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1

Stress Relief for the Caregiver  

MedlinePLUS

staying strong Stress relief for a caregiver the compassion to care, the leadership to conquer 2 1 Take care of yourself ... caregiver. 6 5 6 Manage your level of stress. Consider how stress affects your body (stomachaches, high ...

2

Stress relief of transition zones  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment.

Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.

1984-01-01

3

Ultrasound Tactile Display for Stress Field Reproduction -Examination of Non-Vibratory Tactile Apparent Movement-  

E-print Network

Ultrasound Tactile Display for Stress Field Reproduction -Examination of Non-Vibratory Tactile mm diameter focal point and 2 gf total force. By steering the focal point using a linear phased array involves various ways to deform the skin surface using mechanical actuators. The strategies to produce

Shinoda, Hiroyuki

4

Reduction of Vibratory Stress of Compressor Vane by Use of Friction Damper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to verify the reduction effect of the friction damper on the vibratory stress of the compressor vane both theoretically and experimentally. First, an analysis method for predicting the damping characteristics of the compressor vane with a friction damper, which applies the substructure synthesis method and the harmonic balance method, is proposed. Secondly, an excitation test of the damper vane is carried out to verify the validity of the analysis method proposed here, and to confirm the damping characteristics of the damper vane. In the excitation test, a newly developed magnetic exciter, which applies the feature of the resonant circuit, is used to vibrate the vane with large excitation force. Vibration characteristics of the damper vane predicted by the analysis show good agreement with the measured results. Finally, to verify the effect of the friction damper, the field test of the actual gas turbine is carried out, where the vibratory stress of the compressor vane with and without the friction damper is measured.

Kaneko, Yasutomo; Mori, Kazushi; Tomii, Masayuki

5

46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

2010-10-01

6

46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

2013-10-01

7

46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

2011-10-01

8

46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

2012-10-01

9

Stress-relief cracking of a new ferritic steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanism of stress-relief cracking in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of low-alloy ferritic steels was studied through a tempering study, stress-relaxation testing, and detailed microstructural characterization. A new ferritic alloy steel, HCM2S, was used as the model system. Common 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel, which is susceptible to stress-relief cracking, was used for comparison to HCM2S. The CGHAZ was simulated using

Jesse Gerald Nawrocki

2001-01-01

10

The stress relief mechanism in laser irradiating on porous films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress relief effect is believed to be the main reason why the porous structure films have high laser induced damage threshold. But there is little systematic theoretical investigation of this view. This essay adopts spherical coordinate model to calculate the temperature and stress distribution in the film and analyzes the local stress redistribution after phase transformation or crush happens. The

Zhilin Xia; Hu Wang; Qi Xu

2012-01-01

11

Stress-relief cracking of a new ferritic steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism of stress-relief cracking in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of low-alloy ferritic steels was studied through a tempering study, stress-relaxation testing, and detailed microstructural characterization. A new ferritic alloy steel, HCM2S, was used as the model system. Common 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel, which is susceptible to stress-relief cracking, was used for comparison to HCM2S. The CGHAZ was simulated using Gleeble techniques. A dense distribution of small tungsten-rich carbides within the prior austenite grains induced secondary hardening in the CGHAZ of HCM2S. The CGHAZ of 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel exhibited secondary hardening due to the intragranular precipitation of many Fe-rich M3C carbides. The hardness of HCM2S was more stable at longer times and high temperatures than 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel due to the intragranular precipitation of small W and V-rich carbides. The CGHAZs of HCM2S and 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel were susceptible to stress-relief cracking between 575 and 725°C. HCM2S exhibited C-curve behavior with respect to the time to failure as a function of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) temperature. No segregation of tramp elements to prior austenite grain boundaries was detected in HCM2S. Both intergranular and intragranular carbide precipitation controlled the stress-relief cracking behavior. The amount of intergranular failure increased with test temperature due to the increasing amounts of Fe-rich M3C carbides at the prior austenite grain boundaries. These carbides acted as cavity nucleation sites. The cavities coalesced to form microcracks along prior austenite grain boundaries. Eventually, the remaining uncracked areas could not support the load and failed by ductile rupture. The balance of intergranular and intragranular carbide precipitation resulted in the C-curve behavior. The nose of the C-curve occurred at 675°C. The intragranular regions were strong because of a dense distribution of W/Fe-rich carbides, but the prior austenite grain boundaries were weak due to a large amount of intergranular M3C carbides. A mechanism for stress-relief cracking in the CGHAZ of HCM2S has been proposed. The results of this study form a basis for heat treating and welding processing variables for HCM2S and 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel to avoid stress-relief cracking. In addition, these results can be applied to other materials to avoid microstructures susceptible to stress-relief cracking.

Nawrocki, Jesse Gerald

12

The stress relief mechanism in laser irradiating on porous films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stress relief effect is believed to be the main reason why the porous structure films have high laser induced damage threshold. But there is little systematic theoretical investigation of this view. This essay adopts spherical coordinate model to calculate the temperature and stress distribution in the film and analyzes the local stress redistribution after phase transformation or crush happens. The influences of porosity and pore radius on stress redistribution have been studied. The results show that: for the case of only local crush occurrence, the changes of porosity and pore radius have little influence on the stress relief effect. For the films with low porosity, the formed thermal stress cannot be alleviated effectively. When local phase transformation happens, the permeation action of high pressure fluid can reduce the local high pressure in the phase transformation zone; on the other hand, it can make the high pressure fluid permeate to film's surface and cause surface tensile stress increase. The final effect is the competitive result of these two mechanisms. Overall, when the permeation action of phase transformation materials happens, the higher porosity or larger pore radius, the higher capability of films to resist laser damage.

Xia, Zhilin; Wang, Hu; Xu, Qi

2012-01-01

13

Stress and Relief: Parents Attending a Respite Program  

PubMed Central

Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine changes in stress among parents of children with special needs in a respite service and consider parental experience of the service. Methods: Families who were enrolled in a ten-month centre-based respite program were invited to participate in the evaluation. Change in parent stress, indexed by the Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), was determined. These results were compared with findings from exploratory qualitative interviews with a subset of parents and a small comparison group who also completed the PSI-SF. Results: At baseline, 69% of parents (n=45) had high total stress scores on the PSI-SF. No significant improvements were detected on parent stress over time or differences from improvements in the comparison group. In contrast, the subgroup of parents (n=10) who participated in the qualitative interviews described substantial benefits from the respite program including a sense of relief and having time for other activities. Conclusions: It is proposed that the respite program may have provided a temporary break to parents thereby bestowing a sense of relief, but was not adequate to impact on more chronic stress patterns, suggesting that these are related but separate constructs and experiences. PMID:23133460

McLennan, John D.; Doig, Jenna; Rasmussen, Carmen; Hutcheon, Emily; Urichuk, Liana

2012-01-01

14

46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

2014-10-01

15

46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

2011-10-01

16

46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

2013-10-01

17

46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

2012-10-01

18

Comparison of Stress Relief Procedures for Cryogenic Aluminum Mirrors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Infrared Multi-Object Spectrograph (IRMOS) is a facility instrument for the Kitt Peak National Observatory Mayall Telescope (3.8 meter) and an engineering prototype for a potential design for the Next Generation Space Telescope/Multi-Object Spectrograph. IRMOS is a low-to mid-resolution (R = lambda/delta-lambda = 300-3800), near-IR (0.8-2.5 micron) spectrograph which produces simultaneous spectra of approximately 100 objects in its 2.8 x 2.0 arcmin field of view using a commercial MEMS multimirror array device. The instrument operating temperature is 80 K and the design is athermal --- the optical bench and mirrors are machined from aluminum 6061-T651. In spite of its baseline mechanical stress relief, aluminum 6061-T651 harbors some residual stress, which, unless relieved during fabrication, may relieve and distort mirror figure to unacceptable levels at the operating temperature. Other cryogenic instruments using aluminum mirrors for both ground-based and space IR astronomy have employed a variety of heat treatment formulae, with mixed results. We present the results of a test program designed to empirically determine the best stress relief procedure for the IRMOS mirrors. Identical test mirrors with spherical and flat optical prescriptions are processed with five different heat treatment formulae from the literature and compared to samples with out any additional processing. After figuring via diamond turning, the mirrors are tested for figure error and radius of curvature at room temperature and at 80 K for several thermal cycles. The heat treatment procedure for the mirrors that yielded the least and most repeatable change in figure error and radius is applied to the IRMOS mirror blanks. We correlate the results of our optical testing with heat treatment and metallographic data.

Ohl, Raymond G.; Barthelmy, Michael P.; Zewari, S. Wahid; Toland, Ronald; Mink, Ronald; Mentzell, J. Eric; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; McMann, Joseph C.; Hylan, Jason; Hagopian, John G.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

19

Fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements: Defining role of stress relief annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study involved fabrication of simulated plate fuel elements. Uranium silicide of actual fuel elements was replaced with yttria. The fabrication stages were otherwise identical. The final cold rolled and/or straightened plates, without stress relief, showed an inverse relationship between bond strength and out of plane residual shear stress (?13). Stress relief of ?13 was conducted over a range of temperatures/times (200-500 °C and 15-240 min) and led to corresponding improvements in bond strength. Fastest ?13 relief was obtained through 300 °C annealing. Elimination of microscopic shear bands, through recovery and partial recrystallization, was clearly the most effective mechanism of relieving ?13.

Kohli, D.; Rakesh, R.; Sinha, V. P.; Prasad, G. J.; Samajdar, I.

2014-04-01

20

Thermo-mechanical stress relief analysis in PMMA and 6000 series aluminum  

E-print Network

Stress relief of materials produced in bulk is a key part of the manufacturing process. The most common kinds are either thermal or mechanical and are commonly applied to commercial metal alloys. A third type, thermo-mechanical, ...

Stephens, Scott, S.B. (Scott A.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

21

Experimental and analytical evaluation of the effects of simulated engine inlets on the blade vibratory stresses of the SR-3 model prop-fan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cooperative wind tunnel test program, referred to as GUN-3, had been conducted previously to assess the effect of inlet configuration and location on the inlet face pressure recovery and inlet drag in the presence of a high-speed advanced turboprop. These tests were conducted with the inlets located just downstream of the SR-3 model Prop-Fan, a moderately swept, eight-bladed 62.2 cm (24.5 inch) diameter advanced, high-speed turboprop model fabricated from titanium. During these tests, two blades of the SR-3 model Prop-Fan were strain gaged to measure the vibratory blade stresses occurring during the inlet aerodynamic test program. The purpose of the effort reported herein was to reduce and analyze the test results related to the vibratory strain gage measurements obtained. Three inlet configurations had been tested. These were: (1) single scoop, (2) twin scoop, and (3) annular. Each of the three inlets was tested at a position just behind the rotor. The single scoop inlet was also tested at a position further aft. Tests were also done without an inlet. These results emphasize the importance of avoiding critical speeds in the continuous operating range.

Bansal, Prem N.

1985-01-01

22

46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...F), an independent tank type C of: (a) Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat treatment under § 54.25-7 of this chapter or by mechanical stress relief under Subpart 54.30 of this chapter;...

2010-10-01

23

Stress-relief displacements induced by drilling--applications to holographic measurements of in situ stress  

SciTech Connect

The holographic stressmeter is an instrument which has been developed at Caltech to allow determination of the complete stress tensor from in situ borehole measurements. The stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a small sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses, concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall in the vicinity of the sidehole. The first part of this study uses a thin infinite elastic plate subjected to plane stress at infinity to model the displacements at the borehole wall. However, the existence of some holograms which were difficult to model closely led us to examine the validity of this model. In order to investigate the problem further, we performed a two-dimensional finite element analysis for an elastic box with a terminated hole. We varied the dimensions of the hole to see what effect the radius and depth of the hole might have on the displacements. The plate model predicts that the depth of the hole should have no effect on the horizontal components of displacement, but the finite element results show that the magnitude of both components of the displacement depends on the depth of the sidehole. After considering these results, we developed a new model for the analysis of stress-relief displacements, following the work of Youngdahl and Sternberg (1965). For holes with a depth-to-diameter ratio greater than unity, the simple plane stress elastic plate solution breaks down and does not adequately model the displacements at the surface of the body and near the hole. Since these are the areas most critical to calculate accurately with the holographic technique, the revised model does a better job of fitting the observed data.

Ahrens, T.J.; Smither, C.L.

1992-04-24

24

LOFT Pressurizer Pressure Relief Piping System Stress Analysis and Fatigue Life Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A stress analysis was performed on the LOFT Pressurizer Pressure Relief System to determine if it met the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, 1974 Edition, for Class 1 and Class 2 components. Deadweight, thermal expansio...

J. W. Muffett

1978-01-01

25

Effectiveness of a Stress-Relief Initiative for Primary Caregivers of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study provides a perspective on the mental health status and analyses the effectiveness of a stress-relief program for primary caregivers of adolescents with intellectual disability (ID). Method: Seventy-seven primary caregivers of people with ID were recruited (intervention group, n = 31; non-intervention group, n = 46) to the…

Hu, Jung; Lin, Jin-Ding; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Wu, Sheng-Ru

2010-01-01

26

Stress relief from reconstructions on SbSi,,001... Yao He, X. H. Zhang, and J. G. Che*  

E-print Network

Stress relief from reconstructions on SbÃ?Si,,001... Yao He, X. H. Zhang, and J. G. Che* Surface; revised manuscript recieved 15 April 2002; published 11 November 2002 The structures and stress of the Sb)2 1 surface is found to be under a tensile stress of 1.0 eV/(1 1 cell along the dimer bond

Che, Jingguang

27

Cloverleaf Vibratory Microgyroscope with Integrated Post  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A modified design and fabrication sequence has been devised to improve the performance of a cloverleaf vibratory microgyroscope that includes an axial rod or post rigidly attached to the center of the cloverleaf structure. The basic concepts of cloverleaf vibratory microgyroscopes, without and with rods or posts, were described in two prior articles in NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 21, No. 9 (September 1997): Micromachined Planar Vibratory Microgyroscopes (NPO-19713), page 68 and Planar Vibratory Microgyroscope: Alternative Configuration (NPO-19714), page 70. As described in more detail in the second-mentioned prior article, the cloverleaf-shaped structure and the rod or post are parts of a vibratory element that senses rotation via the effect of the Coriolis force upon its vibrations. Heretofore, the posts for devices of this type have been fabricated separately, then assembled manually onto the cloverleaf structures. The resulting imperfections in the assembled units have given rise to asymmetric stresses in the cloverleaf structures and, consequently, to changes in resonant frequencies of vibration and in shapes of vibration modes. These changes, in turn, have caused variations in performance among nominally identical devices. The modified design provides for the fabrication of the upper half of the post as an integral part of the cloverleaf structure; this is accomplished by reactive-ion etching of a single-piece half-post-and-cloverleaf structure from a wafer of silicon. The lower half of the post and a baseplate are also a single piece made by reactive-ion etching from a wafer of silicon. The two pieces are bonded together (see figure) by a thermal-compression metal-to-metal bonding technique to form a cloverleaf gyroscope with an integrated post structure..

Tang, Tony K.; Gutierrez, Roman; Roger, Damien

2003-01-01

28

Mechanisms of stress relief cracking in titanium stabilised austenitic stainless steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat affected zone (HAZ) of AISI 321 welds may exhibit a serious form of cracking during service at high temperature. This form of damage, called 'stress relief cracking', is known to be due to work hardening but also to aging due to Ti(C,N) precipitation on dislocations which modifies the mechanical behaviour of the HAZ. The present study aims to analyse the latter embrittlement mechanism in one specific heat of 321 stainless steel. To this end, different HAZs are simulated using an annealing heat-treatment, followed by various cold rolling and aging conditions. Then, we study the effects of work hardening and aging on Ti(C,N) precipitation, on the mechanical (hardness, tensile and creep) behaviour of the simulated HAZs and on their sensitivity to intergranular crack propagation through stress relaxation tests performed on pre-cracked CT type specimens tested at 600 °C. It is shown that work hardening is the main parameter of the involved mechanism but that aging does not promote crack initiation although it leads to titanium carbide precipitation. Therefore, the role of Ti(C,N) precipitation on stress relief cracking mechanisms is discussed. An attempt is made to show that solute drag effects are mainly responsible for this form of intergranular damage, rather than Ti(C,N) precipitation.

Chabaud-Reytier, M.; Allais, L.; Caes, C.; Dubuisson, P.; Pineau, A.

2003-11-01

29

Mediatory myths in the u.s. Military: tobacco use as "stress relief".  

PubMed

Abstract Purpose. To examine perceptions of military personnel about tobacco use. Design. Secondary analysis of (1) focus group and (2) interview data. Setting. U.S. military. Subjects. Total participants (n = 241): Enlisted personnel, supervisors (n = 189 individuals participating in 23 focus groups), tobacco control managers, and policy leaders (n = 52 interview participants). Intervention. Not applicable. Measures. Not applicable. Analysis. Inductive, iterative coding for salient themes using an interpretive approach. Application of the concept of mediatory myths, used by institutions to cover over internal contradictions. Results. All types of participants endorsed the idea that tobacco was needed in the military for stress relief. Types of stress identified included fitting in, (relationships with coworkers and superiors) and control of workflow (taking breaks). Participants also discussed beliefs about the impact of tobacco on the military mission, and institutional sanction of tobacco use. Conclusion. Despite tobacco's well-documented negative effects on fitness, the myth that tobacco relieves stress serves several institutional functions in the military. It serves to minimize perceptions of stress on the fitness of personnel, suggests that stress can be managed solely by individuals, and institutionalizes tobacco use. Growing recognition among military leadership that countering stress is essential to fitness offers an opportunity to challenge this myth. PMID:24359178

Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

2014-01-01

30

Silicon Bulk Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports on design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a novel silicon bulk micromachined vibratory rate gyroscope designed for microspacecraft applications. The new microgyroscope consists of a silicon four leaf cloverstructure with a post attached to the center.

Tang, T. K.; Gutierrez, R. C.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Stell, C.; Vorperian, V.; Calvet, R.; Li, W. J.; Charkaborty, I.; Bartman, R.; Kaiser, W. J.

1996-01-01

31

Stress and stress relief in dielectric thin films - the role of hydrogen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel crack propagation modes are reported in amorphous silicon-rich oxide (SiO x) films deposited onto (1 0 0) silicon substrates and subjected to thermal annealing. These include the formation of straight cracks aligned with <0 0 1> directions in the underlying Si substrate as well as oscillating cracks aligned with <0 1 1> directions in the underlying Si substrate. The cracks are shown to form as the result of increasing tensile stress in the film caused by annealing, with the straight cracks forming at lower tensile stress levels than the oscillating cracks. The increase in tensile stress with increasing annealing temperature in the range 400-650 °C is shown to be correlated with the hydrogen content of the films, as measured by heavy-ion elastic recoil detection.

Elliman, R. G.; Weijers-Dall, T. D. M.; Spooner, M. G.; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Wilkinson, A. R.

2006-08-01

32

Development of a focusing micromirror device with an in-plane stress relief structure in SOI technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design concept for a dynamically focusing micromachined silicon membrane mirror with 6 mm diameter and electrostatic actuation was realized. To eliminate the influence of residual stress a special stress relief design of the membrane`s suspension was developed in order to achieve a distortion-free optical mirror (distortion < ?/10 (? = 1064 nm). Even silicon membranes fabricated in SOI technology mostly suffer from buckling by residual compressive stress caused by mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion between silicon and the buried silicon oxide layer [1, 2].This often leads to severe distortion of stress sensitive devices such as membrane based micro mirror devices [3]. Even though a tensile pre-stress might improve the distortion in case of a non-deformed membrane, a tensile stress in the membrane increases the stiffness and thus reduces the sensitivity e.g. for capacitive sensors or for actuating devices. Different methods are reviewed for stress compensation or stress relief in membranes. We developed and fabricated a new stress relief structure which reduces the stress induced deformation of membranes and leads to substantially flat micromirrors of high optical quality. This is achieved by a special tangential beam suspension which allows an in-plane expansion or contraction of the membrane proportional to its inherent compressive or tensile stress. Optimized beam structures and the voltage dependence of the mirror's deflection were determined by 3D FEM simulations. For membranes with a compressive pre-stress of -20MPa simulations show a decrease in bow to values < 18 nm in comparison with 700 nm for a conventional rigidly clamped membrane. A deflection of 16 ?m within an aperture of 5 mm diameter is theoretically achieved by a voltage U0 = 200 V resulting in a minimal focal length of 97 mm. The fabricated devices have been characterized by the means of interferometric optical measurement. The measurement results are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of FEM simulations.

Kronast, Wolfgang; Mescheder, Ulrich; Müller, Bernhard; Huster, Rolf

2013-03-01

33

Does Daily Kangaroo Care Provide Sustained Pain and Stress Relief in Preterm Infants?  

PubMed Central

Objectives 1. Determine whether stress in preterm infants, measured with salivary cortisol, decreases after five days of Kangaroo Care (KC) compared to five days of Standard Care (SC). 2. To determine whether kangaroo care provides sustainable pain relief beyond the period of skin-to-skin holding. Study Design Preterm infants (n=38) born at 27-30 weeks gestational age were randomized to either the KC or the SC group and received the allocated intervention starting on day of life (DOL) five and continuing for five days. Salivary cortisol was collected on DOL five and again on DOL ten. Differences were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and t tests. Pain during nasal suctioning over five days was assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). Result 1. Adequate saliva samples for salivary cortisol were collected for 13 KC infants and 11 SC infants. There was no main effect of group (p=0.49), but there was a significant main effect of age (DOL five versus DOL ten), with salivary cortisol levels decreasing in both groups (p=0.02). 2. Pain scores for both groups (n=38) indicted mild to moderate pain during suctioning, with no significant difference in pain scores between groups. Conclusion 1. KC did not affect salivary cortisol levels in preterm neonates, but levels in both the KC and SC groups decreased over time from DOL five to ten. Salivary cortisol may vary with age of infant. 2. Infants experience pain during routine suctioning and may require pain management. PMID:24246458

Mitchell, Anita J.; Yates, Charlotte C.; Williams, D. Keith; Chang, Jason Y.; Hall, Richard Whit

2014-01-01

34

In-situ stress measurement program-field results. Determination of the regional stress field in New York State and adjacent areas by in-situ strain relief measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mapping of stress orientations and magnitudes in rock outcrops to identify domains of uniform stress were studied. These uniform stress domains help to redefine uniform stress field domains in rock outcrops of tectonic provinces, and are applicable to the problems of earthquake hazard analysis. An overcoring technique to obtain and evaluate the significance of strain-relief measurements over a relatively

M. L. Sbar; T. Engelder; W. Prell

1975-01-01

35

Mechanical characterization and modeling of brazed tungsten and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy using stress relief interlayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A rapidly solidified foil-type Ti-Zr based amorphous filler with a melting temperature of 850 °C was used to braze tungsten to Cu-Cr-Zr alloy for water cooled divertors and plasma facing components application. Brazed joints of dissimilar materials suffer from a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion. In order to release the residual stress caused by the mismatch, brazed joints of tungsten and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy using different interlayers were studied. The shear strength tests of brazed W/Cu joints show that the average strength of the joint with a W70Cu30 composite plate interlayer reached 119.8 MPa, and the average strength of the joint with oxygen free high conductivity copper (OFHC Cu)/Mo multi-interlayers reached 140.8 MPa, while the joint without interlayer was only 16.6 MPa. Finite element method (FEM) has been performed to investigate the stress distribution and effect of stress relief interlayers. FEM results show that the maximum von Mises stress occurs in the tungsten/filler interface and that the filler suffers the peak residual stresses and becomes the weakest zone. And the use of OFHC Cu/Mo multi-interlayers can reduce the residual stress significantly, which agrees with the mechanical experiment data.

Qu, Dandan; Zhou, Zhangjian; Yum, Youngjin; Aktaa, Jarir

2014-12-01

36

Microneedle Insertion Force Reduction Using Vibratory Actuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of vibratory actuation on microneedle insertion force was investigated. Hollow micro hypodermic injection needles were fabricated by a two-wafer polysilicon micromolding process. A vibratory actuator operating in the kHz range was coupled with the hypodermic microneedles. The force to insert microneedles into excized animal tissue was measured with a load cell. Results showed a greater than 70% reduction

Ming Yang; Jeffrey D. Zahn

2004-01-01

37

Vibratory response of frictionally constrained gas turbine engine blades  

SciTech Connect

This thesis investigates the forced response of frictionally constrained gas turbine engine blades. The main objective is to determine the optimal normal load to be applied at the friction interface for maximum reduction in resonant vibratory stresses in blades. A systematic approach is developed for performing dynamic analyses of frictionally constrained structures, in which linear structures are represented by receptances and friction joints are characterized by nonlinear impedances. The method of harmonic balance, which is widely used in the design of nonlinear dynamic systems, is augmented to solve this particular class of problems. Using this method the structural and the friction interface calculations are carried out independently and then the results are use to perform the nonlinear part of the dynamic analysis. With this particular feature of the approach, complex structural and friction interface models can be quite easily incorporated in design of friction dampers which control the vibratory motion of blades.

Menq, C.H.

1985-01-01

38

GEC Ferranti piezo vibratory gyroscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prototypes of a piezo-electric vibratory angular rate transducer (gyroscope) (PVG) have been constructed and evaluated. The construction is on the lines suggested by Burdess. The sensitive element is a cylinder of radially poled piezo-electric ceramic. The cylinder is metallized inside and out, and the outer metallization is divided into eight electrodes. The metallization on the inside is earthed. A phase locked loop, using pairs of the electrodes, causes the cylinder to vibrate in one of its two fundamental, degenerate modes. In the presence of rotation, some of the vibration is coupled into the outer mode. This can be detected, or suppressed with a closed-up technique and provides a measure of rotation rate. The gyroscope provides a number of advantages over rotating mass and optical instruments: low size and mass, lower power consumption, potentially high reliability, potentially good dormancy, low cost and high maximum rate.

Nuttall, J. D.

1993-01-01

39

Restoration and stress relief through physical activities in forests and parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field survey assessed the restorative effects of visiting an urban forest and a city park in Zurich, Switzerland. Respondents rated their headaches, level of stress, and how balanced they felt both prior to visiting the outdoor location and at the time of being interviewed. Suffering from headaches and stress decreased significantly, and feeling well-balanced increased significantly. The recovery ratio

Ralf Hansmann; Stella-Maria Hug; Klaus Seeland

2007-01-01

40

Three-dimensional stress-relief displacements from blind-hole drilling: a parametric description  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optically-based interferometric techniques are finding increased application to the quantitative determination of near surface\\u000a stress states. Unlike the standardized strain-gage method of hole drilling, however, some optical methods are sensitive to\\u000a all three components of the displacement field produced by drilling of the stress-relieving hole. Analysis of the resulting\\u000a fringe patterns necessitates a full knowledge of such motions. Here, direct

Ismael Rumzan; Douglas R. Schmitt

2003-01-01

41

Three-dimensional stress relief displacement resulting from drilling a blind hole in acrylic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of optically based, hole-drilling stress measurements require accurate knowledge of the three-dimensional relaxation displacements induced by the drilling of a blind hole into the surface of a stressed object. These displacements are calculated using two closed-form solutions proposed earlier and a numerical finite element technique. Double exposure holographic fringe patterns calculated from the analytic displacements are in poor agreement

D. R. Schmitt; Y. Li

1996-01-01

42

Non-inertial calibration of vibratory gyroscopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The electrostatic elements already present in a vibratory gyroscope are used to simulate the Coriolis forces. An artificial electrostatic rotation signal is added to the closed-loop force rebalance system. Because the Coriolis force is at the same frequency as the artificial electrostatic force, the simulated force may be introduced into the system to perform an inertial test on MEMS vibratory gyroscopes without the use of a rotation table.

Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor)

2003-01-01

43

Light-induced stress relief to improve flaw tolerance in network polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the ability to use photoactivated stress relaxation to improve flaw tolerance in network polymers. Unlike most self-healing polymers, which effectively close flaws by locally introducing healing agents (such as uncured resins), here light is used to relax elevated stresses around a flaw before it reaches a critical state, which reduces the threat that the flaw poses to the structural integrity of the material. In this study, we fabricate specimens with well-defined flaws and uniaxially stretch them to failure. By irradiating the specimens with UV light (365 nm) before failure, the nominal strain at failure is increased by 70% and the corresponding nominal stress is increased by 30% compared with nonirradiated specimens. To better understand the phenomena that occur at the multiaxial stress state at the flaw, we model the photomechanics using a recently developed finite element approach that accurately describes the light propagation, photochemistry, radical-induced network evolution, and the mechanical behavior of the material. Model predictions agree well with the experimental results and elucidate the role that photoinduced stress relaxation has on improving flaw tolerance.

Long, Kevin N.; Dunn, Martin L.; Scott, Timothy F.; Turpin, Lucas P.; Qi, H. Jerry

2010-03-01

44

Light-induced stress relief to improve flaw tolerance in network polymers  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the ability to use photoactivated stress relaxation to improve flaw tolerance in network polymers. Unlike most self-healing polymers, which effectively close flaws by locally introducing healing agents (such as uncured resins), here light is used to relax elevated stresses around a flaw before it reaches a critical state, which reduces the threat that the flaw poses to the structural integrity of the material. In this study, we fabricate specimens with well-defined flaws and uniaxially stretch them to failure. By irradiating the specimens with UV light (365 nm) before failure, the nominal strain at failure is increased by 70% and the corresponding nominal stress is increased by 30% compared with nonirradiated specimens. To better understand the phenomena that occur at the multiaxial stress state at the flaw, we model the photomechanics using a recently developed finite element approach that accurately describes the light propagation, photochemistry, radical-induced network evolution, and the mechanical behavior of the material. Model predictions agree well with the experimental results and elucidate the role that photoinduced stress relaxation has on improving flaw tolerance.

Long, Kevin N.; Dunn, Martin L.; Scott, Timothy F.; Turpin, Lucas P.; Qi, H. Jerry [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

2010-03-15

45

Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase is required for genotoxic stress relief in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Genotoxic stress activates complex cellular responses allowing for the repair of DNA damage and proper cell recovery. Although plants are exposed constantly to increasing solar UV irradiation, the signaling cascades activated by genotoxic environments are largely unknown. We have identified an Arabidopsis mutant (mkp1) hypersensitive to genotoxic stress treatments (UV-C and methyl methanesulphonate) due to disruption of a gene that encodes an Arabidopsis homolog of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (AtMKP1). Growth of the mkp1 mutant under standard conditions is indistinguishable from wild type, indicating a stress-specific function of AtMKP1. MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs), the potent inactivators of MAP kinases, are considered important regulators of MAP kinase signaling. Although biochemical data from mammalian cell cultures suggests an involvement of MKPs in cellular stress responses, there is no in vivo genetic support for this view in any multicellular organism. The genetic and biochemical data presented here imply a central role for a MAP kinase cascade in genotoxic stress signaling in plants and indicate AtMKP1 to be a crucial regulator of the MAP kinase activity in vivo, determining the outcome of the cellular reaction and the level of genotoxic resistance. PMID:11274055

Ulm, Roman; Revenkova, Ekaterina; di Sansebastiano, Gian-Pietro; Bechtold, Nicole; Paszkowski, Jerzy

2001-01-01

46

Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

1941-01-01

47

Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics  

SciTech Connect

High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{l_brace}200{r_brace}in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}-cos{sup 2} {psi} plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90 Degree-Sign ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{l_brace}200{r_brace}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

Hall, D. A.; Mori, T. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Comyn, T. P. [Institute for Materials Research, Woodhouse Lane, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ringgaard, E. [Meggitt Sensing Systems, Hejreskovvej 18A, 3490 Kvistgaard (Denmark); Wright, J. P. [ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

2013-07-14

48

400-Fold Reduction in Saturation Field by Stress Relief in Multilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common problem in soft magnetic thin films is increased saturation field due to stress buildup with increasing thickness. We have found a solution to the problem using multilayers of a magnetic thin film and a film that is either not lattice matched or has a different crystal structure. Reductions in the saturation field as large as 400 fold are found. The ultrasoft Ni77Fe14Cu5Mo4 alloy can have saturation fields as small as 0.005 mT (0.05 Oe) for 10 nm thick films. However, for films 400 nm thick (which are needed for some applications) the saturation field is typically 20 mT. Splitting this magnetic thin film up into segments 100 nm thick separated by a 5 nm Ag film reduces the saturation field to 0.05 mT. Alternatively, using a 2 nm CoFe film yields a saturation field of 0.1 mT. A tensile stresses of 7.35 x 10^9 dynes/cm^2 was measured in the 400 nm film and 3.7 x 10^7 dynes/cm^2 for the multilayer with Ag. The highly-stressed Ni77Fe14Cu5Mo4 develops a magnetostriction coefficient of ˜5 ppm, although in the unstressed state its magnetostriction coefficient is near zero. In conclusion, we have found a solution to the stress-induced large saturation fields in an otherwise soft magnetic film. The results should be important for ultra-low magnetic-field tunnel-junction sensors and magnetic flux concentrators.

