (93 miles) Location: 34.8 deg. North lat., 118.0 deg. West lon. Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

2000-01-01

303

South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.

To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.

Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.

Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth

2003-01-01

304

Shaded relief, color as height, Salalah, Oman  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This elevation map shows a part of the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula including parts of the countries of Oman and Yemen. The narrow coastal plain on the right side of the image includes the city of Salahlah, the second largest city in Oman. Various crops, including coconuts, papayas and bananas, are grown on this plain. The abrupt topography of the coastal mountains wrings moisture from the monsoon, enabling agriculture in the otherwise dry environment of the Arabian Peninsula. These mountains are historically significant as well: Some scholars believe these mountains are the 'southern mountains' of the book of Genesis.

This image brightness corresponds to shading illumination from the right, while colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to brown at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1400 meters (4600 feet) of total relief. The Arabian Sea is colored blue.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 149 by 40 kilometers (92 by 25 miles) Location: 16.9 deg. North lat., 53.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top right Date Acquired: February 15, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

305

27 CFR 24.158 - Extent of relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01...158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...notice for relief from liability as provided in § 24.157 will be relieved from liability under bond as set...

2013-04-01

306

Lessons from Significant Foreign Disaster Relief Operations Applied to AFRICOM.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The establishment of the United States Africa Command (AFRICOM) puts the forward military presence of the United States in close proximity to a region where the probability of conducting disaster relief operations is high Analysis of significant foreign d...

M. R. Martinez

2008-01-01

307

Study of Safety Relief Valve Operation under ATWS Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A literature survey and analysis project has been performed to determine if recent (since mid-1975) data has been reported which could influence the current approach to predicting PWR relief valve capacity under ATWS conditions. This study was conducted b...

E. S. Hutmacher B. J. Nesmith J. B. Brukiewa

1979-01-01

308

11. DETAIL, COMMEMORATIVE PLASTER RELIEF, INTERIOR EAST WALL, SECOND FLOOR ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. DETAIL, COMMEMORATIVE PLASTER RELIEF, INTERIOR EAST WALL, SECOND FLOOR - Anaconda Historic District, Ancient Order of Hibernians Hall, 321-323 East Commercial Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

309

North exterior elevation of Pope Quadrangle. Note the bas relief ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

North exterior elevation of Pope Quadrangle. Note the bas relief sculpture over the doorway, which includes the school motto, Aspirando et Perseverando. - Avon Old Farms School, 500 Avon Old Farms Road, Avon, Hartford County, CT

310

46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-20 Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term...

2013-10-01

311

46 CFR 95.16-35 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-35 Pressure relief. Tight compartments, like refrigeration spaces and paint lockers, must have a way to relieve the accumulation of excessive pressure within the compartment when the...

2013-10-01

312

SHADED RELIEF, HILLSHADE, DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM), ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

Shaded relief of the state of Arizona developed from 1-degree US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEM is a terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. ...

313

SHADED RELIEF, HILLSHADE, DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM), NEVADA  

EPA Science Inventory

Shaded relief of the state of Nevada developed from 1-degree US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEM is a terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. ...

314

Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (P.L. 108-189).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recognizing the special burdens that members of the military may encounter in trying to meet their financial obligations while serving their country, Congress passed the Soldiers' and Sailors' Civil Relief Act of 1940 (SSCRA). This law has been amended fr...

E. I. Velez Pollack

2004-01-01

315

26 CFR 1.6015-4 - Equitable relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the discretion to grant equitable relief from joint and several liability to a requesting spouse when, considering all of the facts and circumstances, it would be inequitable to hold the requesting spouse jointly and severally liable. (b) This...

2011-04-01

316

Pain Relief Through an Antinociceptive Effect After Radiofrequency Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Many patients with chronic tendinosis have experienced early pain relief after application of bipolar radiofrequency treatment. Pathologic nerve ingrowth or nerve irritation in the tendon has been considered as a possible cause of the pain experienced with tendinosis.Hypothesis: Bipolar radiofrequency treatment will ablate nerve fibers, resulting in pain relief.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats were used in

Norimasa Takahashi; James P. Tasto; Mark Ritter; Nobuyasu Ochiai; Seiji Ohtori; Hideshige Moriya; David Amiel

2007-01-01

317

A NOVEL MODEL FOR QUICK RESPONSE TO DISASTER RELIEF DISTRIBUTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a hybrid fuzzy-optimization methodology to solve the large-scale disaster relief distribution problem with the main goal of minimizing the total number of fatalities. The proposed method mainly contains a three-stage operational algorithm. Here fuzzy clustering techniques are used in the first stage to classify the damaged areas based on respective relief demand attributes and priority, followed by

Jiuh-Biing Sheu; Yen-Heng Chen; Lawrence W. Lan

2005-01-01

318

A Macromodel of the Lunar South-Pole-Region Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the relief of the lunar South-Pole region not covered by the Clementine laser-altimetry surveying is carried out. Particular attention is given to the South Pole-Aitken basin region. For the relief analysis, the results of Earth-based heliometric measurements of limb profiles performed by different authors and spacecraft data are used. On this basis, a local catalog of reference

V. I. Chikmachev; V. V. Shevchenko

1999-01-01

319

Revving up for Relief: Harley-Davidson at the ITC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published in 1986, this Kennedy School case tells the story of Harley-Davidson's application to the ITC for temporary relief from high levels of imported Japanese motorcycles. The case lays out, in considerable detail, Harley's justification for protection and the Japanese manufacturers' counterarguments. The case is presented in two parts, the first focusing on the extent of the "injury" an the second on the nature of the relief Harley requested.

Dorothy Robyn, For T.

320

Velocity profiles in a hot jet by simplified RELIEF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raman Excitation + Laser Induced Electronic Fluorescence (RELIEF) is a double resonance velocimetry technique in which oxygen molecules are vibrationally excited via stimulated Raman scattering at a specific location within a flow field. After suitable time delay, typically 1-10 microseconds, the displacement of the tagged molecules is determined by laser induced fluorescence imaging. Providing support for the installation of simplified RELIEF flow tagging instrumentation at NASA LaRC was the principal goal of this research.

1991-01-01

321

Statistical Performance Evaluation Of Soft Seat Pressure Relief Valves  

SciTech Connect

Risk-based inspection methods enable estimation of the probability of failure on demand for spring-operated pressure relief valves at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This paper presents a statistical performance evaluation of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves. These pressure relief valves are typically smaller and of lower cost than hard seat (metal to metal) pressure relief valves and can provide substantial cost savings in fluid service applications (air, gas, liquid, and steam) providing that probability of failure on demand (the probability that the pressure relief valve fails to perform its intended safety function during a potentially dangerous over pressurization) is at least as good as that for hard seat valves. The research in this paper shows that the proportion of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves failing is the same or less than that of hard seat valves, and that for failed valves, soft seat valves typically have failure ratios of proof test pressure to set pressure less than that of hard seat valves.

Harris, Stephen P.; Gross, Robert E.

2013-03-26

322

Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice.

Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Location: 53.5 degrees North latitude, 8 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2005-01-01

323

Southern Florida, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The very low topography of southern Florida is evident in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image on the left is a standard view, with the green colors indicating low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. In this exaggerated view even those highest elevations are only about 60 meters (197 feet) above sea level.

For the view on the right, elevations below 5 meters (16 feet) above sea level have been colored dark blue, and lighter blue indicates elevations below 10 meters (33 feet). This is a dramatic demonstration of how Florida's low topography, especially along the coastline, make it especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges. Planners can use data like these to predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

Location: 27 degrees north latitude, 81 degrees west longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 397 by 445 kilometers (246 by 276 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

324

Gulf Coast, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

The topography of the Gulf Coast states is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image on the top (see Figure 1) is a standard view showing southern Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and the panhandle of Florida. Green colors indicate low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

For the view on the bottom (see Figure 2), elevations below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored light blue. These low coastal elevations are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges. Planners can use data like these to predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

Location: 31 degrees north latitude, 88 degrees west longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 702 by 433 kilometers (435 by 268 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

325

Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.

The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases.

Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

Location: 30 degrees north latitude, 34 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 289 by 445 kilometers (180 by 277 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

326

Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.

The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.

Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Location: 8.33 degrees South latitude, 115.17 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 153 by 112 kilometers (95 by 69 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

327

Analysis and design of a 3rd order velocity-controlled closed-loop for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes.  

PubMed

The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model's transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop's performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 ?m complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term. PMID:24051522

Wu, Huan-ming; Yang, Hai-gang; Yin, Tao; Jiao, Ji-wei

2013-01-01

328

Analysis and Design of a 3rd Order Velocity-Controlled Closed-Loop for MEMS Vibratory Gyroscopes  

PubMed Central

The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model's transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop's performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 ?m complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term.

Wu, Huan-ming; Yang, Hai-gang; Yin, Tao; Jiao, Ji-wei

2013-01-01

329

Optimal and sub-optimal power management in broadband vibratory energy harvesters with one-directional power flow constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many applications of vibratory energy harvesting, the external disturbance are most appropriately modeled as broadband stochastic processes. Optimization of power generation from such disturbances is a feedback control problem, and solvable via a LQG control theory. However, attainment of this performance requires the power conversion system which interfaces the transducers with energy storage to be capable of bi-directional power flow, and there are many applications where this is infeasible. One of the most common approaches to power extraction with one-directional power flow constraints is to control the power conversion system to create a purely resistive input impedance, and then to optimize this effective resistance for maximal absorption. This paper examines the optimization of broadband energy harvesting controllers, subject to the constraint of one-directional power flow. We show that as with the unconstrained control problem, it can be framed as a "Quadratic-Gaussian" stochastic optimal control problem, although its solution is nonlinear and does not have a closed-form. This paper discusses the mathematics for obtaining the optimal power extraction controller for this problem, which involves the stationary solution to an associated Bellman-type partial differential equation. Because the numerical solution to this PDE is computationally prohibitive for harvester dynamics of even moderate complexity, a sub-optimal control design technique is presented, which is comparatively simple to compute and which exhibits analyticallycomputable lower bounds on generated power Examples focus a nondimensionalized, ideal, base-excited SDOF resonator with electromagnetic transduction.

Scruggs, J. T.; Cassidy, I. L.

2010-03-01

330

Further Examination of the Vibratory Loads Reduction Results from the NASA/ARMY/MIT Active Twist Rotor Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vibration reduction capabilities of a model rotor system utilizing controlled, strain-induced blade twisting are examined. The model rotor blades, which utilize piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators, were tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using open-loop control to determine the effect of active-twist on rotor vibratory loads. The results of this testing have been encouraging, and have demonstrated that active-twist rotor designs offer the potential for significant load reductions in future helicopter rotor systems. Active twist control was found to use less than 1% of the power necessary to operate the rotor system and had a pronounced effect on both rotating- and fixed-system loads, offering reductions in individual harmonic loads of up to 100%. A review of the vibration reduction results obtained is presented, which includes a limited set of comparisons with results generated using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) rotorcraft comprehensive analysis.

Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Sekula, Martin K.

2002-01-01

331

Human and Habitat Needs in Disaster Relief for Pacific Northwest Salmon Fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1994, federal disaster relief programs have been implemented for New England, Pacific Coast, and Gulf Coast fisheries. The Pacific Northwest coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fishery serves as a case study for results of a disaster relief program. To help salmon fishers, the U.S. gov- ernment declared an ecological disaster and provided $37 million in relief over 3 years. Relief

Courtland L. Smith; Jennifer Gilden

2000-01-01

332

Stress and stress relief in dielectric thin films – the role of hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel crack propagation modes are reported in amorphous silicon-rich oxide (SiOx) films deposited onto (100) silicon substrates and subjected to thermal annealing. These include the formation of straight cracks aligned with ?001? directions in the underlying Si substrate as well as oscillating cracks aligned with ?011? directions in the underlying Si substrate. The cracks are shown to form as the

R. G. Elliman; T. D. M. Weijers-Dall; M. G. Spooner; Tae-Hyun Kim; A. R. Wilkinson

2006-01-01

333

Stress and stress relief in dielectric thin films the role of hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel crack propagation modes are reported in amorphous silicon-rich oxide (SiOx) films deposited onto (1 0 0) silicon substrates and subjected to thermal annealing. These include the formation of straight cracks aligned with directions in the underlying Si substrate as well as oscillating cracks aligned with directions in the underlying Si substrate. The cracks are shown to form as the

R. G. Elliman; T. D. M. Weijers-Dall; M. G. Spooner; Tae-Hyun Kim; A. R. Wilkinson

2006-01-01

334

Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique.

Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area.

The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water.

The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago.

Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Location: 3 degrees south latitude, 35 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 223 by 223 kilometers (138 by 138 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

335

Precise guidance puts record-depth relief well in target  

SciTech Connect

When surface operations fail to contain a blowout, or when both surface and subsurface operations are required, it becomes necessary to drill a relief well. When this happens, planners gather and organize to drill a fast, efficient, and non-damaging kill well. The optimum relief- well operation would call for, first and foremost, the lower cost of only one kill well (as opposed to the days prior to advancements in guidance and near-well magnetic detection, when operators often automatically started several relief wells). Second, an efficient kill well must be drilled without time-consuming and costly sidetracks to the intersect. And third, a precise, close intersect is needed to establish a dynamic kill, which brings the blowout under control without formation damage, leaving a productive well in its place in the field. Factors that increase the difficulty of a relief well - such as great depth, an imprecisely surveyed blowing well, troublesome drilling and high pressure - usually lead planners to accept much less than the optimum relief well described above.

Uzcategui, H.; Hewitt, D.; Golindano, R.

1991-06-01

336

Overcoming barriers to pain relief in the Caribbean.  

PubMed

This paper examines pain and pain relief in the Caribbean, where pain is widely perceived as an unavoidable part of life, and where unnecessary suffering results from untreated and under treated pain. Barriers to pain relief in the Caribbean include patient and family attitudes, inadequate knowledge among health professionals and unduly restrictive regulations on the medical use of opioids. Similar barriers exist all over the world. This paper urges medical, nursing and public health professionals, and educators to examine attitudes towards pain and pain relief and to work towards making effective pain relief and palliation more accessible. It recommends that i) health professionals and officials be better educated about pain, palliation and opioids, ii) regulatory restrictions be updated in light of clinical and scientific evidence, iii) opioid procurement policies be adjusted to facilitate increased medical use, iv) medical charts and records be modified to routinely elicit and document patients levels of pain, and v) educational campaigns be developed to inform the public that moderate and severe pain can be safely relieved at the end of life and other stages of life. The professional, respectful, and beneficent response to patients in pain is to provide rapid and aggressive pain relief or to urgently consult a pain or palliative specialist. When a health system hinders such efforts the ethical response is to identify, facilitate and advocate for overcoming barriers to improvement. PMID:19832886

Macpherson, Cheryl; Aarons, Derrick

2009-12-01

337

Method for reducing encapsulation stress to ferrite pot cores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a method of reducing the mechanical stress caused when a ferrite pot core is encapsulated in a rigid epoxy. The stresses are due to the differences of coefficient of thermal expansion between the two materials. A stress relief medium,...

R. O. Sanchez

1994-01-01

338

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

DeBusk, Wesley M.

2009-01-01

339

Roundtable Explores Remote Sensing for Disaster Relief  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Against a backdrop of recent natural disasters—including the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, Hurricane Katrina in 2005, and the 2010 Haiti earthquake—an 8 July roundtable at the U.S. National Academies explored ways to improve the use of remote sensing data before, during, and after disasters. At the “From Reality 2010 to Vision 2020” roundtable in Washington, D. C., speakers from U.S. federal government agencies and the private sector generally agreed that there would likely be continued improvements in remote sensing instrumentation, including reduced size and weight and the capability for more rapid dissemination of remote sensing data. However, they also stressed the need for closer collaboration among agencies and settling political and turf battles, overcoming security and other restrictions such as with sharing high-resolution data, and responding better to user needs.

Showstack, Randy

2010-07-01

340

Some effects of applied stress on early stages of cavitation damage. [test facilities for analyzing cavitation flow damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The phenomenon of cavitation flow damage is discussed. The initial phases of damage and the effect of external stresses on the extent to which damage is incurred are analyzed. Three experimental facilities were used to procure the data required: (1) a water loop with venturi, (2) a mercury loop with venturi, and (3) a vibratory facility (stationary specimen, nonflow system). A description of each system is provided for the clarification of test conditions. Photographs of typical cavitation damage instances are included.

Kemppainen, D. J.; Hammitt, F. G.

1974-01-01

341

Promoting Coordination for Disaster Relief - From Crowdsourcing to Coordination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency at which governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are able to respond to a crisis and provide relief to victims has gained increased attention. This emphasis coincides with significant events such as tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and environmental disasters occuring during the last decade. Crowdsourcing applications such as Twitter, Ushahidi, and Sahana have proven useful for gathering information about a crisis yet have limited utility for response coordination. In this paper, we briefly describe the shortfalls of current crowdsourcing applications applied to disaster relief coordination and discuss one approach aimed at facilitating efficient collaborations amongst disparate organizations responding to a crisis.

Gao, Huiji; Wang, Xufei; Barbier, Geoffrey; Liu, Huan

342

Ischemic Postconditioning Alleviates Neuronal Injury Caused by Relief of Carotid Stenosis in a Rat Model of Cerebral Hypoperfusion  

PubMed Central

The effects of early relief of heavy bilateral carotid stenosis and ischemic postconditioning on hippocampus CA1 neurons are still unclear. In this study, we used a rat model to imitate severe bilateral carotid stenosis in humans. The rats were divided into sham group, carotid stenosis group, stenosis relief group and ischemic postconditioning group. Ischemic postconditioning consisted of three cycles of 30 s ischemia and 30 s reperfusion. The cerebral blood flow was measured with a laser Doppler flowmeter. Neuronal death in the CA1 region was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the number of live neurons was assessed by cell counting under a light microscope. The levels of oxidative products MDA and 8-iso-PGF2?, inflammatory factors IL-1? and TNF-?, and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes SOD and CAT were assayed by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, respectively. We found that relief of carotid stenosis and ischemic postconditioning could increase cerebral blood flow. When stenosis was relieved, the percentage of live neurons was 66.6% ± 6.2% on day 3 and 62.3% ± 9.8% on day 27, which was significantly higher than 55.5% ± 4.8% in stenosis group. Ischemic postconditioning markedly improved the live neurons to 92.5% ± 6.7% on day 3 and 88.6% ± 9.1% on day 27. Further study showed that, neuronal death caused by relief of stenosis is associated with increased oxidative stress and enhanced inflammatory response, and the protection of ischemic postconditioning is related to inhibition of oxidative stress and suppression of inflammatory response.

Feng, Chunsheng; Luo, Tianfei; Qi, Li; Wang, Boyu; Luo, Yinan; Ge, Pengfei

2012-01-01

343

27 CFR 28.73 - Relief of surety from bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01...28.73 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...shall be relieved from his liability under the bond when the bond...application for relief from liability, as provided in §...

2013-04-01

344

A Closer Look: The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School districts may be affected by the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 with regard to fixed assets management and education entities. The act avoids the scheduled increases to individual income tax rates for most Americans and extends a host of expired and expiring tax provisions for both individuals and businesses. The provisions described…

Balmer, Mary

2013-01-01

345

Collaboration Services to Support Interactions in Disaster Relief Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many groupware applications developed on top of platforms supporting collaborative work are limited in their portability and interoperability because they are platform locked. In heterogeneous scenarios, such as disaster relief efforts or police operations, the interoperability of the several systems becomes a critical issue to coordinate the efforts of every operative unit. This paper presents a middleware called DCSL collaboration

S. F. Ochoa; R. Aldunate

2006-01-01

346

Migration as disaster relief: Lessons from the Great Irish Famine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass emigration was one key feature of the Great Irish Famine which distinguishes it from today's famines. By bringing famine victims to overseas food supplies, it undoubtedly saved many lives. Poverty traps prevented those most in need from availing of this form of relief, however. Cross-county data show that the ratio of emigration to deaths was higher in richer than

CORMAC Ó GRÁDA; KEVIN H. O'ROURKE

1997-01-01

347

Residual relief separation: digital elevation model enhancement for geomorphological mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomorphologically mapped data form a primary set of observations that can be used to infer former environmental conditions. Thus, objective and consistent mapping of landforms from remotely sensed data (e.g. satellite imagery, digital elevation models (DEMs)) is para- mount for reconstructing palaeoenvironments. This paper proposes a technique, 'residual relief separation', to enhance landforms in DEMs prior to visualization and digital

J. K. Hiller; M. Smith

2008-01-01

348

Optimisation of relief classification for different levels of generalisation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relief plays an important role in the spatial and temporal distribution of soil water and matter transport processes. Each landscape can be segmented into different landform elements based on a digital elevation model. These landforms contain characteristic properties in terms of energy and material balance. Several algorithms are available to classify landscapes at different scales. However, lack of knowledge exists concerning the applicability of relief parameters for landscape stratification for different generalisation levels of underlying data. The objective of this study was to develop a method for agricultural landscapes to classify landform elements across a series of elevation datasets with different spatial resolutions. A non-linear parameter optimisation algorithm was coupled with a relief classification scheme to optimize four classification parameters with regard to environmentally sensitive landforms: shoulder and footslope. Input datasets were based on a LIDAR scan and topographic maps. The magnitude of the optimized relief parameters decreased with decreasing map scale from 1 : 10,000 to 1 : 100,000 or increasing contour line interval. The main conclusion is that if one set of classification rules for a specific landscape was determined for a high-resolution dataset at a small subset, it could be applied for larger areas even if only coarser digital elevation model information were available.

Reuter, H. I.; Wendroth, O.; Kersebaum, K. C.

