Sample records for vibratory stress relief

  1. 18-s | JANUARY 2001 ABSTRACT. The stress-relief cracking

    E-print Network

    DuPont, John N.

    . This is done to relieve residual stresses, improve mechanical properties, and reduce hydrogen-cracking suscepti18-s | JANUARY 2001 ABSTRACT. The stress-relief cracking susceptibility of multiple-pass welds that stress-relief cracking was avoided with the use of multipass simulations. The times to fail- ure, when

  2. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

  3. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

  4. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

  5. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

  6. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

  7. Method for residual stress relief and retained austenite destabilization

    DOEpatents

    Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2004-08-10

    A method using of a magnetic field to affect residual stress relief or phase transformations in a metallic material is disclosed. In a first aspect of the method, residual stress relief of a material is achieved at ambient temperatures by placing the material in a magnetic field. In a second aspect of the method, retained austenite stabilization is reversed in a ferrous alloy by applying a magnetic field to the alloy at ambient temperatures.

  8. Stress among disaster nurses and relief workers.

    PubMed

    Errington, G

    1989-01-01

    Proximity to massive destruction, death and mutilation place disaster health workers in a high-risk group for stress. The following article looks at the problems of stress reactions--which may occur during the disaster impact or long after these workers have returned to their regular employment. It also presents strategies for stress prevention before, during and after the disaster. PMID:2737841

  9. fibDAC Stress Relief—A Novel Stress Measurement Approach For BEoL Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Dietmar; Michel, Bernd

    2010-11-01

    fibDAC stress relief is a new method developed to measure stresses on micro and nanotechnology devices. Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling is used to remove locally material and release this way stresses. Cross correlation algorithms on high resolution SEM images captured before and after ion milling reveal stress relief deformations. Their analysis allows computation of stresses present at the place of ion milling. Thorough qualification of the approach resulted in a stress measurement accuracy of 1-5•10-4E, where E is the Young's modulus of the material tested. Lateral resolution of stresses can be reduced to a value around 200 … 500 nm.

  10. Social buffering: relief from stress and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Kikusui, Takefumi; Winslow, James T; Mori, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Communication is essential to members of a society not only for the expression of personal information, but also for the protection from environmental threats. Highly social mammals have a distinct characteristic: when conspecific animals are together, they show a better recovery from experiences of distress. This phenomenon, termed ‘social buffering’, has been found in rodents, birds, non-human primates and also in humans. This paper reviews classical findings on social buffering and focuses, in particular, on social buffering effects in relation to neuroendocrine stress responses. The social cues that transmit social buffering signals, the neural mechanisms of social buffering and a partner's efficacy with respect to social buffering are also detailed. Social contact appears to have a very positive influence on the psychological and the physiological aspects of social animals, including human beings. Research leading towards further understanding of the mechanisms of social buffering could provide alternative medical treatments based on the natural, individual characteristics of social animals, which could improve the quality of life. PMID:17118934

  11. Feeling Stressed? Stress Relief Might Help Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... new tasks if they are putting you into overload. Think positive. Note what you’ve accomplished at ... TALK (1-800-273-8255). Stress: NIH Health Information Fact Sheet on Stress Psychological Stress and Cancer ...

  12. A test of stress theory: relief workers in refugee camps.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Hussein H; Gillespie, David F

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to apply a stress model drawn from the literature to the relief and social service workers who have been active in refugee camps for a prolonged period of time. Working in difficult environments, social service workers deliver essential services to refugee populations around the world. A model of four work-stress determinants--tasks, management, appreciation and collaboration--was tested on 274 social workers in five regions of the Middle East (Jordan, Lebanon and Syria, as well as the occupied Palestinian territories of the Gaza Strip and the West Bank). Statistical fit indices were adequate but two relationships were statistically insignificant. The collaboration variable was dropped to create a modified model with tasks indirectly and management and appreciation directly affecting work-related stress. The five direct relationships and two indirect relationships of this modified model are consistent with stress theory, and all relationships--direct and indirect--are statistically significant. PMID:21913936

  13. Stress and Stress Relief in the Educational Research Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Vicki A.

    Factors that increase stress and those that decrease stress were studied with 33 graduate students in an introductory educational research course. Participants completed the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) (R. Cruse, R. Cash, and D. Bolton, 1985) and were asked to rate their anxiety daily during the 4 weeks of the class. The instructor's…

  14. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

  15. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

  16. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

  17. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

  18. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

  19. ABSTRACT. The stress-relief cracking (SRC) susceptibility of single-pass welds

    E-print Network

    DuPont, John N.

    (HAZ) mechanical properties and reduce susceptibility to hydrogen cracking. These preheat and PWHTABSTRACT. The stress-relief cracking (SRC) susceptibility of single-pass welds in a new ferritic techniques. HCM2S was found to be more susceptible to stress-relief cracking than 2.25Cr-1Mo steel. Simulated

  20. Cavity stress relief method to stimulate demethanation boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Alain, A.K.; Denes, G.M.

    1984-05-01

    Most demethanation programs which use boreholes from the surface to access the coal, incorporate a stimulation program to enhance the well production. In most cases, the stimulation selected is a frac using nitrogen foam or other fluids. Novacorp has determined that fracing the coal may not be the best technique to apply to a well. Novacorp, whose experience includes over eighteen (18) fracs on demethanation wells, has developed and patented an alternative stimulation method, called the Cavity Stress Relief (CSR) technique, which it believes is more effective than the frac, in most cases. Through a review of the basic parameters which affect the desorbtion of gas from coal, a comparison is made between the frac and CSR stimulation techniques. A description of the conditions and results of two field tests of CSR are given. Also, the areas which need further development will be discussed. Although still not totally proven, the CSR stimulation technique promises to be a very effective method of stimulating most demethanation wells.

  1. Residual stresses in a multi-pass weld in an austenitic stainless steel plate before and after thermal stress relief

    SciTech Connect

    Spooner, S.; Wang, X.L.; Hubbard, C.R.; David, S.A.

    1994-06-01

    Changes in residual stresses due to thermal stress relief were determined in a welded 1/2 in. thick 304 stainless steel plate from two residual stress maps determined with the neutron diffraction technique. The 304 stainless plate was made from two 6 {times} 12 {times} 1/2 in. pieces joined along the length by a gas tungsten arc welding process. Multi-pass welds were made with a semiautomatic welding machine employing cold-wire feed of type 308 stainless steel filler alloy. The thermal stress relief treatment consisted of heating to 1150 F, holding for one hour at temperature and then air cooling. Strain components were measured along the weld direction (longitudinal), perpendicular to the weld line in the plate (transverse), and normal to the plate. Measurements were confined to the plane bisecting the weld at the center of the plate. The strain components were converted to stresses assuming that the measured strains were along the principal axes of the strain tensor. Parameters used in the calculation were E=224 GPa and v=0.25. As-welded longitudinal stresses are compressive in the base metal and become strongly tensile through the heat affected zone and into the fusion zone. The transverse stresses follow the longitudinal trend but with a lower magnitude while the normal stresses are small throughout. The stress relief treatment reduced the magnitudes of all the stresses. In the weld zone the longitudinal stress was lowered by 30% and the spatial range of residual stresses was reduced as well.

  2. Experimental and analytical evaluation of the effects of simulated engine inlets on the blade vibratory stresses of the SR-3 model prop-fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Prem N.

    1985-01-01

    A cooperative wind tunnel test program, referred to as GUN-3, had been conducted previously to assess the effect of inlet configuration and location on the inlet face pressure recovery and inlet drag in the presence of a high-speed advanced turboprop. These tests were conducted with the inlets located just downstream of the SR-3 model Prop-Fan, a moderately swept, eight-bladed 62.2 cm (24.5 inch) diameter advanced, high-speed turboprop model fabricated from titanium. During these tests, two blades of the SR-3 model Prop-Fan were strain gaged to measure the vibratory blade stresses occurring during the inlet aerodynamic test program. The purpose of the effort reported herein was to reduce and analyze the test results related to the vibratory strain gage measurements obtained. Three inlet configurations had been tested. These were: (1) single scoop, (2) twin scoop, and (3) annular. Each of the three inlets was tested at a position just behind the rotor. The single scoop inlet was also tested at a position further aft. Tests were also done without an inlet. These results emphasize the importance of avoiding critical speeds in the continuous operating range.

  3. Experimental Investigation of Vibratory Stresses in a Concentric-Ring Direct-Air-Cycle Nuclear Fuel Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiarito, Patrick T.

    1957-01-01

    Preliminary tests made by the General Electric Company indicated that aerodynamic loads might cause large enough distortions in the thin sheet-metal rings of a nuclear fuel element to result in structural failure. The magnitude of the distortions in a test fuel element was determined from strains measured with airflow conditions simulating those expected during engine operation. The measured vibratory strains were low enough to indicate the improbability of failure by fatigue. A conservative estimate of the radial deflection that accompanied peak strains in the outer ring was +0.0006 inch.

  4. Effectiveness of a Stress-Relief Initiative for Primary Caregivers of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Jung; Lin, Jin-Ding; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Wu, Sheng-Ru

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study provides a perspective on the mental health status and analyses the effectiveness of a stress-relief program for primary caregivers of adolescents with intellectual disability (ID). Method: Seventy-seven primary caregivers of people with ID were recruited (intervention group, n = 31; non-intervention group, n = 46) to the…

  5. Stress relief cracking in creep resisting low alloy ferritic steels.

    E-print Network

    Tait, Robert Andrew

    1976-10-26

    , welding and heat treatment specifications which mayor may not counteract the effects of stress concentration, levels of stres8 and development of susceptible microstructures. The major result of the. ' survey of many different composition combinations... that the state of the boundaries, independent of the strengthening effect, is an important factor in promoting high temperature intergranular failure. By using an ani- sothermal stress relaxation testing procedure, it was possible to identify precisely...

  6. Propellant stress relief groove for the Titan IV solid rocket motor upgrade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I.-Shih Chang

    1994-01-01

    A method has been developed to design a propellant stress relief groove (SRG) for solid rocket motors. The method considers a time-dependent pressure distribution in both burn-back and burn-forward analyses and allows a desired bondline stress condition to be incorporated into the SRG design. Application of the method to obtain an improved propellant SRG for the Titan IV solid rocket

  7. Temperature\\/Stress Distributions in a Stress-Relief-Type Plate of Functionally Graded Materials under Thermal Shock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideo Awaji; Hiromitsu Takenaka; Sawao Honda; Tadahiro Nishikawa

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical technique for analyzing one-dimensional transient temperature and stress distributions in a stress-relief-type plate of functionally graded ceramic-metal based materials (FGMs), in relation to both the temperature-dependent thermal properties and continuous and gradual variation of the thermo-mechanical properties of the FGM. The FGM plate is assumed to be initially in steady state of temperature gradient, suffering

  8. Stress relief from reconstructions on SbSi,,001... Yao He, X. H. Zhang, and J. G. Che*

    E-print Network

    Che, Jingguang

    Stress relief from reconstructions on SbÕSi,,001... Yao He, X. H. Zhang, and J. G. Che* Surface; revised manuscript recieved 15 April 2002; published 11 November 2002 The structures and stress of the Sb)2 1 surface is found to be under a tensile stress of 1.0 eV/(1 1 cell along the dimer bond

  9. Optimization of the thermal stress relief of a welded solid piece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obidi, T. A. Yomi

    A computational investigation was performed in this study on the optimum method of thermally stress-relieving a steel piece that has acquired residual stresses during a welding process. There are three main steps towards achieving this goal: optimizing the heating of the metal piece, minimizing the time during which the piece is held at cap temperature, and expediting the cooling of the piece to the working temperature. Using the residual stress distribution information in a solid piece we were able to determine the minimum temperature to which the piece should be raised in order to eliminate all stresses present therein. From the conduction equation we determined the minimum duration to keep the piece at the same temperature to ensure complete thermal stress relief. Once this temperature was achieved and retained for the duration determined necessary, depending on the maximum thickness of the weld piece, a procedure was begun to simulate the cooling of the piece to a specified operational temperature. This cooling was carefully done to ensure that there was no inelastic stress induction in the process. By the combination of geometrical arrangement and controlled convection an optimum cooling condition was obtained.

  10. Cloverleaf Vibratory Microgyroscope with Integrated Post

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Tony K.; Gutierrez, Roman; Roger, Damien

    2003-01-01

    A modified design and fabrication sequence has been devised to improve the performance of a cloverleaf vibratory microgyroscope that includes an axial rod or post rigidly attached to the center of the cloverleaf structure. The basic concepts of cloverleaf vibratory microgyroscopes, without and with rods or posts, were described in two prior articles in NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 21, No. 9 (September 1997): Micromachined Planar Vibratory Microgyroscopes (NPO-19713), page 68 and Planar Vibratory Microgyroscope: Alternative Configuration (NPO-19714), page 70. As described in more detail in the second-mentioned prior article, the cloverleaf-shaped structure and the rod or post are parts of a vibratory element that senses rotation via the effect of the Coriolis force upon its vibrations. Heretofore, the posts for devices of this type have been fabricated separately, then assembled manually onto the cloverleaf structures. The resulting imperfections in the assembled units have given rise to asymmetric stresses in the cloverleaf structures and, consequently, to changes in resonant frequencies of vibration and in shapes of vibration modes. These changes, in turn, have caused variations in performance among nominally identical devices. The modified design provides for the fabrication of the upper half of the post as an integral part of the cloverleaf structure; this is accomplished by reactive-ion etching of a single-piece half-post-and-cloverleaf structure from a wafer of silicon. The lower half of the post and a baseplate are also a single piece made by reactive-ion etching from a wafer of silicon. The two pieces are bonded together (see figure) by a thermal-compression metal-to-metal bonding technique to form a cloverleaf gyroscope with an integrated post structure..

  11. Post-traumatic stress disorder status in a rescue group after the Wenchuan earthquake relief

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Junhua; Liu, Qunying; Li, Jinliang; Li, Xuejiang; You, Jin; Zhang, Liang; Tian, Changfu; Luan, Rongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder in earthquake rescue workers is relatively high. Risk factors for this disorder include demographic characteristics, earthquake-related high-risk factors, risk factors in the rescue process, personality, social support and coping style. This study examined the current status of a unit of 1 040 rescue workers who participated in earthquake relief for the Wenchuan earthquake that occurred on May 12th, 2008. Post-traumatic stress disorder was diagnosed primarily using the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Scale during structured interviews. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to examine major risk factors that contributed to the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder. Results revealed that the incidence of this disorder in the rescue group was 5.96%. The impact factors in univariate analysis included death of family members, contact with corpses or witnessing of the deceased or seriously injured, near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma in the rescue process and working at the epicenter of the earthquake. Correlation analysis suggested that post-traumatic stress disorder was positively correlated with psychotic and neurotic personalities, negative coping and low social support. Impact factors in multivariate logistic regression analysis included near-death experience, severe injury or mental trauma, working in the epicenter of the rescue, neurotic personality, negative coping and low social support, among which low social support had the largest odds ratio of 20.42. Findings showed that the occurrence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the result of the interaction of multiple factors. PMID:25206499

  12. Development of a focusing micromirror device with an in-plane stress relief structure in SOI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronast, Wolfgang; Mescheder, Ulrich; Müller, Bernhard; Huster, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    A new design concept for a dynamically focusing micromachined silicon membrane mirror with 6 mm diameter and electrostatic actuation was realized. To eliminate the influence of residual stress a special stress relief design of the membrane`s suspension was developed in order to achieve a distortion-free optical mirror (distortion < ?/10 (? = 1064 nm). Even silicon membranes fabricated in SOI technology mostly suffer from buckling by residual compressive stress caused by mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion between silicon and the buried silicon oxide layer [1, 2].This often leads to severe distortion of stress sensitive devices such as membrane based micro mirror devices [3]. Even though a tensile pre-stress might improve the distortion in case of a non-deformed membrane, a tensile stress in the membrane increases the stiffness and thus reduces the sensitivity e.g. for capacitive sensors or for actuating devices. Different methods are reviewed for stress compensation or stress relief in membranes. We developed and fabricated a new stress relief structure which reduces the stress induced deformation of membranes and leads to substantially flat micromirrors of high optical quality. This is achieved by a special tangential beam suspension which allows an in-plane expansion or contraction of the membrane proportional to its inherent compressive or tensile stress. Optimized beam structures and the voltage dependence of the mirror's deflection were determined by 3D FEM simulations. For membranes with a compressive pre-stress of -20MPa simulations show a decrease in bow to values < 18 nm in comparison with 700 nm for a conventional rigidly clamped membrane. A deflection of 16 ?m within an aperture of 5 mm diameter is theoretically achieved by a voltage U0 = 200 V resulting in a minimal focal length of 97 mm. The fabricated devices have been characterized by the means of interferometric optical measurement. The measurement results are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of FEM simulations.