Egelhoff, William; Bonevich, John; Beauchamp, Carlos; Stafford, Gery; Unguris, John; Pong, Philip; McMichael, Robert

2009-03-01

49

Stress-relief displacements induced by drilling--applications to holographic measurements of in situ stress. Final technical report, August 15, 1988--August 14, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The holographic stressmeter is an instrument which has been developed at Caltech to allow determination of the complete stress tensor from in situ borehole measurements. The stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a small sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses, concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall in the vicinity of the sidehole. The first part of this study uses a thin infinite elastic plate subjected to plane stress at infinity to model the displacements at the borehole wall. However, the existence of some holograms which were difficult to model closely led us to examine the validity of this model. In order to investigate the problem further, we performed a two-dimensional finite element analysis for an elastic box with a terminated hole. We varied the dimensions of the hole to see what effect the radius and depth of the hole might have on the displacements. The plate model predicts that the depth of the hole should have no effect on the horizontal components of displacement, but the finite element results show that the magnitude of both components of the displacement depends on the depth of the sidehole. After considering these results, we developed a new model for the analysis of stress-relief displacements, following the work of Youngdahl and Sternberg (1965). For holes with a depth-to-diameter ratio greater than unity, the simple plane stress elastic plate solution breaks down and does not adequately model the displacements at the surface of the body and near the hole. Since these are the areas most critical to calculate accurately with the holographic technique, the revised model does a better job of fitting the observed data.

Ahrens, T.J.; Smither, C.L.

1992-04-24

50

Disability and posttraumatic stress disorder in disaster relief workers responding to September 11, 2001 World Trade Center disaster.  

PubMed

Empirical evidence suggests that social and occupational disability plays a significant role in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study was to assess the role of social/occupational disability and to identify predictors of the development of PTSD in a group of disaster relief workers (DRWs) who had been deployed to the World Trade Center (WTC) following September 11, 2001. Eight hundred forty-two utility workers completed a battery of comprehensive tests measuring PTSD and social occupational functioning. Results indicated a significant association between PTSD symptoms and impaired social/occupational functioning. Symptomatic workers were also more likely to have a history of trauma, panic disorder, and depression. Those with a history of trauma, depression, generalized anxiety disorder or panic reported significantly more disability than those without a psychiatric history. Careful screening of PTSD and social/occupational functioning in DRWs following a disaster is warranted so that early treatment can be undertaken to prevent a chronic and disabling course. PMID:19388060

Evans, Susan; Patt, Ivy; Giosan, Cezar; Spielman, Lisa; Difede, JoAnn

2009-07-01

51

Effect of angular inflow on the vibratory response of a counter-rotating propeller  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report presents the results of a propeller vibratory stress survey on the Fairey Gannet aircraft aimed at giving an assessment of the difference in vibratory response between single and counter-rotating propeller operation in angular inflow. The survey showed that counter-rotating operation of the propeller had the effect of increasing the IP response of the rear propeller by approximately 25 percent over comparable single-rotation operation while counter-rotating operation did not significantly influence the IP response of the front propeller.

Turnberg, J. E.; Brown, P. C.

1985-01-01

52

Type I and Type II Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes  

E-print Network

Type I and Type II Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes Andrei M. Shkel Mechanical & Aerospace-mail: ashkel@uci.edu Abstract-- All Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes (MVG) are based on the principle of vibration. Vibratory Gyroscopes can be classified into two broad types, angle gyroscopes (or Type I

Tang, William C

53

Troubled Asset Relief Program: Bank Stress Test Offers Lessons as Regulators Take Further Actions to Strengthen Supervisory Oversight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Supervisory Capital Assessment Program (SCAP) was established under the Capital Assistance Program (CAP)--a component of the Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP)--to assess whether the 19 largest U.S. bank holding companies (BHC) had enough capital to...

2010-01-01

54

Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream  

DOEpatents

A vibratory fluid pump is described having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments. 3 figs.

Merrigan, M.A.; Woloshun, K.A.

1990-11-13

55

Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream  

DOEpatents

A vibratory fluid pump having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments.

Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM); Woloshun, Keith A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

56

A surface-micromachined tunable vibratory gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tunable vibratory microgyroscope was fabricated by surface micromachining technology. The 7.5 ?m-thick polysilicon structural layer was deposited using LPCVD at 625°C. The resonant frequency in the detection mode was higher than that in the driving mode so that gyroscope could be tuned to the resonant frequencies by applying the inter-plate DC bias. The gyroscope was driven in a resonant

Yongsoo Oh; Byeungleul Lee; Seogsoon Baek; Hosuk Kim; Jeonggon Kim; Seokjin Kang; Cimoo Song

1997-01-01

57

The Stress-Relief Cracking Susceptibility of a New Ferritic Steel - Part I: Single-Pass Heat-Affected Zone Simulations  

SciTech Connect

The stress-relief cracking susceptibility of single-pass welds in a new ferritic steel, HCM2S, has been evaluated and compared to 2.25Cr-1Mo steel using Gleeble techniques. Simulated coarse-grained heat-affected zones (CGHAZ) were produced under a range of energy inputs and tested at various post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) temperatures. Both alloys were tested at a stress of 325 MPa. The 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel was also tested at 270 MPa to normalize for the difference in yield strength between the two materials. Light optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the CGHAZ microstructure. The ''as-welded'' CGHAZ of each alloy consisted of lath martensite or bainite and had approximately equal prior austenite grain sizes. The as-welded hardness of the 2.25Cr-1Mo steel CGHAZ was significantly higher than that of the HCM2S alloy. Over the range studied energy input had no effect on the as-welded microstructure or hardness of either alloy. The energy input also had no effect on the stress-relief cracking susceptibility of either material. Both alloys failed intergranularly along prior austenite grain boundaries under all test conditions. The 2.25Cr-1Mo steel samples experienced significant macroductility and some microductility when tested at 325 MPa. The ductility decreased significantly when tested at 270 MPa but was still higher that than of HCM2S at each test condition. The time to failure decreased with increasing PWHT Temperature for each material. There was no significant difference in the times to failure between the two materials. Varying energy input and stress had no effect on the time-to failure. The ductility, as measured by reduction in are% increased with increasing PWHT temperature for 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel tested at both stresses. However, PWHT temperature had no effect on the ductility of HCM2S. The hardness of the CGHAZ for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel decreased significantly after PWHT, but remained constant for HCM2S. The differences in stress-relief cracking response are discussed in terms of the differences in composition and expected carbide precipitation sequence for each alloy during PWHT.

NAWROCKI,J.G.; DUPONT,J.N.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.; MARDER,A.R.

1999-12-15

58

Reduction of errors in vibratory gyroscopes by double modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibratory drive, vibratory output instruments for sensing angular rates, such as tuning forks, potentially offer certain advantages over conventional gyroscopes. The theoretical performance of these devices has not been realized experimentally because of zero-rate errors attributed to mass unbalance, driving force unbalance and other imperfections. By separating the driving and sensing frequencies through a process called double modulation, obtained through

R. Bush

1964-01-01

59

Responses to Changes in Ca2+ Supply in Two Mediterranean Evergreens, Phillyrea latifolia and Pistacia lentiscus, During Salinity Stress and Subsequent Relief  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Changes in root-zone Ca2+ concentration affect a plant's performance under high salinity, an issue poorly investigated for Mediterranean xerophytes, which may suffer from transient root-zone salinity stress in calcareous soils. It was hypothesized that high-Ca2+ supply may affect differentially the response to salinity stress of species differing in their strategy of Na+ allocation at organ level. Phillyrea latifolia and Pistacia lentiscus, which have been reported to greatly differ for Na+ uptake and transport rates to the leaves, were studied. Methods In plants exposed to 0 mm or 200 mm NaCl and supplied with 2·0 mm or 8·0 mm Ca2+, under 100 % solar irradiance, measurements were conducted of (a) gas exchange, PSII photochemistry and plant growth; (b) water and ionic relations; (c) the activity of superoxide dismutase and the lipid peroxidation; and (d) the concentration of individual polyphenols. Gas exchange and plant growth were also estimated during a period of relief from salinity stress. Key Results The performance of Pistacia lentiscus decreased to a significantly smaller degree than that of Phillyrea latifolia because of high salinity. Ameliorative effects of high-Ca2+ supply were more evident in Phillyrea latifolia than in Pistacia lentiscus. High-Ca2+ reduced steeply the Na+ transport to the leaves in salt-treated Phillyrea latifolia, and allowed a faster recovery of gas exchange and growth rates as compared with low-Ca2+ plants, during the period of relief from salinity. Salt-induced biochemical adjustments, mostly devoted to counter salt-induced oxidative damage, were greater in Phillyrea latifolia than in Pistacia lentiscus. Conclusions An increased Ca2+ : Na+ ratio may be of greater benefit for Phillyrea latifolia than for Pistacia lentiscus, as in the former, adaptive mechanisms to high root-zone salinity are primarily devoted to restrict the accumulation of potentially toxic ions in sensitive shoot organs. PMID:18701601

Tattini, Massimiliano; Traversi, Maria Laura

2008-01-01

60

Vibratory Shock Compaction of Granular Nuclear Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibratory Shock Compaction (VSC) is a proven means for quickly forming strong, durable solids from a wide variety of granular materials[1]. Calcination of tank and other forms of high level radioactive wastes results in fine granular material that is quite amenable to volume reduction and stabilization. We have employed utilities coal ash as a calcine waste surrogate, blended with a quartz/feldspar-rich sand and 0-20% proportions of a borosilicate glass. The blends were compacted at room temperature and fired so that the glass melt could form an efficient binder. Included in the blend are small quantities of three RCRA metals, chromium, cadmium and lead, to permit testing for heavy metal stability. The VSC process is described and the results presented in terms of the waste form dissolution rates, compressive strengths, elastic moduli as determined from resonant frequency measurements, and heavy metal leach rates from Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure measurements. Vibratory shock compaction employing glass binders appears to be a viable alternative to traditional vitrification processes for granular waste forms. [1] See http://www.resonantshockcompact.com

Amme, Robert C.

2004-05-01

61

Effect of long-term stress relief annealing on properties of low-alloy weld deposit of covered electrodes for welding of thick-walled nuclear constructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article discusses the results of tests on the impact of long-term stress relief annealing at 620-650°C and cooling at a rate of 10°C/h on the mechanical properties of low-alloy weld deposits of covered electrodes containing 1.5-3% Ni, 0-0.3% Mo and 0.01-0.03% P. The article also contains information on the most advantageous nickel content for obtaining the highest impact energy (KV) values in subzero temperatures. X-ray structural analysis revealed that such weld deposits contain solely Fe3C carbides, which prevents the impact of molybdenum carbides on the change of KV. The study also confirmed the adverse effect of phosphorus on the weld deposit impact energy after long-lasting heat treatment.

Niagaj, Jerzy

2012-09-01

62

Making Precise Resonators for Mesoscale Vibratory Gyroscopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An alternative approach to the design and fabrication of vibratory gyroscopes is founded on the use of fabrication techniques that yield best results in the mesoscopic size range, which is characterized by overall device dimensions of the order of a centimeter. This approach stands in contradistinction to prior approaches in (1) the macroscopic size range (the size range of conventional design and fabrication, characterized by overall device dimensions of many centimeters) and (2) the microscopic size range [the size range of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), characterized by overall device dimensions of the order of a millimeter or less]. The mesoscale approach offers some of the advantage of the MEMS approach (sizes and power demands smaller than those of the macroscale approach) and some of the advantage of the macroscale approach (the possibility of achieving relative dimensional precision greater than that of the MEMS approach). Relative dimensional precision is a major issue in the operation of a vibratory gyroscope. The heart of a vibratory gyroscope is a mechanical resonator that is required to have a specified symmetry in a plane orthogonal to the axis about which rotation is to be measured. If the resonator could be perfectly symmetrical, then in the absence of rotation, a free vibration of the resonator could remain fixed along any orientation relative to its housing; that is, the gyroscope could exhibit zero drift. In practice, manufacturing imprecision gives rise to some asymmetry in mass, flexural stiffness or dissipation, resulting in a slight drift or beating motion of an initial vibration pattern that cannot be distinguished from rotation. In the mesoscale approach, one exploits the following concepts: For a given amount of dimensional error generated in manufacturing, the asymmetry and hence the rate-of-rotation drift of the gyroscope can be reduced by increasing the scale. The decrease in asymmetry also reduces coupling of vibrations to the external environment. Mechanical thermal noise and electronic measurement noise and drift can also be reduced by increasing the size of the resonator and its associated sensors.

Yang, Eui-Hyeok

2004-01-01

63

Applications of laser holography in vibratory analysis of piezoelectric ceramics and transducers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the vibratory holograms of piezoelectric elements and transducers under resonance state are investigated by means of the time-average method of laser holography. Also investigated are a series of dynamic vibratory characteristics calculated from holograms, such as vibratory type, amplitude, relations between amplitude and excitation voltage, relations between amplitude and frequencies, amplitude distribution on the vibratory face etc.

Suolong Yu; Deqing Yang

1992-01-01

64

Parametrically disciplined operation of a vibratory gyroscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Parametrically disciplined operation of a symmetric nearly degenerate mode vibratory gyroscope is disclosed. A parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope having a natural oscillation frequency in the neighborhood of a sub-harmonic of an external stable clock reference is produced by driving an electrostatic bias electrode at approximately twice this sub-harmonic frequency to achieve disciplined frequency and phase operation of the resonator. A nearly symmetric parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope that can oscillate in any transverse direction and has more than one bias electrostatic electrode that can be independently driven at twice its oscillation frequency at an amplitude and phase that disciplines its damping to zero in any vibration direction. In addition, operation of a parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope is taught in which the precession rate of the driven vibration pattern is digitally disciplined to a prescribed non-zero reference value.

Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

65

Fast Laser Shutters With Low Vibratory Disturbances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype vacuum-compatible, fast-acting, long-life shutter unit that generates very little vibratory disturbance during switching is reviewed. This is one of a number of shutters designed to satisfy requirements specific to an experiment, to be performed aboard a spacecraft in flight, in which laser beams must be blocked rapidly and completely, without generating a vibratory disturbance large enough to adversely affect the power and frequency stability of the lasers. Commercial off-the-shelf laboratory shutter units -- typically containing electromagnet-coil-driven mechanisms -- were found not to satisfy the requirements because they are not vacuum-compatible, their actuators engage in uncompensated motions that generate significant vibrations, and their operational lifetimes are too short. Going beyond the initial outerspace application, the present vacuum-compatible, fast-acting, long-life shutter units could also be used in terrestrial settings in which there are requirements for their special characteristics. In designing these shutter units, unbalanced, electromagnetically driven mechanisms were replaced with balanced mechanisms that include commercial piezoelectric bending actuators. In each shutter unit, the piezoelectric bending actuators are configured symmetrically as opposing cantilever beams within a housing that contains integral mounts for lenses that focus a laser beam to a waist at the shutter location. In operation, the laser beam is blocked by titanium blades bonded near the free ends of the piezoelectric benders. The benders are driven by shaped electrical pulses with a maximum voltage differential of less than 60 V. Preliminary measurements indicate that rise and fall times are less than 1 ms.

Brinza, David; Moore, Donald; Hochberg, Eric; Radey, Tom; Chen, Albert

2005-01-01

66

Prediction of turbine blade vibratory response due to upstream vane distress  

SciTech Connect

Turbine blades and vanes operate in a hostile environment, which leads to deterioration of these components over time. This paper describes detailed calculations to predict the vibratory response of a high-pressure turbine blade due to the excitation produced by a single distressed upstream vane in a modern turbofan engine. The approach includes detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the steady flowfield produced by the distressed vane, Fourier decomposition of the flow variables to determine the harmonic content, unsteady CFD analysis to determine the resulting vibratory response of the blade, and crack propagation analysis to determine blade life. Predictions of vibratory stress and threshold crack size are summarized as functions of vane distress level. The results, which indicate that this type of vane distress can indeed be a significant excitation source for the blades, are shown to be in good agreement with engine experience. The method provides, for the first time, a quantitative approach to setting limits for acceptable levels of vane distress in the field.

Panovsky, J.; Carson, S.M. [GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1998-07-01

67

Research on bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro's character of resonator.  

PubMed

Bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a new type Coriolis vibratory gyro that was inspired by Chinese traditional clocks. The resonator fuses based on a variable thickness axisymmetric multicurved surface shell. Its characteristics can directly influence the performance of BVG. The BVG structure not only has capabilities of bearing high overload, high impact and, compared with the tuning fork, vibrating beam, shell and a comb structure, but also a higher frequency to overcome the influence of the disturbance of the exterior environment than the same sized hemispherical resonator gyroscope (HRG) and the traditional cylinder vibratory gyroscope. It can be widely applied in high dynamic low precision angular rate measurement occasions. The main work is as follows: the issue mainly analyzes the structure and basic principle, and investigates the bell-shaped resonator's mathematical model. The reasonable structural parameters are obtained from finite element analysis and an intelligent platform. Using the current solid vibration gyro theory analyzes the structural characteristics and principles of BVG. The bell-shaped resonator is simplified as a paraboloid of the revolution mechanical model, which has a fixed closed end and a free opened end. It obtains the natural frequency and vibration modes based on the theory of elasticity. The structural parameters are obtained from the orthogonal method by the research on the structural parameters of the resonator analysis. It obtains the modal analysis, stress analysis and impact analysis with the chosen parameters. Finally, using the turntable experiment verifies the gyro effect of the BVG. PMID:23575033

Su, Zhong; Fu, Mengyin; Li, Qing; Liu, Ning; Liu, Hong

2013-01-01

68

Research on Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro's Character of Resonator  

PubMed Central

Bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a new type Coriolis vibratory gyro that was inspired by Chinese traditional clocks. The resonator fuses based on a variable thickness axisymmetric multicurved surface shell. Its characteristics can directly influence the performance of BVG. The BVG structure not only has capabilities of bearing high overload, high impact and, compared with the tuning fork, vibrating beam, shell and a comb structure, but also a higher frequency to overcome the influence of the disturbance of the exterior environment than the same sized hemispherical resonator gyroscope (HRG) and the traditional cylinder vibratory gyroscope. It can be widely applied in high dynamic low precision angular rate measurement occasions. The main work is as follows: the issue mainly analyzes the structure and basic principle, and investigates the bell-shaped resonator's mathematical model. The reasonable structural parameters are obtained from finite element analysis and an intelligent platform. Using the current solid vibration gyro theory analyzes the structural characteristics and principles of BVG. The bell-shaped resonator is simplified as a paraboloid of the revolution mechanical model, which has a fixed closed end and a free opened end. It obtains the natural frequency and vibration modes based on the theory of elasticity. The structural parameters are obtained from the orthogonal method by the research on the structural parameters of the resonator analysis. It obtains the modal analysis, stress analysis and impact analysis with the chosen parameters. Finally, using the turntable experiment verifies the gyro effect of the BVG. PMID:23575033

Su, Zhong; Fu, Mengyin; Li, Qing; Liu, Ning; Liu, Hong

2013-01-01

69

Electrodeposition on Ni from a Sulfamate Electrolyte Part 1: Effect of a Stress Relief on Annealing Behavior and Film Metallurgy  

SciTech Connect

Ni and Ni alloys are being developed as baseline materials for LIGA technology and prototyping at Sandia National Laboratories. A conventional, additive-free sulfamate electrolyte has been chosen for pure Ni electrodeposition due to its simplicity and ability to produce ductile, low-stress films. When depositing certain Ni alloys, saccharin is typically employed as an electrolyte bath additive. While saccharin is well known and effective as a stress reliever, it has a significant impact on the microstructure of the deposit and its annealing behavior. The electrodeposition of pure Ni in the presence of saccharin is studied here to understand its effects in the absence of an alloying element (such as Co or Fe). The grain structure and Vickers hardness of Ni deposited with and without saccharin on a rotating disk electrode were all found to be consistent with previous studies available in the literature. The following observations were made: (1) The fine, columnar morphology obtained without saccharin became an equiaxed, nano-sized grain structure with saccharin (from {approx}1.5 {micro}m to {approx}40 nm nominal grain size, respectively). The grain refinement resulting from saccharin is not accompanied with an increase in film stress, in contrast to the grain refinement associated with certain Ni alloys. (2) A change in the deposit texture from weak (210) to (111) along the film growth direction with the addition of saccharin. (3) An increase in Vickers hardness by a factor of {approx}2 (from {approx}170 to {approx}320) upon the addition of saccharin. (4) A rapid decrease in hardness with annealing from the high, as-deposited values for films deposited with saccharin to a value lower than that of annealed Ni from an additive-free bath. (5) Accelerated grain growth during annealing for films deposited with saccharin; this has not been observed previously in the literature to the authors' best knowledge.

James J. Kelly

2002-02-01

70

Numerical Simulation of Stress-Relief Effects of Protective Layer Extraction / Symulacja numeryczna skutków odpr??enia warstwy zabezpieczaj?cej w trakcie jej wybierania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field test and laboratory analog model test on the stress-relief effects of protective layer extraction are time-consuming and laborious. In this paper, on the basis of full consideration of rock heterogeinity and in combination with gas geology at Pingdingshan Mine 5, a numerical model was estalished with the gas-solid coupling rock failure process analysis system RFPA-Gas to simulate the stress variation law, roof and floor deformation, fracture evolution law, displacement in the protected seam, change in gas permeability and gas migration law during protective layer extraction. The simulation results repoduced stress variations in coal and rock strata, roof and floor deformation and fracture evolution process during protective layer extraction. The movement of rock strata were characterized by upper three zones and lower two zones: caving zone, fracture zone and bending subsidence zone in the vertical direction in the overlying strata; floor deformation and failure zone and elasto-plastic deformation zone in the vertical direction in the underlying strata. It showed that stress relief occurred in the protected seam, which led to vertical and horizontal displacements, significant increase in gas permeability, gas desorption and migration. Hence, the outburst threat in the protected seam was eliminated. Meanwhile, with comprehensive analysis of variaition of stress state, deformation characteristics and fracture distribution in coal seam and with consideration of changes in gas leakage rate, gas pressure and permeability, according to gas leakage rate, the floor strata of the protecive layer were divided into four leakage zones. They corresponded to four zones with different stress states and fracture development: original leakage zone - slow reducing leakage zone - dramatic increasing leakage zone- steady increasing leakage zone. This classification provides a clear direction for gas control in the protective layer. The simulation results are in good agreement with the stress-relief effects in field. Badania terenowe oraz modelowanie w warunkach laboratoryjnych skutków odpr??enia warstwy zabezpieczaj?cej w trakcie wydobycia s? niezwykle czasoch?onne i skomplikowane. Uwzgl?dniaj?c niejednorodno?? ska? i wykorzystuj?c dane geologiczne i o obecno?ci gazów w kopalni Pindingshan 5, opracowano model numeryczny p?kania ska? w uk?adzie gaz-cia?o sta?e w oparciu o analiz? uk?adu RFPA-Gaz. Model wykorzystano do symulacji zmian napr??e?, odkszta?ce? stropu i sp?gu, propagacji p?kni??, przemieszcze? w pok?adach zabezpieczonych, zmian w przepuszczalno?ci gazów oraz migracji gazów w trakcie wybierania warstwy zabezpieczaj?cej. Wyniki symulacji odwzorowuj? zmiany napr??e?, odkszta?ce? stropu i sp?gu, propagacji p?kni?? w trakcie wybierania warstwy ochronnej. Ruchy warstw górotworu scharakteryzowano poprzez analiz? trzech stref nadk?adu i dwóch stref lez?cych poni?ej: w warstwach nadk?adu: strefy zawa?u, strefy sp?ka? oraz strefy osiadania (przemieszczenia w kierunku pionowym), w warstwach le??cych poni?ej: strefy odkszta?cenia i p?kania sp?gu, oraz strefy odkszta?ce? elastyczno- plastycznych w kierunku pionowym. Wykazano, ?e odpr??anie mia?o miejsce w pok?adzie zabezpieczaj?cym, co prowadzi?o do powstania przemieszcze? pionowych oraz poziomych, zanotowano tak?e znaczny wzrost przepuszczalno?ci gazów, desorpcji gazów oraz ich transportu. Z tych wzgl?dów zagro?enie wybuchem w pok?adzie ochronnym zosta?o wyeliminowane. Ca?o?ciowa analiza zmian stanu napr??enia, charakterystyki odkszta?ce? i rozk?adu p?kni?? w pok?adzie w?gla przeprowadzona zosta?a dla czterech stref przecieku gazów, wydzielonych w oparciu zmiany nat??enia wyp?ywu gazów, ci?nienia gazów oraz przepuszczalno?ci w odniesieniu do nat??enia przep?ywu gazu w sp?gu w warstwie ochronnej. Te cztery strefy odpowiada?y czterem strefom w których zanotowano odmienne stany napr??e? i rozk?adu sp?ka?: pierwotna strefa wycieku, powoli zmniejszaj?ca si? strefa wycieku, gram

Tian-Rang, Jia; Zi-Min, Zhang; Chun-An, Tang; Yong-Jun, Zhang

2013-06-01

71

LOX, GOX and Pressure Relief  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen relief systems present a serious fire hazard risk with often severe consequences. This presentation offers a risk management solution strategy which encourages minimizing ignition hazards, maximizing best materials, and utilizing good practices. Additionally, the relief system should be designed for cleanability and ballistic flow. The use of the right metals, softgoods, and lubricants, along with the best assembly techniques, is stressed. Materials should also be tested if data is not available and a full hazard analysis should be conducted in an effort to minimize risk and harm.

McLeod, Ken; Stoltzfus, Joel

2006-01-01

72

Analysis of rabbit intervertebral disc physiology based on water metabolism. II. Changes in normal intervertebral discs under axial vibratory load  

SciTech Connect

Metabolic changes induced by axial vibratory load to the spine were investigated based on water metabolism in normal intervertebral discs of rabbits with or without pentobarbital anesthesia. Tritiated water concentration in the intervertebral discs of unanesthetized rabbits was reduced remarkably by axial vibration for 30 minutes using the vibration machine developed for this study. Repeated vibratory load for 18 and 42 hours duration showed the recovery of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration of the intervertebral disc without anesthesia. Computer simulation suggested a reduction of blood flow surrounding the intervertebral disc following the vibration stress. However, no reduction of the /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration in the intervertebral disc was noted under anesthesia. Emotional stress cannot be excluded as a factor in water metabolism in the intervertebral disc.

Hirano, N.; Tsuji, H.; Ohshima, H.; Kitano, S.; Itoh, T.; Sano, A.

1988-11-01

73

OMP Peptides Activate the DegS Stress-Sensor Protease by a Relief of Inhibition Mechanism  

SciTech Connect

In the E. coli periplasm, C-terminal peptides of misfolded outer-membrane porins (OMPs) bind to the PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease, triggering cleavage of a transmembrane regulator and transcriptional activation of stress genes. We show that an active-site DegS mutation partially bypasses the requirement for peptide activation and acts synergistically with mutations that disrupt contacts between the protease and PDZ domains. Biochemical results support an allosteric model, in which these mutations, active-site modification, and peptide/substrate binding act in concert to stabilize proteolytically active DegS. Cocrystal structures of DegS in complex with different OMP peptides reveal activation of the protease domain with varied conformations of the PDZ domain and without specific contacts from the bound OMP peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the binding of OMP peptides activates proteolysis principally by relieving inhibitory contacts between the PDZ domain and the protease domain of DegS.

Sohn, Jungsan; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.; MIT

2010-03-19

74

Complex vibratory patterns in an elephant larynx.  

PubMed

Elephants' low-frequency vocalizations are produced by flow-induced self-sustaining oscillations of laryngeal tissue. To date, little is known in detail about the vibratory phenomena in the elephant larynx. Here, we provide a first descriptive report of the complex oscillatory features found in the excised larynx of a 25 year old female African elephant (Loxodonta africana), the largest animal sound generator ever studied experimentally. Sound production was documented with high-speed video, acoustic measurements, air flow and sound pressure level recordings. The anatomy of the larynx was studied with computed tomography (CT) and dissections. Elephant CT vocal anatomy data were further compared with the anatomy of an adult human male. We observed numerous unusual phenomena, not typically reported in human vocal fold vibrations. Phase delays along both the inferior-superior and anterior-posterior (A-P) dimension were commonly observed, as well as transverse travelling wave patterns along the A-P dimension, previously not documented in the literature. Acoustic energy was mainly created during the instant of glottal opening. The vestibular folds, when adducted, participated in tissue vibration, effectively increasing the generated sound pressure level by 12 dB. The complexity of the observed phenomena is partly attributed to the distinct laryngeal anatomy of the elephant larynx, which is not simply a large-scale version of its human counterpart. Travelling waves may be facilitated by low fundamental frequencies and increased vocal fold tension. A travelling wave model is proposed, to account for three types of phenomena: A-P travelling waves, 'conventional' standing wave patterns, and irregular vocal fold vibration. PMID:24133151

Herbst, Christian T; Svec, Jan G; Lohscheller, Jörg; Frey, Roland; Gumpenberger, Michaela; Stoeger, Angela S; Fitch, W Tecumseh

2013-11-01

75

Structural Calculations of Drip Shield Exposed to Vibratory Ground Motion  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this calculation is twofold. First, to determine whether or not separation of interlocking drip shield (DS) segments occurs during vibratory ground motion. Second, if DS separation does not occur, to estimate the area of the DS for which the residual 1st principal stress exceeds a certain limit. (The area of DS plate-1 and DS plate-2 [see Attachment I] where the residual 1st principal stress exceeds a certain limit will be, for brevity, referred to as ''the damaged area'' throughout this document; also, DS plate-1 and DS plate-2 will be referred to, for brevity, as ''DS plates'' henceforth.) The stress limit used throughout this document is defined as 50 percent of yield strength of the DS plate material, Titanium Grade 7 (Ti-7) (SB-265 R52400), at temperature of 150 C. A set of 15 calculations is performed at two different annual frequencies of occurrence (annual exceedance frequency): 10{sup -6} per year (1/yr) and 10{sup -7} 1/yr . (Note: Due to computational problems only five realizations at 10{sup -7} 1/yr are presented in this document.) Additionally, one calculation is performed at the annual frequency of occurrence of 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -4} 1/yr. The scope of this document is limited to reporting whether or not the DS separation occurs. If the DS separation does not occur the scope is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of the damaged area. All these results are evaluated for the DS plates. This calculation is intended for use in support of the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application seismicity modeling. This calculation is associated with the DS design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group. AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses'' (Ref. 1) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The DS is classified as Quality Level 1 (Ref. 5, p. 7). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (Ref. 4). The information provided by Attachment I is that of the potential design of the type of DS considered in this calculation, and provides the potential dimensions and materials for the DS design. Designs of the 21-PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) waste package (WP) and emplacement pallet (pallet, for brevity, throughout the document) used in this calculation are those defined in References 24 and 22, respectively. All obtained results are valid for these designs only.

S. Mastilovic

2003-06-16

76

Debt Relief for Egypt?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The government of Egypt recently stated that external financial assistance is necessary in the present economic situation and has expressed a strong preference for receiving it in part via debt relief. Williamson and Khan explore whether there is a case for debt relief and if so what form this relief should take. They review the cases of Egypt in an

John Williamson; Mohsin S. Khan

2011-01-01

77

Postural control adaptation during galvanic vestibular and vibratory proprioceptive stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective for this study was to investigate whether the adaptation of postural control was similar during galvanic vestibular stimulation and during vibratory proprioceptive stimulation of the calf muscles. Healthy subjects were tested during erect stance with eyes open or closed. An analysis method designed to consider the adaptive adjustments was used to evaluate the motion dynamics and the evoked

Per-Anders Fransson; Anna Hafström; Mikael Karlberg; Måns Magnusson; Annika Tjäder; Rolf Johansson

2003-01-01

78

Dairy wastewater purification by vibratory shear enhanced processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the performance of a Vibratory Shear Enhanced Processing (VSEP) using ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane system for decreasing of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from dairy wastewater. Three commercially available membranes having different pore sizes were used to compare their relative efficiency for COD decreasing. Permeate flux and membrane rejection of COD were measured

Szabolcs Kertész; Zsuzsanna László; Endre Forgács; Gábor Szabó; Cecilia Hodúr

2011-01-01

79

Modification of piezoelectric vibratory gyroscope resonator parameters by feedback control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for analyzing the effect of feedback control on the dynamics of piezoelectric resonators used in vibratory gyroscopes has been developed. This method can be used to determine the feasibility of replacing the traditional mechanical balancing operations, used to adjust the resonant frequency, by displacement feedback and for determining the velocity feedback required to produce a particular bandwidth. Experiments

Philip W. Loveday; Craig A. Rogers

1998-01-01

80

Active structural error suppression in MEMS vibratory rate integrating gyroscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to restrictive tolerancing in microfabrication, structural imperfections that reduce performance of fabricated micro devices are typical. In microelectromechanical vibratory gyroscopes, feedback control is a common strategy in attempting to correct the imperfections. However, a purely feedback control can be insufficient for compensation of all the errors, requiring post processing in the form of laser trimming to achieve higher levels

C. C. Painter; A. M. Shkel

2003-01-01

81

Investigation of residual stresses in a multipass weld in 1 in. stainless steel plate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Residual stresses and strains were measured in two welded 25-mm thick plates of type 304 stainless steel by the neutron diffraction technique. The filler metal was type 308 stainless steel and the weld zone had a two phase microstructure in which the austenitic phase lattice parameter differs from the base metal. In these circumstances strain-free samples were taken from the weld zone area for analysis of the lattice parameters and ferrite content using neutron powder diffraction. Corrections for lattice parameter variation were applied permitting the calculation of residual strains and stresses in weld zone, heat affected zone (HAZ), and base metal. One of the two welds was examined without stress relief and the other was given a stress relief treatment consisting of vibration at a frequency below the resonant condition during welding. In both plates the largest residual stress component (longitudinal) is found in the fusion zone near the boundary between the weld zone and the heat affected zone. This longitudinal component is 400 +/- 50 MPa in tension. The normal stresses are generally close to zero although large fluctuations are found in the weld zone. The transverse stresses are as high as 200 MPa in the weld zone and decrease to 50 MPa +/- 40 MPa. The lattice parameter variation was equivalent to 5 x 10(exp -4) compressive strain and the ferrite content approached 9 percent at the center of the weld zone. Variations in residual stresses with thickness through the base metal plate were small. The treated plate and untreated plate showed nearly identical patterns of stress distribution. Differences in the measured stresses between vibratory-stress-relief treated and untreated plates fall within error bars of the stress determination in these particular 25 mm thick 300-type stainless steel plates.