2006-07-01

349

5. DIABLO DAM: DETAIL VIEW OF RELIEF VALVES AT ELEVATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. DIABLO DAM: DETAIL VIEW OF RELIEF VALVES AT ELEVATION 1044. VALVE IN FOREGROUND IS A BUTTERFLY VALVE SIX FEET IN DIAMETER; VALVE TO THE REAR IS A JOHNSON-TYPE NEEDLE VALVE BOTH VALVES WERE MANUFACTURED BY THE PELTON WATER WHEEL COMPANY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Dam, On Skagit River, 6.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

350

How Tax Relief for Training Can Make a Real Difference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Companies received more than 5 billion British Pounds last year from the Exchequer in tax relief for work-related training. That is equivalent to the turnover of more than 250 further education colleges. And it vastly overshadows the 50 million British Pounds Growth and Innovation Fund set up to support employers' initiatives to improve skills and…

Wilson, Tom

2011-01-01

351

Property Tax Relief Programs for the Elderly: An Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This evaluation report analyzes the impact of property tax relief programs for the elderly on economic and political behavior. It is the result of a 15-month study conducted for the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Efforts to evaluate how prop...

1975-01-01

352

Surface relief polymer structures grafted onto polymer films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Graft polymerization of glycidyl methacrylate was used to produce surface relief structures on polymer substrates that were exposed with EUV light in a gray-scale exposure. In contrast to conventional lithography, which is in general tuned to be a binary process with a sharp discrimination of exposed and non-exposed areas, different exposure doses are directly transferred into a height profile in

Celestino Padeste; Patrick Farquet; Harun H. Solak

2006-01-01

353

Characterization of photoresist thin films for surface relief holographic gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depositions of highly uniform thin films of positive photoresist AR-P 3120 were carried out on glass substrates using spin coating technique. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to determine the thickness uniformity of the films. Formation of the surface relief gratings in photoresist and study of their surface profiles have also been described.

Kumar, Sanjiva; Biswas, A.; Prasad, Nisha; Debnath, Amrita; Tokas, R. B.; Udupa, D. V.; Sahoo, N. K.

2012-06-01

354

Study of Safety Relief Valve Operation under ATWS Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In March 1979, ETEC published as ETEC-TDR-78-19 a search which updated earlier NRC studies of saturated or subcooled water flow through relief valves, under ATWS conditions. This Supplement expands upon that search to include supercritical steam-water flo...

E. S. Hutmacher S. D. Whitten

1979-01-01

355

Between attraction and instruction: Lantern shows in British poor relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Projection media was intensively used in British poor relief at the turn of the nineteenth century. While social organizations communicated their aims, they also attached importance to entertaining their clientele. Developing ingenious distribution strategies to find their audiences, their lantern shows proved very popular. The massive non?commercial use of lantern slides and professional structures of their media work point to

Karen Eifler

2010-01-01

356

Cultural Differences in Music Chosen for Pain Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nurses use music therapeutically but often assume that all patients will equally appreciate the same type of music. Cultural differences in music preferences are compared across five pain studies. Music preferences for pain relief are described as the most frequently chosen type of music for each culture. Findings indicate that in four studies, musical choices were related to cultural background

Marion Good; Bradford Lee Picot; Safaa Gaber Salem; Chi-Chun Chin; Sandra Fulton Picot

2000-01-01

357

Chronic pancreatitis: Results of operations for relief of pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pancreaticojejunostomy is the method of choice for surgical treatment of pain in chronic pancreatitis in the case of ductal dilation. The operative risk is small and all remaining glandular tissue preserved. At 5 years postoperatively, about two-thirds of the patients still experience pain relief.

Ingemar Ihse; Kurt Borch; Jörgen Larsson

1990-01-01

358

Safety Relief Valve Performance for Two-Phase Flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of main steam safety relief valve has been evaluated with respect only to the steam. In the present study, two-phase flow and subcooled water blow-out tests with model valves were performed in order to evaluate the valve's characteristics and performance. From the test results, it was made clear that not only for the steam but also for the

Tadashi NARABAYASHI; Hideo NAGASAKA; Masao NIWANO; Yoshiteru OHTSUKI

1986-01-01

359

Critical mass flow rates through pressure relief valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simplified semi-empirical equations for the prediction of critical mass flow rates through pressure relief valves are presented. The fluid phases treated include hot and boiling liquids, liquid-vapor mixtures and saturated vapor. Predictive formulations are presented which express the critical mass flux explicitly in terms of reservoir temperature and pressure or reservoir quality, specific volumes of the liquid and vapor phases,

D. W. Sallet

1991-01-01

360

Neotectonic stresses in Fennoscandia: field observations and modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present-day stress state of Fennoscandia is traditionally viewed as the combination of far field sources and residual glacial loading stresses. Investigations were conducted in different regions of Norway with the purpose of detecting and measuring stress-relief features and to derive from them valuable information on the crustal stress state. Stress-relief features are induced by blasting and sudden rock unloading in road construction and quarrying operations and are common in Norway and very likely in other regions of Fennoscandia. Stress relief at the Earth's surface is diagnostic of anomalously high stress levels at shallow depths in the crust and appears to be a characteristic of the formerly glaciated Baltic and Canadian Precambrian shields. The studied stress-relief features are, in general, indicative of NW-SE compression, suggesting ridge-push as the main source of stress. Our derived stress directions are also in excellent agreement with the ones derived from other kinds of stress indicators, including focal mechanisms from deep earthquakes, demonstrating that stress-relief features are valuable for neotectonic research. As a second step we applied numerical modelling techniques to simulate the neotectonic stress field in Fennoscandia with particular emphasis to southern Norway. A numerical method was used to reconstruct the structure of the Fennoscandian lithosphere. The numerical method involves classical steady-state heat equations to derive lithosphere thickness, geotherm and density distribution and, in addition, requires the studied lithosphere to be isostatically compensated at its base. The a priori crustal structure was derived from previous geophysical studies. Undulations of the geoid were used to calibrate the models. Once the density structure of the Fennoscandian lithosphere is reconstructed it is straightforward to quantify its stress state and compare modelling results with existing stress indicators. The modelling suggests that present-day stress magnitudes are far to be uniform in Scandinavia. For example the modelling predicts that the topography of the southern Norwegian Mountains creates Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) levels higher than the ones characterising the surrounding regions. This results in significant buoyancy forces competing locally with the regional ridge-push. GPE decreases almost gradually towards the Gulf of Bothnia where strong compressive stresses are predicted. A local departure from the regional NW-SE trend for the maximum horizontal stress axes is simulated in Trøndelag, Norway. This local stress deviation is supported by stress-relief observations and in situ stress measurements. Our modelling suggests that it results from the combined effects of the weak rheology of the Møre-Trøndelag Fault Complex and topographic stresses associated with the southern Norwegian Scandes mountains.

Pascal, Christophe

2013-04-01

361

27 CFR 19.172 - Relief of surety from bond liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01...Relief of surety from bond liability. 19.172 Section 19.172 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...Relief of surety from bond liability. A surety that...

2013-04-01

362

27 CFR 19.171 - Surety notice of relief from bond liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01...notice of relief from bond liability. 19.171 Section 19.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...notice of relief from bond liability. (a) Notice to...

2013-04-01

363

21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief...Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an electrical current to electrodes on a...

2009-04-01

364

21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief...Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an electrical current to electrodes on a...

2010-04-01

365

21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief...Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an electrical current to electrodes on a...

2013-04-01

366

Standardizing U.S. Military Foreign Disaster Relief with the U.N.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lack of standardized procedures among the U.S. military and other disaster relief agencies results in inefficiencies during foreign disaster relief operations. These inefficiencies normally include breakdowns in information sharing, duplication of eff...

B. A. Bane

2011-01-01

367

42 CFR 31.15 - Continuance of medical relief after loss of status.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Continuance of medical relief after loss of status. 31.15 Section 31.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...Applicable to Personnel of Former Lighthouse Service § 31.15 Continuance of medical relief after loss of...

2012-10-01

368

19 CFR 133.51 - Relief from forfeiture or liquidated damages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Relief from forfeiture or liquidated damages. 133.51 Section 133.51...Procedure Following Forfeiture or Assessment of Liquidated Damages § 133.51 Relief from forfeiture or liquidated damages. (a) Petition for...

2013-04-01

369

40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (b)(1) After each pressure release, the pressure relief device...than 5 calendar days after each pressure release, except as provided in § 61...than 5 calendar days after the pressure release, the pressure relief...

2009-07-01

370

40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (b)(1) After each pressure release, the pressure relief device...than 5 calendar days after each pressure release, except as provided in § 61...than 5 calendar days after the pressure release, the pressure relief...

2010-07-01

371

40 CFR 60.482-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... (b)(1) After each pressure release, the pressure relief device...than 5 calendar days after the pressure release, except as provided in § 60...than 5 calendar days after the pressure release, the pressure relief...

2010-07-01

372

77 FR 53959 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Pedimental Relief  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Pedimental Relief...the object to be included in the exhibition ``Pedimental Relief,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, is...

2012-09-04

373

44 CFR 206.12 - Use and coordination of relief organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Salvation Army, the Mennonite Disaster Service, and other voluntary...organizations engaged in providing relief during and after a major disaster or emergency. Any agreement...The FCO may coordinate the disaster relief activities of the...

2010-10-01

374

44 CFR 206.12 - Use and coordination of relief organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Salvation Army, the Mennonite Disaster Service, and other voluntary...organizations engaged in providing relief during and after a major disaster or emergency. Any agreement...The FCO may coordinate the disaster relief activities of the...

2011-10-01

375

44 CFR 206.12 - Use and coordination of relief organizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Salvation Army, the Mennonite Disaster Service, and other voluntary...organizations engaged in providing relief during and after a major disaster or emergency. Any agreement...The FCO may coordinate the disaster relief activities of the...

2012-10-01

376

46 CFR 53.05-2 - Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2). ...Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2). ...relief valve requirements for hot water boilers must be as indicated in...

2009-10-01

377

46 CFR 53.05-2 - Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2). ...Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2). ...relief valve requirements for hot water boilers must be as indicated in...

2010-10-01

378

41 CFR 102-36.370 - Are there special requirements concerning the use of excess personal property for disaster relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of excess personal property for disaster relief? 102-36.370 Section...Disposal Requires Special Handling Disaster Relief Property § 102-36.370...excess personal property for disaster relief? Yes, upon declaration...

2010-07-01

379

41 CFR 102-36.370 - Are there special requirements concerning the use of excess personal property for disaster relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...of excess personal property for disaster relief? 102-36.370 Section...Disposal Requires Special Handling Disaster Relief Property § 102-36.370...excess personal property for disaster relief? Yes, upon declaration...

2009-07-01

380

25 CFR 170.922 - How can States get Emergency Relief Program funds to repair IRR System damage?  

...Miscellaneous Provisions Emergency Relief § 170.922 How can States get Emergency Relief Program funds to repair IRR...States can request emergency relief program funds to repair...highways caused by natural disasters or catastrophic...