  13. Analysis of rotor vibratory loads using higher harmonic pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Wachspress, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental studies of isolated rotors in forward flight have indicated that higher harmonic pitch control can reduce rotor noise. These tests also show that such pitch inputs can generate substantial vibratory loads. The modification is summarized of the RotorCRAFT (Computation of Rotor Aerodynamics in Forward flighT) analysis of isolated rotors to study the vibratory loading generated by high frequency pitch inputs. The original RotorCRAFT code was developed for use in the computation of such loading, and uses a highly refined rotor wake model to facilitate this task. The extended version of RotorCRAFT incorporates a variety of new features including: arbitrary periodic root pitch control; computation of blade stresses and hub loads; improved modeling of near wake unsteady effects; and preliminary implementation of a coupled prediction of rotor airloads and noise. Correlation studies are carried out with existing blade stress and vibratory hub load data to assess the performance of the extended code.

  14. Does Daily Kangaroo Care Provide Sustained Pain and Stress Relief in Preterm Infants?

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Anita J.; Yates, Charlotte C.; Williams, D. Keith; Chang, Jason Y.; Hall, Richard Whit

    2014-01-01

    Objectives 1. Determine whether stress in preterm infants, measured with salivary cortisol, decreases after five days of Kangaroo Care (KC) compared to five days of Standard Care (SC). 2. To determine whether kangaroo care provides sustainable pain relief beyond the period of skin-to-skin holding. Study Design Preterm infants (n=38) born at 27-30 weeks gestational age were randomized to either the KC or the SC group and received the allocated intervention starting on day of life (DOL) five and continuing for five days. Salivary cortisol was collected on DOL five and again on DOL ten. Differences were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and t tests. Pain during nasal suctioning over five days was assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). Result 1. Adequate saliva samples for salivary cortisol were collected for 13 KC infants and 11 SC infants. There was no main effect of group (p=0.49), but there was a significant main effect of age (DOL five versus DOL ten), with salivary cortisol levels decreasing in both groups (p=0.02). 2. Pain scores for both groups (n=38) indicted mild to moderate pain during suctioning, with no significant difference in pain scores between groups. Conclusion 1. KC did not affect salivary cortisol levels in preterm neonates, but levels in both the KC and SC groups decreased over time from DOL five to ten. Salivary cortisol may vary with age of infant. 2. Infants experience pain during routine suctioning and may require pain management. PMID:24246458

  15. Silicon Bulk Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, T. K.; Gutierrez, R. C.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Stell, C.; Vorperian, V.; Calvet, R.; Li, W. J.; Charkaborty, I.; Bartman, R.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a novel silicon bulk micromachined vibratory rate gyroscope designed for microspacecraft applications. The new microgyroscope consists of a silicon four leaf cloverstructure with a post attached to the center.

  16. The Meta-Lax method of stress reduction in welds. [ASTM A36; AISI 4140

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.

    1992-07-31

    This study is the second phase of ongoing research into the mechanics and feasibility of using the Meta-Lax method of vibratory stress relief in place of thermal methods of stress relief. The first phase of this research revealed results that were similar to, and even superior to those achieved using thermal methods. The testing here was designed to eliminate the effects of interbead tempering by utilizing single pass bead-on-plate welds only. A metallurgical explanation for the success of the Meta-Lax method was not found. No significant structure or chemical changes were noted when used with ASTM A36 or AISI 4140 materials, and the phenomena noted in phase I was apparently due to interbead tempering. The theory of accelerated aging has been proposed and studies exist which observed dislocation motion as a result of vibratory treatment. It is evident that the vibratory stress relief system does not impart sufficient energy to bring about the magnitude of change seen with thermal methods. however the physical improvement is a reality, and vibratory methods should be evaluated further.

  17. The Meta-Lax method of stress reduction in welds. Phase 2 study

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.M.

    1992-07-31

    This study is the second phase of ongoing research into the mechanics and feasibility of using the Meta-Lax method of vibratory stress relief in place of thermal methods of stress relief. The first phase of this research revealed results that were similar to, and even superior to those achieved using thermal methods. The testing here was designed to eliminate the effects of interbead tempering by utilizing single pass bead-on-plate welds only. A metallurgical explanation for the success of the Meta-Lax method was not found. No significant structure or chemical changes were noted when used with ASTM A36 or AISI 4140 materials, and the phenomena noted in phase I was apparently due to interbead tempering. The theory of accelerated aging has been proposed and studies exist which observed dislocation motion as a result of vibratory treatment. It is evident that the vibratory stress relief system does not impart sufficient energy to bring about the magnitude of change seen with thermal methods. however the physical improvement is a reality, and vibratory methods should be evaluated further.

  18. Stress relief via island formation of an isotropically strained bimetallic surface layer: The mesoscopic morphology of the Ag/Pt ,,111... surface alloy

    E-print Network

    Brune, Harald

    Stress relief via island formation of an isotropically strained bimetallic surface layer into the first surface layer. Thereby the individual Ag atoms reduce the strain fields caused by the lattice considerable stress, which is released by a mesoscopic change of the morphology. An effective release

  19. Microneedle insertion force reduction using vibratory actuation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Zahn, Jeffrey D

    2004-09-01

    The effect of vibratory actuation on microneedle insertion force was investigated. Hollow micro hypodermic injection needles were fabricated by a two-wafer polysilicon micromolding process. A vibratory actuator operating in the kHz range was coupled with the hypodermic microneedles. The force to insert microneedles into excized animal tissue was measured with a load cell. Results showed a greater than 70% reduction in microneedle insertion force by using vibratory actuation. The application of vibratory actuation provides a promising method to precisely control the microneedle insertion forces to overcome microneedle structural material limitations, minimize insertion pain, and enhance the efficiency of drug delivery. PMID:15377826

  20. The effect of stress-relief on ambient microcrack porosity in core samples from the Kent Cliffs (New York) and Moodus (Connecticut) scientific research boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meglis, Irene L.; Engelder, T.; Graham, E. K.

    1991-02-01

    As part of crustal stress studies in the northeastern U.S., two suites of core samples were examined in order to understand the effect of stress-relief on the development of microcrack porosity. Porosity and ultrasonic velocity were measured as functions of confining pressure in cores from the Kent Cliffs N.Y., borehole, and volumetric strain and ultrasonic velocity were measured as functions of confining pressure in cores from the Moodus, Conn., borehole. Under ambient conditions, properties of the cores are dominated by a microcrack porosity which tends to increase with sample depth from values near zero to approximately 0.6%. This ambient porosity closes at laboratory confining pressures roughly equal to or less than the maximum in situ stress, and is interpreted as forming on relief of stress by drilling. The results of this study suggest that the in situ core microcrack porosity is no greater than 0.05%. The core samples are dominantly granitic gneisses, schists and amphibolites which exhibit moderate to well-developed foliations, oriented subvertically in Kent Cliffs cores and subhorizontally in Moodus cores. Foliation controls the orientation of the stress-relief microcracks, as indicated by the largest linear crack strain occurring normal to the foliation plane. This fabric-control of crack orientations precludes the use of microcrack analysis for estimating directions of maximum, intermediate and minimum in situ principal stress components. However, the general linear increase in ambient porosity with depth correlates with the increase in mean stress with depth as measured by hydraulic fracturing at the two sites. Two cores recovered from highly fractured zones at depth exhibit low stress-relief microcrack porosities which are believed to reflect locally low mean in situ stresses.

  1. Light-induced stress relief to improve flaw tolerance in network polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Kevin N.; Dunn, Martin L.; Scott, Timothy F.; Turpin, Lucas P.; Qi, H. Jerry [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We demonstrate the ability to use photoactivated stress relaxation to improve flaw tolerance in network polymers. Unlike most self-healing polymers, which effectively close flaws by locally introducing healing agents (such as uncured resins), here light is used to relax elevated stresses around a flaw before it reaches a critical state, which reduces the threat that the flaw poses to the structural integrity of the material. In this study, we fabricate specimens with well-defined flaws and uniaxially stretch them to failure. By irradiating the specimens with UV light (365 nm) before failure, the nominal strain at failure is increased by 70% and the corresponding nominal stress is increased by 30% compared with nonirradiated specimens. To better understand the phenomena that occur at the multiaxial stress state at the flaw, we model the photomechanics using a recently developed finite element approach that accurately describes the light propagation, photochemistry, radical-induced network evolution, and the mechanical behavior of the material. Model predictions agree well with the experimental results and elucidate the role that photoinduced stress relaxation has on improving flaw tolerance.

  2. Vibratory tactile display for textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikei, Yasushi; Ikeno, Akihisa; Fukuda, Shuichi

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a tactile display that produces vibratory stimulus to a fingertip in contact with a vibrating tactor matrix. The display depicts tactile surface textures while the user is exploring a virtual object surface. A piezoelectric actuator drives the individual tactor in accordance with both the finger movement and the surface texture being traced. Spatiotemporal display control schemes were examined for presenting the fundamental surface texture elements. The temporal duration of vibratory stimulus was experimentally optimized to simulate the adaptation process of cutaneous sensation. The selected duration time for presenting a single line edge agreed with the time threshold of tactile sensation. Then spatial stimulus disposition schemes were discussed for representation of other edge shapes. As an alternative means not relying on amplitude control, a method of augmented duration at the edge was investigated. Spatial resolution of the display was measured for the lines presented both in perpendicular and parallel to a finger axis. Discrimination of texture density was also measured on random dot textures.

  3. Stress relief may promote the evolution of greater phenotypic plasticity in exotic invasive species: a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiao Q; Pan, Xiao Y; Fan, Zhi W; Peng, Shao L

    2015-01-01

    Invasion ecologists have often found that exotic invaders evolve to be more plastic than conspecific populations from their native range. However, an open question is why some exotic invaders can even evolve to be more plastic given that there may be costs to being plastic. Investigation into the benefits and costs of plasticity suggests that stress may constrain the expression of plasticity (thereby reducing the benefits of plasticity) and exacerbate the costs of plasticity (although this possibility might not be generally applicable). Therefore, evolution of adaptive plasticity is more likely to be constrained in stressful environments. Upon introduction to a new range, exotic species may experience more favorable growth conditions (e.g., because of release from natural enemies). Therefore, we hypothesize that any factors mitigating stress in the introduced range may promote exotic invaders to evolve increased adaptive plasticity by reducing the costs and increasing the benefits of plasticity. Empirical evidence is largely consistent with this hypothesis. This hypothesis contributes to our understanding of why invasive species are often found to be more competitive in a subset of environments. Tests of this hypothesis may not only help us understand what caused increased plasticity in some exotic invaders, but could also tell us if costs (unless very small) are more likely to inhibit the evolution of adaptive plasticity in stressful environments in general.

  4. Relief of Residual Stress in Streamline Tie Rods by Heat Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollard, R E; Reinhart, Fred M

    1941-01-01

    About two-thirds of the residual stress in cold-worked SAE 1050 steel tie rods was relieved by heating 30 minutes at 600 degrees Fahrenheit. Cold-worked austenitic stainless-steel tie rods could be heated at temperatures up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit without lowering the important physical properties. The corrosion resistance, in laboratory corrosion test, of straight 18:8 and titanium-treated 18:8 materials appeared to be impaired after heating at temperatures above 800 degrees or 900 degrees fahrenheit. Columbium-treated and molybdenum-treated 18:8 steel exhibited improved stability over a wide range of temperatures. Tie rods of either material could be heated 30 minutes with safety at any temperature up to 1000 degrees Fahrenheit. At this temperature most of the residual stress would be relieved.

  5. Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D. A.; Mori, T. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Grosvenor St., Manchester M1 7HS (United Kingdom); Comyn, T. P. [Institute for Materials Research, Woodhouse Lane, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Ringgaard, E. [Meggitt Sensing Systems, Hejreskovvej 18A, 3490 Kvistgaard (Denmark); Wright, J. P. [ESRF, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP-220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2013-07-14

    High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{l_brace}200{r_brace}in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the {epsilon}{l_brace}111{r_brace}-cos{sup 2} {psi} plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90 Degree-Sign ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{l_brace}200{r_brace}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

  6. The effectiveness of stress relief etching for improving bipolar device characteristics

    E-print Network

    Reed, Lynn Gillespie

    1975-01-01

    , the sawing and lapping operations used to produce silicon wafers introduce considerable damage into the crystal, not all of which is removed during subsequent polishing operations. Bipolar device processing involves several thermal cycles at elevated... levels of stress are reached during thermal cycling, thus creating fewer dislocations. Additional work was performed to check the residual levels of chromium contamination found after Sirtl etching and cleaning wafers (5). Such wafers were subjected...

  7. GEC Ferranti piezo vibratory gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuttall, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    Prototypes of a piezo-electric vibratory angular rate transducer (gyroscope) (PVG) have been constructed and evaluated. The construction is on the lines suggested by Burdess. The sensitive element is a cylinder of radially poled piezo-electric ceramic. The cylinder is metallized inside and out, and the outer metallization is divided into eight electrodes. The metallization on the inside is earthed. A phase locked loop, using pairs of the electrodes, causes the cylinder to vibrate in one of its two fundamental, degenerate modes. In the presence of rotation, some of the vibration is coupled into the outer mode. This can be detected, or suppressed with a closed-up technique and provides a measure of rotation rate. The gyroscope provides a number of advantages over rotating mass and optical instruments: low size and mass, lower power consumption, potentially high reliability, potentially good dormancy, low cost and high maximum rate.