Spooner, S.; Fernandezbaca, J. A.; David, S. A.; Hubbard, C. R.; Holden, T. M.; Root, J. H.

82

Mechanical Assessment of the Waste Package Subject to Vibratory Motion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide an integrated overview of the calculation reports that define the response of the waste package and its internals to vibratory ground motion. The calculation reports for waste package response to vibratory ground motion are identified in Table 1-1. Three key calculation reports describe the potential for mechanical damage to the waste package, fuel assemblies, and cladding from a seismic event. Three supporting documents have also been published to investigate sensitivity of damage to various assumptions for the calculations. While these individual reports present information on a specific aspect of waste package and cladding response, they do not describe the interrelationship between the various calculations and the relationship of this information to the seismic scenario class for Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report is designed to fill this gap by providing an overview of the waste package structural response calculations.

M. Gross

2004-10-14

83

Finite Element Analysis of H-Type Vibratory Gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the H-type vibratory gyroscope used as an angular rate sensor. The vibrational displacements of the gyroscope are analyzed by the finite element method, and a new structure of the gyroscope, which can be supported at a zero-displacement point, is clarified. This H-type gyroscope is expected to be an angular rate sensor with a high quality factor and

Subaru Kudo; Masashi Konno; Sumio Sugawara; Tomio Yoshida

1992-01-01

84

Simulation software for parts feeding in a vibratory bowl feeder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of three-dimensional (3D) computer simulation software to simulate parts feeding and orienting in a vibratory bowl feeder. A mathematical model of part motion and the interaction of the part with the orienting mechanism were developed. Based on the mathematical model, a 3D-simulation software has been developed using Java. The key technology involves 3D object modelling

M. H. Jiang; Patrick S. K. Chua; F. L. Tan

2003-01-01

85

Deburring die-castings by wet vibratory plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wet vibratory procedure for the removal of burrs from die castings is described. In this process synthetic abrasive chips and detergent solutions are agitated with the work in such a way as to produce a spiral circulatory movement. Details of various forms of vibrator basin and shapes of abrasive are illustrated. The automation of deburring is illustrated through the application of vibrators of spiral design in combination with transport and drying devices.

Loeschbart, H. M.

1980-01-01

86

Characterization of the bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro.  

PubMed

The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements. PMID:23966183

Liu, Ning; Su, Zhong; Li, Qing; Fu, MengYin; Liu, Hong; Fan, JunFang

2013-01-01

87

Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro  

PubMed Central

The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements. PMID:23966183

Liu, Ning; Su, Zhong; Li, Qing; Fu, MengYin; Liu, Hong; Fan, JunFang

2013-01-01

88

Innovative decontamination technology by abrasion in vibratory vessels  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The possibility of using conventional vibratory vessel technology as a decontamination technique is the motivation for the development of this project. The objective is to explore the feasibility of applying the vibratory vessel technology for decontamination of radioactively-contaminated materials such as pipes and metal structures. The research and development of this technology was granted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Abrasion processes in vibratory vessels are widely used in the manufacture of metals, ceramics, and plastics. Samples to be treated, solid abrasive media and liquid media are set up into a vessel. Erosion results from the repeated impact of the abrasive particles on the surface of the body being treated. A liquid media, generally detergents or surfactants aid the abrasive action. The amount of material removed increases with the time of treatment. The design and construction of the machine were provided by Vibro, Argentina private company. Tests with radioactively-contaminated aluminum tubes and a stainless steel bar, were performed at laboratory level. Tests showed that it is possible to clean both the external and the internal surface of contaminated tubes. Results show a decontamination factor around 10 after the first 30 minutes of the cleaning time. (authors)

Fabbri, Silvio; Ilarri, Sergio [National Atomic Energy Commission - CNEA, Avda. del Libertador 8250, CP 1429, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2007-07-01

89

Characterization of relief printing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relief printing technology developed by Océ allows the superposition of several layers of colorant on different types of media which creates a variation of the surface height defined by the input to the printer. Evaluating the reproduction accuracy of distinct surface characteristics is of great importance to the application of the relief printing system. Therefore, it is necessary to develop quality metrics to evaluate the relief process. In this paper, we focus on the third dimension of relief printing, i.e. height information. To achieve this goal, we define metrics and develop models that aim to evaluate relief prints in two aspects: overall fidelity and surface finish. To characterize the overall fidelity, three metrics are calculated: Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), difference and root-mean-squared error (RMSE) between the input height map and scanned height map, and print surface angle accuracy. For the surface finish property, we measure the surface roughness, generate surface normal maps and develop a light reflection model that serves as a simulation of the differences between ideal prints and real prints that may be perceived by human observers. Three sets of test targets are designed and printed by the Océ relief printer prototypes for the calculation of the above metrics: (i) twisted target, (ii) sinusoidal wave target, and (iii) ramp target. The results provide quantitative evaluations of the printing quality in the third dimension, and demonstrate that the height of relief prints is reproduced accurately with respect to the input design. The factors that affect the printing quality include: printing direction, frequency and amplitude of the input signal, shape of relief prints. Besides the above factors, there are two additional aspects that influence the viewing experience of relief prints: lighting condition and viewing angle.

Liu, Xing; Chen, Lin; Ortiz-Segovia, Maria-Valezzka; Ferwerda, James; Allebach, Jan

2014-03-01

90

Late-Cenozoic relief evolution under evolving climate: a review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present review is an attempt to summarize quantitative evidence of Late Cenozoic changes in topographic relief on Earth. We first define different meanings of the word "relief", as it is commonly used, and detail the metrics used to quantify it. We then specify methodological tools used to quantify relief change (primarily lowtemperature thermochronometry and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides), and analyze published evidence for different regions. Our review first show that relief changes and rates of changes are more important at mid-, than high- or low-latitudes, and appear to be insensitive to mean precipitation rates. We also show that relief change is positive (relief increases) in most of the reported cases (~80%). We subsequently define two functional relationships between relief and erosion, depending on the chosen definition of relief, and propose a conceptual model of landscape memory. We conclude, following others, that erosion rates depends non-linearly on relief evolution, itself being a function of the spatial distribution and rates of erosion. The relief increases documented in this review may be related led to erosion rate increases during the same timescales. Lastly, we discuss the importance of glacial and periglacial processes on Late Cenozoic relief and erosion rate changes, and stress the importance of frost shattering and glacial erosion at mid- and high-latitudes.

Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Valla, Pierre; Herman, Fred

2014-05-01

91

Itching for Allergy Relief?  

MedlinePLUS

... E-mail Consumer Updates RSS Feed Itching for Allergy Relief? Search the Consumer Updates Section Get Consumer ... page: When to Get Treatment Avoid Pollen Medications Allergy Shots Pollen grains from trees, grasses and weeds ...

92

What a Relief!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Middle school students in a rural Illinois school visualized and learned more about landforms after making a relief model from a topographic map. They achieved a deeper understanding of topography as the representation of the features and configuration of

Tucker, Richard H.

2001-10-01

93

Automated Measurement of Vocal Fold Vibratory Asymmetry from High-Speed Videoendoscopy Recordings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In prior work, a manually derived measure of vocal fold vibratory phase asymmetry correlated to varying degrees with visual judgments made from laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) recordings. This investigation extended this work by establishing an automated HSV-based framework to quantify 3 categories of vocal fold vibratory

Mehta, Daryush D.; Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Quatieri, Thomas F.; Hillman, Robert E.

2011-01-01

94

Investigation of the Effect of Blade Sweep on Rotor Vibratory Loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of helicopter rotor blade planform sweep on rotor vibratory hub, blade, and control system loads has been analytically investigated. The importance of sweep angle, sweep initiation radius, flap bending stiffness and torsion bending stiffness is discussed. The mechanism by which sweep influences the vibratory hub loads is investigated.

Tarzanin, F. J., Jr.; Vlaminck, R. R.

1983-01-01

95

Utilization of Mechanical Quadrature in Silicon MEMS Vibratory Gyroscope to Increase and  

E-print Network

Utilization of Mechanical Quadrature in Silicon MEMS Vibratory Gyroscope to Increase and Expand of the long term in-run bias stability of Coriolis vibratory gyroscopes. The approach is based on utilization of the mechanical quadra- ture error in gyroscopes to compensate for variation in system parameters. The proposed

Tang, William C

96

Coastal Relief Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) (described in the January 17, 1997 Scout Report) provides online images of US Northeast and Southeast Atlantic Coastal Relief Models. The Coastal Relief Gridded database "provides the first comprehensive view of the US Coastal Zone; one that extends from the coastal state boundaries to as far offshore as the NOS hydrographic data will support a continuous view of the seafloor." In the future, the gridded database will contain the coastal zones of the continental US, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico.

97

Relaxation relief/relaxation/reduction/improvement offers relief for  

E-print Network

Massage Therapy Relaxation relief/relaxation/reduction/improvement Massage offers relief, Pregnancy Massage, Hot Stone, Reflexology, and Lymphatic Therapy. Courtney Fitzpatrick Courtney Fitzpatrick specializes in Thai Yoga Massage, which is an Eastern tradition that incorporates gentle pressure and passive

Maxwell, Bruce D.

98

NGDC Coastal Relief Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This gridded database provides an interactive shaded relief map of the entire coastal zone of the conterminous US, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Click on an area of coastline for a more detailed map, then click on 1 degree square blocks for even greater detail. Images may be zoomed in and out depending on what scale the viewer requires.

Center, National G.; Usgs

99

Modeling vibratory damage with reduced-order models and the generalized finite element method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper investigates a coupled computational analysis framework that uses reduced-order models and the generalized finite element method to model vibratory induced stress near local defects. The application area of interest is the life prediction of thin gauge structural components exhibiting nonlinear, path-dependent dynamic response. Full-order finite element models of these structural components can require prohibitively large amounts of processor time. Recent developments in nonlinear reduced-order models have demonstrated efficient computation of the dynamic response. These models are relatively insensitive to small imperfections. Conversely, the generalized finite element method provides the ability to model local defects without geometric dependency on the mesh. A more robust version of the method, with numerically built enrichment functions, provides a multiple-scale modeling capability through direct coupling of global and local finite element models. Replacing the component finite element model with a reduced-order model allows for efficient computation of dynamic response while providing the necessary information to drive local, solid analyses which can zoom in on regions containing stress risers or cracks. This paper describes the coupling of these approaches to enable fatigue and crack propagation predictions. Numerical/experimental examples are provided.

O'Hara, Patrick J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.

2014-12-01

100

Analysis of the vibratory excitation arising from spiral bevel gears  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tools required to understand and predict in terms of its underlying causes the vibratory excitation arising from meshing spiral bevel gears are developed. A generalized three component transmission error of meshing spiral bevel gears is defined. Equations are derived that yield the three components of the generalized transmission error in terms of deviations of tooth running surfaces from equispaced perfect spherical involute surfaces and tooth/gearbody elastic deformations arising from the three components of the generalized force transmitted by the meshing gears. A method for incorporating these equations into the equations of motion of a gear system is described. Equations are derived for the three components of the generalized force transmitted by the gears which are valid whenever inertial effects of the meshing gears and their supports are negligible. Bearing offsets from the positions occupied by the shaft centerlines of perfect spherical involute bevel gears and bearing/bearing support flexibilities enter into the computation of these forces.

Mark, William D.

1987-01-01

101

Split-Resonator, Integrated-Post Vibratory Microgyroscope  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved design for a capacitive-sensing, rocking-mode vibratory microgyroscope is more amenable to mass production, relative to a prior design. Both the improved design and the prior design call for a central post that is part of a resonator that partly resembles a cloverleaf or a flower. The prior design is such that the post has to be fabricated as a separate piece, then bonded to the rest of the resonator in the correct position and orientation. The improved design provides for fabrication of the post as an integral part of the resonator and, in so doing, makes it possible to produce a waferful of microgyroscopes, without need to fabricate, position, and attach posts.

Bae, Youngsam; Hayworth, Ken; Shcheglov, Kirill

2005-01-01

102

The assessment of mixing/solid suspension in a slab tank due to vibratory agitation  

E-print Network

THE ASSESSMENT OF MIXING/SOLID SUSPENSION IN A SLAB TANK DUE TO VIBRATORY AGITATION A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER JOSEPH RAMSEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE ASSESSMENT OF MIXING/SOLID SUSPENSION IN A SLAB TANK DUE TO VIBRATORY AGITATION A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER JOSEPH RAMSEY Approved as to style and content by: Gar B. Tatterson...

Ramsey, Christopher Joseph

2012-06-07

103

Anger and posttraumatic stress disorder in disaster relief workers exposed to the 9/11/01 World Trade Center Disaster: One-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

While anger is an important feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) it is unclear whether it is simply concomitant or plays a role in maintaining symptoms. A previous study of disaster workers responding to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 (Evans et al., 2006) indicated that those with PTSD evidenced more severe anger than those without. The purpose of this study was to conduct a one-year follow-up to assess the role of anger in maintaining PTSD. Workers with PTSD continued to report more severe anger than those without; there were statistically significant associations between changes in anger, PTSD severity, depression, and psychiatric distress. Multiple regression analysis indicated initial anger severity to be a significant predictor of PTSD severity at follow-up, which is consistent with the notion that anger maintains PTSD. One implication is that disaster workers with high anger may benefit from early intervention to prevent chronic PTSD. PMID:19008736

Jayasinghe, Nimali; Giosan, Cezar; Evans, Susan; Spielman, Lisa; Difede, JoAnn

2014-01-01

104

Mimicking of superoxide dismutase activity by protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL, and oxidative stress relief for cancer patients.  

PubMed

The protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) has been found to express antioxidant activity as an "ion-radical scavenger" in diamine oxidation reactions. The mode of this expression was examined to determine whether the drug functioned as a simple radical scavenger or mimicked the action of superoxide dismutase (SOD). The latter was confirmed in both enzymatic and nonenzymatic superoxide anion radical (O2-.) producing systems in vitro. The SOD mimetic activity of PS-K was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of hydrogen peroxide as the end product of O2-., its formation being assisted catalytically by SOD or PS-K. Analysis by electron spin resonance also confirmed the SOD mimetic activity of PS-K in a xanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction. Relative SOD activity with PS-K was approximately 1/8,000 in a KO2-O2-.-producing system. The SOD mimetic activity of PS-K resisted treatment by 0.7N HCl, 0.7N NaOH, boiling for 30 minutes in a double water bath, and digestion by pronase. Fractionation according to differences in molecular mass caused no significant increase in relative SOD activity within a certain range of molecular mass, indicating that there is no definite molecule expressing SOD mimetic activity. Tumor-bearing rats and human patients with digestive tract cancer who suffered from oxidative stress were relieved by a single intraperitoneal administration of PS-K or a 1-day peroral prescription. PMID:1627273

Kariya, K; Nakamura, K; Nomoto, K; Matama, S; Saigenji, K

1992-03-01

105

Disturbances in Self-Synchronisation of Vibrators in Vibratory Machines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An influence of elastic support elements arrangements and ratios of elasticity and damping constants in vertical and horizontal direction on self-synchronisation accuracy was investigated in the paper. The obtained results of the other factors influence on disturbances in self-synchronisation of vibrators in vibratory machines are also presented. Especially, influence of a diversification of driving and anti-torque moments, not central direction of the resulting force of the vibrators set , the local flexibility of mounting of vibrators to the machine body and influence of collisions with a feed were described. W pracy zbadano wp?yw rozmieszczenia elementów spr??ystych zawieszenia i proporcji pomi?dzy sta?ymi spr??ysto?ci i t?umienia tych elementów na kierunkach pionowym i poziomym na dok?adno?? samosynchronizacji wibratorów. Przytoczono te? rezultaty bada? autorów nad wp?ywem innych przyczyn na zaburzenia samosynchronizacji wibratorów maszyn wibracyjnych. W szczególno?ci okre?lono wp?yw na zjawisko samosynchronizacji takich zjawisk jak: zró?nicowanie momentów nap?dowych i oporowych, niecentralne ukierunkowanie wypadkowej si?y wymuszaj?cej zespo?u wibratorów, lokalna podatno?? zamocowania wibratorów do korpusu maszyny i oddzia?ywanie zderze? z nadaw?

Michalczyk, Jerzy; Cieplok, Grzegorz

2014-03-01

106

Chemical Comic Relief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

John Selegue and James Holler at the University of Kentucky have provided this ingenious learning resource, Chemical Comic Relief. Visitors to the site click on an element on the periodic table to see a list of comic pages involving that element. For example, clicking on Oxygen brings up a list of comics including Four Color: Ricky Nelson, which shows Ricky discussing oxygen to attempt (unsuccessfully) to impress a girl. Some pages include a summary discussing both the comic as well as the element it features, and the site also offers a chronological History of Chemistry in the Comics -- an album of comic pages from the 1930s to the present. To gain a greater understanding of the technical aspects (atomic weight, key data and description, and history) of each element, the user can link to the WebElements Website.

107

Mapping Of Textile Surface Relief  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a system which is capable of mapping the relief of textile surfaces, by non contact optical means, designed to be used in textile engineering laboratories to study the alterations produced in fabrics by the action of dyes, shock, stress, and so on. The specific nature of these materials precludes the use of conventional profiling systems, which led us to develop a new method with the necessary versatility but reasonably immune to dispersion, diffraction and speckle, phenomena which usually make very difficult the application of optical methods to this situation. The method is based on the horizontal shift of the bright spot on an horizontal surface when this is illuminated with an oblique beam and moved vertically. In order to make the profilometry the sample is swept by an oblique laser beam and the bright spot position is compared with a reference position. The system is thus formed by an HeNe laser focused onto a reference surface (sample support) endowed of bidirectional motion obtained by two stepping motors which are controlled by a 8051 microcomputer that will also control the data acquisition and processing system, and it's forwarding to the working microcomputer. The laser beam incidence angle, the focusing system and the reception objective can be changed to increase the system fickleness.

Costa, Manuel F. P. C. M.; Almeida, Jose B.

1989-01-01

108

Management of famine relief.  

PubMed

We have, over the course of time, made discoveries in compassion as well as discoveries in technology. Many problems that had been judged insoluble in the past are no longer tolerable. For many centuries, starvation was inevitable, largely because means of information and means of transportation were not at hand; the fact that there usually was more food available somewhere else on the same or another continent was irrelevant. There was no way of hearing of the famine, bringing the food where it was needed, or distributing it. We now have the knowledge to install early warning systems based on economic and on medical surveillance (8). Such data as weather reports, crop forecasts, food reserves and retail prices, height-to-weight ratios, skin fold thicknesses, and height-to-arm circumference ratios in children can warn us in advance of impending famine. We also now have the means to transport the food to the area of threatening or actual mass starvation. Therefore, we have obligations that did not exist in past generations. We are now also in a much smaller world from which some of our contemporaries have stepped out to look at the spaceship on which we are all traveling. The worldwide civil rights revolution of the 1960's has brought about greater realization that all human beings are born equal and must be preserved and helped. All this means not only that we must organize to prevent famines on a worldwide basis, but also that we must use the most modern technology to do so. The fact that famine often occurs in remote areas is no reason why we cannot use computers and other modern technology. The very need for programming computers, with the planned coding and feeding of data that it entails, not only forces preparedness but also obliges planners to examine responses to various contingencies. National and international training courses for policy-makers and managers of famine relief should follow. Even if mankind brings its resources and its population into balance, a sound organization of famine relief preparation will still be needed to cope with local contingencies. Rapid agricultural advancement, development of innovative food sources, and, above all, control of population growth are necessary if famine is not to stalk all of mankind in the future. PMID:17740010

Mayer, J

1975-05-01

109

Effect of Axial Force on the Performance of Micromachined Vibratory Rate Gyroscopes  

PubMed Central

It is reported in the published literature that the resonant frequency of a silicon micromachined gyroscope decreases linearly with increasing temperature. However, when the axial force is considerable, the resonant frequency might increase as the temperature increases. The axial force is mainly induced by thermal stress due to the mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of the structure and substrate. In this paper, two types of micromachined suspended vibratory gyroscopes with slanted beams were proposed to evaluate the effect of the axial force. One type was suspended with a clamped-free (C-F) beam and the other one was suspended with a clamped-clamped (C-C) beam. Their drive modes are the bending of the slanted beam, and their sense modes are the torsion of the slanted beam. The relationships between the resonant frequencies of the two types were developed. The prototypes were packaged by vacuum under 0.1 mbar and an analytical solution for the axial force effect on the resonant frequency was obtained. The temperature dependent performances of the operated mode responses of the micromachined gyroscopes were measured. The experimental values of the temperature coefficients of resonant frequencies (TCF) due to axial force were 101.5 ppm/°C for the drive mode and 21.6 ppm/°C for the sense mode. The axial force has a great influence on the modal frequency of the micromachined gyroscopes suspended with a C-C beam, especially for the flexure mode. The quality factors of the operated modes decreased with increasing temperature, and changed drastically when the micromachined gyroscopes worked at higher temperatures. PMID:22346578

Hou, Zhanqiang; Xiao, Dingbang; Wu, Xuezhong; Dong, Peitao; Chen, Zhihua; Niu, Zhengyi; Zhang, Xu

2011-01-01

110

The monitoring system for vibratory disturbance detection in microgravity environment aboard the international space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists in the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications within the Microgravity Research Division oversee studies in important physical, chemical, and biological processes in microgravity environment. Research is conducted in microgravity environment because of the beneficial results that come about for experiments. When research is done in normal gravity, scientists are limited to results that are affected by the gravity of Earth. Microgravity provides an environment where solid, liquid, and gas can be observed in a natural state of free fall and where many different variables are eliminated. One challenge that NASA faces is that space flight opportunities need to be used effectively and efficiently in order to ensure that some of the most scientifically promising research is conducted. Different vibratory sources are continually active aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Some of the vibratory sources include crew exercise, experiment setup, machinery startup (life support fans, pumps, freezer/compressor, centrifuge), thruster firings, and some unknown events. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMs), which acts as the hardware and carefully positioned aboard the ISS, along with the Microgravity Environment Monitoring System MEMS), which acts as the software and is located here at NASA Glenn, are used to detect these vibratory sources aboard the ISS and recognize them as disturbances. The various vibratory disturbances can sometimes be harmful to the scientists different research projects. Some vibratory disturbances are recognized by the MEMS's database and some are not. Mainly, the unknown events that occur aboard the International Space Station are the ones of major concern. To better aid in the research experiments, the unknown events are identified and verified as unknown events. Features, such as frequency, acceleration level, time and date of recognition of the new patterns are stored in an Excel database. My task is to carefully synthesize frequency and acceleration patterns of unknown events within the Excel database into a new file to determine whether or not certain information that is received i s considered a real vibratory source. Once considered as a vibratory source, further analysis is carried out. The resulting information is used to retrain the MEMS to recognize them as known patterns. These different vibratory disturbances are being constantly monitored to observe if, in any way, the disturbances have an effect on the microgravity environment that research experiments are exposed to. If the disturbance has little or no effect on the experiments, then research is continued. However, if the disturbance is harmful to the experiment, scientists act accordingly by either minimizing the source or terminating the research and neither NASA's time nor money is wasted.

Laster, Rachel M.

2004-01-01

111

Surface relief of TiNiCu thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiNiCu thin film shape memory alloys are potential materials for microactuator. In our previous research, the various natural surface relief of crystallized TiNiCu thin film was observed, and it was related with compositions and the sputtering deposition conditions. In order to understand the origin and nature of the surface relief, the temperature-resistance measurement, X-ray diffraction and atomic fore microscopic study were performed. For Ti48.4Ni46.3Cu5.3 thin films, the transformation temperatures are below 0 degree(s)C, and the natural surface is smooth at 12 degree(s)C since the microstructure is austenite. For Ti51Ni44Cu5 thin films, two typical kinds of surface relief, e.g., chrysanthemum and rock candy, were observed at 12 degree(s)C. The chrysanthemum on the martensitic block relief is Ti-rich G.P. zone and will not disappear in thermal cycles later. It is also found that the Ti-rich G.P. zone is related with the thin films formed under lower sputtering Ar pressure. The rock candy relief is a typical martensite surface relief and will disappear when heating to the austenite phase. During crystallization process, the inherent compressive stress introduced under the condition of higher sputtering pressure is helpful to the transition from G.P. zones to Ti2(NiCu) precipitates and the increase of the transformation temperatures.

Cheng, Xiulan; Xu, Dong; Cai, Bingchu; Wang, Li; Chen, Jian; Li, Gang; Xu, Shi

2001-10-01

112

Time-Spectral Method for CFD Prediction of Helicopter Rotor Vibratory Loads  

E-print Network

Time-Spectral Method for CFD Prediction of Helicopter Rotor Vibratory Loads Seongim Choi1 coupled CFD/Comprehensive Analysis, where the Comprehensive Analysis supplies finite element CSD is to demonstrate the potential of time-spectral CFD for simulating realistic rotorcraft flows using CFD

Alonso, Juan J.

113

Research of piezoelectric vibratory angular rate sensors with improved metrological characteristics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Piezoelectric vibratory angular rate sensors are widely used in different applications. The current article presents and discusses a theoretical research of scale factor temperature drift of the piezoelectric gyroscope. Numerical simulation of scale factor temperature sensitivity using ANSYS finite element software package is also considered. The theoretical results are compared with the experimentally obtained values.

Marinushkin, Pavel; Bedareva, Elena

2014-10-01

114

Vibratory Communication in the Jumping Spider Phidippus clarus: Substrate-borne Courtship Signals are Important for  

E-print Network

Vibratory Communication in the Jumping Spider Phidippus clarus: Substrate-borne Courtship Signals al. 2009), wandering spi- ders (reviewed in Barth 2002), and jumping spiders (Elias et al. 2005, 2006 is still poorly understood. Phidippus clarus are jumping spiders in which males produce multimodal (visual

Elias, Damian Octavio

115

Analysis of vibratory states in phonation using spectral features of the electroglottographic signal.  

PubMed

The vocal folds can oscillate in several different ways, manifest to practitioners and clinicians as "registers" or "mechanisms," of which the two most often considered are modal voice and falsetto voice. Here these will be taken as instances of different "vibratory states," i.e., distinct quasi-stationary patterns of vibration of the vocal folds. State transitions are common in biomechanical nonlinear oscillators, and they are often abrupt and impossible to predict exactly. Therefore, vibratory states are a source of confounding variation, for instance when acquiring a voice range profile (VRP). In the quest for a state-based, non-invasive VRP, a semi-automatic method based on the short-term spectrum of the electroglottographic (EGG) signal was developed. The method identifies rapid vibratory state transitions, such as the modal-falsetto switch, and clusters the EGG data based on their similarities in the relative levels and phases of the lower frequency components. Productions of known modal and falsetto voice were accurately clustered by a Gaussian mixture model. When mapped into the VRP, this EGG-based clustering revealed connected regions of different vibratory sub-regimes in both modal and falsetto. PMID:25373977

Selamtzis, Andreas; Ternström, Sten

2014-11-01

116

Efficient Optimization Procedure For Minimizing Vibratory Response Via Redesign Or Modification, Part II: Examples  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using an optimization method presented in the companion paper, Part I, the optimal structural modifications leading to minimization of the vibratory response are found. A number of examples are given in this paper, from simple spring-mass systems to continuous finite element models of beams and plates. The application of the method for various cases provides illuminating results. As shown,

I. Bucher; S. Braun

1994-01-01

117

Automated measurement of vocal fold vibratory asymmetry from high-speed videoendoscopy recordings  

PubMed Central

Purpose In prior work, a manually derived measure of vocal fold vibratory phase asymmetry correlated to varying degrees with visual judgments made from laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) recordings. The current investigation extended upon this work by establishing an automated HSV-based framework to quantify three categories of vocal fold vibratory asymmetry. Method HSV-based analysis provided for cycle-to-cycle estimates of left-right phase asymmetry, left-right amplitude asymmetry, and axis shift during glottal closure for 52 normal speakers producing comfortable and pressed phonation. An initial cross validation of the automated left-right phase asymmetry measure was performed by correlating the measure with other objective and subjective assessments of phase asymmetry. Results Vocal fold vibratory asymmetry was exhibited to a similar extent in both comfortable and pressed phonations. The automated measure of left-right phase asymmetry strongly correlated with manually derived measures and moderately correlated with visual-perceptual ratings. Correlations with the visual-perceptual ratings remained relatively consistent as the automated measure was derived from kymograms taken at different glottal locations. Conclusions An automated HSV-based framework for the quantification of vocal fold vibratory asymmetry was developed and initially validated. This framework serves as a platform for investigating relationships between vocal fold tissue motion and acoustic measures of voice function. PMID:20699347

Mehta, Daryush D.; Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Quatieri, Thomas F.; Hillman, Robert E.

2013-01-01

118

Laterally oscillated and force-balanced micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs, where the oscillating position sensing and force balancing take place on the wafer surface, has been developed. The gyroscope consists of: a grid-type planar mass; LT shape position sense electrodes for detecting the Coriolis motion; pairs of force-balancing electrodes to improve the linearity and dynamic range; prominence

K. Y. Park; C. W. Lee; Y. S. Oh; Y. H. Cho

1997-01-01

119

Abstract The fiddler crab Uca tangeri communicates using a visual waving display and a vibratory drumming  

E-print Network

Abstract The fiddler crab Uca tangeri communicates using a visual waving display and a vibratory · Fiddler crab · Field study Introduction Male fiddler crabs [genus Uca (Brachyura, Ocypodidae)] have specific (Crane 1975; Zucker 1981). In some species of fiddler crab the males will spontane- ously perform

120

Effects of Vibratory, Edible, and Social Reinforcement on Performance of Institutionalized Mentally Retarded Individuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data analysis revealed that response rates for low-MA students in verbal condition reinforcement and nonreinforcement phases were significantly lower than response rates for low-MA students in any phase of the edible or vibratory conditions. No significant difference in reinforcer effectiveness was observed across various phases for students in…

Ottenbacher, Kenneth; Altman, Reuben

1984-01-01

121

Thresholds for detection of constant rotary acceleration during vibratory rotary acceleration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of vibratory angular acceleration on detection thresholds for constant angular acceleration in a dynamic flight simulator are reported in three experiments. Detection thresholds were determined for 10 pilots and four nonpilots using a random, double-staircase procedure while the subjects sat erect in a device which rotated about an earth-vertical axis. Constant angular acceleration were presented for 0.5 and 1.0 s with concurrent, vibratory angular acceleration at 1 and 5 Hz, and thresholds with no vibratory angular acceleration were established. The thresholds were obtained while the subjects observed a visual reference in the enclosed cockpit in two experiments and in total darkness in a third. The results confirmed earlier experiments showing an inverse relationship between the duration of constant angular acceleration and detection threshold and showed that the detection thresholds in darkness were higher than with a visual reference present. Two analyses of variance revealed no significant differences in thresholds across the three vibration conditions. These results indicate that vibratory angular acceleration of fairly high levels can be present in a dynamic flight simulator without masking the pilot's ability to detect either maneuver or disturbance motions.

Clark, B.; Stewart, J. D.; Phillips, N. H.

1980-01-01

122

Research on the signal process of a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro.  