2014-04-01

381

12 CFR Appendix to Part 760 - Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief Assistance Appendix to Part...Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief Assistance We are giving you...property is located. • Federal disaster relief assistance (usually in...

2011-01-01

382

12 CFR 339.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 339.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2012-01-01

383

12 CFR 572.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 572.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2010-01-01

384

12 CFR 614.4955 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 614.4955 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2010-01-01

385

38 CFR 36.4708 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 36.4708 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2011-07-01

386

12 CFR Appendix to Part 760 - Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief...  

...Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief Assistance Appendix to Part...Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief Assistance We are giving you...property is located. • Federal disaster relief assistance (usually in...

2014-01-01

387

12 CFR 172.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 172.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2014-01-01

388

12 CFR 339.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 339.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2013-01-01

389

41 CFR 102-36.370 - Are there special requirements concerning the use of excess personal property for disaster relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...of excess personal property for disaster relief? 102-36.370 Section...Disposal Requires Special Handling Disaster Relief Property § 102-36.370...excess personal property for disaster relief? Yes, upon declaration...

2012-01-01

390

12 CFR 760.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 760.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2014-01-01

391

12 CFR 339.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 339.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2011-01-01

392

12 CFR 760.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 760.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2010-01-01

393

12 CFR 614.4955 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 614.4955 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2011-01-01

394

12 CFR 339.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 339.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2010-01-01

395

12 CFR Appendix to Part 760 - Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief Assistance Appendix to Part...Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief Assistance We are giving you...property is located. • Federal disaster relief assistance (usually in...

2012-01-01

396

12 CFR 572.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 572.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2011-01-01

397

12 CFR 172.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 172.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2012-01-01

398

12 CFR 22.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 22.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2012-01-01

399

12 CFR 572.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 572.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2014-01-01

400

12 CFR 760.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 760.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2012-01-01

401

12 CFR 391.38 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 391.38 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2013-01-01

402

12 CFR 391.38 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 391.38 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2012-01-01

403

12 CFR 572.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 572.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2013-01-01

404

12 CFR 760.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 760.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2011-01-01

405

12 CFR Appendix to Part 760 - Sample Form of Notice of Special Flood Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief Assistance Appendix to Part...Hazards and Availability of Federal Disaster Relief Assistance We are giving you...property is located. • Federal disaster relief assistance (usually in...

2010-01-01

406

12 CFR 22.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 22.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2014-01-01

407

41 CFR 102-36.370 - Are there special requirements concerning the use of excess personal property for disaster relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...of excess personal property for disaster relief? 102-36.370 Section...Disposal Requires Special Handling Disaster Relief Property § 102-36.370...excess personal property for disaster relief? Yes, upon declaration...

2011-01-01

408

12 CFR 391.38 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 391.38 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2014-01-01

409

12 CFR 22.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 22.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2011-01-01

410

12 CFR 614.4955 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 614.4955 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2014-01-01

411

12 CFR 572.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 572.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2012-01-01

412

38 CFR 36.4708 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 36.4708 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2012-07-01

413

12 CFR 22.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 22.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2010-01-01

414

12 CFR 614.4955 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 614.4955 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2012-01-01

415

12 CFR 339.9 - Notice of special flood hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance.  

...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. 339.9 Section...hazards and availability of Federal disaster relief assistance. (a) Notice requirement...A statement whether Federal disaster relief assistance may be...

2014-01-01

416

How important is tectonics in creating relief in mountain ranges?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A compilation of topographic, geomorphic, tectonic, and climatic characteristics of more than 50 mountain belt worldwide shows a variety of weak and strong correlations between various characteristics. Topographic data, from the GTOPO30 DEM, include several parameters: maximum elevation, mean elevation, and maximum averaged elevation, calculated above sea level and above individual base levels. Geophysical Relief calculated over 3 different radius (1km, 5km and 15km) provides a measure of relief and hence for erosion. Tectonic parameters comprise geodetic shortening rates and average strain rates obtained by dividing shortening rate by the orogen's width. Climatic data are mean precipitation rates and a qualitative measure of glaciation factor ranging from 1 (no glaciation) to 5 (full glaciation), for both LGM and present day. The database has been split in two parts: one for all mountain belt, including non-convergent settings, and another one, with only actively compressional orogens. Sizes of areas considered span two orders of magnitude (the largest being the Gobi Altai, Mongolia, the smallest the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA). Bigger orogens (Himalayas, Andes...) have been separated into several sub-orogens. For the global database, measures of geomorphic, erosional, and tectonic parameters are self-consistent; correlation coefficients are 0.9. Those for climate are less so, with a correlation coefficient of 0.4, as links between glaciation and precipitation are weak. For convergent settings only, the correlation coefficient of between strain rate and convergence rate is 0.8. There is, however no correlation between strain rate and belt's width (-0.28). For the global database, the correlation between the convergence rate (including "zero" values) and most topographic and geomorphic parameters is quite good (0.7), except for mean elevation (0.5). For the convergent belts only, the correlation becomes lower for all geomorphic parameters (0.5). Surprisingly, the correlation between the strain rates and the geomorphic parameters is always poor (0.3 for all belts, and close to 0 for convergent orogens!). The correlation between glaciation and geomorphic parameters is intermediate (0.5). The correlation between glaciation and erosion is intermediate and decreases with the size of Geophysical Relief calculation (from 0.65 to 0.45). The correlation between erosion and convergence rate is intermediate (~0.5), and increases slightly with the magnitude of Geophysical Relief (from 0.5 to 0.6). This study highlights low correlations (0.5) between tectonic shortening or strain rates with both topographic parameters, such as maximum or relative elevation, mean elevation or mean relief and erosional parameters, suggesting that tectonic and erosional processes exert comparable influences in creating topography and relief.

Champagnac, J.-D.; Molnar, P.; Sue, C.

2009-04-01

417

Relations among tectonic shortening, climate, and relief in mountain ranges.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a compilation of topographic, geomorphic, tectonic, and climatic characteristics of more than 50 mountain belt worldwide, we explore the correlations among various characteristics. Topographic data, from the GTOPO30 DEM, include several parameters: maximum elevation, mean elevation, and maximum averaged elevation, calculated above sea level and above individual base levels. Geophysical Relief (calculated over 3 different radius, 1km, 5km and 15km) provides a measure of relief and hence for erosion. Tectonic parameters comprise geodetic shortening rates and average strain rates obtained by dividing shortening rate by the orogen's width. Climatic data are mean precipitation rates and a qualitative measure of glaciation factor ranging from 1 (no glaciation) to 5 (full glaciation), for both LGM and present day. The database has been split in two parts: one for all mountain belt, including non-convergent settings, and another one, with only actively compressional orogens. Sizes of areas considered span two orders of magnitude (the largest being the Gobi Altai, Mongolia, the smallest the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA). Bigger orogens (Himalayas, Andes...) have been separated into several sub-orogens. For the global database, measures of geomorphic, erosional, and tectonic parameters are self-consistent; correlation coefficients are ~0.9. Those for climate are less so, with a correlation coefficient of 0.4, as links between glaciation and precipitation are weak. For convergent settings only, the correlation coefficient of between strain rate and convergence rate is ~0.8. There is, however no correlation between strain rate and belt's width (-0.28). For the global database, the correlation between the convergence rate (including "zero" values) and most topographic and geomorphic parameters is quite good (~0.7), except for mean elevation (~0.5). For the convergent belts only, the correlation becomes lower for all geomorphic parameters (~0.5). Surprisingly, the correlation between the strain rates and the geomorphic parameters is always poor (~0.3 for all belts, and close to 0 for convergent orogens!). The correlation between glaciation and geomorphic parameters is intermediate (~0.5). The correlation between glaciation and erosion is intermediate and decreases with the size of Geophysical Relief calculation (from 0.65 to 0.45). The correlation between erosion and convergence rate is intermediate (~0.5), and increases slightly with the magnitude of Geophysical Relief (from 0.5 to 0.6). This study highlights low correlations (0.5) between tectonic shortening or strain rates with both topographic parameters, such as maximum or relative elevation, mean elevation or mean relief and erosional parameters, suggesting that tectonic and erosional processes exert comparable influences in creating topography and relief.

Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Molnar, Peter; Sue, Christian

2010-05-01

418

40 CFR 61.242-8 - Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service and connectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid...61.242-8 Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid... (a) If evidence of a potential leak is found by visual...other detection method at pressure relief devices in...

2009-07-01

419

40 CFR 61.242-8 - Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service and connectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid...61.242-8 Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid... (a) If evidence of a potential leak is found by visual...other detection method at pressure relief devices in...

2013-07-01

420

40 CFR 61.242-8 - Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service and connectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid...61.242-8 Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid... (a) If evidence of a potential leak is found by visual...other detection method at pressure relief devices in...

2010-07-01

421

The Allocation of Natural Disaster Relief Funds: Hurricane Mitch in Honduras  

Microsoft Academic Search

While it may be feasible to target those receiving relief after a natural disaster, it is difficult to differentiate the amount of relief provided among beneficiaries. This is because much of the relief consists of food, clothing, and medicine, all goods for which the absorptive capacity of households is limited. Empirical tests using data from Honduras following Hurricane Mitch confirm

Quentin Wodon

2003-01-01

422

The Constructed Relief: Put the Carving Tools Away and Build a Sculpture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes origins of the constructed relief and shows some examples of contemporary artists' work. Suggests using this history to motivate students to construct their own reliefs. Outlines a four-step lesson: preliminary drawing, finished drawing, mock-up relief, and finished construction using durable materials, such as wood, acrylic sheet, or…

Kostyniuk, Ron

1990-01-01

423

The influnce of volume expanison on renal function after relief of chronic unilateral ureteral obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of volume expansion on renal function after relief of unilateral chronic ureteral obstruction. Postobstructive diuresis was not observed after the relief of chronic partial ureteral obstruction in hydropenic rats with an intact contralateral kidney. However, when such animals were volume-expanded with hypotonic saline solution after relief of obstruction, urine flow from the hydronephrotic kidney was double that of

Douglas R Wilson

1974-01-01

424

46 CFR 38.25-10 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.25-10 Section 38...Inspections § 38.25-10 Safety relief valvesâTB/ALL. (a) The cargo tank safety relief valves shall be inspected at least once in...

2013-10-01

425

46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91...Cargo Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that isâ (a) Fitted between the...

2013-10-01

426

33 CFR 149.105 - What are the requirements for the overflow and relief valves?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements for the overflow and relief valves? 149.105 Section 149.105 Navigation...requirements for the overflow and relief valves? (a) Each oil and natural gas transfer...system (OTS/NGTS) must include a relief valve that, when activated, prevents...

2013-07-01

427

49 CFR 179.220-24 - Tests of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief valves. 179.220-24 Section 179.220-24...179.220-24 Tests of pressure relief valves. Each safety relief valve must be tested by air or gas for compliance with § 179.15...

2013-10-01

428

46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...square inch gage. Safety relief valves conforming to subpart 162... (c) The safety relief valves shall have a combined relieving...vapors evaporated by an embient air temperature of 115 °F. plus... (d) The safety relief valves shall meet the arrangement...