  8. Experimental investigation of vibratory finishing of aluminum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Wang; R. S. Timsit; J. K. Spelt

    2000-01-01

    The normal contact forces in a vibratory finishing machine were measured and compared with the resulting changes in surface roughness and hardness of two aluminum alloys, AA1100-O and AA6061-T6. The principal variables were the media size, degree of lubrication and the duration of the vibratory finishing. The changes in hardness and roughness were found to depend mostly on the lubrication

  9. Non-inertial calibration of vibratory gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The electrostatic elements already present in a vibratory gyroscope are used to simulate the Coriolis forces. An artificial electrostatic rotation signal is added to the closed-loop force rebalance system. Because the Coriolis force is at the same frequency as the artificial electrostatic force, the simulated force may be introduced into the system to perform an inertial test on MEMS vibratory gyroscopes without the use of a rotation table.

  10. Type I and Type II Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes

    E-print Network

    Tang, William C

    Type I and Type II Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes Andrei M. Shkel Mechanical & Aerospace-mail: ashkel@uci.edu Abstract-- All Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes (MVG) are based on the principle of vibration. Vibratory Gyroscopes can be classified into two broad types, angle gyroscopes (or Type I

  11. The Stress-Relief Cracking Susceptibility of a New Ferritic Steel - Part I: Single-Pass Heat-Affected Zone Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    NAWROCKI,J.G.; DUPONT,J.N.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.; MARDER,A.R.

    1999-12-15

    The stress-relief cracking susceptibility of single-pass welds in a new ferritic steel, HCM2S, has been evaluated and compared to 2.25Cr-1Mo steel using Gleeble techniques. Simulated coarse-grained heat-affected zones (CGHAZ) were produced under a range of energy inputs and tested at various post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) temperatures. Both alloys were tested at a stress of 325 MPa. The 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel was also tested at 270 MPa to normalize for the difference in yield strength between the two materials. Light optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the CGHAZ microstructure. The ''as-welded'' CGHAZ of each alloy consisted of lath martensite or bainite and had approximately equal prior austenite grain sizes. The as-welded hardness of the 2.25Cr-1Mo steel CGHAZ was significantly higher than that of the HCM2S alloy. Over the range studied energy input had no effect on the as-welded microstructure or hardness of either alloy. The energy input also had no effect on the stress-relief cracking susceptibility of either material. Both alloys failed intergranularly along prior austenite grain boundaries under all test conditions. The 2.25Cr-1Mo steel samples experienced significant macroductility and some microductility when tested at 325 MPa. The ductility decreased significantly when tested at 270 MPa but was still higher that than of HCM2S at each test condition. The time to failure decreased with increasing PWHT Temperature for each material. There was no significant difference in the times to failure between the two materials. Varying energy input and stress had no effect on the time-to failure. The ductility, as measured by reduction in are% increased with increasing PWHT temperature for 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel tested at both stresses. However, PWHT temperature had no effect on the ductility of HCM2S. The hardness of the CGHAZ for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel decreased significantly after PWHT, but remained constant for HCM2S. The differences in stress-relief cracking response are discussed in terms of the differences in composition and expected carbide precipitation sequence for each alloy during PWHT.

  12. Damage tolerance based life prediction in gas turbine engine blades under vibratory high cycle fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, D.P.; deLaneuville, R.E.; Cunningham, S.E. [United Technologies Pratt and Whitney, West Palm Beach, FL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A novel fracture mechanics approach has been used to predict crack propagation lives in gas turbine engine blades subjected to vibratory high cycle fatigue (HCF). The vibratory loading included both a resonant mode and a nonresonant mode, with one blade subjected to only the nonresonant mode and another blade to both modes. A life prediction algorithm was utilized to predict HCF propagation lives for each case. The life prediction system incorporates a boundary integral element (BIE) derived hybrid stress intensity solution, which accounts for the transition from a surface crack to corner crack to edge crack. It also includes a derivation of threshold crack length from threshold stress intensity factors to give crack size limits for no propagation. The stress intensity solution was calibrated for crack aspect ratios measured directly from the fracture surfaces. The model demonstrates the ability to correlate predicted missions to failure with values deduced from fractographic analysis. This analysis helps to validate the use of fracture mechanics approaches for assessing damage tolerance in gas turbine engine components subjected to combined steady and vibratory stresses.

  13. Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, M.A.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1990-11-13

    A vibratory fluid pump is described having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments. 3 figs.

  14. Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM); Woloshun, Keith A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A vibratory fluid pump having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments.

  15. Continuous Tuning and Calibration of Vibratory Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken

    2003-01-01

    A method of control and operation of an inertial reference unit (IRU) based on vibratory gyroscopes provides for continuously repeated cycles of tuning and calibration. The method is intended especially for application to an IRU containing vibratory gyroscopes that are integral parts of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and that have cloverleaf designs, as described in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The method provides for minimization of several measures of spurious gyroscope output, including zero-rate offset (ZRO), angle random walk (ARW), and rate drift. These benefits are afforded both at startup and thereafter during continuing operation, in the presence of unknown rotation rates and changes in temperature. A vibratory gyroscope contains a precision mechanically resonant structure containing two normal modes of vibration nominally degenerate in frequency and strongly coupled via a Coriolis term. In the case of the cloverleaf design MEMS gyro, these normal modes of vibration are plate rocking modes. The rocking motion of the plate is described by giving two angles, theta(sub 1) and theta(sub 2). A proof mass consisting of a post orthogonal to the plate ensures a high degree of Coriolis coupling of vibratory energy from one mode into the other under inertial rotation. The plate is driven and sensed capacitively across a few-microns-wide gap, and the normal mode frequencies can be tuned electrostatically by DC voltages applied across this gap. In order to sense rotation, the resonator plate is caused to rock in the theta(sub 1) direction, then any small motions in the theta(sub 2) direction are sensed, rebalanced, and interpreted as inertial rotation. In this scenario, the "drive" has been assigned to the theta(sub 1) direction, and the "sense" has been assigned to the theta(sub 2) direction.

  16. A surface-micromachined tunable vibratory gyroscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongsoo Oh; Byeungleul Lee; Seogsoon Baek; Hosuk Kim; Jeonggon Kim; Seokjin Kang; Cimoo Song

    1997-01-01

    A tunable vibratory microgyroscope was fabricated by surface micromachining technology. The 7.5 ?m-thick polysilicon structural layer was deposited using LPCVD at 625°C. The resonant frequency in the detection mode was higher than that in the driving mode so that gyroscope could be tuned to the resonant frequencies by applying the inter-plate DC bias. The gyroscope was driven in a resonant

  17. Impact velocity measurement of media in a vibratory finisher

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ciampini; M. Papini; J. K. Spelt

    2007-01-01

    The surface-normal impact velocity distributions, impact frequencies and impact power per unit area were measured using a force sensor in a vibratory finisher for two types of spherical media. These parameters control the degree, rate and character of plastic deformation and erosion of a workpiece surface in vibratory finishing. The force sensor was also used to quantify the effect of

  18. Vibratory Separation of Plastic Mixtures Using Triboelectric Charging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masato Saeki

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the results of experimental and analytical studies of the performance of a novel vibratory separator of plastic mixtures for recycling. The separator unit consists of a vibratory conveyor equipped with two plate electrodes. The principle behind the separation technique is based on the difference in Coulomb force acting on the plastic particles after triboelectric charging. The separation

  19. Vibratory Shock Compaction of Granular Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amme, Robert C.

    2004-05-01

    Vibratory Shock Compaction (VSC) is a proven means for quickly forming strong, durable solids from a wide variety of granular materials[1]. Calcination of tank and other forms of high level radioactive wastes results in fine granular material that is quite amenable to volume reduction and stabilization. We have employed utilities coal ash as a calcine waste surrogate, blended with a quartz/feldspar-rich sand and 0-20% proportions of a borosilicate glass. The blends were compacted at room temperature and fired so that the glass melt could form an efficient binder. Included in the blend are small quantities of three RCRA metals, chromium, cadmium and lead, to permit testing for heavy metal stability. The VSC process is described and the results presented in terms of the waste form dissolution rates, compressive strengths, elastic moduli as determined from resonant frequency measurements, and heavy metal leach rates from Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure measurements. Vibratory shock compaction employing glass binders appears to be a viable alternative to traditional vitrification processes for granular waste forms. [1] See http://www.resonantshockcompact.com

  20. On Landing Gear Stresses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentric, A.

    1956-01-01

    Information on landing gear stresses is presented on the following: vibratory phenomena, tangential forces applied to landing gear, fore and aft oscillations of landing gears, examples of fatigue failures, vibration calculations, and improvement of existing test equipment.

  1. Use of vibratory buckets for the installation of cast-in-place piles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Tseitlin; V. E. Trofimov; V. M. Polotskii

    1977-01-01

    The following enter into the arrangement of auxiliary technological equipment required for the vibratory bucket: a guide apparatus, interchangeable caps for the soil container, a submersible vibratory enlarger for work in stable soils, and a vibratory drilling bucket for opening hard seams of earth. The basic advantage of vibratory buckets over conventional drilling mechanisms is the more rational method of

  2. Making Precise Resonators for Mesoscale Vibratory Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2004-01-01

    An alternative approach to the design and fabrication of vibratory gyroscopes is founded on the use of fabrication techniques that yield best results in the mesoscopic size range, which is characterized by overall device dimensions of the order of a centimeter. This approach stands in contradistinction to prior approaches in (1) the macroscopic size range (the size range of conventional design and fabrication, characterized by overall device dimensions of many centimeters) and (2) the microscopic size range [the size range of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), characterized by overall device dimensions of the order of a millimeter or less]. The mesoscale approach offers some of the advantage of the MEMS approach (sizes and power demands smaller than those of the macroscale approach) and some of the advantage of the macroscale approach (the possibility of achieving relative dimensional precision greater than that of the MEMS approach). Relative dimensional precision is a major issue in the operation of a vibratory gyroscope. The heart of a vibratory gyroscope is a mechanical resonator that is required to have a specified symmetry in a plane orthogonal to the axis about which rotation is to be measured. If the resonator could be perfectly symmetrical, then in the absence of rotation, a free vibration of the resonator could remain fixed along any orientation relative to its housing; that is, the gyroscope could exhibit zero drift. In practice, manufacturing imprecision gives rise to some asymmetry in mass, flexural stiffness or dissipation, resulting in a slight drift or beating motion of an initial vibration pattern that cannot be distinguished from rotation. In the mesoscale approach, one exploits the following concepts: For a given amount of dimensional error generated in manufacturing, the asymmetry and hence the rate-of-rotation drift of the gyroscope can be reduced by increasing the scale. The decrease in asymmetry also reduces coupling of vibrations to the external environment. Mechanical thermal noise and electronic measurement noise and drift can also be reduced by increasing the size of the resonator and its associated sensors.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Stress-Relief Effects of Protective Layer Extraction / Symulacja numeryczna skutków odpr??enia warstwy zabezpieczaj?cej w trakcie jej wybierania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian-Rang, Jia; Zi-Min, Zhang; Chun-An, Tang; Yong-Jun, Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Field test and laboratory analog model test on the stress-relief effects of protective layer extraction are time-consuming and laborious. In this paper, on the basis of full consideration of rock heterogeinity and in combination with gas geology at Pingdingshan Mine 5, a numerical model was estalished with the gas-solid coupling rock failure process analysis system RFPA-Gas to simulate the stress variation law, roof and floor deformation, fracture evolution law, displacement in the protected seam, change in gas permeability and gas migration law during protective layer extraction. The simulation results repoduced stress variations in coal and rock strata, roof and floor deformation and fracture evolution process during protective layer extraction. The movement of rock strata were characterized by upper three zones and lower two zones: caving zone, fracture zone and bending subsidence zone in the vertical direction in the overlying strata; floor deformation and failure zone and elasto-plastic deformation zone in the vertical direction in the underlying strata. It showed that stress relief occurred in the protected seam, which led to vertical and horizontal displacements, significant increase in gas permeability, gas desorption and migration. Hence, the outburst threat in the protected seam was eliminated. Meanwhile, with comprehensive analysis of variaition of stress state, deformation characteristics and fracture distribution in coal seam and with consideration of changes in gas leakage rate, gas pressure and permeability, according to gas leakage rate, the floor strata of the protecive layer were divided into four leakage zones. They corresponded to four zones with different stress states and fracture development: original leakage zone - slow reducing leakage zone - dramatic increasing leakage zone- steady increasing leakage zone. This classification provides a clear direction for gas control in the protective layer. The simulation results are in good agreement with the stress-relief effects in field. Badania terenowe oraz modelowanie w warunkach laboratoryjnych skutków odpr??enia warstwy zabezpieczaj?cej w trakcie wydobycia s? niezwykle czasoch?onne i skomplikowane. Uwzgl?dniaj?c niejednorodno?? ska? i wykorzystuj?c dane geologiczne i o obecno?ci gazów w kopalni Pindingshan 5, opracowano model numeryczny p?kania ska? w uk?adzie gaz-cia?o sta?e w oparciu o analiz? uk?adu RFPA-Gaz. Model wykorzystano do symulacji zmian napr??e?, odkszta?ce? stropu i sp?gu, propagacji p?kni??, przemieszcze? w pok?adach zabezpieczonych, zmian w przepuszczalno?ci gazów oraz migracji gazów w trakcie wybierania warstwy zabezpieczaj?cej. Wyniki symulacji odwzorowuj? zmiany napr??e?, odkszta?ce? stropu i sp?gu, propagacji p?kni?? w trakcie wybierania warstwy ochronnej. Ruchy warstw górotworu scharakteryzowano poprzez analiz? trzech stref nadk?adu i dwóch stref lez?cych poni?ej: w warstwach nadk?adu: strefy zawa?u, strefy sp?ka? oraz strefy osiadania (przemieszczenia w kierunku pionowym), w warstwach le??cych poni?ej: strefy odkszta?cenia i p?kania sp?gu, oraz strefy odkszta?ce? elastyczno- plastycznych w kierunku pionowym. Wykazano, ?e odpr??anie mia?o miejsce w pok?adzie zabezpieczaj?cym, co prowadzi?o do powstania przemieszcze? pionowych oraz poziomych, zanotowano tak?e znaczny wzrost przepuszczalno?ci gazów, desorpcji gazów oraz ich transportu. Z tych wzgl?dów zagro?enie wybuchem w pok?adzie ochronnym zosta?o wyeliminowane. Ca?o?ciowa analiza zmian stanu napr??enia, charakterystyki odkszta?ce? i rozk?adu p?kni?? w pok?adzie w?gla przeprowadzona zosta?a dla czterech stref przecieku gazów, wydzielonych w oparciu zmiany nat??enia wyp?ywu gazów, ci?nienia gazów oraz przepuszczalno?ci w odniesieniu do nat??enia przep?ywu gazu w sp?gu w warstwie ochronnej. Te cztery strefy odpowiada?y czterem strefom w których zanotowano odmienne stany napr??e? i rozk?adu sp?ka?: pierwotna strefa wycieku, powoli zmniejszaj?ca si? strefa wycieku, gram