PubMed

A bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell, is a kind of axisymmetric shell resonator gyroscope. Its sensitive element is a vibratory-like Chinese traditional bell, using a piezoelectric element on the wall of the vibrator to detect the standing wave's precession to solve the input angular rate. This work mainly studies the circuit system of a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro. It discusses the process of circuit system design, analysis and experiment, in detail, providing the foundation to develop a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro. Since the bell-shaped resonator's curved structure has the characteristics of large noise in the piezoelectric signal and large harmonics, this paper analyzes its working and signal detection method, then gives the whole plan of the circuit system, including the drive module, the detection module and the control loop. It also studies every part of the whole system, gives a detailed design and analysis process and proves part of the circuit system using digital simulation. At the end of the article, the test result of the circuit system shows that it can remove the disadvantages of the curved structure having large noise in the piezoelectric signal and large harmonics and is more effective at solving the input angular rate. PMID:24633451

Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning; Li, Qing; Fu, Mengyin; Liu, Hong; Fan, Junfang

2014-01-01

123

Control of Vibratory Energy Harvesters in the Presence of Nonlinearities and Power-Flow Constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, a significant amount of research activity has been devoted to developing electromechanical systems that can convert ambient mechanical vibrations into usable electric power. Such systems, referred to as vibratory energy harvesters, have a number of useful of applications, ranging in scale from self-powered wireless sensors for structural health monitoring in bridges and buildings to energy harvesting from ocean waves. One of the most challenging aspects of this technology concerns the efficient extraction and transmission of power from transducer to storage. Maximizing the rate of power extraction from vibratory energy harvesters is further complicated by the stochastic nature of the disturbance. The primary purpose of this dissertation is to develop feedback control algorithms which optimize the average power generated from stochastically-excited vibratory energy harvesters. This dissertation will illustrate the performance of various controllers using two vibratory energy harvesting systems: an electromagnetic transducer embedded within a flexible structure, and a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam. Compared with piezoelectric systems, large-scale electromagnetic systems have received much less attention in the literature despite their ability to generate power at the watt--kilowatt scale. Motivated by this observation, the first part of this dissertation focuses on developing an experimentally validated predictive model of an actively controlled electromagnetic transducer. Following this experimental analysis, linear-quadratic-Gaussian control theory is used to compute unconstrained state feedback controllers for two ideal vibratory energy harvesting systems. This theory is then augmented to account for competing objectives, nonlinearities in the harvester dynamics, and non-quadratic transmission loss models in the electronics. In many vibratory energy harvesting applications, employing a bi-directional power electronic drive to actively control the harvester is infeasible due to the high levels of parasitic power required to operate the drive. For the case where a single-directional drive is used, a constraint on the directionality of power-flow is imposed on the system, which necessitates the use of nonlinear feedback. As such, a sub-optimal controller for power-flow-constrained vibratory energy harvesters is presented, which is analytically guaranteed to outperform the optimal static admittance controller. Finally, the last section of this dissertation explores a numerical approach to compute optimal discretized control manifolds for systems with power-flow constraints. Unlike the sub-optimal nonlinear controller, the numerical controller satisfies the necessary conditions for optimality by solving the stochastic Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

Cassidy, Ian L.

124

Occupational Trauma and Mental Illness: Combat, Peacekeeping or Relief Work and the NCS-R  

PubMed Central

Objective Peacekeepers, relief workers and military members experience multiple traumas, and trauma is believed to increase risk for psychiatric distress. We examined whether combat and/or peacekeeping or relief work was associated with subsequent mental illness. Methods Using data from the US National Co-morbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) (n = 2,383), we estimated whether combat, peacekeeping or relief work were associated with increased prevalence of mental illness through bivariate cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression. Results Combat was associated with increased subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol or drug issues more than peacekeeping or relief work. Conclusions Combat, alone or combined with peacekeeping/relief work, appears to be a risk factor for subsequent PTSD and issues with drugs and alcohol. Peacekeeping/relief work without combat does not appear to be associated with these diagnoses. PMID:22173283

Connorton, Ellen; Perry, Melissa J.; Hemenway, David; Miller, Matthew

2011-01-01

125

Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has developed a 24 arc-second integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation model of Southern Alaska. This Coastal Relief Model (CRM) was generated from diverse digital datasets that were obtained from NGDC, the United States Geological Survey, and other U.S. and international agencies. The CRM spans 170° to 230° E and 48.5° to 66.5° N, including the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and Alaska’s largest communities: Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau. The CRM provides a framework for enabling scientists to refine tsunami propagation and ocean circulation modeling through increased resolution of geomorphologic features. It may also be useful for benthic habitat research, weather forecasting, and environmental stewardship. Shaded-relief image of the Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model.

Lim, E.; Eakins, B.; Wigley, R.

2009-12-01

126

Vibratory response modeling and verification of a high precision optical positioning system.  

SciTech Connect

A generic vibratory-response modeling program has been developed as a tool for designing high-precision optical positioning systems. Based on multibody dynamics theory, the system is modeled as rigid-body structures connected by linear elastic elements, such as complex actuators and bearings. The full dynamic properties of each element are determined experimentally or theoretically, then integrated into the program as inertial and stiffness matrices. Utilizing this program, the theoretical and experimental verification of the vibratory behavior of a double-multilayer monochromator support and positioning system is presented. Results of parametric design studies that investigate the influence of support floor dynamics and highlight important design issues are also presented. Overall, good matches between theory and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the program as a dynamic modeling tool.

Barraza, J.; Kuzay, T.; Royston, T. J.; Shu, D.

1999-06-18

127

Vibratory communication in the jumping spider Phidippus clarus: polyandry, male courtship signals, and mating success  

Microsoft Academic Search

The jumping spider Phidippus clarus uses signals that combine visual and substrate-borne vibrations, which predict the outcome of male--male competition and are important to copulation success. We investigated the function of males' substrate-borne vibrations by examining phenotypic correlates of vibratory signal traits and assessing whether these affect female mating and remating decisions. Virgin females were first paired with males, and

Senthurran Sivalinghem; Michael M. Kasumovic; Andrew C. Mason; Maydianne C. B. Andrade; Damian O. Elias

2010-01-01

128

Balance control and adaptation during vibratory perturbations in middle-aged and elderly humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to investigate if healthy elderly people respond and adapt differently to postural disturbances compared to middle-aged people. Thirty middle-aged (mean age 37.8 years, range 24–56 years) and forty healthy elderly subjects (mean age 74.6 years, range 66–88 years) were tested with posturography. Body sway was evoked by applying pseudorandom vibratory stimulation to the belly of the gastrocnemius muscles of both legs

P.-A. Fransson; E. K. Kristinsdottir; A. Hafström; M. Magnusson; R. Johansson

2004-01-01

129

Cost-benefits of a mobile, trailer-contained, vibratory finishing decontamination facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the cost-benefits of a vibratory finishing process, developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which has been used successfully to remove a variety of transuranic (TRU) contaminants from surfaces of metallic and nonmetallic wastes. Once TRU contaminants are removed, the metallic and nonmetallic materials can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW). Otherwise, these materials would be disposed of in geologic repositories. This study provides an economic evaluation of the vibratory finishing process as a possible method for use in decontaminating and decommissioning retired facilities at Hanford and oher sites. Specifically, the economic evaluation focuses on a scoping design for a mobile, trailer-contained facility, which could be used in the field in conjunction with decontamination and decommissioning operations. The capital cost of the mobile facility is estimated to be about $1.09 million including contingency and working capital. Annual operating costs, including disposal costs, are estimated to be $440,000 for processing about 6340 ft/sup 3//yr of pre-sectioned, TRU-contaminated material. Combining the operating cost and the capital cost, annualized at a discount rate of 10%, the total annual cost estimate is $602,000. The unit cost for vibratory finishing is estimated to be about $11/ft/sup 3/ of original reference glove box volume (Abrams et at. 1980). All costs are in first quarter 1981 dollars. Although not directly comparable, the unit cost for the vibratory finishing process is very favorable when considered beside typical, substantially higher, unit costs for processing and geologically disposing of TUR-contaminated materials. The probable accuracy of this study cost estimate is about +- 30%. It is therefore recommended that a detailed cost estimate be prepared if a mobile facility is designed.

Hazelton, R.F.; McCoy, M.W.

1982-07-01

130

Mechanical Assessment of the Drep Shield Subject to Vibratory Motion and Dynamic and Static Rock Loading  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the drip shield (DS) is to divert water that may seep into emplacement drifts from contacting the waste packages, and to protect the waste packages from impact or static loading from rockfall. The objective of this document is to summarize, into one location, the results of a series of supporting engineering calculations that were developed to study the effect of static and dynamic loads on the mechanical performance of the DS. The potential DS loads are a result of: (1) Potential earthquake vibratory ground motion, and resulting interaction of the DS, waste package and pallet, and drift invert; (2) Dynamic impacts of rockfall resulting from emplacement drift damage as a result of earthquake vibratory motion; and (3) Static load of the caved rock rubble that may come to rest on the DS as a result of vibratory motion or from time-dependent yielding of the rock mass surrounding the emplacement drift. The potential mechanical failure mechanisms that may result from these loads include: (1) Overturning and/or separation of the interlocking DS segments; (2) Loss of structural integrity and stability of the DS, including excessive deformation or buckling; and (3) Localized damage to the top and side-wall plates of the DS. The scope of this document is limited to summarizing results presented in the supporting calculations in the areas of analysis of the potential for DS collapse, and determination of the damaged surface area of the DS plates. New calculations are presented to determine whether or not separation of DSs occur under vibratory motion.

R.C. Quittmeyer

2005-11-16

131

Artificial stone slab production using waste glass, stone fragments and vacuum vibratory compaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research, waste glass and stone fragments from stone slab processing are recycled as raw materials for making artificial stone slabs using vibratory compaction in a vacuum environment. Waste glass powder (40%) and fine granite aggregates (60%) are mixed with unsaturated polymer resins (8%) as binder. Under compaction pressure of 14.7MPa, vibration frequency of 33.3Hz and vacuum condition at

Ming-Yu Lee; Chun-Han Ko; Fang-Chih Chang; Shang-Lien Lo; Jyh-Dong Lin; Ming-Yang Shan; Jeng-Ching Lee

2008-01-01

132

Effect of vocal fold injury location on vibratory parameters in excised canine larynges  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect of vocal fold injury location on vibratory amplitude and lateral phase difference. Study design Repeated measures with each excised canine larynx serving as own control. Setting Basic science study conducted in university laboratory. Methods Vocal fold vibration of excised canine larynges was recorded with a high speed camera before and after inducing vocal fold injury at one of five locations: anterior, middle, posterior, medial, or superior. Medial and superior injuries were created within the middle third of the vocal fold. Five larynges were used for each of the five injury locations. Kymography was performed at the midpoint of the vocal folds for each video. Pre- and post-injury vibratory amplitude and lateral phase difference were compared for each location. Results The anterior and medial injuries produced consistent decreases in vibratory amplitude. Middle and posterior injuries may slightly decrease amplitude. Superior injuries seemed to have no effect on amplitude. Anterior and medial injuries induce phase asymmetry between the right and left vocal folds. Middle injuries appeared to affect phase difference slightly, whereas posterior and superior injuries had no effect. Conclusion Injury to the anterior or medial portions of the vocal fold may be most likely to cause abnormal vocal fold vibration. Using caution in these locations during phonosurgery may favor superior post-operative vocal outcomes. PMID:23070053

Krausert, Christopher R.; Ying, Di; Choi, Seong Hee; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Jiang, Jack J.

2013-01-01

133

47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I triggers specified...

2013-10-01

134

47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I triggers specified...

2011-10-01

135

47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I triggers specified...

2012-10-01

136

ReliefWeb Map Centre  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a project of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, ReliefWeb has a mandate to strengthen the response capacity of the humanitarian relief community through the timely dissemination of reliable information on response, preparedness, and disaster prevention. The Map Centre page of the Web site contains links to a wealth of informative maps that carry on the organizations mandate by providing humanitarian content in cartographic form. Some of the maps available include Iraq food storage sites, Argentina flood location map, an overview of Liberian conflict, landslides in Papua New Guinea, and many more. The maps can be browsed by geographic location and subject, or searched by various parameters, making it an easy-to-use and helpful resource for anyone seeking informative maps that can be freely downloaded.

137

46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.57 Acceptance of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

2010-10-01

138

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

2011-10-01

139

46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.57 Acceptance of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

2011-10-01

140

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

2010-10-01

141

46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...for MPTs § 64.71 Marking of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

2011-10-01

142

46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...for MPTs § 64.71 Marking of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

2010-10-01

143

STRESS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this activity, students will use the available resources to learn more about stress, the effects of stress and how to handle stress. This activity focuses on the Utah fifth grade health core Standard 1: The students will learn ways to improve mental health and manage stress. During this project, students are given two different scenarios and ...

Hancey, Ms.

2010-04-27

144

30 CFR 44.16 - Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order.  

...temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and...temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and...relief, the Administrator shall cause an investigation to be...temporary relief shall remain in effect until modified, affirmed...

2014-07-01

145

Tsunami relief. After the wave.  

PubMed

With the official toll from the Boxing Day tsunami now standing at 300,000, Alexis Nolan and Emma Forrest talk to health service managers who gave more than money to the relief effort--they travelled to the disaster area and gave their time and expertise. The impact on their professional and personal lives was considerable. As Mathi Chandrakumar, clinical director of Kent Health Protection Unit, puts it: 'My heart is there, I feel very sad. I will probably go back.' PMID:15787421

Nolan, Alexis; Forrest, Emma

2005-03-01

146

Pressure relief subsystem design description  

SciTech Connect

The primary function of the Pressure Relief Subsystem, a subsystem of the Vessel System, is to provide overpressure protection to the Vessel System. When the overpressure setpoint is reached, pressure is reduced by permitting the flow of primary coolant out of the Vessel System. This subsystem also provides the flow path by which purified helium is returned to the vessel system, either as circulating purge/flow from the Helium Purification Subsystem or make-up helium from the Helium Storage and Transfer Subsystem.

NONE

1986-07-01

147

What controls the relief of rocky headlands?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rocky headlands are a common feature of coastlines but vary in their cross-shore "relief" (i.e., how far a headland extends offshore from the coastline), causing some coastlines to be more sinuous and others smoother. What controls headland relief? Most models of headland relief are qualitative and focus on the relationship between wave energy and rock strength but leave out other factors.

Balcerak, Ernie

2014-09-01

148

Dispersive and non-dispersive waves through plants: implications for arthropod vibratory communication  

PubMed Central

Vibratory communication in arthropods is a widespread phenomenon. Arthropods living on plants have been reported to use only dispersive bending waves in the context of prey–predator, competition, social and sexual interactions. Differences in signal structure have also been postulated to work as species recognition mechanisms and speciation agents. Using two identical laser Doppler vibrometers and a wavelet analysis, we quantified the wave propagation modes in rush stems (Juncus effusus) over the whole range of frequencies used by arthropods. A non-dimensionalized analysis shows that mechanical waves propagate not only as dispersive bending waves, but also as non-dispersive waves. Our analysis implies that an arthropod can communicate through non-dispersive bending waves by either producing signals of high frequencies or by choosing large stems, two widely different options tapping into the physiological and the behavioural repertoires, respectively. Non-dispersive waves, unreported so far in insect vibratory communication in plants, present serious advantages over dispersive bending waves in terms of signal integrity and may well be much more widely used than anticipated, in particular for species recognition. PMID:17284408

Casas, Jerome; Magal, Christelle; Sueur, Jerome

2007-01-01

149

Characterizing vibratory kinematics in children and adults with high-speed digital imaging.  

PubMed

PURPOSE The aim of this study is to quantify and identify characteristic vibratory motion in typically developing prepubertal children and young adults using high-speed digital imaging. METHOD The vibrations of the vocal folds were recorded from 27 children (ages 5-9 years) and 35 adults (ages 21-45 years), with high speed at 4,000 frames per second for sustained phonation. Kinematic features of amplitude periodicity, time periodicity, phase asymmetry, spatial symmetry, and glottal gap index were analyzed from the glottal area waveform across mean and standard deviation (i.e., intercycle variability) for each measure. RESULTS Children exhibited lower mean amplitude periodicity compared to men and women and lower time periodicity compared to men. Children and women exhibited greater variability in amplitude periodicity, time periodicity, phase asymmetry, and glottal gap index compared to men. Women had lower mean values of amplitude periodicity and time periodicity compared to men. CONCLUSION Children differed both spatially but more temporally in vocal fold motion, suggesting the need for the development of children-specific kinematic norms. Results suggest more uncontrolled vibratory motion in children, reflecting changes in the vocal fold layered structure and aero-acoustic source mechanisms. PMID:24686982

Patel, Rita; Dubrovskiy, Denis; Döllinger, Michael

2014-04-01

150

Effect On The Processing Characteristics Of ZnO Varistors Produced Using Vibratory Milling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each manufacturing stage in the production of zinc oxide varistors from powder preparation to the final encapsulated device is important not only for the formation of the varistor component with optimum microstructure and thus electrical characteristics but also for avoiding the introduction of flaws and reduced yield. In this paper the authors describe and discuss the effect of multi-elemental oxide additives having been milled for different durations using a vibratory mill with cylindrical zirconia media on the powder characteristics of the subsequent processing stages. A commercial ZnO varistor formulation was used. The subsequent processing stages that are given particular attention include first spray drying and second milling. The characteristics include agglomerate size, powder density and elemental uniformity of the first spray-dried powders, and particle size, specific surface area, zirconium concentration and pore size of the second milled powders. They were evaluated using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopic, mercury porosimetry, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. Some interesting correlations are observed between the powder properties and vibratory milling durations of the mixed metal oxide additives (MMOA).

Kelleher, M. C.; Hashmi, M. S. J.

2011-01-01

151

Structural-acoustic coupling effects on the non-vacuum packaging vibratory cylinder gyroscope.  

PubMed

The resonant shells of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes are commonly packaged in metallic caps. In order to lower the production cost, a portion of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes do not employ vacuum packaging. However, under non-vacuum packaging conditions there can be internal acoustic noise leading to considerable acoustic pressure which is exerted on the resonant shell. Based on the theory of the structural-acoustic coupling, the dynamical behavior of the resonant shell under acoustic pressure is presented in this paper. A finite element (FE) model is introduced to quantitatively analyze the effect of the structural-acoustic coupling. Several main factors, such as sealing cap sizes and degree of vacuum which directly affect the vibration of the resonant shell, are studied. The results indicate that the vibration amplitude and the operating frequency of the resonant shell will be changed when the effect of structural-acoustic coupling is taken into account. In addition, an experiment was set up to study the effect of structural-acoustic coupling on the sensitivity of the gyroscope. A 32.4 mV/°/s increase of the scale factor and a 6.2 Hz variation of the operating frequency were observed when the radial gap size between the resonant shell and the sealing cap was changed from 0.5 mm to 20 mm. PMID:24351631

Xi, Xiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Wu, Yulie; Zhang, Yongmeng; Tao, Yi; Zheng, Yu; Xiao, Dingbang

2013-01-01

152

Vibratory Loads Reduction Testing of the NASA/Army/MIT Active Twist Rotor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent studies have indicated that controlled strain-induced blade twisting can be attained using piezoelectric active fiber composite technology, and that such advancement may provide a mechanism for reduced rotorcraft vibrations and increased rotor performance. In order to validate these findings experimentally, a cooperative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center, the Army Research Laboratory, and the MIT Active Materials and Structures Laboratory has been developed. As a result of this collaboration a four-bladed, aeroelastically-scaled, active-twist model rotor has been designed and fabricated for testing in the heavy gas test medium of the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. Initial wind tunnel testing has been conducted to assess the impact of active blade twist on both fixed- and rotating-system vibratory loads in forward flight. The active twist control was found to have a pronounced effect on all system loads and was shown to generally offer reductions in fixed-system loads of 60% to 95%, depending upon flight condition, with 1.1 to 1.4 of dynamic blade twist observed. A summary of the systems developed and the vibratory loads reduction results obtained are presented in this paper.

Wilbur, Matthew; Mirick, Paul H.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Langston, Chester W.; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Shin, SangJoon

2001-01-01

153

Stress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project collects resources for studying mental health and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. Watch the following video for positive things teens do to reduce the stress ...

Deaton, Mrs.

2011-06-10

154

Pressure/vacuum relief valve  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a pressure/vacuum relief valve for a fluid containing vessel. It comprises: an elongated cylinder having a wall and having end walls closing the cylinder ends, one end portion of the cylinder wall having a first port communicating with the fluid in the vessel and the other end portion of the cylinder having a second port communicating with the atmosphere; a piston in the cylinder normally sealed with the inner wall surface thereof between the first and second ports; a piston rod axially projecting from the piston through the respective cylinder end wall; elongated cage means having a closed end and an open end axially connected with the respective cylinder end wall around the respective end portion of the piston rod; and, pressure responsive elongated pin means interposed between the respective end of the piston rod and the closed end of the respective cage for normally maintaining the piston in valve closed position.

Taylor, J.S.

1990-12-18

155

Stress  

MedlinePLUS

... daily responsibilities Stress brought about by a sudden negative change, such as losing a job, divorce, or illness Traumatic stress, which happens when you are in danger of being seriously hurt or killed. Examples include a major accident, war, assault, or a natural disaster. This type of ...

156

Analysis of inservice inspection relief requests  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require inspection (ISI) of boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power plants be performed in accordance with a referenced edition and addenda of Section XI, ``Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components,`` of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The regulations permit licensees to request relief from the NRC from specific ASME Code requirements that are determined to be impractical for the specific licensee. The NRC evaluates these requests and may grant such relief, but the NRC may also impose alternative or augmented inspections to assure structural reliability. The purpose,of this task was to evaluate the basis for ISI nondestructive examination (NDE) relief requests and to evaluate the effect of proposed ASME Code changes that would reduce the need for such requests or provide for more complete information in relief requests. This report contains the results of an analysis of an ISI relief request data base that has been expanded to include 1195 ISI relief requests versus the 296 relief requests covered in the first report in April 1987, EGG-SD-7430. Also relief requests were added to the data base which came from both first and second 10-year inspection intervals for several facilities. This provided the means to analyze the effect of recently approved ASME Code cases and updated Code requirements, some of which have been published as a result of earlier work on this task.

Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.

1989-08-01

157

Inexpensive tamper proof safety relief valve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Basic relief valve has added safety relief valve capability that relieves overpressure before failure can occur. It may be installed in inaccesible areas with a high degree of reliability, constructed from a variety of materials, and adapted to the user's specific application.

Frankewich, P. A.

1970-01-01

158

Vibratory shear enhanced processing membrane filtration applied for the removal of natural organic matter from surface waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the performance of a vibratory shear enhanced unit (termed hereafter as VSEP) was evaluated for the removal of humic acids in the presence of inorganic particles (clays) from synthetic aqueous dispersions, simulating contaminated surface waters. For this purpose, several major parameters were examined, such as the specific membrane type, the feed quality (i.e. the concentration of main

M. D. Petala; A. I. Zouboulis

2006-01-01

159

EXPLORING A VIBRATORY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT PRODUCTION* J A@ Scott Kel and Kenneth G Holt+  

E-print Network

EXPLORING A VIBRATORY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF HUMAN MOVEMENT PRODUCTION* J A@ Scott Kel and Kenneth G Holt+ the most desirable attributes of the human motor system are that of the limbs accurately in space ished certain parame~ ters--' tuning t the spr ior to movement account, the nervous system sets the val

160

Vibratory noise in anthropogenic habitats and its effect on prey detection in a web-building spider  

E-print Network

Chung-Huey Wu*, Damian O. Elias Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, U.S.A. a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 11 September 2013 Initial sounds, water) or anthropogenic (e.g. traffic, construction) sources. The vibratory sensory modality has

Elias, Damian Octavio

161

Selection of the design and parameters of the vibratory system of a vibrating centrifuge with torsional rotor oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The necessary parameters of torsional oscillations which are sufficient to remove residue from the rotor of a vibrating centrifuge for a high separation factor can be computed theoretically by different methods. Selection of the structural design of the elastic vibratory system of a vibrating centrifuge with torsional rotor oscillations is associated with fulfillment of the requirements that the amplitude of

Storozhenko

1984-01-01

162

Selection of the design and parameters of the vibratory system of a vibrating centrifuge with torsional rotor oscillations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deformable vibratory systems that operate at resonance are characterized by the fact that large vibration amplitudes of the system's components correspond to small disturbing forces. In this case, the low energy required to sustain the vibration process is governed only be energy dissipation during oscillations of the system's components. In connection with what has been stated above, let us restrict

O. T. Storozhenko

1983-01-01

163

30 CFR 44.16 - Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order...Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order...the temporary relief shall remain in effect until modified, affirmed or set...

2010-07-01

164

Stress  

MedlinePLUS

... blood glucose elevation in response to mental stress. Learning to Relax For some people with diabetes, controlling ... care issues can also help. Think about the aspects of life with diabetes that are the most ...

165

14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 125.165 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

2010-01-01

166

14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 121.267 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

2010-01-01

167

14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.  

...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 125.165 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

2014-01-01

168

14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.  

...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 121.267 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

2014-01-01

169

14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 121.267 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

2011-01-01

170

14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 121.267 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

2012-01-01

171

14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 125.165 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

2012-01-01

172

14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 125.165 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

2013-01-01

173

14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 121.267 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

2013-01-01

174

14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 125.165 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

2011-01-01

175

A Personification of Demos on a New Attic Document Relief  

E-print Network

This article presents a previously unpublished document relief discovered during excavations on the north slope of the Acropolis of Athens in 1937. Although fragmentary, this relief contributes to the corpus of 4th-century B.C. document reliefs...

Glowacki, Kevin

2003-01-01

176

78 FR 49242 - Relief From Joint and Several Liability  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Form 8857, ``Request for Innocent Spouse Relief,'' or substitute...in paragraph (j)(2)(iii) of this section). A request...Form 8857, ``Request for Innocent Spouse Relief,'' or other...Form 8857, ``Request for Innocent Spouse Relief,'' or an...

2013-08-13

177

49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178...Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with §...

2011-10-01

178

Understanding the role of nonlinearities in the transduction of vibratory energy harvesters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The last two decades have witnessed several advances in micro-fabrication technologies and electronics, leading to the development of small, low-power devices for wireless sensing, data transmission, actuation, and medical implants. Unfortunately, the actual implementation of such devices in their respective environment has been hindered by the lack of scalable energy sources that are necessary to power and maintain them. Batteries, which remain the most commonly used power source, have not kept pace with the demands of these devices, especially in terms of energy density. In light of this challenge, the concept of vibratory energy harvesting has flourished in recent years as a possible alternative to power and maintain low-power electronics. While linear vibratory energy harvesters have received the majority of the literature's attention, a significant body of the current research activity is focused on the concept of purposeful inclusion of nonlinearities for broadband transduction. When compared to their linear resonant counterparts, nonlinear energy harvesters have a wider steady-state frequency bandwidth, leading to the common belief that they can be utilized to improve performance especially in random and non-stationary vibratory environments. This dissertation aims to critically investigate this belief by drawing a clearer picture of the role of nonlinearities in the transduction of energy harvesters and by defining the conditions under which nonlinearities can be used to enhance performance. To achieve this goal, the Thesis is divided into three parts. The first part investigates the performance of mono- and bi-stable energy harvesters under harmonic excitations and carries a detailed analysis of their relative performance. The second part investigates their response to broadband and narrowband random excitations and again analyzes their relative behavior. The third part exploits the super-harmonic resonance bands of bi-stable energy harvesters for the purpose of scavenging energy from low-frequency excitations. As a platform to achieve the Thesis objectives, a piezoelectric energy harvester consisting of an axially loaded clamped-clamped beam bi-morph is considered. The harvester can operate with mono- (pre-buckling) and bi-stable (post-buckling) characteristics with minimal alterations to the design. Theoretical and experimental studies performed on the proposed harvester are presented to delineate the influence of the nonlinearity on its performance, in particular, and nonlinear vibratory energy harvesters in general. It is demonstrated that the intentional inclusion of nonlinearities in energy harvesters makes these devices more tolerant to variations in the excitation and design parameters around their nominal values as compared to a linear device. However, the Thesis also pointed out many issues that can result from the complexity and non-uniqueness of solutions associated with nonlinear systems. It became apparent that the performance of a nonlinear energy harvester is very much dependent on the level and nature of the excitation in conjunction with the potential shape of the harvester. This makes developing direct performance metrics, similar to what has been done for linear harvesters, a challenging problem which should constitute a major avenue of future research efforts.

Masana, Ravindra Shiva Charan

179

Efficient model updating using Bayesian probabilistic framework based on measured vibratory response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the deviation between the model and an actual structure is generally identified through a so-called model updating process, in which a set of experimental measurement of structural dynamic response is used in combination with the model prediction to facilitate an inverse analysis that is usually deterministic. In reality, however, structural properties, such as mass and stiffness, are inevitably subject to variation/uncertainties. As such, the identification of property variations in a probabilistic manner can truly reveal the underlying physical characteristics of the structure involved. In this research, we adopt the Bayesian probabilistic framework to conduct stochastic model updating using measured vibratory response. Furthermore, this paper proposes an efficient scheme to facilitate such procedures by incorporating the Gaussian process and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) into the Bayesian framework. The feasibility of this presented methodology is validated by case studies.

Zhou, K.; Liang, G.; Tang, J.

2014-04-01

180

Relief of Pain and Suffering  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The symposium and exhibit titled Pain and Suffering in History - Narrative Science, Medicine and Culture marks the dedication of the John C. Liebeskind History of Pain Collection at the Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library, UCLA. The Relief of Pain and Suffering site, prepared in conjunction with the aforementioned symposium and exhibit, gives us plenty for which to be thankful in terms of advancements in the area of pain management. Tracing the modern roots of this field back to the nineteenth century and earlier, users can view historical pictures of botanicals, tools, and early writings all related to the alleviation of pain and suffering. Descriptions of syndromes like phantom limbs and causalgia abound as users travel towards the 21st century. Modern methods discussed include interdisciplinary team approaches to pain management and the Hospice movement's philosophies on pain treatment. Users can navigate the site in a variety of ways: through a series of topical links off of the main page, by moving through the site using arrow buttons, or through an index of illustrations and keywords. A final page of links to professional organizations related to the field nicely rounds out the site.

1998-01-01

181

Applying photovoltaics to disaster relief  

SciTech Connect

Hurricanes, floods, tornados, earthquakes and other disasters can happen at any time, often with little or no advance warning. They can be as destructive as Hurricane Andrew leaving several hundred-thousand people homeless or as minor as an afternoon thunderstorm knocking down local power lines to your home. Major disasters leave many people without adequate medical services, potable water, electrical service and communications. In response to a natural disaster, photovoltaic (solar electric) modules offer a source of quiet, safe, pollution-free electrical power. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are capable of providing the electrical needs for vaccine refrigerators, microscopes, medical equipment, lighting, radios, fans, communications, traffic devices and other general electrical needs. Stand alone PV systems do not require refueling and operate for long period of time from the endless energy supplied by the sun, making them beneficial during recovery efforts. This report discusses the need for electrical power during a disaster, and the capability of PV to fill that need. Applications of PV power used during previous disaster relief efforts are also presented.

Young, W. Jr. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

1996-11-01

182

Reconstruction of Dislocation Potential Relief by Means of Self-Blocking Effect  

SciTech Connect

The effect of dislocation self-blocking in intermetallic compounds with an anomalous temperature dependence of yield stress has been theoretically and experimentally analyzed. In essence, this effect is a dislocation self-immersion in a deep potential relief valley (without external stress). The possibility of reconstructing the relief shape (from one-valley to two-valley) is shown and the relief parameters are reported. The allowed and forbidden regions for self-blocking are revealed. The method for determining the ratio of the valley depths by measuring the self-blocking limiting angles between the dislocation segments is proposed. Transmission electron microscopy images of the dislocation structure can be used to this end. As an example, this ratio is estimated for a superpartial dislocation sliding in the cube plane in Ni{sub 3}Ge.

Greenberg, B. A., E-mail: bella@imp.uran.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division (Russian Federation); Ivanov, M. A., E-mail: ivanov@imp.kiev.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kurdjumov Institute of Metal Physics (Ukraine); Plotnikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division (Russian Federation)

2010-11-15

183

32 CFR 516.19 - Injunctive relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.19 Injunctive relief. (a) General....

2010-07-01

184

Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery  

MedlinePLUS

PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery This handout is for informational purposes only. Talk with your doctor or health care team if you have any questions about ...

185

Quick-Relief Medications for Lung Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... swelling and help other asthma medicines work better. Inhaled Steroids An inhaled steroid is typically prescribed as a long-term control medicine. An inhaled steroid will not provide quick relief for acute attacks. ...

186

Relief: A Scalable Actuated Shape Display  

E-print Network

Relief is an actuated tabletop display, which is able to render and animate three-dimensional shapes with a malleable surface. It allows users to experience and form digital models like geographical terrain in an intuitive ...

Leithinger, Daniel

2010-01-01

187

The operation of LPG relief valves  

SciTech Connect

As stipulated by NFPA 58, all LPG storage containers must be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices. These devices are sized to prevent rupture of a normally charged container when exposed to fire. This paper describes in detail the functioning of the spring-loaded relief valve. The author discusses how the venting of LPGs can produce unacceptable risks and how training is a necessary part of controlling such a situation.

