Science.gov

Sample records for vibratory stress relief

  1. Effect of vibratory stress relief during welding of thick stainless steel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, S.; David, S. A.; Wang, X. L.; Hubbard, C. R.; Holden, T. M.; Root, J. H.

    1993-12-01

    Residual strains were measured in two welded 25-mm thick plates of type 304 stainless steel by the neutron diffraction technique. The filler metal employed to weld these plates was type 308 stainless steel. One of the two welds was prepared without any vibratory stress relief treatment and the other was vibrated at a frequency below the resonant condition which gives a fraction the resonant amplitude during welding. In both plates the largest residual stress component found in the heat affected zone and in the base metal is along the fusion joint (longitudinal) and is found at the boundary between the weld zone and the heat affected zone. This longitudinal component is 300 +/- 50 MPa in tension. The associated normal stress was close to zero and the transverse stress was 80 +/- 50 MPa. Variations in residual stresses with thickness through the base metal plate were small. The treated plate and untreated plate showed nearly identical patterns of stress distribution. Differences in the measured stresses between the vibratory-stress-relief treated and the untreated plates fall within the error bars of the stress determination in these particular 25 mm thick 300-type stainless steel plates.

  2. Predicting vibratory stresses from aero-acoustic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Matthew D.

    Sonic fatigue has been a concern of jet aircraft engineers for many years. As engines become more powerful, structures become more lightly damped and complex, and materials become lighter, stiffer, and more complicated, the need to understand and predict structural response to aeroacoustic loads becomes more important. Despite decades of research, vibration in panels caused by random pressure loads, such as those found in a supersonic jet, is still difficult to predict. The work in this research improves on current prediction methods in several ways, in particular for the structural response due to wall pressures induced by supersonic turbulent flows. First, solutions are calculated using time-domain input pressure loads that include shock cells and their interaction with turbulent flow. The solutions include both mean (static) and oscillatory components. Second, the time series of stresses are required for many fatigue assessment counting algorithms. To do this, a method is developed to compute time-dependent solutions in the frequency domain. The method is first applied to a single-degree-of-freedom system. The equations of motion are derived and solved in both the frequency domain and the time domain. The pressure input is a random (broadband) signal representative of jet flow. The method is then applied to a simply-supported beam vibrating in flexure using a line of pressure inputs computed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). A modal summation approach is used to compute structural response. The coupling between the pressure field and the structure, through the joint acceptance, is reviewed and discussed for its application to more complicated structures. Results from the new method and from a direct time domain method are compared for method verification. Because the match is good and the new frequency domain method is faster computationally, it is chosen for use in a more complicated structure. The vibration of a two-dimensional panel loaded by jet nozzle discharge flow is addressed. The surface pressures calculated at Pratt and Whitney using viscous and compressible CFD are analyzed and compared to surface pressure measurements made at the United Technologies Research Center (UTRC). A structural finite element model is constructed to represent a flexible panel also used in the UTRC setup. The mode shapes, resonance frequencies, modal loss factors, and surface pressures are input into the solution method. Displacement time series and power spectral densities are computed and compared to measurement and show good agreement. The concept of joint acceptance is further addressed for two-dimensional plates excited by supersonic jet flow. Static and alternating stresses in the panel are also computed, and the most highly stressed modes are identified. The surface pressures are further analyzed in the wavenumber domain for insight into the physics of sonic fatigue. Most of the energy in the wall pressure wavenumber-frequency spectrum at subsonic speeds is in turbulent structures near the convective wavenumber. In supersonic flow, however, the shock region dominates the spectrum at low frequencies, but convective behavior is still dominant at higher frequencies. When the forcing function wavenumber energy overlaps the modal wavenumbers, the acceptance of energy by the structure from the flow field is greatest. The wavenumber analysis suggests a means of designing structures to minimize overlap of excitation and structural wavenumber peaks to minimize vibration and sonic fatigue.

  3. Stress Relief for the Caregiver

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Helpline at 800.272.3900 . 34 2. reduce stress Learn about Alzheimer’s disease The more you know about the disease and ... Having a team in place can help minimize stress and feelings of being overwhelmed for you and the person with the disease. 5 Make legal and financial plans Making legal ...

  4. Relax: Stress and Anxiety Relief.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    FINDING TIME to relax can be difficult. Research published in the journal Current Opinion in Psychiatry suggests that chronic stress and anxiety can damage those areas of the brain that deal with memory and thinking, so relaxation is important. PMID:26927780

  5. Reduction of Vibratory Stress of Compressor Vane by Use of Friction Damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Yasutomo; Mori, Kazushi; Tomii, Masayuki

    The objective of this study is to verify the reduction effect of the friction damper on the vibratory stress of the compressor vane both theoretically and experimentally. First, an analysis method for predicting the damping characteristics of the compressor vane with a friction damper, which applies the substructure synthesis method and the harmonic balance method, is proposed. Secondly, an excitation test of the damper vane is carried out to verify the validity of the analysis method proposed here, and to confirm the damping characteristics of the damper vane. In the excitation test, a newly developed magnetic exciter, which applies the feature of the resonant circuit, is used to vibrate the vane with large excitation force. Vibration characteristics of the damper vane predicted by the analysis show good agreement with the measured results. Finally, to verify the effect of the friction damper, the field test of the actual gas turbine is carried out, where the vibratory stress of the compressor vane with and without the friction damper is measured.

  6. Method for residual stress relief and retained austenite destabilization

    DOEpatents

    Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2004-08-10

    A method using of a magnetic field to affect residual stress relief or phase transformations in a metallic material is disclosed. In a first aspect of the method, residual stress relief of a material is achieved at ambient temperatures by placing the material in a magnetic field. In a second aspect of the method, retained austenite stabilization is reversed in a ferrous alloy by applying a magnetic field to the alloy at ambient temperatures.

  7. FREEZE-FRAME: Fast Action Stress Relief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childre, Doc Lew

    Recent scientific research has proven that we can, not only manage our stress, we can even prevent it. Ways to achieve stress management are presented in this book. It details a method called FREEZE-FRAME, a process in which individuals mentally stop the chaos that surrounds them and then calmly contemplate their situation. The text opens with an

  8. Relax: Stress and Anxiety Relief app.

    PubMed

    2016-02-10

    Finding time to relax can be difficult. Research published in the journal Current Opinion in Psychiatry has shown that chronic stress and anxiety can damage areas of the brain dealing with memory and thinking - so relaxation is important. PMID:26860167

  9. Stress-relief cracking of a new ferritic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawrocki, Jesse Gerald

    The mechanism of stress-relief cracking in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of low-alloy ferritic steels was studied through a tempering study, stress-relaxation testing, and detailed microstructural characterization. A new ferritic alloy steel, HCM2S, was used as the model system. Common 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel, which is susceptible to stress-relief cracking, was used for comparison to HCM2S. The CGHAZ was simulated using Gleeble techniques. A dense distribution of small tungsten-rich carbides within the prior austenite grains induced secondary hardening in the CGHAZ of HCM2S. The CGHAZ of 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel exhibited secondary hardening due to the intragranular precipitation of many Fe-rich M3C carbides. The hardness of HCM2S was more stable at longer times and high temperatures than 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel due to the intragranular precipitation of small W and V-rich carbides. The CGHAZs of HCM2S and 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel were susceptible to stress-relief cracking between 575 and 725C. HCM2S exhibited C-curve behavior with respect to the time to failure as a function of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) temperature. No segregation of tramp elements to prior austenite grain boundaries was detected in HCM2S. Both intergranular and intragranular carbide precipitation controlled the stress-relief cracking behavior. The amount of intergranular failure increased with test temperature due to the increasing amounts of Fe-rich M3C carbides at the prior austenite grain boundaries. These carbides acted as cavity nucleation sites. The cavities coalesced to form microcracks along prior austenite grain boundaries. Eventually, the remaining uncracked areas could not support the load and failed by ductile rupture. The balance of intergranular and intragranular carbide precipitation resulted in the C-curve behavior. The nose of the C-curve occurred at 675C. The intragranular regions were strong because of a dense distribution of W/Fe-rich carbides, but the prior austenite grain boundaries were weak due to a large amount of intergranular M3C carbides. A mechanism for stress-relief cracking in the CGHAZ of HCM2S has been proposed. The results of this study form a basis for heat treating and welding processing variables for HCM2S and 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel to avoid stress-relief cracking. In addition, these results can be applied to other materials to avoid microstructures susceptible to stress-relief cracking.

  10. Social buffering: relief from stress and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Kikusui, Takefumi; Winslow, James T; Mori, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Communication is essential to members of a society not only for the expression of personal information, but also for the protection from environmental threats. Highly social mammals have a distinct characteristic: when conspecific animals are together, they show a better recovery from experiences of distress. This phenomenon, termed social buffering, has been found in rodents, birds, non-human primates and also in humans. This paper reviews classical findings on social buffering and focuses, in particular, on social buffering effects in relation to neuroendocrine stress responses. The social cues that transmit social buffering signals, the neural mechanisms of social buffering and a partner's efficacy with respect to social buffering are also detailed. Social contact appears to have a very positive influence on the psychological and the physiological aspects of social animals, including human beings. Research leading towards further understanding of the mechanisms of social buffering could provide alternative medical treatments based on the natural, individual characteristics of social animals, which could improve the quality of life. PMID:17118934

  11. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54.30-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a)...

  12. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54.30-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a)...

  13. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54.30-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a)...

  14. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54.30-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a)...

  15. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54.30-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a)...

  16. Feeling Stressed? Stress Relief Might Help Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... new tasks if they are putting you into overload. Think positive. Note what you’ve accomplished at ... TALK (1-800-273-8255). Stress: NIH Health Information Fact Sheet on Stress Psychological Stress and Cancer ...

  17. High voltage bushing having weathershed and surrounding stress relief collar

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage electric bushing comprises a hollow elongated dielectric weathershed which encloses a high voltage conductor. A collar formed of high voltage dielectric material is positioned over the weathershed and is bonded thereto by an interface material which precludes moisture-like contaminants from entering between the bonded portions. The collar is substantially thicker than the adjacent weathershed which it surrounds, providing relief of the electric stresses which would otherwise appear on the outer surface of the weathershed. The collar may include a conductive ring or capacitive foil to further relieve electric stresses experienced by the bushing.

  18. A test of stress theory: relief workers in refugee camps.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Hussein H; Gillespie, David F

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply a stress model drawn from the literature to the relief and social service workers who have been active in refugee camps for a prolonged period of time. Working in difficult environments, social service workers deliver essential services to refugee populations around the world. A model of four work-stress determinants--tasks, management, appreciation and collaboration--was tested on 274 social workers in five regions of the Middle East (Jordan, Lebanon and Syria, as well as the occupied Palestinian territories of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank). Statistical fit indices were adequate but two relationships were statistically insignificant. The collaboration variable was dropped to create a modified model with tasks indirectly and management and appreciation directly affecting work-related stress. The five direct relationships and two indirect relationships of this modified model are consistent with stress theory, and all relationships--direct and indirect--are statistically significant. PMID:21913936

  19. Stress and Stress Relief in the Educational Research Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Vicki A.

    Factors that increase stress and those that decrease stress were studied with 33 graduate students in an introductory educational research course. Participants completed the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) (R. Cruse, R. Cash, and D. Bolton, 1985) and were asked to rate their anxiety daily during the 4 weeks of the class. The instructor's

  20. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C. 154.655... Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C. For a design temperature colder... stress relieved by post-weld heat treatment under § 54.25-7 of this chapter or by mechanical...

  1. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C. 154.655... Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C. For a design temperature colder... stress relieved by post-weld heat treatment under § 54.25-7 of this chapter or by mechanical...

  2. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C. 154.655... Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C. For a design temperature colder... stress relieved by post-weld heat treatment under § 54.25-7 of this chapter or by mechanical...

  3. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C. 154.655... Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C. For a design temperature colder... stress relieved by post-weld heat treatment under § 54.25-7 of this chapter or by mechanical...

  4. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C. 154.655... Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C. For a design temperature colder... stress relieved by post-weld heat treatment under § 54.25-7 of this chapter or by mechanical...

  5. Comparison of Stress Relief Procedures for Cryogenic Aluminum Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohl, Raymond G.; Barthelmy, Michael P.; Zewari, S. Wahid; Toland, Ronald; Mink, Ronald; Mentzell, J. Eric; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; McMann, Joseph C.; Hylan, Jason; Hagopian, John G.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Infrared Multi-Object Spectrograph (IRMOS) is a facility instrument for the Kitt Peak National Observatory Mayall Telescope (3.8 meter) and an engineering prototype for a potential design for the Next Generation Space Telescope/Multi-Object Spectrograph. IRMOS is a low-to mid-resolution (R = lambda/delta-lambda = 300-3800), near-IR (0.8-2.5 micron) spectrograph which produces simultaneous spectra of approximately 100 objects in its 2.8 x 2.0 arcmin field of view using a commercial MEMS multimirror array device. The instrument operating temperature is 80 K and the design is athermal --- the optical bench and mirrors are machined from aluminum 6061-T651. In spite of its baseline mechanical stress relief, aluminum 6061-T651 harbors some residual stress, which, unless relieved during fabrication, may relieve and distort mirror figure to unacceptable levels at the operating temperature. Other cryogenic instruments using aluminum mirrors for both ground-based and space IR astronomy have employed a variety of heat treatment formulae, with mixed results. We present the results of a test program designed to empirically determine the best stress relief procedure for the IRMOS mirrors. Identical test mirrors with spherical and flat optical prescriptions are processed with five different heat treatment formulae from the literature and compared to samples with out any additional processing. After figuring via diamond turning, the mirrors are tested for figure error and radius of curvature at room temperature and at 80 K for several thermal cycles. The heat treatment procedure for the mirrors that yielded the least and most repeatable change in figure error and radius is applied to the IRMOS mirror blanks. We correlate the results of our optical testing with heat treatment and metallographic data.

  6. Surface Residual Stresses in Ti-6Al-4V Friction Stir Welds: Pre- and Post-Thermal Stress Relief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, P.; Ramulu, M.

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the residual stresses present in titanium friction stir welds and if a post-weld thermal stress relief cycle would be effective in minimizing those weld-induced residual stresses. Surface residual stresses in titanium 6Al-4V alloy friction stir welds were measured in butt joint thicknesses ranging from 3 to 12 mm. The residual stress states were also evaluated after the welds were subjected to a post-weld thermal stress relief cycle of 760 °C for 45 min. High (300-400 MPa) tensile residual stresses were observed in the longitudinal direction prior to stress relief and compressive residual stresses were measured in the transverse direction. After stress relief, the residual stresses were decreased by an order of magnitude to negligible levels.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Vibratory Stresses in a Concentric-Ring Direct-Air-Cycle Nuclear Fuel Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiarito, Patrick T.

    1957-01-01

    Preliminary tests made by the General Electric Company indicated that aerodynamic loads might cause large enough distortions in the thin sheet-metal rings of a nuclear fuel element to result in structural failure. The magnitude of the distortions in a test fuel element was determined from strains measured with airflow conditions simulating those expected during engine operation. The measured vibratory strains were low enough to indicate the improbability of failure by fatigue. A conservative estimate of the radial deflection that accompanied peak strains in the outer ring was +0.0006 inch.

  8. Experimental and analytical evaluation of the effects of simulated engine inlets on the blade vibratory stresses of the SR-3 model prop-fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Prem N.

    1985-01-01

    A cooperative wind tunnel test program, referred to as GUN-3, had been conducted previously to assess the effect of inlet configuration and location on the inlet face pressure recovery and inlet drag in the presence of a high-speed advanced turboprop. These tests were conducted with the inlets located just downstream of the SR-3 model Prop-Fan, a moderately swept, eight-bladed 62.2 cm (24.5 inch) diameter advanced, high-speed turboprop model fabricated from titanium. During these tests, two blades of the SR-3 model Prop-Fan were strain gaged to measure the vibratory blade stresses occurring during the inlet aerodynamic test program. The purpose of the effort reported herein was to reduce and analyze the test results related to the vibratory strain gage measurements obtained. Three inlet configurations had been tested. These were: (1) single scoop, (2) twin scoop, and (3) annular. Each of the three inlets was tested at a position just behind the rotor. The single scoop inlet was also tested at a position further aft. Tests were also done without an inlet. These results emphasize the importance of avoiding critical speeds in the continuous operating range.

  9. Vibratory stimulation for the alleviation of chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Lundeberg, T C

    1983-01-01

    The pain relieving effect of vibratory stimulation was studied in 731 patients suffering from acute pain (135 patients) or chronic pain (596 patients). Most of the patients had previously undergone treatments of various kinds without sufficient pain relief. The effect of vibratory stimulation was assessed before, during and after stimulation using different rating scales. About 70% of the patients reported reduction of pain during vibratory stimulation. In many patients there was a clear relation between the degree of reduction of pain and the intensity of pain before the beginning of stimulation. In general, relief of pain by more than 50% during stimulation was obtained in the patients who reported light, light to moderate, or moderate pain. The patients with moderate to severe, or severe pain before stimulation generally reported a reduction of pain of 50% or less. The best pain reducing site was found to be either the area of pain or close to it, the antagonistic muscle or a trigger point near the painful area. In most patients suffering from musculoskeletal pain the best pain reducing effect was obtained when the vibratory stimulation was applied with moderate pressure (at which contact was achieved with underlying bone) at a frequency of 50-150 Hz. To obtain a maximal duration of pain relief the stimulation had to be applied for 30-45 minutes. Many of the patients experienced pain relief lasting for more than 3 hours. It may be noticed that in many patients the pain relief lasted for 12 hours or more. There was a good correlation between the degree of pain relief and its duration. In the patients who experienced a pain reduction of 50% or less the pain relief generally lasted for less than 6 hours while in the patients who experienced pain relief of more than 50% it lasted for more than 6 hours. In comparison with high or low frequency TENS, vibratory stimulation was found to be as effective and in some patients even more effective in reducing chronic musculoskeletal or orofacial pain. The effect of 20 Hz, 100 Hz and 200 Hz vibratory stimulation, high frequency TENS, low frequency TENS and "placebo" vibratory stimulation was examined in various chronic musculoskeletal pain syndromes. 82% of the patients experienced a relief of pain with any of the above mentioned methods; 47% of the patients experienced a reduction of pain with vibratory stimulation or TENS stimulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6609524

  10. Stress-relief displacements induced by drilling--applications to holographic measurements of in situ stress

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, T.J.; Smither, C.L.

    1992-04-24

    The holographic stressmeter is an instrument which has been developed at Caltech to allow determination of the complete stress tensor from in situ borehole measurements. The stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a small sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses, concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall in the vicinity of the sidehole. The first part of this study uses a thin infinite elastic plate subjected to plane stress at infinity to model the displacements at the borehole wall. However, the existence of some holograms which were difficult to model closely led us to examine the validity of this model. In order to investigate the problem further, we performed a two-dimensional finite element analysis for an elastic box with a terminated hole. We varied the dimensions of the hole to see what effect the radius and depth of the hole might have on the displacements. The plate model predicts that the depth of the hole should have no effect on the horizontal components of displacement, but the finite element results show that the magnitude of both components of the displacement depends on the depth of the sidehole. After considering these results, we developed a new model for the analysis of stress-relief displacements, following the work of Youngdahl and Sternberg (1965). For holes with a depth-to-diameter ratio greater than unity, the simple plane stress elastic plate solution breaks down and does not adequately model the displacements at the surface of the body and near the hole. Since these are the areas most critical to calculate accurately with the holographic technique, the revised model does a better job of fitting the observed data.

  11. Advanced turboprop vibratory characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, A. V.; Fulton, G. B.

    1984-01-01

    The assembly of SR5 advanced turboprop blades to develop a structural dynamic data base for swept props is reported. Steady state blade deformation under centrifugal loading and vibratory characteristics of the rotor assembly were measured. Vibration was induced through a system of piezoelectric crystals attached to the blades. Data reduction procedures are used to provide deformation, mode shape, and frequencies of the assembly at predetermined speeds.

  12. Comparison of weld residual stress measurement results in low alloy welds between X-ray diffraction and stress relief methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Asahi; Okano, Shigetaka; Hashimoto, Tadafumi; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2012-08-01

    In this study, a comparison of weld residual stress measurements between the X-ray diffraction technique and the stress relief technique is performed with the focus on the effect of the thickness on the stress measurement results. As the difference in the thickness becomes smaller, the difference in the stress measurement results also becomes smaller. At the weld center, where the stress gradient is in the thickness direction, the difference in the thickness is not negligible. In other words, it is concluded that the X-ray diffraction method is advantageous because it can evaluate the unique stress generated only in the surface layer.

  13. Laughter and Stress Relief in Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a therapeutic laughter program and the number of program sessions on anxiety, depression, and stress in breast cancer patients. A randomized controlled trial was conducted involving 31 patients who received four sessions of therapeutic laughter program comprised and 29 who were assigned to the no-program control group. Scores for anxiety, depression, and stress were measured using an 11-point numerical rating scale. While no change was detected in the control group, the program group reported reductions of 1.94, 1.84, and 2.06 points for anxiety, depression, and stress, respectively (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01). Scores decreased significantly after the first therapeutic laughter session (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01). As the therapeutic laughter program was effective after only a single session in reducing anxiety, depression, and stress in breast cancer patients, it could be recommended as a first-line complementary/alternative therapy. PMID:26064177

  14. Laughter and Stress Relief in Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Kim, Y H; Kim, H J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a therapeutic laughter program and the number of program sessions on anxiety, depression, and stress in breast cancer patients. A randomized controlled trial was conducted involving 31 patients who received four sessions of therapeutic laughter program comprised and 29 who were assigned to the no-program control group. Scores for anxiety, depression, and stress were measured using an 11-point numerical rating scale. While no change was detected in the control group, the program group reported reductions of 1.94, 1.84, and 2.06 points for anxiety, depression, and stress, respectively (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01). Scores decreased significantly after the first therapeutic laughter session (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01). As the therapeutic laughter program was effective after only a single session in reducing anxiety, depression, and stress in breast cancer patients, it could be recommended as a first-line complementary/alternative therapy. PMID:26064177

  15. Effectiveness of a Stress-Relief Initiative for Primary Caregivers of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Jung; Lin, Jin-Ding; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Wu, Sheng-Ru

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study provides a perspective on the mental health status and analyses the effectiveness of a stress-relief program for primary caregivers of adolescents with intellectual disability (ID). Method: Seventy-seven primary caregivers of people with ID were recruited (intervention group, n = 31; non-intervention group, n = 46) to the

  16. Silicon Bulk Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, T. K.; Gutierrez, R. C.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Stell, C.; Vorperian, V.; Calvet, R.; Li, W. J.; Charkaborty, I.; Bartman, R.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a novel silicon bulk micromachined vibratory rate gyroscope designed for microspacecraft applications. The new microgyroscope consists of a silicon four leaf cloverstructure with a post attached to the center.

  17. Posttraumatic stress disorder in disaster relief workers following direct and indirect trauma exposure to Ground Zero.

    PubMed

    Zimering, Rose; Gulliver, Suzy B; Knight, Jeffrey; Munroe, James; Keane, Terence M

    2006-08-01

    The present study compared rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relief workers at the World Trade Center collapse from two sources: direct exposure to the disaster site and indirect exposure through survivor narratives. Standardized clinical interviews for PTSD were conducted with 109 relief workers 6-8 months after the September 11th terrorist attacks. Rates of acute PTSD from direct and indirect exposure to traumatic stressors were 6.4% and 4.6%, respectively. The findings suggest that indirect exposures can lead to PTSD even when Criterion A1 of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000, p. 463), i.e., "experienced by a family member or other close associate" is not met. Further research is necessary to define precisely the parameters of indirect traumatic exposure that may be linked to the development of PTSD. PMID:16929511

  18. Analysis of rotor vibratory loads using higher harmonic pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Wachspress, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental studies of isolated rotors in forward flight have indicated that higher harmonic pitch control can reduce rotor noise. These tests also show that such pitch inputs can generate substantial vibratory loads. The modification is summarized of the RotorCRAFT (Computation of Rotor Aerodynamics in Forward flighT) analysis of isolated rotors to study the vibratory loading generated by high frequency pitch inputs. The original RotorCRAFT code was developed for use in the computation of such loading, and uses a highly refined rotor wake model to facilitate this task. The extended version of RotorCRAFT incorporates a variety of new features including: arbitrary periodic root pitch control; computation of blade stresses and hub loads; improved modeling of near wake unsteady effects; and preliminary implementation of a coupled prediction of rotor airloads and noise. Correlation studies are carried out with existing blade stress and vibratory hub load data to assess the performance of the extended code.

  19. Mediatory myths in the U.S. military: tobacco use as stress relief

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine perceptions of military personnel about tobacco use. Design Secondary analysis of a) focus group and b) interview data. Setting U.S. Military Subjects Total participants (n= 241): Enlisted personnel, supervisors (n=189 individuals participating in 23 focus groups), tobacco control managers, and policy leaders (n=52 interview participants). Intervention Not applicable. Measures Not applicable. Analysis Inductive, iterative coding for salient themes using an interpretive approach. Application of the concept of mediatory myths, used by institutions to cover over internal contradictions. Results All types of participants endorsed the idea that tobacco was needed in the military for stress relief. Types of stress identified included fitting in, (relationships with co-workers and superiors) and control of workflow (taking breaks). Participants also discussed beliefs about the impact of tobacco on the military mission, and institutional sanction of tobacco use. Conclusions Despite tobacco's well-documented negative effects on fitness, the myth that tobacco relieves stress serves several institutional functions in the military. It serves to minimize perceptions of stress on the fitness of personnel, suggests that stress can be managed solely by individuals, and institutionalizes tobacco use. Growing recognition among military leadership that countering stress is essential to fitness offers an opportunity to challenge this myth. PMID:24359178

  20. Optimization of the thermal stress relief of a welded solid piece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obidi, T. A. Yomi

    A computational investigation was performed in this study on the optimum method of thermally stress-relieving a steel piece that has acquired residual stresses during a welding process. There are three main steps towards achieving this goal: optimizing the heating of the metal piece, minimizing the time during which the piece is held at cap temperature, and expediting the cooling of the piece to the working temperature. Using the residual stress distribution information in a solid piece we were able to determine the minimum temperature to which the piece should be raised in order to eliminate all stresses present therein. From the conduction equation we determined the minimum duration to keep the piece at the same temperature to ensure complete thermal stress relief. Once this temperature was achieved and retained for the duration determined necessary, depending on the maximum thickness of the weld piece, a procedure was begun to simulate the cooling of the piece to a specified operational temperature. This cooling was carefully done to ensure that there was no inelastic stress induction in the process. By the combination of geometrical arrangement and controlled convection an optimum cooling condition was obtained.

  1. VIBRATORY SPIRAL BLANCHER-COOLER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the demonstration project was to test the commercial feasibility of the vibratory spiral blancher-cooler, a newly designed steam blancher and air cooler that previous small scale tests showed could reduce the wasteload and energy consumption of preparing vegetabl...

  2. Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng

    2013-07-15

    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12(th), 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors. PMID:25206499

  3. Hydrologic effects of stress-relief fracturing in an Appalachian Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wyrick, Granville G.; Borchers, James W.

    1981-01-01

    A hydrologic study at Twin Falls State Park, Wyoming County, West Virginia, was made to determine how fracture systems affect the occurrence and movement of ground water in a typical valley of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province. Twin Falls was selected because it is generally unaffected by factors that would complicate an analysis of the data. The study area was the Black Fork Valley at Twin Falls. The valley is about 3 miles long and 400 to 600 feet wide and is cut into massive sandstone units interbedded with thin coal and shale beds. The study was made to determine how aquifer characteristics were related to fracture systems in this valley, so that the relation could be applied to studies of other valleys. Two sites were selected for test drilling, pumping tests, and geophysical studies. One site is in the upper part of the valley, and the second is near the lower central part. At both sites, ground water occurs mainly in horizontal bedding-plane fractures under the valley floor and in nearly vertical and horizontal slump fractures along the valley wall. The aquifer is under confined conditions under the valley floor and unconfined conditions along the valley wall. The fractures pinch out under the valley walls, which form impermeable barriers. Tests of wells near the valley center indicated a change in storage coefficient as the cone of depression caused by pumping reached the confined-unconfined boundaries; the tests also indicated barrier-image effects when the cone reached the impermeable boundaries. Drawdown from pumping near the center of the valley affected water levels at both sites, indicating a hydraulic connection from the upper to the lower end of the valley. Stream gain-and-loss studies show that ground water discharges to the stream from horizontal fractures beneath Black Fork Falls, near the mouth of Black Fork. The fracture systems that constitute most of the transmissive part of the aquifer at Twin Falls are like those described as being formed from stress relief. As stress-relief fractures have been described in other valleys of the Appalachian Plateaus, the same aquifer conditions may exist in those valleys.

  4. The Meta-Lax method of stress reduction in welds. Phase 2 study

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.

    1992-07-31

    This study is the second phase of ongoing research into the mechanics and feasibility of using the Meta-Lax method of vibratory stress relief in place of thermal methods of stress relief. The first phase of this research revealed results that were similar to, and even superior to those achieved using thermal methods. The testing here was designed to eliminate the effects of interbead tempering by utilizing single pass bead-on-plate welds only. A metallurgical explanation for the success of the Meta-Lax method was not found. No significant structure or chemical changes were noted when used with ASTM A36 or AISI 4140 materials, and the phenomena noted in phase I was apparently due to interbead tempering. The theory of accelerated aging has been proposed and studies exist which observed dislocation motion as a result of vibratory treatment. It is evident that the vibratory stress relief system does not impart sufficient energy to bring about the magnitude of change seen with thermal methods. however the physical improvement is a reality, and vibratory methods should be evaluated further.

  5. The Meta-Lax method of stress reduction in welds. [ASTM A36; AISI 4140

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.

    1992-07-31

    This study is the second phase of ongoing research into the mechanics and feasibility of using the Meta-Lax method of vibratory stress relief in place of thermal methods of stress relief. The first phase of this research revealed results that were similar to, and even superior to those achieved using thermal methods. The testing here was designed to eliminate the effects of interbead tempering by utilizing single pass bead-on-plate welds only. A metallurgical explanation for the success of the Meta-Lax method was not found. No significant structure or chemical changes were noted when used with ASTM A36 or AISI 4140 materials, and the phenomena noted in phase I was apparently due to interbead tempering. The theory of accelerated aging has been proposed and studies exist which observed dislocation motion as a result of vibratory treatment. It is evident that the vibratory stress relief system does not impart sufficient energy to bring about the magnitude of change seen with thermal methods. however the physical improvement is a reality, and vibratory methods should be evaluated further.

  6. Vibratory tactile display for textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikei, Yasushi; Ikeno, Akihisa; Fukuda, Shuichi

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a tactile display that produces vibratory stimulus to a fingertip in contact with a vibrating tactor matrix. The display depicts tactile surface textures while the user is exploring a virtual object surface. A piezoelectric actuator drives the individual tactor in accordance with both the finger movement and the surface texture being traced. Spatiotemporal display control schemes were examined for presenting the fundamental surface texture elements. The temporal duration of vibratory stimulus was experimentally optimized to simulate the adaptation process of cutaneous sensation. The selected duration time for presenting a single line edge agreed with the time threshold of tactile sensation. Then spatial stimulus disposition schemes were discussed for representation of other edge shapes. As an alternative means not relying on amplitude control, a method of augmented duration at the edge was investigated. Spatial resolution of the display was measured for the lines presented both in perpendicular and parallel to a finger axis. Discrimination of texture density was also measured on random dot textures.

  7. GEC Ferranti piezo vibratory gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuttall, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    Prototypes of a piezo-electric vibratory angular rate transducer (gyroscope) (PVG) have been constructed and evaluated. The construction is on the lines suggested by Burdess. The sensitive element is a cylinder of radially poled piezo-electric ceramic. The cylinder is metallized inside and out, and the outer metallization is divided into eight electrodes. The metallization on the inside is earthed. A phase locked loop, using pairs of the electrodes, causes the cylinder to vibrate in one of its two fundamental, degenerate modes. In the presence of rotation, some of the vibration is coupled into the outer mode. This can be detected, or suppressed with a closed-up technique and provides a measure of rotation rate. The gyroscope provides a number of advantages over rotating mass and optical instruments: low size and mass, lower power consumption, potentially high reliability, potentially good dormancy, low cost and high maximum rate.

  8. Snoring-Induced Vibratory Angioedema

    PubMed Central

    Kalathoor, Ipe

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 70 Final Diagnosis: Snoring induced vibratory angioedema Symptoms: Swelling of tongue • roof of mouth and throat • multiple episodes at night Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Continuous positive airway pressure therapy Specialty: Allergology Objective: Rare disease Background: Vibratory angioedema (VA) is a rare physical urticaria, with symptoms of itching and swelling of the skin or mucosa when it is exposed to vibration. Avoidance of vibration is the best way to manage this condition. This case report will assist physicians to diagnose this rare condition. Here, a previously unpublished potential successful treatment modality is being presented, with good symptom control, along with some photographs taken during an acute attack. A literature review points towards potential undiagnosed cases. Case Report: A 70-year-old woman had multiple emergency department visits for tongue and throat swelling over 3 years. The episodes always happened at night. Detailed history elicited some episodes of itching and swelling of hands when driving as well as significant snoring while sleeping. Physical examination was unremarkable except for morbid obesity. Complement factor 4 and C1esterase inhibitor level were within normal limits. A tentative diagnosis of angioedema induced by oropharyngeal vibration from snoring was made. A sleep study confirmed sleep apnea with severe snoring. After CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) treatment, she had successful symptom control. Conclusions: Snoring-induced VA is very likely an under-diagnosed condition in the community. The typical history is the key to the diagnosis. This condition could be confirmed by vibration test or by the resolution of symptoms with elimination of vibration. Effective symptom control is possible by avoidance of oropharyngeal vibration from snoring with the administration of CPAP therapy, making it a potential novel indication for this condition. PMID:26437464

  9. Comparison of Stress Relief Mechanisms of Metal Films Deposited on Liquid Substrates by Thermal Evaporating and Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Sen-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Ju; Chen, Miao-Gen

    Various metal film systems, deposited on liquid (silicone oil) substrates by thermal evaporating and DC-magnetron sputtering methods, have been successfully fabricated and the stress relief mechanisms are systematically studied by analyzing the characteristic surface morphologies. The experiment shows that the evaporating metal films can move on silicone oil surfaces freely due to the nearly zero adhesion of solid-liquid interface, which results in spontaneous formation of ordered surface patterns with a characteristic sandwiched structure driven by the internal stress. For the sputtering metal film system, however, the top surface of silicone oil can be modified to form an elastomeric polymer layer on the liquid substrate during deposition. Subsequent cooling of the system creates a higher compressive stress in the film, which is relieved by buckling of the film to form periodic wavy structures because the adhesion of solid-elastomer interface is quite strong.

  10. Non-inertial calibration of vibratory gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The electrostatic elements already present in a vibratory gyroscope are used to simulate the Coriolis forces. An artificial electrostatic rotation signal is added to the closed-loop force rebalance system. Because the Coriolis force is at the same frequency as the artificial electrostatic force, the simulated force may be introduced into the system to perform an inertial test on MEMS vibratory gyroscopes without the use of a rotation table.