  4. Research on Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro's Character of Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhong; Fu, Mengyin; Li, Qing; Liu, Ning; Liu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a new type Coriolis vibratory gyro that was inspired by Chinese traditional clocks. The resonator fuses based on a variable thickness axisymmetric multicurved surface shell. Its characteristics can directly influence the performance of BVG. The BVG structure not only has capabilities of bearing high overload, high impact and, compared with the tuning fork, vibrating beam, shell and a comb structure, but also a higher frequency to overcome the influence of the disturbance of the exterior environment than the same sized hemispherical resonator gyroscope (HRG) and the traditional cylinder vibratory gyroscope. It can be widely applied in high dynamic low precision angular rate measurement occasions. The main work is as follows: the issue mainly analyzes the structure and basic principle, and investigates the bell-shaped resonator's mathematical model. The reasonable structural parameters are obtained from finite element analysis and an intelligent platform. Using the current solid vibration gyro theory analyzes the structural characteristics and principles of BVG. The bell-shaped resonator is simplified as a paraboloid of the revolution mechanical model, which has a fixed closed end and a free opened end. It obtains the natural frequency and vibration modes based on the theory of elasticity. The structural parameters are obtained from the orthogonal method by the research on the structural parameters of the resonator analysis. It obtains the modal analysis, stress analysis and impact analysis with the chosen parameters. Finally, using the turntable experiment verifies the gyro effect of the BVG. PMID:23575033

  5. Research on bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro's character of resonator.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhong; Fu, Mengyin; Li, Qing; Liu, Ning; Liu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a new type Coriolis vibratory gyro that was inspired by Chinese traditional clocks. The resonator fuses based on a variable thickness axisymmetric multicurved surface shell. Its characteristics can directly influence the performance of BVG. The BVG structure not only has capabilities of bearing high overload, high impact and, compared with the tuning fork, vibrating beam, shell and a comb structure, but also a higher frequency to overcome the influence of the disturbance of the exterior environment than the same sized hemispherical resonator gyroscope (HRG) and the traditional cylinder vibratory gyroscope. It can be widely applied in high dynamic low precision angular rate measurement occasions. The main work is as follows: the issue mainly analyzes the structure and basic principle, and investigates the bell-shaped resonator's mathematical model. The reasonable structural parameters are obtained from finite element analysis and an intelligent platform. Using the current solid vibration gyro theory analyzes the structural characteristics and principles of BVG. The bell-shaped resonator is simplified as a paraboloid of the revolution mechanical model, which has a fixed closed end and a free opened end. It obtains the natural frequency and vibration modes based on the theory of elasticity. The structural parameters are obtained from the orthogonal method by the research on the structural parameters of the resonator analysis. It obtains the modal analysis, stress analysis and impact analysis with the chosen parameters. Finally, using the turntable experiment verifies the gyro effect of the BVG. PMID:23575033

  6. Parametrically disciplined operation of a vibratory gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Parametrically disciplined operation of a symmetric nearly degenerate mode vibratory gyroscope is disclosed. A parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope having a natural oscillation frequency in the neighborhood of a sub-harmonic of an external stable clock reference is produced by driving an electrostatic bias electrode at approximately twice this sub-harmonic frequency to achieve disciplined frequency and phase operation of the resonator. A nearly symmetric parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope that can oscillate in any transverse direction and has more than one bias electrostatic electrode that can be independently driven at twice its oscillation frequency at an amplitude and phase that disciplines its damping to zero in any vibration direction. In addition, operation of a parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope is taught in which the precession rate of the driven vibration pattern is digitally disciplined to a prescribed non-zero reference value.

  7. Fast Laser Shutters With Low Vibratory Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David; Moore, Donald; Hochberg, Eric; Radey, Tom; Chen, Albert

    2005-01-01

    A prototype vacuum-compatible, fast-acting, long-life shutter unit that generates very little vibratory disturbance during switching is reviewed. This is one of a number of shutters designed to satisfy requirements specific to an experiment, to be performed aboard a spacecraft in flight, in which laser beams must be blocked rapidly and completely, without generating a vibratory disturbance large enough to adversely affect the power and frequency stability of the lasers. Commercial off-the-shelf laboratory shutter units -- typically containing electromagnet-coil-driven mechanisms -- were found not to satisfy the requirements because they are not vacuum-compatible, their actuators engage in uncompensated motions that generate significant vibrations, and their operational lifetimes are too short. Going beyond the initial outerspace application, the present vacuum-compatible, fast-acting, long-life shutter units could also be used in terrestrial settings in which there are requirements for their special characteristics. In designing these shutter units, unbalanced, electromagnetically driven mechanisms were replaced with balanced mechanisms that include commercial piezoelectric bending actuators. In each shutter unit, the piezoelectric bending actuators are configured symmetrically as opposing cantilever beams within a housing that contains integral mounts for lenses that focus a laser beam to a waist at the shutter location. In operation, the laser beam is blocked by titanium blades bonded near the free ends of the piezoelectric benders. The benders are driven by shaped electrical pulses with a maximum voltage differential of less than 60 V. Preliminary measurements indicate that rise and fall times are less than 1 ms.

  8. OMP Peptides Activate the DegS Stress-Sensor Protease by a Relief of Inhibition Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Jungsan; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.; MIT

    2010-03-19

    In the E. coli periplasm, C-terminal peptides of misfolded outer-membrane porins (OMPs) bind to the PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease, triggering cleavage of a transmembrane regulator and transcriptional activation of stress genes. We show that an active-site DegS mutation partially bypasses the requirement for peptide activation and acts synergistically with mutations that disrupt contacts between the protease and PDZ domains. Biochemical results support an allosteric model, in which these mutations, active-site modification, and peptide/substrate binding act in concert to stabilize proteolytically active DegS. Cocrystal structures of DegS in complex with different OMP peptides reveal activation of the protease domain with varied conformations of the PDZ domain and without specific contacts from the bound OMP peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the binding of OMP peptides activates proteolysis principally by relieving inhibitory contacts between the PDZ domain and the protease domain of DegS.

  9. Tactile perception of spatially distributed vibratory stimuli on the fingerpad

    E-print Network

    Ahn, Minseung

    2005-01-01

    Using a pin-array type tactile display as a stimulator of the finger pad, a psychophysical study was conducted on the vibrotactile perception. The passive touch with vibratory stimuli in the low frequency could be an ...

  10. Vertical-plane pendulum absorbers for minimizing helicopter vibratory loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, K. B.; Neff, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The use of pendulum dynamic absorbers mounted on the blade root and operating in the vertical plane to minimize helicopter vibratory loads was discussed. A qualitative description was given of the concept of the dynamic absorbers and some results of analytical studies showing the degree of reduction in vibratory loads attainable are presented. Operational experience of vertical plane dynamic absorbers on the OH-6A helicopter is also discussed.

  11. Analysis of rabbit intervertebral disc physiology based on water metabolism. II. Changes in normal intervertebral discs under axial vibratory load

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, N.; Tsuji, H.; Ohshima, H.; Kitano, S.; Itoh, T.; Sano, A.

    1988-11-01

    Metabolic changes induced by axial vibratory load to the spine were investigated based on water metabolism in normal intervertebral discs of rabbits with or without pentobarbital anesthesia. Tritiated water concentration in the intervertebral discs of unanesthetized rabbits was reduced remarkably by axial vibration for 30 minutes using the vibration machine developed for this study. Repeated vibratory load for 18 and 42 hours duration showed the recovery of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration of the intervertebral disc without anesthesia. Computer simulation suggested a reduction of blood flow surrounding the intervertebral disc following the vibration stress. However, no reduction of the /sup 3/H/sub 2/O concentration in the intervertebral disc was noted under anesthesia. Emotional stress cannot be excluded as a factor in water metabolism in the intervertebral disc.

  12. Stress Relief for the Caregiver

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with dementia if you can. Use Alzheimer’s Navigator TM ( alz.org/alzheimersnavigator) to help assess your needs ... near you at alz.org or visit AlzConnected TM (alzconnected.org), a social networking community powered by ...

  13. Complex vibratory patterns in an elephant larynx.

    PubMed

    Herbst, Christian T; Svec, Jan G; Lohscheller, Jörg; Frey, Roland; Gumpenberger, Michaela; Stoeger, Angela S; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2013-11-01

    Elephants' low-frequency vocalizations are produced by flow-induced self-sustaining oscillations of laryngeal tissue. To date, little is known in detail about the vibratory phenomena in the elephant larynx. Here, we provide a first descriptive report of the complex oscillatory features found in the excised larynx of a 25 year old female African elephant (Loxodonta africana), the largest animal sound generator ever studied experimentally. Sound production was documented with high-speed video, acoustic measurements, air flow and sound pressure level recordings. The anatomy of the larynx was studied with computed tomography (CT) and dissections. Elephant CT vocal anatomy data were further compared with the anatomy of an adult human male. We observed numerous unusual phenomena, not typically reported in human vocal fold vibrations. Phase delays along both the inferior-superior and anterior-posterior (A-P) dimension were commonly observed, as well as transverse travelling wave patterns along the A-P dimension, previously not documented in the literature. Acoustic energy was mainly created during the instant of glottal opening. The vestibular folds, when adducted, participated in tissue vibration, effectively increasing the generated sound pressure level by 12 dB. The complexity of the observed phenomena is partly attributed to the distinct laryngeal anatomy of the elephant larynx, which is not simply a large-scale version of its human counterpart. Travelling waves may be facilitated by low fundamental frequencies and increased vocal fold tension. A travelling wave model is proposed, to account for three types of phenomena: A-P travelling waves, 'conventional' standing wave patterns, and irregular vocal fold vibration. PMID:24133151

  14. AN ANALYSIS OF 653 TRIALS OF PENILE VIBRATORY STIMULATION IN MEN WITH SPINAL CORD INJURY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NANCY L. BRACKETT; SEAN M. FERRELL; TEODORO C. ABALLA; MARIA J. AMADOR; OSVALDO F. PADRON; JENS SONKSEN; CHARLES M. LYNNE

    1998-01-01

    PurposeWe evaluated ejaculatory response and semen quality in 653 trials of penile vibratory stimulation in 211 men with spinal cord injury, and compared results with low versus high amplitude vibratory stimulation.

  15. Occupationally acquired vibratory angioedema with secondary carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wener, M H; Metzger, W J; Simon, R A

    1983-01-01

    After several years of occupational exposure to vibration, a man developed episodic vibratory hand swelling, erythema, and pruritus. He subsequently developed symptoms compatible with carpal tunnel syndrome, but his median nerve conduction velocity remained normal. After experimental vibration of the forearm, plasma histamine levels in the ipsilateral antecubital vein rose in association with localized angioedema and slowed median nerve conduction velocity. There was no evidence of other causes of angioedema. Occupational exposure to vibration may predispose to the development of vibratory angioedema, which may predispose to intermittent compression neuropathy. PMID:6848041

  16. Modifications of Fabrication of Vibratory Microgyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Sam Y.; Yee, Karl Y.; Wiberg, Dean

    2005-01-01

    A micromachining process for the fabrication of vibratory microgyroscopes from silicon wafers, and aspects of the microgyroscope design that are inextricably linked with the fabrication process, have been modified in an effort to increase production yields from perspectives of both quantity and quality. Prior to the modifications, the effective production yield of working microgyroscopes was limited to one or less per wafer. The modifications are part of a continuing effort to improve the design and increase production yields to more than 30 working microgyroscopes per wafer. A discussion of pertinent aspects of the unmodified design and the unmodified fabrication process is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the modifications. The design of the microgyroscope package was not conducive to high yield and rapid testing of many microgyroscopes. One of the major impediments to high yield and testing was found to lie in vibration- isolation beams around the four edges of each microgyroscope, which beams were found to be unnecessary for achieving high resonance quality factors (Q values) characterizing the vibrations of petallike cantilevers. The fabrication process included an 8- m-deep plasma etch. The purpose of the etch was to create 8- m vertical gaps, below which were to be placed large gold evaporated electrodes and sensing pads to drive and sense resonant vibrations of the "petals." The process also included a step in which bridges between dies were cut to separate the dies. The etched areas must be kept clean and smooth (free of debris and spikes), because any object close to 8 m high in those areas would stop the vibrations. However, it was found that after the etch, there remained some spikes with heights that were, variously, almost as high or as high as the etch depth. It also was found that the cutting of bridges created silicon debris, some of which lodged in the 8- m gaps and some of which landed on top of the petals. The masses added to the petals by the debris altered resonance frequencies and/or Q values to unacceptable degrees. Hence, the spikes and the debris have been conjectured to cause most of the observed malfunctions of newly fabricated microgyroscopes. Another pertinent aspect of the unmodified design and process was the fabrication of electrodes and the 8- m capacitance gap on a 500- m-thick wafer, and the fabrication of a 3-mm-thick baseplate from another wafer. It was necessary to bond these wafers to each other in an assembly step that was later found to be superfluous in that it could be eliminated by a suitable modification of the design.

  17. Stress-relaxation and tension relief system for immediate primary closure of large and huge soft tissue defects: an old-new concept: new concept for direct closure of large defects.

    PubMed

    Topaz, Moris; Carmel, Narin Nard; Topaz, Guy; Li, Mingsen; Li, Yong Zhong

    2014-12-01

    Stress-relaxation is a well-established mechanism for laboratory skin stretching, with limited clinical application in conventional suturing techniques due to the inherent, concomitant induction of ischemia, necrosis and subsequent suture failure. Skin defects that cannot be primarily closed are a common difficulty during reconstructive surgery. The TopClosure tension-relief system (TRS) is a novel device for wound closure closure, providing secured attachment to the skin through a wide area of attachment, in an adjustable manner, enabling primary closure of medium to large skin defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the TopClosure TRS as a substitute for skin grafting and flaps for primary closure of large soft tissue defects by stress-relaxation. We present three demonstrative cases requiring resection of large to huge tumors customarily requiring closure by skin graft or flaps. TRS was applied during surgery serving as a tension-relief platform for tension sutures, to enable primary skin-defect closure by cycling of stress-relaxation, and following surgery as skin-secure system until complete wound closure. All skin defects ranging from 7 to 26?cm in width were manipulated by the TRS through stress-relaxation, without undermining of skin, enabling primary skin closure and eliminating the need for skin grafts and flaps. Immediate wound closure ranged 26 to 135?min. TRS was applied for 3 to 4 weeks. Complications were minimal and donor site morbidity was eliminated. Surgical time, hospital stay and costs were reduced and wound aesthetics were improved. In this case series we present a novel technology that enables the utilization of the viscoelastic properties of the skin to an extreme level, extending the limits of primary wound closure by the stress-relaxation principle. This is achieved via a simple device application that may aid immediate primary wound closure and downgrade the complexity of surgical procedures for a wide range of applications on a global scale. PMID:25526444

  18. Contact forces and mechanisms in a vibratory finisher

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Yabuki; M. R. Baghbanan; J. K. Spelt

    2002-01-01

    The normal and tangential contact forces in a vibratory finishing machine were measured using a newly developed force sensor. A video system was used to record the motion of the finishing media as it collided with the test surface. Media contact occurred in three different modes. The ratio of the normal and tangential forces was compared with the measured friction

  19. Improving the performance of solar still using vibratory harmonic effect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khaled M. S. Eldalil

    2010-01-01

    A new concept of active vibratory solar still is presented in this study. A flexible packed stretched media installed in the bottom of the basin to increase the efficiency of the still is applied. The flexible packed media is formed from stretched helical coiled copper wires, which are considered as a good media for heat absorbing and transferring and as

  20. Fingertip Vibratory Transducer for Detecting Optical Edges Using Regenerative Feedback

    E-print Network

    Stetten, George

    . The laser vibrates across a properly oriented optical edge. #12;2 METHODS The SPLOT system worksFingertip Vibratory Transducer for Detecting Optical Edges Using Regenerative Feedback Kimberly, which converts properly oriented edges into tactile vibration. The system may allow visually impaired