Stannard, J.H. Jr

1989-11-01

188

Estimating Attributes: Analysis and Extensions of RELIEF  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of machine learning from examples this paper deals with the problem of estimating the quality of attributes with and without dependencies among them. Kira and Rendell (1992a,b) developed an algorithm called RELIEF, which was shown to be very efficient in estimating attributes. Original RELIEF can deal with discrete and continuous attributes and is limited to only two-class

Igor Kononenko

1994-01-01

189

Sampling of Stochastic Input Parameters for Rockfall Calculations and for Structural Response Calculations Under Vibratory Ground Motion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this scientific analysis is to define the sampled values of stochastic (random) input parameters for (1) rockfall calculations in the lithophysal and nonlithophysal zones under vibratory ground motions, and (2) structural response calculations for the drip shield and waste package under vibratory ground motions. This analysis supplies: (1) Sampled values of ground motion time history and synthetic fracture pattern for analysis of rockfall in emplacement drifts in nonlithophysal rock (Section 6.3 of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'', BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]); (2) Sampled values of ground motion time history and rock mechanical properties category for analysis of rockfall in emplacement drifts in lithophysal rock (Section 6.4 of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'', BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]); (3) Sampled values of ground motion time history and metal to metal and metal to rock friction coefficient for analysis of waste package and drip shield damage to vibratory motion in ''Structural Calculations of Waste Package Exposed to Vibratory Ground Motion'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167083]) and in ''Structural Calculations of Drip Shield Exposed to Vibratory Ground Motion'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163425]). The sampled values are indices representing the number of ground motion time histories, number of fracture patterns and rock mass properties categories. These indices are translated into actual values within the respective analysis and model reports or calculations. This report identifies the uncertain parameters and documents the sampled values for these parameters. The sampled values are determined by GoldSim V6.04.007 [DIRS 151202] calculations using appropriate distribution types and parameter ranges. No software development or model development was required for these calculations. The calculation of the sampled values allows parameter uncertainty to be incorporated into the rockfall and structural response calculations that support development of the seismic scenario for the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The results from this scientific analysis also address project requirements related to parameter uncertainty, as specified in the acceptance criteria in ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]). This document was prepared under the direction of ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170528]) which directed the work identified in work package ARTM05. This document was prepared under procedure AP-SIII.9Q, ''Scientific Analyses''. There are no specific known limitations to this analysis.

M. Gross

2004-09-01

190

Electroglottographic parameterization of the effects of gender, vowel and phonatory registers on vocal fold vibratory patterns: an Indian perspective.  

PubMed

In-depth study on laryngeal biomechanics and vocal fold vibratory patterns reveal that a single vibratory cycle can be divided into two major phases, the closed and open phase, which is subdivided into opening and closing phases. Studies reveal that the relative time course of abduction and adduction, which in turn is dependent on the relative relaxing and tensing of the vocal fold cover and body, to be the determining factor in production of a particular vocal register like the modal (or chest), falsetto, glottal fry registers. Studies further point out Electroglottography to be particularly suitable for the study of vocal vibratory patterns during register changes. However, to date, there has been limited study on quantitative parameterization of EGG wave form in vocal fry register. Moreover, contradictory findings abound in literature regarding effects of gender and vowel types on vocal vibratory patterns, especially during phonation at different registers. The present study endeavors to find out the effects of vowel and gender differences on the vocal fold vibratory patterns in different registers and how these would be reflected in standard EGG parameters of Contact Quotient (CQ) and Contact Index (CI), taking into consideration the Indian sociolinguistic context. Electroglottographic recordings of 10 young adults (5 males and 5 females) were taken while the subjects phonated the three vowels /a/,/i/,/u/ each in two vocal registers, modal and vocal fry. Obtained raw EGG were further normalized using the Derived EGG algorithm and theCQ and CI values were derived. Obtained data were subject to statistical analysis using the 3-way ANOVA with gender, vowel and vocal register as the three variables. Post-hoc Dunnett C multiple comparison analysis were also performed. Results reveal that CQ values are significantly higher in vocal fry than modal phonation for both males and females, indicating a relatively hyperconstricted vocal system during vocal fry. The males have significantly greater CQ values than females both at modal and vocal fry phonations which indicate that the males are predisposed to greater vocal fold constriction. Females demonstrated no significant increase in CI values in vocal fry state; and in some cases actually decrease in the CI values which suggest an inherently distinct vocal fold physiological adjustment from that in males. No vowel effects were found in any conditions. Perturbation values (CQP and CIP) are significantly more in vocal fry register than in modal register, and the increase was more in case of females than males. The findings give strong evidence to certain hypotheses in literature regarding effects of vowel, gender and phonatory register on vocal fold vibratory patterns. PMID:22319713

Paul, Nilanjan; Kumar, Suman; Chatterjee, Indranil; Mukherjee, Biswarup

2011-01-01

191

[Application of preparations relief ultra and relief advance in practice of coloproctological department].  

PubMed

Efficacy of application of preparations Relief Ultra and Relief Advance as pathogenetically directed medicines was established, basing on analysis of the examination and treatment results in 133 patients with anal region diseases (acute and chronic hemorrhoids, nonspeciphic ulcerative colitis, the Crohn's disease, acute paraproctitis, rectal polyp). For local conservative treatment it is expedient to apply preparations in various pharmacological forms in complex. Application of preparation Relief Ultra endorectally in conjunction with preparation Relief Advance endorectally and locally on the wound surface is indicated after performance of elective and urgent operative interventions for rectal and anal zone diseases. PMID:16509076

Zakharash, M P; Po?da, O I

2005-10-01

192

The Use of Knowledge in Natural Disaster Relief Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

To successfully coordinate natural disaster relief, society must solve Hayek’s “knowledge, problem” at three critical information nodes: (1) identification of disaster; (2) determination of what relief is needed and who needs which relief resources; and (3) evaluation of on-going relief efforts. This paper investigates the comparative ability of government and the private sector to do this. We find that government

Russell S. Sobel; Peter T. Leeson

2006-01-01

193

Joint position sense and vibratory perception sense in patients with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome type III (hypermobility type)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurophysiological deficits could make patients with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome (EDS) type III (hypermobility type) more vulnerable\\u000a to musculoskeletal problems, particularly to joint instability. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether joint\\u000a position sense (JPS) and vibratory perception sense (VPS) in EDS type III patients in the knee and shoulder joints are impaired.\\u000a Thirty-two female EDS type III patients as

Lies Rombaut; Anne De Paepe; Fransiska Malfait; Ann Cools; Patrick Calders

2010-01-01

194

Motor task performance under vibratory feedback early poststroke: single center, randomized, cross-over, controled clinical trial  

PubMed Central

Stroke rehabilitation is far from meeting patient needs in terms of timing, intensity and quality. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of an innovative technological tool, combining 3D motion analysis with targeted vibratory feedback, on upper-limb task performance early poststroke (<4 weeks). The study design was a two-sequence, two-period, randomized, crossover trial (NCT01967290) in 44 patients with upper-limb motor deficit (non-plegic) after medial cerebral artery ischemia. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the experimental session (repetitive motor task under vibratory feedback and 3D motor characterization) or the active comparator (3D motor characterization only). The primary outcome was the number of correct movements per minute on a hand-to-mouth task measured independently. Vibratory feedback was able to modulate motor training, increasing the number of correct movements by an average of 7.2/min (95%CI [4.9;9.4]; P < 0.001) and reducing the probability of performing an error from 1:3 to 1:9. This strategy may improve the efficacy of training on motor re-learning processes after stroke, and its clinical relevance deserves further study in longer duration trials. PMID:25011667

Cruz, Vitor Tedim; Bento, Virgilio; Ruano, Luis; Ribeiro, David Dieteren; Fontao, Luis; Mateus, Catia; Barreto, Rui; Colunas, Marcio; Alves, Ana; Cruz, Barbara; Branco, Catarina; Rocha, Nelson P.; Coutinho, Paula

2014-01-01

195

Vibratory response of a mirror support/positioning system for the Advanced Photon Source project at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The vibratory response of a typical mirror support/positioning system used at the experimental station of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) project at Argonne National Laboratory is investigated. Positioning precision and stability are especially critical when the supported mirror directs a high-intensity beam aimed at a distant target. Stability may be compromised by low level, low frequency seismic and facility-originated vibrations traveling through the ground and/or vibrations caused by flow-structure interactions in the mirror cooling system. The example case system has five positioning degrees of freedom through the use of precision actuators and rotary and linear bearings. These linkage devices result in complex, multi-dimensional vibratory behavior that is a function of the range of positioning configurations. A rigorous multibody dynamical approach is used for the development of the system equations. Initial results of the study, including estimates of natural frequencies and mode shapes, as well as limited parametric design studies, are presented. While the results reported here are for a particular system, the developed vibratory analysis approach is applicable to the wide range of high-precision optical positioning systems encountered at the APS and at other comparable facilities.

Basdogan, I.; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Royston, T.J.; Shabana, A.A. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-08-01

196

Identification and experimental validation of damping ratios of different human body segments through anthropometric vibratory model in standing posture.  

PubMed

A 15 degrees of freedom lumped parameter vibratory model of human body is developed, for vertical mode vibrations, using anthropometric data of the 50th percentile US male. The mass and stiffness of various segments are determined from the elastic modulii of bones and tissues and from the anthropometric data available, assuming the shape of all the segments is ellipsoidal. The damping ratio of each segment is estimated on the basis of the physical structure of the body in a particular posture. Damping constants of various segments are calculated from these damping ratios. The human body is modeled as a linear spring-mass-damper system. The optimal values of the damping ratios of the body segments are estimated, for the 15 degrees of freedom model of the 50th percentile US male, by comparing the response of the model with the experimental response. Formulating a similar vibratory model of the 50th percentile Indian male and comparing the frequency response of the model with the experimental response of the same group of subjects validate the modeling procedure. A range of damping ratios has been considered to develop a vibratory model, which can predict the vertical harmonic response of the human body. PMID:17655478

Gupta, T C

2007-08-01

197

Motor task performance under vibratory feedback early poststroke: single center, randomized, cross-over, controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

Stroke rehabilitation is far from meeting patient needs in terms of timing, intensity and quality. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of an innovative technological tool, combining 3D motion analysis with targeted vibratory feedback, on upper-limb task performance early poststroke (<4 weeks). The study design was a two-sequence, two-period, randomized, crossover trial (NCT01967290) in 44 patients with upper-limb motor deficit (non-plegic) after medial cerebral artery ischemia. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the experimental session (repetitive motor task under vibratory feedback and 3D motor characterization) or the active comparator (3D motor characterization only). The primary outcome was the number of correct movements per minute on a hand-to-mouth task measured independently. Vibratory feedback was able to modulate motor training, increasing the number of correct movements by an average of 7.2/min (95%CI [4.9;9.4]; P < 0.001) and reducing the probability of performing an error from 1:3 to 1:9. This strategy may improve the efficacy of training on motor re-learning processes after stroke, and its clinical relevance deserves further study in longer duration trials. PMID:25011667

Cruz, Vítor Tedim; Bento, Virgílio; Ruano, Luís; Ribeiro, David Dieteren; Fontão, Luís; Mateus, Cátia; Barreto, Rui; Colunas, Márcio; Alves, Ana; Cruz, Bárbara; Branco, Catarina; Rocha, Nelson P; Coutinho, Paula

2014-01-01

198

Authority in Online Disaster Relief Communities 1 Running Head: AUTHORITY IN ONLINE DISASTER RELIEF COMMUNITIES  

E-print Network

COMMUNITIES Approaches to Authority in Online Disaster Relief Communities after Hurricane Katrina Cristen study of distributed networks of volunteers that emerged online following Hurricane Katrina. Online Disaster Relief Communities after Hurricane Katrina Hurricane Katrina flooded 80% of New Orleans and left

Kiesler, Sara

199

Programmable mechanobioreactor for exploration of the effects of periodic vibratory stimulus on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.  

PubMed

A programmable bioreactor using a voice-coil actuator was developed to enable research on the effects of periodic vibratory stimulus on human and porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We hypothesized that low frequency vibrations would result in a cartilage phenotype and higher frequency vibrations would result in a bone phenotype. The mechanical stimulation protocol is adjusted from a computer external to the incubator via a USB cable. Once programmed, the embedded microprocessor and sensor system on the bioreactor execute the protocol independent of the computer. In each test, a sinusoidal stimulus was applied to a culture plate in 1-min intervals with a 15-min rest following each, for a total of 15?h per day for 10 days. Frequencies of 1 and 100?Hz were applied to cultures of both human and porcine umbilical cord-derived MSCs. Chondrogenesis was determined by Alcian blue staining for glycosaminoglycans and an increased differentiation index (ratio of mRNA for collagen II and collagen I). Osteogenic differentiation was indicated with Alizarin red for calcium staining and increased bone morphogenetic protein 2 mRNA. One-hertz stimulation resulted in a cartilage phenotype for both human and porcine MSCs, while 100-Hz stimulation resulted in a bone phenotype. PMID:24570842

Cashion, Avery T; Caballero, Montserrat; Halevi, Alexandra; Pappa, Andrew; Dennis, Robert G; van Aalst, John A

2014-02-01

200

Phase reversal of vibratory signals in honeycomb may assist dancing honeybees to attract their audience.  

PubMed

Forager honeybees dancing on the comb are able to attract dance-followers from distances across the comb that are too remote for tactile or visual signals to play a role. An alternative signal could be the vibrations of the comb at 200-300 Hz generated by dancing bees but which, without amplification, may not be large enough to alert remote dance-followers. We describe here, however, an unexpected property of honeycomb when it is subjected to vibration at around 200 Hz that would represent an effective amplification of the vibratory signals for remote dance-followers. We find that, at a specific distance from the origin of an imposed vibration, the walls across a single comb cell abruptly reverse the phase of their displacement and move in opposite directions to one another. Behavioural measurements show that the distance from which the majority of remote dance-followers are recruited coincides with the location of this phase-reversal phenomenon relative to the signal source. We propose that effective signal amplification by the phase-reversal phenomenon occurs when bees straddle a cell across which the phase reversal is expressed. Such a bee would be subjected to a situation in which the legs were moving towards and away from one another instead of in the same direction. In this manner, remote dance-followers could be alerted to a dancer performing in their vicinity. PMID:11719537

Tautz, J; Casas, J; Sandeman, D

2001-11-01

201

Electrophysiological responses to vibratory stimulation in the brainstem of the tadpole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maturation of saccular responses to vibratory stimuli in 3 axes was measured in the Rana catesbeiana tadpole across metamorphic development. The animal was suspended in a water-filled circular aluminum dish attached to a shaker table system consisting of 5 vibration exciters producing sinusoidal, translational movements in the x, y, and z planes. Multi-unit responses were recorded from the medulla with tungsten or platinum-iridium microelectrodes. Recording sites were electrolytically marked to verify electrode placement. Data were collected from 16 animals in late larval stages, before onset of metamorphic climax. Most recording sites were sensitive to vibrations in the z (vertical) direction, indicating a saccular origin of the response. Vibration frequencies of 40 Hz or below produced the strongest activity, with thresholds below a displacement of 10 nm. Secondary sensitivity was sometimes observed to either x (body-longitudinal) or y (body-lateral) directions of movement. Although some sites produced strong phase-locked activity to the stimulation, others showed more diverse temporal patterns of response. Active recording sites were found in the medial vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, reticular gray, and dorsal superior olivary nucleus. These data suggest that tadpole saccule is functional early in larval development, with sensitivity similar to that observed in adult bullfrogs.

Simmons, Andrea M.; Two, Aimee; Horowitz, Seth S.

2005-04-01

202

Two novel measurements for the drive-mode resonant frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope.  

PubMed

To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG), one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and inconvenient because of the requirements of many test points, a lot of data storage and off-line analyses. In this paper, we propose two novel measurement methods, the search method and track method, respectively. The former is based on the magnitude-frequency characteristics of the drive mode, utilizing a one-dimensional search technique. The latter is based on the phase-frequency characteristics, applying a feedback control loop. Their performances in precision, noise resistivity and efficiency are analyzed through detailed simulations. A test system is implemented based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and experiments are carried out. By comparing with the common approach, feasibility and superiorities of the proposed methods are validated. In particular, significant efficiency improvements are achieved whereby the conventional frequency method consumes nearly 5,000 s to finish a measurement, while only 5 s is needed for the track method and 1 s for the search method. PMID:24256977

Wang, Ancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Luo, Bing; Jiang, Mingming; He, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kanghua

2013-01-01

203

Two Novel Measurements for the Drive-Mode Resonant Frequency of a Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope  

PubMed Central

To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG), one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and inconvenient because of the requirements of many test points, a lot of data storage and off-line analyses. In this paper, we propose two novel measurement methods, the search method and track method, respectively. The former is based on the magnitude-frequency characteristics of the drive mode, utilizing a one-dimensional search technique. The latter is based on the phase-frequency characteristics, applying a feedback control loop. Their performances in precision, noise resistivity and efficiency are analyzed through detailed simulations. A test system is implemented based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and experiments are carried out. By comparing with the common approach, feasibility and superiorities of the proposed methods are validated. In particular, significant efficiency improvements are achieved whereby the conventional frequency method consumes nearly 5,000 s to finish a measurement, while only 5 s is needed for the track method and 1 s for the search method. PMID:24256977

Wang, Ancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Luo, Bing; Jiang, Mingming; He, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kanghua

2013-01-01

204

Glovebox pressure relief and check valve  

SciTech Connect

This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

Blaedel, K.L.

1986-03-17

205

Effect of residual stress on thermal fatigue in a type 420 martensitic stainless steel weldment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aimed at the investigation of the effect of residual stress on thermal fatigue in martensitic stainless steel. In this study, a submerged arc welding was utilized. In order to obtain the different magnitude of residual stresses, the parallel heat welding, vibration stress relief, shot peening, and controlled low temperature stress relief processes were used for reduction of residual

Y. C Lin; S. C Chen

2003-01-01

206

Non-Pharmacological Pain Relief in Labour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain in normal labour can be relieved using many non-pharmacological methods including:- Techniques that reduce painful stimuli: Assuming various upright positions to ease the pain, encourage labour progress and increase the diameter of the pelvis. Techniques that activate peripheral sensory receptors: Of the various techniques used, intradermal injection of sterile water (ISW) results in over 50% of pain relief compared

Tanit Habanananda

2004-01-01

207

The origin and relief of common pain.  

PubMed

Where pain of the musculoskeletal system is present, commonly, this pain is without objective evidence of disease, trauma, or disorder. Absence of an apparent cause for common pain prompts the consideration of mechanical stress as a contributing factor. The principal stress of the musculoskeletal system is postural. By posture it is usually meant the distribution of body mass with respect to gravity. Past efforts to predict chronic pain by postural analysis or to reduce such pain by strengthening, conscious control or splinting of posture has had marginal success. Past failure to relate posture to pain is attributable to (1) ubiquity of sub-optimal posture that precludes clinical comparison to those with optimal posture; (2) presupposition that the causal relation between posture and pain is of the observational class of causality rather than the manipulable kind; (3) a definition of posture that is too narrow to complete the picture; and (4) inadequate methods for reduction of postural asymmetry to an extent that is sufficient to elicit a significant and enduring effect on sub-optimal posture and related pain. Posture can be defined more broadly as the stance of the body performing within the boundaries of posture and which is mediated by the Postural Control System towards greatest stability (Fx. 1). The stance of the body is the arrangement of the body with respect to gravity and other accelerative forces. The postural boundaries are the set of forces that resist acceleration and thereby provide the limits within which one functions stably, and this resistance is currently approximated by six principal sources of resistance to acceleration: viscous, elastic, neuromuscular, rigid, viscoelastic, and inertial. The Postural Control System is located in the brainstem and modulates body stance to more economically and stably effect and resist acceleration. The rigid boundaries can be so with respect to compressive, tractive, or tensile qualities that permits three kinds of motion: translation, rotation and oscillation. An example of postural boundaries that are rigid with respect to compression and tensile character are the bones that bear weight. In contrast, ligaments provide a tractive rigidity and musculotendons a relatively elastic boundary. Joint surfaces are considered boundaries that are rigid but not perfectly so. Of fundamental importance are those joints that arc lowermost in a column of the musculoskeletal system namely: (1) the feet and ankles that support the entirety of the musculoskeletal system and; (2) the base of the sacrum that supports the vertebral spine. This broadened definition of posture leads to a greatly enhanced manipulability of posture in the upright stance and alleviation of more than two-thirds of common pain by the coherent combination of (1) manual manipulation to reduce somatic dysfunction; (2) foot orthotics to optimize the amplitude of the arches of the feet and vertically align the ankle; (3) a heel lift to level the sacral base; (4) and a group of therapeutic postures configured to minimize restriction of peripheral soft tissue reflective of the earlier posture, all aimed to optimize posture. Mediated by the postural control system, manipulation of postural boundaries accordingly modifies the structure and function of the entire musculoskeletal system. Typically, this relief is maintained by foot orthotic and heel lift alone without maintenance by manual manipulation, medication, or exercise. PMID:11542803

Irvin, R E

1998-01-01

208

Fitness efficacy of vibratory exercise compared to walking in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

In this study, we compared the efficacy of 8 months of low-frequency vibration and a walk-based program in health-related fitness. Twenty-seven postmenopausal women were randomly assigned into two groups: whole-body vibration (WBV) group (n = 18) performed three times/week a static exercise on a vibration platform (6 sets of 1-min with 1 min of rest, with a 12.6 Hz of frequency and an amplitude of 3 mm); walk-based program (WP) group (n = 18) performed three times/week a 60-min of walk activity at 70-75% of maximal heart rate. A health-related battery of tests was applied. Maximal unilateral concentric and eccentric isokinetic torque of the knee extensors was recorded by an isokinetic dynamometer. Physical fitness was measured using the following tests: vertical jump test, chair rise test and maximal walking speed test over 4 m. Maximal unilateral isokinetic strength was measured in the knee extensors in concentric actions at 60 and 300 degrees /s, and eccentric action at 60 degrees /s. After 8 months, the WP improved the time spent to walk 4 m (20%) and to perform the chair rise test (12%) compared to the WBV group (P = 0.006, 0.002, respectively). In contrast, the comparison of the changes in vertical jump showed the higher effectiveness of the vibratory exercise in 7% (P = 0.025). None of exercise programs showed change on isokinetic measurements. These results indicate that both programs differed in the main achievements and could be complementary to prevent lower limbs muscle strength decrease as we age [ISRCTN76235671]. PMID:19434420

Raimundo, Armando M; Gusi, Narcis; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

2009-07-01

209

Stress Relief Do you like dogs? Do you  

E-print Network

The Meliora *Tickets available at the Common Market Looking for event details? www.rochester.edu/uhs Healthy just for you! February 19th 8:00pm Goergen Athletic Center Thank you to all of our co-sponsors! Need

Mahon, Bradford Z.

210

Stress Relief Week T U E S D AY  

E-print Network

D E C 1 2 F R I D AY D E C 1 3 Mat Pilates with Corinne 12:00-1:00pm Studio 311 Yoga with Laura 12 Pilates with Corinne 11:00-11:50am Studio 311 FREE Chair Massage 4:00- 6:00pm First Floor Yoga with Anita

Plotkin, Joshua B.

211

Stress relief cracking in creep resisting low alloy ferritic steels.  

E-print Network

that the intergranular fracture facets were cov~red with small cavities, each of which loTas associated with particles of V4C3 , 200 - 600 ~ in diameter which indicated the possibility of heterogeneous cavity nucleation (as discussed in the next section). *An...

Tait, Robert Andrew

1976-10-26

212

Stress relief: improving structural strength of 3D printable objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of 3D printing has rapidly expanded in the past couple of years. It is now possible to produce 3D-printed objects with exceptionally high fidelity and precision. However, although the quality of 3D printing has improved, both the time to print and the material costs have remained high. Moreover, there is no guarantee that a printed model is structurally

Ondrej Stava; Juraj Vanek; Bedrich Benes; Nathan Carr; Radomír M?ch

213

Reading, Writing and Drawing in Relief: The IPO Relief-Drawing Set.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes an improved relief drawing set designed for use with visually impaired persons that allows durable, tangible, and visible embossed images to be made with a ball-point pen. (Author/PHR)

Melotte, H. E. M.; Engel, F. L.

1980-01-01

214

27 CFR 19.251 - Relief of surety from bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Relief of surety from bond. 19.251 Section 19.251 Alcohol...TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Bonds and Consents of Surety Termination of Bonds § 19.251 Relief of surety from...

2010-04-01

215

27 CFR 44.66 - Relief from liability for tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Relief from liability for tax. 44...Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Relief from liability for tax. A...manufacturer of tobacco products or cigarette...relieved of the liability for tax on tobacco products, or...

2013-04-01

216

27 CFR 44.66 - Relief from liability for tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Relief from liability for tax. 44...Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Relief from liability for tax. A...manufacturer of tobacco products or cigarette...relieved of the liability for tax on tobacco products, or...

2010-04-01

217

27 CFR 44.66 - Relief from liability for tax.  

... Relief from liability for tax. 44...Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Relief from liability for tax. A...manufacturer of tobacco products or cigarette...relieved of the liability for tax on tobacco products, or...

2014-04-01

218

27 CFR 44.66 - Relief from liability for tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Relief from liability for tax. 44...Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Relief from liability for tax. A...manufacturer of tobacco products or cigarette...relieved of the liability for tax on tobacco products, or...

2011-04-01

219

27 CFR 44.66 - Relief from liability for tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Relief from liability for tax. 44...Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Relief from liability for tax. A...manufacturer of tobacco products or cigarette...relieved of the liability for tax on tobacco products, or...

2012-04-01

220

Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image of Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale (Alaska Department of Natural Resources, 1994), using the 1,000-m digital elevation data set referred to below. An important difference between our image and these previous ones is the method of reproduction: like the Thelin and Pike (1991) image, our image is a composite of halftone images that yields sharp resolution and preserves contrast. Indeed, the first impression of many viewers is that the Alaskan image and the Thelin and Pike image are composites of satellite-generated photographs rather than an artificial rendering of a digital elevation model. A shaded-relief image represents landforms in a natural fashion; that is, a viewer perceives the image as a rendering of reality. Thus a shaded-relief image is intrinsically appealing, especially in areas of spectacular relief. In addition, even subtle physiographic features that reflect geologic structures or the type of bedrock are visible. To our knowledge, some of these Alaskan features have not been depicted before and so the image should provide earth scientists with a new 'look' at fundamental geologic features of Alaska.

Riehle, J. R.; Fleming, M. D.; Molnia, B. F.; Dover, J. H.; Kelley, J. S.; Miller, M. L.; Nokleberg, W. J.; Plafker, George; Till, A. B.

1997-01-01

221

Towards Optimal Pain Relief: Acupuncture and Spinal Cord Stimulation  

E-print Network

Towards Optimal Pain Relief: Acupuncture and Spinal Cord Stimulation Richard Al'o 1 , Kenneth Al is a discrete optimization problem, e.g., for pain relief methodologies such as acupuncture and spinal cord problems related to pain relief: ffl problems of acupuncture, and ffl problems related to spinal cord

Kreinovich, Vladik

222

49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of approved...

2011-10-01

223

49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section...General Design Requirements § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class...and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material...

2011-10-01

224

The President's Agenda for Tax Relief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In early 2001, President Bush released a summary of his agenda for tax relief. He claims to offer a "bold and fair tax relief plan that will reduce the inequities of the current tax code and help ensure that America remains prosperous." Highlights of Bush's proposal include doubling the child care credit to $1,000 per child, reinstating the ten percent deduction for two-earner couples, thus reducing the "marriage penalty," and eliminating inheritance taxes. The rather celebratory summary provides a short explanation of each element of the new tax plan, along with several charts on topics including consumer debt, tax rates for Americans on the edge of poverty, and the tax reduction for the poorest families. Finally, the report offers an easy-to-understand, side-by-side comparison of the current tax code and the Bush plan.

2001-01-01

225

High-Performance Valve Promises Safe Relief  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using an improved valve design developed under an SBIR contract with Stennis Space Center, Marotta Scientific's PRV95 provides stability over the entire operational range, from fully closed to fully open. The valve employs a concept known as upstream control for valve positioning, making it more dependable with excellent repeatability and minimal lag time. The PRV95 design is unique in its ability to maintain a seal near the set point of the relief limit. Typically, relief valves seal tightly up to 90 percent set point and then reseat when pressure is reduced to 85 percent of set point. This new technology maintains seal integrity until 98 percent of set point and will reseat at 95 to 97 percent of set point. This allows the operator to protect a system without exceeding its limits.

2002-01-01

226

Improve safety with pilot operated relief valves  

SciTech Connect

A weakness inherent in balanced bellows pressure relief valves (PRVs) that can cause premature failure can be avoided by using pilot operated PRVs as an alternative. Now better able to handle adverse service conditions, pilot operated PRVs are suitable for a wide range of gas, liquid and mixed-phase services. Traditionally, however, balanced bellows PRVs have been applied as overpressure protection for three notable reasons: a constant PRV set pressure with the presence of variable, superimposed back pressure (at the PRV outlet prior to its opening); valve stability and adequate capacity when built-up back pressure (at the PRV outlet during its relief cycle) exceeds 10%; and spring and guided parts barriered from the process fluid. With these benefits in mind, balanced bellows PRVs have been generally adapted by many hydrocarbon processing companies that have experienced costly, and often dangerous, premature bellows failures. Corrosion, valve instability and/or bellows flutter are causes of these failures.

Emerson, G. [Anderson, Greenwood and Co., Stafford, TX (United States)

1996-10-01

227

Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

Whipple, Kelin X.

2004-01-01

228

Anatomy and physiology of a set of low-frequency vibratory interneurons in a nonhearing ensiferan (Troglophilus neglectus, rhaphidophoridae).  

PubMed

Vibratory interneurons were investigated in a primitive nonhearing ensiferan (orthopteran) species (Troglophilus neglectus, Rhaphidophoridae), using intracellular recording and staining technique. The study included 26 morphologically and/or physiologically distinct types of neurons from the prothoracic ganglion responding to vibration of the front legs. Most of these neurons are tuned to frequencies below 400 Hz. The morphology, anatomical position in the ganglion, and physiological responses are described in particular for a set of these low-frequency-tuned elements, including one local neuron, two T-shaped fibers, and five descending neurons, for which no putative homologues are known from the hearing Orthoptera. Their lowest thresholds are between about 0.01 and 0.4 m/second(2) at frequencies of 50-400 Hz, and the shortest latencies between 10 and 16 msec, suggesting that they are first- or second-order interneurons. Six interneurons have dendritic arborizations in the neuropile region that contains projections of tibial organ vibratory receptors, but their sensitivity suggests predominating inputs from vibrational sensilla of another origin. Responses of most neurons are composed of frequency-specific excitatory and inhibitory synaptic potentials, most of the latter being received in the high-frequency range. The function of these neurons in predator detection and intraspecific communication is discussed. PMID:19673004

Stritih, Natasa

2009-10-20

229

Helium pressures in RHIC vacuum cryostats and relief valve requirements from magnet cooling line failure  

SciTech Connect

A catastrophic failure of the RHIC magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, would pressurize the insulating vacuum in the magnet and transfer line cryostats. Insufficient relief valves on the cryostats could cause a structural failure. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the vacuum cryostat and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed to calculate the helium pressure inside the cryostat. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces were included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Existing relief valve sizes were reviewed to make sure that the maximum stresses, caused by the calculated maximum pressures inside the cryostats, did not exceed the allowable stresses, based on the ASME Code B31.3 and ANSYS results. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The S/F simulation results show that the highest internal pressure in the cryostats, due to the magnet line failure, is {approx}37 psig (255115 Pa); (2) Based on the simulation, the temperature on the cryostat chamber, INJ Q8-Q9, could drop to 228 K, which is lower than the material minimum design temperature allowed by the Code; (3) Based on the ASME Code and ANSYS results, the reliefs on all the cryostats inside the RHIC tunnel are adequate to protect the vacuum chambers when the magnet cooling lines fail; and (4) In addition to the pressure loading, the thermal deformations, due to the temperature decrease on the cryostat chambers, could also cause a high stress on the chamber, if not properly supported.

Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

2011-03-28

230

Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

2000-01-01

231

Residual stress reduction by pulsed magnetic treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residual stress relief by pulsed magnetic treatment is attractive since the process is carried out at room temperature and magnetic fields that are easy to produce and control can be used. The extent of residual stress reduction due to a particular pulsed magnetic treatment was determined. Initially curved strip specimens were held flat to produce a known residual stress and

Barney E Klamecki

2003-01-01

232

Global Emergency Observation, Warning and Relief Network  

SciTech Connect

The decade of the 1990`s has been proclaimed by the United Nations to be the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR). There exists a documented need for improved communications and information distribution to provide adequate warning in the face of impending disasters and facilitate the response after a disaster has occurred. The Global Emergency Observation Warning and Relief Network (GEOWARN) is proposed as a system that can potentially fill the existing gaps in the disaster management capabilities by providing a mechanism for the timely processing of information both before and after an event has occurred. A system design is proposed that would utilize existing remote sensing resources augmented by additional satellites and airborne sensor platforms linked together via a computer network. This network would be configured around five control centers called Multi-National Centers which would host an extensive Geographical Information System to perform the task of providing global disaster warning and relief support. To support the potential development of GEOWARN, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center performed a study to assess concept feasibility. This study has resulted in several recommended modifications to the ISU system concept. It was concluded that a system design which optimizes the use of existing resources can result in significant improvements in disaster warning and management capabilities for most of the world. This paper presents the results of the feasibility study, including a general overview of the GEOWARN concept and the elements comprising the system.