  11. Vocal Fold Vibratory Changes Following Surgical Intervention.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenli; Woo, Peak; Murry, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    High-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) captures direct cycle-to-cycle visualization of vocal fold movement in real time. This ultrafast recording rate is capable of visualizing the vibratory motion of the vocal folds in severely disordered phonation and provides a direct method for examining vibratory changes after vocal fold surgery. The purpose of this study was to examine the vibratory motion before and after surgical intervention. HSV was captured from two subjects with identifiable midvocal fold benign lesions and six subjects with highly aperiodic vocal fold vibration before and after phonosurgery. Digital kymography (DKG) was used to extract high-speed kymographic vocal fold images sampled at the midmembranous, anterior 1/3, and posterior 1/3 region. Spectral analysis was subsequently applied to the DKG to quantify the cycle-to-cycle movements of the left and the right vocal fold, expressed as a spectrum. Before intervention, the vibratory spectrum consisted of decreased and flat-like spectral peaks with robust power asymmetry. After intervention, increases in spectral power and decreases in power symmetry were noted. Spectral power increases were most remarkable in the midmembranous region of the vocal fold. Surgical modification resulted in improved lateral excursion of the vocal folds, vibratory function, and perceptual measures of Voice Handicap Index-10. These changes in vibratory behavior trended toward normal vocal fold vibration. PMID:26028368

  12. Mechanical characterization and modeling of brazed tungsten and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy using stress relief interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Dandan; Zhou, Zhangjian; Yum, Youngjin; Aktaa, Jarir

    2014-12-01

    A rapidly solidified foil-type Ti-Zr based amorphous filler with a melting temperature of 850 C was used to braze tungsten to Cu-Cr-Zr alloy for water cooled divertors and plasma facing components application. Brazed joints of dissimilar materials suffer from a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion. In order to release the residual stress caused by the mismatch, brazed joints of tungsten and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy using different interlayers were studied. The shear strength tests of brazed W/Cu joints show that the average strength of the joint with a W70Cu30 composite plate interlayer reached 119.8 MPa, and the average strength of the joint with oxygen free high conductivity copper (OFHC Cu)/Mo multi-interlayers reached 140.8 MPa, while the joint without interlayer was only 16.6 MPa. Finite element method (FEM) has been performed to investigate the stress distribution and effect of stress relief interlayers. FEM results show that the maximum von Mises stress occurs in the tungsten/filler interface and that the filler suffers the peak residual stresses and becomes the weakest zone. And the use of OFHC Cu/Mo multi-interlayers can reduce the residual stress significantly, which agrees with the mechanical experiment data.

  13. Stress-relief behavior in chemical-vapor-deposited diamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qi Hua; Fernandes, A.; Pereira, E.; Grcio, J.

    1998-09-01

    Biaxial stress in diamond film deposited on titanium coated copper substrate is investigated. Raman spectra show that with an increase in the film thickness, the diamond Raman line shifts from higher wave numbers to lower, approaching 1332 cm-1. Fitting the experimental plot of the in-plane stress ?x versus the film thickness y yields a linear function ?x=(0.186y-5.776) GPa. On the other hand, the biaxial stress is modeled from Airy stress theory, showing also that the stress changes linearly along the film-growth direction. A critical film thickness hc=31 ?m is found at which the compressive stress is completely released. In addition, it is shown that the variation of the biaxial stress is less than 5% (0.28 GPa) throughout the thickness of a film thinner than 1.5 ?m. Therefore, the stress in such a thin diamond film can be considered uniform according to the Raman measurement due to the spectrum resolution.

  14. DISASTER RELIEF FOR THE JAPANESE EARTHQUAKE-TSUNAMI OF 2011: STRESS REDUCTION THROUGH THE TRANSCENDENTAL MEDITATION TECHNIQUE.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mitsunobu; Kurokawa, Etsuko; Noda, Takayuki; Hineno, Koji; Tanaka, Yasuo; Kawai, Yuji; Dillbeck, Michael C

    2015-08-01

    This study examined changes in self-reported stress symptoms after instruction in the Transcendental Meditation() technique among 171 residents of two cities (Sendai and Ishinomaki) directly affected by the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami disaster compared with 326 non-disaster Tokyo participants previously tested before and after learning the technique and a no-treatment control group (n = 68). The participants completed a rating checklist of mental and physical symptoms. Disaster area participants who learned the Transcendental Meditation() technique in contrast to controls showed a significant drop in total symptom score from pre-test to post-test (effect size = -1.09). Results were comparable for an ordinal measure of symptom intensity. The findings suggest the potential value of this procedure for relief from disaster trauma. PMID:26226492

  15. Vibratory finishing as a decontamination process

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, M.W.; Arrowsmith, H.W.; Allen, R.P.

    1980-10-01

    The major objective of this research is to develop vibratory finishing into a large-scale decontamination technique that can economicaly remove transuranic and other surface contamination from large volumes of waste produced by the operation and decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities. The successful development and widespread application of this decontamination technique would substantially reduce the volume of waste requiring expensive geologic disposal. Other benefits include exposure reduction for decontamination personnel and reduced risk of environmental contamination. Laboratory-scale studies showed that vibratory finishing can rapidly reduce the contamination level of transuranic-contaminated stainless steel and Plexiglas to well below the 10-nCi/g limit. The capability of vibratory finishing as a decontamination process was demonstrated on a large scale. The first decontamination demonstration was conducted at the Hanford N-Reactor, where a vibratory finisher was installed to reduce personnel exposure during the summer outage. Items decontaminated included fuel spacers, process-tube end caps, process-tube inserts, pump parts, ball-channel inspection tools and miscellaneous hand tools. A second demonstration is currently being conducted in the decontamination facility at the Hanford 231-Z Building. During this demonstration, transuranic-contaminated material from decommissioned plutonium facilities is being decontaminated to <10 nCi/g to minimize the volume of material that will require geologic disposal. Items that are being decontaminated include entire glove boxes, process-hood structural material and panels, process tanks, process-tank shields, pumps, valves and hand tools used during the decommissioning work.

  16. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase is required for genotoxic stress relief in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ulm, Roman; Revenkova, Ekaterina; di Sansebastiano, Gian-Pietro; Bechtold, Nicole; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2001-01-01

    Genotoxic stress activates complex cellular responses allowing for the repair of DNA damage and proper cell recovery. Although plants are exposed constantly to increasing solar UV irradiation, the signaling cascades activated by genotoxic environments are largely unknown. We have identified an Arabidopsis mutant (mkp1) hypersensitive to genotoxic stress treatments (UV-C and methyl methanesulphonate) due to disruption of a gene that encodes an Arabidopsis homolog of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (AtMKP1). Growth of the mkp1 mutant under standard conditions is indistinguishable from wild type, indicating a stress-specific function of AtMKP1. MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs), the potent inactivators of MAP kinases, are considered important regulators of MAP kinase signaling. Although biochemical data from mammalian cell cultures suggests an involvement of MKPs in cellular stress responses, there is no in vivo genetic support for this view in any multicellular organism. The genetic and biochemical data presented here imply a central role for a MAP kinase cascade in genotoxic stress signaling in plants and indicate AtMKP1 to be a crucial regulator of the MAP kinase activity in vivo, determining the outcome of the cellular reaction and the level of genotoxic resistance. PMID:11274055

  17. Light-induced stress relief to improve flaw tolerance in network polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Kevin N.; Dunn, Martin L.; Scott, Timothy F.; Turpin, Lucas P.; Qi, H. Jerry

    2010-03-15

    We demonstrate the ability to use photoactivated stress relaxation to improve flaw tolerance in network polymers. Unlike most self-healing polymers, which effectively close flaws by locally introducing healing agents (such as uncured resins), here light is used to relax elevated stresses around a flaw before it reaches a critical state, which reduces the threat that the flaw poses to the structural integrity of the material. In this study, we fabricate specimens with well-defined flaws and uniaxially stretch them to failure. By irradiating the specimens with UV light (365 nm) before failure, the nominal strain at failure is increased by 70% and the corresponding nominal stress is increased by 30% compared with nonirradiated specimens. To better understand the phenomena that occur at the multiaxial stress state at the flaw, we model the photomechanics using a recently developed finite element approach that accurately describes the light propagation, photochemistry, radical-induced network evolution, and the mechanical behavior of the material. Model predictions agree well with the experimental results and elucidate the role that photoinduced stress relaxation has on improving flaw tolerance.

  18. Stress relief may promote the evolution of greater phenotypic plasticity in exotic invasive species: a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiao Q; Pan, Xiao Y; Fan, Zhi W; Peng, Shao L

    2015-01-01

    Invasion ecologists have often found that exotic invaders evolve to be more plastic than conspecific populations from their native range. However, an open question is why some exotic invaders can even evolve to be more plastic given that there may be costs to being plastic. Investigation into the benefits and costs of plasticity suggests that stress may constrain the expression of plasticity (thereby reducing the benefits of plasticity) and exacerbate the costs of plasticity (although this possibility might not be generally applicable). Therefore, evolution of adaptive plasticity is more likely to be constrained in stressful environments. Upon introduction to a new range, exotic species may experience more favorable growth conditions (e.g., because of release from natural enemies). Therefore, we hypothesize that any factors mitigating stress in the introduced range may promote exotic invaders to evolve increased adaptive plasticity by reducing the costs and increasing the benefits of plasticity. Empirical evidence is largely consistent with this hypothesis. This hypothesis contributes to our understanding of why invasive species are often found to be more competitive in a subset of environments. Tests of this hypothesis may not only help us understand what caused increased plasticity in some exotic invaders, but could also tell us if costs (unless very small) are more likely to inhibit the evolution of adaptive plasticity in stressful environments in general. PMID:25859323

  19. Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

    1941-01-01

    About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

  20. Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D. A.; Mori, T.; Comyn, T. P.; Ringgaard, E.; Wright, J. P.

    2013-07-14

    High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{l_brace}200{r_brace}in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}-cos{sup 2} {psi} plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90 Degree-Sign ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{l_brace}200{r_brace}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

  1. 400-Fold Reduction in Saturation Field by Stress Relief in Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egelhoff, William; Bonevich, John; Beauchamp, Carlos; Stafford, Gery; Unguris, John; Pong, Philip; McMichael, Robert

    2009-03-01

    A common problem in soft magnetic thin films is increased saturation field due to stress buildup with increasing thickness. We have found a solution to the problem using multilayers of a magnetic thin film and a film that is either not lattice matched or has a different crystal structure. Reductions in the saturation field as large as 400 fold are found. The ultrasoft Ni77Fe14Cu5Mo4 alloy can have saturation fields as small as 0.005 mT (0.05 Oe) for 10 nm thick films. However, for films 400 nm thick (which are needed for some applications) the saturation field is typically 20 mT. Splitting this magnetic thin film up into segments 100 nm thick separated by a 5 nm Ag film reduces the saturation field to 0.05 mT. Alternatively, using a 2 nm CoFe film yields a saturation field of 0.1 mT. A tensile stresses of 7.35 x 10^9 dynes/cm^2 was measured in the 400 nm film and 3.7 x 10^7 dynes/cm^2 for the multilayer with Ag. The highly-stressed Ni77Fe14Cu5Mo4 develops a magnetostriction coefficient of 5 ppm, although in the unstressed state its magnetostriction coefficient is near zero. In conclusion, we have found a solution to the stress-induced large saturation fields in an otherwise soft magnetic film. The results should be important for ultra-low magnetic-field tunnel-junction sensors and magnetic flux concentrators.

  2. Stress-relief displacements induced by drilling--applications to holographic measurements of in situ stress. Final technical report, August 15, 1988--August 14, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, T.J.; Smither, C.L.

    1992-04-24

    The holographic stressmeter is an instrument which has been developed at Caltech to allow determination of the complete stress tensor from in situ borehole measurements. The stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a small sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses, concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall in the vicinity of the sidehole. The first part of this study uses a thin infinite elastic plate subjected to plane stress at infinity to model the displacements at the borehole wall. However, the existence of some holograms which were difficult to model closely led us to examine the validity of this model. In order to investigate the problem further, we performed a two-dimensional finite element analysis for an elastic box with a terminated hole. We varied the dimensions of the hole to see what effect the radius and depth of the hole might have on the displacements. The plate model predicts that the depth of the hole should have no effect on the horizontal components of displacement, but the finite element results show that the magnitude of both components of the displacement depends on the depth of the sidehole. After considering these results, we developed a new model for the analysis of stress-relief displacements, following the work of Youngdahl and Sternberg (1965). For holes with a depth-to-diameter ratio greater than unity, the simple plane stress elastic plate solution breaks down and does not adequately model the displacements at the surface of the body and near the hole. Since these are the areas most critical to calculate accurately with the holographic technique, the revised model does a better job of fitting the observed data.

  3. Continuous Tuning and Calibration of Vibratory Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken

    2003-01-01

    A method of control and operation of an inertial reference unit (IRU) based on vibratory gyroscopes provides for continuously repeated cycles of tuning and calibration. The method is intended especially for application to an IRU containing vibratory gyroscopes that are integral parts of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and that have cloverleaf designs, as described in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The method provides for minimization of several measures of spurious gyroscope output, including zero-rate offset (ZRO), angle random walk (ARW), and rate drift. These benefits are afforded both at startup and thereafter during continuing operation, in the presence of unknown rotation rates and changes in temperature. A vibratory gyroscope contains a precision mechanically resonant structure containing two normal modes of vibration nominally degenerate in frequency and strongly coupled via a Coriolis term. In the case of the cloverleaf design MEMS gyro, these normal modes of vibration are plate rocking modes. The rocking motion of the plate is described by giving two angles, theta(sub 1) and theta(sub 2). A proof mass consisting of a post orthogonal to the plate ensures a high degree of Coriolis coupling of vibratory energy from one mode into the other under inertial rotation. The plate is driven and sensed capacitively across a few-microns-wide gap, and the normal mode frequencies can be tuned electrostatically by DC voltages applied across this gap. In order to sense rotation, the resonator plate is caused to rock in the theta(sub 1) direction, then any small motions in the theta(sub 2) direction are sensed, rebalanced, and interpreted as inertial rotation. In this scenario, the "drive" has been assigned to the theta(sub 1) direction, and the "sense" has been assigned to the theta(sub 2) direction.

  4. Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, M.A.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1990-11-13

    A vibratory fluid pump is described having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments. 3 figs.

  5. Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM); Woloshun, Keith A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A vibratory fluid pump having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments.

  6. Fracture properties of hydrided Zircaloy-4 cladding in recrystallization and stress-relief anneal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Hung; Tsay, Leu-Wen

    2012-03-01

    In this work, the stress-relieved (SRA) and recrystallized (RXA) Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens were hydrogen-charged to the target concentration of 300 wppm and then manufactured into X-specimens for fracture toughness test. The hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens in both SRA and RXA conditions were investigated. At the hydrogen concentration level of 300 wppm, J-integral values for RXA cladding were higher than those for SRA cladding at both 25 °C and 300 °C. The formation of brittle zirconium hydrides had a significant impact on the fracture toughness of Zircaloy-4 cladding in both SRA and RXA states, especially at 25 °C. Among all the tests, SRA cladding tested at 25 °C exhibited a great loss of the fracture toughness. The micrographic and fractographic observations further demonstrated that the fracture toughness of Zircaloy-4 cladding would be improved by the coarse grains in RXA cladding, but degraded by zirconium hydrides precipitated along the grain boundary.

  7. Optimization of stress relief heat treatment of PHWR pressure tubes (Zr 2.5Nb alloy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhuri, Gargi; Srivastava, D.; Gurumurthy, K. R.; Shah, B. K.

    2008-12-01

    The micro-structure of cold worked Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tube material consists of elongated grains of ?-zirconium enclosed by a thin film of ?-zirconium phase. This ?-Zr phase is unstable and on heating, progressively decomposes to ?-Zr phase and ?-phase enriched with Nb and ultimately form ? Nb. Meta-stable ?-phase precipitates as an intermediate step during decomposition depending on the heat treatment schedule, ???+???+?+???+???+? Morphological changes occur in the ?-zirconium phase during the decomposition. The continuous ligaments of ? Zr phase turn into a discontinuous array of particles followed by globulization of the ?-phase. The morphological changes impose a significant effect on the creep rate and on the delayed hydride cracking velocity due to reduction in the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in ? Zr. If the continuity of ?-phase is disrupted by heat treatment, the effective diffusion coefficient decreases with a concomitant reduction in DHC velocity. The pressure tubes for the Indian PHWRs are made by a process of hot extrusion followed by cold pilgering in two stages and an intermediate annealing. Autoclaving at 400 C for 36 h ensures stress relieving of the finished tubes. In the present studies, autoclaving duration at 400 C was varied from 24 h to 96 h at 12 h-steps and the micro-structural changes in the ?-phase were observed by TEM. Dislocation density, hardness and the micro-structural features such as thickness of ?-phase, inter-particle spacing and volume fraction of the phases were measured at each stage. Autoclaving for a longer duration was found to change the morphology of ?-phase and increase the inter-particle spacing. Progressive changes in the aspect ratio of the ?-phase and their size and distribution are documented and reported. These micro-structural modifications are expected to decrease DHC velocity during reactor operation.

  8. Damage tolerance based life prediction in gas turbine engine blades under vibratory high cycle fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, D.P.; deLaneuville, R.E.; Cunningham, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    A novel fracture mechanics approach has been used to predict crack propagation lives in gas turbine engine blades subjected to vibratory high cycle fatigue (HCF). The vibratory loading included both a resonant mode and a nonresonant mode, with one blade subjected to only the nonresonant mode and another blade to both modes. A life prediction algorithm was utilized to predict HCF propagation lives for each case. The life prediction system incorporates a boundary integral element (BIE) derived hybrid stress intensity solution, which accounts for the transition from a surface crack to corner crack to edge crack. It also includes a derivation of threshold crack length from threshold stress intensity factors to give crack size limits for no propagation. The stress intensity solution was calibrated for crack aspect ratios measured directly from the fracture surfaces. The model demonstrates the ability to correlate predicted missions to failure with values deduced from fractographic analysis. This analysis helps to validate the use of fracture mechanics approaches for assessing damage tolerance in gas turbine engine components subjected to combined steady and vibratory stresses.

  9. Silicon bulk micromachined vibratory gyroscope for microspacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tony K.; Gutierrez, Roman C.; Wilcox, Jaroslava Z.; Stell, Christopher; Vorperian, Vatche; Dickerson, Mike; Goldstein, Barry; Savino, Joseph L.; Li, Wen J.; Calvet, Robert J.; Charkaborty, Indrani; Bartman, Randall K.; Kaiser, William J.

    1996-10-01

    This paper reports on the design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a novel silicon bulk micromachined vibratory rate gyroscope and a 3-axes rotation sensing system using this new type of microgyroscopes designed for microspacecraft applications. The new microgyroscope consists of a silicon four leaf clover structure with a post attached to the center. The whole structure is suspended by four thin silicon cantilevers. This device is electrostatically actuated and detects Coriolis induced motions of the leaves capacitively. A prototype of this microgyroscope has a rotation responsivity (scale factor) of 10.4 mV/deg/sec with scale factor nonlinearity of less than 1%, and a minimum detectable noise equivalent rotation rate of 90 deg/hr, at an integration time of 1 second. The bias stability of this microgyroscope is better than 29 deg/hr. The performance of this microgyroscope is limited by the electronic circuit noise and drift. Planned improvements in the fabrication and assembly of the microgyroscope will allow the use of Q-factor amplification to increase the sensitivity of the device by at least two to three orders of magnitude. This new vibratory microgyroscope offers potential advantages of almost unlimited operational life, high performance, extremely compact size, low power operation, and low cost for inertial navigation and altitude control.

  10. Vibratory Regime Classification of Infant Phonation

    PubMed Central

    Buder, Eugene H.; Chorna, Lesya B.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Robinson, Rebecca B.

    2008-01-01

    Infant phonation is highly variable in many respects, including the basic vibratory patterns by which the vocal tissues create acoustic signals. Previous studies have identified the regular occurrence of non-modal phonation types in normal infant phonation. The glottis is like many oscillating systems that, because of non-linear relationships among the elements, may vibrate in ways representing the deterministic patterns classified theoretically within the mathematical framework of non-linear dynamics. The infants pre-verbal vocal explorations present such a variety of phonations that it may be possible to find effectively all the classes of vibration predicted by non-linear dynamic theory. The current report defines acoustic criteria for an important subset of such vibratory regimes, and demonstrates that analysts can be trained to reliably use these criteria for a classification that includes all instances of infant phonation in the recorded corpora. The method is thus internally comprehensive in the sense that all phonations are classified, but it is not exhaustive in the sense that all vocal qualities are thereby represented. Using the methods thus developed, this study also demonstrates that the distributions of these phonation types vary significantly across sessions of recording in the first year of life, suggesting developmental changes. The method of regime classification is thus capable of tracking changes that may be indicative of maturation of the mechanism, the learning of categories of phonatory control, and the possibly varying use of vocalizations across social contexts. PMID:17509829

  11. Making Precise Resonators for Mesoscale Vibratory Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2004-01-01

    An alternative approach to the design and fabrication of vibratory gyroscopes is founded on the use of fabrication techniques that yield best results in the mesoscopic size range, which is characterized by overall device dimensions of the order of a centimeter. This approach stands in contradistinction to prior approaches in (1) the macroscopic size range (the size range of conventional design and fabrication, characterized by overall device dimensions of many centimeters) and (2) the microscopic size range [the size range of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), characterized by overall device dimensions of the order of a millimeter or less]. The mesoscale approach offers some of the advantage of the MEMS approach (sizes and power demands smaller than those of the macroscale approach) and some of the advantage of the macroscale approach (the possibility of achieving relative dimensional precision greater than that of the MEMS approach). Relative dimensional precision is a major issue in the operation of a vibratory gyroscope. The heart of a vibratory gyroscope is a mechanical resonator that is required to have a specified symmetry in a plane orthogonal to the axis about which rotation is to be measured. If the resonator could be perfectly symmetrical, then in the absence of rotation, a free vibration of the resonator could remain fixed along any orientation relative to its housing; that is, the gyroscope could exhibit zero drift. In practice, manufacturing imprecision gives rise to some asymmetry in mass, flexural stiffness or dissipation, resulting in a slight drift or beating motion of an initial vibration pattern that cannot be distinguished from rotation. In the mesoscale approach, one exploits the following concepts: For a given amount of dimensional error generated in manufacturing, the asymmetry and hence the rate-of-rotation drift of the gyroscope can be reduced by increasing the scale. The decrease in asymmetry also reduces coupling of vibrations to the external environment. Mechanical thermal noise and electronic measurement noise and drift can also be reduced by increasing the size of the resonator and its associated sensors.

  12. Drumlin relief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, Matteo; Clark, Chris D.; Hughes, Anna L. C.

    2012-06-01

    Drumlin relief is a key parameter for testing predictions of models of drumlin formation. Although this metric is commonly described in textbooks as being of the order of a few tens of metres, our critical review of the literature suggests an average value of about 13 m, but with much uncertainty. Here we investigate a large sample of drumlins (25,848) mapped from a high resolution digital terrain model of Britain, which allowed the identification of extremely shallow drumlins. Results indicate that most drumlins have a relief between 0.5 and 40 m (with a surprisingly low average value of only 7.1 m) a mode of 3.5-4 m, and with 41% of all drumlins characterized by a relief < 5 m. Drumlin relief is found to never exceed 7% of the width and is positively correlated with this parameter, possibly indicating that drumlins need a large base to stand against the flow of the ice. Drumlin relief is also positively correlated with the length, which shows that drumlins do not grow in length by redistributing sediments from their summits to their downflow (lee) end, as previously hypothesised.

  13. Parametrically disciplined operation of a vibratory gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Parametrically disciplined operation of a symmetric nearly degenerate mode vibratory gyroscope is disclosed. A parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope having a natural oscillation frequency in the neighborhood of a sub-harmonic of an external stable clock reference is produced by driving an electrostatic bias electrode at approximately twice this sub-harmonic frequency to achieve disciplined frequency and phase operation of the resonator. A nearly symmetric parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope that can oscillate in any transverse direction and has more than one bias electrostatic electrode that can be independently driven at twice its oscillation frequency at an amplitude and phase that disciplines its damping to zero in any vibration direction. In addition, operation of a parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope is taught in which the precession rate of the driven vibration pattern is digitally disciplined to a prescribed non-zero reference value.

  14. Dynamically tuned vibratory micromechanical gyroscope accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeungleul; Oh, Yong-Soo; Park, Kyu-Yeon; Ha, Byeoungju; Ko, Younil; Kim, Jeong-gon; Kang, Seokjin; Choi, Sangon; Song, Ci M.

    1997-11-01

    A comb driving vibratory micro-gyroscope, which utilizes the dynamically tunable resonant modes for a higher rate- sensitivity without an accelerational error, has been developed and analyzed. The surface micromachining technology is used to fabricate the gyroscope having a vibrating part of 400 X 600 micrometers with 6 mask process, and the poly-silicon structural layer is deposited by LPCVD at 625 degrees C. The gyroscope and the interface electronics housed in a hermetically sealed vacuum package for low vibrational damping condition. This gyroscope is designed to be driven in parallel to the substrate by electrostatic forces and subject to coriolis forces along vertically, with a folded beam structure. In this scheme, the resonant frequency of the driving mode is located below than that of the sensing mode, so it is possible to adjust the sensing mode with a negative stiffness effect by applying inter-plate voltage to tune the vibration modes for a higher rate-sensitivity. Unfortunately, this micromechanical vibratory gyroscope is also sensitive to vertical acceleration force, especially in the case of a low stiffness of the vibrating structure for detecting a very small coriolis force. In this study, we distinguished the rate output and the accelerational error by phase sensitivity synchronous demodulator and devised a feedback loop to maintain resonant frequency of the vertical sensing mode by varying the inter-plate tuning voltage according to the accelerational output. Therefore, this gyroscope has a high rate-sensitivity without an acceleration error, and also can be used for a resonant accelerometer. This gyroscope was tested on the rotational rate table at the separation of 50(Hz) resonant frequencies by dynamically tuning feedback loop. Also self-sustained oscillating loop is used to apply dc 2(V) + ac 30(mVpk) driving voltage to the drive electrodes. The characteristics of the gyroscope at 0.1 (deg/sec) resolution, 50 (Hz) bandwidth, and 1.3 (mV/deg/sec) sensitivity.

  15. Fast Laser Shutters With Low Vibratory Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David; Moore, Donald; Hochberg, Eric; Radey, Tom; Chen, Albert

    2005-01-01

    A prototype vacuum-compatible, fast-acting, long-life shutter unit that generates very little vibratory disturbance during switching is reviewed. This is one of a number of shutters designed to satisfy requirements specific to an experiment, to be performed aboard a spacecraft in flight, in which laser beams must be blocked rapidly and completely, without generating a vibratory disturbance large enough to adversely affect the power and frequency stability of the lasers. Commercial off-the-shelf laboratory shutter units -- typically containing electromagnet-coil-driven mechanisms -- were found not to satisfy the requirements because they are not vacuum-compatible, their actuators engage in uncompensated motions that generate significant vibrations, and their operational lifetimes are too short. Going beyond the initial outerspace application, the present vacuum-compatible, fast-acting, long-life shutter units could also be used in terrestrial settings in which there are requirements for their special characteristics. In designing these shutter units, unbalanced, electromagnetically driven mechanisms were replaced with balanced mechanisms that include commercial piezoelectric bending actuators. In each shutter unit, the piezoelectric bending actuators are configured symmetrically as opposing cantilever beams within a housing that contains integral mounts for lenses that focus a laser beam to a waist at the shutter location. In operation, the laser beam is blocked by titanium blades bonded near the free ends of the piezoelectric benders. The benders are driven by shaped electrical pulses with a maximum voltage differential of less than 60 V. Preliminary measurements indicate that rise and fall times are less than 1 ms.

  16. The Stress-Relief Cracking Susceptibility of a New Ferritic Steel - Part I: Single-Pass Heat-Affected Zone Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    NAWROCKI,J.G.; DUPONT,J.N.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.; MARDER,A.R.

    1999-12-15

    The stress-relief cracking susceptibility of single-pass welds in a new ferritic steel, HCM2S, has been evaluated and compared to 2.25Cr-1Mo steel using Gleeble techniques. Simulated coarse-grained heat-affected zones (CGHAZ) were produced under a range of energy inputs and tested at various post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) temperatures. Both alloys were tested at a stress of 325 MPa. The 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel was also tested at 270 MPa to normalize for the difference in yield strength between the two materials. Light optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the CGHAZ microstructure. The ''as-welded'' CGHAZ of each alloy consisted of lath martensite or bainite and had approximately equal prior austenite grain sizes. The as-welded hardness of the 2.25Cr-1Mo steel CGHAZ was significantly higher than that of the HCM2S alloy. Over the range studied energy input had no effect on the as-welded microstructure or hardness of either alloy. The energy input also had no effect on the stress-relief cracking susceptibility of either material. Both alloys failed intergranularly along prior austenite grain boundaries under all test conditions. The 2.25Cr-1Mo steel samples experienced significant macroductility and some microductility when tested at 325 MPa. The ductility decreased significantly when tested at 270 MPa but was still higher that than of HCM2S at each test condition. The time to failure decreased with increasing PWHT Temperature for each material. There was no significant difference in the times to failure between the two materials. Varying energy input and stress had no effect on the time-to failure. The ductility, as measured by reduction in are% increased with increasing PWHT temperature for 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel tested at both stresses. However, PWHT temperature had no effect on the ductility of HCM2S. The hardness of the CGHAZ for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel decreased significantly after PWHT, but remained constant for HCM2S. The differences in stress-relief cracking response are discussed in terms of the differences in composition and expected carbide precipitation sequence for each alloy during PWHT.

  17. Research on Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro's Character of Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhong; Fu, Mengyin; Li, Qing; Liu, Ning; Liu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a new type Coriolis vibratory gyro that was inspired by Chinese traditional clocks. The resonator fuses based on a variable thickness axisymmetric multicurved surface shell. Its characteristics can directly influence the performance of BVG. The BVG structure not only has capabilities of bearing high overload, high impact and, compared with the tuning fork, vibrating beam, shell and a comb structure, but also a higher frequency to overcome the influence of the disturbance of the exterior environment than the same sized hemispherical resonator gyroscope (HRG) and the traditional cylinder vibratory gyroscope. It can be widely applied in high dynamic low precision angular rate measurement occasions. The main work is as follows: the issue mainly analyzes the structure and basic principle, and investigates the bell-shaped resonator's mathematical model. The reasonable structural parameters are obtained from finite element analysis and an intelligent platform. Using the current solid vibration gyro theory analyzes the structural characteristics and principles of BVG. The bell-shaped resonator is simplified as a paraboloid of the revolution mechanical model, which has a fixed closed end and a free opened end. It obtains the natural frequency and vibration modes based on the theory of elasticity. The structural parameters are obtained from the orthogonal method by the research on the structural parameters of the resonator analysis. It obtains the modal analysis, stress analysis and impact analysis with the chosen parameters. Finally, using the turntable experiment verifies the gyro effect of the BVG. PMID:23575033

  18. Prediction of turbine blade vibratory response due to upstream vane distress

    SciTech Connect

    Panovsky, J.; Carson, S.M.

    1998-07-01

    Turbine blades and vanes operate in a hostile environment, which leads to deterioration of these components over time. This paper describes detailed calculations to predict the vibratory response of a high-pressure turbine blade due to the excitation produced by a single distressed upstream vane in a modern turbofan engine. The approach includes detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the steady flowfield produced by the distressed vane, Fourier decomposition of the flow variables to determine the harmonic content, unsteady CFD analysis to determine the resulting vibratory response of the blade, and crack propagation analysis to determine blade life. Predictions of vibratory stress and threshold crack size are summarized as functions of vane distress level. The results, which indicate that this type of vane distress can indeed be a significant excitation source for the blades, are shown to be in good agreement with engine experience. The method provides, for the first time, a quantitative approach to setting limits for acceptable levels of vane distress in the field.

  19. Vertical-plane pendulum absorbers for minimizing helicopter vibratory loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, K. B.; Neff, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The use of pendulum dynamic absorbers mounted on the blade root and operating in the vertical plane to minimize helicopter vibratory loads was discussed. A qualitative description was given of the concept of the dynamic absorbers and some results of analytical studies showing the degree of reduction in vibratory loads attainable are presented. Operational experience of vertical plane dynamic absorbers on the OH-6A helicopter is also discussed.

  20. Self-balancing vibratory drill apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Boros, L.J.

    1981-03-03

    Vibratory drill apparatus is disclosed which is adapted for automatic self-balancing to compensate for variations in hardness of the material being drilled and/or dulling of the cutting blades which occurs during the drilling operation. The apparatus includes a tubular casing adapted to be connected to a rotating shaft and a drill assembly comprising a plurality of coaxially extending pipe members, each being located one within the other, the upper region of the drill assembly being received within the lower region of the casing. A drill head is defined at the lower region of the drill assembly. The pipe members are interconnected such that they are mutually fixed to each other for simultaneous rotation about their axis and such that each pipe member is free to move in the axial direction relative to the other pipe members. Apparatus is provided for periodically applying an impulse torque to the drill assembly which tends to periodically rotate the entire assembly about its axis and for periodically applying to at least one of the pipe members an impulse force in the direction of the axis of the drill assembly. In the preferred embodiment this apparatus includes a pair of rollers adapted to ride over the upper edges of the pipe members, the latter being provided with appropriately shaped cam surfaces. Apparatus for damping vibrations during the drilling operation, for providing forced hydraulic mud circulation and for facilitating the withdrawal of the drill apparatus are also disclosed.

  1. Complex vibratory patterns in an elephant larynx.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Christian T; Svec, Jan G; Lohscheller, Jörg; Frey, Roland; Gumpenberger, Michaela; Stoeger, Angela S; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2013-11-01

    Elephants' low-frequency vocalizations are produced by flow-induced self-sustaining oscillations of laryngeal tissue. To date, little is known in detail about the vibratory phenomena in the elephant larynx. Here, we provide a first descriptive report of the complex oscillatory features found in the excised larynx of a 25 year old female African elephant (Loxodonta africana), the largest animal sound generator ever studied experimentally. Sound production was documented with high-speed video, acoustic measurements, air flow and sound pressure level recordings. The anatomy of the larynx was studied with computed tomography (CT) and dissections. Elephant CT vocal anatomy data were further compared with the anatomy of an adult human male. We observed numerous unusual phenomena, not typically reported in human vocal fold vibrations. Phase delays along both the inferior-superior and anterior-posterior (A-P) dimension were commonly observed, as well as transverse travelling wave patterns along the A-P dimension, previously not documented in the literature. Acoustic energy was mainly created during the instant of glottal opening. The vestibular folds, when adducted, participated in tissue vibration, effectively increasing the generated sound pressure level by 12 dB. The complexity of the observed phenomena is partly attributed to the distinct laryngeal anatomy of the elephant larynx, which is not simply a large-scale version of its human counterpart. Travelling waves may be facilitated by low fundamental frequencies and increased vocal fold tension. A travelling wave model is proposed, to account for three types of phenomena: A-P travelling waves, 'conventional' standing wave patterns, and irregular vocal fold vibration. PMID:24133151

  2. Analysis of rabbit intervertebral disc physiology based on water metabolism. II. Changes in normal intervertebral discs under axial vibratory load

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, N.; Tsuji, H.; Ohshima, H.; Kitano, S.; Itoh, T.; Sano, A.