2013-10-01

429

26 CFR 1.6015-5 - Time and manner for requesting relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time and manner for requesting relief. 1...Returns Or Statements § 1.6015-5 Time and manner for requesting relief. ...d)(2) of this chapter). (b) Time period for filing a request for relief...

2011-04-01

430

46 CFR 32.20-5 - Pressure vacuum relief valves-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valves-TB/ALL. 32.20-5...Equipment Installations § 32.20-5 Pressure vacuum relief valvesâTB/ALL. The pressure vacuum relief valve shall be of a type and size...

2013-10-01

431

46 CFR 30.10-55 - Pressure vacuum relief valve-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve-TB/ALL. 30.10-55... Definitions § 30.10-55 Pressure vacuum relief valveâTB/ALL. The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or...

2013-10-01

432

Images and topographic relief at the north pole of Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis of unique coverage of the north pole of Venus using a subset of 13 images from a total of about 775 synthetic aperture radar orbits during cycle 1 of the Magellan mission is reported. Images at 13 distinctly different azimuths are reported that range over 360 deg in longitude and that show the topographic relief at vastly different imaging geometries at intervals of about 20 deg. A pair of intersecting or crossing orbits is used to assess the topographic relief with stereo radargrammetric techniques, and to refine this assessment using a multiimage clinometric approach. It is shown that the pole is located in accentuated topography with elevation differences in the range of no more than 1 km. It is concluded that pinpointing the location of the pole from the overlapping images and standard mission data is accurate to within about 100 pixels or 8 km (RMS).

Leberl, Franz W.; Maurice, Kelly E.; Thomas, John K.; Leff, Craig E.; Wall, Stephen D.

1992-01-01

433

Cryostat "UV" Relief Valve Selection and Process Flow  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the selection of the relief valves for the D-Zero cryostats. The selection was based on the flow requirements calculated in D-Zero engineering note 3740.214,224-EN-6 under fire conditions (1200 F, no vacuum) for the central cryostat; 264 SCFM. This value was calculated from section 5.3.5 of 'Pressure Relief Device Standards; S 1.3-Compressed Gas Storage Containers', published by the Compressed Gas Association, Inc. The flow calculated above is far greater than the required fire condition flow capacity of 264 SCFM. The improbable 70 F flow temperature value of 738 SCFM is still much greater than the required fire capacity. The flow capacity of the paralleled supplemental rupture disc is 2640 SCFM, independently greater than the fire condition flow requirement.

Mulholland, G.T.; Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

1987-08-11

434

Characteristics of relief phase holograms recorded in photoresists.  

PubMed

Recording of relief phase holograms in Shipley AZ-1350 positive photoresist is investigated in this report. It is found that the use of Shipley AZ-303 developer with Shipley AZ-1350 photoresist relieves the material nonlinearity usually associated with photoresists, thereby allowing higher image readout efficiencies. The use of Shipley AZ-303 developer also provides an increase in material sensitivity. A theoretical model for positive photoresist exposure characteristics is developed and verified by empirical results. Using Shipley AZ-303 developer, a design procedure for recording useful (i.e., acceptable SNR > 25 dB, high efficiency ~3-5%, exposure sensitivity ~ a few mJ.cm(-2)) relief phase holograms in Shipley AZ-1350 positive photoresist is synthesized. PMID:20125933

Bartolini, R A

1974-01-01

435

Loin pain haematuria syndrome: distress resolved by pain relief.  

PubMed

Loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS) is a syndrome of severe chronic pain of unknown aetiology. This study assessed pain, mood variables and psychiatric status in patients (n=26) with LPHS. Patients were assessed before and after treatment with capsaicin. Assessment inventories used were the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Pain Discomfort Scale, the General Health Questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Pain relief was achieved in 65% of patients. In this group pain (P < 0.001) and psychiatric (P < 0.01) scores were significantly reduced. By comparison, in those patients who did not gain pain relief, scores remained steady (P > 0.05). In addition, most pain-free patients completely stopped their opiate analgesia without addictive symptoms. These results suggest an organic pathology to LPHS and militate against suggestions of primary psychological cause or drug addiction. The results also show that the psychiatric disturbances associated with this chronic pain disappear if the pain disappears. PMID:9696475

Bultitude, M; Young, J; Bultitude, M; Allan, J

1998-05-01

436

An ad-hoc sensor network for disaster relief operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an ad-hoc sensor network especially developed for a disaster relief application that provides the rescue teams with a quickly deployable, cost-effective and reliable tool to collect information about the presence of people in a collapsed building space and the state of the ruins. The hardware\\/software architecture of the wireless sensor nodes is developed for a low cost

N. Pogkas; G. Karastergios; C. Antonopoulos; S. Koubias; G. Papadopoulos

2005-01-01

437

News Droughts, News Floods, and U.S. Disaster Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the influence of mass media on U.S. government response to approximately 5,000 natural disasters occurring between 1968 and 2002. These disasters took nearly 63,000 lives and affected 125 million people per year. We show that U.S. relief depends on whether the disaster occurs at the same time as other newsworthy events, such as the Olympic Games, which

Thomas Eisensee; David Strömberg

2007-01-01

438

119. Relief and safety valve of turbine unit no. 1, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

119. Relief and safety valve of turbine unit no. 1, located in the subway below the Generator Room; looking south. The safety valve was manufactured by the Chapman Valve Company of Springfield, Massachusetts. It is identical to the adjacent safety valve for turbine unit no. 2. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

439

Medical Examination and Poor Relief in Early Modern Germany  

PubMed Central

Summary This article investigates the role of the medical examination in municipal poor relief programmes between 1570 and 1620. Documents from the city of Nördlingen, a community of approximately 10,000 people in 1600, suggest that municipal facilities addressed a range of serious illnesses for a wide spectrum of the population. Practitioners were influenced by their Galenic medical milieu but ultimately focused on a range of practical resource questions rather than the diagnosis of an individual's disease.

Hammond, Mitchell Lewis

2011-01-01

440

Uplift and Relief Evolution of Africa Since 250 Ma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the TopoAfrica Project was to quantify the growth of long wavelength (x1000 km) topography over the last 250 Ma at the scale of a continent - Africa - and to understand (1) their relationship with the underlying mantle dynamics over such a time period and (2) their consequence on some Earth surface processes. A direct inversion of the geological data into estimates of paleotopography is difficult. Quantification of past topographies at continent-scale requires geological data coupled with a sediment production (erosion) and transport numerical model. The quantification of the Meso-Cenozoic topographies of the African continent is based on uplift (mean time interval 10 Ma) and paleoprecipitation maps (input of the model) and siliciclastic sedimentary fluxes and thermochronological data. 1. No relief, older than Late Cretaceous (75-65 Ma), are preserved in Africa. The oldest relief corresponds to part of the present-day South African Plateau. Northward, no relief is older than the Middle Eocene (50-40 Ma). 2. Two main periods of uplift occurred after oceanic break-up, during Late Cretaceous (Late Cenomanian to Middle Campanian, 95-15 Ma) and during Miocene (23-5 Ma) times. 3. The mantle dynamic cannot explain all the long wavelength relief of Africa, even during Cenozoic times. The critical point was the movement of the African plate over the African superplume, perennial since at least the Early Cretaceous (110-100 Ma): this horizontal movement controlled the uplift of the South African Plateau during Late Cretaceous times (90-75 Ma). Other mechanisms have to be involved to explain the growth of the marginal bulges of the South Atlantic margins or the double bending of the Congo Cuvette during Neogene times.

Guillocheau, F.

2013-12-01

441

Multiple cutaneous leiomyomas: pain relief with pulsed hysocine butyl bromide.  

PubMed

A 35-year-old male patient presented to our outpatient department, complaining of multiple, raised skin lesions on the forehead and back, associated with intermittent pain, especially on exposure to cold. A diagnosis of cutaneous leiomyoma (type 2 segmental) was made, which was confirmed by skin biopsy. The patient was started on a trial of pulsed Hyoscine Butyl bromide tablets, following which the patient had significant relief from pain associated with the lesions. PMID:20049277

Kaliyadan, Feroze; Manoj, Jayasree; Dharmaratnam, A D

2009-01-01

442

Codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief*  

PubMed Central

This report—the third of a series on codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief—presents a detailed review of the physiology and pathophysiology of cough, the methods for the experimental and clinical measurement of the antitussive action of drugs, possible mechanisms of action of antitussive agents, and includes a compilation of experimental results and clinical experience with codeine as an antitussive.

Eddy, Nathan B.; Friebel, Hans; Hahn, Klaus-Jurgen; Halbach, Hans

1969-01-01

443

Codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief*  

PubMed Central

In this report—the fourth of a series on codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief—an attempt is made to evaluate, on the basis of experimental and clinical data, and wherever possible in comparison with codeine, the effectiveness of a number of antitussive substances currently in clinical use. In the discussion of the undesired side-effects particular attention is paid to the risk of dependence and abuse.

Eddy, Nathan B.; Friebel, Hans; Hahn, Klaus-Jurgen; Halbach, Hans

1969-01-01

444

NATIONAL SECURITY: Relief, Rebukes Follow Agreement on Lee.  

PubMed

What began as an explosive case of alleged nuclear espionage is expected to end quietly soon when physicist Wen Ho Lee walks free from an Albuquerque, New Mexico, courtroom after 9 months in jail. The ignominious collapse of the government's case and Lee's release have embarrassed federal prosecutors. However, the news was a relief to Asian-American researchers and others who say Lee's status as a suspect had heightened racial tensions at the national labs. PMID:17839923

Lawler, A

2000-09-15

445

Use of ERS SAR Imagery in Refugee Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last years the world has seen many disasters in which a large amount of people have died due to limited efficiency of relief-operations, e.g. in Ethiopia and Rwanda. The aim of the European Commission share- cost project ENVIREF (www.enviref.org) is to demonstrate the pre-operational use of satellite remote sensing techniques for more efficient and cost-effective planning and management

Ø Dalen; E. Bjørgo; M Babiker; G. Andersen

446

Neural mechanisms underlying the induction and relief of perceptual curiosity.  