Bukley, A.P.; Mulqueen, J.A. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States)

1995-12-31

233

Vibratory response of a precision double-multi-layer monochromator positioning system using a generic modeling program with experimental verification.  

SciTech Connect

A generic vibratory response-modeling program has been developed as a tool for designing high-precision optical positioning systems. The systems are modeled as rigid-body structures connected by linear non-rigid elements such as complex actuators and bearings. The full dynamic properties of each non-rigid element are determined experimentally or theoretically, then integrated into the program as inertial and stiffness matrices. Thus, it is possible to have a suite of standardize structural elements for modeling many different positioning systems that use standardized components. This paper will present the application of this program to a double-multi-layer monochromator positioning system that utilizes standardized components. Calculated results are compared to experimental modal analysis results.

Barraza, J.

1998-07-29

234

Modulating the Behaviors of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Via the Combination of High-Frequency Vibratory Stimulations and Fibrous Scaffolds  

PubMed Central

We are interested in the in vitro engineering of artificial vocal fold tissues via the strategic combination of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), physiologically relevant mechanical stimulations, and biomimetic artificial matrices. We have constructed a vocal fold bioreactor that is capable of imposing vibratory stimulations on the cultured cells at human phonation frequencies. Separately, fibrous poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds emulating the ligamentous structure of the vocal fold were prepared by electrospinning, were incorporated in the vocal fold bioreactor, and were driven into a wave-like motion in an axisymmetrical fashion by the oscillating air. MSC-laden PCL scaffolds were subjected to vibrations at 200?Hz with a normal center displacement of ?40??m for a total of 7 days. A continuous (CT) or a 1?h-on-1?h-off (OF) regime with a total dynamic culture time of 12?h per day was applied. The dynamic loading did not cause any physiological trauma to the cells. Immunohistotochemical staining revealed the reinforcement of the actin filament and the enhancement of ?5?1 integrin expression under selected dynamic culture conditions. Cellular expression of essential vocal fold extracellular matrix components, such as elastin, hyaluronic acid, and matrix metalloproteinase-1, was significantly elevated as compared with the static controls, and the OF regime is more conducive to matrix production than the CT vibration mode. Analyses of genes of typical fibroblast hallmarks (tenascin-C, collagen III, and procollagen I) as well as markers for MSC differentiation into nonfibroblastic lineages confirmed MSCs' adaptation of fibroblastic behaviors. Overall, the high-frequency vibratory stimulation, when combined with a synthetic fibrous scaffold, serves as a potent modulator of MSC functions. The novel bioreactor system presented here, as a versatile, yet well-controlled model, offers an in vitro platform for understanding vibration-induced mechanotransduction and for engineering of functional vocal fold tissues. PMID:23516973

Tong, Zhixiang; Duncan, Randall L.

2013-01-01

235

Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

2000-01-01

236

Pain relief by touch: A quantitative approach  

PubMed Central

Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch–pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending A? pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch–pain interactions. PMID:24361816

Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

2014-01-01

237

Maternal Health Considerations During Disaster Relief  

PubMed Central

When disasters strike resource-poor nations, women are often the most affected. They represent the majority of the poor, the most malnourished, and the least educated, and they account for more than 75% of displaced persons. The predisaster familial duties of women are magnified and expanded, and they have significantly less support and fewer resources than they had before the incident. Moreover, after the disaster, they bear the responsibility of caring for their children, the elderly, the injured, and the sick. Besides the effects of the disaster, women become more vulnerable to reproductive and sexual health problems and are at increased risk for physical and sexual violence. Women become both victims and the primary caretakers. Health practitioners are often not aware of these issues when providing emergency care. Developing a disaster relief team with experts in maternal health is necessary to improve women’s health outcome. PMID:21629495

Nour, Nawal N

2011-01-01

238

Miniature, shielded electrical connector with strain relief  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electrical connector assembly includes a wire bundle having at least one wire with a metal shield surrounding at least a portion of the wire. The shield has an end portion and provides electromagnetic interference protection to the wire. A backshell includes a body and a cover secured to the body together defining an internal cavity with the wire at least partially arranged within the cavity. The backshell provides EMI protection for the portion of the wire bundle not covered by the shield. The backshell includes a hole in a wall of either the body or the cover with the end portion of the shield extending through the hole. The clamp is secured about the body and the cover with the end portion of the shield arranged between the clamp and the backshell grounding the shield to the backshell. The clamp forces the backshell into engagement with the wire bundle to provide strain relief for the wire bundle.

Diep, Chuong H. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

239

46 CFR 64.69 - Location of the pressure relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Location of the pressure relief device. 64.69 Section 64...PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.69 Location of the pressure relief device. A pressure relief...

2011-10-01

240

46 CFR 64.69 - Location of the pressure relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Location of the pressure relief device. 64.69 Section 64...PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.69 Location of the pressure relief device. A pressure relief...

2010-10-01

241

Feelings, Body Changes and Stress. A Curriculum for Pre-Schoolers on Stress Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pre-School Stress Relief Project (PSSRP) is a primary mental health and substance abuse prevention project developed to provide training, consultation and educational resources in stress management. The Project's goal is to enable teachers to instruct high risk pre-schoolers in developing positive coping skills for stress reduction in their…

Humphrey, Gloria S.; Trotter, Jennie C.

242

Humanitarian Supply Chain Network Models for Disaster Relief  

E-print Network

(Deterministic) Network Model Indices , , Items, e.g., food, shelter, health supplies, ... Transport resource for Disaster Relief Aim: Get relief aid to victims as fast as possible. Much interest: Balcik et al. (2008 to meet "demand" (if known or predictable) . . . or rather, alleviate unmet need at fast as possible (and

Clark, Alistair

243

27 CFR 28.73 - Relief of surety from bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Relief of surety from bond. 28.73 Section 28.73 Alcohol, Tobacco...TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Bonds and Consents of Surety Termination of Bonds § 28.73 Relief of surety from bond....

2010-04-01

244

47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19 ...NUMBERING Administration § 52.19 Area code relief. (a) State commissions may...matters involving the introduction of new area codes within their states. Such matters...

2013-10-01

245

47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19 ...NUMBERING Administration § 52.19 Area code relief. (a) State commissions may...matters involving the introduction of new area codes within their states. Such matters...

2011-10-01

246

47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19 ...NUMBERING Administration § 52.19 Area code relief. (a) State commissions may...matters involving the introduction of new area codes within their states. Such matters...

2012-10-01

247

47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19 ...NUMBERING Administration § 52.19 Area code relief. (a) State commissions may...matters involving the introduction of new area codes within their states. Such matters...

2010-10-01

248

Relief and saprolites through time on the Baltic Shield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relief of basement rocks in high latitudes has most often been interpreted as the result of glacial erosion, although over large areas its character of exhumed paleoplains has been known for a long time. The relief in the Precambrian basement of Sweden has therefore been analysed in relation to remnants of late Proterozoic and Phanerozoic cover rocks.Most of the

Karna Lidmar-Bergström

1995-01-01

249

46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pressure relief devices. A pressure relief device must be plainly...with the— (a) Set pressure rating; (b) Rated flow...as cubic feet of standard air (60 °F 14.7 psia) per minute and the pressure at which the flow...

2013-10-01

250

46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...pressure relief devices. A pressure relief device must be plainly...with the— (a) Set pressure rating; (b) Rated flow...as cubic feet of standard air (60 °F 14.7 psia) per minute and the pressure at which the flow...

2012-10-01

251

49 CFR 179.300-15 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300-15 Pressure relief devices. (a) Unless...be sufficient to prevent building up pressure in tank in excess of 82.5 percent of the tank test pressure. When relief devices of the...

2010-10-01

252

Mathematical Model of a General Motion of Vibratory Machines Driven by Motors of a Limited Power / Model matematyczny ruchu ogólnego maszyn wibracyjnych nap?dzanych silnikami ograniczonej mocy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of creating the mathematical model of over-resonant vibratory machines driven in a general motion by the inertial vibrator of a limited power is presented in the paper. This model can constitute the basis for digital simulation of single- or multi-drive vibratory machines used in industry. It allows to investigate the steady and transient states of these machines as well as to investigate the advanced problems of the free synchronisation of drives. W pracy przedstawiono sposób budowy modelu matematycznego nadrezonansowej maszyny wibracyjnej w ruchu ogólnym, nap?dzanej wibratorem inercyjnym ograniczonej mocy. Model ten mo?e stanowi? podstaw? dla symulacji cyfrowej jedno-, lub wielonap?dowych maszyn wibracyjnych u?ywanych w przemy?le. Pozwala on na badanie zarówno pracy ustalonej tych maszyn jak i ich stanów przej?ciowych oraz na badanie zaawansowanych problemów synchronizacji swobodnej nap?dów.

Michalczyk, Jerzy

2013-06-01

253

The Relationship between Physical Function and Postural Sway during Local Vibratory Stimulation of Middle-aged People in the Standing Position  

PubMed Central

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical function and postural sway during local vibratory stimulation of middle-aged subjects in an upright position. [Subjects] The subjects were 25 healthy community-dwelling middle-aged people. [Methods] We measured postural sway using a Wii board while vibratory stimulations of 30, 60, or 240?Hz were applied to the subjects’ lumbar multifidus or gastrocnemius muscles. Physical function was evaluated by 5-m usual gait speed and grip strength. [Results] Gait speed was strongly correlated to the anteroposterior body sway in the upright position during 30?Hz gastrocnemius muscles vibration (GMV). [Conclusion] Postural sway during 30?Hz GMV was strongly associated with gait speed and showed a posterior displacement. These findings show that the lower leg’s response to balance control under 30?Hz proprioceptive stimulation might be a good indicator of declining gait function. PMID:25364130

Ito, Tadashi; Sakai, Yoshihito; Kubo, Akira; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Ohno, Yasuo; Nakamura, Eishi; Sato, Noritaka; Morita, Yoshifumi

2014-01-01

254

The Relationship between Physical Function and Postural Sway during Local Vibratory Stimulation of Middle-aged People in the Standing Position.  

PubMed

[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical function and postural sway during local vibratory stimulation of middle-aged subjects in an upright position. [Subjects] The subjects were 25 healthy community-dwelling middle-aged people. [Methods] We measured postural sway using a Wii board while vibratory stimulations of 30, 60, or 240?Hz were applied to the subjects' lumbar multifidus or gastrocnemius muscles. Physical function was evaluated by 5-m usual gait speed and grip strength. [Results] Gait speed was strongly correlated to the anteroposterior body sway in the upright position during 30?Hz gastrocnemius muscles vibration (GMV). [Conclusion] Postural sway during 30?Hz GMV was strongly associated with gait speed and showed a posterior displacement. These findings show that the lower leg's response to balance control under 30?Hz proprioceptive stimulation might be a good indicator of declining gait function. PMID:25364130

Ito, Tadashi; Sakai, Yoshihito; Kubo, Akira; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Ohno, Yasuo; Nakamura, Eishi; Sato, Noritaka; Morita, Yoshifumi

2014-10-01

255

48 CFR 252.229-7010 - Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). 252.229-7010 Section 252...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70...Relief from Customs Duty on Fuel (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a)...

2011-10-01

256

48 CFR 252.229-7008 - Relief from import duty (United Kingdom).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Relief from import duty (United Kingdom). 252.229-7008 Section 252...229-7008 Relief from import duty (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70...clause: Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) Any import...

2011-10-01

257

21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. 882.5880 Section 882... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used...

2010-04-01

258

21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5870 Section 882.5870...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to...

2010-04-01

259

The humanitarian relief supply chain : analysis of the 2004 South East Asia earthquake and Tsunami  

E-print Network

Humanitarian relief supply chains are not well documented. This thesis describes humanitarian relief supply chains in general and those specifically utilized in the 2004 South East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami relief effort. ...

Russell, Timothy Edward

2005-01-01

260

21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. 882.5880 Section 882... Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used...

2011-04-01

261

21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5870 Section 882.5870...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to...

2011-04-01

262

40 CFR 61.242-8 - Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service and connectors.  

...Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service and connectors. 61.242-8...Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service and connectors. (a) If...detection method at pressure relief devices in liquid service and connectors, the owner...

2014-07-01

263

30 CFR 204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not...

2010-07-01

264

30 CFR 204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 204.201 ...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

2010-07-01

265

30 CFR 204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 204.205 ...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

2010-07-01

266

30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.205...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

2013-07-01

267

30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?  

...2014-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.205...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

2014-07-01

268

30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.205...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

2012-07-01

269

30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.205...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

2011-07-01

270

30 CFR 1204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not...

2011-07-01

271

30 CFR 1204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not...

2012-07-01

272

30 CFR 1204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not...

2013-07-01

273

30 CFR 1204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.201...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

2012-07-01

274

30 CFR 1204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.201...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

2011-07-01

275

30 CFR 1204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.201...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

2013-07-01

276

30 CFR 1204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow?  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not...

2014-07-01

277

30 CFR 1204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?  

...2014-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.201...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

2014-07-01

278

30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section 18.28 Mineral...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices for installation...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be constructed of materials...

2011-07-01

279

30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.  

...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section 18.28 Mineral...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices for installation...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be constructed of materials...

2014-07-01

280

30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section 18.28 Mineral...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices for installation...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be constructed of materials...

2010-07-01

281

30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section 18.28 Mineral...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices for installation...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be constructed of materials...

2013-07-01

282

30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section 18.28 Mineral...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices for installation...for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be constructed of materials...

2012-07-01

283

26 CFR 1.6015-1 - Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return.  

...three relief provisions: (i) Innocent spouse relief under § 1.6015-2...deficiency under § 1.6015-3. (iii) Equitable relief under § 1.6015-4...never had the opportunity to raise the innocent spouse defense in the course of...

2014-04-01

284

26 CFR 1.6015-1 - Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...three relief provisions: (i) Innocent spouse relief under § 1.6015-2...deficiency under § 1.6015-3. (iii) Equitable relief under § 1.6015-4...never had the opportunity to raise the innocent spouse defense in the course of...

2012-04-01

285

26 CFR 1.6015-1 - Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...three relief provisions: (i) Innocent spouse relief under § 1.6015-2...deficiency under § 1.6015-3. (iii) Equitable relief under § 1.6015-4...never had the opportunity to raise the innocent spouse defense in the course of...

2011-04-01

286

26 CFR 1.6015-1 - Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...three relief provisions: (i) Innocent spouse relief under § 1.6015-2...deficiency under § 1.6015-3. (iii) Equitable relief under § 1.6015-4...never had the opportunity to raise the innocent spouse defense in the course of...

2013-04-01

287

40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2010-07-01

288

49 CFR 178.338-8 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and fittings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and...Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-8 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. Each tank...

2011-10-01

289

40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Sources) § 61.242-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2010-07-01

290

40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2011-07-01

291

40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2011-07-01

292

49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices, piping, valves...Transportation § 178.337-9 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. (1) See §...

2011-10-01

293

40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Sources) § 61.242-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2011-07-01

294

40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

2010-07-01

295

A new model for optimizing relief window size  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local relief is defined by the difference in height between the peaks of highest elevation and the valley bottoms in a region, which is scale dependent. The higher the altitude is, the larger the relief is. But each DEM data has only optimal relief window size, which just reflects the physical integrity of the landscape and has strong representation within a certain range. In this paper, we argue the optimum relief window size in Xunhua-Guide district, in the northeast Tibetan Plateau, which is 450m × 450m, and discuss the geomorphological characteristics of Xunhua-Guide district based on a high quality digital elevation model (DEM). The largest relief is localized along the plateau's mountain rim, and mainly associated with active faults. It is characterized by low values of local relief which are related to sediment-floored flats and the deeply incised valleys prevailing in the low elevations and planation surface in the high elevations. Relief Window Size provides an effective means to obtain more accurate surface information and quantitative analysis of the terrain.

Wang, Yan; Li, Zhiwei; Liu, Shaofeng

2013-03-01

296

Cartographic Relief Presentation Revisited - Forty Years after Eduard Imhof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographic maps represent in a symbolised way the main features of the Earth's surface shape as well as the major, mostly visible objects covering the topography. The clear and readable depiction of the relief is one of the main challenges in topographic cartography. The Swiss cartographer Eduard Imhof had a significant influence on the development of modern topographic cartography. He published his trend-setting findings 40 years ago in his textbook "Cartographic Relief Presentation". This overview paper reviews his major contributions to topographic cartography and presents today's state of cartographic relief depiction, illustrated by current map examples and projects elaborated at Imhof's Alma Mater, the Institute of Cartography of ETH Zurich.

Hurni, Lorenz

297

Collaborative Geospatial Data as Applied to Disaster Relief: Haiti 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aftermath of Haiti's January 12 earthquake typified disaster relief in that efficiency and situational awareness were reduced by the chaotic, uncoordinated influx of relief and aid. The lack of an environment in which information could be shared was a major component of this chaos. The application of geographic information (GIS) technology was a significant contribution to the relief efforts due to the centrality of location to issues of danger, resources, safety, communications, and so on, and due to the universal understanding of information rendered geospatially using 3-D globes.

Clark, A. J.; Holliday, Patton; Chau, Robyn; Eisenberg, Harris; Chau, Melinda

298

Analysis and Design of a 3rd Order Velocity-Controlled Closed-Loop for MEMS Vibratory Gyroscopes  

PubMed Central

The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model's transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop's performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 ?m complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term. PMID:24051522

Wu, Huan-ming; Yang, Hai-gang; Yin, Tao; Jiao, Ji-wei

2013-01-01

299

Low-Level Liquid Waste Processing Pilot Studies Using a Vibratory Shear Enhancing Process (VSEP) for Filtration  

SciTech Connect

A previous EPRI study evaluated potential treatment methods for the removal of iron from BWR waste streams. Of the methods investigated, high shear filtration using the vibratory shear-enhanced process (VSEP) showed the most promise to effectively and economically remove high iron concentrations from backwash receiving tank waste. A VSEP filter uses oscillatory vibration to create high shear at the surface of the filter membrane. This high shear force significantly improves the filter's resistance to fouling thereby enabling high throughputs with very little secondary waste generation. With a VSEP filter, the waste feed stream is split into two effluents- a permeate stream with little or no suspended solids and a concentrate stream with a suspended solids concentration much higher than that of the feed stream. To evaluate the feasibility of using a VSEP concept for processing typical high iron containing BWR radwaste, a surrogate feedstream containing up to 1,700 ppm iron oxide (as Fe2O3) was used. This surrogate waste simulates radioactive waste found at Exelon's Limerick and Peach Bottom (powdered resin condensate) plants, and in Hope Creek's (deep bed condensate) radwaste systems. Testing was done using a series L (laboratory scale) VSEP unit at the manufacturer's and contractor's laboratories. These tests successfully demonstrated the VSEP capability for producing highly concentrated waste streams with totally ''recyclable'' permeate (e.g., greater than 95% recovery).

Bushart, S.; Tran, P.; Asay, R.

2002-02-25

300

Preliminary evaluation of cavitation resistance of type 316LN stainless steel in mercury using a vibratory horn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Type 316LN stainless steel in a variety of conditions (annealed, cold-worked, surface-modified) was exposed to cavitation conditions in stagnant mercury using a vibratory horn. The test conditions included peak-to-peak displacement of the specimen surface of 25 ?m at a frequency of 20 kHz and a mercury temperature in the range -5 to 80 °C. Following a brief incubation period in which little or no damage was observed, specimens of annealed 316LN exhibited increasing weight loss and surface roughening with increasing exposure times. Examination of test surfaces with the scanning electron microscope revealed primarily general/uniform wastage in all cases but, for long exposure times, a few randomly oriented 'pits' were also observed. Type 316LN that was 50% cold-worked was considerably more resistant to cavitation erosion damage than annealed material, but the surface modifications (CrN coating, metallic glass coating, laser treatment to form a diamond-like surface) provided little or no protection for the substrate. In addition, the cavitation erosion resistance of other materials - Inconel 718, Nitronic 60, and Stellite 3 - was also compared with that of 316LN for identical screening test conditions.

Pawel, S. J.; Manneschmidt, E. T.

2003-05-01

301

Further Examination of the Vibratory Loads Reduction Results from the NASA/ARMY/MIT Active Twist Rotor Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vibration reduction capabilities of a model rotor system utilizing controlled, strain-induced blade twisting are examined. The model rotor blades, which utilize piezoelectric active fiber composite actuators, were tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel using open-loop control to determine the effect of active-twist on rotor vibratory loads. The results of this testing have been encouraging, and have demonstrated that active-twist rotor designs offer the potential for significant load reductions in future helicopter rotor systems. Active twist control was found to use less than 1% of the power necessary to operate the rotor system and had a pronounced effect on both rotating- and fixed-system loads, offering reductions in individual harmonic loads of up to 100%. A review of the vibration reduction results obtained is presented, which includes a limited set of comparisons with results generated using the second-generation version of the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics (CAMRAD II) rotorcraft comprehensive analysis.

Wilbur, Matthew L.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Sekula, Martin K.

2002-01-01

302

Analysis and design of a 3rd order velocity-controlled closed-loop for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes.  

PubMed

The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model's transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop's performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 ?m complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term. PMID:24051522

Wu, Huan-ming; Yang, Hai-gang; Yin, Tao; Jiao, Ji-wei

2013-01-01

303

Shaded relief, color as height, Salalah, Oman  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This elevation map shows a part of the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula including parts of the countries of Oman and Yemen. The narrow coastal plain on the right side of the image includes the city of Salahlah, the second largest city in Oman. Various crops, including coconuts, papayas and bananas, are grown on this plain. The abrupt topography of the coastal mountains wrings moisture from the monsoon, enabling agriculture in the otherwise dry environment of the Arabian Peninsula. These mountains are historically significant as well: Some scholars believe these mountains are the 'southern mountains' of the book of Genesis.

This image brightness corresponds to shading illumination from the right, while colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to brown at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1400 meters (4600 feet) of total relief. The Arabian Sea is colored blue.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 149 by 40 kilometers (92 by 25 miles) Location: 16.9 deg. North lat., 53.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top right Date Acquired: February 15, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

304

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - quick-relief drugs  

MedlinePLUS

Quick-relief medicines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) work quickly to help you breathe better. You take them when you are coughing, wheezing, or having trouble breathing, such as ...

305

Rectangular Relief Diffraction Gratings for Coherent Lidar Beam Scanning  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The application of specialized rectangular relief transmission gratings to coherent lidar beam scanning is presented. Two types of surface relief transmission grating approaches are studied with an eye toward potential insertion of a constant thickness, diffractive scanner where refractive wedges now exist. The first diffractive approach uses vertically oriented relief structure in the surface of an optical flat; illumination of the diffractive scanner is off-normal in nature. The second grating design case describes rectangular relief structure slanted at a prescribed angle with respect to the surface. In this case, illumination is normal to the diffractive scanner. In both cases, performance predictions for 2.0 micron, circularly polarized light at beam deflection angles of 30 or 45 degrees are presented.

Cole, H. J.; Chambers, D. M.; Dixit, S. N.; Britten, J. A.; Shore, B. W.; Kavaya, M. J.

1999-01-01

306

46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-20 Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term...

2012-10-01

307

46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-20 Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term...

2010-10-01

308

46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-20 Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term...

2013-10-01

309

46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-20 Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term...

2011-10-01

310

North exterior elevation of Pope Quadrangle. Note the bas relief ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

North exterior elevation of Pope Quadrangle. Note the bas relief sculpture over the doorway, which includes the school motto, Aspirando et Perseverando. - Avon Old Farms School, 500 Avon Old Farms Road, Avon, Hartford County, CT

311

Parents: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Acetaminophen (a?SEET?a?MIN?o?fen) ... whole word or may have the abbreviation "APAP." Liver damage: Giving your child more acetaminophen than directed ...

312

Careful: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage  

MedlinePLUS

... Careful: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Acetaminophen (a?SEET?a?MIN?o?fen) ... word or may have the abbreviation "APAP." Severe liver damage may occur and may lead to death ...

313

Blast overpressure relief using air vacated buffer medium  

E-print Network

Blast waves generated by intense explosions cause damage to structures and human injury. In this thesis, a strategy is investigated for relief of blast overpressure resulting from explosions in air. The strategy is based ...

Avasarala, Srikanti Rupa

2009-01-01

314

27 CFR 26.73 - Relief of surety from bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Termination of Bonds § 26.73 Relief...

2012-04-01

315

27 CFR 26.73 - Relief of surety from bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Termination of Bonds § 26.73 Relief of...

2013-04-01

316

12 CFR 742.4 - RegFlex relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Section 742.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY PROGRAM § 742.4 RegFlex relief. (a) Exemptions. RegFlex credit unions are exempt from the following...

2012-01-01

317

21 CFR 358.310 - Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product is sodium sulfide 1 percent in a gel vehicle. The gel vehicle is an aqueous, semisolid system with large organic molecules interpenetrated with a...

2010-04-01

318

Surface relief of TiNiCu thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiNiCu thin film shape memory alloys are potential materials for microactuator. In our previous research, the various natural surface relief of crystallized TiNiCu thin film was observed, and it was related with compositions and the sputtering deposition conditions. In order to understand the origin and nature of the surface relief, the temperature-resistance measurement, X-ray diffraction and atomic fore microscopic study

Xiulan Cheng; Dong Xu; Bingchu Cai; Li Wang; Jian Chen; Gang Li; Shi Xu

2001-01-01

319

Velocity profiles in a hot jet by simplified RELIEF  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Raman Excitation + Laser Induced Electronic Fluorescence (RELIEF) is a double resonance velocimetry technique in which oxygen molecules are vibrationally excited via stimulated Raman scattering at a specific location within a flow field. After suitable time delay, typically 1-10 microseconds, the displacement of the tagged molecules is determined by laser induced fluorescence imaging. Providing support for the installation of simplified RELIEF flow tagging instrumentation at NASA LaRC was the principal goal of this research.

1991-01-01

320

Statistical Performance Evaluation Of Soft Seat Pressure Relief Valves  

SciTech Connect

Risk-based inspection methods enable estimation of the probability of failure on demand for spring-operated pressure relief valves at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This paper presents a statistical performance evaluation of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves. These pressure relief valves are typically smaller and of lower cost than hard seat (metal to metal) pressure relief valves and can provide substantial cost savings in fluid service applications (air, gas, liquid, and steam) providing that probability of failure on demand (the probability that the pressure relief valve fails to perform its intended safety function during a potentially dangerous over pressurization) is at least as good as that for hard seat valves. The research in this paper shows that the proportion of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves failing is the same or less than that of hard seat valves, and that for failed valves, soft seat valves typically have failure ratios of proof test pressure to set pressure less than that of hard seat valves.

Harris, Stephen P.; Gross, Robert E.

2013-03-26

321

Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.

The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases.

Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

Location: 30 degrees north latitude, 34 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 289 by 445 kilometers (180 by 277 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

322

Bali, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The volcanic nature of the island of Bali is evident in this shaded relief image generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

Bali, along with several smaller islands, make up one of the 27 Provinces of Indonesia. It lies over a major subduction zone where the Indo-Australian tectonic plate collides with the Sunda plate, creating one of the most volcanically active regions on the planet.

The most significant feature on Bali is Gunung Agung, the symmetric, conical mountain at the right-center of the image. This 'stratovolcano,' 3,148 meters (10,308 feet) high, is held sacred in Balinese culture, and last erupted in 1963 after being dormant and thought inactive for 120 years. This violent event resulted in over 1,000 deaths, and coincided with a purification ceremony called Eka Dasa Rudra, meant to restore the balance between nature and man. This most important Balinese rite is held only once per century, and the almost exact correspondence between the beginning of the ceremony and the eruption is though to have great religious significance.

Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Location: 8.33 degrees South latitude, 115.17 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 153 by 112 kilometers (95 by 69 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

323

Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.

Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.

Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200-foot)-long mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Size: 1,113 by 638 kilometers (692 by 396 miles) Location: 55 degrees North latitude, 160 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2002-01-01

324

Gulf Coast, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

The topography of the Gulf Coast states is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image on the top (see Figure 1) is a standard view showing southern Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and the panhandle of Florida. Green colors indicate low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

For the view on the bottom (see Figure 2), elevations below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored light blue. These low coastal elevations are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges. Planners can use data like these to predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

Location: 31 degrees north latitude, 88 degrees west longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 702 by 433 kilometers (435 by 268 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

325

Southern Florida, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The very low topography of southern Florida is evident in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image on the left is a standard view, with the green colors indicating low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. In this exaggerated view even those highest elevations are only about 60 meters (197 feet) above sea level.

For the view on the right, elevations below 5 meters (16 feet) above sea level have been colored dark blue, and lighter blue indicates elevations below 10 meters (33 feet). This is a dramatic demonstration of how Florida's low topography, especially along the coastline, make it especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges. Planners can use data like these to predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

Location: 27 degrees north latitude, 81 degrees west longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 397 by 445 kilometers (246 by 276 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

326

A method for reducing encapsulation stress to ferrite pot cores  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method of reducing the mechanical stress caused when a ferrite pot core is encapsulated in a rigid epoxy. the stresses are due to the differences of coefficient of thermal expansion between the two materials. A stress relief medium, phenolic micro-balloon-filled, syntactic polysulfide, is molded into the shape of the pot core. The molded polysulfide is bonded

1994-01-01

327

30 CFR 204.211 - When may MMS rescind relief for a property?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS rescind relief for a property? 204.211 ...Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.211 When may MMS rescind relief for a property? (a) MMS may retroactively rescind the relief for...

2010-07-01

328

Joint position sense and vibratory perception sense in patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type III (hypermobility type).  

PubMed

Neurophysiological deficits could make patients with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) type III (hypermobility type) more vulnerable to musculoskeletal problems, particularly to joint instability. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether joint position sense (JPS) and vibratory perception sense (VPS) in EDS type III patients in the knee and shoulder joints are impaired. Thirty-two female EDS type III patients as defined by the Villefranche criteria and 32 individually gender- and age-matched healthy control subjects were included in the study. Range of motion was determined using a goniometer, passive and active JPS were assessed with an isokinetic dynamometer system, and the VPS was measured by a biothesiometer. Daily physical activity was evaluated by the Baecke questionnaire. The EDS type III group showed significantly larger ranges of movement (P < 0.05) and lower levels of sport physical activity (SPA) compared to the control group (P = 0.023). Considering SPA as covariate, the EDS type III group demonstrated a significant impairment in knee joint reposition compared to the control group (P = 0.018). No significant differences were found for shoulder JPS. The VPS was not significantly different in the EDS type III group compared to the control group. In addition, no significant correlation was found between JPS and VPS, neither at the knee nor at the shoulder joint. This is the first study examining proprioception deficits in EDS type III patients as defined by the Villefranche criteria. Further research on the neurophysiological dysfunctions and mechanisms in this pathologic entity is needed. PMID:19937459

Rombaut, Lies; De Paepe, Anne; Malfait, Fransiska; Cools, Ann; Calders, Patrick

2010-03-01

329

Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique.

Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area.

The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water.

The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago.

Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

Location: 3 degrees south latitude, 35 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 223 by 223 kilometers (138 by 138 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

2004-01-01

330

Cartographic Relief Presentation Revisited - Forty Years after Eduard Imhof  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Topographic maps represent in a symbolised way the main features of the Earth’s surface shape as well as the major, mostly visible objects covering the topography. The clear and readable depiction of the relief is one of the main challenges in topographic cartography. The Swiss cartographer Eduard Imhof had a significant influence on the development of modern topographic cartography. He published his trend-setting findings 40 years ago in his textbook “Cartographic Relief Presentation”. This overview paper reviews his major contributions to topographic cartography and presents today’s state of cartographic relief depiction, illustrated by current map examples and projects elaborated at Imhof’s Alma Mater, the Institute of Cartography of ETH Zurich.

Hurni, Lorenz

331

Turbofan blade stresses induced by the flow distortion of a VTOL inlet at high angles of attack  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 51-cm-diameter turbofan with a tilt-nacelle VTOL inlet was tested in the Lewis Research Center's 9- by 15-Ft Low Speed Wind Tunnel at velocities up to 72 m/s and angles of attack up to 120 deg. Fan-blade vibratory stress levels were investigated over a full aircraft operating range. These stresses were due to inlet air flow distortion resulting from (1) internal flow separation in the inlet, and (2) ingestion of the exterior nacelle wake. Stress levels are presented, along with an estimated safe operating envelope, based on infinite blade fatigue life.

Williams, R. C.; Diedrich, J. H.; Shaw, R. J.

1983-01-01

332

Promoting Coordination for Disaster Relief - From Crowdsourcing to Coordination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The efficiency at which governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are able to respond to a crisis and provide relief to victims has gained increased attention. This emphasis coincides with significant events such as tsunamis, hurricanes, earthquakes, and environmental disasters occuring during the last decade. Crowdsourcing applications such as Twitter, Ushahidi, and Sahana have proven useful for gathering information about a crisis yet have limited utility for response coordination. In this paper, we briefly describe the shortfalls of current crowdsourcing applications applied to disaster relief coordination and discuss one approach aimed at facilitating efficient collaborations amongst disparate organizations responding to a crisis.