    1988-11-01

    Metabolic changes induced by axial vibratory load to the spine were investigated based on water metabolism in normal intervertebral discs of rabbits with or without pentobarbital anesthesia. Tritiated water concentration in the intervertebral discs of unanesthetized rabbits was reduced remarkably by axial vibration for 30 minutes using the vibration machine developed for this study. Repeated vibratory load for 18 and 42 hours duration showed the recovery of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration of the intervertebral disc without anesthesia. Computer simulation suggested a reduction of blood flow surrounding the intervertebral disc following the vibration stress. However, no reduction of the /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration in the intervertebral disc was noted under anesthesia. Emotional stress cannot be excluded as a factor in water metabolism in the intervertebral disc.

  3. Relief of Oxidative Stress Using Curcumin and Glutathione Functionalized ZnO Nanoparticles in HEK-293 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Zafaryab, Md; Umar, Ahmad; Rizvi, M M A; Fouad, H; Ansari, Z A; Ansari, S G

    2015-11-01

    To elucidate the effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) with different surface modifications in relieving the oxidative stress in cultured human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293) following investigation was performed. Oxidative stress was artificially induced by hydrogen peroxide in HEK-293 cell culture and its management was studied. Alkyl amines modified ZnO-NPs with curcumin and reduced glutathione (GSH) functionalization was used in managing oxidative stress and had shown promising results. ZnO-NPs used in this study were synthesized via non-aqueous sol-gel method and FESEM characterisation showed them of spherical shape of about 20-50 nm size with amine, curcumin and GSH functionalization. UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopic characterizations confirmed functionalization of ZnO-NPs. Decrease in oxidative stress was found with the dose-dependent culture of HEK-293 cells with these functionalized ZnO-NPs. Cell viability and morphology, as observed using AFM and inverted microscope, was retained with the prescribed dosages of the functionalized nanoparticles while at higher dosages they caused cytotoxicity and death. Diethylamine (DEA) modified ZnO-NPs and their functionalization with GSH and curcumin were found more effective in managing oxidative stress in cells. Present study could help in designing economical and bio-compatible functionalized non-toxic nanoparticles designed for managing oxidative stress leading to possible therapeutical and medicinal uses. PMID:26554152

  4. On Landing Gear Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentric, A.

    1956-01-01

    Information on landing gear stresses is presented on the following: vibratory phenomena, tangential forces applied to landing gear, fore and aft oscillations of landing gears, examples of fatigue failures, vibration calculations, and improvement of existing test equipment.

  5. Vibratory compaction tests on graphite powders for neutron shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W.C.

    1982-05-01

    Mistures of three size ranges of graphite powders have been vibratory packed to densities as high as 1.40 gm/cm/sup 3/, which is 87.5 percent of the design density for the graphte segment of the FMIT test cell shield. Ultrasonic resonance vibration of the particles was determined to be an impractical method for achieving the required density. Possible options for fabricating the shield are: (1) revert to solid graphite, rather than vibratory packed powder, or (2) develop the mechanical vibratory compaction method, which would require (a) designing for the higher heat-load attendant with the reduced graphite density, or (b) increasing the thickness of the graphite segment by 15 percent or (c) seeking a new source of graphite powder with higher particle density.

  6. Modifications of Fabrication of Vibratory Microgyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Sam Y.; Yee, Karl Y.; Wiberg, Dean

    2005-01-01

    A micromachining process for the fabrication of vibratory microgyroscopes from silicon wafers, and aspects of the microgyroscope design that are inextricably linked with the fabrication process, have been modified in an effort to increase production yields from perspectives of both quantity and quality. Prior to the modifications, the effective production yield of working microgyroscopes was limited to one or less per wafer. The modifications are part of a continuing effort to improve the design and increase production yields to more than 30 working microgyroscopes per wafer. A discussion of pertinent aspects of the unmodified design and the unmodified fabrication process is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the modifications. The design of the microgyroscope package was not conducive to high yield and rapid testing of many microgyroscopes. One of the major impediments to high yield and testing was found to lie in vibration- isolation beams around the four edges of each microgyroscope, which beams were found to be unnecessary for achieving high resonance quality factors (Q values) characterizing the vibrations of petallike cantilevers. The fabrication process included an 8- m-deep plasma etch. The purpose of the etch was to create 8- m vertical gaps, below which were to be placed large gold evaporated electrodes and sensing pads to drive and sense resonant vibrations of the "petals." The process also included a step in which bridges between dies were cut to separate the dies. The etched areas must be kept clean and smooth (free of debris and spikes), because any object close to 8 m high in those areas would stop the vibrations. However, it was found that after the etch, there remained some spikes with heights that were, variously, almost as high or as high as the etch depth. It also was found that the cutting of bridges created silicon debris, some of which lodged in the 8- m gaps and some of which landed on top of the petals. The masses added to the petals by the debris altered resonance frequencies and/or Q values to unacceptable degrees. Hence, the spikes and the debris have been conjectured to cause most of the observed malfunctions of newly fabricated microgyroscopes. Another pertinent aspect of the unmodified design and process was the fabrication of electrodes and the 8- m capacitance gap on a 500- m-thick wafer, and the fabrication of a 3-mm-thick baseplate from another wafer. It was necessary to bond these wafers to each other in an assembly step that was later found to be superfluous in that it could be eliminated by a suitable modification of the design.

  7. Vibratory or Visual Stimulation Reduces Self-Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Caroline R.; Chamove, Arnold S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of alternate forms of sensory stimulation on self-injurious behavior (SIB) in a profoundly retarded 24-year-old female were evaluated. Both vibratory stimulation (a massager) and visual stimulation (flashing red light) equally and significantly decreased the subject's SIB in both treatment and nontreatment environments. (Author/DB)

  8. LOX, GOX and Pressure Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLeod, Ken; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen relief systems present a serious fire hazard risk with often severe consequences. This presentation offers a risk management solution strategy which encourages minimizing ignition hazards, maximizing best materials, and utilizing good practices. Additionally, the relief system should be designed for cleanability and ballistic flow. The use of the right metals, softgoods, and lubricants, along with the best assembly techniques, is stressed. Materials should also be tested if data is not available and a full hazard analysis should be conducted in an effort to minimize risk and harm.

  9. Vibratory Urticaria Associated with a Missense Variant in ADGRE2.

    PubMed

    Boyden, Steven E; Desai, Avanti; Cruse, Glenn; Young, Michael L; Bolan, Hyejeong C; Scott, Linda M; Eisch, A Robin; Long, R Daniel; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Satorius, Colleen L; Pakstis, Andrew J; Olivera, Ana; Mullikin, James C; Chouery, Eliane; Mégarbané, André; Medlej-Hashim, Myrna; Kidd, Kenneth K; Kastner, Daniel L; Metcalfe, Dean D; Komarow, Hirsh D

    2016-02-18

    Patients with autosomal dominant vibratory urticaria have localized hives and systemic manifestations in response to dermal vibration, with coincident degranulation of mast cells and increased histamine levels in serum. We identified a previously unknown missense substitution in ADGRE2 (also known as EMR2), which was predicted to result in the replacement of cysteine with tyrosine at amino acid position 492 (p.C492Y), as the only nonsynonymous variant cosegregating with vibratory urticaria in two large kindreds. The ADGRE2 receptor undergoes autocatalytic cleavage, producing an extracellular subunit that noncovalently binds a transmembrane subunit. We showed that the variant probably destabilizes an autoinhibitory subunit interaction, sensitizing mast cells to IgE-independent vibration-induced degranulation. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.). PMID:26841242

  10. Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery Relaxation helps lessen tension. One way to help decrease pain is to ... to help reduce stress that can cause muscle tension. It can help relieve tense muscles that may ...

  11. Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ning; Su, Zhong; Li, Qing; Fu, MengYin; Liu, Hong; Fan, JunFang

    2013-01-01

    The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements. PMID:23966183

  12. Deburring die-castings by wet vibratory plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeschbart, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A wet vibratory procedure for the removal of burrs from die castings is described. In this process synthetic abrasive chips and detergent solutions are agitated with the work in such a way as to produce a spiral circulatory movement. Details of various forms of vibrator basin and shapes of abrasive are illustrated. The automation of deburring is illustrated through the application of vibrators of spiral design in combination with transport and drying devices.

  13. Analysis of the dynamics of the vibratory tabular valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragulskis, Kazimieras; Naginevicius, Vytenis; Palevicius, Arvydas; Palevicius, Ramutis

    2008-03-01

    Construction of a novel vibratory tabular valve- and its design optimization is presented in the paper. The principle of the system operation is based on the effect of dynamic positioning of a steel ball in a vibrating tube. Theoretical analysis of the stability of this non-linear system is coupled together with the experimental study of an operating valve. Laser holographic interferometry is used for the identification and optimization of working regimes of the system.

  14. Synthesis of blade flutter vibratory patterns using stationary transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurkov, A.; Dicus, J.

    1977-01-01

    Flutter frequency was determined and rotor vibratory amplitude and phase distributions during flutter were reconstructed from stationary aerodynamic type measurements. A previously reported optical method for measuring blade-tip displacement during flutter was extended by means of digital analysis. Displacement amplitudes and phase angles were determined based on this method. For selected blades, spectral results were also obtained from strain gage measurements. The results from these three types of measurement were compared and critically evaluated.

  15. The response of helicopter rotors to vibratory airload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, William G.

    1989-01-01

    The problems of oscillatory and vibratory loading are examined from the perspective of the rotor's structural response. Blade flap, chord, and torsion responses, from flight or wind tunnel tests of eight full-scale rotors are examined and compared for high-speed flight conditions in the absence of blade stall or maneuvers. Some important similarities and differences between rotors are considered, and it is pointed out that these observations are useful in determining the appropriate tests for development of theoretical prediction methods. Among other things, major similarities were found in the dominant flapping vibratory response which occurs at 3/rev, and the root oscillatory chord bending for the CH-34, the SA 349/2, and the UH-60A; differences noted include vibratory chord bending-moment behavior of the rotors, a difference in the damper-induced behavior of CH-53A root oscillatory chord bending, and unique torsion and pitch link loading behavior exhibited by the AH1-G articulated rotor.

  16. Innovative decontamination technology by abrasion in vibratory vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbri, Silvio; Ilarri, Sergio

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The possibility of using conventional vibratory vessel technology as a decontamination technique is the motivation for the development of this project. The objective is to explore the feasibility of applying the vibratory vessel technology for decontamination of radioactively-contaminated materials such as pipes and metal structures. The research and development of this technology was granted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Abrasion processes in vibratory vessels are widely used in the manufacture of metals, ceramics, and plastics. Samples to be treated, solid abrasive media and liquid media are set up into a vessel. Erosion results from the repeated impact of the abrasive particles on the surface of the body being treated. A liquid media, generally detergents or surfactants aid the abrasive action. The amount of material removed increases with the time of treatment. The design and construction of the machine were provided by Vibro, Argentina private company. Tests with radioactively-contaminated aluminum tubes and a stainless steel bar, were performed at laboratory level. Tests showed that it is possible to clean both the external and the internal surface of contaminated tubes. Results show a decontamination factor around 10 after the first 30 minutes of the cleaning time. (authors)

  17. A smart relief valve

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.D.; LaBerge, R.N.

    1984-03-01

    The use in products pipelines of relief valves is discussed with the increasing demands on relief systems showing a need for a ''smart'' relief valve. A brief explanation is given of hydraulic transient pressure waves and the computer programs that are now being used to model pipelines. The overall design of the relief system is discussed, including fail-safe protection. The need for fast action by the relief valve is emphasized. The concept of limiting relief action and step control of relief action is explained. The inputs to the microprocessor are reviewed, and the system of hardware to implement the logic (or programming) of the microprocessor which controls a relief valve is discussed.

  18. Investigation of residual stresses in a multipass weld in 1 in. stainless steel plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spooner, S.; Fernandezbaca, J. A.; David, S. A.; Hubbard, C. R.; Holden, T. M.; Root, J. H.

    Residual stresses and strains were measured in two welded 25-mm thick plates of type 304 stainless steel by the neutron diffraction technique. The filler metal was type 308 stainless steel and the weld zone had a two phase microstructure in which the austenitic phase lattice parameter differs from the base metal. In these circumstances strain-free samples were taken from the weld zone area for analysis of the lattice parameters and ferrite content using neutron powder diffraction. Corrections for lattice parameter variation were applied permitting the calculation of residual strains and stresses in weld zone, heat affected zone (HAZ), and base metal. One of the two welds was examined without stress relief and the other was given a stress relief treatment consisting of vibration at a frequency below the resonant condition during welding. In both plates the largest residual stress component (longitudinal) is found in the fusion zone near the boundary between the weld zone and the heat affected zone. This longitudinal component is 400 +/- 50 MPa in tension. The normal stresses are generally close to zero although large fluctuations are found in the weld zone. The transverse stresses are as high as 200 MPa in the weld zone and decrease to 50 MPa +/- 40 MPa. The lattice parameter variation was equivalent to 5 x 10(exp -4) compressive strain and the ferrite content approached 9 percent at the center of the weld zone. Variations in residual stresses with thickness through the base metal plate were small. The treated plate and untreated plate showed nearly identical patterns of stress distribution. Differences in the measured stresses between vibratory-stress-relief treated and untreated plates fall within error bars of the stress determination in these particular 25 mm thick 300-type stainless steel plates.

  19. Typing vocal fold vibratory patterns in excised larynx experiments via digital kymography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Krausert, Christopher R.; Kelly, Michael P.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Signal typing is central to the understanding of vocal fold vibratory patterns. Digital kymography (DKG) allows the direct observation of vocal fold vibratory patterns, and therefore, using DKG for vibratory signal typing may provide a useful complement to traditional signal typing techniques. Methods Video data collected from twenty larynges excised from mongrel dogs were observed using DKG in order to find examples of type 1 (nearly periodic), type 2 (subharmonic), and type 3 (aperiodic) vibratory patterns. Time series, frequency spectra, and correlation dimensions were calculated for each signal type. Results The type 1 pattern showed a periodic time series of glottal edge and discrete frequency spectrum. The type 2 vibratory pattern displayed a time series of alternating high and low amplitude waves and a frequency spectrum that included a subharmonic (f0/2) frequency component. Regular and symmetric vibratory patterns were observed in the type 1 and type 2 patterns. The type 3 vibratory pattern was characterized by an aperiodic time series of glottal edge, broadband frequency spectrum, and irregular and asymmetric vibratory patterns. Correlation dimension estimates increased from type 1 to type 2 to type 3. Conclusions DKG imaging demonstrated an ability to assign a signal type to various laryngeal vibrations. Signal typing techniques utilizing direct observations of the vocal folds could be useful to determine valid methods for the analysis of vocal fold vibrations. PMID:19746760

  20. The underwater sound field from vibratory pile driving.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Peter H; Dall'Osto, David R; Farrell, Dara M

    2015-06-01

    Underwater noise from vibratory pile driving was observed using a vertical line array placed at range 16 m from the pile source (water depth 7.5 m), and using single hydrophones at range 417 m on one transect, and range 207 and 436 m on another transect running approximately parallel to a sloping shoreline. The dominant spectral features of the underwater noise are related to the frequency of the vibratory pile driving hammer (typically 15-35 Hz), producing spectral lines at intervals of this frequency. The mean-square pressure versus depth is subsequently studied in third-octave bands. Depth and frequency variations of this quantity observed at the vertical line array are well modeled by a field consisting of an incoherent sum of sources distributed over the water column. Adiabatic mode theory is used to propagate this field to greater ranges and model the observations made along the two depth-varying transects. The effect of shear in the seabed, although small, is also included. Bathymetric refraction on the transect parallel to the shoreline reduced mean-square pressure levels at the 436-m measurement site. PMID:26093441

  1. Characterization of relief printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Chen, Lin; Ortiz-Segovia, Maria-Valezzka; Ferwerda, James; Allebach, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Relief printing technology developed by Oc allows the superposition of several layers of colorant on different types of media which creates a variation of the surface height defined by the input to the printer. Evaluating the reproduction accuracy of distinct surface characteristics is of great importance to the application of the relief printing system. Therefore, it is necessary to develop quality metrics to evaluate the relief process. In this paper, we focus on the third dimension of relief printing, i.e. height information. To achieve this goal, we define metrics and develop models that aim to evaluate relief prints in two aspects: overall fidelity and surface finish. To characterize the overall fidelity, three metrics are calculated: Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), difference and root-mean-squared error (RMSE) between the input height map and scanned height map, and print surface angle accuracy. For the surface finish property, we measure the surface roughness, generate surface normal maps and develop a light reflection model that serves as a simulation of the differences between ideal prints and real prints that may be perceived by human observers. Three sets of test targets are designed and printed by the Oc relief printer prototypes for the calculation of the above metrics: (i) twisted target, (ii) sinusoidal wave target, and (iii) ramp target. The results provide quantitative evaluations of the printing quality in the third dimension, and demonstrate that the height of relief prints is reproduced accurately with respect to the input design. The factors that affect the printing quality include: printing direction, frequency and amplitude of the input signal, shape of relief prints. Besides the above factors, there are two additional aspects that influence the viewing experience of relief prints: lighting condition and viewing angle.

  2. Adjustable safety relief valve

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, W.L.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a pressure relief valve having a relief set pressure. It comprises: a valve body having a fluid inlet and outlet, a spherical, metal valve seat associated with the inlet and a valve member comprising at least a portion of a spherical,metal ball attached to a ball holding element, the valve member being biased against the valve seat and thus providing a metal-to-metal seal preventing the passage of fluids past the valve seat when the fluid pressure in the inlet is below the relief pressure setting of the valve.

  3. Speeding earthquake disaster relief

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

    1995-01-01

    In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

  4. Jean-Martin Charcot and his vibratory chair for Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G

    2009-08-11

    Vibration therapy is currently used in diverse medical specialties ranging from orthopedics to urology to sports medicine. The celebrated 19th-century neurologist, J.-M. Charcot, used vibratory therapy to treat Parkinson disease (PD). This study analyzed printed writings by Charcot and other writers on vibratory therapy and accessed unpublished notes from the Salptrire Hospital, Paris. Charcot lectured on several occasions on vibratory therapy and its neurologic applications. He developed a vibration chair for patients with PD after he observed that patients were more comfortable and slept better after a train or carriage ride. He replicated this experience by having patients undergo daily 30-minute sessions in the automated vibratory chair (fauteuil trpidant). His junior colleague, Gilles de la Tourette, extended these observations and developed a helmet that vibrated the head on the premise that the brain responded directly to the pulsations. Although after Charcot's death vibratory therapy was not widely pursued, vibratory appliances are reemerging in 21st century medicine and can be retested using adaptations of Charcot's neurologic protocols. PMID:19667323

  5. Disturbances in Self-Synchronisation of Vibrators in Vibratory Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalczyk, Jerzy; Cieplok, Grzegorz

    2014-03-01

    An influence of elastic support elements arrangements and ratios of elasticity and damping constants in vertical and horizontal direction on self-synchronisation accuracy was investigated in the paper. The obtained results of the other factors influence on disturbances in self-synchronisation of vibrators in vibratory machines are also presented. Especially, influence of a diversification of driving and anti-torque moments, not central direction of the resulting force of the vibrators set , the local flexibility of mounting of vibrators to the machine body and influence of collisions with a feed were described. W pracy zbadano wp?yw rozmieszczenia elementw spr??ystych zawieszenia i proporcji pomi?dzy sta?ymi spr??ysto?ci i t?umienia tych elementw na kierunkach pionowym i poziomym na dok?adno?? samosynchronizacji wibratorw. Przytoczono te? rezultaty bada? autorw nad wp?ywem innych przyczyn na zaburzenia samosynchronizacji wibratorw maszyn wibracyjnych. W szczeglno?ci okre?lono wp?yw na zjawisko samosynchronizacji takich zjawisk jak: zr?nicowanie momentw nap?dowych i oporowych, niecentralne ukierunkowanie wypadkowej si?y wymuszaj?cej zespo?u wibratorw, lokalna podatno?? zamocowania wibratorw do korpusu maszyny i oddzia?ywanie zderze? z nadaw?

  6. Error Model and Compensation of Bell-Shaped Vibratory Gyro.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    A bell-shaped vibratory angular velocity gyro (BVG), inspired by the Chinese traditional bell, is a type of axisymmetric shell resonator gyroscope. This paper focuses on development of an error model and compensation of the BVG. A dynamic equation is firstly established, based on a study of the BVG working mechanism. This equation is then used to evaluate the relationship between the angular rate output signal and bell-shaped resonator character, analyze the influence of the main error sources and set up an error model for the BVG. The error sources are classified from the error propagation characteristics, and the compensation method is presented based on the error model. Finally, using the error model and compensation method, the BVG is calibrated experimentally including rough compensation, temperature and bias compensation, scale factor compensation and noise filter. The experimentally obtained bias instability is from 20.5°/h to 4.7°/h, the random walk is from 2.8°/h(1/2) to 0.7°/h(1/2) and the nonlinearity is from 0.2% to 0.03%. Based on the error compensation, it is shown that there is a good linear relationship between the sensing signal and the angular velocity, suggesting that the BVG is a good candidate for the field of low and medium rotational speed measurement. PMID:26393593

  7. Relationships between CSID and vocal fold vibratory function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Melissa L.

    High correlations have been reported between the acoustic-based Cepstral/Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID) and perceptual judgments of dysphonia. This study explores whether CSID provides additional insight and explains more of the variance in HSV-based properties of vocal fold vibratory function than has been reported for other acoustic measures. Using the Analysis of Dysphonia in Speech and Voice (ADSV) program, CSID and its component variables were correlated with HSV-based measures of glottal cycle aperiodicity and glottal area for 20 subjects who underwent phonomicrosurgery. Results indicate CSID is only marginally correlated with glottal cycle aperiodicity in pre- and post-surgical conditions and does not correlate as highly as the cepstral peak prominence alone. Additionally, results reveal higher correlations when examining within-subject change from pre-surgical to post-surgical assessments rather than correlating measures across subjects. Future directions are discussed that aim at improving our understanding of the relationships between acoustic parameters and underlying phonatory function.

  8. Error Model and Compensation of Bell-Shaped Vibratory Gyro

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    A bell-shaped vibratory angular velocity gyro (BVG), inspired by the Chinese traditional bell, is a type of axisymmetric shell resonator gyroscope. This paper focuses on development of an error model and compensation of the BVG. A dynamic equation is firstly established, based on a study of the BVG working mechanism. This equation is then used to evaluate the relationship between the angular rate output signal and bell-shaped resonator character, analyze the influence of the main error sources and set up an error model for the BVG. The error sources are classified from the error propagation characteristics, and the compensation method is presented based on the error model. Finally, using the error model and compensation method, the BVG is calibrated experimentally including rough compensation, temperature and bias compensation, scale factor compensation and noise filter. The experimentally obtained bias instability is from 20.5°/h to 4.7°/h, the random walk is from 2.8°/h1/2 to 0.7°/h1/2 and the nonlinearity is from 0.2% to 0.03%. Based on the error compensation, it is shown that there is a good linear relationship between the sensing signal and the angular velocity, suggesting that the BVG is a good candidate for the field of low and medium rotational speed measurement. PMID:26393593

  9. Stress-relaxation and tension relief system for immediate primary closure of large and huge soft tissue defects: an old-new concept: new concept for direct closure of large defects.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin Nard; Topaz, Guy; Li, Mingsen; Li, Yong Zhong

    2014-12-01

    Stress-relaxation is a well-established mechanism for laboratory skin stretching, with limited clinical application in conventional suturing techniques due to the inherent, concomitant induction of ischemia, necrosis and subsequent suture failure. Skin defects that cannot be primarily closed are a common difficulty during reconstructive surgery. The TopClosure tension-relief system (TRS) is a novel device for wound closure closure, providing secured attachment to the skin through a wide area of attachment, in an adjustable manner, enabling primary closure of medium to large skin defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the TopClosure TRS as a substitute for skin grafting and flaps for primary closure of large soft tissue defects by stress-relaxation. We present three demonstrative cases requiring resection of large to huge tumors customarily requiring closure by skin graft or flaps. TRS was applied during surgery serving as a tension-relief platform for tension sutures, to enable primary skin-defect closure by cycling of stress-relaxation, and following surgery as skin-secure system until complete wound closure. All skin defects ranging from 7 to 26 cm in width were manipulated by the TRS through stress-relaxation, without undermining of skin, enabling primary skin closure and eliminating the need for skin grafts and flaps. Immediate wound closure ranged 26 to 135 min. TRS was applied for 3 to 4 weeks. Complications were minimal and donor site morbidity was eliminated. Surgical time, hospital stay and costs were reduced and wound aesthetics were improved. In this case series we present a novel technology that enables the utilization of the viscoelastic properties of the skin to an extreme level, extending the limits of primary wound closure by the stress-relaxation principle. This is achieved via a simple device application that may aid immediate primary wound closure and downgrade the complexity of surgical procedures for a wide range of applications on a global scale. PMID:25526444

  10. Pressure Relief Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manha, William D.

    2010-09-01

    Pressure relief devices are used in pressure systems and on pressure vessels to prevent catastrophic rupture or explosion from excessive pressure. Pressure systems and pressure vessels have manufacturers maximum rated operating pressures or maximum design pressures(MDP) for which there are relatively high safety factors and minimum risk of rupture or explosion. Pressure systems and pressure vessels that have a potential to exceed the MDP by being connected to another higher pressure source, a compressor, or heat to water(boiler) are required to have over-pressure protecting devices. Such devices can be relief valves and/or burst discs to safely relieve potentially excessive pressure and prevent unacceptable ruptures and explosions which result in fail-safe pressure systems and pressure vessels. Common aerospace relief valve and burst disc requirements and standards will be presented. This will include the NASA PSRP Interpretation Letter TA-88-074 Fault Tolerance of Systems Using Specially Certified Burst Disks that dictates burst disc requirements for payloads on Shuttle. Two recent undesirable manned space payloads pressure relief devices and practices will be discussed, as well as why these practices should not be continued. One example for discussion is the use of three burst discs that have been placed in series to comply with safety requirements of three controls to prevent a catastrophic hazard of the over-pressurization and rupture of pressure system and/or vessels. The cavities between the burst discs are evacuated and are the reference pressures for activating the two upstream burst discs. If the upstream burst disc leaks into the reference cavity, the reference pressure increases and it can increase the burst disc activating pressure and potentially result in the burst disc assembly being ineffective for over pressure protection. The three burst discs-in-series assembly was found acceptable because the burst discs are designed for minimum risk(DFMR) of leakage into the reference cavity. Since the burst discs are DFMR, a single burst disc would suffice, without adding the two leak-into-reference cavity failure modes. A single DFMR burst disc is preferable. An Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer - 02 burst disc assembly, with three-in-series burst discs test failure, necessitated the deletion of one of the burst discs, will be presented. Payload relief valves require periodic retests were extended significantly beyond the normal one year retest period because of the reduced ISS down mass capability which followed the Columbia accident. The acceptability of the extended retest period was determined by analysis, materials stability, benign environment, relatively inert fluid exposure, etc.(The policy letter, NC4-02-205 Guidelines for Certification and Verification of Pressure System Control Hardware, that permitted this action will be provided even though this application is not recommended for extending relief valve annual retest requirements.) The first crack pressure of a relief valve after an extended inactive period can be higher than the set crack pressure. Extrapolation of the extended inactive period and increased crack pressure could result in ineffective over pressure protection. Thus, relief valves with a ring or lever for activation are recommended so the relief valve can periodically be verified to open, functionality verified and the extended relief valve retest period should be discouraged. Stainless Steel cylindrical poppet-in-cylindrical housing check valves should never be used in a fluid with ions for an extended period of time, because the poppet is vulnerable to seizing or not functioning as a relief valve, even though the specifications, crack pressure, reseat pressure, maximum flow, and reseat leak look very much like the specifications for a relief valve. The technical reasons for this avoidance of using check valves as a relief valve will be discussed. The presentation will be summarized and recommendations made.

  11. Hydrogen gas relief valve

    DOEpatents

    Whittlesey, Curtis C. (Birmingham, MI)

    1985-01-01

    An improved battery stack design for an electrochemical system having at least one cell from which a gas is generated and an electrolyte in communication with the cell is described. The improved battery stack design features means for defining a substantially closed compartment for containing the battery cells and at least a portion of the electrolyte for the system, and means in association with the compartment means for selectively venting gas from the interior of the compartment means in response to the level of the electrolyte within the compartment means. The venting means includes a relief valve having a float member which is actuated in response to the level of the electrolyte within the compartment means. This float member is adapted to close the relief valve when the level of the electrolyte is above a predetermined level and open the relief valve when the level of electrolyte is below this predetermined level.

  12. Pain relief in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Meg

    2003-01-01

    Pain is a complex problem, for both those who are enduring it and those trying to relieve it. Most people in the developed world have access to adequate treatment and management of pain, the availability of trained and educated doctors and nurses, feasible opioid prescribing policies, as well as ready access to appropriate medication. Often, this is not the case in developing countries such as Thailand. This paper is based on recent experience in the southeast of Thailand providing pain relief for persons with HIV and AIDS in Rayong Province at the Camillian Social Centre. The severity and frequency of pain endured by this group of individuals presented a daily challenge. Problems encountered in providing pain relief for these patients and some potential solutions are described. There is a lack of literature on pain relief in Thailand. PMID:15022951

  13. A Shoe Insole Delivering Subsensory Vibratory Noise Improves Balance and Gait in Healthy Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Lipsitz, Lewis; Lough, Matthew; Niemi, James; Travison, Thomas; Howlett, Harold; Manor, Brad

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to test whether subsensory vibratory noise applied to the sole of the foot using a novel piezo-electric vibratory insole, can significantly improve sensation, enhance balance, and reduce gait variability in elderly people. We also aimed to determine the optimal level of vibratory noise, and whether the therapeutic effect would endure and the user’s sensory threshold would remain constant during the course of a day. Design A randomized single-blind crossover study of three subsensory noise stimulation levels on 3 separate days. Setting Balance and gait laboratory Participants 12 healthy community-dwelling elderly volunteers aged 65 – 90 years who could feel the maximum insole vibration. Intervention A urethane foam insole with the piezo-electric actuators delivering subsensory vibratory noise stimulation to the soles of the feet. Main Outcome Measures Balance, gait, and timed up-and-go tests. Results The vibratory insoles significantly improved performance on the timed up-and-go test, reduced the area of postural sway, and reduced the temporal variability of walking at both 70% and 85% of the sensory threshold and throughout the course of a day. Vibratory sensation thresholds remained relatively stable within and across study days. Conclusions This study provides proof of concept that the application of the principle of stochastic resonance to the foot sole sensory system using a new low voltage piezoelectric technology can improve measures of balance and gait that are associated with falls. Effective vibratory noise amplitudes range from 70% to 85% of the sensory thresholds and can be set once daily. PMID:25450133

  14. High Relief Block Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

  15. Vent Relief Valve Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is the disassembly, examination, refurbishment and testing of the LH2 ( liquid hydrogen) and LOX (liquid oxygen) vent and relief valves for the S-IVB-211 engine stage in support of the Constellation/Ares project. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

  16. The effect of external cues with vibratory stimulation on spatiotemporal gait parameters in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Myoung; Lim, Hee Sung; Song, Chang Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of current study was to investigate the effect of external cues using vibratory stimulation on spatiotemporal gait parameters in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects] Thirty patients, who had suffered a stroke, were selected from general hospitals in Seoul, Republic of Korea. [Methods] Each participant was subjected to six walking trials: three trials with vibratory stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle and three trials without any stimulation. The spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured with a GAITRite system. [Results] The global gait parametersvelocity and cadencewere significantly more increased, and the temporal parametersstep time, stride time, and double limb supportwere significantly more decreased with vibratory stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle than with no stimulation. While single limb support was increased under vibratory stimulation, the difference was not significant between the two groups. The spatial gait parameterstride lengthshowed a significant improvement; however, there was no significant enhancement in gait symmetry with regard to step length and step time [Conclusion] These results indicate that the application of external cues using vibratory stimulation during gait may control gait parameters and improve gait performance. Thus, this intervention could be used for gait rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients. PMID:25729172

  17. Interference of Overlapping Insect Vibratory Communication Signals: An Eushistus heros Model

    PubMed Central

    Čokl, Andrej; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Žunič Kosi, Alenka; Blassioli-Moraes, Maria Carolina; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Borges, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Plants limit the range of insect substrate-borne vibratory communication by their architecture and mechanical properties that change transmitted signal time, amplitude and frequency characteristics. Stinkbugs gain higher signal-to-noise ratio and increase communication distance by emitting narrowband low frequency vibratory signals that are tuned with transmission properties of plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate hitherto overlooked consequences of duetting with mutually overlapped narrowband vibratory signals. The overlapped vibrations of the model stinkbug species Eushistus heros, produced naturally or induced artificially on different plants, have been analysed. They represent female and male strategies to preserve information within a complex masked signal. The brown stinkbugs E. heros communicate with species and gender specific vibratory signals that constitute characteristic duets in the calling, courtship and rivalry phases of mating behaviour. The calling female pulse overlaps the male vibratory response when the latency of the latter is shorter than the duration of the female triggering signal or when the male response does not inhibit the following female pulse. Overlapping of signals induces interference that changes their amplitude pattern to a sequence of regularly repeated pulses in which their duration and the difference between frequencies of overlapped vibrations are related inversely. Interference does not occur in overlapped narrow band female calling pulses and broadband male courtship pulse trains. In a duet with overlapped signals females and males change time parameters and increase the frequency difference between signals by changing the frequency level and frequency modulation pattern of their calls. PMID:26098637

  18. Damage detection in beams using vibratory power estimated from the measured accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Young Cheol; Chung, Tae Young; Moon, Seok Jun; Kil, Hyun Gwon; Kim, Jae Kwan

    2011-07-01

    While there have been several analytical studies to estimate the vibratory power of damaged structures, only a few attempts have been tried to identify the damage for practical implementations. In order to understand the characteristics of the vibratory power in damaged structures, it is necessary to trace the time histories of the instantaneous power in the vicinity of the damage. The spatial distribution of the vibratory power should also be investigated, and a proper damage index is required to diagnose the damage. In this paper, a practicable local damage detection method is proposed using the vibratory power estimated from the accelerations measured on the damaged beam structure. A new damage index is defined based on the proposed damage detection method and is applied to identify the structural damage. Numerical simulation and experiment are carried out on a beam to confirm the validity of the proposed method. In the experiments, the damage considered as an open crack such as slit inflicted on the top surface of the beam. Changes in the vibratory power of the damaged beam are investigated, and the results show that the proposed method identifies successfully the structural damage in the beam.