  1. Two Types of Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes Andrei M. Shkel

    E-print Network

    Tang, William C

    Two Types of Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes Andrei M. Shkel Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Gyroscopes (MVG) can be classified into two broad types, angle gyroscopes (or Type I) and rate gyroscopes (or Type II). Gyroscopes of the first type measure orientation angles directly, while gyroscopes

  2. Modification of piezoelectric vibratory gyroscope resonator parameters by feedback control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip W. Loveday; Craig A. Rogers

    1998-01-01

    A method for analyzing the effect of feedback control on the dynamics of piezoelectric resonators used in vibratory gyroscopes has been developed. This method can be used to determine the feasibility of replacing the traditional mechanical balancing operations, used to adjust the resonant frequency, by displacement feedback and for determining the velocity feedback required to produce a particular bandwidth. Experiments

  3. Active structural error suppression in MEMS vibratory rate integrating gyroscopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Painter; A. M. Shkel

    2003-01-01

    Due to restrictive tolerancing in microfabrication, structural imperfections that reduce performance of fabricated micro devices are typical. In microelectromechanical vibratory gyroscopes, feedback control is a common strategy in attempting to correct the imperfections. However, a purely feedback control can be insufficient for compensation of all the errors, requiring post processing in the form of laser trimming to achieve higher levels

  4. Approaching cancer pain relief

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Norelle Lickiss

    2001-01-01

    Pain is defined as an unpleasant experience—it is subjective and achieving pain relief is achieving a change in the patient's experience. There needs to be an adequate concept of a human person (an ecological model will be discussed) and a logical process for approaching pain relief in an individual patient (e.g. the plan used in the Sydney Institute of Palliative

  5. Characterization of relief printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Chen, Lin; Ortiz-Segovia, Maria-Valezzka; Ferwerda, James; Allebach, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Relief printing technology developed by Océ allows the superposition of several layers of colorant on different types of media which creates a variation of the surface height defined by the input to the printer. Evaluating the reproduction accuracy of distinct surface characteristics is of great importance to the application of the relief printing system. Therefore, it is necessary to develop quality metrics to evaluate the relief process. In this paper, we focus on the third dimension of relief printing, i.e. height information. To achieve this goal, we define metrics and develop models that aim to evaluate relief prints in two aspects: overall fidelity and surface finish. To characterize the overall fidelity, three metrics are calculated: Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), difference and root-mean-squared error (RMSE) between the input height map and scanned height map, and print surface angle accuracy. For the surface finish property, we measure the surface roughness, generate surface normal maps and develop a light reflection model that serves as a simulation of the differences between ideal prints and real prints that may be perceived by human observers. Three sets of test targets are designed and printed by the Océ relief printer prototypes for the calculation of the above metrics: (i) twisted target, (ii) sinusoidal wave target, and (iii) ramp target. The results provide quantitative evaluations of the printing quality in the third dimension, and demonstrate that the height of relief prints is reproduced accurately with respect to the input design. The factors that affect the printing quality include: printing direction, frequency and amplitude of the input signal, shape of relief prints. Besides the above factors, there are two additional aspects that influence the viewing experience of relief prints: lighting condition and viewing angle.

  6. Granular Flow and Pattern Formation on a Vibratory Conveyor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christof Krülle; Andreas Götzendorfer; Rafa? Grochowski; Ingo Rehberg; Mustapha Rouijaa; Peter Walzel

    Vibratory conveyors are well established in routine industrial production for controlled transport of bulk solids. Because\\u000a of the complicated interactions between the vibrating trough and the particles both glide and throw movements frequently appear\\u000a within one oscillation cycle. Apart from the amplitude and frequency, the form of the trajectory of the conveyor’s motion\\u000a also exerts an influence. The goal of

  7. Parameter identification of a vibratory system with a clearance

    E-print Network

    Franck, Charles Graves

    1987-01-01

    Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. FL M. Alexander Dr. S. T. Noah An analytical and experimental investigation of a vibratory system with a clearance was conducted. A finite element model and an equivalent single degree of freedom dosed... Parameters Experimental Analytical Damping Equivalent Single Degree of Freedom Model IV FINITE ELEMENT MODEL . B 10 10 15 19 20 24 Finite Element Model Without Rigid Stop Finite Element Model With Rigid Stop V CLOSED-FORM SOLUTION...

  8. Deburring die-castings by wet vibratory plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeschbart, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A wet vibratory procedure for the removal of burrs from die castings is described. In this process synthetic abrasive chips and detergent solutions are agitated with the work in such a way as to produce a spiral circulatory movement. Details of various forms of vibrator basin and shapes of abrasive are illustrated. The automation of deburring is illustrated through the application of vibrators of spiral design in combination with transport and drying devices.

  9. Efficient stress relief in GaN heteroepitaxy on Si(1 1 1) using low-temperature AlN interlayers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Reiher; J. Bläsing; A. Dadgar; A. Diez; A. Krost

    2003-01-01

    Low-temperature (LT) AlN interlayers can be applied to reduce the tensile stress and cracks in thick GaN layers on Si. Here, we present an X-ray diffractometry study revealing the influence of metalorganic chemical vapor phase deposition parameters on stress relaxation by these interlayers. The degree of stress relaxation is observed to strongly depend on interlayer deposition temperature. At low temperatures,

  10. Innovative decontamination technology by abrasion in vibratory vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbri, Silvio; Ilarri, Sergio [National Atomic Energy Commission - CNEA, Avda. del Libertador 8250, CP 1429, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The possibility of using conventional vibratory vessel technology as a decontamination technique is the motivation for the development of this project. The objective is to explore the feasibility of applying the vibratory vessel technology for decontamination of radioactively-contaminated materials such as pipes and metal structures. The research and development of this technology was granted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Abrasion processes in vibratory vessels are widely used in the manufacture of metals, ceramics, and plastics. Samples to be treated, solid abrasive media and liquid media are set up into a vessel. Erosion results from the repeated impact of the abrasive particles on the surface of the body being treated. A liquid media, generally detergents or surfactants aid the abrasive action. The amount of material removed increases with the time of treatment. The design and construction of the machine were provided by Vibro, Argentina private company. Tests with radioactively-contaminated aluminum tubes and a stainless steel bar, were performed at laboratory level. Tests showed that it is possible to clean both the external and the internal surface of contaminated tubes. Results show a decontamination factor around 10 after the first 30 minutes of the cleaning time. (authors)

  11. Hydrogen gas relief valve

    DOEpatents

    Whittlesey, Curtis C. (Birmingham, MI)

    1985-01-01

    An improved battery stack design for an electrochemical system having at least one cell from which a gas is generated and an electrolyte in communication with the cell is described. The improved battery stack design features means for defining a substantially closed compartment for containing the battery cells and at least a portion of the electrolyte for the system, and means in association with the compartment means for selectively venting gas from the interior of the compartment means in response to the level of the electrolyte within the compartment means. The venting means includes a relief valve having a float member which is actuated in response to the level of the electrolyte within the compartment means. This float member is adapted to close the relief valve when the level of the electrolyte is above a predetermined level and open the relief valve when the level of electrolyte is below this predetermined level.

  12. Coastal Relief Model

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) (described in the January 17, 1997 Scout Report) provides online images of US Northeast and Southeast Atlantic Coastal Relief Models. The Coastal Relief Gridded database "provides the first comprehensive view of the US Coastal Zone; one that extends from the coastal state boundaries to as far offshore as the NOS hydrographic data will support a continuous view of the seafloor." In the future, the gridded database will contain the coastal zones of the continental US, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico.

  13. Relief texture mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel M. Oliveira; Gary Bishop; David F. McAllister

    2000-01-01

    We present an extension to texture mapping that supports the representation of 3-D surface details and view motion parallax. The results are correct for viewpoints that are static or moving, far away or nearby. Our approach is very simple: a relief texture (texture extended with an orthogonal displacement per texel) is mapped onto a polygon using a two-step process: First,

  14. NGDC Coastal Relief Model

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Geophysical Data Center

    This gridded database provides an interactive shaded relief map of the entire coastal zone of the conterminous US, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Click on an area of coastline for a more detailed map, then click on 1 degree square blocks for even greater detail. Images may be zoomed in and out depending on what scale the viewer requires.

  15. Chaotic behavior on in-phase vibratory conveyors

    SciTech Connect

    Raski, J.Z.

    1998-07-01

    One of the basic building blocks of IBM's computer technology is the thin-film interstitial metallized ceramic (IMC) substrate. The packaging of these substrates employs small input/output (IO) pins to provide both mechanical and electrical connection to the printed circuit board. In the automated manufacturing of the substrate, the input and output pins are individually conveyed by in-line vibratory conveyors. However, a nonperiodic motion of these pins is observed at certain angles of conveyor table tilt that cannot be explained by classical models of friction. This paper models the motion of a single I/O pin on an in-phase, linearly oscillating conveyor using the classical model of friction and compares that result with experimental observations. It is shown here, analytically and experimentally, that when the vibratory conveyor table amplitude and the coefficient of friction between the pin and the table are sufficiently large, the pin is conveyed forward with some velocity. If the conveyor table's angle of tilt is sufficiently large and the coefficient of friction is sufficiently low, the pin may slip backwards just as fast as the conveyor table drives it forward, resulting in a net pin velocity of zero. Surrounding the condition at which the net velocity of the pin is zero is a chaotic basin of attraction in which the pin motion is non-periodic. This basin of attraction was experimentally determined to be bracketed within a range of values of the coefficient of friction. The implications of these theoretical and experimental results are discussed in terms of the practical application of in-phase vibratory conveyors in manufacturing.

  16. Investigation of the Effect of Blade Sweep on Rotor Vibratory Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarzanin, F. J., Jr.; Vlaminck, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of helicopter rotor blade planform sweep on rotor vibratory hub, blade, and control system loads has been analytically investigated. The importance of sweep angle, sweep initiation radius, flap bending stiffness and torsion bending stiffness is discussed. The mechanism by which sweep influences the vibratory hub loads is investigated.

  17. Typing vocal fold vibratory patterns in excised larynx experiments via digital kymography

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Krausert, Christopher R.; Kelly, Michael P.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Signal typing is central to the understanding of vocal fold vibratory patterns. Digital kymography (DKG) allows the direct observation of vocal fold vibratory patterns, and therefore, using DKG for vibratory signal typing may provide a useful complement to traditional signal typing techniques. Methods Video data collected from twenty larynges excised from mongrel dogs were observed using DKG in order to find examples of type 1 (nearly periodic), type 2 (subharmonic), and type 3 (aperiodic) vibratory patterns. Time series, frequency spectra, and correlation dimensions were calculated for each signal type. Results The type 1 pattern showed a periodic time series of glottal edge and discrete frequency spectrum. The type 2 vibratory pattern displayed a time series of alternating high and low amplitude waves and a frequency spectrum that included a subharmonic (f0/2) frequency component. Regular and symmetric vibratory patterns were observed in the type 1 and type 2 patterns. The type 3 vibratory pattern was characterized by an aperiodic time series of glottal edge, broadband frequency spectrum, and irregular and asymmetric vibratory patterns. Correlation dimension estimates increased from type 1 to type 2 to type 3. Conclusions DKG imaging demonstrated an ability to assign a signal type to various laryngeal vibrations. Signal typing techniques utilizing direct observations of the vocal folds could be useful to determine valid methods for the analysis of vocal fold vibrations. PMID:19746760

  18. Damage tolerance based life prediction in gas turbine engine blades under vibratory high cycle fatigue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. P. Walls; R. E. deLaneuville; S. E. Cunningham

    1997-01-01

    A novel fracture mechanics approach has been used to predict crack propagation lives in gas turbine engine blades subjected to vibratory high cycle fatigue (HCF). The vibratory loading included both a resonant mode and a nonresonant mode, with one blade subjected to only the nonresonant mode and another blade to both modes. A life prediction algorithm was utilized to predict

  19. NON-AXISYMMETRIC CORIOLIS VIBRATORY GYROSCOPE WITH WHOLE ANGLE, FORCE REBALANCE, AND SELF-CALIBRATION

    E-print Network

    Tang, William C

    NON-AXISYMMETRIC CORIOLIS VIBRATORY GYROSCOPE WITH WHOLE ANGLE, FORCE REBALANCE, AND SELF detailed performance status and projections for the silicon MEMS Quadruple Mass Gyroscope (QMG) ­ a unique high Q, lumped mass, mode-symmetric Class II Coriolis Vibratory Gyroscope (CVG) with interchangeable

  20. Utilization of Mechanical Quadrature in Silicon MEMS Vibratory Gyroscope to Increase and

    E-print Network

    Tang, William C

    Utilization of Mechanical Quadrature in Silicon MEMS Vibratory Gyroscope to Increase and Expand of the long term in-run bias stability of Coriolis vibratory gyroscopes. The approach is based on utilization of the mechanical quadra- ture error in gyroscopes to compensate for variation in system parameters. The proposed

  1. Facility location in humanitarian relief

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Balcik; B. M. Beamon

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we consider facility location decisions for a humanitarian relief chain responding to quick-onset disasters. In particular, we develop a model that determines the number and locations of distribution centres in a relief network and the amount of relief supplies to be stocked at each distribution centre to meet the needs of people affected by the disasters. Our

  2. Modeling vibratory damage with reduced-order models and the generalized finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Patrick J.; Hollkamp, Joseph J.

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates a coupled computational analysis framework that uses reduced-order models and the generalized finite element method to model vibratory induced stress near local defects. The application area of interest is the life prediction of thin gauge structural components exhibiting nonlinear, path-dependent dynamic response. Full-order finite element models of these structural components can require prohibitively large amounts of processor time. Recent developments in nonlinear reduced-order models have demonstrated efficient computation of the dynamic response. These models are relatively insensitive to small imperfections. Conversely, the generalized finite element method provides the ability to model local defects without geometric dependency on the mesh. A more robust version of the method, with numerically built enrichment functions, provides a multiple-scale modeling capability through direct coupling of global and local finite element models. Replacing the component finite element model with a reduced-order model allows for efficient computation of dynamic response while providing the necessary information to drive local, solid analyses which can zoom in on regions containing stress risers or cracks. This paper describes the coupling of these approaches to enable fatigue and crack propagation predictions. Numerical/experimental examples are provided.

  3. Analysis of the vibratory excitation arising from spiral bevel gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, William D.

    1987-01-01

    Tools required to understand and predict in terms of its underlying causes the vibratory excitation arising from meshing spiral bevel gears are developed. A generalized three component transmission error of meshing spiral bevel gears is defined. Equations are derived that yield the three components of the generalized transmission error in terms of deviations of tooth running surfaces from equispaced perfect spherical involute surfaces and tooth/gearbody elastic deformations arising from the three components of the generalized force transmitted by the meshing gears. A method for incorporating these equations into the equations of motion of a gear system is described. Equations are derived for the three components of the generalized force transmitted by the gears which are valid whenever inertial effects of the meshing gears and their supports are negligible. Bearing offsets from the positions occupied by the shaft centerlines of perfect spherical involute bevel gears and bearing/bearing support flexibilities enter into the computation of these forces.