PubMed

Curiosity is one of the most basic biological drives in both animals and humans, and has been identified as a key motive for learning and discovery. Despite the importance of curiosity and related behaviors, the topic has been largely neglected in human neuroscience; hence little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying curiosity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate what happens in our brain during the induction and subsequent relief of perceptual curiosity. Our core findings were that (1) the induction of perceptual curiosity, through the presentation of ambiguous visual input, activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), brain regions sensitive to conflict and arousal; (2) the relief of perceptual curiosity, through visual disambiguation, activated regions of the striatum that have been related to reward processing; and (3) the relief of perceptual curiosity was associated with hippocampal activation and enhanced incidental memory. These findings provide the first demonstration of the neural basis of human perceptual curiosity. Our results provide neurobiological support for a classic psychological theory of curiosity, which holds that curiosity is an aversive condition of increased arousal whose termination is rewarding and facilitates memory. PMID:22347853

Jepma, Marieke; Verdonschot, Rinus G; van Steenbergen, Henk; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

2012-01-01

447

Neural mechanisms underlying the induction and relief of perceptual curiosity  

PubMed Central

Curiosity is one of the most basic biological drives in both animals and humans, and has been identified as a key motive for learning and discovery. Despite the importance of curiosity and related behaviors, the topic has been largely neglected in human neuroscience; hence little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying curiosity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate what happens in our brain during the induction and subsequent relief of perceptual curiosity. Our core findings were that (1) the induction of perceptual curiosity, through the presentation of ambiguous visual input, activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), brain regions sensitive to conflict and arousal; (2) the relief of perceptual curiosity, through visual disambiguation, activated regions of the striatum that have been related to reward processing; and (3) the relief of perceptual curiosity was associated with hippocampal activation and enhanced incidental memory. These findings provide the first demonstration of the neural basis of human perceptual curiosity. Our results provide neurobiological support for a classic psychological theory of curiosity, which holds that curiosity is an aversive condition of increased arousal whose termination is rewarding and facilitates memory.

Jepma, Marieke; Verdonschot, Rinus G.; van Steenbergen, Henk; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

2012-01-01

448

Nucleus caudalis lesioning: Case report of chronic traumatic headache relief  

PubMed Central

Background: The nucleus caudalis dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) surgery is used to treat intractable central craniofacial pain. This is the first journal publication of DREZ lesioning used for the long-term relief of an intractable chronic traumatic headache. Case Description: A 40-year-old female experienced new-onset bi-temporal headaches following a traumatic head injury. Despite medical treatment, her pain was severe on over 20 days per month, 3 years after the injury. The patient underwent trigeminal nucleus caudalis DREZ lesioning. Bilateral single-row lesions were made at 1-mm interval between the level of the obex and the C2 dorsal nerve roots, using angled radiofrequency electrodes, brought to 80°C for 15 seconds each, along a path 1 to 1.2 mm posterior to the accessory nerve rootlets. The headache improved, but gradually returned. Five years later, her headaches were severe on over 24 days per month. The DREZ surgery was then repeated. Her headaches improved and the relief has continued for 5 additional years. She has remained functional, with no limitation in instrumental activities of daily living. Conclusions: The nucleus caudalis DREZ surgery brought long-term relief to a patient suffering from chronic traumatic headache.

Sandwell, Stephen E.; El-Naggar, Amr O.

2011-01-01

449

Neural correlates of mindfulness meditation-related anxiety relief.  

PubMed

Anxiety is the cognitive state related to the inability to control emotional responses to perceived threats. Anxiety is inversely related to brain activity associated with the cognitive regulation of emotions. Mindfulness meditation has been found to regulate anxiety. However, the brain mechanisms involved in meditation-related anxiety relief are largely unknown. We employed pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI to compare the effects of distraction in the form of attending to the breath (ATB; before meditation training) to mindfulness meditation (after meditation training) on state anxiety across the same subjects. Fifteen healthy subjects, with no prior meditation experience, participated in 4 d of mindfulness meditation training. ATB did not reduce state anxiety, but state anxiety was significantly reduced in every session that subjects meditated. Meditation-related anxiety relief was associated with activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Meditation-related activation in these regions exhibited a strong relationship to anxiety relief when compared to ATB. During meditation, those who exhibited greater default-related activity (i.e. posterior cingulate cortex) reported greater anxiety, possibly reflecting an inability to control self-referential thoughts. These findings provide evidence that mindfulness meditation attenuates anxiety through mechanisms involved in the regulation of self-referential thought processes. PMID:23615765

Zeidan, Fadel; Martucci, Katherine T; Kraft, Robert A; McHaffie, John G; Coghill, Robert C

2014-06-01

450

Technical Work Plan For: Calculation of Waste Packave and Drip Shield Response to Vibratory Ground Motion and Revision of the Seismic Consequence Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the work scope covered by this technical work plan (TWP) is to develop new damage abstractions for the seismic scenario class in total system performance assessment (TSPA). The new abstractions will be based on a new set of waste package and drip shield damage calculations in response to vibratory ground motion and fault displacement. The new damage calculations, which are collectively referred to as damage models in this TWP, are required to represent recent changes in waste form packaging and in the regulatory time frame. The new damage models also respond to comments from the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT) postvalidation review of the draft TSPA model regarding performance of the drip shield and to an Additional Information Need (AIN) from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

M. Gross

2006-12-08

451

Psychological effects of disaster relief activities on Japan ground self-defense force personnel following the 2011 great East Japan earthquake.  

PubMed

Objective: Disaster relief workers are potentially exposed to severe stressors on the job, resulting in a variety of psychological responses. This study aims to clarify the psychological effects of disaster relief activities on Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) personnel following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. Method: A self-report questionnaire was administered to 606 JGSDF personnel one month after completing the disaster relief mission. Posttraumatic stress responses and general psychological distress were assessed using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the K10 scales. Associations between outcome variables and independent variables (age, gender, military rank, length of deployment, and exposure to dead bodies) were measured with univariate analyses and subsequent multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: The mean (± SD) IES-R score was 6.2 (± 8.1), and the mean K10 score was 12.8 (± 4.4). In the univariate analyses, exposure to dead bodies and age were identified as significant factors for IES-R and K10 scores, (p < 0.01). However, the multiple logistic regression analyses did not reveal any significant factors although body handlers' exposure approached significance for IES-R. Conclusions: The subjects reported very low psychological responses despite the severe nature of their disaster relief activities. Several factors may account for the low levels of psychological distress and posttraumatic symptoms observed in this study. PMID:24865200

Dobashi, Kosuke; Nagamine, Masanori; Shigemura, Jun; Tsunoda, Tomoya; Shimizu, Kunio; Yoshino, Aihide; Nomura, Soichiro

2014-01-01

452

Topography, relief, climate and glaciers: a global prespective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The examination of the relationship between Earth's topography and present and past climate (i.e. long-term elevation of glaciers Equilibrium Line Altitude) reveals that the elevation of mountain ranges may be limited or controlled by glaciations. This is of prime importance, because glacial condition would lead to a limit the mountain development, hence the accumulation of gravitational energy and prevent the development of further glacial conditions as well as setting the erosion in (peri)glacial environments. This study examines the relationships between topography and the global Equilibrium Line Altitude of alpine glaciers around the world (long term snowline, i.e. the altitude where the ice mass balance is null). Two main observations can be drawn: 1) The distance between the (averaged and maximum) topography, and the ELA decreases pole ward the poles, and even become reversed (mean elevation above to ELA) at high latitude. Correlatively, the elevation of very large portion of land at mid-latitude cannot be related to glaciations, simply because it was never glaciated (large distance between topography and long-term mean ELA). The maximum distance between the ELA and the topography is greater close to the equator and decreases poleward. In absence of glacial and periglacial erosion, this trend cannot have its origin in glacial and periglacial processes. Moreover, the ELA elevation shows a significant (1000 - 1500m) depression in the intertropical zone. This depression of the ELA is not reflected at all in the topography. 2) The distribution of relief on Earth, if normalized by the mean elevation of mountain ranges (as a proxy for available space to create relief) shows a latitudinal band of greater relief between 40° and 60° (or between ELA of 500m to 2500m a.s.l.). This mid-latitude relatively greater relief challenges the straightforward relationship between glaciations, erosion and topography. Oppositely, it suggests that glacier may be more efficient agent in temperate area, with important amplitude between glacial and interglacial climate. This is consistent with the view of a very variable glacier erodibility that can erode and protect the landscape, as well as with studies documenting a bimodal location of the preferred glacial erosion, at relatively high elevation (around the long-term ELA), and at much lower elevation (close to the glacial maximum lower reaches), thanks to efficient water lubrication of the glacier bases that greatly enhance the sliding velocity. These findings show that the relation between the mountain topography and the long term snowline is not as straightforward as previously proposed. Beside the role of tectonic forcing highlighted by several authors, the importance of the glacial erosion appears to be crucial at mid latitude, but more complex at both high and low latitude. Moreover, the relief at mid latitude appears to be higher, hence suggesting a positive correlation between relief and topographic control of glacier on the landscape.

Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Valla, Pierre; Herman, fred

2014-05-01

453

Effect of residual stresses on hydride orientation in a Zr2.5% Nb alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of residual stress in quadrants of Zr-2.5% Nb tube ; after flattening was determined by measurement of the change in curvature during ; chemical thinning. The zoning'' of hydride precipitate that occurs- in such ; material is then explained in terms of the residual stresses and the elimination ; of such zoning'' by a prior stress-relief anneal or

D. Hardie; M. W. Shanahan

1974-01-01

454

Glacier thickness and relief in glaciated landscapes of the western U.S.A.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of relief in glaciated landscapes plays a crucial role in hypotheses relating climate change and tectonic processes. Enhanced erosion rates and relief production, principally through more widespread glacial erosion, have been proposed to explain the apparent worldwide uplift of mountain ranges in the late Cenozoic. However, glaciers can only be responsible for peak uplift if they are capable of generating substantial relief in formerly nonglaciated landscapes. Prior theoretical work has suggested that relief production in glaciated landscapes should scale with the thickness of the ice. Here we summarise a field- based test of this hypothesis in two mountain ranges in the western United States, the Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado. We combined field surveys with aerial photograph interpretation to map LGM trimlines, and used these to reconstruct glaciers and estimate LGM ice thicknesses. A comparison of various point measures of relief (drainage basin, hillslope, and hanging valley) with our ice thickness estimates indicates that relief production in glaciated mountain belts does indeed scale with ice thickness. However, the relief produced is modest. Furthermore, considering volumes of `missing mass', fluvial and glacial landscapes lie along the same trend of geophysical relief versus drainage area. This suggests that both relief production and relief reduction must be taking place, and that glaciers have only produced net relief if they are responsible for drainage basin enlargement. Large moraines attest to significant glacial erosion on the eastern side of the Sangre de Cristo Range, but the relief structure is little different from that of the western side of the range, where glacial erosion has been much more modest. The same holds for the Bitterroot Range, Idaho/Montana. Rapid, active normal faulting on the eastern side of the Teton Range, Wyoming, however, does cause asymmetry in relief structures across the range.

Brocklehurst, S. H.; Foster, D.; Whipple, K. X.

2006-12-01

455

Control of flow-induced vibration in safety relief valves  

SciTech Connect

A vortex shedding instability is shown to couple with the acoustic resonance of a relief valve side branch. A spectral evaluation of the vortex resonance is presented as the flow variation moves the system into and out of the locked-in resonance. A design criterion based on steam plant experience data is proposed to avoid vortex-excited resonances. Successful side branch modifications based on the design criterion are presented. The beneficial effects of nozzle entrance shape modifications are also discussed. 9 refs.

Simmons, H.R.; Baldwin, R.M.