  19. Interference of Overlapping Insect Vibratory Communication Signals: An Eushistus heros Model.

    PubMed

    ?okl, Andrej; Laumann, Raul Alberto; uni? Kosi, Alenka; Blassioli-Moraes, Maria Carolina; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Borges, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Plants limit the range of insect substrate-borne vibratory communication by their architecture and mechanical properties that change transmitted signal time, amplitude and frequency characteristics. Stinkbugs gain higher signal-to-noise ratio and increase communication distance by emitting narrowband low frequency vibratory signals that are tuned with transmission properties of plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate hitherto overlooked consequences of duetting with mutually overlapped narrowband vibratory signals. The overlapped vibrations of the model stinkbug species Eushistus heros, produced naturally or induced artificially on different plants, have been analysed. They represent female and male strategies to preserve information within a complex masked signal. The brown stinkbugs E. heros communicate with species and gender specific vibratory signals that constitute characteristic duets in the calling, courtship and rivalry phases of mating behaviour. The calling female pulse overlaps the male vibratory response when the latency of the latter is shorter than the duration of the female triggering signal or when the male response does not inhibit the following female pulse. Overlapping of signals induces interference that changes their amplitude pattern to a sequence of regularly repeated pulses in which their duration and the difference between frequencies of overlapped vibrations are related inversely. Interference does not occur in overlapped narrow band female calling pulses and broadband male courtship pulse trains. In a duet with overlapped signals females and males change time parameters and increase the frequency difference between signals by changing the frequency level and frequency modulation pattern of their calls. PMID:26098637

  20. Pupal vibratory signals of a group-living beetle that deter larvae

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Wataru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

    2012-01-01

    Pupae of some insects produce sounds or vibrations, but the function of the sounds/vibrations has not been clarified in most cases. Recently, we found vibratory communication between pupae and larvae of a group-living beetle Trypoxylus dichotoma, which live in humus soil. The vibratory signals produced by pupae were shown to deter approaching larvae, thereby protecting themselves. In the present study, we tested our hypothesis that pupal signals are mimics of vibratory noises associated with foraging of moles, the most common predators of T. dichotoma. Mole vibrations played back in laboratory experiments deterred larval approaches in the same way as pupal signals. These findings suggest that to deter conspecific larvae, pupae of T. dichotoma may have exploited a preexisting response of larvae to predator vibrations by emitting deceptive signals. PMID:22896788

  1. [Mental health support for disaster relief personnel].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sho

    2014-01-01

    The Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, caused serious damage and resulted in numerous fatalities and almost 20,000 missing persons. Furthermore, a major accident accompanied by exudation of radioactive material occurred in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A statement regarding the victims' mental health was issued by the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology on May 21, 2011, which established the Department of Disaster Psychiatry for the provision and assurance of long-term mental care support for the victims. The Department of Disaster Psychiatry was consequently reformed in April 2012, focusing on the following objectives: to verify the validity of current mental support methods; to ensure disaster psychiatry and medical care in Japan; and to promote human resource development that can respond to future large-scale disasters. Mental health support for disaster victims is of highest priority. However, the mental health of relief personnel, who act as front liners during disasters (i. e., police officers, fire fighters, Self-Defense Forces, and health care workers), has often been neglected. Therefore, countermeasures for the problems faced by relief personnel are indispensable for a more effective reconstruction. Volunteers are also important members of the disaster relief team and they have witnessed the actual tragedy, and some have experienced burnout. Thus, they require sufficient mental health support, as do relief personnel. We thought that the mental health of disaster relief personnel is an important issue; thus, we report their mental health needs, the systematic correspondence to disaster stress, and our works for relief assistance. As first responders, relief personnel even without prior disaster education proceed to the area of disaster and may get injured. We therefore suggest that prior to the occurrence of any disaster, networking, education, and disaster awareness should be advocated among relief personnel and volunteers to safeguard their mental health. However, programs on these subjects remain insufficient. We extend our utmost respect and appreciation to the disaster relief workforce for doing their best to save lives. We hope that this aids in the reconstruction process of such affected areas. PMID:24783446

  2. Relief texture from specularities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Dana, Kristin J

    2006-03-01

    In vision and graphics, advanced object models require not only 3D shape, but also surface detail. While several scanning devices exist to capture the global shape of an object, few methods concentrate on capturing the fine-scale detail. Fine-scale surface geometry (relief texture), such as surface markings, roughness, and imprints, is essential in highly realistic rendering and accurate prediction. We present a novel approach for measuring the relief texture of specular or partially specular surfaces using a specialized imaging device with a concave parabolic mirror to view multiple angles in a single image. Laser scanning typically fails for specular surfaces because of light scattering, but our method is explicitly designed for specular surfaces. Also, the spatial resolution of the measured geometry is significantly higher than standard methods, so very small surface details are captured. Furthermore, spatially varying reflectance is measured simultaneously, i.e., both texture color and texture shape are retrieved. PMID:16526429

  3. The monitoring system for vibratory disturbance detection in microgravity environment aboard the international space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laster, Rachel M.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists in the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications within the Microgravity Research Division oversee studies in important physical, chemical, and biological processes in microgravity environment. Research is conducted in microgravity environment because of the beneficial results that come about for experiments. When research is done in normal gravity, scientists are limited to results that are affected by the gravity of Earth. Microgravity provides an environment where solid, liquid, and gas can be observed in a natural state of free fall and where many different variables are eliminated. One challenge that NASA faces is that space flight opportunities need to be used effectively and efficiently in order to ensure that some of the most scientifically promising research is conducted. Different vibratory sources are continually active aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Some of the vibratory sources include crew exercise, experiment setup, machinery startup (life support fans, pumps, freezer/compressor, centrifuge), thruster firings, and some unknown events. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMs), which acts as the hardware and carefully positioned aboard the ISS, along with the Microgravity Environment Monitoring System MEMS), which acts as the software and is located here at NASA Glenn, are used to detect these vibratory sources aboard the ISS and recognize them as disturbances. The various vibratory disturbances can sometimes be harmful to the scientists different research projects. Some vibratory disturbances are recognized by the MEMS's database and some are not. Mainly, the unknown events that occur aboard the International Space Station are the ones of major concern. To better aid in the research experiments, the unknown events are identified and verified as unknown events. Features, such as frequency, acceleration level, time and date of recognition of the new patterns are stored in an Excel database. My task is to carefully synthesize frequency and acceleration patterns of unknown events within the Excel database into a new file to determine whether or not certain information that is received i s considered a real vibratory source. Once considered as a vibratory source, further analysis is carried out. The resulting information is used to retrain the MEMS to recognize them as known patterns. These different vibratory disturbances are being constantly monitored to observe if, in any way, the disturbances have an effect on the microgravity environment that research experiments are exposed to. If the disturbance has little or no effect on the experiments, then research is continued. However, if the disturbance is harmful to the experiment, scientists act accordingly by either minimizing the source or terminating the research and neither NASA's time nor money is wasted.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Stress-Relief Effects of Protective Layer Extraction / Symulacja numeryczna skutków odprężenia warstwy zabezpieczającej w trakcie jej wybierania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian-Rang, Jia; Zi-Min, Zhang; Chun-An, Tang; Yong-Jun, Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Field test and laboratory analog model test on the stress-relief effects of protective layer extraction are time-consuming and laborious. In this paper, on the basis of full consideration of rock heterogeinity and in combination with gas geology at Pingdingshan Mine 5, a numerical model was estalished with the gas-solid coupling rock failure process analysis system RFPA-Gas to simulate the stress variation law, roof and floor deformation, fracture evolution law, displacement in the protected seam, change in gas permeability and gas migration law during protective layer extraction. The simulation results repoduced stress variations in coal and rock strata, roof and floor deformation and fracture evolution process during protective layer extraction. The movement of rock strata were characterized by upper three zones and lower two zones: caving zone, fracture zone and bending subsidence zone in the vertical direction in the overlying strata; floor deformation and failure zone and elasto-plastic deformation zone in the vertical direction in the underlying strata. It showed that stress relief occurred in the protected seam, which led to vertical and horizontal displacements, significant increase in gas permeability, gas desorption and migration. Hence, the outburst threat in the protected seam was eliminated. Meanwhile, with comprehensive analysis of variaition of stress state, deformation characteristics and fracture distribution in coal seam and with consideration of changes in gas leakage rate, gas pressure and permeability, according to gas leakage rate, the floor strata of the protecive layer were divided into four leakage zones. They corresponded to four zones with different stress states and fracture development: original leakage zone - slow reducing leakage zone - dramatic increasing leakage zone- steady increasing leakage zone. This classification provides a clear direction for gas control in the protective layer. The simulation results are in good agreement with the stress-relief effects in field. Badania terenowe oraz modelowanie w warunkach laboratoryjnych skutków odprężenia warstwy zabezpieczającej w trakcie wydobycia są niezwykle czasochłonne i skomplikowane. Uwzględniając niejednorodność skał i wykorzystując dane geologiczne i o obecności gazów w kopalni Pindingshan 5, opracowano model numeryczny pękania skał w układzie gaz-ciało stałe w oparciu o analizę układu RFPA-Gaz. Model wykorzystano do symulacji zmian naprężeń, odkształceń stropu i spągu, propagacji pęknięć, przemieszczeń w pokładach zabezpieczonych, zmian w przepuszczalności gazów oraz migracji gazów w trakcie wybierania warstwy zabezpieczającej. Wyniki symulacji odwzorowują zmiany naprężeń, odkształceń stropu i spągu, propagacji pęknięć w trakcie wybierania warstwy ochronnej. Ruchy warstw górotworu scharakteryzowano poprzez analizę trzech stref nadkładu i dwóch stref lezących poniżej: w warstwach nadkładu: strefy zawału, strefy spękań oraz strefy osiadania (przemieszczenia w kierunku pionowym), w warstwach leżących poniżej: strefy odkształcenia i pękania spągu, oraz strefy odkształceń elastyczno- plastycznych w kierunku pionowym. Wykazano, że odprężanie miało miejsce w pokładzie zabezpieczającym, co prowadziło do powstania przemieszczeń pionowych oraz poziomych, zanotowano także znaczny wzrost przepuszczalności gazów, desorpcji gazów oraz ich transportu. Z tych względów zagrożenie wybuchem w pokładzie ochronnym zostało wyeliminowane. Całościowa analiza zmian stanu naprężenia, charakterystyki odkształceń i rozkładu pęknięć w pokładzie węgla przeprowadzona została dla czterech stref przecieku gazów, wydzielonych w oparciu zmiany natężenia wypływu gazów, ciśnienia gazów oraz przepuszczalności w odniesieniu do natężenia przepływu gazu w spągu w warstwie ochronnej. Te cztery strefy odpowiadały czterem strefom w których zanotowano odmienne stany naprężeń i rozkładu spękań: pierwotna strefa wycieku, powoli zmniejszająca się strefa wycieku, gramatycznie powiększająca się strefa wycieku i stopniowo powiększająca się strefa wycieku. Powyższa klasyfikacja dostarcza wyraźnych wytycznych dla prowadzenia kontroli wycieku gazu w warstwach ochronnych. Wyniki symulacji skutków odprężania wykazują dużą zgodność z wynikami badań terenowych.

  5. Metallographic holding fixture permits polishing of soft metals on vibratory lapping machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matras, S.

    1966-01-01

    Circular fixture which mounts several specimens within a single turret prevents specimen smearing during grinding and polishing operations performed on a vibratory lapping machine. Each specimen is loaded individually with a weight small enough to prevent smearing but large enough to promote polishing.

  6. Characterizing Vibratory Kinematics in Children and Adults with High-Speed Digital Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rita; Dubrovskiy, Denis; Döllinger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to quantify and identify characteristic vibratory motion in typically developing prepubertal children and young adults using high-speed digital imaging. Method: The vibrations of the vocal folds were recorded from 27 children (ages 5-9 years) and 35 adults (ages 21-45 years), with high speed at 4,000 frames per…

  7. Characterizing Vibratory Kinematics in Children and Adults with High-Speed Digital Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rita; Dubrovskiy, Denis; Dllinger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to quantify and identify characteristic vibratory motion in typically developing prepubertal children and young adults using high-speed digital imaging. Method: The vibrations of the vocal folds were recorded from 27 children (ages 5-9 years) and 35 adults (ages 21-45 years), with high speed at 4,000 frames per

  8. Assessment of Penile Vibratory Stimulation as a Management Strategy in Men with Secondary Retarded Orgasm

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Christian J.; Ahmed, Absaar; Valenzuela, Rolando; Parker, Marilyn; Mulhall, John P.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of penile vibratory stimulation for the management of retarded orgasm. Retarded orgasm, a condition characterized by difficulty achieving orgasm and ejaculation, is one of the most recalcitrant of the male sexual dysfunctions. Currently, no evidence-based treatments have been proven to ameliorate this condition. METHODS Men who had a complete inability to achieve an orgasm during sexual relations in the previous 3 months were instructed in the use of penile vibratory stimulation. The mens responses were measured by self-report of orgasm function and using the orgasm and satisfaction domains of the International Index of Erectile Function. The responses were assessed at baseline (admission into the study) and at 3 and 6 months. RESULTS A total of 36 men met the inclusion criteria, and 72% reported the restoration of orgasm. These responders reported that orgasm during sexual relations occurred 62% of the time. A statistically and clinically significant increase occurred in the orgasm and satisfaction domains of the International Index of Erectile Function between the baseline visit and the 3-month follow-up visit. These gains were sustained at 6 months. CONCLUSIONS Penile vibratory stimulation is an effective treatment for retarded orgasm. Penile vibratory stimulation should be integrated into current cognitive-behavioral sex therapy techniques to achieve maximal effectiveness and satisfaction. PMID:17382163

  9. Automated Measurement of Vocal Fold Vibratory Asymmetry from High-Speed Videoendoscopy Recordings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Daryush D.; Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Quatieri, Thomas F.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In prior work, a manually derived measure of vocal fold vibratory phase asymmetry correlated to varying degrees with visual judgments made from laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) recordings. This investigation extended this work by establishing an automated HSV-based framework to quantify 3 categories of vocal fold vibratory…

  10. Analysis of vibratory states in phonation using spectral features of the electroglottographic signal.

    PubMed

    Selamtzis, Andreas; Ternstrm, Sten

    2014-11-01

    The vocal folds can oscillate in several different ways, manifest to practitioners and clinicians as "registers" or "mechanisms," of which the two most often considered are modal voice and falsetto voice. Here these will be taken as instances of different "vibratory states," i.e., distinct quasi-stationary patterns of vibration of the vocal folds. State transitions are common in biomechanical nonlinear oscillators, and they are often abrupt and impossible to predict exactly. Therefore, vibratory states are a source of confounding variation, for instance when acquiring a voice range profile (VRP). In the quest for a state-based, non-invasive VRP, a semi-automatic method based on the short-term spectrum of the electroglottographic (EGG) signal was developed. The method identifies rapid vibratory state transitions, such as the modal-falsetto switch, and clusters the EGG data based on their similarities in the relative levels and phases of the lower frequency components. Productions of known modal and falsetto voice were accurately clustered by a Gaussian mixture model. When mapped into the VRP, this EGG-based clustering revealed connected regions of different vibratory sub-regimes in both modal and falsetto. PMID:25373977

  11. Thresholds for detection of constant rotary acceleration during vibratory rotary acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Stewart, J. D.; Phillips, N. H.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of vibratory angular acceleration on detection thresholds for constant angular acceleration in a dynamic flight simulator are reported in three experiments. Detection thresholds were determined for 10 pilots and four nonpilots using a random, double-staircase procedure while the subjects sat erect in a device which rotated about an earth-vertical axis. Constant angular acceleration were presented for 0.5 and 1.0 s with concurrent, vibratory angular acceleration at 1 and 5 Hz, and thresholds with no vibratory angular acceleration were established. The thresholds were obtained while the subjects observed a visual reference in the enclosed cockpit in two experiments and in total darkness in a third. The results confirmed earlier experiments showing an inverse relationship between the duration of constant angular acceleration and detection threshold and showed that the detection thresholds in darkness were higher than with a visual reference present. Two analyses of variance revealed no significant differences in thresholds across the three vibration conditions. These results indicate that vibratory angular acceleration of fairly high levels can be present in a dynamic flight simulator without masking the pilot's ability to detect either maneuver or disturbance motions.

  12. Research of piezoelectric vibratory angular rate sensors with improved metrological characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinushkin, Pavel; Bedareva, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Piezoelectric vibratory angular rate sensors are widely used in different applications. The current article presents and discusses a theoretical research of scale factor temperature drift of the piezoelectric gyroscope. Numerical simulation of scale factor temperature sensitivity using ANSYS finite element software package is also considered. The theoretical results are compared with the experimentally obtained values.

  13. Research on the Signal Process of a Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning; Li, Qing; Fu, Mengyin; Liu, Hong; Fan, Junfang

    2014-01-01

    A bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell, is a kind of axisymmetric shell resonator gyroscope. Its sensitive element is a vibratory-like Chinese traditional bell, using a piezoelectric element on the wall of the vibrator to detect the standing wave's precession to solve the input angular rate. This work mainly studies the circuit system of a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro. It discusses the process of circuit system design, analysis and experiment, in detail, providing the foundation to develop a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro. Since the bell-shaped resonator's curved structure has the characteristics of large noise in the piezoelectric signal and large harmonics, this paper analyzes its working and signal detection method, then gives the whole plan of the circuit system, including the drive module, the detection module and the control loop. It also studies every part of the whole system, gives a detailed design and analysis process and proves part of the circuit system using digital simulation. At the end of the article, the test result of the circuit system shows that it can remove the disadvantages of the curved structure having large noise in the piezoelectric signal and large harmonics and is more effective at solving the input angular rate. PMID:24633451

  14. [Symptomatic relief in dyspnoea].

    PubMed

    Jespersen, Bodil Abild; Salomonsen, Annemarie; Rasmussen, Torben Riis

    2007-10-29

    Breathlessness (or dyspnoea) is a common symptom in patients with cancer and other advanced progressive illnesses such as cardiac failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis. It is often distressing for both the patient and the carer. Management of breathlessness starts with a good history and examination. Various reversible causes and possible treatments are outlined. A multidisciplinary approach with non-pharmacological and drug-based approaches to symptomatic relief of breathlessness is generally necessary, the latter predominating as death approaches. PMID:18028843

  15. Fluid relief and check valve

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, K.L.; Lord, S.C.; Murray, I.

    1986-07-17

    A passive fluid pressure relief and check valve allows the relief pressure to be slaved to a reference pressure independently of the exhaust pressure. The pressure relief valve is embodied by a submerged vent line in a sealing fluid, the relief pressure being a function of the submerged depth. A check valve is embodied by a vertical column of fluid (the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of fluid). The pressure is vented into an exhaust system which keeps the exhaust out of the area providing the reference pressure.

  16. Development of abnormal gait detection and vibratory stimulation system on lower limbs to improve gait stability.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mi; Piao, Yong-Jun; Eun, Hye-in; Kim, Dong-Wook; Ryu, Mun-ho; Kim, Nam-Gyun

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an abnormal gait detection algorithm and a vibratory stimulation system on a lower limb to improve gait stability and prevent falls. The system consists of a gait measurement module, an abnormal gait detection module, and a vibratory stimulation module. The gait measurement module measures the vertical acceleration of the ankle during walking using an accelerometer. The measured acceleration values are sent to a portable microcontroller, which controls vibratory stimulations to the ankles based on an algorithm that detects the peak acceleration values. If the acceleration peaks are found to occur irregularly, the abnormal gait detection algorithm activates the vibratory stimulation module. To determine the effect of vibratory stimulations under dynamic condition, this study investigated the contribution of ankle muscle proprioception on the control of dynamic stability and lower limb kinematics while walking using vibratory stimulation to alter the muscle spindle output of individuals' left lower limb. Vibrators were attached to the left ankle joint (tibialis anterior, triceps surae). Participants were required to walk along a travel path and step over an obstacle placed in their way. There were four task conditions; an obstacle (10%, 20%, and 30% of the participants' height) was positioned at the midpoint of the walkway, or the participants' walking path remained clear. For each obstacle condition, participants experienced either no vibration, or vibration of the tibialis anterior muscle and the triceps surae muscle of the left lower limb. Vibration began upon detection of an abnormal gait and continued for one second. Vibrating the ankle muscles of the left lower limb while stepping over an obstacle resulted in significant changes in COM behavior on both the anterior/posterior (A/P) and medial/lateral (M/L) planes. The results provide strong evidence that the primary endings of the ankle muscle spindles play a significant role in the control of posture and balance during the swing phase of locomotion by providing information on the movement of the body's COM with respect to the support foot. PMID:20703630

  17. Mapping Of Textile Surface Relief

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. P. C. M.; Almeida, Jose B.

    1989-01-01

    We describe a system which is capable of mapping the relief of textile surfaces, by non contact optical means, designed to be used in textile engineering laboratories to study the alterations produced in fabrics by the action of dyes, shock, stress, and so on. The specific nature of these materials precludes the use of conventional profiling systems, which led us to develop a new method with the necessary versatility but reasonably immune to dispersion, diffraction and speckle, phenomena which usually make very difficult the application of optical methods to this situation. The method is based on the horizontal shift of the bright spot on an horizontal surface when this is illuminated with an oblique beam and moved vertically. In order to make the profilometry the sample is swept by an oblique laser beam and the bright spot position is compared with a reference position. The system is thus formed by an HeNe laser focused onto a reference surface (sample support) endowed of bidirectional motion obtained by two stepping motors which are controlled by a 8051 microcomputer that will also control the data acquisition and processing system, and it's forwarding to the working microcomputer. The laser beam incidence angle, the focusing system and the reception objective can be changed to increase the system fickleness.

  18. Waiver Plan Generates Relief, Fret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson; McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    While the Obama administration's plan to offer states relief from parts of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act--if they agree to embrace unspecified education redesign priorities--has drawn kudos from some quarters, it isn't sitting well in others. Officials in a number of states have praised the idea as an opportunity for badly needed relief from…

  19. Vibratory response modeling and verification of a high precision optical positioning system.

    SciTech Connect

    Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T.; Royston, T. J.; Shu, D.

    1999-06-18

    A generic vibratory-response modeling program has been developed as a tool for designing high-precision optical positioning systems. Based on multibody dynamics theory, the system is modeled as rigid-body structures connected by linear elastic elements, such as complex actuators and bearings. The full dynamic properties of each element are determined experimentally or theoretically, then integrated into the program as inertial and stiffness matrices. Utilizing this program, the theoretical and experimental verification of the vibratory behavior of a double-multilayer monochromator support and positioning system is presented. Results of parametric design studies that investigate the influence of support floor dynamics and highlight important design issues are also presented. Overall, good matches between theory and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the program as a dynamic modeling tool.

  20. Stress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to time. Not all stress is bad. All animals have a stress response, and it can be ... natural disaster. This type of stress can cause post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Different people may feel stress in different ...

  1. Hydrostatic Vibratory Drive of the Test Stand for Excitation of the Amplitude-Modulated Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nizhegorodov, A. I.; Gavrilin, A. N.; Moyzes, B. B.

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the problems arising during the development of the test stand hydrostatic vibratory drive, which synthesize controlled amplitude-modulated vibrations required testing of vibration strength and vibrostability of technological devices. The newly developed modification can adequately simulate the transport vibration and vibration of the operating power-supply units of technological machinery vibration by means of implementing of a continuous frequency spectrum of the vibration exposure in the desired frequency range.

  2. Mechanical Assessment of the Drep Shield Subject to Vibratory Motion and Dynamic and Static Rock Loading

    SciTech Connect

    R.C. Quittmeyer

    2005-11-16

    The purpose of the drip shield (DS) is to divert water that may seep into emplacement drifts from contacting the waste packages, and to protect the waste packages from impact or static loading from rockfall. The objective of this document is to summarize, into one location, the results of a series of supporting engineering calculations that were developed to study the effect of static and dynamic loads on the mechanical performance of the DS. The potential DS loads are a result of: (1) Potential earthquake vibratory ground motion, and resulting interaction of the DS, waste package and pallet, and drift invert; (2) Dynamic impacts of rockfall resulting from emplacement drift damage as a result of earthquake vibratory motion; and (3) Static load of the caved rock rubble that may come to rest on the DS as a result of vibratory motion or from time-dependent yielding of the rock mass surrounding the emplacement drift. The potential mechanical failure mechanisms that may result from these loads include: (1) Overturning and/or separation of the interlocking DS segments; (2) Loss of structural integrity and stability of the DS, including excessive deformation or buckling; and (3) Localized damage to the top and side-wall plates of the DS. The scope of this document is limited to summarizing results presented in the supporting calculations in the areas of analysis of the potential for DS collapse, and determination of the damaged surface area of the DS plates. New calculations are presented to determine whether or not separation of DSs occur under vibratory motion.

  3. Compression relief engine brake

    SciTech Connect

    Meneely, V.A.

    1987-10-06

    A compression relief brake is described for four cycle internal-combustion engines, comprising: a pressurized oil supply; means for selectively pressurizing a hydraulic circuit with oil from the oil supply; a master piston and cylinder communicating with a slave piston and cylinder via the hydraulic circuit; an engine exhaust valve mechanically coupled to the engine and timed to open during the exhaust cycle of the engine the exhaust valve coupled to the slave piston. The exhaust valve is spring-based in a closed state to contact a valve seat; a sleeve frictionally and slidably disposed within a cavity defined by the slave piston which cavity communicates with the hydraulic circuit. When the hydraulic circuit is selectively pressurized and the engine is operating the sleeve entraps an incompressible volume of oil within the cavity to generate a displacement of the slave piston within the slave cylinder, whereby a first gap is maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat; and means for reciprocally activating the master piston for increasing the pressure within the previously pressurized hydraulic circuit during at least a portion of the expansion cycle of the engine whereby a second gap is reciprocally maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat.

  4. Teleoperation of steerable flexible needles by combining kinesthetic and vibratory feedback.

    PubMed

    Pacchierotti, Claudio; Abayazid, Momen; Misra, Sarthak; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Needle insertion in soft-tissue is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that demands high accuracy. In this respect, robotic systems with autonomous control algorithms have been exploited as the main tool to achieve high accuracy and reliability. However, for reasons of safety and responsibility, autonomous robotic control is often not desirable. Therefore, it is necessary to focus also on techniques enabling clinicians to directly control the motion of the surgical tools. In this work, we address that challenge and present a novel teleoperated robotic system able to steer flexible needles. The proposed system tracks the position of the needle using an ultrasound imaging system and computes needle's ideal position and orientation to reach a given target. The master haptic interface then provides the clinician with mixed kinesthetic-vibratory navigation cues to guide the needle toward the computed ideal position and orientation. Twenty participants carried out an experiment of teleoperated needle insertion into a soft-tissue phantom, considering four different experimental conditions. Participants were provided with either mixed kinesthetic-vibratory feedback or mixed kinesthetic-visual feedback. Moreover, we considered two different ways of computing ideal position and orientation of the needle: with or without set-points. Vibratory feedback was found more effective than visual feedback in conveying navigation cues, with a mean targeting error of 0.72 mm when using set-points, and of 1.10 mm without set-points. PMID:25265614

  5. Effect of vocal fold injury location on vibratory parameters in excised canine larynges

    PubMed Central

    Krausert, Christopher R.; Ying, Di; Choi, Seong Hee; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of vocal fold injury location on vibratory amplitude and lateral phase difference. Study design Repeated measures with each excised canine larynx serving as own control. Setting Basic science study conducted in university laboratory. Methods Vocal fold vibration of excised canine larynges was recorded with a high speed camera before and after inducing vocal fold injury at one of five locations: anterior, middle, posterior, medial, or superior. Medial and superior injuries were created within the middle third of the vocal fold. Five larynges were used for each of the five injury locations. Kymography was performed at the midpoint of the vocal folds for each video. Pre- and post-injury vibratory amplitude and lateral phase difference were compared for each location. Results The anterior and medial injuries produced consistent decreases in vibratory amplitude. Middle and posterior injuries may slightly decrease amplitude. Superior injuries seemed to have no effect on amplitude. Anterior and medial injuries induce phase asymmetry between the right and left vocal folds. Middle injuries appeared to affect phase difference slightly, whereas posterior and superior injuries had no effect. Conclusion Injury to the anterior or medial portions of the vocal fold may be most likely to cause abnormal vocal fold vibration. Using caution in these locations during phonosurgery may favor superior post-operative vocal outcomes. PMID:23070053

  6. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... excitability or excessive drowsiness.” back to top More Child-Friendly Medicines Recent pediatric legislation, including a combination ...

  7. Asthma - quick-relief drugs

    MedlinePLUS

    Asthma quick-relief medicines work fast to control asthma symptoms. You take them when you are coughing, wheezing, having trouble breathing, or having an asthma attack. They are also called rescue drugs. These ...

  8. Temporal Processing of Vibratory Communication Signals at the Level of Ascending Interneurons in Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zorović, Maja

    2011-01-01

    During mating, males and females of N. viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) produce sex- and species-specific calling and courtship substrate-borne vibratory signals, grouped into songs. Recognition and localization of these signals are fundamental for successful mating. The recognition is mainly based on the temporal pattern, i.e. the amplitude modulation, while the frequency spectrum of the signals usually only plays a minor role. We examined the temporal selectivity for vibratory signals in four types of ascending vibratory interneurons in N. viridula. Using intracellular recording and labelling technique, we analyzed the neurons' responses to 30 pulse duration/interval duration (PD/ID) combinations. Two response arrays were created for each neuron type, showing the intensity of the responses either as time-averaged spike counts or as peak instantaneous spike rates. The mean spike rate response arrays showed preference of the neurons for short PDs (below 600 ms) and no selectivity towards interval duration; while the peak spike rate response arrays exhibited either short PD/long ID selectivity or no selectivity at all. The long PD/short ID combinations elicited the weakest responses in all neurons tested. No response arrays showed the receiver preference for either constant period or duty cycle. The vibratory song pattern selectivity matched the PD of N. viridula male vibratory signals, thus pointing to temporal filtering for the conspecific vibratory signals already at level of the ascending interneurons. In some neurons the responses elicited by the vibratory stimuli were followed by distinct, regular oscillations of the membrane potential. The distance between the oscillation peaks matched the temporal structure of the male calling song, indicating a possible resonance based mechanism for signal recognition. PMID:22053216

  9. Disaster relief, inc.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Anisya; Fritz, Lynn

    2006-11-01

    When disaster strikes, many corporations respond generously. After the 2004 tsunami, for instance, U.S. firms alone contributed more than half a billion dollars in cash and in-kind donations. But a host of reactive efforts don't produce the best results-and may even get in the way. To make the most of their humanitarian efforts, companies need to address two fundamental questions: What kind of aid do we want to contribute--philanthropic (money and in-kind donations) or integrative (backroom, operational assistance)? And how do we want to contribute it--by working one-on-one with a single agency or by joining a consortium? The permutations of those two decisions lead to four different approaches, each with its own strengths and challenges. Single-company philanthropic partnerships work well when there's a good match between what a company wants to contribute and what an agency needs, as with Coca-Cola's donations of water to the Red Cross. More diffuse, but also potentially more effective, are the benefits of joining a multicompany philanthropic partnership, which enables the resources of many firms to be matched to the missions of many agencies. More difficult to establish but more fundamental in its impact is a single-company integrative partnership, in which a corporation works to improve the way an aid agency operates, as the logistics giant TNT has done to help the distribution efforts of the World Food Programme. And most difficult to implement--but potentially most effective-is a multicompany integrative partnership, which brings to bear the collective best practices of many companies to improve the response capabilities of multiple agencies. It's easy to see why the image of a relief worker carrying a sack of grain delivers an emotional wallop, but the behind-the-scenes work of process enhancement is just as crucial to humanitarian efforts. The sooner executives realize this, the better positioned the world will be to respond to global disasters. PMID:17131568

  10. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regulatory relief. 69.727 Section 69.727... Pricing Flexibility 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I... area, a price cap LEC will be granted the following regulatory relief in that area for the...

  11. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regulatory relief. 69.727 Section 69.727... Pricing Flexibility 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I... area, a price cap LEC will be granted the following regulatory relief in that area for the...

  12. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regulatory relief. 69.727 Section 69.727... Pricing Flexibility 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I... area, a price cap LEC will be granted the following regulatory relief in that area for the...

  13. High-performance micromachined vibratory rate- and rate-integrating gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jae Yoong

    The performance of vibratory micromachined gyroscopes has been continuously improving for the past two decades. However, to further improve performance of the MEMS gyroscope in harsh environment, it is necessary for gyros to reduce the sensitivity to environmental parameters, including vibration and temperature change. In addition, conventional rate-mode MEMS gyroscopes have limitation in performance due to tradeoff between resolution, bandwidth, and full-scale range. In this research, we aim to reduce vibration sensitivity by developing gyros that operate in the balanced mode. The balanced mode creates zero net momentum and reduces energy loss through an anchor. The gyro can differentially cancel measurement errors from external vibration along both sensor axes. The vibration sensitivity of the balanced-mode gyroscope including structural imbalance from microfabrication reduces as the absolute difference between in-phase parasitic mode and operating mode frequencies increases. The parasitic sensing mode frequency is designed larger than the operating mode frequency to achieve both improved vibration insensitivity and shock resistivity. A single anchor is used in order to minimize thermoresidual stress change. We developed two gyroscope based on these design principles. The Balanced Oscillating Gyro (BOG) is a quad-mass tuning-fork rate gyroscope. The relationship between gyro design and modal characteristics is studied extensively using finite element method (FEM). The gyro is fabricated using the planar Si-on-glass (SOG) process with a device thickness of 100microm. The BOG is evaluated using the first-generation analog interface circuitry. Under a frequency mismatch of 5Hz between driving and sense modes, the angle random walk (ARW) is measured to be 0.44°/sec/✓Hz. The performance is limited by quadrature error and low-frequency noise in the circuit. The Cylindrical Rate-Integrating Gyroscope (CING) operates in whole-angle mode. The gyro is completely axisymmetric and self-aligned to maximize mechanical isotropy. The gyro offers a large frequency ratio of ˜1.7 between parasitic and the wineglass modes. The CING is fabricated using the 3D Si-on-glass (SOG) process with a device thickness of 300microm. The 1st and 2nd generation CINGs operate at 18kHz and 3kHz, respectively and demonstrate a frequency mismatch of < 1% and a large Q (˜20,000 at 18kHz and ˜100,000 at 3kHz under exact mode matching). In the rate-sensing mode, the first-generation CING (18kHz) demonstrates an Ag of 0.05, an angle random walk (ARW) of 7°/✓hr, and a bias stability of 72°/hr without temperature compensation. The performance is limited by the Ag, white noise in the phase-lock loop (PLL) in the interface circuitry, and temperature control. In the rate-sensing mode, the second-generation CING measures an Ag of 0.0065, an ARW of 0.09°/✓hr, and a bias stability of 129°/hr without temperature compensation. The performance is limited by A g and XXVI temperature compensation. In the rate-integration mode, the gyro demonstrates precession with an Ag of 0.011+/-0.001 under a frequency mismatch of 20˜80mHz during several hours of operation.

  14. Unilateral contact induced blade/casing vibratory interactions in impellers: Analysis for rigid casings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batailly, Alain; Meingast, Markus; Legrand, Mathias

    2015-02-01

    This contribution addresses the vibratory analysis of unilateral-contact induced structural interactions between a bladed impeller and its surrounding rigid casing. Such assemblies can be found in helicopter or small aircraft engines for instance and the interactions of interest shall arise due to the always tighter operating clearances between the rotating and stationary components. The investigation is conducted by extending to cyclically symmetric structures an in-house time-marching based tool dedicated to unilateral contact occurrences in turbomachines. The main components of the considered impeller together with the associated assumptions and modelling principles considered in this work are detailed. Typical dynamical features of cyclically symmetric structures, such as the aliasing effect and frequency clustering are explored in this nonlinear framework by means of thorough frequency-domain analyses and harmonic trackings of the numerically predicted impeller displacements. Additional contact maps highlight the existence of critical rotational velocities at which displacements potentially reach high amplitudes due to the synchronization of the bladed assembly vibratory pattern with the shape of the rigid casing. The proposed numerical investigations are also compared to a simpler and (almost) empirical criterion: it is suggested, based on nonlinear numerical simulations with a linear reduced order model of the impeller and a rigid casing, that this criterion may miss important critical velocities emanating from the unfavorable combination of aliasing and contact-induced higher harmonics in the vibratory response of the impeller. Overall, this work suggests a way to enhance guidelines to improve the design of impellers in the context of nonlinear and nonsmooth dynamics.