  4. ReliefWeb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The goal of ReliefWeb is to provide "reliable and relevant humanitarian information and analysis" and "help [people] make sense of humanitarian crises worldwide." ReliefWeb is administered by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), and was started in 1996. The "Countries & Emergencies" tab across the top of the page allows visitors to choose countries on a map or from a list, and get many pieces of information. Once they have clicked on a country, visitors will find the latest updates on the situation from "NGOs", "News", "Gov'ts", and the "Academic World". In addition, they will find "Background Information" on the country, the "Latest Maps" that might show road conditions or shelter/home conditions; and job "Vacancies" available in the area for humanitarian professionals. Back on the homepage, the "Policy & Issues" tab takes visitors to a large list of topics and thematic documents. Malaria, water scarcity, food insecurity and land mines are just some of the many issues addressed in these documents, which are produced by many different non-profits, non-government groups, and humanitarian organizations.

  5. Fluid relief and check valve

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, K.L.; Lord, S.C.; Murray, I.

    1986-07-17

    A passive fluid pressure relief and check valve allows the relief pressure to be slaved to a reference pressure independently of the exhaust pressure. The pressure relief valve is embodied by a submerged vent line in a sealing fluid, the relief pressure being a function of the submerged depth. A check valve is embodied by a vertical column of fluid (the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of fluid). The pressure is vented into an exhaust system which keeps the exhaust out of the area providing the reference pressure.

  6. The assessment of mixing/solid suspension in a slab tank due to vibratory agitation

    E-print Network

    Ramsey, Christopher Joseph

    1988-01-01

    THE ASSESSMENT OF MIXING/SOLID SUSPENSION IN A SLAB TANK DUE TO VIBRATORY AGITATION A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER JOSEPH RAMSEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE ASSESSMENT OF MIXING/SOLID SUSPENSION IN A SLAB TANK DUE TO VIBRATORY AGITATION A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER JOSEPH RAMSEY Approved as to style and content by: Gar B. Tatterson...

  7. Jean-Martin Charcot and his vibratory chair for Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G

    2009-08-11

    Vibration therapy is currently used in diverse medical specialties ranging from orthopedics to urology to sports medicine. The celebrated 19th-century neurologist, J.-M. Charcot, used vibratory therapy to treat Parkinson disease (PD). This study analyzed printed writings by Charcot and other writers on vibratory therapy and accessed unpublished notes from the Salpêtrière Hospital, Paris. Charcot lectured on several occasions on vibratory therapy and its neurologic applications. He developed a vibration chair for patients with PD after he observed that patients were more comfortable and slept better after a train or carriage ride. He replicated this experience by having patients undergo daily 30-minute sessions in the automated vibratory chair (fauteuil trépidant). His junior colleague, Gilles de la Tourette, extended these observations and developed a helmet that vibrated the head on the premise that the brain responded directly to the pulsations. Although after Charcot's death vibratory therapy was not widely pursued, vibratory appliances are reemerging in 21st century medicine and can be retested using adaptations of Charcot's neurologic protocols. PMID:19667323

  8. Chemical Comic Relief

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Selegue and James Holler at the University of Kentucky have provided this ingenious learning resource, Chemical Comic Relief. Visitors to the site click on an element on the periodic table to see a list of comic pages involving that element. For example, clicking on Oxygen brings up a list of comics including Four Color: Ricky Nelson, which shows Ricky discussing oxygen to attempt (unsuccessfully) to impress a girl. Some pages include a summary discussing both the comic as well as the element it features, and the site also offers a chronological History of Chemistry in the Comics -- an album of comic pages from the 1930s to the present. To gain a greater understanding of the technical aspects (atomic weight, key data and description, and history) of each element, the user can link to the WebElements Website.

  9. Multi-objective optimal control of vibratory energy harvesting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scruggs, J. T.

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a new approach, based on H II optimal control theory, for the maximization of power generation in energy harvesting systems. The theory determines the optimal harvested power attainable through the use of power electronics to effect linear feedback control of transducer current. In contrast to most of the prior work in this area, which has assumed harmonic response, the theory proposed here applies to stochastically-excited systems in broadband response, and can be used to harvest power simultaneously from multiple significant vibratory modes. It is also applicable to coupled networks of many transducers. The theory accounts for the impact of energy harvesting on the dynamics of the vibrating system in which the transducers are embedded. It also accounts for resistive and semiconductor dissipation in the power-electronic network interfacing the transducers with energy storage. Thus, losses in the electronics are addressed in the formulation of the optimal control law. Finally, the H II-optimal control formulation of the problem naturally allows for harvested power to be systematically balanced against other response objectives. Here, this is illustrated by showing how the harvesting objective can be maximized, subject to the constraint that the transducer voltages be maintained below that of the power-electronic bus; a condition which is required for the power-electronic control system to be fully operational. Although the theory is applicable across a broad range of applications, it is presented in the context of a piezoelectric bimorph example.

  10. Relationships between CSID and vocal fold vibratory function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Melissa L.

    High correlations have been reported between the acoustic-based Cepstral/Spectral Index of Dysphonia (CSID) and perceptual judgments of dysphonia. This study explores whether CSID provides additional insight and explains more of the variance in HSV-based properties of vocal fold vibratory function than has been reported for other acoustic measures. Using the Analysis of Dysphonia in Speech and Voice (ADSV) program, CSID and its component variables were correlated with HSV-based measures of glottal cycle aperiodicity and glottal area for 20 subjects who underwent phonomicrosurgery. Results indicate CSID is only marginally correlated with glottal cycle aperiodicity in pre- and post-surgical conditions and does not correlate as highly as the cepstral peak prominence alone. Additionally, results reveal higher correlations when examining within-subject change from pre-surgical to post-surgical assessments rather than correlating measures across subjects. Future directions are discussed that aim at improving our understanding of the relationships between acoustic parameters and underlying phonatory function.

  11. Oscillation Control Algorithms for Resonant Sensors with Applications to Vibratory Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungsu; Tan, Chin-Woo; Kim, Haedong; Hong, Sung Kyung

    2009-01-01

    We present two oscillation control algorithms for resonant sensors such as vibratory gyroscopes. One control algorithm tracks the resonant frequency of the resonator and the other algorithm tunes it to the specified resonant frequency by altering the resonator dynamics. Both algorithms maintain the specified amplitude of oscillations. The stability of each of the control systems is analyzed using the averaging method, and quantitative guidelines are given for selecting the control gains needed to achieve stability. The effects of displacement measurement noise on the accuracy of tracking and estimation of the resonant frequency are also analyzed. The proposed control algorithms are applied to two important problems in a vibratory gyroscope. The first is the leading-following resonator problem in the drive axis of MEMS dual-mass vibratory gyroscope where there is no mechanical linkage between the two proof-masses and the second is the on-line modal frequency matching problem in a general vibratory gyroscope. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control algorithms are effective. They ensure the proof-masses to oscillate in an anti-phase manner with the same resonant frequency and oscillation amplitude in a dual-mass gyroscope, and two modal frequencies to match in a general vibratory gyroscope. PMID:22454566

  12. The effect of external cues with vibratory stimulation on spatiotemporal gait parameters in chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Myoung; Lim, Hee Sung; Song, Chang Ho

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of current study was to investigate the effect of external cues using vibratory stimulation on spatiotemporal gait parameters in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects] Thirty patients, who had suffered a stroke, were selected from general hospitals in Seoul, Republic of Korea. [Methods] Each participant was subjected to six walking trials: three trials with vibratory stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle and three trials without any stimulation. The spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured with a GAITRite system. [Results] The global gait parameters-velocity and cadence-were significantly more increased, and the temporal parameters-step time, stride time, and double limb support-were significantly more decreased with vibratory stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle than with no stimulation. While single limb support was increased under vibratory stimulation, the difference was not significant between the two groups. The spatial gait parameter-stride length-showed a significant improvement; however, there was no significant enhancement in gait symmetry with regard to step length and step time [Conclusion] These results indicate that the application of external cues using vibratory stimulation during gait may control gait parameters and improve gait performance. Thus, this intervention could be used for gait rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients. PMID:25729172

  13. The effect of external cues with vibratory stimulation on spatiotemporal gait parameters in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Myoung; Lim, Hee Sung; Song, Chang Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of current study was to investigate the effect of external cues using vibratory stimulation on spatiotemporal gait parameters in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects] Thirty patients, who had suffered a stroke, were selected from general hospitals in Seoul, Republic of Korea. [Methods] Each participant was subjected to six walking trials: three trials with vibratory stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle and three trials without any stimulation. The spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured with a GAITRite system. [Results] The global gait parameters—velocity and cadence—were significantly more increased, and the temporal parameters—step time, stride time, and double limb support—were significantly more decreased with vibratory stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle than with no stimulation. While single limb support was increased under vibratory stimulation, the difference was not significant between the two groups. The spatial gait parameter—stride length—showed a significant improvement; however, there was no significant enhancement in gait symmetry with regard to step length and step time [Conclusion] These results indicate that the application of external cues using vibratory stimulation during gait may control gait parameters and improve gait performance. Thus, this intervention could be used for gait rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients. PMID:25729172

  14. Effect of Axial Force on the Performance of Micromachined Vibratory Rate Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Zhanqiang; Xiao, Dingbang; Wu, Xuezhong; Dong, Peitao; Chen, Zhihua; Niu, Zhengyi; Zhang, Xu

    2011-01-01

    It is reported in the published literature that the resonant frequency of a silicon micromachined gyroscope decreases linearly with increasing temperature. However, when the axial force is considerable, the resonant frequency might increase as the temperature increases. The axial force is mainly induced by thermal stress due to the mismatch between the thermal expansion coefficients of the structure and substrate. In this paper, two types of micromachined suspended vibratory gyroscopes with slanted beams were proposed to evaluate the effect of the axial force. One type was suspended with a clamped-free (C-F) beam and the other one was suspended with a clamped-clamped (C-C) beam. Their drive modes are the bending of the slanted beam, and their sense modes are the torsion of the slanted beam. The relationships between the resonant frequencies of the two types were developed. The prototypes were packaged by vacuum under 0.1 mbar and an analytical solution for the axial force effect on the resonant frequency was obtained. The temperature dependent performances of the operated mode responses of the micromachined gyroscopes were measured. The experimental values of the temperature coefficients of resonant frequencies (TCF) due to axial force were 101.5 ppm/°C for the drive mode and 21.6 ppm/°C for the sense mode. The axial force has a great influence on the modal frequency of the micromachined gyroscopes suspended with a C-C beam, especially for the flexure mode. The quality factors of the operated modes decreased with increasing temperature, and changed drastically when the micromachined gyroscopes worked at higher temperatures. PMID:22346578

  15. Damage identification in plates using vibratory power estimated from measured accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Young Cheol; Chung, Tae Young; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Jae Kwan

    2015-02-01

    Vibratory power is defined as the rate of energy transmitted through a cross section of unit width in a vibrating structure. It is known that the vibratory power is a function of the source and travel path. Therefore the spatial distribution of the vibratory power may contain information on the state of a structure. Vibratory power can be estimated experimentally by measuring accelerations. By combining numerical predictions with experimental measurements the location and severity of damage can be identified. This method has been successfully applied to prismatic beam problems. In the present work, the idea is extended to identifying damage in thin plate problems. To identify damage in thin plates by the proposed vibratory power method, the two-dimensional damage index and damage index ratio are newly introduced. The plate is assumed to be of uniform thickness and damaged in the form of a crack simulated as a straight cut of finite length. The vibratory power of the plate is estimated from frequency response functions to random excitations. First, the proposed method is applied numerically and then verified experimentally. Both numerical and experimental results show the present method can identify not only the location of damage but also its direction. The location and direction can be identified by investigating the damage index, the damage index ratio, and local principal axes of the index peak in the vicinity of the damage. The spatial distribution of the damage index, newly introduced in beam problems, can be considered as a scalar field in plate problems. In the neighborhood of the damage, the damage index has the shape of a semi-ellipsoid or a semi-ovoid, and it is found that the major principal axis corresponds to the direction of the crack. It enables us to identify the damage direction correctly without ambiguity.

  16. The monitoring system for vibratory disturbance detection in microgravity environment aboard the international space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laster, Rachel M.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists in the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications within the Microgravity Research Division oversee studies in important physical, chemical, and biological processes in microgravity environment. Research is conducted in microgravity environment because of the beneficial results that come about for experiments. When research is done in normal gravity, scientists are limited to results that are affected by the gravity of Earth. Microgravity provides an environment where solid, liquid, and gas can be observed in a natural state of free fall and where many different variables are eliminated. One challenge that NASA faces is that space flight opportunities need to be used effectively and efficiently in order to ensure that some of the most scientifically promising research is conducted. Different vibratory sources are continually active aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Some of the vibratory sources include crew exercise, experiment setup, machinery startup (life support fans, pumps, freezer/compressor, centrifuge), thruster firings, and some unknown events. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMs), which acts as the hardware and carefully positioned aboard the ISS, along with the Microgravity Environment Monitoring System MEMS), which acts as the software and is located here at NASA Glenn, are used to detect these vibratory sources aboard the ISS and recognize them as disturbances. The various vibratory disturbances can sometimes be harmful to the scientists different research projects. Some vibratory disturbances are recognized by the MEMS's database and some are not. Mainly, the unknown events that occur aboard the International Space Station are the ones of major concern. To better aid in the research experiments, the unknown events are identified and verified as unknown events. Features, such as frequency, acceleration level, time and date of recognition of the new patterns are stored in an Excel database. My task is to carefully synthesize frequency and acceleration patterns of unknown events within the Excel database into a new file to determine whether or not certain information that is received i s considered a real vibratory source. Once considered as a vibratory source, further analysis is carried out. The resulting information is used to retrain the MEMS to recognize them as known patterns. These different vibratory disturbances are being constantly monitored to observe if, in any way, the disturbances have an effect on the microgravity environment that research experiments are exposed to. If the disturbance has little or no effect on the experiments, then research is continued. However, if the disturbance is harmful to the experiment, scientists act accordingly by either minimizing the source or terminating the research and neither NASA's time nor money is wasted.

  17. Turbine generator pressure relief diaphragm

    SciTech Connect

    Groenendaal, J.C. Jr.; Huang, K.P.

    1993-06-29

    A steam turbine is described comprising: (a) a turbine housing operable to receive steam and having a relief opening therein surrounded by a turbine flange; (b) a shaft positioned within the housing; (c) a plurality of rows of blades positioned along the longitudinal length of the shaft and extending radially outwardly therefrom; (d) a steam inlet pipe connected with the housing and operable as a conduit to allow the steam entering the housing to pass between the plurality of rows of blades to rotate the shaft; and (e) a pressure relief diaphragm associated with the turbine housing and operable to relieve excess pressure within the turbine housing, including: (i) a safety housing having a mounting flange thereon arranged to mate with the turbine flange so that the safety housing is positioned over the relief opening in the turbine housing; (ii) a first solid, frangible disc covering the relief opening in the turbine housing and having a peripheral portion interposed between the mounting flange on the safety housing and the turbine flange; (iii) a second solid disc positioned in the relief opening in the turbine flange in abutting contact with the first solid disc; (iv) first bolt means for securing the mounting flange on the safety housing to the turbine flange; (v) first spring washer means associated with the first bolt means for maintaining the positional relationship between the mounting flange on the safety housing and the turbine flange; (vi) an annular ring positioned on the first solid disc and above the relief opening in the turbine housing; (vii) second bolt means for securing the second solid disc and the annular ring to the first solid disc; and (viii) second spring washer means associated with the second bolt means for maintaining the positional relationship among the first solid disc, the second solid disc and the annular ring.