Gao, Huiji; Wang, Xufei; Barbier, Geoffrey; Liu, Huan

333

Inversion of Speckle Interferometer Fringes for Hole-drilling Residual Stress Determinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speckle interferometric fringe patterns record stress-relief displacements induced by the drilling of blind- holes into prestressed objects. The quantitative determina- tion of residual stress states from such stress patterns is dif- ficult because of the ambiguity in the order of the observed fringes. The plane stress magnitudes are provided directly from selected fringe positions using a stochastic, iterative least squares

D. R. Schmitt; R. W. Hunt

1999-01-01

334

Inversion of speckle interferometer fringes for hole-drilling residual stress determinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speckle interferometric fringe patterns record stress-relief displacements induced by the drilling of blind-holes into prestressed objects. The quantitative determination of residual stress state from such stress patterns is difficult because of the ambiguity in the order of the observed fringes. The plane stress magnitudes are provided directly from selected fringe positions using a stochastic, iterative least squares minimization approach. The

D. R. Schmitt; R. W. Hunt

2000-01-01

335

Uncertainty in Humanitarian Supply Chains for Disaster Relief  

E-print Network

Model Indices i, j, k Items, e.g., food, shelter, health supplies, ... r Transport resource types, e relief aid to victims as fast as possible. Much interest: Balcik et al. (2008), Vitoriano et al. (2011 known or predictable) . . . or rather, alleviate unmet need at fast as possible (and efficiently) 3 / 21

Clark, Alistair

336

46 CFR 154.802 - Alternate pressure relief settings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...154.806; and (3) Are interlocked so that cargo tank venting can occur at any time. (b) Relief valves that have spacer pieces or springs that: (1) Change the set pressure without pressure testing to verify the new setting; and (2)...

2010-10-01

337

Relief of the Ocean floor and the new global tectonics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many features of the internal structure of the earth's crust are mirrored in the relief of the ocean floor. A broadened understanding of underwater topography, beginning with the discovery of midoceanic ridges, rift valleys, and magnetic anomalies, led to the theory of global tectonics. The principle tectonic elements of midoceanic ridges are examined and their bathymetric levels are compared with

A. V. Ilin

1979-01-01

338

How Tax Relief for Training Can Make a Real Difference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Companies received more than 5 billion British Pounds last year from the Exchequer in tax relief for work-related training. That is equivalent to the turnover of more than 250 further education colleges. And it vastly overshadows the 50 million British Pounds Growth and Innovation Fund set up to support employers' initiatives to improve skills and…

Wilson, Tom

2011-01-01

339

Spinal cord stimulation and the relief of chronic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty six patients who had received spinal cord stimulation for chronic pain were evaluated by videotaped structured interviews with staff not directly involved in the patients' care. In addition estimates of pain relief were obtained from clinicians involved in the patients' care and from close relatives and friends. Information about lifestyles and drug usage was also collected and correlated with

T H Koeze; A C Williams; S Reiman

1987-01-01

340

Bivariate point process model of relief factors of debris flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we study the bivariate point process model of relief factors of debris flow of drainage area and drainage height difference. This model can make use of more observation points outside the radius r0 than bivariate exceedance model. Using 95% and 98% quantile as the initial value of r0 respectively, we get the estimation of the fitting density

Yong-quan Dong

2010-01-01

341

Improved Relief Valve Would Be Less Susceptible to Failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The balanced-piston relief valve with side vented reaction cavity has been proposed as an improved alternative to a conventional high-pressure, high-flow relief valve. The proposed valve would be less susceptible to failure. A typical conventional high-pressure, high-flow relief valve contains a piston that is exposed to the upstream pressure across the full valve-seat diameter and is held against the valve seat and the upstream pressure by a large spring. In the event of an increase in upstream pressure to a level above the valve set point (the pressure above which the valve opens), the opening force on the piston can be so large that the piston becomes accelerated to a speed high enough that the ensuing hard impact of the piston within the valve housing results in failure of the valve. For a given flow cross section, the proposal would significantly reduce the force, thereby reducing susceptibility to failure. A basic version of the proposed balanced-piston relief valve with side vented reaction cavity is described.

Farner, Bruce R.

2008-01-01

342

Residual relief separation: digital elevation model enhancement for geomorphological mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geomorphologically mapped data form a primary set of observations that can be used to infer former environmental conditions. Thus, objective and consistent mapping of landforms from remotely sensed data (e.g. satellite imagery, digital elevation models (DEMs)) is para- mount for reconstructing palaeoenvironments. This paper proposes a technique, 'residual relief separation', to enhance landforms in DEMs prior to visualization and digital

J. K. Hiller; M. Smith

2008-01-01

343

Reminiscences of the relief of Leiden: a total ritual event  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the Third of October festivities in the city of Leiden, The Netherlands, held in commemoration of its relief from the Spanish siege in 1574. These festivities are defined as a total urban ritual event and put in a historical perspective. They include all sorts of activities such as the handing out of herring and white bread, the

Peter J. M. Nas; Anja Roymans

1998-01-01

344

The Use of Fuzzy Measures in Pain Relief Control  

E-print Network

, we must use heuristic methods to find the optimal pain relief stimulation. In this paper, we show how is unpleasant, but it serves an important goal: it signals to the brain that something is wrong with a certain is a serious health problem that, according to some estimates (see, e.g., [4--6,10]), affects up to 10

Kreinovich, Vladik

345

49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...pressure equal to 70 percent of the marked test pressure of tank, flow capacity will be sufficient...pressure to 30 percent of the marked test pressure within 3 minutes after pressure relief...a pressure not exceeding the marked test pressure of tank and not less than 7/10...

2010-10-01

346

49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...for Tank Cars. (d) Flow capacity tests. The manufacturer of any reclosing or nonreclosing pressure relief device must design and test the device in accordance with appendix...to the greater of 100% of the tank test pressure, or 33% of the tank burst...

2010-10-01

347

49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...b)(3)(i), is an acceptable test procedure. (c) Pressure settings of relief valves. (1...greater than 125 percent of the tank test pressure and not greater than 3 psig above the...the tank pressure to the cargo tank test pressure at maximum loading or unloading...

2010-10-01

348

75 FR 4375 - Transmission Loading Relief Reliability Standard and Curtailment Priorities  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Commission [Docket No. RM10-9-000] Transmission Loading Relief Reliability Standard...IRO-006-4 (Reliability Coordination--Transmission Loading Relief) and the curtailment...Commission's pro forma open access transmission tariff, particularly sections...

2010-01-27

349

31 CFR 360.26 - Application for relief; after receipt of bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Application for relief; after receipt of bond. 360.26 Section 360.26 Money...GOVERNING DEFINITIVE UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Relief for Loss, Theft...Mutilation, Defacement, or Nonreceipt of Bonds § 360.26 Application for...

2010-07-01

350

30 CFR 203.48 - Do I keep royalty relief if prices rise significantly?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Do I keep royalty relief if prices rise significantly? 203...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... Do I keep royalty relief if prices rise significantly? ...daily closing NYMEX natural gas price exceeds the applicable...

2011-07-01

351

30 CFR 203.36 - Do I keep royalty relief if prices rise significantly?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Do I keep royalty relief if prices rise significantly? 203...Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND... Do I keep royalty relief if prices rise significantly? ...Exchange (NYMEX) natural gas price exceeds the applicable...

2011-07-01

352

30 CFR 204.202 - What is the cumulative royalty reports and payments relief option?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.202 What is the cumulative royalty reports and payments relief option? (a) The cumulative...

2010-07-01

353

40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL...Sources) § 61.242-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor...

2013-07-01

354

40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor...AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment... § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each...

2013-07-01

355

49 CFR 179.500-16 - Tests of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...107A) § 179.500-16 Tests of pressure relief devices. (a) Pressure relief valves shall be tested by air or gas before being put into service. Valve shall open at pressure not exceeding the marked test...

2012-10-01

356

40 CFR 61.242-8 - Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service and connectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL...Sources) § 61.242-8 Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid...

2011-07-01

357

40 CFR 61.242-8 - Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service and connectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL...Sources) § 61.242-8 Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid...

2013-07-01

358

49 CFR 179.500-16 - Tests of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...107A) § 179.500-16 Tests of pressure relief devices. (a) Pressure relief valves shall be tested by air or gas before being put into service. Valve shall open at pressure not exceeding the marked test...

2013-10-01

359

40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL...Sources) § 61.242-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor...

2012-07-01

360

40 CFR 63.1030 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL...Level 2 Standards § 63.1030 Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor...

2012-07-01

361

40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor...AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment... § 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each...

2013-07-01

362

40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor...AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment... § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each...

2012-07-01

363

40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.111 Standards: Pressure relief devices in...

2013-07-01

364

40 CFR 63.1030 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL...Level 2 Standards § 63.1030 Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor...

2013-07-01

365

40 CFR 61.242-8 - Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service and connectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL...Sources) § 61.242-8 Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid...

2010-07-01

366

40 CFR 61.242-8 - Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service and connectors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL...Sources) § 61.242-8 Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid...

2012-07-01

367

40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.111 Standards: Pressure relief devices in...

2012-07-01

368

40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment...63.165 Standards: Pressure relief devices in...

2013-07-01

369

40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor...AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment... § 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each...

2012-07-01

370

40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment...63.165 Standards: Pressure relief devices in...

2012-07-01

371

30 CFR 203.81 - What supplemental reports do royalty-relief applications require?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION...justification report X (3) Economic viability & relief... X X X (5) Engineering report. X X X...We may also further review your records to...

2010-07-01

372

Determination of Magnetization (Density) of Rocks Composing Relief, According to Magnetic (Gravitational) Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The introduction of corrections for the intermediate layer in gravimetry and for the relief in gravimetry and magnetometry requires knowledge of the mean or effective density (magnetization) of the rocks composing the intermediate layer and relief. The me...

G. G. Rempel

1967-01-01

373

27 CFR 19.172 - Relief of surety from bond liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01...Relief of surety from bond liability. 19.172 Section 19.172 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...Relief of surety from bond liability. A surety that...

2012-04-01

374

27 CFR 19.172 - Relief of surety from bond liability.  

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01...Relief of surety from bond liability. 19.172 Section 19.172 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...Relief of surety from bond liability. A surety that...

2014-04-01

375

27 CFR 19.172 - Relief of surety from bond liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01...Relief of surety from bond liability. 19.172 Section 19.172 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...Relief of surety from bond liability. A surety that...

2011-04-01

376

27 CFR 19.172 - Relief of surety from bond liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01...Relief of surety from bond liability. 19.172 Section 19.172 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...Relief of surety from bond liability. A surety that...

2013-04-01

377

27 CFR 19.171 - Surety notice of relief from bond liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01...notice of relief from bond liability. 19.171 Section 19.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...notice of relief from bond liability. (a) Notice to...

2011-04-01

378

27 CFR 19.171 - Surety notice of relief from bond liability.  

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01...notice of relief from bond liability. 19.171 Section 19.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...notice of relief from bond liability. (a) Notice to...

2014-04-01

379

27 CFR 19.171 - Surety notice of relief from bond liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01...notice of relief from bond liability. 19.171 Section 19.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...notice of relief from bond liability. (a) Notice to...

2013-04-01

380

27 CFR 19.171 - Surety notice of relief from bond liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01...notice of relief from bond liability. 19.171 Section 19.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...notice of relief from bond liability. (a) Notice to...

2012-04-01

381

26 CFR 31.3402(t)-7 - Transition relief from interest and penalties.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Transition relief from interest and penalties. 31.3402(t)-7 Section 31.3402(t)-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(t)-7 Transition relief from interest and...

2012-04-01

382

32 CFR 232.10 - Servicemembers Civil Relief Act protections unaffected.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01...false Servicemembers Civil Relief Act protections...Section 232.10 National Defense Department of Defense...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS...10 Servicemembers Civil Relief Act...

2010-07-01

383

32 CFR 232.10 - Servicemembers Civil Relief Act protections unaffected.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01...false Servicemembers Civil Relief Act protections...Section 232.10 National Defense Department of Defense...OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS...10 Servicemembers Civil Relief Act...

2011-07-01

384

40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 65.111 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Compliance standard. Except during pressure releases as provided for in...

2010-07-01

385

40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 65.111 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Compliance standard. Except during pressure releases as provided for in...

2011-07-01

386

40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 63.165 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure...

2010-07-01

387

40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 63.165 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure...

2011-07-01

388

76 FR 6819 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil...to participate or not participate in accounting and auditing relief for Federal oil...69 FR 55076), provide two types of accounting and auditing relief for Federal...

2011-02-08

389

75 FR 1654 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil...to participate or not participate in accounting and auditing relief for Federal oil...Regulations (CFR), to provide two types of accounting and auditing relief for Federal...

2010-01-12

390

30 CFR 204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 204.207 ...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.207 ...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

2010-07-01

391

30 CFR 1204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?  

...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 1204.207...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.207...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

2014-07-01

392

30 CFR 1204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 1204.207...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.207...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

2013-07-01

393

30 CFR 1204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 1204.207...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.207...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

2011-07-01

394

30 CFR 1204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 1204.207...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.207...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

2012-07-01

395

Extended Relief-F Algorithm for Nominal Attribute Estimation in Small-Document Classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an extended Relief-F algorithm for nominal attribute estimation, for application to small-document classification. Relief algorithms are general and successful instance-based feature-filtering algorithms for data classification and regression. Many improved Relief algorithms have been introduced as solutions to problems of redundancy and irrelevant noisy features and to the limitations of the algorithms for multiclass datasets. However, these algorithms have only rarely been applied to text classification, because the numerous features in multiclass datasets lead to great time complexity. Therefore, in considering their application to text feature filtering and classification, we presented an extended Relief-F algorithm for numerical attribute estimation (E-Relief-F) in 2007. However, we found limitations and some problems with it. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce additional problems with Relief algorithms for text feature filtering, including the negative influence of computation similarities and weights caused by a small number of features in an instance, the absence of nearest hits and misses for some instances, and great time complexity. We then suggest a new extended Relief-F algorithm for nominal attribute estimation (E-Relief-Fd) to solve these problems, and we apply it to small text-document classification. We used the algorithm in experiments to estimate feature quality for various datasets, its application to classification, and its performance in comparison with existing Relief algorithms. The experimental results show that the new E-Relief-Fd algorithm offers better performance than previous Relief algorithms, including E-Relief-F.

Park, Heum; Kwon, Hyuk-Chul

396

Between Relief and Politics: Refugee Humanitarianism in Occupied Germany 1945—1946  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, I argue that international relief operations carried out between 1943 and 1947 under the umbrella of UNRRA went beyond their stated goal of civilian 'rehabilitation': relief efforts also contributed to the rise of a new internationalism in the aftermath of the second world war. I start my discussion with a comparison between relief operations in Europe after

G. Daniel Cohen

2008-01-01

397

49 CFR 179.220-24 - Tests of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief valves. 179.220-24... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW...179.220-24 Tests of pressure relief valves. Each safety relief valve must be tested by air or gas for compliance...

2013-10-01

398

49 CFR 179.220-24 - Tests of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief valves. 179.220-24... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW...179.220-24 Tests of pressure relief valves. Each safety relief valve must be tested by air or gas for compliance...

2012-10-01

399

30 CFR 203.51 - How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief? 203.51 Section 203...Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.51 How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief? You must submit...

2011-07-01

400

30 CFR 203.50 - Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief? 203.50 Section 203...Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.50 Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief? You may apply for...

2011-07-01

401

30 CFR 203.51 - How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief? 203.51 Section 203...Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.51 How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief? You must submit...

2010-07-01

402

30 CFR 203.50 - Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief? 203.50 Section 203...Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.50 Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief? You may apply for...

2010-07-01

403

49 CFR 179.500-16 - Tests of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief devices. 179.500-16 Section...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-16 Tests of pressure relief devices. (a) Pressure relief valves shall be tested by air or...

2011-10-01

404

49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section...SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105...103-4 Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. (a) Safety relief...

2010-10-01

405

49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section...SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105...103-4 Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. (a) Safety relief...

2011-10-01

406

Reward and motivation in pain and pain relief.  

PubMed

Pain is fundamentally unpleasant, a feature that protects the organism by promoting motivation and learning. Relief of aversive states, including pain, is rewarding. The aversiveness of pain, as well as the reward from relief of pain, is encoded by brain reward/motivational mesocorticolimbic circuitry. In this Review, we describe current knowledge of the impact of acute and chronic pain on reward/motivation circuits gained from preclinical models and from human neuroimaging. We highlight emerging clinical evidence suggesting that anatomical and functional changes in these circuits contribute to the transition from acute to chronic pain. We propose that assessing activity in these conserved circuits can offer new outcome measures for preclinical evaluation of analgesic efficacy to improve translation and speed drug discovery. We further suggest that targeting reward/motivation circuits may provide a path for normalizing the consequences of chronic pain to the brain, surpassing symptomatic management to promote recovery from chronic pain. PMID:25254980

Navratilova, Edita; Porreca, Frank

2014-10-01

407

Reducing vulnerability to drought and famine: developmental approaches to relief.  

PubMed

In this paper we present salient lessons learned through the International Relief/Development Project about the relationships between disasters and development. We discuss approaches to famine response and prevention, including the impact of global food distribution efforts on the capacities of people affected by famine and offer criteria for planning famine relief so that it will promote systemic, long term development of these capacities. We first describe a collaborative research project which showed that it is possible for international famine assistance either to promote the capacities of people who suffer from famine so that they are better able to handle future food crises, or to leave those it purports to help worse off and even more vulnerable to subsequent disasters. We then illustrate alternative strategies for promoting development in the midst of crisis by presenting information about a number of famine response programs and analyzing their impact on capacities and vulnerabilities. PMID:20958714

Anderson, M B; Woodrow, P J

1991-03-01

408

Developing Countries: Debt Relief Initiative for Poor Countries Facing Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released in June 2000, this 184-page report from the General Accounting Office reviews the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative. Originally undertaken by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 1996 as a way of providing financial relief to the most indebted countries in the world, the initiative was enhanced in September 1999 as a response to the continuing vulnerability of these countries. According to this report, the initiative "will provide significant debt relief . . . with the debt for six of the seven countries the GAO analyzed projected to be reduced be one-third or more. However, given the continued fragility of these countries, the initiative is not likely to provide recipients with a lasting exit from their debt problems, unless they achieve strong, sustained economic growth." For more information on the Debt Initiative for the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries, see the August 27, 1999 Scout Report.

409

Uplift and Relief Evolution of Africa Since 250 Ma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the TopoAfrica Project was to quantify the growth of long wavelength (x1000 km) topography over the last 250 Ma at the scale of a continent - Africa - and to understand (1) their relationship with the underlying mantle dynamics over such a time period and (2) their consequence on some Earth surface processes. A direct inversion of the geological data into estimates of paleotopography is difficult. Quantification of past topographies at continent-scale requires geological data coupled with a sediment production (erosion) and transport numerical model. The quantification of the Meso-Cenozoic topographies of the African continent is based on uplift (mean time interval 10 Ma) and paleoprecipitation maps (input of the model) and siliciclastic sedimentary fluxes and thermochronological data. 1. No relief, older than Late Cretaceous (75-65 Ma), are preserved in Africa. The oldest relief corresponds to part of the present-day South African Plateau. Northward, no relief is older than the Middle Eocene (50-40 Ma). 2. Two main periods of uplift occurred after oceanic break-up, during Late Cretaceous (Late Cenomanian to Middle Campanian, 95-15 Ma) and during Miocene (23-5 Ma) times. 3. The mantle dynamic cannot explain all the long wavelength relief of Africa, even during Cenozoic times. The critical point was the movement of the African plate over the African superplume, perennial since at least the Early Cretaceous (110-100 Ma): this horizontal movement controlled the uplift of the South African Plateau during Late Cretaceous times (90-75 Ma). Other mechanisms have to be involved to explain the growth of the marginal bulges of the South Atlantic margins or the double bending of the Congo Cuvette during Neogene times.

Guillocheau, F.

2013-12-01

410

Medical Examination and Poor Relief in Early Modern Germany  

PubMed Central

Summary This article investigates the role of the medical examination in municipal poor relief programmes between 1570 and 1620. Documents from the city of Nördlingen, a community of approximately 10,000 people in 1600, suggest that municipal facilities addressed a range of serious illnesses for a wide spectrum of the population. Practitioners were influenced by their Galenic medical milieu but ultimately focused on a range of practical resource questions rather than the diagnosis of an individual's disease.

Hammond, Mitchell Lewis

2011-01-01

411

The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the US response under former President George W. Bush to the global HIV\\/AIDS epidemic at the intersection of neo-conservatism and neo-liberalism, highlighting the various ways their distinct gender logics collide to reproduce masculine privilege and gender inequalities on a global scale. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is the United States global HIV\\/AIDS policy and

Marcia Oliver

2012-01-01

412

A video study of pain relief during newborn male circumcision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:The purpose of this investigation was to compare the effectiveness of dorsal penile nerve block and topical lidocaine–prilocaine anesthesia techniques for pain relief during circumcision.Methods:In total, 18 healthy term newborn males were divided based on anesthesia. The topical lidocaine–prilocaine group had six males undergoing circumcision and three males undergoing a sham procedure. The dorsal penile nerve block group had six

D J Garry; E Swoboda; A Elimian; R Figueroa

2006-01-01

413

Codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief*  

PubMed Central

In this report—the fourth of a series on codeine and its alternates for pain and cough relief—an attempt is made to evaluate, on the basis of experimental and clinical data, and wherever possible in comparison with codeine, the effectiveness of a number of antitussive substances currently in clinical use. In the discussion of the undesired side-effects particular attention is paid to the risk of dependence and abuse. PMID:4390406

Eddy, Nathan B.; Friebel, Hans; Hahn, Klaus-Jurgen; Halbach, Hans

1969-01-01

414

NATIONAL SECURITY: Relief, Rebukes Follow Agreement on Lee.  

PubMed

What began as an explosive case of alleged nuclear espionage is expected to end quietly soon when physicist Wen Ho Lee walks free from an Albuquerque, New Mexico, courtroom after 9 months in jail. The ignominious collapse of the government's case and Lee's release have embarrassed federal prosecutors. However, the news was a relief to Asian-American researchers and others who say Lee's status as a suspect had heightened racial tensions at the national labs. PMID:17839923

Lawler, A

2000-09-15

415

Neural correlates of mindfulness meditation-related anxiety relief.  

PubMed

Anxiety is the cognitive state related to the inability to control emotional responses to perceived threats. Anxiety is inversely related to brain activity associated with the cognitive regulation of emotions. Mindfulness meditation has been found to regulate anxiety. However, the brain mechanisms involved in meditation-related anxiety relief are largely unknown. We employed pulsed arterial spin labeling MRI to compare the effects of distraction in the form of attending to the breath (ATB; before meditation training) to mindfulness meditation (after meditation training) on state anxiety across the same subjects. Fifteen healthy subjects, with no prior meditation experience, participated in 4 d of mindfulness meditation training. ATB did not reduce state anxiety, but state anxiety was significantly reduced in every session that subjects meditated. Meditation-related anxiety relief was associated with activation of the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior insula. Meditation-related activation in these regions exhibited a strong relationship to anxiety relief when compared to ATB. During meditation, those who exhibited greater default-related activity (i.e. posterior cingulate cortex) reported greater anxiety, possibly reflecting an inability to control self-referential thoughts. These findings provide evidence that mindfulness meditation attenuates anxiety through mechanisms involved in the regulation of self-referential thought processes. PMID:23615765

Zeidan, Fadel; Martucci, Katherine T; Kraft, Robert A; McHaffie, John G; Coghill, Robert C

2014-06-01

416

Neural mechanisms underlying the induction and relief of perceptual curiosity  

PubMed Central

Curiosity is one of the most basic biological drives in both animals and humans, and has been identified as a key motive for learning and discovery. Despite the importance of curiosity and related behaviors, the topic has been largely neglected in human neuroscience; hence little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying curiosity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate what happens in our brain during the induction and subsequent relief of perceptual curiosity. Our core findings were that (1) the induction of perceptual curiosity, through the presentation of ambiguous visual input, activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), brain regions sensitive to conflict and arousal; (2) the relief of perceptual curiosity, through visual disambiguation, activated regions of the striatum that have been related to reward processing; and (3) the relief of perceptual curiosity was associated with hippocampal activation and enhanced incidental memory. These findings provide the first demonstration of the neural basis of human perceptual curiosity. Our results provide neurobiological support for a classic psychological theory of curiosity, which holds that curiosity is an aversive condition of increased arousal whose termination is rewarding and facilitates memory. PMID:22347853

Jepma, Marieke; Verdonschot, Rinus G.; van Steenbergen, Henk; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

2012-01-01

417

Effect of tensile stress on cavitation damage formation in mercury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavitation erosion or so called pitting damage was investigated under tensile stress conditions in mercury. In MW-class liquid metal spallation targets, pitting damage is a critical issue to satisfy required power and/or lifetime of the target vessel. Cavitation occurs by negative pressure which is induced through pressure wave propagation due to proton beam injection. Pitting damage is formed by microjet and/or shock wave during cavitation bubble collapse. A mercury target vessel suffers tensile stress due to thermal stress or welding. In order to investigate the effect of tensile stress on pitting damage formation, cavitation erosion tests were performed using stress imposed specimens in mercury. An ultrasonic vibratory horn and electro-Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM) were used to vary the cavitation intensity. In the incubation period of pitting damage, damaged area was slightly increased with increasing imposed tensile stress. In the steady state period, a mean depth of erosion was increased by the tensile stress. Additionally, in order to quantitatively evaluate the effect of tensile stress, an indentation test with Vickers indenter was carried out to quasi-statically simulate the impact load. From the measurement of the diagonal length of the indent aspect ratio and hardness, it is recognized that the threshold of the deformation, i.e. pitting damage formation, was decreased by the tensile stress.

Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshihito; Futakawa, Masatoshi

2010-03-01

418

TAX RELIEF FOR DONATIONS Section 848A of the Taxes Consolidation Act, 1997 provides for a scheme of tax relief for  

E-print Network

TAX RELIEF FOR DONATIONS Section 848A of the Taxes Consolidation Act, 1997 provides for a scheme of tax relief for certain "eligible charities" and other "approved bodies" in respect of donations is 250. Donations made by instalments (e.g. Standing Order) will also qualify. For the purposes of tax

Humphrys, Mark

419

Post-Nargis medical care: experience of a Korean Disaster Relief Team in Myanmar after the cyclone.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology and clinical data of patients observed by the Korean Disaster Relief Team, during its deployment in Myanmar, from 6 to 12 June 2008. A cross-sectional, medical record-based study in the Korean Disaster Relief Team clinic, established a month after the cyclone Nargis devastated Myanmar. Data collected included demographic variables, and whether or not the problem was acute or chronic, and traumatic or medical. We included 2641 patients in the study. Of those, 57.6% presented with an acute condition, and the rest had chronic conditions. Approximately 5% of the patients presented with trauma/injury; and in 29% of the trauma cases, the problem was directly related to the cyclone. The most common diagnostic category was musculoskeletal problems (21.5%), followed by respiratory (15.3%), and digestive (14.6%) abnormalities. A little over 5% of patients had posttraumatic stress disorder, and the odds ratio was 2.62 (95% confidence interval 1.63-4.21) for women to have posttraumatic stress disorder. Most of the patients (97.5%) had minor problems and were sent home. In conclusion, a huge unmet medical need in at-risk populations and a relatively large proportion of chronic medical conditions should be considered in any future planning of a similar type of disaster. PMID:19654547

Kim, Hoon; Han, Seung Baik; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Jun Sig; Hong, EunSeog

2010-02-01

420

High aspect ratio surface relief structures by photoembossing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoembossing is a convenient and economical process to form complex surface relief structures in polymer thin films. We have improved the aspect ratio of photoembossed microstructures by adding t-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) to the polymerization mixture. The mechanism that is proposed is based on the radical transfer principle, where TBHQ converts acrylate radicals into stable phenol radicals that at elevated temperatures act as latent initiators, thereby controlling the kinetics without changing the number of polymerization active sites. As a result, the aspect ratio can be improved with a factor of 5-7 in comparison with previously proposed similar processes.

Hermans, Ko; Wolf, Florian K.; Perelaer, Jolke; Janssen, Rene A. J.; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Bastiaansen, Cees W. M.; Broer, Dirk J.

2007-10-01

421

Building Pressure Control in VAV System with Relief Air Fan  

E-print Network

properly in response to the supply fan. In this paper, a motor power based fan air flow station was developed in a real case to obtain better building pressure control by supply and relief fan-tracking. The detail of the motor power based fan air flow..., which is determined by air balance testing to allow full required exhaust air flow to exit the building. The mixed air damper is controlled to maintain a constant pressure D 2 , which is setting according to air balance measurement that provides...

Pang, X.; Liu, M.; Zheng, B.

2005-01-01

422

Raised Relief Mars Globe Brings the Red Planet Closer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Mars Globe 20x is the first digitally produced raised relief globe to be sold at retail establishments. The rises and dips of the Martian landscape have been multiplied by 20 to make the shapes more noticeable to human touch and sight. They make this globe, with its over 1 million elevation points, a visually stunning introduction to the planet. Spectrum 3D used the NASA digital land elevation data to aim lasers that then shaped and defined the master globe s surface. Subsequent copies were then made by creating a master globe mold. The molded copies are hand finished by workers who remove errant edges or lines that may appear on the raw globes and then paint the surfaces. The result is a globe that measures in at 18 inches in diameter, roughly 1:15,729,473 scale of the actual planet. The exaggerated raised relief is like having a 3-D digital microscope for planetary shapes. This makes the landmarks easier to learn and understand, as it provides easy visuals for orientation. People have a natural propensity for understanding 3-D shapes more easily than numbers or words. The 3-D globes appeal to both the kinetic and visual learning aspects of the brain, making it easy for people to readily memorize the landmarks and to make a mental model that they will remember for a long time.

2006-01-01

423

Phase relief imaging with confocal laser scanning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) has become one of the most important biomedical research tools today due to its noninvasive and 3-D abilities. It enables imaging in living tissue with better resolution and contrast, and plays a growing role among microscopic techniques utilized for investigating numerous biological problems. In some cases, the sample was phase-sensitive, thus we introduce a novel method named laser oblique scanning optical microscopy (LOSOM) which could obtain a relief image in transparent sample directly. Through the LOSOM system, mouse kidney and HeLa cells sample were imaged and 10x, 20x and 40x magnify objective imaging results were realized respectively. Also, we compared the variation of pinhole size versus imaging result. One major parameters of LOSOM is the distance between fluorescence medium and the sample. Previously, this distance was set to 1.2 mm, which is the thickness of the slide. The experiment result showed that decreasing d can increase the signal level for LOSOM phase-relief imaging. We have also demonstrated the application of LOSOM in absorption imaging modality, when the specimen is non-transparent.

Peng, Tong; Xie, Hao; Ding, Yichen; Xi, Peng

2013-02-01

424

GIS plays key role in NYC Rescue and Relief Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New York City, Sept. 17—The posters of missing loved ones are pasted onto New York City walls and street signs six days after 2 hijacked commercial airlines destroyed the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan on September 11. Several miles uptown from “ground zero,” heightened security hovers around the city's Office of Emergency Management rescue and relief command center, an around-the-clock operation. Police, firefighters, military, officials with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, communications technicians, and a beehive of others work in controlled chaos in this cavernous, convention center-sized hall, lined with computers and adorned with several American flags.After the original command center at 7 World Trade Center collapsed to rubble as an after-effect of the plane strikes, city officials scrambled to recreate it. Alan Leidner, director of New York's citywide geographic information systems (GIS), and who is with the Department of Information Technology and Telecommunications, knew that maps would be an integral component of the rescue and relief efforts. Maps provide emergency workers and others with accurate and detailed scientific data in the form of visual aids upon which they can make informed decisions.

Showstack, Randy

425

Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief: changing the face of defense.  

PubMed

The US Department of Defense (DOD) is evolving to meet new security challenges in the twenty-first century. Today's challenges result from growing political, environmental, and economic instability in important areas of the globe that threaten national and global security. Immediate outreach to foreign nations in times of violent instability or natural disaster fosters security and stability both for the affected country and for the United States. Foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA) is a rapidly evolving military mission that addresses conflict prevention, conflict, postconflict, and natural disasters. With DOD's extensive global medical resources, it is often uniquely qualified to execute a critical role in relief and/or public health efforts. When and how the American military will act in FHA and disaster relief is a still evolving doctrine with three issues deserving particular attention: aligning operations with host government leadership, preserving humanitarian space, and tailoring the US military's unique resources to the specific political and medical situation at hand. The DOD's response to a large-scale earthquake in Peru suggests useful approaches to these three issues, provides a template for future FHA mission, and points to strategic decisions and operational capabilities that need further development to establish the FHA mission firmly within DOD's repertoire of security engagement activities. PMID:19378667

Laraby, Patrick R; Bourdeaux, Margaret; Casscells, S Ward; Smith, David J; Lawry, Lynn

2009-01-01

426

Biomechanical analysis of a weight-relief maneuver in C5 and C6 quadriplegia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harvey LA, Crosbie J. Biomechanical analysis of a weight-relief maneuver in C5 and C6 quadriplegia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:500-5. Objective: To determine the kinematics and kinetics of performing a weight-relief maneuver in persons with C5 and C6 quadriplegia. Study Design: A three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic analysis was performed on the upward phase of a weight-relief maneuver with the use

Lisa A Harvey; Jack Crosbie

2000-01-01

427

An Analysis of 19 International Case Studies of Stress Prevention Through Work Reorganization Using the Demand/Control Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nineteen international case studies of workplace stress prevention initiatives are analyzed. The focus of these cases, which span a variety of workplaces and locations, is on preventing stress through work reorganization rather than remedial approaches for stress relief. It is found that the majority of the occupations represented in the case…

Karasek, Robert A.