  15. Mating behaviour and vibratory signalling in non-hearing cave crickets reflect primitive communication of Ensifera.

    PubMed

    Stritih, Nataša; Čokl, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    In Ensifera, the lack of well-supported phylogeny and the focus on acoustic communication of the terminal taxa hinders understanding of the evolutionary history of their signalling behaviour and the related sensory structures. For Rhaphidophoridae, the most relic of ensiferans following morphology-based phylogenies, the signalling modes are still unknown. Together with a detailed description of their mating process, we provide evidence on vibratory signalling for the sympatric European species Troglophilus neglectus and T. cavicola. Despite their temporal shift in reproduction, the species' behaviours differ significantly. Signalling by abdominal vibration constitutes an obligatory part of courtship in T. neglectus, while it is absent in T. cavicola. Whole-body vibration is expressed after copulation in both species. While courtship signalling appears to stimulate females for mating, the function of post-copulation signals remains unclear. Mating and signalling of both species were found to take place in most cases on bark, and less frequently on other available substrates, like moss and rock. The signals' frequency spectra were substrate dependent, but with the dominant peak always expressed below 120 Hz. On rock, the intensity of T. neglectus courtship signals was below the species' physiological detection range, presumably constraining the evolution of such signalling in caves. The species' behavioural divergence appears to reflect their divergent mating habitats, in and outside caves. We propose that short-range tremulation signalling in courtship, such as is expressed by T. neglectus, represents the primitive mode and context of mechanical signalling in Ensifera. The absence of high-frequency components in the signals may be related to the absence of the crista acoustica homologue (CAH) in the vibratory tibial organ of Rhaphidophoridae. This indirectly supports the hypothesis proposing that the CAH, as an evolutionary precursor of the ear, evolved in Ensifera along the (more) complex vibratory communication, also associated with signals of higher carrier frequency. PMID:23094071

  16. Mating Behaviour and Vibratory Signalling in Non-Hearing Cave Crickets Reflect Primitive Communication of Ensifera

    PubMed Central

    Stritih, Nataša; Čokl, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    In Ensifera, the lack of well-supported phylogeny and the focus on acoustic communication of the terminal taxa hinders understanding of the evolutionary history of their signalling behaviour and the related sensory structures. For Rhaphidophoridae, the most relic of ensiferans following morphology-based phylogenies, the signalling modes are still unknown. Together with a detailed description of their mating process, we provide evidence on vibratory signalling for the sympatric European species Troglophilus neglectus and T. cavicola. Despite their temporal shift in reproduction, the species’ behaviours differ significantly. Signalling by abdominal vibration constitutes an obligatory part of courtship in T. neglectus, while it is absent in T. cavicola. Whole-body vibration is expressed after copulation in both species. While courtship signalling appears to stimulate females for mating, the function of post-copulation signals remains unclear. Mating and signalling of both species were found to take place in most cases on bark, and less frequently on other available substrates, like moss and rock. The signals’ frequency spectra were substrate dependent, but with the dominant peak always expressed below 120 Hz. On rock, the intensity of T. neglectus courtship signals was below the species’ physiological detection range, presumably constraining the evolution of such signalling in caves. The species’ behavioural divergence appears to reflect their divergent mating habitats, in and outside caves. We propose that short-range tremulation signalling in courtship, such as is expressed by T. neglectus, represents the primitive mode and context of mechanical signalling in Ensifera. The absence of high-frequency components in the signals may be related to the absence of the crista acoustica homologue (CAH) in the vibratory tibial organ of Rhaphidophoridae. This indirectly supports the hypothesis proposing that the CAH, as an evolutionary precursor of the ear, evolved in Ensifera along the (more) complex vibratory communication, also associated with signals of higher carrier frequency. PMID:23094071

  17. Penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation in the treatment of ejaculatory dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Snksen, Jens; Ohl, Dana A

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the current understanding of penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) and electroejaculation (EEJ) procedures and its clinical use in men with ejaculatory dysfunction. Unfortunately, the record of treating such individuals has been quite poor, but within recent years development and refinement of PVS and EEJ in men with spinal cord injury (SCI) has significantly enhanced the prospects for treatment of ejaculatory dysfunction. The majority of spinal cord injured men are not able to produce antegrade ejaculation by masturbation or sexual stimulation. However, approximately 80% of all spinal cord injured men with an intact ejaculatory reflex arc (above T10) can obtain antegrade ejaculation with PVS. Electroejaculation may be successful in obtaining ejaculate from men with all types of SCI, including men who do not have major components of the ejaculatory reflex arc. Because vibratory stimulation is very simple in use, non-invasive, it does not require anaesthesia and is preferred by the patients when compared with EEJ, PVS is recommended to be the first choice of treatment in spinal cord injured men. Furthermore, EEJ has been successfully used to induce ejaculation in men with multiple sclerosis and diabetic neuropathy. Any other conditions which affect the ejaculatory mechanism of the central and/or peripheral nervous system including surgical nerve injury may be treated successfully with EEJ. Finally, for sperm retrieval and sperm cryopreservation before intensive anticancer therapy in pubertal boys, PVS and EEJ have been successfully performed in patients who failed to obtain ejaculation by masturbation. Nearly all data concerning semen characteristics in men with ejaculatory dysfuntion originate from spinal cord injured men. Semen analyses demonstrate low sperm motility rates in the majority of spinal cord injured men. The data give evidence of a decline in spermatogenesis and motility of ejaculated spermatozoa shortly after (few weeks) an acute SCI. Furthermore, it is suggested that some factors in the seminal plasma and/or disordered storage of spermatozoa in the seminal vesicles are mainly responsible for the impaired semen profiles in men with chronic SCI. Home insemination with semen obtained by penile vibratory and introduced intravaginally in order to achieve successful pregnancies may be an option for some spinal cord injured men and their partners. The majority of men will further enhance their fertility potential when using either penile vibratory or EEJ combined with assisted reproduction techniques such as intrauterine insemination or in-vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection. PMID:12406364

  18. Process for forming integral edge seals in porous gas distribution plates utilizing a vibratory means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigenbaum, Haim (Inventor); Pudick, Sheldon (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A process for forming an integral edge seal in a gas distribution plate for use in a fuel cell. A seal layer is formed along an edge of a porous gas distribution plate by impregnating the pores in the layer with a material adapted to provide a seal which is operative dry or when wetted by an electrolyte of a fuel cell. Vibratory energy is supplied to the sealing material during the step of impregnating the pores to provide a more uniform seal throughout the cross section of the plate.

  19. Fundamental understanding, prediction and validation of rotor vibratory loads in steady-level flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Anubhav

    This work isolates the physics of aerodynamics and structural dynamics from the helicopter rotor aeromechanics problem, investigates them separately, identifies the prediction deficiencies in each, improves upon them, and couples them back together. The objective is to develop a comprehensive analysis capability for accurate and consistent prediction of rotor vibratory loads in steady level flight. The rotor vibratory loads are the dominant source of helicopter vibration. There are two critical vibration regimes for helicopters in steady level flight: (1) low speed transition and (2) high speed forward flight. The mechanism of rotor vibration at low speed transition is well understood---inter-twinning of blade tip vortices below the rotor disk. The mechanism of rotor vibration at high speed is not clear. The focus in this research is on high speed flight. The goal is to understand the key mechanisms involved and accurately model them. Measured lift, chord force, pitching moment and damper force from the UH-60A Flight Test Program are used to predict, validate and refine the rotor structural dynamics. The prediction errors originate entirely from structural modeling. Once validated, the resultant blade deformations are used to predict and validate aerodynamics. Air loads are calculated using a table look up based unsteady lifting-line model and compared with predictions from a 3-dimensional unsteady CFD model. Both Navier-Stokes and Euler predictions are studied. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) The 3D Navier-Stokes CFD analysis is then consistently coupled with a rotor comprehensive analysis to improve prediction of rotor vibratory loads at high speed. The CFD-comprehensive code coupling is achieved using a loose coupling methodology. The CFD analysis significantly improves section pitching moment prediction near the blade tip, because it captures the steady and unsteady 3D transonic effects. Accurate pitching moments drive elastic twist deformations which together with a refined rotor wake model generate the right vibratory airload harmonics at all radial stations. The flap bending moments, torsion bending moments and pitch link load predictions are significantly improved by CFD coupling. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  20. Occupational Trauma and Mental Illness: Combat, Peacekeeping or Relief Work and the NCS-R

    PubMed Central

    Connorton, Ellen; Perry, Melissa J.; Hemenway, David; Miller, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Objective Peacekeepers, relief workers and military members experience multiple traumas, and trauma is believed to increase risk for psychiatric distress. We examined whether combat and/or peacekeeping or relief work was associated with subsequent mental illness. Methods Using data from the US National Co-morbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) (n = 2,383), we estimated whether combat, peacekeeping or relief work were associated with increased prevalence of mental illness through bivariate cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression. Results Combat was associated with increased subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol or drug issues more than peacekeeping or relief work. Conclusions Combat, alone or combined with peacekeeping/relief work, appears to be a risk factor for subsequent PTSD and issues with drugs and alcohol. Peacekeeping/relief work without combat does not appear to be associated with these diagnoses. PMID:22173283

  1. Analysis of compensation for a g-sensitivity scale-factor error for a MEMS vibratory gyroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Byung Su; Han, KyungJun; Lee, SangWoo; Yu, MyeongJong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present recent work on the g-sensitivity error of the MEMS vibratory gyroscope. Generally, the g-sensitivity error has been ignored in the use of commercial MEMS vibratory gyroscopes, but it deserves our attention if we are to achieve tactical grade performance for military applications. First, we mathematically show the reason the g-sensitivity error occurs as an additional scale-factor error during the use of MEMS vibratory gyroscopes. Then, we estimate the g-sensitivity error using FEM simulation and verify it by experiment using a centrifugal machine. Consequently, we propose a compensation model to accommodate the g-sensitivity error of a gyroscope and confirm the theoretical prediction with experimental results.

  2. Effect On The Processing Characteristics Of ZnO Varistors Produced Using Vibratory Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelleher, M. C.; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Each manufacturing stage in the production of zinc oxide varistors from powder preparation to the final encapsulated device is important not only for the formation of the varistor component with optimum microstructure and thus electrical characteristics but also for avoiding the introduction of flaws and reduced yield. In this paper the authors describe and discuss the effect of multi-elemental oxide additives having been milled for different durations using a vibratory mill with cylindrical zirconia media on the powder characteristics of the subsequent processing stages. A commercial ZnO varistor formulation was used. The subsequent processing stages that are given particular attention include first spray drying and second milling. The characteristics include agglomerate size, powder density and elemental uniformity of the first spray-dried powders, and particle size, specific surface area, zirconium concentration and pore size of the second milled powders. They were evaluated using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopic, mercury porosimetry, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. Some interesting correlations are observed between the powder properties and vibratory milling durations of the mixed metal oxide additives (MMOA).

  3. Structural-Acoustic Coupling Effects on the Non-Vacuum Packaging Vibratory Cylinder Gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Wu, Yulie; Zhang, Yongmeng; Tao, Yi; Zheng, Yu; Xiao, Dingbang

    2013-01-01

    The resonant shells of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes are commonly packaged in metallic caps. In order to lower the production cost, a portion of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes do not employ vacuum packaging. However, under non-vacuum packaging conditions there can be internal acoustic noise leading to considerable acoustic pressure which is exerted on the resonant shell. Based on the theory of the structural-acoustic coupling, the dynamical behavior of the resonant shell under acoustic pressure is presented in this paper. A finite element (FE) model is introduced to quantitatively analyze the effect of the structural-acoustic coupling. Several main factors, such as sealing cap sizes and degree of vacuum which directly affect the vibration of the resonant shell, are studied. The results indicate that the vibration amplitude and the operating frequency of the resonant shell will be changed when the effect of structural-acoustic coupling is taken into account. In addition, an experiment was set up to study the effect of structural-acoustic coupling on the sensitivity of the gyroscope. A 32.4 mV//s increase of the scale factor and a 6.2 Hz variation of the operating frequency were observed when the radial gap size between the resonant shell and the sealing cap was changed from 0.5 mm to 20 mm. PMID:24351631

  4. Vibratory Loads Reduction Testing of the NASA/Army/MIT Active Twist Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Matthew; Mirick, Paul H.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Langston, Chester W.; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Shin, SangJoon

    2001-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that controlled strain-induced blade twisting can be attained using piezoelectric active fiber composite technology, and that such advancement may provide a mechanism for reduced rotorcraft vibrations and increased rotor performance. In order to validate these findings experimentally, a cooperative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center, the Army Research Laboratory, and the MIT Active Materials and Structures Laboratory has been developed. As a result of this collaboration a four-bladed, aeroelastically-scaled, active-twist model rotor has been designed and fabricated for testing in the heavy gas test medium of the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. Initial wind tunnel testing has been conducted to assess the impact of active blade twist on both fixed- and rotating-system vibratory loads in forward flight. The active twist control was found to have a pronounced effect on all system loads and was shown to generally offer reductions in fixed-system loads of 60% to 95%, depending upon flight condition, with 1.1 to 1.4 of dynamic blade twist observed. A summary of the systems developed and the vibratory loads reduction results obtained are presented in this paper.

  5. Making and suspension capabilities of vibratory agitators in a slab tank

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, C.J.; Kyser, E.A. III; Tatterson, G.B.

    1988-12-31

    Seven different vibratory agitators, consisting of single and dual flat blade configurations or dual angle blade configurations, were studied for their ability to produce mixing and solid suspension in a slab tank. The mixing behavior of the various configurations was recorded on video tape, and mixing times were measured as the time needed to disperse injected dye. The solid suspension tests, using ash tray sand, were conducted to determine the minimum stroke frequency of the agitators needed for complete off-bottom suspension. The mixing studies demonstrated that vibratory agitation produced strong vertical fluid motion, good bulk circulation and dispersion in the liquid. The effects of stroke frequency, n; amplitude, a; blade width, w; blade clearance, c; and liquid depth, h, on mixing time, {theta}, were studied. Single blade geometries produced complete mixing in the least number of strokes. The most effective geometry, in terms of both mixing and solid suspension, was a single flat blade with minimum off-bottom clearance and a blade width/tank thickness ratio, w/T, of 0.74 at the maximum stroke amplitude of 51 mm.

  6. Dispersive and non-dispersive waves through plants: implications for arthropod vibratory communication

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Jrme; Magal, Christelle; Sueur, Jrme

    2007-01-01

    Vibratory communication in arthropods is a widespread phenomenon. Arthropods living on plants have been reported to use only dispersive bending waves in the context of preypredator, competition, social and sexual interactions. Differences in signal structure have also been postulated to work as species recognition mechanisms and speciation agents. Using two identical laser Doppler vibrometers and a wavelet analysis, we quantified the wave propagation modes in rush stems (Juncus effusus) over the whole range of frequencies used by arthropods. A non-dimensionalized analysis shows that mechanical waves propagate not only as dispersive bending waves, but also as non-dispersive waves. Our analysis implies that an arthropod can communicate through non-dispersive bending waves by either producing signals of high frequencies or by choosing large stems, two widely different options tapping into the physiological and the behavioural repertoires, respectively. Non-dispersive waves, unreported so far in insect vibratory communication in plants, present serious advantages over dispersive bending waves in terms of signal integrity and may well be much more widely used than anticipated, in particular for species recognition. PMID:17284408

  7. Conjectural bifurcation analysis of the contact-induced vibratory response of an aircraft engine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batailly, Alain; Legrand, Mathias; Millecamps, Antoine; Garcin, Franois

    2015-07-01

    This paper deals with the numerical investigation of the unilateral contact-induced dynamics of a turbomachine blade rotating within a perfectly rigid yet distorted casing. This investigation is motivated by unelucidated vibratory behaviours observed experimentally. The simulations are based on an in-house time-marching strategy incorporating Lagrange multipliers for the unilateral contact treatment, as well as centrifugal stiffening and abradable coating removal. Significant extensions are proposed through the implementation of (1) aerodynamic loading on the blade and (2) post-processing techniques involving the empirical mode decomposition which provides fruitful insights on important transient phenomena. A thorough bifurcation analysis with and without aerodynamic loading highlights the existence of flip bifurcations with period-doubling and period-halving sequences over a broad angular speed range. Numerical simulations with external aerodynamic loading yield quasi-periodic and likely to be chaotic motions that could not be observed under vacuum. The proposed numerical investigations underline the key role of the aerodynamic loading in the blade dynamics and suggest that unexplained experimental vibratory behaviours are related to the vacuum conditions of the experiment.

  8. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-14

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas.

  9. Dual rate pressure relief valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steeneken, J.

    1968-01-01

    Pressure relief valve vents at a slow bleed rate at one pressure level and at a higher bleed rate at a higher pressure level. The value housing contains a sleeve, inlet port, outlet port, an orifice, a ball and seat arrangement, and a belleville spring diaphragm.

  10. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., the participant may request equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.3. (b) If, during the term of a WHIP cost... provision, the participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.4. ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.20 Equitable relief. (a) If...

  11. 29 CFR 4041.4 - Disaster relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disaster relief. 4041.4 Section 4041.4 Labor Regulations...-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions § 4041.4 Disaster relief. When the President of the United States declares that, under the Disaster Relief Act (42 U.S.C. 5121, 5122(2), 5141(b)), a major disaster...

  12. 29 CFR 4041.4 - Disaster relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disaster relief. 4041.4 Section 4041.4 Labor Regulations...-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions § 4041.4 Disaster relief. When the President of the United States declares that, under the Disaster Relief Act (42 U.S.C. 5121, 5122(2), 5141(b)), a major disaster...

  13. Effectiveness of Property Tax Relief in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, William T.; Hwang, C. S.

    This study examines the effects of the 1979 Oregon Property Tax Relief Plan on 1980-81 school district budget decisions by comparing the available tax relief, the school expenditures, and the tax levies in the state for the years 1975-81. The history of direct and indirect property tax relief in Oregon is sketched for the years prior to 1979; the

  14. Argon Dewar Required Relief Flow Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, J.B.; /Fermilab

    1987-09-28

    This report calculates the required fire relief valve flow capacity, the required vaporizer failure relief valve flow capacity, and the required loss of vacuum relief valve flow capacity of the liquid argon storage tank in use at the D-Zero site.

  15. Morphology and physiology of vibratory interneurons in the thoracic ganglia of the southern green stinkbug Nezara viridula (L.).

    PubMed

    Zorovi?, Maja; Presern, Janez; Cokl, Andrej

    2008-05-10

    The central processing mechanisms of vibratory signals in small plant-dwelling insects that rely primarily on substrate-borne vibratory communication are still largely unknown. To elucidate the neural mechanisms involved in vibratory signaling, the vibration-sensitive interneurons in thoracic ganglia of the southern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula, were investigated electrophysiologically by single-cell recordings and staining. Ten types of interneurons were described and divided into four categories, based on their gross morphology. The cell body of the L-shaped CG-AC neurons is located in the metathoracic neuromere of the central ganglion, and the axon ascends contralaterally. This group comprises five types of neurons differing in their fine structure and functional properties. CG-AB neurons are dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons with cell bodies in the mesothoracic neuromere of the central ganglion and two axons that ascend bilaterally into the prothoracic ganglion. Group CG-L includes three types of local neurons limited to the central ganglion. With ipsilateral dendritic arborizations and contralateral axonal branching, their gross morphology is similar to that of cricket omega cells. Interneuron PTG-DC, with the cell body in the prothoracic ganglion (PTG) and a contralaterally descending axon, conveys information received by the sensory organs of the front contralateral leg to the neuropil regions of the ipsilateral middle and hind legs. Based on their frequency tuning and acceleration sensitivity, the vibratory interneurons fall into two groups: the low-frequency units are tuned to 50 Hz and the middle frequency units to 200 Hz, with their acceleration thresholds at 10(-1) m/s(2) and 5 x 10(-3) m/s(2), respectively. Their function is discussed with relevance to the vibratory communication of N. viridula. PMID:18335563

  16. Photovoltaic application for disaster relief

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W.R. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, and earthquakes are natural disasters that can happen at any time destroying homes, businesses, and natural surroundings. One such disaster, Hurricane Andrew, devastated South Florida leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless. Many people were without electrical service, functioning water and sewage systems, communications, and medical services for days, even weeks in the aftermath of the storm. Emergency management teams, the military, and countless public and private organizations staged a massive relief effort. Dependency on electrical utility power became a pronounced problem as emergency services were rendered to survivors and the rebuilding process started. Many of the energy needs of emergency management organizations, relief workers, and the general public can be satisfied with solar electric energy systems. Photovoltaic (PV) power generated from solar energy is quiet, safe, inexhaustible and pollution-free. Previously, photovoltaics have supplied emergency power for Hurricanes Hugo and Andrew, and the earthquake at Northridge in Southern California. This document focuses on photovoltaic technology and its application to disaster relief efforts.

  17. Understanding the role of nonlinearities in the transduction of vibratory energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masana, Ravindra Shiva Charan

    The last two decades have witnessed several advances in micro-fabrication technologies and electronics, leading to the development of small, low-power devices for wireless sensing, data transmission, actuation, and medical implants. Unfortunately, the actual implementation of such devices in their respective environment has been hindered by the lack of scalable energy sources that are necessary to power and maintain them. Batteries, which remain the most commonly used power source, have not kept pace with the demands of these devices, especially in terms of energy density. In light of this challenge, the concept of vibratory energy harvesting has flourished in recent years as a possible alternative to power and maintain low-power electronics. While linear vibratory energy harvesters have received the majority of the literature's attention, a significant body of the current research activity is focused on the concept of purposeful inclusion of nonlinearities for broadband transduction. When compared to their linear resonant counterparts, nonlinear energy harvesters have a wider steady-state frequency bandwidth, leading to the common belief that they can be utilized to improve performance especially in random and non-stationary vibratory environments. This dissertation aims to critically investigate this belief by drawing a clearer picture of the role of nonlinearities in the transduction of energy harvesters and by defining the conditions under which nonlinearities can be used to enhance performance. To achieve this goal, the Thesis is divided into three parts. The first part investigates the performance of mono- and bi-stable energy harvesters under harmonic excitations and carries a detailed analysis of their relative performance. The second part investigates their response to broadband and narrowband random excitations and again analyzes their relative behavior. The third part exploits the super-harmonic resonance bands of bi-stable energy harvesters for the purpose of scavenging energy from low-frequency excitations. As a platform to achieve the Thesis objectives, a piezoelectric energy harvester consisting of an axially loaded clamped-clamped beam bi-morph is considered. The harvester can operate with mono- (pre-buckling) and bi-stable (post-buckling) characteristics with minimal alterations to the design. Theoretical and experimental studies performed on the proposed harvester are presented to delineate the influence of the nonlinearity on its performance, in particular, and nonlinear vibratory energy harvesters in general. It is demonstrated that the intentional inclusion of nonlinearities in energy harvesters makes these devices more tolerant to variations in the excitation and design parameters around their nominal values as compared to a linear device. However, the Thesis also pointed out many issues that can result from the complexity and non-uniqueness of solutions associated with nonlinear systems. It became apparent that the performance of a nonlinear energy harvester is very much dependent on the level and nature of the excitation in conjunction with the potential shape of the harvester. This makes developing direct performance metrics, similar to what has been done for linear harvesters, a challenging problem which should constitute a major avenue of future research efforts.

  18. Sectioning of contaminated components for decontamination by vibratory finishing and electropolishing

    SciTech Connect

    Fetrow, L.K.; Allen, R.P.

    1981-09-01

    This report summarizes work conducted to develop, adapt, and evaluate a variety of techniques for sectioning glove boxes, chemical processing equipment, pipes, ducts, and other contaminated components in preparation for decontamination by vibratory finishing and electropolishing. These sectioning studies were conducted with a special 10-ft x 20-ft x 10-ft stainless-steel, walk-in glove box equipped for either hands-on operation via gloves and personnel entry, or remote operation using master slave manipulators and a bridge crane. Several sectioning techniques have been evaluated with respect to effectiveness, versatility, secondary waste generation, and capability for remote operation. The methods include wet and dry plasma arc torch cutting, mechanical sawing and nibbling, abrasive cutting, and hydraulic shearing and punching. The results of these comparison studies show that the plasma arc torch is a very rapid and effective metal cutting tool for size reduction applications. However, its use to prepare material for decontamination should be minimized because of problems with smoke generation, torch manipulation, waste generation, and entrainment of contamination. Mechanical saws eliminate all but the waste generation problem, but are very slow and labor intensive. Mechanical nibblers are fast and produce a waste form that can be decontaminated, but are limited with respect to the geometry and thickness of material that can be sectioned. High-speed abrasive saws provide high cutting rates, but produce nontreatable waste from the cut as well as from blade wear. Hydraulic shearing rapidly produces sectioned material in the small sizes required for decontamination by vibratory finishing. The kerf material also can be decontaminated. However, the glove box first must be sectioned into relatively narrow strips by one of the other techniques.

  19. Ground control by means of cutting relief slots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrikov, S. V.

    2015-10-01

    The article gives formulation and solution of a problem on stresses and strains in a rock mass around an underground excavation with a specifically preset spiral slip surface (relief slot). The contact conditions include dry friction and cohesion. It is shown that with the contact friction, the load is more uniformly distributed in rocks around the excavation. At certain values of the parameters, it is possible to enhance load-bearing capacity of rocks three times.

  20. Human response to vibration stress in Japanese workers: lessons from our 35-year studies A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Matoba, Tsunetaka

    2015-12-01

    The occupational uses with vibratory tools or vehicles provoked health disorders of users. We reviewed narratively our articles of 35?yr studies and their related literatures, and considered the pathophysiology of the hand-arm vibration disorders. Concerning the risk factors of health impairments in workers with vibratory tools, there are two conflicting schools of the researchers: The peripheral school emphasizes that vibration only makes predominant impairments on hands and arms, showing typically Raynaud's phenomenon in the fingers. In the systemic school, the health disorders are produced by combination with vibration, noise and working environment, namely vibratory work itself, leading to diversified symptoms and signs in relation to systemic impairments. Our 35?yr studies have evidently supported the systemic school, including disorders of the central and autonomic nervous systems. The genesis is vibratory work itself, including vibration, noise, cold working environment, ergonomic and biodynamic conditions, and emotional stress in work. Because the health disorders yield in the whole body, the following measures would contribute to the prevention of health impairments: the attenuation of vibration and noise generated form vibratory machines and the regulations on operating tool hours. In conclusion, this occupational disease results from systemic impairments due to long-term occupational work with vibratory tools. PMID:26460379

  1. Human response to vibration stress in Japanese workers: lessons from our 35-year studies A narrative review

    PubMed Central

    MATOBA, Tsunetaka

    2015-01-01

    The occupational uses with vibratory tools or vehicles provoked health disorders of users. We reviewed narratively our articles of 35 yr studies and their related literatures, and considered the pathophysiology of the hand-arm vibration disorders. Concerning the risk factors of health impairments in workers with vibratory tools, there are two conflicting schools of the researchers: The peripheral school emphasizes that vibration only makes predominant impairments on hands and arms, showing typically Raynaud’s phenomenon in the fingers. In the systemic school, the health disorders are produced by combination with vibration, noise and working environment, namely vibratory work itself, leading to diversified symptoms and signs in relation to systemic impairments. Our 35 yr studies have evidently supported the systemic school, including disorders of the central and autonomic nervous systems. The genesis is vibratory work itself, including vibration, noise, cold working environment, ergonomic and biodynamic conditions, and emotional stress in work. Because the health disorders yield in the whole body, the following measures would contribute to the prevention of health impairments: the attenuation of vibration and noise generated form vibratory machines and the regulations on operating tool hours. In conclusion, this occupational disease results from systemic impairments due to long-term occupational work with vibratory tools. PMID:26460379

  2. Formulating disaster relief when needs are unknown.

    PubMed

    May, P J

    1982-01-01

    As in most cases of natural disasters, relief needs arising out of the Mount St. Helens volcanic eruptions in May 1980 were greatly overestimated. Technical, bureaucratic, and political considerations all contribute to the upward bias in such cases. The errors in early estimates of relief needs can be reduced by systematic means. But more important than obtaining good early estimates is maintaining an effective control over actual disaster relief expenditures. As it turns out, the more effective systems of control usually go hand in hand with poorer early estimates, creating a dilemma for the management for disaster relief. PMID:10257572

  3. Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 158 km (98 miles) x 122 km (77 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North approximately at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

  4. Perception of Frequency, Amplitude and Azimuth of a Vibratory Dipole-Source by the Octavolateralis System of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Deena D.; Braun, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were conditioned to suppress respiration to a 40 Hz vibratory source and subsequently tested for stimulus generalization to frequency, stimulus amplitude and position (azimuth). Animals completely failed to generalize to frequencies separated by octave intervals, both lesser and greater than the CS. However they did appear to generalize weakly to an aerial loudspeaker stimulus of the same frequency (40 Hz) after conditioning with an underwater vibratory source. Animals had a gradually decreasing amount of generalization to amplitude changes, suggesting a perceptual dimension of loudness. Animals generalized largely or completely to the same underwater source presented at a range of source azimuths. When these azimuths were presented at a transect of 3 cm, some animals did show decrements in generalization, while others did not. This suggests that although azimuth may be perceived more saliently at distances closer to a dipole source, perception of position is not immediately salient in conditioned vibratory source detection. Differential responding to test stimuli located towards the head or tail suggests the presence of perceptual differences between sources that are rostral or caudal with respect to the position of the animal or perhaps the head. PMID:21574689

  5. Motor task performance under vibratory feedback early poststroke: single center, randomized, cross-over, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Vtor Tedim; Bento, Virglio; Ruano, Lus; Ribeiro, David Dieteren; Fonto, Lus; Mateus, Ctia; Barreto, Rui; Colunas, Mrcio; Alves, Ana; Cruz, Brbara; Branco, Catarina; Rocha, Nelson P; Coutinho, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Stroke rehabilitation is far from meeting patient needs in terms of timing, intensity and quality. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of an innovative technological tool, combining 3D motion analysis with targeted vibratory feedback, on upper-limb task performance early poststroke (<4 weeks). The study design was a two-sequence, two-period, randomized, crossover trial (NCT01967290) in 44 patients with upper-limb motor deficit (non-plegic) after medial cerebral artery ischemia. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the experimental session (repetitive motor task under vibratory feedback and 3D motor characterization) or the active comparator (3D motor characterization only). The primary outcome was the number of correct movements per minute on a hand-to-mouth task measured independently. Vibratory feedback was able to modulate motor training, increasing the number of correct movements by an average of 7.2/min (95%CI [4.9;9.4]; P < 0.001) and reducing the probability of performing an error from 1:3 to 1:9. This strategy may improve the efficacy of training on motor re-learning processes after stroke, and its clinical relevance deserves further study in longer duration trials. PMID:25011667

  6. Vibratory response of a mirror support/positioning system for the Advanced Photon Source project at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Basdogan, I.; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M.; Royston, T.J.; Shabana, A.A.

    1996-08-01

    The vibratory response of a typical mirror support/positioning system used at the experimental station of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) project at Argonne National Laboratory is investigated. Positioning precision and stability are especially critical when the supported mirror directs a high-intensity beam aimed at a distant target. Stability may be compromised by low level, low frequency seismic and facility-originated vibrations traveling through the ground and/or vibrations caused by flow-structure interactions in the mirror cooling system. The example case system has five positioning degrees of freedom through the use of precision actuators and rotary and linear bearings. These linkage devices result in complex, multi-dimensional vibratory behavior that is a function of the range of positioning configurations. A rigorous multibody dynamical approach is used for the development of the system equations. Initial results of the study, including estimates of natural frequencies and mode shapes, as well as limited parametric design studies, are presented. While the results reported here are for a particular system, the developed vibratory analysis approach is applicable to the wide range of high-precision optical positioning systems encountered at the APS and at other comparable facilities.

  7. Investigating acoustic correlates of human vocal fold vibratory phase asymmetry through modeling and laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopya

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Daryush D.; Zaartu, Matas; Quatieri, Thomas F.; Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Vocal fold vibratory asymmetry is often associated with inefficient sound production through its impact on source spectral tilt. This association is investigated in both a computational voice production model and a group of 47 human subjects. The model provides indirect control over the degree of leftright phase asymmetry within a nonlinear sourcefilter framework, and high-speed videoendoscopy provides in vivo measures of vocal fold vibratory asymmetry. Source spectral tilt measures are estimated from the inverse-filtered spectrum of the simulated and recorded radiated acoustic pressure. As expected, model simulations indicate that increasing leftright phase asymmetry induces steeper spectral tilt. Subject data, however, reveal that none of the vibratory asymmetry measures correlates with spectral tilt measures. Probing further into physiological correlates of spectral tilt that might be affected by asymmetry, the glottal area waveform is parameterized to obtain measures of the open phase (open/plateau quotient) and closing phase (speed/closing quotient). Subjects leftright phase asymmetry exhibits low, but statistically significant, correlations with speed quotient (r?=?0.45) and closing quotient (r?=??0.39). Results call for future studies into the effect of asymmetric vocal fold vibration on glottal airflow and the associated impact on voice source spectral properties and vocal efficiency. PMID:22225054

  8. OXYCODONE COMBINATIONS FOR PAIN RELIEF

    PubMed Central

    Raffa, R.B.; Pergolizzi, J.V.; Segarnick, D.J.; Tallarida, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY No single analgesic drug provides the perfect therapeutic/adverse effect profile for every pain condition. In addition to convenience and possibly improved compliance, a combination of analgesic drugs offers the potential, requiring verification, of providing greater pain relief and/or reduced adverse effects than the constituent drugs when used individually. We review here analgesic combinations containing oxycodone. We found surprisingly little preclinical information about the analgesic or adverse effect profiles of the combinations (with acetaminophen, paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, morphine, gabapentin or pregabalin). Clinical experience and studies suggest that the combinations are safe and effective and may offer certain advantages. As with all combinations, the profile of adverse effects must also be determined in order to provide the clinician with the overall benefit/risk assessment. PMID:20571607

  9. Localization and quantification of vibratory sources: Application to the predictive maintenance of rolling bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiementin, X.; Bolaers, F.; Rasolofondraibe, L.; Dron, J.-P.

    2008-09-01

    Among the methods which make it possible to establish a diagnosis on the operating condition of a mechanism, the vibratory techniques seem very promising and are booming. The signals collected by accelerometers are the result of a mixture of various sources each of which corresponds to operation of a component. The diagnosis and monitoring of each component require the determination of the contribution of each source in the signal collected. The objective of this work is to use and optimize the techniques applied to the inverse problems with the aim of quantifying the contribution of each source in the obtained mixture, more particularly, the sources which are characteristic of a damaged element. However, the inverse problems are generally unstable. These instabilities are often related to the errors of measurement or the parasites contained in the signals and require methods of stabilization. This paper proposes a methodology, based on the restitution of the sources. Thus, the methodology ensures the detection and the localization of a defect of a component by the optimization of the position of a limited number of sensors. Two approaches are then proposed: the numerical approach which employs an updated numerical model of the studied structure and the experimental approach based on the correlation between the position of the sensors and the modal parameters of this same structure. The experimental validation of this methodology is carried out on a casing made up of two bearings.