1982-01-01

456

High aspect ratio surface relief structures by photoembossing  

SciTech Connect

Photoembossing is a convenient and economical process to form complex surface relief structures in polymer thin films. We have improved the aspect ratio of photoembossed microstructures by adding t-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) to the polymerization mixture. The mechanism that is proposed is based on the radical transfer principle, where TBHQ converts acrylate radicals into stable phenol radicals that at elevated temperatures act as latent initiators, thereby controlling the kinetics without changing the number of polymerization active sites. As a result, the aspect ratio can be improved with a factor of 5-7 in comparison with previously proposed similar processes.

Hermans, Ko; Wolf, Florian K.; Perelaer, Jolke; Janssen, Rene A. J.; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Bastiaansen, Cees W. M.; Broer, Dirk J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Philips Research Laboratories, High Tech Campus 4, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2007-10-22

457

High aspect ratio surface relief structures by photoembossing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoembossing is a convenient and economical process to form complex surface relief structures in polymer thin films. We have improved the aspect ratio of photoembossed microstructures by adding t-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) to the polymerization mixture. The mechanism that is proposed is based on the radical transfer principle, where TBHQ converts acrylate radicals into stable phenol radicals that at elevated temperatures act as latent initiators, thereby controlling the kinetics without changing the number of polymerization active sites. As a result, the aspect ratio can be improved with a factor of 5-7 in comparison with previously proposed similar processes.

Hermans, Ko; Wolf, Florian K.; Perelaer, Jolke; Janssen, Rene A. J.; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Bastiaansen, Cees W. M.; Broer, Dirk J.

2007-10-01

458

Debt Relief Remains at Center Stage in G-8 Summit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Leaders of the seven largest industrial nations were sharply criticized at the start of their annual economic summit, held this year in Okinawa, for not following through on last year's pledge to write off $100 billion of the $260 billion owed to the West by the most indebted states. Most of the opening discussions have focused on how the debt forgiveness process might be sped up or at least how to reschedule debt payments under better terms. By the start of the summit, debt relief should have been approved for nine countries, but only one, Uganda, is close to having its debts cancelled. Of the seven powers, only the UK has enacted 100 percent debt relief, cancelling bilateral debts owed by 41 of the world's poorest countries. Germany, one of the biggest creditors, opposes cancellation, leaving activists less than sanguine about the chances for full debt cancellation or any new initiatives from the summit. Since 1994, Russia has attended the political discussions at the summit (making it the G8), and this year President Putin is almost sure to lodge strong objections to the missile defense system under consideration in the US. On the way to the summit, Putin stopped in China and North Korea to gather support for his case. Another issue for President Clinton, who is expected to leave the summit early to return to the Mideast peace talks, is a growing opposition among Okinawans to the huge American military presence on the island.

De Nie, Michael W.

459

Raised Relief Mars Globe Brings the Red Planet Closer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Globe 20x is the first digitally produced raised relief globe to be sold at retail establishments. The rises and dips of the Martian landscape have been multiplied by 20 to make the shapes more noticeable to human touch and sight. They make this globe, with its over 1 million elevation points, a visually stunning introduction to the planet. Spectrum 3D used the NASA digital land elevation data to aim lasers that then shaped and defined the master globe s surface. Subsequent copies were then made by creating a master globe mold. The molded copies are hand finished by workers who remove errant edges or lines that may appear on the raw globes and then paint the surfaces. The result is a globe that measures in at 18 inches in diameter, roughly 1:15,729,473 scale of the actual planet. The exaggerated raised relief is like having a 3-D digital microscope for planetary shapes. This makes the landmarks easier to learn and understand, as it provides easy visuals for orientation. People have a natural propensity for understanding 3-D shapes more easily than numbers or words. The 3-D globes appeal to both the kinetic and visual learning aspects of the brain, making it easy for people to readily memorize the landmarks and to make a mental model that they will remember for a long time.

2006-01-01

460

Portable exothermal energy source for disaster relief operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This manuscript describes an example of transfer technology from a U.S. Government Laboratory to commercial products that meet national needs in the public safety and health care sectors. Funded by the U.S. Army, the first project is the development of a portable, non-powered food warming device for serving meals to soldiers in the field. The second project is being funded by the National Institutes of Health for development of a heat therapy device for relief from rheumatoid arthritis discomfort in the hands and other affected joints. Both of these heating devices are portable, reusable heat pack products that can be regenerated in a microwave oven or in boiling water. The knowledge developed during these two projects will be applied to many other related products. Applications in support of natural and manmade disaster relief include food warming heat packs for food service to victims and rescue workers in sustained black-out conditions, and heat pack warming blankets for emergency medical situations in which patients are in traumatic shock and the onset of hypothermia is imminent.

Zimbeck, Walter R.

1994-03-01

461

The importance of context: When relative relief renders pain pleasant  

PubMed Central

Context can influence the experience of any event. For instance, the thought that “it could be worse” can improve feelings towards a present misfortune. In this study we measured hedonic feelings, skin conductance, and brain activation patterns in 16 healthy volunteers who experienced moderate pain in two different contexts. In the “relative relief context,” moderate pain represented the best outcome, since the alternative outcome was intense pain. However, in the control context, moderate pain represented the worst outcome and elicited negative hedonic feelings. The context manipulation resulted in a “hedonic flip,” such that moderate pain elicited positive hedonics in the relative relief context. Somewhat surprisingly, moderate pain was even rated as pleasant in this context, despite being reported as painful in the control context. This “hedonic flip” was corroborated by physiological and functional neuroimaging data. When moderate pain was perceived as pleasant, skin conductance and activity in insula and dorsal anterior cingulate were significantly attenuated relative to the control moderate stimulus. “Pleasant pain” also increased activity in reward and valuation circuitry, including the medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices. Furthermore, the change in outcome hedonics correlated with activity in the periacqueductal grey (PAG) of the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS). The context manipulation also significantly increased functional connectivity between reward circuitry and the PAG, consistent with a functional change of the DPMS due to the altered motivational state. The findings of this study point to a role for brainstem and reward circuitry in a context-induced “hedonic flip” of pain.

Leknes, Siri; Berna, Chantal; Lee, Michael C.; Snyder, Gregory D.; Biele, Guido; Tracey, Irene

2013-01-01

462

Horizontal motions, bedrock incision, and the structure of relief in growing folds and orogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographic divide asymmetry may arise from gradients in rock erodibility and orographic precipitation across a mountain belt, and/or tectonic displacement fields that uplift and translate rock horizontally during orogenesis. While simple models exploring relief in active orogens typically consider tectonic motions that are uniform and vertical, the displacement field at Earth's surface generated by slip on finite-length faults is inherently inhomogeneous and contains vertical and horizontal components, which may play an important role in divide asymmetry. In this study, we consider channel profiles that evolve according to the shear stress rule for bedrock fluvial erosion and that experience inhomogeneous horizontal and vertical components of tectonic motion. Dimensional analysis of our revised shear stress rule reveals a dimensionless coefficient that relates bedrock erodibility and basin geometry to slip rate on the underlying fault. We implement our model in a series of 1D non-dimensional numerical experiments that calculate river profile geometry on either side of a topographic divide that is free to advect through the model domain in response to horizontal motion. We drive the models with displacements calculated over a dipping, buried edge dislocation, and examine non-dimensional relief and divide asymmetry resulting from variations in fault dip, non-dimensional fault tip location and non-dimensional model extent. We find that asymmetry results from the full displacement field and from the vertical displacement field alone. Fault dip plays a strong role in the magnitude and direction of divide asymmetry, both in models that include the horizontal motions and those that neglect them. The greatest divide asymmetry resulting from the full displacement field is achieved over dislocations with shallow non-dimensional upper tip depths and small dip angles, although steeply-dipping faults produce asymmetry in the opposite direction. By setting the horizontal component of motion to zero, we find the greatest divide asymmetry resulting from the vertical component of motion alone to be caused by deeply-buried dislocations with low dip angles. Not surprisingly, non-dimensional model extent alters the magnitude of the asymmetry but not the way in which asymmetry varies with dip. Taken together, these results demonstrate the complexity of the surface response to heterogeneous strain and highlight the importance of considering the full deformation field in coupled tectonic and landscape analyses.

Seixas, G.; Alejandre, J.; Hilley, G. E.

2013-12-01

463

Seismic exploration using non-impulsive vibratory source activated by stationary, gaussian codes, and processing that results in distortion-free final records particularly useful in stratigraphic trap determination  

SciTech Connect

The disclosed invention is a method of seismic exploration using non-impulsive vibratory sources activated by stationary, Gaussian codes. The method has the channel-capacity economy of sign-bit recording and the distortion-free quality of full-waveform seismic records, even through zero memory, non-linear representations (''ZNL's'') are employed either during the collection or the processing steps that produce such final records. As a result, stratigraphic facies can be both economically and surprisingly indicated.

Muir, F.

1984-12-04

464

Paleoseismic Dislocations In Bulgaria - Nature, Hazard, Relief and Phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of studying the paleoseismic dislocations and the relief disturbance in particular, caused by strong earthquakes during the historic and the contemporary stage (before 8000 years B.P.) is a new and extremely interesting one. The aim of their investigations is to determine the trends for potential seismic hazards, to delineate the zones and single sections of paleofaults, generating seismic energy, to distinguish the stages and intervals of display of contemporary hazardous effects around them, to solve geoecological and social aspects of the problem, etc. The activities related to the discovery, mapping and investigating of the paleoseismic relief effects in Bulgaria are still at an initial stage. During the recent years the author has managed to localise about 100 local paleostructures in the country, caused by strong impulse tectonic movements. Some of them have been studied and mapped and the investigation of the others is impending in the near future. Archaeoearthquakes or contemporary earthquakes have been recorded in their vicinity. The global re-arrangements of the Fore-Carpathian, Black Sea and Mediterranean basins and the initial pre-Quaternary tectonic impulse and the following destruction, the re-arrangement of the river basins, the formation of the structural-denudation and structural-accumulation lowering, the shaping of the plateau structural edges, the ris- ing of the mountain structures, the formation of continental neighbourhood, are con- nected according to the opinion of the author with the origin of the paleoseismic dis- locations: SBregareT, STrunchovitsaT, SPopovoT, SMomina SkalaT in the Shoumen & cedil;& cedil;& cedil;& cedil;district and SLovnishkaT, SChuipetlovoT, SPernikT, SKroupnikT, SMelnikT, SPet- & cedil;& cedil;& cedil;& cedil;& cedil;& cedil;richT and the paleoseismic phenomenon to the north of the Varna city. During the Middle Pleistocene the SBregareT, STrunchovitsaT, SPopovoT, SPernikT and other & cedil;& cedil;& cedil;& cedil;dislocations were reactivated. New paleofaults generating seismic energy were cre- ated. The Holocene-Pleistocene boundary was very active and with well preserved relief seismic deformations. Many of the older paleoseismic dislocations were re- activated. The deformations are with impressive size and morphology at the foot of the mountains (Vitosha, Rila, Pirin and the Rhodopes), the North-Bulgarian plateaux (?PamukchiiT, STrapishteT, SMortagonovoT, SPreslavT, SSt. MihailovskiT) and the & cedil;& cedil;& cedil;& cedil; sub-aquatic part of the Black Sea continental neighbourhood. 1 The recording, mapping and studying of the nature of these phenomena, the assess- ment of the macroseismic effect in the relief, the time of display and reactivation, and their wholesome assessment would result in the solution of a number of practi- cal problems during the evaluation of the seismic hazard. Many failures in engineering activities could be avoided, the cultural (historic and contemporary) monuments could be preserved and a considerable social effect could be achieved. 2

Angelova, D.