  18. Research of piezoelectric vibratory angular rate sensors with improved metrological characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinushkin, Pavel; Bedareva, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Piezoelectric vibratory angular rate sensors are widely used in different applications. The current article presents and discusses a theoretical research of scale factor temperature drift of the piezoelectric gyroscope. Numerical simulation of scale factor temperature sensitivity using ANSYS finite element software package is also considered. The theoretical results are compared with the experimentally obtained values.

  19. Automated measurement of vocal fold vibratory asymmetry from high-speed videoendoscopy recordings

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Daryush D.; Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Quatieri, Thomas F.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In prior work, a manually derived measure of vocal fold vibratory phase asymmetry correlated to varying degrees with visual judgments made from laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) recordings. The current investigation extended upon this work by establishing an automated HSV-based framework to quantify three categories of vocal fold vibratory asymmetry. Method HSV-based analysis provided for cycle-to-cycle estimates of left-right phase asymmetry, left-right amplitude asymmetry, and axis shift during glottal closure for 52 normal speakers producing comfortable and pressed phonation. An initial cross validation of the automated left-right phase asymmetry measure was performed by correlating the measure with other objective and subjective assessments of phase asymmetry. Results Vocal fold vibratory asymmetry was exhibited to a similar extent in both comfortable and pressed phonations. The automated measure of left-right phase asymmetry strongly correlated with manually derived measures and moderately correlated with visual-perceptual ratings. Correlations with the visual-perceptual ratings remained relatively consistent as the automated measure was derived from kymograms taken at different glottal locations. Conclusions An automated HSV-based framework for the quantification of vocal fold vibratory asymmetry was developed and initially validated. This framework serves as a platform for investigating relationships between vocal fold tissue motion and acoustic measures of voice function. PMID:20699347

  20. Metallographic holding fixture permits polishing of soft metals on vibratory lapping machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matras, S.

    1966-01-01

    Circular fixture which mounts several specimens within a single turret prevents specimen smearing during grinding and polishing operations performed on a vibratory lapping machine. Each specimen is loaded individually with a weight small enough to prevent smearing but large enough to promote polishing.

  1. Beyond Faraday's crispations: nonlinear patterns of granular flow on a vibratory conveyor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Kruelle; A. Götzendorfer; J. Kreft; D. Svensek

    2009-01-01

    When granular material is shaken both in horizontal and vertical direction simultaneously, as commonly done in vibratory conveyors that are well established in routine industrial production for controlled transport of bulk solids, the transported goods can exhibit a surprisingly large variety of surface patterns. For example, if a monolayer of glass beads is vibrated in a circularly manner in a

  2. Beyond Faraday’s crispations: nonlinear patterns of granular flow on a vibratory conveyor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Kruelle; J. Kreft

    2009-01-01

    When granular material is shaken both in horizontal and vertical direction simultaneously, as commonly done in vibratory conveyors that are well established in routine industrial production for controlled transport of bulk solids, the transported goods can exhibit a surprisingly large variety of surface patterns. For example, if a monolayer of glass beads is vibrated in a circularly manner in a

  3. Theoretical and experimental study of the transport of granular materials by inclined vibratory conveyors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. Sloot; N. P. Kruyt

    1996-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was made of the conveying speed with which granular materials are transported by vibratory conveyors. The basic assumption made is that the layer of granular material can be considered as a point mass. The theory incorporates rest, slide, and flight phases of the material. Although the emphasis of this study is on the effect of

  4. On the Design of Traps for Feeding 3D Parts on Vibratory Tracks

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    ], the conveyor belt with a sequence of (stationary) fences [5, 11, 32] or pins [34] placed along its sides, the conveyor belt with a single rotational fence [2], the tilting tray [15, 27], vibratory plates [29 undergo an asymmetric helical vibration that causes the parts to move up the track, where they encounter

  5. Model-based cutting prediction for a self-vibratory drilling head - spindle system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Forestier; V. Gagnol; P. Ray

    The drilling of deep holes remains an unsatisfactory machining operation due its limited productivity. This manufacturing process requires the chips to be evacuated through the use of retreat cycles and high-pressure lubrication, which is problematic both for productivity and the respect of the environment. An alternative response to the chip evacuation problem is the use of a vibratory drilling head

  6. Robust design of a tuning fork vibratory microgyroscope considering microfabrication errors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Jiang; Guangjun Liu; Anlin Wang; Jiwei Jiao

    2008-01-01

    In order to reduce the influence of microfabrication errors on the design performance of a tuning fork vibratory micromachined gyroscope, and to enhance the performance robustness in the volume production environment, the limited key parameters with great influences on the fabricated performance stability are taken as the design variables at first, and then the constraint conditions of dimension, modal performance

  7. Clinical observations in vibratory stimulation of the penis of men with spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Szasz; Chris Carpenter

    1989-01-01

    Less than 10% of men with complete spinal cord injury experience ejaculation in intercourse. Vibratory stimulation of the penis triggers a predictable series of body reactions in most men with lessions above the thoracic 11th spinal cord level. These reactions are very similar to the physical manifestations of the sexual response in men with intact nervous systems. Between half and

  8. Research on the Signal Process of a Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning; Li, Qing; Fu, Mengyin; Liu, Hong; Fan, Junfang

    2014-01-01

    A bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell, is a kind of axisymmetric shell resonator gyroscope. Its sensitive element is a vibratory-like Chinese traditional bell, using a piezoelectric element on the wall of the vibrator to detect the standing wave's precession to solve the input angular rate. This work mainly studies the circuit system of a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro. It discusses the process of circuit system design, analysis and experiment, in detail, providing the foundation to develop a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro. Since the bell-shaped resonator's curved structure has the characteristics of large noise in the piezoelectric signal and large harmonics, this paper analyzes its working and signal detection method, then gives the whole plan of the circuit system, including the drive module, the detection module and the control loop. It also studies every part of the whole system, gives a detailed design and analysis process and proves part of the circuit system using digital simulation. At the end of the article, the test result of the circuit system shows that it can remove the disadvantages of the curved structure having large noise in the piezoelectric signal and large harmonics and is more effective at solving the input angular rate. PMID:24633451

  9. Deceptive vibratory communication: pupae of a beetle exploit the freeze response of larvae to protect themselves

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Wataru; Ishikawa, Yukio; Takanashi, Takuma

    2012-01-01

    It is argued that animal signals may have evolved so as to manipulate the response of receivers in a way that increases the fitness of the signallers. In deceptive communication, receivers incur costs by responding to false signals. Recently, we reported that pupae of the soil-inhabiting Japanese rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotoma produce vibratory signals to deter burrowing larvae, thereby protecting themselves. In the present study, monitoring of vibrations associated with larval movement revealed that T. dichotoma larvae remained motionless for ca 10 min when pupal vibratory signals were played back transiently (freeze response). Furthermore, pupal signals of T. dichotoma elicited a freeze response in three other scarabaeid species, whose pupae do not produce vibratory signals. This indicates that the freeze response to certain types of vibration evolved before the divergence of these species and has been evolutionarily conserved, presumably because of the fitness advantage in avoiding predators. Pupae of T. dichotoma have probably exploited pre-existing anti-predator responses of conspecific larvae to protect themselves by emitting deceptive vibratory signals. PMID:22675138

  10. Auditory/Vibratory Perception of Syllabic Structure in Words by Profoundly Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiser, M. Lynn; Erber, Norman P.

    1977-01-01

    Sixty monosyllabic, disyllabic, and trisyllabic words were recorded and presented at different times through earphones and vibrators to 20 normal adults and 20 profoundly hearing impaired children (ages 8 to 15 years) to evaluate perception of number of syllables. Vibratory perception by profoundly hearing impaired and normal Ss and auditory…

  11. Characterizing Vibratory Kinematics in Children and Adults with High-Speed Digital Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rita; Dubrovskiy, Denis; Döllinger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to quantify and identify characteristic vibratory motion in typically developing prepubertal children and young adults using high-speed digital imaging. Method: The vibrations of the vocal folds were recorded from 27 children (ages 5-9 years) and 35 adults (ages 21-45 years), with high speed at 4,000 frames per…

  12. Analysis of vibratory states in phonation using spectral features of the electroglottographic signal.

    PubMed

    Selamtzis, Andreas; Ternström, Sten

    2014-11-01

    The vocal folds can oscillate in several different ways, manifest to practitioners and clinicians as "registers" or "mechanisms," of which the two most often considered are modal voice and falsetto voice. Here these will be taken as instances of different "vibratory states," i.e., distinct quasi-stationary patterns of vibration of the vocal folds. State transitions are common in biomechanical nonlinear oscillators, and they are often abrupt and impossible to predict exactly. Therefore, vibratory states are a source of confounding variation, for instance when acquiring a voice range profile (VRP). In the quest for a state-based, non-invasive VRP, a semi-automatic method based on the short-term spectrum of the electroglottographic (EGG) signal was developed. The method identifies rapid vibratory state transitions, such as the modal-falsetto switch, and clusters the EGG data based on their similarities in the relative levels and phases of the lower frequency components. Productions of known modal and falsetto voice were accurately clustered by a Gaussian mixture model. When mapped into the VRP, this EGG-based clustering revealed connected regions of different vibratory sub-regimes in both modal and falsetto. PMID:25373977

  13. HELICOPTER VIBRATORY LOADS AND VIBRATIONS REDUCTION USING HIGHER-HARMONIC CONTROL

    E-print Network

    Yaman, Yavuz

    ) in rotorcraft terminol- ogy) [9]. The main idea behind HHC is to smooth the rotor aerodynamics. A rotor with a number of N equally spaced identical blades acts as a fil- ter when all the blade root loads are summedHELICOPTER VIBRATORY LOADS AND VIBRATIONS REDUCTION USING HIGHER-HARMONIC CONTROL Aykut Tamer

  14. Research on the signal process of a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhong; Liu, Ning; Li, Qing; Fu, Mengyin; Liu, Hong; Fan, Junfang

    2014-01-01

    A bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell, is a kind of axisymmetric shell resonator gyroscope. Its sensitive element is a vibratory-like Chinese traditional bell, using a piezoelectric element on the wall of the vibrator to detect the standing wave's precession to solve the input angular rate. This work mainly studies the circuit system of a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro. It discusses the process of circuit system design, analysis and experiment, in detail, providing the foundation to develop a bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro. Since the bell-shaped resonator's curved structure has the characteristics of large noise in the piezoelectric signal and large harmonics, this paper analyzes its working and signal detection method, then gives the whole plan of the circuit system, including the drive module, the detection module and the control loop. It also studies every part of the whole system, gives a detailed design and analysis process and proves part of the circuit system using digital simulation. At the end of the article, the test result of the circuit system shows that it can remove the disadvantages of the curved structure having large noise in the piezoelectric signal and large harmonics and is more effective at solving the input angular rate. PMID:24633451

  15. Laterally oscillated and force-balanced micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Y. Park; C. W. Lee; Y. S. Oh; Y. H. Cho

    1997-01-01

    A new concept micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs, where the oscillating position sensing and force balancing take place on the wafer surface, has been developed. The gyroscope consists of: a grid-type planar mass; LT shape position sense electrodes for detecting the Coriolis motion; pairs of force-balancing electrodes to improve the linearity and dynamic range; prominence

  16. Control of Vibratory Energy Harvesters in the Presence of Nonlinearities and Power-Flow Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, Ian L.

    Over the past decade, a significant amount of research activity has been devoted to developing electromechanical systems that can convert ambient mechanical vibrations into usable electric power. Such systems, referred to as vibratory energy harvesters, have a number of useful of applications, ranging in scale from self-powered wireless sensors for structural health monitoring in bridges and buildings to energy harvesting from ocean waves. One of the most challenging aspects of this technology concerns the efficient extraction and transmission of power from transducer to storage. Maximizing the rate of power extraction from vibratory energy harvesters is further complicated by the stochastic nature of the disturbance. The primary purpose of this dissertation is to develop feedback control algorithms which optimize the average power generated from stochastically-excited vibratory energy harvesters. This dissertation will illustrate the performance of various controllers using two vibratory energy harvesting systems: an electromagnetic transducer embedded within a flexible structure, and a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam. Compared with piezoelectric systems, large-scale electromagnetic systems have received much less attention in the literature despite their ability to generate power at the watt--kilowatt scale. Motivated by this observation, the first part of this dissertation focuses on developing an experimentally validated predictive model of an actively controlled electromagnetic transducer. Following this experimental analysis, linear-quadratic-Gaussian control theory is used to compute unconstrained state feedback controllers for two ideal vibratory energy harvesting systems. This theory is then augmented to account for competing objectives, nonlinearities in the harvester dynamics, and non-quadratic transmission loss models in the electronics. In many vibratory energy harvesting applications, employing a bi-directional power electronic drive to actively control the harvester is infeasible due to the high levels of parasitic power required to operate the drive. For the case where a single-directional drive is used, a constraint on the directionality of power-flow is imposed on the system, which necessitates the use of nonlinear feedback. As such, a sub-optimal controller for power-flow-constrained vibratory energy harvesters is presented, which is analytically guaranteed to outperform the optimal static admittance controller. Finally, the last section of this dissertation explores a numerical approach to compute optimal discretized control manifolds for systems with power-flow constraints. Unlike the sub-optimal nonlinear controller, the numerical controller satisfies the necessary conditions for optimality by solving the stochastic Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

  17. STRESS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Hancey

    2010-04-27

    During this activity, students will use the available resources to learn more about stress, the effects of stress and how to handle stress. This activity focuses on the Utah fifth grade health core Standard 1: The students will learn ways to improve mental health and manage stress. During this project, students are given two different scenarios and ...

  18. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I triggers specified...available to all similarly situated customers; and (ii) The price cap... (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers...

  19. Vibratory stimulation increase the electro-cutaneous sensory detection and pain thresholds in women but not in men

    PubMed Central

    Dahlin, Lisbeth; Lund, Irene; Lundeberg, Thomas; Molander, Carl

    2006-01-01

    Background Vibratory stimulation is a potential method for the treatment of pain. Methods The effect of vibration on the forearm on detection (DT) and pain thresholds (PT) induced by electro-cutaneous stimulation were investigated in healthy male and female volunteers. Results Women have lower baseline detection and pain thresholds as compared to men. Furthermore, women but not men report increased detection and pain thresholds after vibratory stimulation. Conclusion Our findings indicate the potential usefulness of vibratory stimulation for pain treatment, and that gender differences should be considered in future evaluation of the method. PMID:16719906

  20. Last Mile Distribution in Humanitarian Relief

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burcu Balcik; Benita M. Beamon; Karen Smilowitz

    2008-01-01

    Last mile distribution is the final stage of a humanitarian relief chain; it refers to delivery of relief supplies from local distribution centers (LDCs) to beneficiaries affected by disasters. In this study, we consider a vehicle-based last mile distribution system, in which an LDC stores and distributes emergency relief supplies to a number of demand locations. The main decisions are

  1. Pressure regulating and relief valve assembly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Nicholl; J. H. Leggett; J. R. Shychick

    1984-01-01

    A pressure regulating and relief valve assembly, such as an assembly positionable in a lower portion of a well casing are disclosed. The valve assembly has a main relief valve assembly or back pressure regulator that is designed to open when the steam pressure exceeds a first predetermined value. A secondary relief valve assembly is provided to vent excess pressure

  2. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.57 Acceptance of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

  3. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...for MPTs § 64.71 Marking of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

  4. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

  5. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65...HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that...