  10. Fluctuating wall pressure and vibratory response of a cylindrical elastic shell due to confined jet excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, K. W.

    1988-07-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was conducted to investigate the flow-induced noise and vibration caused by confined jet flows in a cylindrical duct. Unrestricted pipe flow and flows restricted by various orifices were tested for a wide range of velocities to simulate the flow in piping systems. Wall pressure data showed that the noise levels vary with the pipe's axial location, and the peak noise is located near the end of the jet potential core. A non-dimensional wall pressure spectrum was established for the various confined jets by the Strouhal relationship, where the length scale is the jet hydraulic diameter. This jet pressure spectrum agrees with the wall pressure spectrum of a turbulent boundary layer above a rigid plane. Correlations of wall pressure fluctuations and pipe wall acceleration signals showed that jet flows generate more deterministic features than pipe flow. The coherent functions of the wall pressure and pipe wall acceleration signals are relatively high near the exit of the jet. The high coherence is probably due to to the large-scale coherent structures. An analytical model was developed to study the effect of the turbulent jet flow field on the wall pressure and vibratory motion of the duct wall. Based on flow field measurements, the blocked surface pressure was calculated using Lighthill's method, and then used to drive the fluid-filled shell. The wall pressure and pipe wall acceleration were determined by solving the coupled fluid-solid interaction problem.

  11. Electrophysiological responses to vibratory stimulation in the brainstem of the tadpole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Andrea M.; Two, Aimee; Horowitz, Seth S.

    2005-04-01

    Maturation of saccular responses to vibratory stimuli in 3 axes was measured in the Rana catesbeiana tadpole across metamorphic development. The animal was suspended in a water-filled circular aluminum dish attached to a shaker table system consisting of 5 vibration exciters producing sinusoidal, translational movements in the x, y, and z planes. Multi-unit responses were recorded from the medulla with tungsten or platinum-iridium microelectrodes. Recording sites were electrolytically marked to verify electrode placement. Data were collected from 16 animals in late larval stages, before onset of metamorphic climax. Most recording sites were sensitive to vibrations in the z (vertical) direction, indicating a saccular origin of the response. Vibration frequencies of 40 Hz or below produced the strongest activity, with thresholds below a displacement of 10 nm. Secondary sensitivity was sometimes observed to either x (body-longitudinal) or y (body-lateral) directions of movement. Although some sites produced strong phase-locked activity to the stimulation, others showed more diverse temporal patterns of response. Active recording sites were found in the medial vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, reticular gray, and dorsal superior olivary nucleus. These data suggest that tadpole saccule is functional early in larval development, with sensitivity similar to that observed in adult bullfrogs.

  12. Period-doubling bifurcations and routes to chaos of the vibratory systems contacting stops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, G. W.

    2004-03-01

    A two-degree-of-freedom vibratory system contacting a single rigid stop is considered. The stop leads motions with repeat impacts, i.e., vibro-impacts. Such models play an important role in the studies of mechanical systems with amplitude constraining stops. Some non-typical routes to chaos, via period-doubling bifurcations of periodic motions with one impact, are studied. The period-doubling cascades of periodic orbits with one impact are usually discontinuous in the transition of periodic impact to chaos, in which there exist grazing bifurcation, torus bifurcation or Hopf bifurcation associated with multi-impact motions with higher period. A two-degree-of-freedom system having symmetrically placed rigid stops and subjected to periodic excitation is considered also. The system may exhibit more complicated dynamical behavior in the route to chaos via pitchfork bifurcation of period-one double-impact symmetrical motion. The routes to chaos, appearing in the vibro-impact systems, are qualitatively different form the typical period-doubling route to chaos in the usual consecutive maps.

  13. Two Novel Measurements for the Drive-Mode Resonant Frequency of a Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Luo, Bing; Jiang, Mingming; He, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kanghua

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG), one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and inconvenient because of the requirements of many test points, a lot of data storage and off-line analyses. In this paper, we propose two novel measurement methods, the search method and track method, respectively. The former is based on the magnitude-frequency characteristics of the drive mode, utilizing a one-dimensional search technique. The latter is based on the phase-frequency characteristics, applying a feedback control loop. Their performances in precision, noise resistivity and efficiency are analyzed through detailed simulations. A test system is implemented based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and experiments are carried out. By comparing with the common approach, feasibility and superiorities of the proposed methods are validated. In particular, significant efficiency improvements are achieved whereby the conventional frequency method consumes nearly 5,000 s to finish a measurement, while only 5 s is needed for the track method and 1 s for the search method. PMID:24256977

  14. Programmable mechanobioreactor for exploration of the effects of periodic vibratory stimulus on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cashion, Avery T; Caballero, Montserrat; Halevi, Alexandra; Pappa, Andrew; Dennis, Robert G; van Aalst, John A

    2014-02-01

    A programmable bioreactor using a voice-coil actuator was developed to enable research on the effects of periodic vibratory stimulus on human and porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We hypothesized that low frequency vibrations would result in a cartilage phenotype and higher frequency vibrations would result in a bone phenotype. The mechanical stimulation protocol is adjusted from a computer external to the incubator via a USB cable. Once programmed, the embedded microprocessor and sensor system on the bioreactor execute the protocol independent of the computer. In each test, a sinusoidal stimulus was applied to a culture plate in 1-min intervals with a 15-min rest following each, for a total of 15 h per day for 10 days. Frequencies of 1 and 100 Hz were applied to cultures of both human and porcine umbilical cord-derived MSCs. Chondrogenesis was determined by Alcian blue staining for glycosaminoglycans and an increased differentiation index (ratio of mRNA for collagen II and collagen I). Osteogenic differentiation was indicated with Alizarin red for calcium staining and increased bone morphogenetic protein 2 mRNA. One-hertz stimulation resulted in a cartilage phenotype for both human and porcine MSCs, while 100-Hz stimulation resulted in a bone phenotype. PMID:24570842

  15. Programmable Mechanobioreactor for Exploration of the Effects of Periodic Vibratory Stimulus on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cashion, Avery T.; Caballero, Montserrat; Halevi, Alexandra; Pappa, Andrew; Dennis, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A programmable bioreactor using a voice-coil actuator was developed to enable research on the effects of periodic vibratory stimulus on human and porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We hypothesized that low frequency vibrations would result in a cartilage phenotype and higher frequency vibrations would result in a bone phenotype. The mechanical stimulation protocol is adjusted from a computer external to the incubator via a USB cable. Once programmed, the embedded microprocessor and sensor system on the bioreactor execute the protocol independent of the computer. In each test, a sinusoidal stimulus was applied to a culture plate in 1-min intervals with a 15-min rest following each, for a total of 15 h per day for 10 days. Frequencies of 1 and 100 Hz were applied to cultures of both human and porcine umbilical cord–derived MSCs. Chondrogenesis was determined by Alcian blue staining for glycosaminoglycans and an increased differentiation index (ratio of mRNA for collagen II and collagen I). Osteogenic differentiation was indicated with Alizarin red for calcium staining and increased bone morphogenetic protein 2 mRNA. One-hertz stimulation resulted in a cartilage phenotype for both human and porcine MSCs, while 100-Hz stimulation resulted in a bone phenotype. PMID:24570842

  16. Analysis of inservice inspection relief requests

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require inspection (ISI) of boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power plants be performed in accordance with a referenced edition and addenda of Section XI, ``Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components,`` of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The regulations permit licensees to request relief from the NRC from specific ASME Code requirements that are determined to be impractical for the specific licensee. The NRC evaluates these requests and may grant such relief, but the NRC may also impose alternative or augmented inspections to assure structural reliability. The purpose,of this task was to evaluate the basis for ISI nondestructive examination (NDE) relief requests and to evaluate the effect of proposed ASME Code changes that would reduce the need for such requests or provide for more complete information in relief requests. This report contains the results of an analysis of an ISI relief request data base that has been expanded to include 1195 ISI relief requests versus the 296 relief requests covered in the first report in April 1987, EGG-SD-7430. Also relief requests were added to the data base which came from both first and second 10-year inspection intervals for several facilities. This provided the means to analyze the effect of recently approved ASME Code cases and updated Code requirements, some of which have been published as a result of earlier work on this task.

  17. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with 7 CFR part 635. Where a participant believes that detrimental reliance on the advice or action of... equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.3. The financial or technical liability for any action by a participant... that provision, the participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.4....

  18. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with 7 CFR part 635. Where a participant believes that detrimental reliance on the advice or action of... equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.3. The financial or technical liability for any action by a participant... that provision, the participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.4....

  19. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with 7 CFR part 635. Where a participant believes that detrimental reliance on the advice or action of... equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.3. The financial or technical liability for any action by a participant... that provision, the participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.4....

  20. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with 7 CFR part 635. Where a participant believes that detrimental reliance on the advice or action of... equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.3. The financial or technical liability for any action by a participant... that provision, the participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.4....

  1. Inexpensive tamper proof safety relief valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankewich, P. A.

    1970-01-01

    Basic relief valve has added safety relief valve capability that relieves overpressure before failure can occur. It may be installed in inaccesible areas with a high degree of reliability, constructed from a variety of materials, and adapted to the user's specific application.

  2. Relief device for a vacuum vessel

    DOEpatents

    Fast, R.W.

    1987-04-28

    A pressure relief device for a vessel having redundant pressure relief capabilities is disclosed. An annular plate overlies a surface which has an aperture to the vessel. A seal is formed between the surface and annular plate. A solid plate overlies the annular plate. A seal is formed between the solid plate and annular plate. The relief device will open at a first predetermined pressure by lifting the solid plate. In the event the seal between solid plate and annular plate should stick the relief device will open at a second slightly higher, predetermined pressure by lifting the annular plate and solid plate together. Hinging means are provided to reclose the pressure relief device when conditions return to normal. 2 figs.

  3. Relief device for a vacuum vessel

    DOEpatents

    Fast, Ronald W. (Batavia, IL)

    1987-04-28

    A pressure relief device 5 for a vessel having redundant pressure relief capabilities. An annular plate 12 overlies a surface 11 which has an aperature to the vessel. A seal is formed between the surface 11 and annular plate 12. A solid plate 13 overlies the annular plate 12. A seal is formed between the solid plate 13 and annular plate 12. The relief device 5 will open at a first predetermined pressure by lifting the solid plate 13. In the event the seal between solid plate 13 and annular plate 12 should stick the relief device 5 will open at a second slightly higher, predetermined pressure by lifting the annular plate 12 and solid plate 13 together. Hinging means 6 are provided to reclose the pressure relief device 5 when conditions return to normal.

  4. RTLS entry load relief parameter optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crull, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of a study of a candidate load relief control law for use during the pullup phase of Return-to-Launch-Site (RTLS) abort entries. The control law parameters and cycle time which optimized performance of the normal load factor limiting phase (load relief phase) of an RTLS entry are examined. A set of control law gains, a smoothing parameter, and a normal force coefficient curve fit are established which resulted in good load relief performance considering the possible aerodynamic coefficient uncertainties defined. Also, the examination of various guidance cycle times revealed improved load relief performance with decreasing cycle time. A .5 second cycle provided smooth and adequate load relief in the presence of all the aerodynamic uncertainties examined.

  5. Modeling of tower relief dynamics: Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Cassata, J.R.; Dasgupta, S.; Gandhi, S.L. )

    1993-10-01

    In an environmentally responsible, safe and health-conscious design, a relief system must contain all relieving gases or vapors. The system must include treatment of these gases or vapors in a flare, scrubber or other appropriate device prior to discharge to the atmosphere. The benefit of a dynamic simulation is most significant in designing these systems. Dynamic modeling provides accurate answers to key questions which must be addressed. It identifies the design-setting relief scenario for any possible upset such as loss of reflux, power failure, loss of cooling water, fire, etc. It accurately quantifies the maximum relief rate and time dependency of the relief rates. This permits a safe relief system design that is not overly conservative.

  6. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... “Performance of Spring Loaded Pressure Relief Valves on MC 306, MC 307, MC 312, DOT 406, DOT 407, and DOT 412... pressure relief valves. A secondary pressure relief system consisting of another pressure relief valve in... series with a reclosing pressure relief device. Gravity actuated......

  7. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring loaded pressure relief......

  8. Local shape of pictorial relief

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-01-01

    How is pictorial relief represented in visual awareness? Certainly not as a “depth map,” but perhaps as a map of local surface attitudes (Koenderink & van Doorn, 1995). Here we consider the possibility that observers might instead, or concurrently, represent local surface shape, a geometrical invariant with respect to motions. Observers judge local surface shape, in a picture of a piece of sculpture, on a five-point categorical scale. Categories are cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup–flat, where “flat” denotes the absence of shape. We find that observers readily perform such a task, with full resolution of a shape index scale (cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup), and with excellent self-consistency over days. There exist remarkable inter-observer differences. Over a group of 10 naive observers we find that the dispersion of judgments peaks at the saddle category. There may be a relation of this finding to the history of the topic—Alberti's (1827) omission of the saddle category in his purportedly exhaustive catalog of local surface shapes. PMID:25469225

  9. Applying photovoltaics to disaster relief

    SciTech Connect

    Young, W. Jr.

    1996-11-01

    Hurricanes, floods, tornados, earthquakes and other disasters can happen at any time, often with little or no advance warning. They can be as destructive as Hurricane Andrew leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless or as minor as an afternoon thunderstorm knocking down local power lines to your home. Major disasters leave many people without adequate medical services, potable water, electrical service and communications. In response to a natural disaster, photovoltaic (solar electric) modules offer a source of quiet, safe, pollution-free electrical power. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are capable of providing the electrical needs for vaccine refrigerators, microscopes, medical equipment, lighting, radios, fans, communications, traffic devices and other general electrical needs. Stand alone PV systems do not require refueling and operate for long period of time from the endless energy supplied by the sun, making them beneficial during recovery efforts. This report discusses the need for electrical power during a disaster, and the capability of PV to fill that need. Applications of PV power used during previous disaster relief efforts are also presented.

  10. Long-term symptom relief after septoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sundh, Carolina; Sunnergren, Ola

    2015-10-01

    The results for long-term symptom relief after septoplasty are contradictory in reviewed publications but the findings suggest that results are unsatisfactory. In this study, we analyzed and compared short- and long-term symptom relief after septoplasty and factors possibly associated with symptom relief. 111 patients that underwent septoplasty between 2008 and 2010 were included in the study. Medical charts were reviewed for preoperative characteristics and assessments. Data on short-term symptom relief (6 months) were retrieved from the Swedish National Quality Registry for Septoplasty; data on long-term symptom relief (34-70 months) were collected through a questionnaire. Upon the 34-70 month follow-up, 53% of the patients reported that symptoms either remained or had worsened and 83% reported nasal obstruction. Degree of symptom relief was significantly higher among patients not reporting nasal obstruction than among patients reporting nasal obstruction at long-term follow-up. The proportion of patients that reported "my symptoms are gone" declined from 53% after 6 months to 18% after 34-70 months. None of the factors taken into consideration, age at surgery, gender, follow-up time, primary operation/reoperation, history of nasal trauma, self-reported allergy, rhinometric obstruction, or same sided rhinometric, clinical and subjective nasal obstruction were associated with symptom relief. The long-term results after septoplasty are unsatisfactory. A majority of patients report that their symptoms remain after septoplasty. PMID:25432640

  11. Stress.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2008-01-01

    We all experience stress as a regular, and sometimes damaging and sometimes useful, part of our daily lives. In our normal ups and downs, we have our share of exhaustion, despondency, and outrage--matched with their corresponding positive moods. But burnout and workaholism are different. They are chronic, dysfunctional, self-reinforcing, life-shortening habits. Dentists, nurses, teachers, ministers, social workers, and entertainers are especially susceptible to burnout; not because they are hard-working professionals (they tend to be), but because they are caring perfectionists who share control for the success of what they do with others and perform under the scrutiny of their colleagues (they tend to). Workaholics are also trapped in self-sealing cycles, but the elements are ever-receding visions of control and using constant activity as a barrier against facing reality. This essay explores the symptoms, mechanisms, causes, and successful coping strategies for burnout and workaholism. It also takes a look at the general stress response on the physiological level and at some of the damage American society inflicts on itself. PMID:18846841

  12. Menopause: Symptom Relief and Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of menopause and tips for dealing with them. Hot flashes Try to notice what triggers your hot flashes and avoid those things. Possible triggers to ... foods, alcohol, caffeine, stress, or being in a hot place. Dress in layers and remove some when ...

  13. Rain Hampers Tsunami Relief Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The cleanup and relief efforts from the recent tsunamis continue in coastal communities that were ravaged by the waves all across the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains have further complicated the matter and added to the misery in parts of eastern Sri Lanka. Between December 28, 2004, and January 5, 2005, up to 10 to 15 inches of rain may have fallen along the southeast coast of the island, and as much as 20 inches (red areas) fell just offshore. This rainfall map was created by the TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which monitors rainfall over the global tropics. The map shows that many other regions around the Indian Ocean were also affected by the rains, including Malaysia and parts of Sumatra. The heaviest rains fell on December 31 and January 4. The rains were likely the result of a combination of the northeast monsoon interacting with the topography and an active phase of what is known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (or 30-60 day oscillation). The MJO is a large-scale disturbance that propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean into the West Pacific Ocean, bringing extended periods of unsettled weather with it. Individual convective complexes within the MJO can last on the order of a day. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. NASA image produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) and caption by Steve Lang (SSAI/NASA GSFC).

  14. [A significant increase in superficial sensation, a number of years after a peripheral neurologic lesion, using transcutaneous vibratory stimulation].

    PubMed

    Spicher, C; Kohut, G

    1997-01-01

    A patient with sensory changes in the territory of the ulnar nerve due to a partial nerve lesion 19 years previously, was treated by Transcutaneous Vibratory Stimulation. The effectiveness of this treatment was verified by subjective criteria and by the following tests: Moving and Static Two-Point discrimination Test, Light-touch-Deep-pressure (Semmes-Weinstein) Test, Ninhydrin sweat Test and Wrinkle Test. These tests document both a marked improvement in superficial sensitivity and partial regulation of sympathetic nervous system function. PMID:9289003

  15. Reconstruction of Dislocation Potential Relief by Means of Self-Blocking Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Plotnikov, A. V.

    2010-11-15

    The effect of dislocation self-blocking in intermetallic compounds with an anomalous temperature dependence of yield stress has been theoretically and experimentally analyzed. In essence, this effect is a dislocation self-immersion in a deep potential relief valley (without external stress). The possibility of reconstructing the relief shape (from one-valley to two-valley) is shown and the relief parameters are reported. The allowed and forbidden regions for self-blocking are revealed. The method for determining the ratio of the valley depths by measuring the self-blocking limiting angles between the dislocation segments is proposed. Transmission electron microscopy images of the dislocation structure can be used to this end. As an example, this ratio is estimated for a superpartial dislocation sliding in the cube plane in Ni{sub 3}Ge.

  16. Quick-Relief Medications for Lung Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Relief Medications Anticholinergics Short-Acting Beta-Agonists Oral Steroids Long-Term Control Medications Devices for Inhaled Medications ... agonists relax the smooth muscles around the airways. Steroid Pills and Syrups (Oral Steroids) Steroid pills and ...

  17. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the complainant, decline to return the complainant to his or her place of employment if it determines... his or her place of employment is not reviewable. A grant of interim relief does not insulate...

  18. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the complainant, decline to return the complainant to his or her place of employment if it determines... his or her place of employment is not reviewable. A grant of interim relief does not insulate...

  19. 12 CFR 268.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the complainant, decline to return the complainant to his or her place of employment if it determines... his or her place of employment is not reviewable. A grant of interim relief does not insulate...

  20. 12 CFR 268.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the complainant, decline to return the complainant to his or her place of employment if it determines... his or her place of employment is not reviewable. A grant of interim relief does not insulate...

  1. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the complainant, decline to return the complainant to his or her place of employment if it determines... his or her place of employment is not reviewable. A grant of interim relief does not insulate...

  2. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the complainant, decline to return the complainant to his or her place of employment if it determines... his or her place of employment is not reviewable. A grant of interim relief does not insulate...

  3. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the complainant, decline to return the complainant to his or her place of employment if it determines... his or her place of employment is not reviewable. A grant of interim relief does not insulate...

  4. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief.

    PubMed

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher W; Porreca, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward-predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), activation of midbrain dopamine neurons, and the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute or chronic pain. PMID:26603560

  5. Debt relief and financing climate change action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, Adrian; Wright, Helena; Afionis, Stavros; Paavola, Jouni; Huq, Saleemul

    2014-08-01

    Slow progress in scaling-up climate finance has emerged as a major bottleneck in international negotiations. Debt relief for climate finance swaps could provide an alternative source for financing mitigation and adaptation action in developing countries.

  6. The operation of LPG relief valves

    SciTech Connect

    Stannard, J.H. Jr

    1989-11-01

    As stipulated by NFPA 58, all LPG storage containers must be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices. These devices are sized to prevent rupture of a normally charged container when exposed to fire. This paper describes in detail the functioning of the spring-loaded relief valve. The author discusses how the venting of LPGs can produce unacceptable risks and how training is a necessary part of controlling such a situation.

  7. Fluctuating Wall Pressure and Vibratory Response of a Cylindrical Elastic Shell due to Confined Jet Excitations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kam Wing

    A theoretical and experimental study was conducted to investigate the flow-induced noise and vibration caused by confined jet flows in a cylindrical duct. Unrestricted pipe flow and flows restricted by various orifices were tested for a wide range of velocities to simulate the flow in piping systems. Wall pressure data showed that the noise levels vary with the pipe's axial location and the peak noise is located at the vicinity of the end of the jet potential core. A non-dimensional wall pressure spectrum was established for the various confined jets by the Strouhal relationship, where the length scale is the jet hydraulic diameter. This jet pressure spectrum agrees with the wall pressure spectrum of a turbulent boundary layer above a rigid plane. Correlations of wall pressure fluctuations and pipe wall acceleration signals showed that jet flows generate more deterministic features than pipe flow. The coherence functions of the wall pressure and pipe wall acceleration signals are relatively high near the exit of the jet. The high coherence is probably due to the large-scale coherent structures. An analytical model was developed to study the effect of the turbulent jet flow field on the wall pressure and vibratory motion of the duct wall. Based on flow field measurements, the blocked surface pressure was calculated using Lighthill's method, and then used to drive the fluid -filled shell. The wall pressure and pipe wall acceleration were determined by solving the coupled fluid solid interaction problem. The wall pressure was obtained by summing the blocked surface pressure and the pressure due to the wall vibration. An amplitude modulated convecting wave field was used to simulate the moving acoustic sources of the jet. The random nature of the turbulent jet was incorporated into the analytical model. Specifically, the acoustic pressure was assumed to result from hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations which are uncorrelated in the radial direction, but are correlated in the axial direction near the jet exit. Analytical and experimental results for wall pressure and acceleration then were compared for a wide range of parameters of interest. Results from comparisons showed reasonably good agreement.

  8. 46 CFR 56.50-25 - Safety and relief valve escape piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... valve escape piping. (a) Escape piping from unfired steam generator, boiler, and superheater safety... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety and relief valve escape piping. 56.50-25 Section... supported and installed so that no stress is transmitted to the safety valve body. (c) Safety or...

  9. 46 CFR 56.50-25 - Safety and relief valve escape piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... valve escape piping. (a) Escape piping from unfired steam generator, boiler, and superheater safety... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety and relief valve escape piping. 56.50-25 Section... supported and installed so that no stress is transmitted to the safety valve body. (c) Safety or...

  10. 46 CFR 56.50-25 - Safety and relief valve escape piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... valve escape piping. (a) Escape piping from unfired steam generator, boiler, and superheater safety... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety and relief valve escape piping. 56.50-25 Section... supported and installed so that no stress is transmitted to the safety valve body. (c) Safety or...

  11. 46 CFR 56.50-25 - Safety and relief valve escape piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... valve escape piping. (a) Escape piping from unfired steam generator, boiler, and superheater safety... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety and relief valve escape piping. 56.50-25 Section... supported and installed so that no stress is transmitted to the safety valve body. (c) Safety or...

  12. 46 CFR 56.50-25 - Safety and relief valve escape piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... valve escape piping. (a) Escape piping from unfired steam generator, boiler, and superheater safety... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety and relief valve escape piping. 56.50-25 Section... supported and installed so that no stress is transmitted to the safety valve body. (c) Safety or...

  13. Frequency Split Elimination Method for a Solid-State Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro with an Imperfect Axisymmetric-Shell Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhen; Fu, Mengyin; Deng, Zhihong; Liu, Ning; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The resonator of a solid-state vibratory gyro is responsible for sensing angular motion. Frequency splitting of an axisymmetric-shell resonator is a common problem caused by manufacturing defects. The defect causes a frequency difference between two working modes which consist of two nodes and two antinodes. The difference leads to the loss of gyroscopic effect, and thus the resonator cannot sense angular motion. In this paper, the resonator based on an axisymmetric multi-curved surface shell structure is investigated and an approach to eliminate frequency splits is proposed. Since axisymmetric multi-curved surface shell resonators are too complex to be modeled, this paper proposes a simplified model by focusing on a common property of the axisymmetric shell. The resonator with stochastic imperfections is made equivalent to a perfect shell with an imperfect mass point. Rayleigh's energy method is used in the theoretical analysis. Finite element modeling is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the elimination approach. In real cases, a resonator's frequency split is eliminated by the proposed approach. In this paper, errors in the theoretical analysis are discussed and steps to be taken when the deviation between assumptions and the real situation is large are figured out. The resonator has good performance after processing. The elimination approach can be applied to any kind of solid-state vibratory gyro resonators with an axisymmetric shell structure. PMID:25648707

  14. 46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping... Process Piping Systems 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo... cargo that is specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522). (b) A relief valve on a cargo pump...

  15. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have a combined relief capacity, including the effects of back pressure from vent...

  16. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have a combined relief capacity, including the effects of back pressure from vent...

  17. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have a combined relief capacity, including the effects of back pressure from vent...

  18. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have a combined relief capacity, including the effects of back pressure from vent...

  19. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have a combined relief capacity, including the effects of back pressure from vent...

  20. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reduce air pressure to 30 percent of the marked test pressure within 3 minutes after pressure relief... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12 Section 179...-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices...

  1. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reduce air pressure to 30 percent of the marked test pressure within 3 minutes after pressure relief... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12 Section 179...-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices...

  2. The study on ``load relief`` mechanism of multiple cracks in thick-wall cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.H.; Huang, Z.Z.; Tan, Y.; Chen, L.Y.; Pan, B.Z.

    1995-11-01

    In this paper, the stress field on a given cross section in a thick-wall cylinder with single or multiple cracks is analyzed by means of 3-D photoelastic. Based on the study of the effect of crack on stress field, the concept of ``Additional Bending Moment`` is presented and the expression for non-dimensional ABM, M, is derived. The ``load relief`` mechanism of multiple cracks in a thick-wall cylinder is studied.

  3. 76 FR 57082 - Premium Penalty Relief; Alternative Premium Funding Target Election Relief

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION Premium Penalty Relief; Alternative Premium Funding Target Election Relief AGENCY: Pension Benefit... review, and in response to comments by premium payers and pension professionals, PBGC is providing...

  4. Efficiently evaluate complex pressure relief systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.K.; Walker, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    This article will present the steps necessary to perform a comprehensive analysis of complex pressure relief systems. The goal is not to discuss detailed calculations for proper valve sizing and selection, but rather to analyze and verify existing system configurations. Sizing and selection have been covered in detail by the American Petroleum Institute (API) RP 520, API RP 521, various AIChE Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) publications, and other sources. In their work with industry, the authors have noticed a tendency for some engineers to proceed with detailed calculations without first preparing an overall strategy and implementation plan to make sure that the calculations yield the desired results. They have seen detailed pressure relief system analyses costing hundreds of thousands of dollars which, for any number of reasons, are incorrect. The old adage GIGO (garbage in/garbage out) certainly applies to pressure relief system analysis. They will address the thought processes and actions necessary to correctly and efficiently evaluate complex pressure relief systems.

  5. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-03-17

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  6. Relief diffracted elements recorded on absorbent photopolymers.

    PubMed

    Gallego, S; Márquez, A; Ortuño, M; Francés, J; Pascual, I; Beléndez, A

    2012-05-01

    Relief surface changes provide interesting possibilities for storing diffractive optical elements on photopolymers and are an important source of information for characterizing and understanding the material behavior. In this paper we use a 3-dimensional model, based on direct parameter measurements, for predicting the relief structures generated on without-coverplate photopolymers. We have analyzed different spatial frequency and recording intensity distributions such as binary and blazed periodic patterns. This model was successfully applied to different photopolymers with different values of monomer diffusion. PMID:22565744

  7. Dual-mass vibratory rate gyroscope with suppressed translational acceleration response and quadrature-error correction capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, William A. (Inventor); Juneau, Thor N. (Inventor); Lemkin, Mark A. (Inventor); Roessig, Allen W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A microfabricated vibratory rate gyroscope to measure rotation includes two proof-masses mounted in a suspension system anchored to a substrate. The suspension has two principal modes of compliance, one of which is driven into oscillation. The driven oscillation combined with rotation of the substrate about an axis perpendicular to the substrate results in Coriolis acceleration along the other mode of compliance, the sense-mode. The sense-mode is designed to respond to Coriolis accelerationwhile suppressing the response to translational acceleration. This is accomplished using one or more rigid levers connecting the two proof-masses. The lever allows the proof-masses to move in opposite directions in response to Coriolis acceleration. The invention includes a means for canceling errors, termed quadrature error, due to imperfections in implementation of the sensor. Quadrature-error cancellation utilizes electrostatic forces to cancel out undesired sense-axis motion in phase with drive-mode position.

  8. Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara M; Mulvogue, Tamsin

    2009-01-01

    Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress), sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care. PMID:19389223

  9. Modulating the Behaviors of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Via the Combination of High-Frequency Vibratory Stimulations and Fibrous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zhixiang; Duncan, Randall L.

    2013-01-01

    We are interested in the in vitro engineering of artificial vocal fold tissues via the strategic combination of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), physiologically relevant mechanical stimulations, and biomimetic artificial matrices. We have constructed a vocal fold bioreactor that is capable of imposing vibratory stimulations on the cultured cells at human phonation frequencies. Separately, fibrous poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds emulating the ligamentous structure of the vocal fold were prepared by electrospinning, were incorporated in the vocal fold bioreactor, and were driven into a wave-like motion in an axisymmetrical fashion by the oscillating air. MSC-laden PCL scaffolds were subjected to vibrations at 200?Hz with a normal center displacement of ?40??m for a total of 7 days. A continuous (CT) or a 1?h-on-1?h-off (OF) regime with a total dynamic culture time of 12?h per day was applied. The dynamic loading did not cause any physiological trauma to the cells. Immunohistotochemical staining revealed the reinforcement of the actin filament and the enhancement of ?5?1 integrin expression under selected dynamic culture conditions. Cellular expression of essential vocal fold extracellular matrix components, such as elastin, hyaluronic acid, and matrix metalloproteinase-1, was significantly elevated as compared with the static controls, and the OF regime is more conducive to matrix production than the CT vibration mode. Analyses of genes of typical fibroblast hallmarks (tenascin-C, collagen III, and procollagen I) as well as markers for MSC differentiation into nonfibroblastic lineages confirmed MSCs' adaptation of fibroblastic behaviors. Overall, the high-frequency vibratory stimulation, when combined with a synthetic fibrous scaffold, serves as a potent modulator of MSC functions. The novel bioreactor system presented here, as a versatile, yet well-controlled model, offers an in vitro platform for understanding vibration-induced mechanotransduction and for engineering of functional vocal fold tissues. PMID:23516973

  10. The Ins and Outs of Relief Casting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on clay casting that introduces students to relief sculpture. The unit takes three 45 to 50 minute class periods three weeks apart. Discusses each class session in detail: (1) creating the casting; (2) turning out and rinsing the casting; and (3) enriching the surface with color. (CMK)

  11. Tsunami-Relief Groups Advise K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Marianne D.

    2005-01-01

    As American schools pitch in with an array of charitable projects in response to the tsunami in South Asia, experts say educators and students should consider carefully how they can most effectively support relief groups, avoid fund-raising scams, and incorporate their efforts into service-learning programs. When students returned to school after…

  12. 24 CFR 7.44 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interim relief. 7.44 Section 7.44 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICY, PROCEDURES AND PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity Without Regard to...

  13. 24 CFR 7.44 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interim relief. 7.44 Section 7.44 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICY, PROCEDURES AND PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity Without Regard to...

  14. 24 CFR 7.44 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interim relief. 7.44 Section 7.44 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICY, PROCEDURES AND PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity Without Regard to...

  15. 7 CFR 276.5 - Injunctive relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM STATE AGENCY LIABILITIES AND FEDERAL SANCTIONS 276.5 Injunctive relief. (a) General. If FNS determines that a State agency has failed to comply with the...

  16. 78 FR 19136 - Emergency Relief Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477). Docket: For access to the docket to read background documents and comments received... first $2 billion (78 FR 8691). In accordance with the statute, the remainder of the appropriated funds... Register notice of availability of emergency relief funds for Hurricane Sandy (78 FR 8691, Feb. 6,...

  17. 24 CFR 7.44 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interim relief. 7.44 Section 7.44 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICY, PROCEDURES AND PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity Without Regard to Race, Color Religion, Sex, National...

  18. 24 CFR 221.761 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 221.761 Section 221.761 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  19. The power of volunteers in disaster relief.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M

    1993-08-01

    Hurricane Andrew, one of the worst natural disasters in American history, brought out the spirit of caring in medical personnel as volunteers from all over the country came to aid the hurricane's victims. The following is an example of how one massive relief effort can make a difference in thousands of lives. PMID:10127533

  20. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  1. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  2. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN...

  3. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  4. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INSURANCE AND INSURED IMPROVEMENT LOANS FOR URBAN RENEWAL AND CONCENTRATED DEVELOPMENT AREAS Contract Rights... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  5. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section 965.508 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Resident Allowances for Utilities 965.508...

  6. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section 965.508 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Resident Allowances for Utilities 965.508...

  7. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section 965.508 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PHA-OWNED OR LEASED...

  8. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section 965.508 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Resident Allowances for Utilities 965.508...

  9. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section 965.508 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PHA-OWNED OR LEASED PROJECTS-GENERAL PROVISIONS Resident Allowances for Utilities 965.508...

  10. 75 FR 10707 - MORTGAGE ASSISTANCE RELIEF SERVICES

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... are needed to prevent harm to consumers.\\15\\ \\13\\ Mortgage Assistance Relief Services, 74 FR 26130... mortgage loans. Mortgage Acts and Practices, 74 FR 26118 (June 1, 2009). The Commission anticipates that it will publish an NPRM relating to other mortgage practices in the near future. \\15\\ MARS ANPR, 74 FR...

  11. Recommendations on frequently encountered relief requests

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.S.; Ransom, C.B.