465

Post operative pain relief through intermittent mandibular nerve block.  

PubMed

Mandibular nerve block is often performed for diagnostic, therapeutic and anesthetic purposes for surgery involving mandibular region. Advantages of a nerve block include excellent pain relief and avoidance of the side effects associated with the use of opiods or Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs). A patient with maxillo facial trauma was scheduled for open reduction and internal fixation of right parasymphyseal mandibular fracture. The mandibular nerve was approached using the lateral extraoral approach with an 18-gauge i.v. cannula under general anesthesia. He received 4 ml boluses of 0.25% plain bupivacaine for intraoperative analgesia and 12 hourly for 48 h post operatively. VAS scores remained less than 4 through out observation period. The only side effect was numbness of ipsilateral lower jaw line, which subsided after local anesthetic administration was discontinued. Patient was discharged after four days. PMID:22442616

Sawhney, Chhavi; Agrawal, Pramendra; Soni, Kapil Dev

2011-01-01

466

Intraarticular morphine administration provides pain relief after knee arthroscopy.  

PubMed

This present study investigated the effects of intraarticular morphine administration in 1 mg and 5 mg doses on post-operative pain relief and analgesic requirements for patients undergoing arthroscopic procedures. At the end of the operation patients were randomly allocated in a double-blinded fashion into three groups. The control group (Group 1) received normal saline 20 mL intraarticularly. The patients in the second and third groups received intraarticular morphine sulphate 1 and 5 mg in saline 20 mL, respectively. Post-operative pain was assessed on the 1st, 6th and 24th hour by visual analogue scale (VSA). Supplementary analgesic requirement and possible complications were also followed. The intensity of pain and analgesic requirement were reduced more in the morphine 5 mg group than in the control group. It is concluded, that the administration of intraarticular morphine 5 mg provides long-lasting and effective analgesia after knee arthroscopy. PMID:9088813

Kanbak, M; Akpolat, N; Ocal, T; Doral, M N; Ercan, M; Erdem, K

1997-03-01

467

Post operative pain relief through intermittent mandibular nerve block  

PubMed Central

Mandibular nerve block is often performed for diagnostic, therapeutic and anesthetic purposes for surgery involving mandibular region. Advantages of a nerve block include excellent pain relief and avoidance of the side effects associated with the use of opiods or Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs). A patient with maxillo facial trauma was scheduled for open reduction and internal fixation of right parasymphyseal mandibular fracture. The mandibular nerve was approached using the lateral extraoral approach with an 18-gauge i.v. cannula under general anesthesia. He received 4 ml boluses of 0.25% plain bupivacaine for intraoperative analgesia and 12 hourly for 48 h post operatively. VAS scores remained less than 4 through out observation period. The only side effect was numbness of ipsilateral lower jaw line, which subsided after local anesthetic administration was discontinued. Patient was discharged after four days.

Sawhney, Chhavi; Agrawal, Pramendra; Soni, Kapil Dev

2011-01-01

468

Western Tibet relief evolution, insight from sedimentary record and thermochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tibetan plateau is defined as a low relief high elevation zone, resulting from India-Asia convergence. However, its morphology is relatively heterogeneous. Especially the western Tibetan plateau is characterized by a strong relief, numerous peaks higher than 6000 m.a.s.l. and large (up to 10 km), deep (1-2 km) valleys. We investigate the origin of this particular morphology, coupling geomorphologic studies with sedimentary records and (U-Th)/He thermochronometry. The western Tibet Tertiary sedimentation is mostly characterized by conglomerates, red sandstone and siltstones related with alluvial fan deposits. Zircon U-Pb dating of interbedded trachyte flows implies that deposition started before 25 Ma and was still ongoing at 20 Ma. These continental, detrital deposits are filling wide open valleys during probable arid climatic conditions. Such valleys are thus interpreted as inherited basins, paleovalleys, formed before detrital sedimentation i.e. at ~25 Ma. Moreover, rare marine sediments were observed below the detrital deposits. Foraminifera suggest an Oligocene age, which implies that the paleovalleys already existed during the Oligocene, and that the emersion of the Western Tibetan Plateau occurred between the Oligocene and 25 Ma. This emersion thus occurred much later than the India-Asia collision (~50-45Ma) but is compatible with the onset of the main thickening phase of the Indian plate. The orientation of the inherited valley axis appears to be that of active strike slip faults that induced eastward extrusion of Western Tibet. This suggests that such extrusion was already active at the time of sedimentation (both marine and continental). Thus extrusion was also active during the plateau emersion at Oligocene time. The morphology of the valleys, and their sedimentary infilling, suggest that a significant relief, similar to present-day one (about 1000-2000m between valleys floor and surrounding peaks) already existed at the time of sedimentation. This implies that very little erosion and only uplift took place following plateau emersion. Assuming an Oligocene emersion and considering the present-day elevation of the valley floor (~ 4300-4500 m.a.s.l.) it yields a mean uplift rate of about 120-170m/Ma. In order to test the slow erosion hypothesis we performed apatite (U-Th)/He dating. Samples have been collected from a vertical profile in a Cretaceous granodiorite. Ages range from 13 to 22Ma. Based on the age variation with sampling elevation an apparent elevation rate of about 0.7 mm/yr is obtained. Modelling of age-elevation relationships indicates that the measured cooling ages are compatible with a slow, continuous exhumation/erosion rate from 25 Ma to the present time. This is similar to previous calculations obtained elsewhere on the Tibetan plateau. Today, the western Tibet is an internally drained area and local erosion induces filling of the paleovalleys. This implies that earlier erosion products were evacuated out of the plateau through the river network. Displacement along the Karakorum fault might be responsible from isolating Western Tibet from the nearby Indus drainage. In conclusion, this study suggests that western Tibet morphology is inherited from the ante-emersion relief (Oligocene?) that was preserved by combination of slow erosion and evacuation of the detrital sediments toward the Indus river network.

Mahéo, Gweltaz; Gourbet, Loraine; Hervé Leloup, Philippe; Sorrel, Philippe; Shuster, David L.; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Quillévéré, Frédéric

2014-05-01

469

Total coccygectomy for the relief of coccygodynia: a retrospective review.  

PubMed

Nine of 10 patients operated on by a single surgeon were studied. Hospital records, radiographs, and a postal survey were used. Follow-up averaged 56 months. Age at operation averaged 32.5 years. There were six males and three females. Symptoms had been present for 7 months to 14 years and all patients failed a course of non-operative therapy. All patients underwent a total coccygectomy by subperiosteal dissection through a longitudinal midline incision. There was one postoperative wound infection. All patients were satisfied with the surgical scars. Three patients reported "complete" pain relief, five reported "marked improvement," and one was "slightly improved." All nine patients were satisfied with the operation and would choose to have the surgery again. PMID:8547776

Grosso, N P; van Dam, B E

1995-08-01

470

Treatment options for the relief of chronic idiopathic urticaria symptoms.  

PubMed

Chronic urticaria is a cutaneous condition in which recurrent pruritic wheals (hives) manifest on the body and typically last for longer than 6 weeks. Chronic urticaria, including physically induced urticarias, such as cold, solar exposure or delayed pressure urticaria, is estimated to occur in approximately 25% of urticaria patients. Of these patients, 75% present with idiopathic disease, which is essentially an exclusionary diagnosis when no contributing factors can be determined that cause the cutaneous reaction. Chronic urticaria symptoms can have a profound effect on a patient's quality of life (QoL); therefore, treatment should address both physical symptom relief and improvements in QoL. This review will discuss the benefits and limitations of several treatment options available to relieve urticarial symptoms, including H1- and H2-receptor antagonists, doxepin, antileukotriene therapy and corticosteroids. Other experimental therapies, such as immunomodulatory agents, plasmapheresis treatment, i.v. immunoglobulins, and omalizumab will also be discussed. PMID:18364622

Fromer, Leonard

2008-02-01

471

Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief  

PubMed Central

Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health-related rehabilitation following natural disaster is urgently required.

Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.

2011-01-01

472

Preoperative administration of etoricoxib in patients undergoing hip replacement causes inhibition of inflammatory mediators and pain relief  

PubMed Central

Objective Administering cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors preoperatively appears attractive since these drugs reduce post-operative pain, but do not increase the risk of post-operative bleeds, asthmatic attacks and stress-related gastrointestinal ulcers. In a former investigation, we could show that post-operative administration of etoricoxib reduces prostaglandin production in wound fluid, but the onset of action is variable due to delayed post-operative absorption. Methods In this study, we investigated the preoperative administration of etoricoxib in patients undergoing hip replacement. They received 120 mg etoricoxib or placebo 2 h before surgery and 1 day after in a double-blinded, randomized, parallel group design. Results A total of 11 patients were randomized (placebo n = 5; verum n = 6). We found high and constant levels of the drug in blood, central nervous system and wound fluid already at the end of surgery (tmax < 2 h). This was accompanied by inhibition of prostaglandin production in the wound tissue (treatment p < 0.05), suppression of interleukin 6 increase in plasma (treatment p < 0.01), and – despite existing standard pain relief procedures – higher satisfaction with analgesics (time vs. treatment p < 0.05) and less demand for opioids (treatment p < 0.01) and intrathecal bupivacaine (treatment p = 0.05) administration. Conclusion Administration of etoricoxib 2 h before surgery allows for an effective drug concentration in critical tissues, a reduction of the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and for better pain relief.

Renner, B; Walter, G; Strauss, J; Fromm, MF; Zacher, J; Brune, K

2012-01-01

473

27 CFR 25.103 - Notice by surety for relief from liability under bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01...Notice by surety for relief from liability under bond. 25.103 ...103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...Notice by surety for relief from liability under bond. A...

2013-04-01

474

A Combination of a Handmade, a Computer-Generated and a Profi led Relief Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Th e main topic of this paper is to explain the construction of a fi ve metre long and seventy centimetres wide relief model, scale 1:50,000, displaying a section of the Alps running from north to south. Th e fi nal relief model surface will be coloured according to the tectonic structure of the landscape, while on the sidewall a

Stefan Räber; Lorenz Hurni

475

Supporting Group Decision Making and Coordination in Urban Disasters Relief Efforts  

Microsoft Academic Search

When extreme events affect urban areas the response process should be fast and effective because the population and civil infrastructure densities potentially increase the impact of such events. These situations have shown the need to improve the group decisionmaking process and the coordination of relief activities carried out by relief organizations. This paper proposes to include first responders as decision

Sergio F. Ochoa; H. Andrés Neyem; José A. Pino; Marcos R. S. Borges

2007-01-01

476