2004-01-01

428

Perspective view of shaded relief, color as height, Patagonia, Argentina  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This perspective view of Patagonia, Argentina shows a spectacular landscape formed by volcanoes, rivers, and wind. The area is located just east of the narrow range of the Andes Mountains, about 100 kilometers (62 miles) east of the border with Chile. Interesting features include basalt-capped mesas (top) and young volcanic cones (left foreground). Geologists will use SRTM topographic data to study the interaction of volcanic, climatic and erosional processes.

This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1100 meters (3600 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 70 km (43 miles) x 70 km (43 miles) Location: 41 deg. South lat., 69 deg. West lon. Orientation: Looking South Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

2000-01-01

429

Influence of adsorption kinetics on stress evolution in magnetron-sputtered SiO2 and SiNx films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An in situ multi-beam optical sensor system was used to monitor and analyze the force per unit width (F/w) and stress evolution during several stages in magnetron-sputtered SiO2 and SiNx films. Stress was observed to relieve quickly after interrupt and recover rapidly after growth resumption in both films. Stress relief was reversible in SiO2 film but partial reversible in SiNx film. Stress relief results from both physical and chemical adsorption. Stress recovery is caused by physical desorption. And chemical adsorption results in an irreversible stress relief component. No chemical adsorption occurs in SiO2 film because of the stable chemical structure. The relationship between adsorption kinetics and films' mechanical behavior is revealed.

Li, Jingping; Fang, Ming; He, Hongbo; Shao, Jianda; Li, Zhaoyang

2013-07-01

430

Relation of structural and vibratory kinematics of the vocal folds to two acoustic measures of breathy voice based on computational modeling  

PubMed Central

Purpose To relate vocal fold structure and kinematics to two acoustic measures: cepstral peak prominence (CPP) and the amplitude of the first harmonic relative to the second (H1-H2). Method A computational, kinematic model of the medial surfaces of the vocal folds was used to specify features of vocal fold structure and vibration in a manner consistent with breathy voice. Four model parameters were altered: degree of vocal fold adduction, surface bulging, vibratory nodal point, and supraglottal constriction. CPP and H1-H2 were measured from simulated glottal area, glottal flow and acoustic waveforms and related to the underlying vocal fold kinematics. Results CPP decreased with increased separation of the vocal processes, whereas the nodal point location had little effect. H1-H2 increased as a function of separation of the vocal processes in the range of 1–1.5 mm and decreased with separation > 1.5 mm. Conclusions CPP is generally a function of vocal process separation. H1*-H2* will increase or decrease with vocal process separation based on vocal fold shape, pivot point for the rotational mode, and supraglottal vocal tract shape, limiting its utility as an indicator of breathy voice. Future work will relate the perception of breathiness to vocal fold kinematics and acoustic measures. PMID:21498582

Samlan, Robin A.; Story, Brad H.

2011-01-01

431

Late-Cenozoic relief evolution under evolving climate: A review of quantitative arguments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relief is the defined as an elevation difference between two points. Relief can increase, decrease, or remain constant through time, regardless of the absolute erosion rates. The relief evolution directly reflects the spatial distribution of the equilibrium between the uplift and the erosion of rocks. Understanding how, why, and when relief has changed in the past can help to understand the causal relationship between tectonics, topography and climate and the relation between erosion and the climate. Relief change can be addressed by three different ways, or by combination of them: (1) direct quantification of differential erosion by surface dating, or direct erosion rate quantification with cosmogenic radionuclides inventories, (2) quantification of differential exhumation histories using thermochronology, and (3) numerical modeling of landscape evolution. This study mostly focus on the results from cosmogenic radionuclides dating that has demonstrated the ability to quantify relief change at kyr timescale, and from low-temperature thermochronology, which has been used to constrain relief change at Myr timescale, as well as a critical review of results from landscape evolution modelling. Finally, I review the different views provided by the literature on the potential links between relief and erosion, climate and tectonics, as well as their respective evolution through geological times. Tracking relief evolution is different than tracking changes in erosion rate, because relief evolution depends on the spatial variability of the erosion, not directly on the local or spatially-averaged erosion rates. Hence, tracking relief changes through time may provide insights on the location of the erosion, and therefore can be used to better understand (1) geomorphic/physical rules that govern each individual erosional agent (e.g. fluvial, glacial, etc.), and 2) how the distribution of the different erosional mechanisms are distributed in both space and time.

Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Valla, Pierre; Herman, Frédéric

2013-04-01

432

30 CFR 203.80 - When can I get royalty relief if I am not eligible for royalty relief under other sections in the...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or increase production. Unless your lease lies offshore of Alaska or wholly west of 87 degrees, 30 minutes West longitude...relief. (b) Valuable facilities (e.g., a platform or pipeline that would be removed upon lease relinquishment)...

2010-07-01

433

Disaster relief work: nurses and others in bushfire territory.  

PubMed

This paper describes one aspect of a study into the experiences in long-term healing of a community following the 1983 Ash Wednesday bushfire. Forty participants were interviewed, of whom 26 were residents and 14 disaster relief workers. The paper concentrates on the experiences of the latter, describing how they came to understand the bushfire affected the community and how they managed disaster work. For novices it was a profoundly difficult experience, for which they received little help and had to manage with whatever skill they drew on in their 'normal' working lives, mixed with a good deal of intuition. The paper suggests that health workers in vulnerable areas require preparation for a likely disaster; that 'outsiders' need to deal through existing community groups and individuals to gain access to those in need of their skills, and that they also require preparation for helping 'insiders' who are themselves victims of the catastrophe. PMID:9611532

Cox, H M

1997-12-01

434

Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2001-01-01

435

Paleoseismic Dislocations In Bulgaria - Nature, Hazard, Relief and Phenomena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of studying the paleoseismic dislocations and the relief disturbance in particular, caused by strong earthquakes during the historic and the contemporary stage (before 8000 years B.P.) is a new and extremely interesting one. The aim of their investigations is to determine the trends for potential seismic hazards, to delineate the zones and single sections of paleofaults, generating seismic energy, to distinguish the stages and intervals of display of contemporary hazardous effects around them, to solve geoecological and social aspects of the problem, etc. The activities related to the discovery, mapping and investigating of the paleoseismic relief effects in Bulgaria are still at an initial stage. During the recent years the author has managed to localise about 100 local paleostructures in the country, caused by strong impulse tectonic movements. Some of them have been studied and mapped and the investigation of the others is impending in the near future. Archaeoearthquakes or contemporary earthquakes have been recorded in their vicinity. The global re-arrangements of the Fore-Carpathian, Black Sea and Mediterranean basins and the initial pre-Quaternary tectonic impulse and the following destruction, the re-arrangement of the river basins, the formation of the structural-denudation and structural-accumulation lowering, the shaping of the plateau structural edges, the ris- ing of the mountain structures, the formation of continental neighbourhood, are con- nected according to the opinion of the author with the origin of the paleoseismic dis- locations: SBregareT, STrunchovitsaT, SPopovoT, SMomina SkalaT in the Shoumen & cedil;& cedil;& cedil;& cedil;district and SLovnishkaT, SChuipetlovoT, SPernikT, SKroupnikT, SMelnikT, SPet- & cedil;& cedil;& cedil;& cedil;& cedil;& cedil;richT and the paleoseismic phenomenon to the north of the Varna city. During the Middle Pleistocene the SBregareT, STrunchovitsaT, SPopovoT, SPernikT and other & cedil;& cedil;& cedil;& cedil;dislocations were reactivated. New paleofaults generating seismic energy were cre- ated. The Holocene-Pleistocene boundary was very active and with well preserved relief seismic deformations. Many of the older paleoseismic dislocations were re- activated. The deformations are with impressive size and morphology at the foot of the mountains (Vitosha, Rila, Pirin and the Rhodopes), the North-Bulgarian plateaux (?PamukchiiT, STrapishteT, SMortagonovoT, SPreslavT, SSt. MihailovskiT) and the & cedil;& cedil;& cedil;& cedil; sub-aquatic part of the Black Sea continental neighbourhood. 1 The recording, mapping and studying of the nature of these phenomena, the assess- ment of the macroseismic effect in the relief, the time of display and reactivation, and their wholesome assessment would result in the solution of a number of practi- cal problems during the evaluation of the seismic hazard. Many failures in engineering activities could be avoided, the cultural (historic and contemporary) monuments could be preserved and a considerable social effect could be achieved. 2

Angelova, D.

436

Western Tibet relief evolution, insight from sedimentary record and thermochronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Tibetan plateau is defined as a low relief high elevation zone, resulting from India-Asia convergence. However, its morphology is relatively heterogeneous. Especially the western Tibetan plateau is characterized by a strong relief, numerous peaks higher than 6000 m.a.s.l. and large (up to 10 km), deep (1-2 km) valleys. We investigate the origin of this particular morphology, coupling geomorphologic studies with sedimentary records and (U-Th)/He thermochronometry. The western Tibet Tertiary sedimentation is mostly characterized by conglomerates, red sandstone and siltstones related with alluvial fan deposits. Zircon U-Pb dating of interbedded trachyte flows implies that deposition started before 25 Ma and was still ongoing at 20 Ma. These continental, detrital deposits are filling wide open valleys during probable arid climatic conditions. Such valleys are thus interpreted as inherited basins, paleovalleys, formed before detrital sedimentation i.e. at ~25 Ma. Moreover, rare marine sediments were observed below the detrital deposits. Foraminifera suggest an Oligocene age, which implies that the paleovalleys already existed during the Oligocene, and that the emersion of the Western Tibetan Plateau occurred between the Oligocene and 25 Ma. This emersion thus occurred much later than the India-Asia collision (~50-45Ma) but is compatible with the onset of the main thickening phase of the Indian plate. The orientation of the inherited valley axis appears to be that of active strike slip faults that induced eastward extrusion of Western Tibet. This suggests that such extrusion was already active at the time of sedimentation (both marine and continental). Thus extrusion was also active during the plateau emersion at Oligocene time. The morphology of the valleys, and their sedimentary infilling, suggest that a significant relief, similar to present-day one (about 1000-2000m between valleys floor and surrounding peaks) already existed at the time of sedimentation. This implies that very little erosion and only uplift took place following plateau emersion. Assuming an Oligocene emersion and considering the present-day elevation of the valley floor (~ 4300-4500 m.a.s.l.) it yields a mean uplift rate of about 120-170m/Ma. In order to test the slow erosion hypothesis we performed apatite (U-Th)/He dating. Samples have been collected from a vertical profile in a Cretaceous granodiorite. Ages range from 13 to 22Ma. Based on the age variation with sampling elevation an apparent elevation rate of about 0.7 mm/yr is obtained. Modelling of age-elevation relationships indicates that the measured cooling ages are compatible with a slow, continuous exhumation/erosion rate from 25 Ma to the present time. This is similar to previous calculations obtained elsewhere on the Tibetan plateau. Today, the western Tibet is an internally drained area and local erosion induces filling of the paleovalleys. This implies that earlier erosion products were evacuated out of the plateau through the river network. Displacement along the Karakorum fault might be responsible from isolating Western Tibet from the nearby Indus drainage. In conclusion, this study suggests that western Tibet morphology is inherited from the ante-emersion relief (Oligocene?) that was preserved by combination of slow erosion and evacuation of the detrital sediments toward the Indus river network.

Mahéo, Gweltaz; Gourbet, Loraine; Hervé Leloup, Philippe; Sorrel, Philippe; Shuster, David L.; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Quillévéré, Frédéric

2014-05-01

437

Doubly Optimal Secure Multicasting: Hierarchical Hybrid Communication Network : Disaster Relief  

E-print Network

Recently, the world has witnessed the increasing occurrence of disasters, some of natural origin and others caused by man. The intensity of the phenomenon that cause such disasters, the frequency in which they occur, the number of people affected and the material damage caused by them have been growing substantially. Disasters are defined as natural, technological, and human-initiated events that disrupt the normal functioning of the economy and society on a large scale. Areas where disasters have occurred bring many dangers to rescue teams and the communication network infrastructure is usually destroyed. To manage these hazards, different wireless technologies can be launched in the area of disaster. This paper discusses the innovative wireless technologies for Disaster Management. Specifically, issues related to the design of Hierarchical Hybrid Communication Network (arising in the communication network for disaster relief) are discussed.

Garimella, Rama Murthy; Singhal, Deepti

2011-01-01

438

Is rib resection necessary for relief of thoracic outlet syndrome?  

PubMed Central

Between 1966 and 1975, 425 patients with thoracic outlet symptoms were studied: 146 operative procedures were carried out in 103 of these patients. Division of soft tissues, only, in 129 cases offered relief of symptoms. In 10 cases bone resections (four cervical ribs, one second rib, one clavicle, and four first ribs) were done in an attempt to relieve the outlet problems. Preoperative evaluation included neurological consultation, x-rays of the neck and chest, detailed non-invasive oscillographic recordings of arterial flow during various outlet maneuvers, angiograms and in many instances electromyograms and nerve conduction studies. The axillary surgical approach to be various compression areas was preferred in that hyperabduction of the arm and costoclavicular maneuvers could be carried out under direct observation of the involved vessels. Accurate appraisal of the compression point could be assessed before and after the involved structure was divided or removed. Complications were limited to two hematomas postoperatively, and transient paralysis of the diaphragm in one patient. In all patients the vessel compression was relieved at the time of operation. In no instance was the first rib emperically removed as a "cure all" procedure. Six months following operation, patients were reevaluated and all except 8 patients (11 operative procedures) had relief of symptoms for a success rate of 92.5%. Images Fig. 1(a-c). Fig. 1d. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4a. Fig. 4b. Fig. 5. Fig. 5c. Fig. 6. Fig. 6b. Fig. 6c. Fig. 6d. Fig. 6e. Fig. 7. Fig. 8a. Fig. 8b. PMID:857747

Stallworth, J M; Quinn, G J; Aiken, A F

1977-01-01

439

ABSTRACT. The stress-relief cracking (SRC) susceptibility of single-pass welds  

E-print Network

. Introduction 2.25Cr-1Mo steel is commonly used for high-temperature applications in steam generators and pressure vessels for chemical and fossil power plants. Many components in these power plants oper- ate

DuPont, John N.

440

Spray shadowing for stress relief and mechanical locking in thick protective coatings  

DOEpatents

A method for applying a protective coating on an article, comprising the following steps: selecting an article with a surface for applying a coating thickness; creating undercut grooves on the article, where the grooves depend beneath the surface to a bottom portion with the grooves having an upper width on the surface and a lower width on the bottom portion connected by side walls, where at least one of the side walls connects the upper width and the lower width to form an undercut angle with the surface less than 90.degree.; and, applying the protective coating onto the article to fill the undercut grooves and cover the surface, thereby forming weak paths within the protective coating.

Hollis, Kendall (Los Alamos, NM); Bartram, Brian (Los Alamos, NM)

2007-05-22

441

The effectiveness of stress relief etching for improving bipolar device characteristics  

E-print Network

R. A. D. C. under contract gNAS8-26379. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I. INTRODUCTION. II. THEORY OF DISLOCATION EFFECTS Effects On P-N Junctions; With Precipitates. Effects On P-N Junctions; Without Precipitates. Effects On Device Formation... gives h FE pW e Pb L P W 2 L n W + 2 L n (2. 10) The effects of dislocations on the gain of such a transistor may now be seen by combining 2. 1, 2. 2, 2. 3, and 2. 4 in equation 2. 10. This gives FE W Nd 2 1 2 D B n P W Nd W Nd 2 e...

Reed, Lynn Gillespie

2012-06-07

442

Pain-relief learning in flies, rats, and man: basic research and applied perspectives.  

PubMed

Memories relating to a painful, negative event are adaptive and can be stored for a lifetime to support preemptive avoidance, escape, or attack behavior. However, under unfavorable circumstances such memories can become overwhelmingly powerful. They may trigger excessively negative psychological states and uncontrollable avoidance of locations, objects, or social interactions. It is therefore obvious that any process to counteract such effects will be of value. In this context, we stress from a basic-research perspective that painful, negative events are "Janus-faced" in the sense that there are actually two aspects about them that are worth remembering: What made them happen and what made them cease. We review published findings from fruit flies, rats, and man showing that both aspects, respectively related to the onset and the offset of the negative event, induce distinct and oppositely valenced memories: Stimuli experienced before an electric shock acquire negative valence as they signal upcoming punishment, whereas stimuli experienced after an electric shock acquire positive valence because of their association with the relieving cessation of pain. We discuss how memories for such punishment- and relief-learning are organized, how this organization fits into the threat-imminence model of defensive behavior, and what perspectives these considerations offer for applied psychology in the context of trauma, panic, and nonsuicidal self-injury. PMID:24643725

Gerber, Bertram; Yarali, Ayse; Diegelmann, Sören; Wotjak, Carsten T; Pauli, Paul; Fendt, Markus

2014-04-01

443

"There Is a Lot that I Want to Do": Reflections on the Relief Efforts in Haiti  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In October 2010, Harvard Educational Review editor Raygine DiAquoi interviewed Maryse Desgrottes, the mother of a close friend and a visible presence in the relief efforts in Petit Goave, Haiti. Desgrottes, a former physician's assistant turned educator and school superintendent, shares the story of her involvement in Haiti's relief efforts since…

Desgrottes, Maryse

2011-01-01

444

Nursing in the aftermath of disaster: orphanage relief work in Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disaster relief workers experience psychological and physical needs as a direct consequence of their disaster involvement. While this impact has been acknowledged, relatively little is known about the nature of the psychosocial demands generated by prolonged exposure. Developing both comprehensive preparatory and support programmes for relief workers will require that the nature of these demands, their impact on personnel, and

D. Paton; C. Purvis

1995-01-01

445

Optimal model of emergency relief supplies distribution in anti-bioterrorism system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to improve the material supply capacity and the time efficiency of emergency relief system when bio-terrorism attacks happen, combining with the laws of dangerous source diffusion and considering the coordination relationship between national and city level repository of rescue network with supply base preparation system, this paper studied the problem of optimal model of emergency relief supplies distribution

Weina Zhao; Ruizhu Han

2010-01-01

446

31 CFR 353.26 - Application for relief-After receipt of bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Application for relief-After receipt of bond. 353.26 Section 353.26 Money...GOVERNING DEFINITIVE UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH Relief for Loss...Mutilation, Defacement, or Nonreceipt of Bonds § 353.26 Application for...

2010-07-01

447

Volumetric relief map for the cortical subarachnoid space analysis Alain Lebreta  

E-print Network

and after surgery. Keywords: volumetric relief map, planar visualization, computer-aided diagnosis, patient Bd du Mar´echal Leclerc, F-92110, Clichy, France Abstract Purpose Medical image visualization called volumetric relief maps that are generated from three-dimensional images of the cerebrospinal fluid

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

448

An Integrated Disaster Relief Supply Chain Network Model with Time Targets Demand Uncertainty  

E-print Network

An Integrated Disaster Relief Supply Chain Network Model with Time Targets and Demand Uncertainty Volume, Springer, Heidelberg, Germany, 2014. Abstract: As the number of natural disasters vital. In this paper, we construct a supply chain network optimization model for a disaster relief

Nagurney, Anna

449

Paracetamol for pain relief after surgical removal of lower wisdom teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Paracetamol has been commonly used for the relief of postoperative pain following oral surgery. In this review we investigated the optimal dose of paracetamol and the optimal time for drug administration to provide pain relief, taking into account the side effects of different doses of the drug. This will inform dentists and their patients of the best strategy for

K. Weil; L. Hooper; Z. Afzal; M. Esposito; H. V. Worthington; Wijk van A. J; P. Coulthard

2008-01-01

450

Simulation and Analysis of Relief Valve with F-pi Bridge Pilot Circuit Based on AMESim  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyzes the working principle of the relief valve with F-? bridge pilot hydraulic resistances network, and uses the HCD database of AMESim to make modeling, and analyses influence of steady-state characteristics under hydraulic resistances parameter, obtained 3 different pressure flow curve, shows that the deviation in the steady-state voltage regulator for positive or zero, F-? bridge relief valve has good

Luo Jing; Sun Chungeng; Liu Sen; Ren Haiyong

2010-01-01

451

40 CFR 63.1011 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL...Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1011 Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor...

2013-07-01

452

49 CFR 179.200-23 - Tests of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief valves. 179...Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes...179.200-23 Tests of pressure relief valves. (a) Each valve shall be tested by air or gas for compliance...

2012-10-01

453

40 CFR 63.1011 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL...Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1011 Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor...

2012-07-01

454

49 CFR 179.200-23 - Tests of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief valves. 179...Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes...179.200-23 Tests of pressure relief valves. (a) Each valve shall be tested by air or gas for compliance...

2013-10-01

455

27 CFR 478.144 - Relief from disabilities under the Act.  

...b) An application for such relief shall...support of an application for relief shall be certified...applicant by blood or marriage and have known the applicant for at least 3 years, recommending...records reflecting the reasons for commitment...

2014-04-01

456

27 CFR 478.144 - Relief from disabilities under the Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...b) An application for such relief shall...support of an application for relief shall be certified...applicant by blood or marriage and have known the applicant for at least 3 years, recommending...records reflecting the reasons for commitment...

2010-04-01

457

27 CFR 478.144 - Relief from disabilities under the Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...b) An application for such relief shall...support of an application for relief shall be certified...applicant by blood or marriage and have known the applicant for at least 3 years, recommending...records reflecting the reasons for commitment...

2013-04-01

458

27 CFR 478.144 - Relief from disabilities under the Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...b) An application for such relief shall...support of an application for relief shall be certified...applicant by blood or marriage and have known the applicant for at least 3 years, recommending...records reflecting the reasons for commitment...

2012-04-01

459

27 CFR 478.144 - Relief from disabilities under the Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...b) An application for such relief shall...support of an application for relief shall be certified...applicant by blood or marriage and have known the applicant for at least 3 years, recommending...records reflecting the reasons for commitment...

2011-04-01

460

49 CFR 179.200-23 - Tests of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief valves. 179.200-23...CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW...115AW) § 179.200-23 Tests of pressure relief valves. (a)...

2010-10-01

461

49 CFR 179.400-21 - Test of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test of pressure relief valves. 179.400-21 Section 179...Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.400-21 Test of pressure relief valves. Each valve must be tested...

2010-10-01

462

49 CFR 179.220-24 - Tests of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief valves. 179.220-24...CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW...115AW) § 179.220-24 Tests of pressure relief valves. Each...

2010-10-01

463

46 CFR 64.79 - Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...HANDLING SYSTEMS Periodic Inspections and Tests of MPTs § 64.79 Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device. (a) The inspection of the pressure and vacuum relief device required in...inspection for defective parts; and (3) A test of the accuracy of the pressure setting. (b) If the pressure...

2010-10-01

464

On the Influence of Poverty Relief and Educational Aid on Normal University Students' Specialty Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the influence of poverty relief and educational aid on the development of normal university students in their specialty; in particular, it focuses on its influence on their teaching internship, their study of professional courses, and the formation of professional ethics. The implementation of poverty relief and educational…

Yun, Pei

2008-01-01

465

24 CFR 203.472 - Relief for borrower in military service.  

...2014-04-01 false Relief for borrower in military service. 203.472 Section 203.472...Loans § 203.472 Relief for borrower in military service. If the borrower is a person in military service, as defined in the...

2014-04-01

466

26 CFR 1.6015-5 - Time and manner for requesting relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and manner for requesting relief. 1.6015-5...Statements § 1.6015-5 Time and manner for requesting relief. (a) Requesting...perjury; or submit information in the manner prescribed by the Treasury and IRS...

2010-04-01

467

27 CFR 25.103 - Notice by surety for relief from liability under bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01...Notice by surety for relief from liability under bond. 25.103 ...103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...Notice by surety for relief from liability under bond. A...

2011-04-01

468

27 CFR 25.103 - Notice by surety for relief from liability under bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01...Notice by surety for relief from liability under bond. 25.103 ...103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...Notice by surety for relief from liability under bond. A...

2010-04-01

469

27 CFR 25.103 - Notice by surety for relief from liability under bond.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01...Notice by surety for relief from liability under bond. 25.103 ...103 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND...Notice by surety for relief from liability under bond. A...

2012-04-01

470

State Tax Relief for the Poor. State Fiscal Brief No. 37.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This brief summarizes some of the highlights of the book "State Tax Relief for the Poor," by David S. Liebschutz and Steven D. Gold. It examines the policies that states can adopt to provide tax relief for the poor. Although poor families are generally exempt from the federal income tax, they still pay a large amount of taxes to state and local…

Liebschutz, David S.; Gold, Steven D.

471

46 CFR 34.15-40 - Pressure relief-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief-T/ALL. 34.15-40 Section 34.15-40 Shipping COAST...Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-40 Pressure relief—T/ALL. (a) Where necessary, relatively tight...

2010-10-01

472

46 CFR 34.15-40 - Pressure relief-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief-T/ALL. 34.15-40 Section 34.15-40 Shipping COAST...Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-40 Pressure relief—T/ALL. (a) Where necessary, relatively tight...

2011-10-01

473

46 CFR 34.15-40 - Pressure relief-T/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief-T/ALL. 34.15-40 Section 34.15-40 Shipping COAST...Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.15-40 Pressure relief—T/ALL. (a) Where necessary, relatively tight...

2013-10-01

474

30 CFR 203.1 - What is MMS's authority to grant royalty relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is MMS's authority to grant royalty relief...General Provisions § 203.1 What is MMS's authority to grant royalty relief...DOCD) or a supplementary DOCD, that MMS approved after November 28, 1995....

2011-07-01

475

30 CFR 203.1 - What is MMS's authority to grant royalty relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is MMS's authority to grant royalty relief...General Provisions § 203.1 What is MMS's authority to grant royalty relief...DOCD) or a supplementary DOCD, that MMS approved after November 28, 1995....

2010-07-01

476

30 CFR 203.70 - What information must I provide after MMS approves relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... What information must I provide after MMS approves relief? 203.70 Section 203... What information must I provide after MMS approves relief? You must submit reports...describe what these reports must include. The MMS Regional Office for your region will...

2010-07-01

477

30 CFR 203.70 - What information must I provide after MMS approves relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... What information must I provide after MMS approves relief? 203.70 Section 203... What information must I provide after MMS approves relief? You must submit reports...describe what these reports must include. The MMS Regional Office for your region will...

2011-07-01

478

Selecting the Plan of Relief Military Logistics Support Based on Grey Incidence Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim at the problem that the plan of relief military logistics support is a representative sophisticated, imperfection of information and undefined grey system because factors of influence are big and subjective influence is big by appraisal main body. So, the paper establish model of grey incidence analysis that selecting plan of relief military logistics according to thought of grey system,

Yan Bin; Hongxing Shi; Li Chang; Xu Hai

2010-01-01

479

49 CFR 179.220-24 - Tests of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief valves. 179.220-24 Section...TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.220-24 Tests of pressure relief valves. Each safety...

2011-10-01

480

40 CFR 63.1030 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service...Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1030 Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service...Compliance standard. Except during pressure releases as provided for in...

2010-07-01

481

40 CFR 63.1011 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service...Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1011 Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service...Compliance standard. Except during pressure releases as provided for in...

2010-07-01

482

40 CFR 63.1030 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service...Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1030 Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service...Compliance standard. Except during pressure releases as provided for in...

2011-07-01

483

49 CFR 179.200-23 - Tests of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief valves. 179.200-23 Section...TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW and 115AW) § 179.200-23 Tests of pressure relief valves. (a) Each valve...

2011-10-01

484

40 CFR 63.1011 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service...Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1011 Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service...Compliance standard. Except during pressure releases as provided for in...

2011-07-01

485

An embedded polariscope evaluation of the peak stresses in drill collar joints due to bending  

E-print Network

modified model in load frame Multi-shouldering model in load frame Variation of fringe pattern in API modified model with bending moment, M, at 75 ft. -lb. make-up torque, model upright 18 Locations of peak stress variations API modified model 3 9 API... modified peak stresses as a function of bending moment at 75 ft. -lb torque, in thread relief on tension side of pin, model upright 20 API modified peak stresses as a function of bending moment at 75ft. -lb. torque, in thread relief on tension side...

Dublin, Wilbur Leslie

2012-06-07

486

Relief unity emulator and slope stability simulator applied to mass movement occurrence analysis in slope evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work refers to a part of my "Fellow" thesis "Geomorphosynthesis and Geomorphocinematic applied to slope stability and evolution" (Colangelo, 2007). Relief unity emulator (rue) is a device that permits to synthesize a slope unity by means of a single generatrix profile that determine the initial conditions for application of a set of a geotechnical, hydrological and morphological models. This initial profile is considered in equilibrium with original environmental conditions, and operates in an integrated manner with these models. The aim is to induce a boundary condition on initial profile and produce a new profile: a threshold profile. For this manner and by iterations we generate a set of new profiles that represents, each one, a meta-stable profile, or a descending profile. The evolution of these profiles is in according with the central geomorphologycal concepts of slope retreat, base level change and head retreat. This set of "descending profiles" will be now sliced at topographic equivalent points, that will linked for describe a "topographic equivalence line". The crossing of this kind of isolines with descending profiles composes a 3D slope unity. This descending slope unity is represented by a mesh built for the crossing of these new slope profiles with the topographic equivalence lines and, the result is a four-dimensional meta-stable object integrated to the slope stability simulator (sss). This composite "rue-sss" device operates with 10 main models and 16 variables. The models describe effective stress, shearing resistance, soil saturation level behavior, potential rupture surface depth, critical depth, potential rupture surface critical gradient, critical soil saturation level, top of percolation flow gradient and unit weight of soil. Of this manner, is possible to evaluate effective friction angles and cohesion, critical soil saturation levels, critical gradients for potential rupture surfaces, neutral stress, shear strength, shear stress, effective stress, water retention factor, vegetation canopy unit weight and height. All these considering variables were calculated for each cell in the synthetic slope system, that is defined laterally by crossing of equivalence topographic belt with inter-profile space and, vertically by soil surface and potential rupture surface, that may be soil-regolith or regolith-rock transition. Therefore, with this device is possible, from a single generatrix profile, to design infinity of slope evolution ways by means of definition of boundary value of the models. When in the "potential rupture surface" is produced an "effective potential rupture surface", factor of safety less than unity, the soil fails and the slope stability simulator generate a mass movement prototype. A number of interesting and verisimilar 3D mass movement digital experiments may be performed for an inferred neogenic slope evolution time scale.

Colangelo, Antonio C.

2010-05-01

487

Quantifying livestock responses for heat stress management: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot weather challenges livestock production but technology exists to offset the challenge if producers have made appropriate strategic decisions. Key issues include understanding the hazards of heat stress, being prepared to offer relief from the heat, recognizing when an animal is in danger, and taking appropriate action. This paper describes our efforts to develop biological response functions; assesses climatic probabilities

J. A. Nienaber; G. L. Hahn; R. A. Eigenberg

1999-01-01

488

Manage Stress  

MedlinePLUS

... Conditions and Diseases > Heart Health > Manage Stress Manage Stress The Basics Take Action! Ver en español Content ... on: August 19, 2014 The Basics Not all stress is bad. Stress can help protect you in ...

489

Virtually Stress Free: Keeping Online Graduate Management Students Healthy from Afar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines stress experienced by graduate management students in an online learning environment. I use qualitative methodology to examine data collected from 32 students in 2 sections of a graduate online course. Findings identify 6 categories of stressors experienced by the students as well as 6 categories of stress relief agents.…

Martinak, M. Linda

2012-01-01

490

Relax for Success: An Educator's Guide to Stress Management. [With CD-ROM].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed as a practical, concise, easy-to-read guide for relieving stress. It is written specifically for educators, with examples and anecdotes that relate to professional educators' experiences. It assumes a holistic approach to stress relief that incorporates thought, verbal and action strategies and techniques. The harm that…

Glanz, Jeffrey

491

Little Kids, Big Worries: Stress-Busting Tips for Early Childhood Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that stress in the crucial early years of a child's life can pose dramatic, lasting challenges to development, learning, and behavior. This is the practical book early childhood professionals need to recognize stress in young children--and intervene with proven relief strategies before pressures turn into big problems. Developed by…

Honig, Alice Sterling

2010-01-01

492

75 FR 60846 - Notice of Intent To Establish the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establish the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board...establish The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board...Board.'' The Board serves the Global AIDS Coordinator (``the...

2010-10-01

493

19 CFR 210.43 - Petitions for review of initial determinations on matters other than temporary relief.  

...for review of initial determinations on matters other than temporary relief. 210...for review of initial determinations on matters other than temporary relief. (a...present or if the petition raises a policy matter connected with the initial...

2014-04-01