    1992-09-01

    This paper is based on the review of a large database of requests for relief from enservice testing (1ST) requirements for pumps and valves. From the review, the paper identifies areas where enhancements to either the relief request process or the applicable test codes can improve IST of pumps and valves. Certain types of requests occur frequently. The paper examines some frequent requests and considers possible changes to the requirements to determine if the frequent requests can be eliminated. Recommended changes and their bases will be discussed. IST of safety-related pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants is done according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section XI. Because of the design and function of some safety systems in nuclear plants, performing Code testing of certain pumps and valves is impractical or a hardship without a compensating increase in the level of safety. Deviations from the Code are allowed by law, as reviewed and approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), through the relief request process. Because of similarities in plant design and system function, many problems encountered in testing components are similar from plant to plant. Likewise, there are often common problems associated with test methods or equipment. Therefore, many relief requests received by the NRC from various plants are similar. Identifying and addressing the root causes for these common requests will greatly improve IST.

  12. Recommendations on frequently encountered relief requests

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, R.S.; Ransom, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is based on the review of a large database of requests for relief from enservice testing (1ST) requirements for pumps and valves. From the review, the paper identifies areas where enhancements to either the relief request process or the applicable test codes can improve IST of pumps and valves. Certain types of requests occur frequently. The paper examines some frequent requests and considers possible changes to the requirements to determine if the frequent requests can be eliminated. Recommended changes and their bases will be discussed. IST of safety-related pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants is done according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section XI. Because of the design and function of some safety systems in nuclear plants, performing Code testing of certain pumps and valves is impractical or a hardship without a compensating increase in the level of safety. Deviations from the Code are allowed by law, as reviewed and approved by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), through the relief request process. Because of similarities in plant design and system function, many problems encountered in testing components are similar from plant to plant. Likewise, there are often common problems associated with test methods or equipment. Therefore, many relief requests received by the NRC from various plants are similar. Identifying and addressing the root causes for these common requests will greatly improve IST.

  13. Lake Tahoe Faults, Shaded Relief Map

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Shaded relief map of western part of the Lake Tahoe basin, California. Faults lines are dashed where approximately located, dotted where concealed, bar and ball on downthrown side. Heavier line weight shows principal range-front fault strands of the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone (TSFFZ). Opaque wh...

  14. 75 FR 75091 - Mortgage Assistance Relief Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... the Treasury, Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection; Designated Transfer Date, 75 FR 57252, 57253... rule included provisions that would: \\16\\ See Mortgage Assistance Relief Services, 74 FR 26130 (June 1... Services, 75 FR 10707 (Mar. 9, 2010) (MARS NPRM). Prohibit MARS providers from making false or...

  15. 24 CFR 7.44 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim relief. 7.44 Section 7.44 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICY, PROCEDURES AND PROGRAMS Equal Employment Opportunity Without Regard to...

  16. Tsunami-Relief Groups Advise K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Marianne D.

    2005-01-01

    As American schools pitch in with an array of charitable projects in response to the tsunami in South Asia, experts say educators and students should consider carefully how they can most effectively support relief groups, avoid fund-raising scams, and incorporate their efforts into service-learning programs. When students returned to school after

  17. 18 CFR 281.215 - Additional relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Permanent Curtailment Rule 281.215 Additional relief. If an interstate pipeline rejects (under 281.210 or otherwise) a request...

  18. 18 CFR 281.215 - Additional relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Permanent Curtailment Rule 281.215 Additional relief. If an interstate pipeline rejects (under 281.210 or otherwise) a request...

  19. 18 CFR 281.215 - Additional relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Permanent Curtailment Rule 281.215 Additional relief. If an interstate pipeline rejects (under 281.210 or otherwise) a request...

  20. 18 CFR 281.215 - Additional relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES NATURAL GAS CURTAILMENT UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 Permanent Curtailment Rule 281.215 Additional relief. If an interstate pipeline rejects (under 281.210 or otherwise) a request...

  1. Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.; Fleming, Michael D.; Molnia, B.F.; Dover, J.H.; Kelley, J.S.; Miller, M.L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, George; Till, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image of Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale (Alaska Department of Natural Resources, 1994), using the 1,000-m digital elevation data set referred to below. An important difference between our image and these previous ones is the method of reproduction: like the Thelin and Pike (1991) image, our image is a composite of halftone images that yields sharp resolution and preserves contrast. Indeed, the first impression of many viewers is that the Alaskan image and the Thelin and Pike image are composites of satellite-generated photographs rather than an artificial rendering of a digital elevation model. A shaded-relief image represents landforms in a natural fashion; that is, a viewer perceives the image as a rendering of reality. Thus a shaded-relief image is intrinsically appealing, especially in areas of spectacular relief. In addition, even subtle physiographic features that reflect geologic structures or the type of bedrock are visible. To our knowledge, some of these Alaskan features have not been depicted before and so the image should provide earth scientists with a new 'look' at fundamental geologic features of Alaska.

  2. 49 CFR 601.42 - Emergency relief docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Emergency Relief Docket in the publicly accessible DOT Docket Management System (DMS) (http://dms.dot.gov... message on its web page (http://www.fta.dot.gov) indicating the Emergency Relief Docket has been...

  3. 7 CFR 635.7 - Procedures for granting equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) Grassland Reserve Program (GRP); (7) Resource Conservation and Development Program (RC&D); (8) Water Bank... relief under 635.6. (d) Requests for equitable relief must be made in writing, no later than...

  4. 7 CFR 635.7 - Procedures for granting equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Grassland Reserve Program (GRP); (7) Resource Conservation and Development Program (RC&D); (8) Water Bank... relief under 635.6. (d) Requests for equitable relief must be made in writing, no later than...

  5. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a vacuum relief device. (b) A vacuum relief device for an MPT must (1) Open at an external pressure of not...

  6. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a vacuum relief device. (b) A vacuum relief device for an MPT must (1) Open at an external pressure of not...

  7. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a vacuum relief device. (b) A vacuum relief device for an MPT must (1) Open at an external pressure of not...

  8. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a vacuum relief device. (b) A vacuum relief device for an MPT must (1) Open at an external pressure of not...

  9. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (a) Each MPT that is designed for an external pressure of less than 7.5 psig must have a vacuum relief device. (b) A vacuum relief device for an MPT must (1) Open at an external pressure of not...

  10. Suicide Prevention for Local Public and Volunteer Relief Workers in Disaster-Affected Areas.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Lu; Yip, Paul S F; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2013-06-11

    OBJECTIVES:: Local workforces play a critical role in disaster relief and reconstruction. However, the mental health of local relief workers might be affected by disasters, threatening the sustainability of local workforces. In this study, we tried to address this concern by investigating the well-being of local relief workers and its association with suicidal ideation. DESIGN:: A retrospective study was conducted. Surveys were designed to collect data from a purposive sample of local disaster relief workers who survived a disaster. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to test hypotheses. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS:: The study sample was from a population of local relief workers in the worst quake-hit regions in China in 2008. The respondents were local relief workers from a town in these regions. All of the 83 local relief workers were invited 11 months after the earthquake, and 70 joined the study, resulting in a response rate of 84.3%. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:: The dependent variable was postdisaster suicidal ideation. The independent variables were bereavement, depression and posttraumatic stress, daily work hours, job burnout, work-family conflict, and work engagement. RESULTS:: Approximately 21.4% of participants reported suicidal ideation after the earthquake in comparison with 7.1% before the earthquake. One potential risk factor was an interaction effect of job burnout and work-family conflict (odds ratio [OR] = 3.738; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.086-12.868). Potential protective factors included daily work hours (OR = 0.317; 95% CI, 0.106-0.952) and work engagement (OR = 0.297; 95% CI, 0.091-0.969). CONCLUSIONS:: Findings suggest that for local relief workers who are also disaster survivors, meaningful engagement such as participation in disaster relief could be salutary to their mental health, but overwork and interference with personal life could be harmful and increase the risk of suicidal ideation. Discretion is needed in managing local workforces, particularly with long work hours and work-family balance. PMID:23760310

  11. 7 CFR 635.7 - Procedures for granting equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for granting equitable relief. 635.7 Section 635.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES....7 Procedures for granting equitable relief. (a) Application for equitable relief by covered...

  12. 7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 3201.59 Section 3201.59... Designated Items § 3201.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition. Products that can be balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as...

  13. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section 154.801... Vent Systems 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3) or less must have at least one pressure relief valve. (b) Each cargo tank that has a volume of...

  14. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178.346-3... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type...

  15. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section 154.801... Vent Systems 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3) or less must have at least one pressure relief valve. (b) Each cargo tank that has a volume of...

  16. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178.346-3... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1846 - Relief valves: Changing set pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relief valves: Changing set pressure. 154.1846 Section... Relief valves: Changing set pressure. The master shall: (a) Supervise the changing of the set pressure of relief valves under 154.802(b); (b) Enter the change of set pressure in the vessel's log; and...

  18. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12 Section 179...-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of... pressure equal to 70 percent of the marked test pressure of tank, flow capacity will be sufficient...

  19. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178.346-3... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1846 - Relief valves: Changing set pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief valves: Changing set pressure. 154.1846 Section... Relief valves: Changing set pressure. The master shall: (a) Supervise the changing of the set pressure of relief valves under 154.802(b); (b) Enter the change of set pressure in the vessel's log; and...

  1. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section 154.801... Vent Systems 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3) or less must have at least one pressure relief valve. (b) Each cargo tank that has a volume of...

  2. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12 Section 179...-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of... pressure equal to 70 percent of the marked test pressure of tank, flow capacity will be sufficient...

  3. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section 154.801... Vent Systems 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3) or less must have at least one pressure relief valve. (b) Each cargo tank that has a volume of...

  4. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section 154.801... Vent Systems 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo tank that has a volume of 20m3 (706 ft.3) or less must have at least one pressure relief valve. (b) Each cargo tank that has a volume of...

  5. 7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 3201.59 Section 3201.59... Designated Items § 3201.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition. Products that can be balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as...

  6. 7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 3201.59 Section 3201.59... Designated Items § 3201.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition. Products that can be balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as...

  7. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Application for Relief 171.3 Oral... make an oral presentation seeking relief in accordance with this paragraph. (b) Other...

  8. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Application for Relief 171.3 Oral... make an oral presentation seeking relief in accordance with this paragraph. (b) Other...

  9. 7 CFR 2902.59 - Topical pain relief products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Topical pain relief products. 2902.59 Section 2902.59... Items § 2902.59 Topical pain relief products. (a) Definition. Products that can be balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as well...

  10. 20 CFR 631.86 - Limitations on disaster relief employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations on disaster relief employment... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.86 Limitations on disaster relief employment. No individual shall be employed under this subpart for more than...

  11. 20 CFR 631.86 - Limitations on disaster relief employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitations on disaster relief employment... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.86 Limitations on disaster relief employment. No individual shall be employed under this subpart for more than...

  12. Crisis Communication Practices at an International Relief Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genova, Gina L.

    2006-01-01

    When a disaster strikes, the affected population relies upon the swift response and aid rendered by relief organizations such as the California-based Direct Relief International. Since 1948, Direct Relief's mission has been to provide essential material resources to locally run health programs in areas affected by natural disasters, wars, and…

  13. 43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relief granted. 1815.1-1 Section 1815.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....1-1 Relief granted. (a) Where an existing timber sale contract does not provide relief to the...

  14. 43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relief granted. 1815.1-1 Section 1815.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....1-1 Relief granted. (a) Where an existing timber sale contract does not provide relief to the...

  15. 43 CFR 1815.1-1 - Relief granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relief granted. 1815.1-1 Section 1815.1-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....1-1 Relief granted. (a) Where an existing timber sale contract does not provide relief to the...

  16. 30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will BSEE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.53... will reduce the pre-application effective royalty rate by one-half on production up to the relief volume amount. If you produce more than the relief volume amount: (1) We will impose a royalty rate...

  17. 30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will BSEE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.53... will reduce the pre-application effective royalty rate by one-half on production up to the relief volume amount. If you produce more than the relief volume amount: (1) We will impose a royalty rate...

  18. 30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will BSEE grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General § 203.53... will reduce the pre-application effective royalty rate by one-half on production up to the relief volume amount. If you produce more than the relief volume amount: (1) We will impose a royalty rate...

  19. 18 CFR 385.1113 - Interim relief (Rule 1113).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim relief (Rule... Under the NGPA 385.1113 Interim relief (Rule 1113). (a) The petitioner may at any time file a request for interim relief in a proceeding under this subpart, setting forth the legal and factual basis...

  20. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section... presentations seeking relief. (a) For violation of section 592 or section 593A. If the penalty incurred is for a... make an oral presentation seeking relief in accordance with this paragraph. (b) Other...

  1. Crisis Communication Practices at an International Relief Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genova, Gina L.

    2006-01-01

    When a disaster strikes, the affected population relies upon the swift response and aid rendered by relief organizations such as the California-based Direct Relief International. Since 1948, Direct Relief's mission has been to provide essential material resources to locally run health programs in areas affected by natural disasters, wars, and

  2. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs ...

  3. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  4. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs ...

  5. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  6. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  7. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.59...

  8. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.71...

  9. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.59...

  10. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... must be equipped with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type and Construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tanks designed to be loaded by vacuum or built to withstand full vacuum. (c) Pressure settings of relief valves. The...

  11. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs ...

  12. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs ...

  13. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section 64.57 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs ...

  14. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cargo tank must be equipped with one or more vacuum relief devices; (2) When intended for use only for... pressures. (2) Each vacuum relief device must be set to open at no more than 6 ounces vacuum. (d) Venting....345-10(e) may be rated at these same pressures. (2) Each vacuum relief system must have...

  15. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  16. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105.10... Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or assembly of a mechanical, liquid, weight, or other type used for the automatic regulation of pressure or vacuum in...

  17. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.71...

  18. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.71...

  19. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.71...

  20. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... equipped with one or more vacuum relief devices; (2) When intended for use only for lading meeting the...) Each vacuum relief device must be set to open at no more than 6 ounces vacuum. (d) Venting capacities...(e) may be rated at these same pressures. (2) Each vacuum relief system must have sufficient...

  1. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.59...

  2. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.71...

  3. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section 64.59 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs 64.59...

  4. High-Performance Valve Promises Safe Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Using an improved valve design developed under an SBIR contract with Stennis Space Center, Marotta Scientific's PRV95 provides stability over the entire operational range, from fully closed to fully open. The valve employs a concept known as upstream control for valve positioning, making it more dependable with excellent repeatability and minimal lag time. The PRV95 design is unique in its ability to maintain a seal near the set point of the relief limit. Typically, relief valves seal tightly up to 90 percent set point and then reseat when pressure is reduced to 85 percent of set point. This new technology maintains seal integrity until 98 percent of set point and will reseat at 95 to 97 percent of set point. This allows the operator to protect a system without exceeding its limits.

  5. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  6. Relief of some small landforms on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J.; Plaut, J. J.; Parker, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Three sets of radar images have been acquired under different viewing conditions by the Magellan synthetic aperture radar: (1) left-looking with varied incidence angles (cycle 1); (2) right-looking with nearly constant incidence angles (cycle 2); and (3) left-looking with varied incidence angles, most of which were smaller than those in (1) except for those acquired on passes across Maxwell Montes with incidence angles larger than those in (1) (cycle 3). Image displacements in the radar images that are caused by the relief of landforms provide several methods of estimating this relief: (1) monoscopic measurements of foreshortening of landforms that are symmetrical in the plane of the look-direction of the radar (includes radial symmetry); (2) stereoscopic measurements of parallax in same-side image pairs (cycles 1-2 and 3); and (3) measurements of parallax in opposite-side image pairs (cycles 1-2 and/or 2-3). Success in methods 2 and 3 (especially 3) depends on identifying conjugate image points in the two images. Here, we report our preliminary results for five impact craters, seven small volcanic edifices, and two lava flows. The three methods mentioned above lead to the interesting result that Venusian impact craters have depth-diameter ratios like those on Mars rather than those on Earth, but some appear partly filled. Our results for de Lalande and Melba also suggest filling, but there may be other causes for their relatively small depth-diameter ratios. A host of small volcanic edifices have relief that can be crudely estimated using the above methods. Relief/diameter ratios for our cratered cones are about the same as those of Icelandic lava shields; some Venusian cones resemble the Martian shields of Mareotis-Tempe and Ceraunius Fossae, but the Venusian relief diameter ratios are larger. The smallest cratered dome is similar in size and profile to a Martian dome north of Uranius Patera; the smallest cratered cone resembles one in Chryse Planitia. Lava flows on Venus that are thick enough to measure are rare, but we have applied methods 1 and 3 to the huge flow of Ovda Regio and flows of an unusual volcano, Mahuea Tholus.

  7. Mathematical Model of a General Motion of Vibratory Machines Driven by Motors of a Limited Power / Model matematyczny ruchu oglnego maszyn wibracyjnych nap?dzanych silnikami ograniczonej mocy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalczyk, Jerzy

    2013-06-01

    The method of creating the mathematical model of over-resonant vibratory machines driven in a general motion by the inertial vibrator of a limited power is presented in the paper. This model can constitute the basis for digital simulation of single- or multi-drive vibratory machines used in industry. It allows to investigate the steady and transient states of these machines as well as to investigate the advanced problems of the free synchronisation of drives. W pracy przedstawiono sposb budowy modelu matematycznego nadrezonansowej maszyny wibracyjnej w ruchu oglnym, nap?dzanej wibratorem inercyjnym ograniczonej mocy. Model ten mo?e stanowi? podstaw? dla symulacji cyfrowej jedno-, lub wielonap?dowych maszyn wibracyjnych u?ywanych w przemy?le. Pozwala on na badanie zarwno pracy ustalonej tych maszyn jak i ich stanw przej?ciowych oraz na badanie zaawansowanych problemw synchronizacji swobodnej nap?dw.

  8. Low-frequency vibratory exercise reduces the risk of bone fracture more than walking: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Gusi, Narcs; Raimundo, Armando; Leal, Alejo

    2006-01-01

    Background Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a new type of exercise that has been increasingly tested for the ability to prevent bone fractures and osteoporosis in frail people. There are two currently marketed vibrating plates: a) the whole plate oscillates up and down; b) reciprocating vertical displacements on the left and right side of a fulcrum, increasing the lateral accelerations. A few studies have shown recently the effectiveness of the up-and-down plate for increasing Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and balance; but the effectiveness of the reciprocating plate technique remains mainly unknown. The aim was to compare the effects of WBV using a reciprocating platform at frequencies lower than 20 Hz and a walking-based exercise programme on BMD and balance in post-menopausal women. Methods Twenty-eight physically untrained post-menopausal women were assigned at random to a WBV group or a Walking group. Both experimental programmes consisted of 3 sessions per week for 8 months. Each vibratory session included 6 bouts of 1 min (12.6 Hz in frequency and 3 cm in amplitude with 60 of knee flexion) with 1 min rest between bouts. Each walking session was 55 minutes of walking and 5 minutes of stretching. Hip and lumbar BMD (gcm-2) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and balance was assessed by the blind flamingo test. ANOVA for repeated measurements was adjusted by baseline data, weight and age. Results After 8 months, BMD at the femoral neck in the WBV group was increased by 4.3% (P = 0.011) compared to the Walking group. In contrast, the BMD at the lumbar spine was unaltered in both groups. Balance was improved in the WBV group (29%) but not in the Walking group. Conclusion The 8-month course of vibratory exercise using a reciprocating plate is feasible and is more effective than walking to improve two major determinants of bone fractures: hip BMD and balance. PMID:17137514

  9. Water Replacement Schedules in Heat Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Although early ingestion of cold water appears to lead to greater relief from heat stress during physical exertion than late ingestion, this difference is reduced toward the end of an hour's work in high heat and humidity. (CK)

  10. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  11. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  12. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  13. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  14. 38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... traumatic stress. When a mental disorder that develops in service as a result of a highly stressful event...

  15. Preliminary evaluation of cavitation resistance of type 316LN stainless steel in mercury using a vibratory horn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawel, S. J.; Manneschmidt, E. T.

    2003-05-01

    Type 316LN stainless steel in a variety of conditions (annealed, cold-worked, surface-modified) was exposed to cavitation conditions in stagnant mercury using a vibratory horn. The test conditions included peak-to-peak displacement of the specimen surface of 25 ?m at a frequency of 20 kHz and a mercury temperature in the range -5 to 80 C. Following a brief incubation period in which little or no damage was observed, specimens of annealed 316LN exhibited increasing weight loss and surface roughening with increasing exposure times. Examination of test surfaces with the scanning electron microscope revealed primarily general/uniform wastage in all cases but, for long exposure times, a few randomly oriented 'pits' were also observed. Type 316LN that was 50% cold-worked was considerably more resistant to cavitation erosion damage than annealed material, but the surface modifications (CrN coating, metallic glass coating, laser treatment to form a diamond-like surface) provided little or no protection for the substrate. In addition, the cavitation erosion resistance of other materials - Inconel 718, Nitronic 60, and Stellite 3 - was also compared with that of 316LN for identical screening test conditions.

  16. Step-response of a torsional device with multiple discontinuous non-linearities: Formulation of a vibratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krak, Michael D.; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    A vehicle clutch damper is intentionally designed to contain multiple discontinuous non-linearities, such as multi-staged springs, clearances, pre-loads, and multi-staged friction elements. The main purpose of this practical torsional device is to transmit a wide range of torque while isolating torsional vibration between an engine and transmission. Improved understanding of the dynamic behavior of the device could be facilitated by laboratory measurement, and thus a refined vibratory experiment is proposed. The experiment is conceptually described as a single degree of freedom non-linear torsional system that is excited by an external step torque. The single torsional inertia (consisting of a shaft and torsion arm) is coupled to ground through parallel production clutch dampers, which are characterized by quasi-static measurements provided by the manufacturer. Other experimental objectives address physical dimensions, system actuation, flexural modes, instrumentation, and signal processing issues. Typical measurements show that the step response of the device is characterized by three distinct non-linear regimes (double-sided impact, single-sided impact, and no-impact). Each regime is directly related to the non-linear features of the device and can be described by peak angular acceleration values. Predictions of a simplified single degree of freedom non-linear model verify that the experiment performs well and as designed. Accordingly, the benchmark measurements could be utilized to validate non-linear models and simulation codes, as well as characterize dynamic parameters of the device including its dissipative properties.

  17. Changes In CO2 Gas Flux And Soil Temperatures Induced By A Vibratory Seismic Source At Solfatara (Phlegrean Fields, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Gresse, M.; Chiodini, G.; Byrdina, S.; Woith, H.; Bruno, P. P.

    2014-12-01

    Solfatara, the most active crater of Phlegrean Fields (Italy) is characterized by a fumarolic activity and an intense diffuse degassing, with 1500 tons of CO2 and > 3000 tons of water vapor released per day. A major part of the emitted water vapor is condensed at the near surface producing a thermal power flux around 100 MW, and contributing substantially to the total water input into the hydrothermal system. On May 2014, during a seismic experiment (RICEN) in the frame of the MED-SUV European project, a Minivib vibratory seismic source was used to generate a frequency modulated seismic signal at different points of Solfatara. We performed CO2 flux measurements at a few meters from the seismic source during the vibrations. In certain points, the vibrations induced a remarkable increase in the CO2 diffuse degassing, with a flux that doubled during the low-frequency seismic vibrations and returned to previous values afterwards. The observed CO2 flux increase could be due to permeability enhancement in the sub-surface soil layers during the seismic vibrations. Close to Fangaia mud pool, we also monitored the soil temperature at different levels above the condensation depth and observed transient temperature changes during the vibrations but also outside the vibration periods. Seismic vibrations likely favor the triggering of thermal instabilities of gravitational or convective origin in the liquid-saturated condensate layer.

  18. Further Examination of the Vibratory Loads Reduction Results from the NASA/ARMY/MIT Active Twist Rotor Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2002-01-01

    The vibration reduction capabilities of a model rotor system utilizing controlled, strain-induced blade twisting are examined. The model rotor blades, which utilize piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators, were tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using open-loop control to determine the effect of active-twist on rotor vibratory loads. The results of this testing have been encouraging, and have demonstrated that active-twist rotor designs offer the potential for significant load reductions in future helicopter rotor systems. Active twist control was found to use less than 1% of the power necessary to operate the rotor system and had a pronounced effect on both rotating- and fixed-system loads, offering reductions in individual harmonic loads of up to 100%. A review of the vibration reduction results obtained is presented, which includes a limited set of comparisons with results generated using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) rotorcraft comprehensive analysis.

  19. Unilateral contact induced blade/casing vibratory interactions in impellers: Analysis for flexible casings with friction and abradable coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batailly, Alain; Legrand, Mathias

    2015-07-01

    This contribution addresses the vibratory analysis of unilateral contact induced structural interactions between a bladed impeller and its surrounding flexible casing. It extends the numerical developments exposed in a previous paper to flexible casings. The casing finite element model and the construction of the associated reduced-order model for efficient computations are first exposed in detail along with an extensive presentation of the smoothing strategy implemented on the contact interface. The proposed algorithms embedding unilateral contact conditions together with abradable coating removal are subsequently introduced and validated through a systematic analysis of (1) the nonlinear procedure for the computation of impeller/casing distances, (2) the treatment of three-dimensional friction and contact forces, (3) the correction of the displacements when unilateral contact or abradable removal arises, and (4) the possible hybrid contact scenarii involving localized total removal of the abradable coating. Finally, two illustrative case studies show that the linear interaction condition, commonly considered for the safe design of impellers and casings in turbomachinery, may be advantageously combined with the presented numerical strategy in order to assess the actual importance of predicted critical speeds.

  20. Low-Level Liquid Waste Processing Pilot Studies Using a Vibratory Shear Enhancing Process (VSEP) for Filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Bushart, S.; Tran, P.; Asay, R.

    2002-02-25

    A previous EPRI study evaluated potential treatment methods for the removal of iron from BWR waste streams. Of the methods investigated, high shear filtration using the vibratory shear-enhanced process (VSEP) showed the most promise to effectively and economically remove high iron concentrations from backwash receiving tank waste. A VSEP filter uses oscillatory vibration to create high shear at the surface of the filter membrane. This high shear force significantly improves the filter's resistance to fouling thereby enabling high throughputs with very little secondary waste generation. With a VSEP filter, the waste feed stream is split into two effluents- a permeate stream with little or no suspended solids and a concentrate stream with a suspended solids concentration much higher than that of the feed stream. To evaluate the feasibility of using a VSEP concept for processing typical high iron containing BWR radwaste, a surrogate feedstream containing up to 1,700 ppm iron oxide (as Fe2O3) was used. This surrogate waste simulates radioactive waste found at Exelon's Limerick and Peach Bottom (powdered resin condensate) plants, and in Hope Creek's (deep bed condensate) radwaste systems. Testing was done using a series L (laboratory scale) VSEP unit at the manufacturer's and contractor's laboratories. These tests successfully demonstrated the VSEP capability for producing highly concentrated waste streams with totally ''recyclable'' permeate (e.g., greater than 95% recovery).

  1. Analysis and Design of a 3rd Order Velocity-Controlled Closed-Loop for MEMS Vibratory Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huan-ming; Yang, Hai-gang; Yin, Tao; Jiao, Ji-wei

    2013-01-01

    The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model's transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop's performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term. PMID:24051522

  2. Digital shaded-relief map of Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

    2004-01-01

    The Digital Shaded-Relief Map of Venezuela is a composite of more than 20 tiles of 90 meter (3 arc second) pixel resolution elevation data, captured during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. The SRTM, a joint project between the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), provides the most accurate and comprehensive international digital elevation dataset ever assembled. The 10-day flight mission aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour obtained elevation data for about 80% of the world's landmass at 3-5 meter pixel resolution through the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. SAR is desirable because it acquires data along continuous swaths, maintaining data consistency across large areas, independent of cloud cover. Swaths were captured at an altitude of 230 km, and are approximately 225 km wide with varying lengths. Rendering of the shaded-relief image required editing of the raw elevation data to remove numerous holes and anomalously high and low values inherent in the dataset. Customized ArcInfo Arc Macro Language (AML) scripts were written to interpolate areas of null values and generalize irregular elevation spikes and wells. Coastlines and major water bodies used as a clipping mask were extracted from 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Venezuela (Bellizzia and others, 1976). The shaded-relief image was rendered with an illumination azimuth of 315? and an altitude of 65?. A vertical exaggeration of 2X was applied to the image to enhance land-surface features. Image post-processing techniques were accomplished using conventional desktop imaging software.

  3. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  4. [Body integrity identity disorder, relief after amputation].

    PubMed

    Blom, R M; Braam, A W; de Boer-Kreeft, N; Sonnen, M P A M

    2014-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a rare condition in which a person, for no apparent physical reason, is tormented by the experience that a body-part, such as a limb, does not really belong to the body. Patients experience an intense desire for the limb to be amputated (a 'desire' formerly referred to as 'apotemnophilia'). We report on a 58-year-old male patient with BIID who froze one of his legs so that he could amputate it himself. A surgeon ultimately intervened and amputated the leg professionally. The patient was extremely relieved and was still experiencing relief at a follow-up three years later. PMID:24446228

  5. Helium pressures in RHIC vacuum cryostats and relief valve requirements from magnet cooling line failure

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the RHIC magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, would pressurize the insulating vacuum in the magnet and transfer line cryostats. Insufficient relief valves on the cryostats could cause a structural failure. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the vacuum cryostat and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed to calculate the helium pressure inside the cryostat. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces were included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Existing relief valve sizes were reviewed to make sure that the maximum stresses, caused by the calculated maximum pressures inside the cryostats, did not exceed the allowable stresses, based on the ASME Code B31.3 and ANSYS results. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The S/F simulation results show that the highest internal pressure in the cryostats, due to the magnet line failure, is {approx}37 psig (255115 Pa); (2) Based on the simulation, the temperature on the cryostat chamber, INJ Q8-Q9, could drop to 228 K, which is lower than the material minimum design temperature allowed by the Code; (3) Based on the ASME Code and ANSYS results, the reliefs on all the cryostats inside the RHIC tunnel are adequate to protect the vacuum chambers when the magnet cooling lines fail; and (4) In addition to the pressure loading, the thermal deformations, due to the temperature decrease on the cryostat chambers, could also cause a high stress on the chamber, if not properly supported.

  6. What a Relief: Using Paper Relief Sculpture to Teach Topographic Map Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    While the struggle persists in science classes to help students visualize in three dimensions, art classes are creating unique sculptures out of paper that produce three-dimensional displays from two-dimensional resources. The translation of paper relief sculpting from the art classroom to the science classroom adds dimension to the teaching of

  7. What a Relief: Using Paper Relief Sculpture to Teach Topographic Map Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    While the struggle persists in science classes to help students visualize in three dimensions, art classes are creating unique sculptures out of paper that produce three-dimensional displays from two-dimensional resources. The translation of paper relief sculpting from the art classroom to the science classroom adds dimension to the teaching of…

  8. Simulation effectively sites surge-relief facilities on Saudi pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, J.J.; Al-Gouhi, A.H. )

    1993-09-20

    Pipeline hydraulic and surge analysis studies of the Saudi Aramco East-West crude-oil pipeline assisted in expanding the system's capacity by 50%. Surge studies predicted that operational upsets, such as the trip of a pump station, cause excessive surge pressures in the pipeline system at new flow rates. Additional surge studies showed that surge-relief stations must be located downstream from each of six pump stations. The new surge-relief stations and an increase in capacity of existing surge-relief stations protect the pipelines at the higher flow rates. The paper describes modeling the system, the analysis of the hydraulics, surge analysis, acoustic transit times, relief valve simulation, surge-relief protection, surge-relief stations, station locations, simulation results, tank sizing, and valve testing.

  9. Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This shaded relief topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are five rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, Zhilovaya, and Kakhtana. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in yellow. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from red through green back to red) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet)similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 240 km (150 miles) x 122 km (77 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

  10. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  11. Shaded relief, color as height Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image of Patagonia, Argentina shows a spectacular landscape formed by volcanoes, rivers, and wind. The area is located just east of the narrow range of the Andes Mountains, about 100 kilometers (62 miles) east of the border with Chile. Interesting features include basalt-capped mesas with sinkholes (lower center), arcuate ridges of windblown beach sands downwind from a salty desert lake (upper center), young volcanic cones(right), and at least one case of what geologists call 'inverted relief'. This happens when lava flows down a valley in soft material and then the soft material is eroded away leaving the former valley as a ridge of lava. These ridges can be seen on the slopes of the volcano in the upper right. Geologists will use SRTM topographic data to study the interaction of volcanic, climatic and erosional processes.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1100 meters(3600 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 225 km (140 miles) x 170 km (105 miles) Location: 41 deg. South lat., 69 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper right Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  12. Design and Analysis of a Novel Fully Decoupled Tri-axis Linear Vibratory Gyroscope with Matched Modes

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Dunzhu; Kong, Lun; Gao, Haiyu

    2015-01-01

    We present in this paper a novel fully decoupled silicon micromachined tri-axis linear vibratory gyroscope. The proposed gyroscope structure is highly symmetrical and can be limited to an area of about 8.5 mm × 8.5 mm. It can differentially detect three axes’ angular velocities at the same time. By elaborately arranging different beams, anchors and sensing frames, the drive and sense modes are fully decoupled from each other. Moreover, the quadrature error correction and frequency tuning functions are taken into consideration in the structure design for all the sense modes. Since there exists an unwanted in-plane rotational mode, theoretical analysis is implemented to eliminate it. To accelerate the mode matching process, the particle swam optimization (PSO) algorithm is adopted and a frequency split of 149 Hz is first achieved by this method. Then, after two steps of manual adjustment of the springs’ dimensions, the frequency gap is further decreased to 3 Hz. With the help of the finite element method (FEM) software ANSYS, the natural frequencies of drive, yaw, and pitch/roll modes are found to be 14,017 Hz, 14,018 Hz and 14,020 Hz, respectively. The cross-axis effect and scale factor of each mode are also simulated. All the simulation results are in good accordance with the theoretical analysis, which means the design is effective and worthy of further investigation on the integration of tri-axis accelerometers on the same single chip to form an inertial measurement unit. PMID:26184217

  13. Design and Analysis of a Novel Fully Decoupled Tri-axis Linear Vibratory Gyroscope with Matched Modes.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dunzhu; Kong, Lun; Gao, Haiyu

    2015-01-01

    We present in this paper a novel fully decoupled silicon micromachined tri-axis linear vibratory gyroscope. The proposed gyroscope structure is highly symmetrical and can be limited to an area of about 8.5 mm × 8.5 mm. It can differentially detect three axes' angular velocities at the same time. By elaborately arranging different beams, anchors and sensing frames, the drive and sense modes are fully decoupled from each other. Moreover, the quadrature error correction and frequency tuning functions are taken into consideration in the structure design for all the sense modes. Since there exists an unwanted in-plane rotational mode, theoretical analysis is implemented to eliminate it. To accelerate the mode matching process, the particle swam optimization (PSO) algorithm is adopted and a frequency split of 149 Hz is first achieved by this method. Then, after two steps of manual adjustment of the springs' dimensions, the frequency gap is further decreased to 3 Hz. With the help of the finite element method (FEM) software ANSYS, the natural frequencies of drive, yaw, and pitch/roll modes are found to be 14,017 Hz, 14,018 Hz and 14,020 Hz, respectively. The cross-axis effect and scale factor of each mode are also simulated. All the simulation results are in good accordance with the theoretical analysis, which means the design is effective and worthy of further investigation on the integration of tri-axis accelerometers on the same single chip to form an inertial measurement unit. PMID:26184217

  14. Pain relief by touch: a quantitative approach.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch-pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending A? pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch-pain interactions. PMID:24361816

  15. Miniature, shielded electrical connector with strain relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diep, Chuong H. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An electrical connector assembly includes a wire bundle having at least one wire with a metal shield surrounding at least a portion of the wire. The shield has an end portion and provides electromagnetic interference protection to the wire. A backshell includes a body and a cover secured to the body together defining an internal cavity with the wire at least partially arranged within the cavity. The backshell provides EMI protection for the portion of the wire bundle not covered by the shield. The backshell includes a hole in a wall of either the body or the cover with the end portion of the shield extending through the hole. The clamp is secured about the body and the cover with the end portion of the shield arranged between the clamp and the backshell grounding the shield to the backshell. The clamp forces the backshell into engagement with the wire bundle to provide strain relief for the wire bundle.

  16. Satellite communications for disaster relief operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivo, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    The use of existing and planned communication satellite systems to provide assistance in the implementation of disaster relief operations on a global basis was discussed along with satellite communications system implications and their potential impact on field operations in disaster situations. Consideration are given to the utilization of both INTELSAT and MARISAT systems operating at frequencies ranging from 1.5 to 4 GHz and to the size and type of ground terminals necessary for satellite access. Estimates of communication requirements for a global system are given. Some discussion of cost estimates for satellite services to support operations are included. Studies of communication satellites for both pre and post disaster applications conducted for NOAA are included as well as recent experiments conducted in conjunction with the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance of the Agency for International Development.

  17. 30 CFR 847.16 - Civil actions for relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil actions for relief. 847.16 Section 847.16... PERMANENT PROGRAM INSPECTION AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES ALTERNATIVE ENFORCEMENT 847.16 Civil actions for... General to institute a civil action for relief whenever you, the permittee, or your agent (1) Violate...

  18. 31 CFR 306.111 - Procedure for applying for relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure for applying for relief. 306.111 Section 306.111 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Relief for Loss,...

  19. 46 CFR 154.912 - Inerted spaces: Relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inerted spaces: Relief devices. 154.912 Section 154.912 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.912 Inerted spaces: Relief devices. Inerted spaces...

  20. 46 CFR 95.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.15-40 Section 95.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details 95.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary... suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon...

  1. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517... and Process Piping Systems 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge crossover headers, cargo hoses, and cargo loading arms must have means to relieve cargo pressure and...

  2. 46 CFR 154.802 - Alternate pressure relief settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alternate pressure relief settings. 154.802 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems 154.802 Alternate pressure relief settings. Cargo tanks with more than one...) Change the set pressure without pressure testing to verify the new setting; and (2) Can be...

  3. 46 CFR 154.802 - Alternate pressure relief settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alternate pressure relief settings. 154.802 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems 154.802 Alternate pressure relief settings. Cargo tanks with more than one...) Change the set pressure without pressure testing to verify the new setting; and (2) Can be...

  4. 49 CFR 179.300-15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.300-15 Section 179... Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) 179.300-15 Pressure relief devices... shall be sufficient to prevent building up pressure in tank in excess of 82.5 percent of the tank...

  5. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517... and Process Piping Systems 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge crossover headers, cargo hoses, and cargo loading arms must have means to relieve cargo pressure and...

  6. 46 CFR 95.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.15-40 Section 95.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details 95.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary... suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon...

  7. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure... Requirements 125.165 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive...

  8. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.345-10 Section 178.345-10... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation 178.345-10 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped to relieve pressure and vacuum conditions in conformance with this section and the...

  9. 46 CFR 193.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 193.15-40 Section 193.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details 193.15-40 Pressure relief. (a... be provided with suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the...

  10. 46 CFR 193.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief. 193.15-40 Section 193.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details 193.15-40 Pressure relief. (a... be provided with suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the...

  11. 46 CFR 154.802 - Alternate pressure relief settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alternate pressure relief settings. 154.802 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems 154.802 Alternate pressure relief settings. Cargo tanks with more than one...) Change the set pressure without pressure testing to verify the new setting; and (2) Can be...

  12. 46 CFR 154.802 - Alternate pressure relief settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alternate pressure relief settings. 154.802 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems 154.802 Alternate pressure relief settings. Cargo tanks with more than one...) Change the set pressure without pressure testing to verify the new setting; and (2) Can be...

  13. 46 CFR 193.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 193.15-40 Section 193.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide and Clean Agent Extinguishing Systems, Details 193.15-40 Pressure relief. (a... be provided with suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the...

  14. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.345-10 Section 178.345-10... Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation 178.345-10 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped to relieve pressure and vacuum conditions in conformance with this section and the...

  15. 46 CFR 95.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.15-40 Section 95.15-40 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details 95.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary... suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon...

  16. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12 Section 179... and 107A) 179.500-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure..., with tank filled with air at pressure equal to 70 percent of the marked test pressure of tank,...

  17. 46 CFR 154.802 - Alternate pressure relief settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alternate pressure relief settings. 154.802 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems 154.802 Alternate pressure relief settings. Cargo tanks with more than one...) Change the set pressure without pressure testing to verify the new setting; and (2) Can be...

  18. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517... and Process Piping Systems 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge crossover headers, cargo hoses, and cargo loading arms must have means to relieve cargo pressure and...

  19. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General... pressure-relieving safety devices shall be designed to facilitate drainage. (c) Stop valves. Stop...

  20. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517... and Process Piping Systems 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge crossover headers, cargo hoses, and cargo loading arms must have means to relieve cargo pressure and...

  1. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure....267 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive internal...

  2. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... following paragraph (d) to the basic clause: (d) Tax relief will be claimed in Germany pursuant to the provisions of the Agreement Between the United States of America and Germany Concerning Tax Relief to be Accorded by Germany to United States Expenditures in the Interest of Common Defense. The Contractor...

  3. 30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will MMS grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of... certain conditions, we will reduce the pre-application effective royalty rate by one-half on production up... royalty rate equal to 1.5 times the effective royalty rate on your additional production up to twice...

  4. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and Process Piping Systems 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES...

  5. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19... Administration 52.19 Area code relief. (a) State commissions may resolve matters involving the introduction of new area codes within their states. Such matters may include, but are not limited to:...

  6. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19... Administration 52.19 Area code relief. (a) State commissions may resolve matters involving the introduction of new area codes within their states. Such matters may include, but are not limited to:...

  7. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19... Administration 52.19 Area code relief. (a) State commissions may resolve matters involving the introduction of new area codes within their states. Such matters may include, but are not limited to:...

  8. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19... Administration 52.19 Area code relief. (a) State commissions may resolve matters involving the introduction of new area codes within their states. Such matters may include, but are not limited to:...

  9. 49 CFR 179.300-15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.300-15 Section 179... Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) 179.300-15 Pressure relief devices... shall be sufficient to prevent building up pressure in tank in excess of 82.5 percent of the tank...

  10. 46 CFR 95.16-35 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.16-35 Section 95.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-35 Pressure relief....

  11. 46 CFR 95.16-35 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.16-35 Section 95.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-35 Pressure relief....

  12. 46 CFR 95.16-35 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.16-35 Section 95.16-35 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-35 Pressure relief....

  13. 31 CFR 306.112 - Type of relief granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Type of relief granted. 306.112 Section 306.112 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL.... SECURITIES Relief for Loss, Theft, Destruction, Mutilation, or Defacement of Securities 306.112 Type...

  14. 31 CFR 306.112 - Type of relief granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Type of relief granted. 306.112 Section 306.112 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL.... SECURITIES Relief for Loss, Theft, Destruction, Mutilation, or Defacement of Securities 306.112 Type...

  15. 31 CFR 306.112 - Type of relief granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Type of relief granted. 306.112 Section 306.112 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL.... SECURITIES Relief for Loss, Theft, Destruction, Mutilation, or Defacement of Securities 306.112 Type...

  16. 31 CFR 306.112 - Type of relief granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Type of relief granted. 306.112 Section 306.112 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL.... SECURITIES Relief for Loss, Theft, Destruction, Mutilation, or Defacement of Securities 306.112 Type...

  17. 31 CFR 306.112 - Type of relief granted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Type of relief granted. 306.112 Section 306.112 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL.... SECURITIES Relief for Loss, Theft, Destruction, Mutilation, or Defacement of Securities 306.112 Type...

  18. 14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure....267 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive internal...

  19. 14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extinguishing agent container pressure... Requirements 125.165 Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive...

  20. 18 CFR 385.1113 - Interim relief (Rule 1113).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interim relief (Rule 1113). 385.1113 Section 385.1113 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Petitions for Adjustments Under the NGPA 385.1113 Interim relief...

  1. 49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) 179.400-20 Pressure relief devices. (a) The tank must be provided with pressure relief devices for the protection of the tank assembly and piping system. The discharge from these devices...

  2. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax Relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... corresponding to that used from inventory for this contract. (d) Tax relief will be claimed in Germany pursuant to the provisions of the Agreement Between the United States of America and Germany Concerning Tax Relief to be Accorded by Germany to United States Expenditures in the Interest of Common Defense....

  3. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... following paragraph (d) to the basic clause: (d) Tax relief will be claimed in Germany pursuant to the provisions of the Agreement Between the United States of America and Germany Concerning Tax Relief to be Accorded by Germany to United States Expenditures in the Interest of Common Defense. The Contractor...

  4. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... following paragraph (d) to the basic clause: (d) Tax relief will be claimed in Germany pursuant to the provisions of the Agreement Between the United States of America and Germany Concerning Tax Relief to be Accorded by Germany to United States Expenditures in the Interest of Common Defense. The Contractor...

  5. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... following paragraph (d) to the basic clause: (d) Tax relief will be claimed in Germany pursuant to the provisions of the Agreement Between the United States of America and Germany Concerning Tax Relief to be Accorded by Germany to United States Expenditures in the Interest of Common Defense. The Contractor...

  6. 32 CFR 2.2 - Statutory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Statutory relief for participating programs. 2.2 Section 2.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PILOT PROGRAM POLICY § 2.2 Statutory relief for participating programs. (a) Within the limitations...

  7. 32 CFR 2.2 - Statutory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statutory relief for participating programs. 2.2 Section 2.2 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PILOT PROGRAM POLICY § 2.2 Statutory relief for participating programs. (a) Within the limitations...

  8. 46 CFR 154.912 - Inerted spaces: Relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inerted spaces: Relief devices. 154.912 Section 154.912 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.912 Inerted spaces: Relief devices. Inerted spaces...

  9. 46 CFR 154.912 - Inerted spaces: Relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inerted spaces: Relief devices. 154.912 Section 154.912 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.912 Inerted spaces: Relief devices. Inerted spaces...

  10. 12 CFR 742.4 - RegFlex relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false RegFlex relief. 742.4 Section 742.4 Banks and... PROGRAM 742.4 RegFlex relief. (a) Exemptions. RegFlex credit unions are exempt from the following... expansion; RegFlex credit unions are instead subject to a six-year partial occupancy requirement...

  11. 3. East and north facades of relief headgate operator's house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. East and north facades of relief headgate operator's house, looking west. Photo by Brian C. Morris, Puget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, Relief Headgate Operator's House, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  12. 12 CFR 742.4 - RegFlex Relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RegFlex Relief. 742.4 Section 742.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY PROGRAM 742.4 RegFlex Relief. (a) Exemptions. RegFlex credit unions are exempt from the...

  13. 49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and... familiar with the construction and operation of the valve being set. (b) Opening pressures. At least one safety relief valve shall be set to open at a pressure not exceeding the MAWP. Safety relief valves...

  14. 49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and... familiar with the construction and operation of the valve being set. (b) Opening pressures. At least one safety relief valve shall be set to open at a pressure not exceeding the MAWP. Safety relief valves...

  15. 49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and... familiar with the construction and operation of the valve being set. (b) Opening pressures. At least one safety relief valve shall be set to open at a pressure not exceeding the MAWP. Safety relief valves...

  16. 49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and... familiar with the construction and operation of the valve being set. (b) Opening pressures. At least one safety relief valve shall be set to open at a pressure not exceeding the MAWP. Safety relief valves...

  17. 49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and... familiar with the construction and operation of the valve being set. (b) Opening pressures. At least one safety relief valve shall be set to open at a pressure not exceeding the MAWP. Safety relief valves...

  18. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... pressure relief valve. The detection device must be a needle valve, trycock, or tell-tale indicator....

  19. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... reclosing pressure relief valve. The detection device must be a needle valve, trycock, or...

  20. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... pressure relief valve. The detection device must be a needle valve, trycock, or tell-tale indicator....

  1. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... pressure relief valve. The detection device must be a needle valve, trycock, or tell-tale indicator....

  2. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... pressure relief valve. The detection device must be a needle valve, trycock, or tell-tale indicator....

  3. 49 CFR 601.42 - Emergency relief docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Emergency Relief Docket in the publicly accessible DOT Docket Management System (DMS) (http://dms.dot.gov... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency relief docket. 601.42 Section 601.42 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT...

  4. 49 CFR 601.42 - Emergency relief docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Emergency Relief Docket in the publicly accessible DOT Docket Management System (DMS) (http://dms.dot.gov... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency relief docket. 601.42 Section 601.42 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT...

  5. 49 CFR 601.42 - Emergency relief docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Emergency Relief Docket in the publicly accessible DOT Docket Management System (DMS) (http://dms.dot.gov... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency relief docket. 601.42 Section 601.42 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT...

  6. 49 CFR 601.42 - Emergency relief docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Emergency Relief Docket in the publicly accessible DOT Docket Management System (DMS) (http://dms.dot.gov... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency relief docket. 601.42 Section 601.42 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT...

  7. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type and construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tank motor vehicles that are designed to be loaded by vacuum in accordance with 178.347-1(c) or built to withstand full vacuum in accordance...

  8. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type and construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tank motor vehicles that are designed to be loaded by vacuum in accordance with 178.347-1(c) or built to withstand full vacuum in accordance...

  9. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type and construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tank motor vehicles that are designed to be loaded by vacuum in accordance with 178.347-1(c) or built to withstand full vacuum in accordance...

  10. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with 178.345-10 and this section. (b) Type and construction. Vacuum relief devices are not required for cargo tank motor vehicles that are designed to be loaded by vacuum in accordance with 178.347-1(c) or built to withstand full vacuum in accordance...

  11. 20 CFR 631.86 - Limitations on disaster relief employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... months for work related to recovery from a single natural disaster (described in 631.3(f) of this part). ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limitations on disaster relief employment... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLE III OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance ...

  12. 46 CFR 154.912 - Inerted spaces: Relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inerted spaces: Relief devices. 154.912 Section 154.912 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.912 Inerted spaces: Relief devices. Inerted spaces...

  13. 46 CFR 154.912 - Inerted spaces: Relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inerted spaces: Relief devices. 154.912 Section 154.912 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.912 Inerted spaces: Relief devices. Inerted spaces...

  14. Emergency relief venting of the infrared telescope liquid helium dewar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, E. W.

    1980-03-01

    An analysis is made of the emergency relief venting of the liquid helium dewar of the Spacelab 2 infrared telescope experiment in the event of a massive failure of the dewar guard vacuum. Such a failure, resulting from a major accident, could cause rapid heating and pressurization of the liquid helium in the dewar and lead to relief venting through the emergency relief system. The heat input from an accident is estimated for various fluid conditions in the dewar and the relief process as it takes place through one or both of the emergency relief paths is considered. It is shown that under all reasonable circumstances the dewar will safely relieve itself, and the pressure will not exceed 85 percent of the proof pressure or 63 percent of the burst pressure.

  15. Shaded relief, color as height, Fiji

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930's. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations top ink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters(4300 feet) of total relief.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 192 km (119 miles) x 142 km (88 miles) Location: 17.8 deg. South lat., 178.0 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  16. Bowenwork for Migraine Relief: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Migraine is a complex neurological disorder characterized by episodic, neurogenic, cerebrovascular inflammation and hypersensitization of brain tissues and the central nervous system, causing severe pain and debility. Research literature points mostly to pharmaceutical prophylactic and symptomatic treatments, nonpharmaceutical, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) approaches, acupuncture, massage and bodywork studies, and none has been published on Bowenwork for migraine intervention. This prospective case report describes one migraineur’s response to Bowenwork (a soft-tissue bodywork technique) with cessation of migraine, neck pain, and analgesic consumption, and improved well-being and activity function. Methods The client received 14 Bowenwork sessions over a four-month period using the self-reporting Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile version 2 (MYMOP2) to evaluate clinically meaningful changes. Baseline MYMOP2 data were recorded prior to the first and subsequent Bowenwork sessions to track changes in migraine and neck pain occurrences, other symptoms, medication use, functional ability and sense of well-being. Specific Bowenwork procedures were applied in each session to address various symptoms. The client did not receive other migraine treatment during this study. Participant A 66-year-old Caucasian female with a history of debilitating migraine since childhood, and severe neck pain and jaw injuries resulting from two motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) sustained as an adult. She had previously sought medical, pharmaceutical and CAM treatments for migraine, neck pain, and right-sided thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) symptoms, with no satisfactory relief. Results The client progressively reported decreased migraine and neck pain until acquiring a respiratory infection with prolonged coughing spells causing symptoms to recur (session 11). Prior to session 12, she experienced an allergic reaction to ingesting an unknown food allergen, requiring three days of prednisone and Benadryl treatment, exacerbating neck pain, but not migraine. At session 14, her MYMOP2 data showed no migraine, neck pain or medication use, improved activity function, and sense of well-being. Symptoms in her right arm and thumb persisted to a lesser extent. Conclusion Bowenwork progressively offered migraine and neck pain relief for one chronic migraineur, with multiple somatic symptoms. Extenuating factors (jaw tension, TOS, respiratory infection, and allergic reaction) added complexity in monitoring progress and selecting appropriate Bowenwork procedures. Further research on Bowenwork’s efficacy for migraine treatment on larger populations is needed. PMID:26977217

  17. Slipping processes in residual badlands reliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Hernández, Jose Luis; Yepes, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    We define slips as structures developed by more or less saturated colloidal suspension that slide down the walls of residual reliefs found in badlands. These suspensions seem to originate in the soils crowning gully reliefs and also from rainwater dripping onto the walls of poorly cemented sediments such as siltstone. We call this process slipping and the resulting morphologies represent a group of minor badlands forms, often linked to piping and fluting. Slipping occurs according to the following sequence of forms: 1. Mud droplets. These are irregular linear structures caused by mud droplets sliding down sub-vertical walls. The droplet is usually found at the end of a small channel. These morphologies represent the course of the sliding droplets that become fossilized and not the impact of the droplets on the sediment. 2. Slips sensu stricto. These are uninterrupted surface structures covering sub-vertical walls to a greater or lesser extent. The thickness of this type of covering varies from a few millimetres to 5cm. The inner structure of the slips consists of small laminas (» 100mm) and on the exterior they often present drip channels. A special case of these forms is butterfly structures, which appear in isolation, with repetitive patterns and the appearance of a winged insect stuck to the wall. 3. Pseudo-stalactites. These are free-standing conical regrowths with some similarity to stalactites in a karst cave. They occur when slips grow to over 5cm thick. The growth of these forms is similar to that of slips, with external superposition of fine, concentric layers with no central pore. A variety of these pseudo-stalactites are nodulous stalactites whose genesis is unknown. In this context, we should mention the existence of occasional stalagmites. In other cases, curtains of pseudo-stalactites can be found where these patterns are repeated finely. A more evolved stage of this form is the coalescence of pseudo-stalactites, representing a massive advance of this process. Pseudo-stalactites are normally found as vertical, but occasionally they lean, indicating movement of unstable blocks. The process can present recycling when some of the forms described become detached and fall. This is more likely on poorly sheltered surfaces, exposed to wind and the direct impact of rain and frost. All forms of slips suggests that these morphologies depend on the varying characteristics of the colloidal suspensions causing them, and constitute intermediate stages in the retention of sediments from erosion, which are very different to the alluvial sediments stored in the drainage network.

  18. 30 CFR 44.16 - Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order. 44.16 Section 44.16 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR PETITIONS FOR MODIFICATION OF...

  19. 30 CFR 44.16 - Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order. 44.16 Section 44.16 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR PETITIONS FOR MODIFICATION OF...

  20. 30 CFR 44.16 - Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order. 44.16 Section 44.16 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR PETITIONS FOR MODIFICATION OF...

  1. 30 CFR 44.16 - Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order. 44.16 Section 44.16 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR PETITIONS FOR MODIFICATION OF...

  2. 30 CFR 44.16 - Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order. 44.16 Section 44.16 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FILING AND OTHER ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS RULES OF PRACTICE FOR PETITIONS FOR MODIFICATION OF...

  3. Influence of relief on permanent preservation areas.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Alexandre Rosa; Chimalli, Tessa; Peluzio, João Batista Esteves; da Silva, Aderbal Gomes; dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Soares Ribeiro, Carlos Antonio Alvares

    2016-01-15

    Many countries have environmental legislation to protecting natural resources on private property. In Brazil, the Brazilian Forestry Code determines specific areas to maintain with natural vegetation cover, known as areas of permanent preservation (APP). Currently, there are few studies that relate topographic variables on APP. In this context, we sought to evaluate the influence of relief on the conservation of areas of permanent preservation (APP) in the areas surrounding Caparaó National Park, Brazil. By using the chi-squared statistical test, we verified that the presence of forest cover is closely associated with altitude. The classes of APP in better conservation status are slopes in addition to hilltops and mountains, whereas APP streams and springs are among the areas most affected by human activities. The most deforested areas are located at altitudes below 1100.00 m and on slopes less than 45°. All orientations of the sides were significant for APP conservation status, with the southern, southeastern, and southwestern sides showing the lower degrees of impact. The methodology can be adjusted to environmental legislation to other countries. PMID:26476068

  4. Image ghosting reduction in lenticular relief prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baar, Teun; Shahpaski, Marjan; Ortiz Segovia, Maria V.

    2014-02-01

    Commonly known lenticular prints use a lens-like system superimposed on a standard 2D print to control the light sent into each direction. Thanks to our 2.5D or relief printing system, we are capable of creating a lenticular effect embedded directly on the prints that does not require the use of a system of lenses. On a zigzag-shaped surface composed of continuous small triangles two source images are interlaced and printed on the sides of the triangular structures, each side corresponding to one of the two intended views. The effect of crosstalk or ghosting is often encountered in lenticular prints. Ghosting occurs when some parts of one source image remain visible for the illumination or viewing direction corresponding to the other source image. In this work, we use an image-content-driven technique that identifies the regions in the source images that are prone to cause ghosting for a given set of viewing angles. For the purpose of eliminating this artefact, a model of the ghosting effect appearance is implemented and used for compensation. We have observed improvements in the quality of the lenticular effect, however the impact on the quality of the prints still needs to be evaluated.

  5. Some effects of applied stress on early stages of cavitation damage. [test facilities for analyzing cavitation flow damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemppainen, D. J.; Hammitt, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    The phenomenon of cavitation flow damage is discussed. The initial phases of damage and the effect of external stresses on the extent to which damage is incurred are analyzed. Three experimental facilities were used to procure the data required: (1) a water loop with venturi, (2) a mercury loop with venturi, and (3) a vibratory facility (stationary specimen, nonflow system). A description of each system is provided for the clarification of test conditions. Photographs of typical cavitation damage instances are included.

  6. A mental health relief programme in Armenia after the 1988 earthquake. Implementation and clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Goenjian, A

    1993-08-01

    An international mental health relief programme for children and adults was implemented in Soviet Armenia after the 7 December 1988 Spitak earthquake. This paper presents: (a) the steps considered essential in the selection, preparation and support of mental health workers for the relief work; (b) a method which facilitated the screening and treating of large numbers of students in their classrooms; (c) the rate of post-traumatic stress disorder (74%) and major depressive disorder (22%) of 582 victims clinically evaluated before entering treatment three to six months after the earthquake; (d) clinical observations of significant psychological problems that may be overlooked in brief crisis-orientated psychotherapy; (e) multiple severe post-earthquake adversities (such as the collapse of the social network, the recurrence of after-shocks, the delay of reconstruction and the ongoing political turmoil) which contributed to the psychological problems of the victims and delayed their recovery; (f) the extension of the outreach programme beyond its traditional therapeutic role to an advisory one to other relief organisations. PMID:8075916

  7. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed.

    PubMed

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar

    2009-05-01

    A number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitudes, and the impact of media exposure. The aim was to expand and improve an already existing model by Cheung and Chan [Cheung, C. K., & Chan, C. M. (2000). Social-cognitive factors of donating money to charity, with special attention to an international relief organisation. Evaluation and Program Planning, 23, 241-253]. The expanded model showed a better fit. Furthermore, the expanded model explained two-thirds of the variance of the intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign. The greatest predictor of the intention to donate proved to be "Past donation to disaster relief campaigns." The factor "News exposure" was indicated to be a valuable additional factor, as it had a significant direct effect on "Awareness of a disaster relief campaign" and was the only factor that had a total effect on all other factors, including "Intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign." PMID:19081135

  8. Relief extraction of rough textured reflecting surface by image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin; Brochard, Jacques; Helbert, David; Khoudeir, Majdi

    2007-01-01

    Rough surface relief extraction is generally made by a mechanical method using a tactile sensor or by using an auto-focus laser sensor. With these sensors we can estimate surface relief from the analysis of a series of profiles. Since these measurements spend a lot of time, we hope that we can determine the relief by image processing. Several methods in the field of image processing have been proposed for relief extraction, such as shape from shading, optical flow, shape from focus and photometric stereovision. Our works are based on the photometric stereovision. In 1980, Woodham indicated that the relief of a Lambertian surface can be determined by the exploitation of a photometric model, which takes into account camera and light source positions according to the plan of surface. The proposed model expresses the gray level on the image according to the local relief variations. Three images of the same relief obtained under different angles of lighting are used to reconstruct the surface relief. From the method of Woodham, several important ameliorations have been proposed by other researchers. But a limit study in section 2.1.3 proves that the above methods worked with Lambert's model is adapted to the diffuse reflection, but not to the specular reflection. Thus, we propose another method to extract the relief of rough textured reflecting surface. In the proposed method, we show that the diffuse and specular components of the acquired images can be decomposed in two independent components. The diffuse component can be processed by Lambert's model, the specular component can be processed according to the position knowledge of facets. Finally, section 3 presents the experimental results obtained by this method, and compares measurement precision with the experimental results obtained by Lambert's model.

  9. Formation mechanism of surface relief structures on amorphous azopolymer films

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ke; Kumar, Jayant; Yang, Suizhou

    2006-04-15

    The electromagnetic force from two interfering light beams on isotropic materials is derived for surface relief grating formation processes. The Navier-Stokes equation is solved for the electromagnetic force induced motion inside the ''photoplasticized'' amorphous azopolymer film. The predicted inscription rates and surface velocities in surface relief grating formation processes are consistent with the experimental evidences, indicating that the surface relief gratings on amorphous azopolymer films are formed by the electromagnetic force on the materials, under the condition of ''photoplasticization'' through sufficient trans-cis-trans isomerization cycling.

  10. Jacketed cryogenic piping is stress relieved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Jacketed design of piping used to transfer cryogenic fluids, relieves severe stresses associated with the temperature gradients that occur during transfer cycles and ambient periods. The inner /transfer/ pipe is preloaded in such a way that stress relief takes place automatically as cycling occurs.

  11. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1200 meters (about 4000 feet).

    Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

    This shaded relief image was created directly from an SRTM elevation model by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 98.1 kilometers (60.8 miles) by 148.1 kilometers (91.8 miles) Location: 27.3 degrees North latitude, 54.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  12. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief Anaglyph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1,200 meters (about 4,000 feet).

    Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 98.1 kilometers (60.8 miles) by 148.1 kilometers (91.8 miles) Location: 27.3 degrees North latitude, 54.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  13. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

    Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

    East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

    North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

    South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.

    To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.

    Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth

  14. Southern California Shaded Relief, Color as Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    From the desert to the mountains to the sea,' this image shows in striking detail the varied topography of Southern California. The data, which cover an area one and a half times the size of New Jersey, were acquired in 15 seconds by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The large V-shape across the center of the image is the intersection of the mountains uplifted along two major faults. The San Andreas Fault is the lower part of the 'V' and the Garlock Fault is the upper part. Between the faults is the western Mojave Desert, including the alternate landing site for the Shuttle at Edwards Air Force Base, near the center of the image. The Pacific Coast appears in the lower left of the image, from Oxnard at the left center edge, curving southeast to Los Angeles. The flat blue area along the top is the southern end of California's Central Valley. Along the right edge of the image is NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Tracking Station. Scientists will use data like these to study a broad range of topics, including ecology, the environment, geology, as well as to make assessments of seismic, flood, and wildfire hazards.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 3000 meters (10,000 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 250 km (155 miles) x 150 km (93 miles) Location: 34.8 deg. North lat., 118.0 deg. West lon. Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

  15. Shaded relief, color as height, Salalah, Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This elevation map shows a part of the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula including parts of the countries of Oman and Yemen. The narrow coastal plain on the right side of the image includes the city of Salahlah, the second largest city in Oman. Various crops, including coconuts, papayas and bananas, are grown on this plain. The abrupt topography of the coastal mountains wrings moisture from the monsoon, enabling agriculture in the otherwise dry environment of the Arabian Peninsula. These mountains are historically significant as well: Some scholars believe these mountains are the 'southern mountains' of the book of Genesis.

    This image brightness corresponds to shading illumination from the right, while colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to brown at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1400 meters (4600 feet) of total relief. The Arabian Sea is colored blue.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 149 by 40 kilometers (92 by 25 miles) Location: 16.9 deg. North lat., 53.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top right Date Acquired: February 15, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  16. 49 CFR 179.300-15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... one or more relief devices of approved type, made of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by the... openings shall be National Gas Taper Threads (NGT) tapped to gage, clean cut, even and without checks....

  17. North exterior elevation of Pope Quadrangle. Note the bas relief ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North exterior elevation of Pope Quadrangle. Note the bas relief sculpture over the doorway, which includes the school motto, Aspirando et Perseverando. - Avon Old Farms School, 500 Avon Old Farms Road, Avon, Hartford County, CT

  18. SHADED RELIEF, HILLSHADE, DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM), NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shaded relief of the state of Nevada developed from 1-degree US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEM is a terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form.

  19. SHADED RELIEF, HILLSHADE, DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM), ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shaded relief of the state of Arizona developed from 1-degree US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEM is a terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form.

  20. SHADED-RELIEF GRIDS FOR US EPA REGION 9

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shaded Relief for the mainland US administrative boundary of the US EPA Region 9 developed from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (NED). The administrative boundary is represented by the state boundaries of California, Nevada, and Arizona.

  1. 46 CFR 193.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary... suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon...

  2. 46 CFR 76.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary, relatively... means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon dioxide...

  3. 46 CFR 76.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary, relatively... means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon dioxide...

  4. 46 CFR 193.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary... suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon...

  5. 46 CFR 95.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary... suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon...

  6. 46 CFR 76.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary, relatively... means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon dioxide...

  7. 46 CFR 76.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary, relatively... means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon dioxide...

  8. 46 CFR 95.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary... suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon...

  9. 46 CFR 76.15-40 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary, relatively... means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within the compartment when the carbon dioxide...

  10. 49 CFR 374.319 - Relief from provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS Adequacy of Intercity Motor Common Carrier Passenger Service 374.319 Relief from provisions. (a... facility and on each bus affected, a notice of the filing of any petition. The notice shall contain...

  11. 49 CFR 374.319 - Relief from provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS Adequacy of Intercity Motor Common Carrier Passenger Service 374.319 Relief from provisions. (a... facility and on each bus affected, a notice of the filing of any petition. The notice shall contain...

  12. 49 CFR 374.319 - Relief from provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REGULATIONS Adequacy of Intercity Motor Common Carrier Passenger Service 374.319 Relief from provisions. (a... facility and on each bus affected, a notice of the filing of any petition. The notice shall contain...

  13. 29. First floor elevator doors with reliefs by E. R. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. First floor elevator doors with reliefs by E. R. Stewart, nearest door shows construction worker - St. Paul City Hall & Ramsey County Courthouse, 15 West Kellogg Boulevard, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  14. Careful: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Careful: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage ... More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Acetaminophen (a∙SEET∙a∙MIN∙o∙fen) is an ...

  15. Parents: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the-Counter Pain Relievers and Fever Reducers Parents: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage ... More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Acetaminophen (a∙SEET∙a∙MIN∙o∙fen) is an ...

  16. Pain Relief Advice May Help ER Patients with Terminal Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... who received usual care in the emergency department. Palliative care is a type of therapy for very ill patients with the goal of offering support and pain relief without attempting to cure the underlying cause ...

  17. Surface relief model for photopolymers without cover plating.

    PubMed

    Gallego, S; Márquez, A; Ortuño, M; Francés, J; Marini, S; Beléndez, A; Pascual, I

    2011-05-23

    Relief surface changes provide interesting possibilities for storing diffractive optical elements on photopolymers and are an important source of information to characterize and understand the material behaviour. In this paper we present a 3-dimensional model based on direct measurements of parameters to predict the relief structures generated on the material. This model is successfully applied to different photopolymers with different values of monomer diffusion. The importance of monomer diffusion in depth is also discussed. PMID:21643349

  18. Inversion of relief a component of landscape evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pain, C. F.; Oilier, C. D.

    1995-05-01

    Inversion of relief occurs when materials on valley floors are, or become, more resistant to erosion than the adjacent valley slopes. As erosion proceeds, the valley floor becomes a ridge bounded by newly formed valleys on each side. Areas of lava flows contain many examples of inversion of relief, but it is also common in areas of duricrusts. Inversion of relief is so widespread in some areas that it should be regarded as a general component in a model of landscape evolution. Inversion of relief has some important implications. Drainage lines will shift significantly over time. Slope-soil relationships (catenas) have to be reassessed, because the regolith on the upper part of a hill slope may have developed under very different conditions from those existing at present. The resulting catena is not a simple expression of soils and response to landscape position. This also has important implications for geochemistry. Where present day ridge tops were once valley floors, geochemical signatures will reflect lateral water movement in the old landscape rather than simple in situ weathering and vertical redistribution in the present landscape. Finally, inversion of relief can produce erosion surfaces of very low relief that cannot be termed peneplains, pediplains or etchplains because they have a very different genesis. This underlines the importance of determining the complexities of landscape evolution before such genetic terms are applied to any landscape.

  19. Statistical Performance Evaluation Of Soft Seat Pressure Relief Valves

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Stephen P.; Gross, Robert E.

    2013-03-26

    Risk-based inspection methods enable estimation of the probability of failure on demand for spring-operated pressure relief valves at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This paper presents a statistical performance evaluation of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves. These pressure relief valves are typically smaller and of lower cost than hard seat (metal to metal) pressure relief valves and can provide substantial cost savings in fluid service applications (air, gas, liquid, and steam) providing that probability of failure on demand (the probability that the pressure relief valve fails to perform its intended safety function during a potentially dangerous over pressurization) is at least as good as that for hard seat valves. The research in this paper shows that the proportion of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves failing is the same or less than that of hard seat valves, and that for failed valves, soft seat valves typically have failure ratios of proof test pressure to set pressure less than that of hard seat valves.

  20. Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

    Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.

    The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Location: 8.33 degrees South latitude, 115.17 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 153 by 112 kilometers (95 by 69 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000