  6. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65...HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that...

  7. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65...HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that...

  8. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65...HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that...

  9. 46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65...HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that...

  10. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3...Application for Relief § 171.3 Oral presentations seeking relief. (a) For...filing a petition, may make an oral presentation seeking relief in...

  11. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...for MPTs § 64.71 Marking of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

  12. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

  13. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...for MPTs § 64.71 Marking of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

  14. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.57 Acceptance of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

  15. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...for MPTs § 64.71 Marking of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

  16. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

  17. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

  18. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...for MPTs § 64.71 Marking of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

  19. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.57 Acceptance of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

  20. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.57 Acceptance of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

  1. 46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Acceptance of pressure relief devices. 64.57 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.57 Acceptance of pressure relief devices. A pressure...

  2. 46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief...MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring...

  3. ReliefWeb Map Centre

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As a project of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, ReliefWeb has a mandate to strengthen the response capacity of the humanitarian relief community through the timely dissemination of reliable information on response, preparedness, and disaster prevention. The Map Centre page of the Web site contains links to a wealth of informative maps that carry on the organizations mandate by providing humanitarian content in cartographic form. Some of the maps available include Iraq food storage sites, Argentina flood location map, an overview of Liberian conflict, landslides in Papua New Guinea, and many more. The maps can be browsed by geographic location and subject, or searched by various parameters, making it an easy-to-use and helpful resource for anyone seeking informative maps that can be freely downloaded.

  4. UNICEF: USA Kosovo Relief Efforts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Last Friday, the US Committee for UNICEF launched a new Website dedicated to providing the latest information on humanitarian relief efforts in Kosovo and neighboring nations. The site features official UNICEF press releases on recent events, situation reports on the region's status, data on the refugee crisis, and an Alert! mailing list, which keeps subscribers up-to-date on important issues affecting the human rights of children in the Balkans and worldwide.

  5. Vibratory hub load data reduction and analysis from the reverse velocity rotor wind tunnel test, phase 2B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    The vibratory hub loads data analysis from the reverse velocity rotor wind tunnel test is reported. Vibratory loads were obtained from the rotating hub balance and also by synthesis of generalized coordinates from the blade flap bending moments. Load trends were defined as a function of speed, rotor thrust and 2 per rev cyclic from each of the data methods. These trends were compared to determine the degree of agreement between each method and provide substantiation for the generalized coordinate approach.

  6. Vibratory Loads Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Structurally Tailored Model Helicopter Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, William T., Jr.; Hamouda, M-Nabil H.; Idol, Robert F.; Mirick, Paul H.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to investigate the use of a Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) rotor structural tailoring concept, known as rotor nodalization, in conjunction with advanced blade aerodynamics as well as to evaluate rotor blade aerodynamic design methodologies. A 1/5-size, four-bladed bearingless hub, three sets of Mach-scaled model rotor blades were tested in forward flight from transition up to an advance ratio of 0.35. The data presented pertain only to the evaluation of the structural tailoring concept and consist of fixed-system and rotating system vibratory loads. These data will be useful for evaluating the effects of tailoring blade structural properties on fixed-system vibratory loads, as well as validating analyses used in the design of advanced rotor systems.

  7. Increasing the efficiency of vibratory mechanisms by exciting low-frequency resonance vibrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Antipov; V. V. Efremenkov; A. A. Ruin; K. Yu. Subbotin

    2007-01-01

    The problems of increasing the operating efficiency of vibratory mechanisms by means of multiple combination parametric resonance\\u000a are examined. It is proposed that this can be done with a parametric vibration exciter where the driving force is generated\\u000a by the interaction of masses, which rock in the centrifugal inertial force field generated by a rotating rotor and in the\\u000a field

  8. Mechanical Assessment of the Drep Shield Subject to Vibratory Motion and Dynamic and Static Rock Loading

    SciTech Connect

    R.C. Quittmeyer

    2005-11-16

    The purpose of the drip shield (DS) is to divert water that may seep into emplacement drifts from contacting the waste packages, and to protect the waste packages from impact or static loading from rockfall. The objective of this document is to summarize, into one location, the results of a series of supporting engineering calculations that were developed to study the effect of static and dynamic loads on the mechanical performance of the DS. The potential DS loads are a result of: (1) Potential earthquake vibratory ground motion, and resulting interaction of the DS, waste package and pallet, and drift invert; (2) Dynamic impacts of rockfall resulting from emplacement drift damage as a result of earthquake vibratory motion; and (3) Static load of the caved rock rubble that may come to rest on the DS as a result of vibratory motion or from time-dependent yielding of the rock mass surrounding the emplacement drift. The potential mechanical failure mechanisms that may result from these loads include: (1) Overturning and/or separation of the interlocking DS segments; (2) Loss of structural integrity and stability of the DS, including excessive deformation or buckling; and (3) Localized damage to the top and side-wall plates of the DS. The scope of this document is limited to summarizing results presented in the supporting calculations in the areas of analysis of the potential for DS collapse, and determination of the damaged surface area of the DS plates. New calculations are presented to determine whether or not separation of DSs occur under vibratory motion.

  9. Balance control and adaptation during vibratory perturbations in middle-aged and elderly humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P.-A. Fransson; E. K. Kristinsdottir; A. Hafström; M. Magnusson; R. Johansson

    2004-01-01

    The objective was to investigate if healthy elderly people respond and adapt differently to postural disturbances compared to middle-aged people. Thirty middle-aged (mean age 37.8 years, range 24–56 years) and forty healthy elderly subjects (mean age 74.6 years, range 66–88 years) were tested with posturography. Body sway was evoked by applying pseudorandom vibratory stimulation to the belly of the gastrocnemius muscles of both legs

  10. Teleoperation of steerable flexible needles by combining kinesthetic and vibratory feedback.

    PubMed

    Pacchierotti, Claudio; Abayazid, Momen; Misra, Sarthak; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Needle insertion in soft-tissue is a minimally invasive surgical procedure that demands high accuracy. In this respect, robotic systems with autonomous control algorithms have been exploited as the main tool to achieve high accuracy and reliability. However, for reasons of safety and responsibility, autonomous robotic control is often not desirable. Therefore, it is necessary to focus also on techniques enabling clinicians to directly control the motion of the surgical tools. In this work, we address that challenge and present a novel teleoperated robotic system able to steer flexible needles. The proposed system tracks the position of the needle using an ultrasound imaging system and computes needle's ideal position and orientation to reach a given target. The master haptic interface then provides the clinician with mixed kinesthetic-vibratory navigation cues to guide the needle toward the computed ideal position and orientation. Twenty participants carried out an experiment of teleoperated needle insertion into a soft-tissue phantom, considering four different experimental conditions. Participants were provided with either mixed kinesthetic-vibratory feedback or mixed kinesthetic-visual feedback. Moreover, we considered two different ways of computing ideal position and orientation of the needle: with or without set-points. Vibratory feedback was found more effective than visual feedback in conveying navigation cues, with a mean targeting error of 0.72 mm when using set-points, and of 1.10 mm without set-points. PMID:25265614

  11. Stress

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Deaton

    2011-06-10

    This project collects resources for studying mental health and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. Watch the following video for positive things teens do to reduce the stress ...

  12. Temporal processing of vibratory communication signals at the level of ascending interneurons in Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Zorovi?, Maja

    2011-01-01

    During mating, males and females of N. viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) produce sex- and species-specific calling and courtship substrate-borne vibratory signals, grouped into songs. Recognition and localization of these signals are fundamental for successful mating. The recognition is mainly based on the temporal pattern, i.e. the amplitude modulation, while the frequency spectrum of the signals usually only plays a minor role. We examined the temporal selectivity for vibratory signals in four types of ascending vibratory interneurons in N. viridula. Using intracellular recording and labelling technique, we analyzed the neurons' responses to 30 pulse duration/interval duration (PD/ID) combinations. Two response arrays were created for each neuron type, showing the intensity of the responses either as time-averaged spike counts or as peak instantaneous spike rates. The mean spike rate response arrays showed preference of the neurons for short PDs (below 600 ms) and no selectivity towards interval duration; while the peak spike rate response arrays exhibited either short PD/long ID selectivity or no selectivity at all. The long PD/short ID combinations elicited the weakest responses in all neurons tested. No response arrays showed the receiver preference for either constant period or duty cycle. The vibratory song pattern selectivity matched the PD of N. viridula male vibratory signals, thus pointing to temporal filtering for the conspecific vibratory signals already at level of the ascending interneurons. In some neurons the responses elicited by the vibratory stimuli were followed by distinct, regular oscillations of the membrane potential. The distance between the oscillation peaks matched the temporal structure of the male calling song, indicating a possible resonance based mechanism for signal recognition. PMID:22053216

  13. Temporal Processing of Vibratory Communication Signals at the Level of Ascending Interneurons in Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zorovi?, Maja

    2011-01-01

    During mating, males and females of N. viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) produce sex- and species-specific calling and courtship substrate-borne vibratory signals, grouped into songs. Recognition and localization of these signals are fundamental for successful mating. The recognition is mainly based on the temporal pattern, i.e. the amplitude modulation, while the frequency spectrum of the signals usually only plays a minor role. We examined the temporal selectivity for vibratory signals in four types of ascending vibratory interneurons in N. viridula. Using intracellular recording and labelling technique, we analyzed the neurons' responses to 30 pulse duration/interval duration (PD/ID) combinations. Two response arrays were created for each neuron type, showing the intensity of the responses either as time-averaged spike counts or as peak instantaneous spike rates. The mean spike rate response arrays showed preference of the neurons for short PDs (below 600 ms) and no selectivity towards interval duration; while the peak spike rate response arrays exhibited either short PD/long ID selectivity or no selectivity at all. The long PD/short ID combinations elicited the weakest responses in all neurons tested. No response arrays showed the receiver preference for either constant period or duty cycle. The vibratory song pattern selectivity matched the PD of N. viridula male vibratory signals, thus pointing to temporal filtering for the conspecific vibratory signals already at level of the ascending interneurons. In some neurons the responses elicited by the vibratory stimuli were followed by distinct, regular oscillations of the membrane potential. The distance between the oscillation peaks matched the temporal structure of the male calling song, indicating a possible resonance based mechanism for signal recognition. PMID:22053216

  14. Stress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... higher blood glucose levels in people with either type of diabetes. It's easy to find out whether mental stress affects your glucose control. Before checking your glucose levels, write down a number rating ...

  15. Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 158 km (98 miles) x 122 km (77 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North approximately at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

  16. Vibratory sources as compound stimuli for the octavolateralis systems: Dissection of specific stimulation channels using multiple behavioral approaches

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Christopher B.; Coombs, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    An underwater vibratory source simultaneously presents acoustic and hydrodynamic disturbances. Because vibratory dipole sources are poor sonic projectors, most researchers have assumed that such sources are of greatest relevance to the lateral line system (LL). Both hydroacoustic principles and empirical studies have shown that vibratory dipole sources are also a potent stimulus to the inner ear of fishes. Responses to vibratory sources in mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi) were assessed using unconditioned orienting, differential and non-differential-classical conditioning. Orienting responses are dominated by LL inputs and eliminated by LL pharmacological inactivation. Simple conditioning depends on inputs from other systems and was not affected by LL inactivation. Differential conditioning alters behavioral control, and sculpin could be conditioned to ignore substrate borne vibrations and respond only to hydroacoustic stimulation of the ear. The lateral line and inner ear of mottled sculpin do not necessarily exhibit range fractionation, as both systems operate over a similar distance from the animal (within 1.5 body lengths) and respond to many of the same sources. Vibratory dipole sources generate compound stimuli that simultaneously activate multiple octavolateralis systems, and animals make use of the channels differentially under different behavioral tasks. PMID:20384404

  17. Bathymetry, Topography, and Relief Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Geophysical Data Center

    This extensive site from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center provides a collection of bathymetry, topography, and relief data from a variety of sources and environments including coastlines, the Great Lakes, and the seafloor. The site also features the National Ocean Service (NOS) hydrographic database. Some images and data can be downloaded at no charge, while others may be purchased on CD-ROM or DVD. The site can be searched for downloadable data using the GEODAS Data Search and Retrieval System. Data products from NOS surveys, including Descriptive Reports (DRs), smooth sheet images, survey data images, textual gridded data, and sidescan sonar mosaics, are available for download using the National Ocean Service Hydrographic Survey Data Map Service, an ArcIMS interactive map and data discovery tool.

  18. OXYCODONE COMBINATIONS FOR PAIN RELIEF

    PubMed Central

    Raffa, R.B.; Pergolizzi, J.V.; Segarnick, D.J.; Tallarida, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY No single analgesic drug provides the perfect therapeutic/adverse effect profile for every pain condition. In addition to convenience and possibly improved compliance, a combination of analgesic drugs offers the potential, requiring verification, of providing greater pain relief and/or reduced adverse effects than the constituent drugs when used individually. We review here analgesic combinations containing oxycodone. We found surprisingly little preclinical information about the analgesic or adverse effect profiles of the combinations (with acetaminophen, paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, morphine, gabapentin or pregabalin). Clinical experience and studies suggest that the combinations are safe and effective and may offer certain advantages. As with all combinations, the profile of adverse effects must also be determined in order to provide the clinician with the overall benefit/risk assessment. PMID:20571607

  19. Inexpensive tamper proof safety relief valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankewich, P. A.

    1970-01-01

    Basic relief valve has added safety relief valve capability that relieves overpressure before failure can occur. It may be installed in inaccesible areas with a high degree of reliability, constructed from a variety of materials, and adapted to the user's specific application.

  20. Analysis of inservice inspection relief requests

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require inspection (ISI) of boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power plants be performed in accordance with a referenced edition and addenda of Section XI, ``Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components,`` of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The regulations permit licensees to request relief from the NRC from specific ASME Code requirements that are determined to be impractical for the specific licensee. The NRC evaluates these requests and may grant such relief, but the NRC may also impose alternative or augmented inspections to assure structural reliability. The purpose,of this task was to evaluate the basis for ISI nondestructive examination (NDE) relief requests and to evaluate the effect of proposed ASME Code changes that would reduce the need for such requests or provide for more complete information in relief requests. This report contains the results of an analysis of an ISI relief request data base that has been expanded to include 1195 ISI relief requests versus the 296 relief requests covered in the first report in April 1987, EGG-SD-7430. Also relief requests were added to the data base which came from both first and second 10-year inspection intervals for several facilities. This provided the means to analyze the effect of recently approved ASME Code cases and updated Code requirements, some of which have been published as a result of earlier work on this task.

  1. High-performance micromachined vibratory rate- and rate-integrating gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jae Yoong

    The performance of vibratory micromachined gyroscopes has been continuously improving for the past two decades. However, to further improve performance of the MEMS gyroscope in harsh environment, it is necessary for gyros to reduce the sensitivity to environmental parameters, including vibration and temperature change. In addition, conventional rate-mode MEMS gyroscopes have limitation in performance due to tradeoff between resolution, bandwidth, and full-scale range. In this research, we aim to reduce vibration sensitivity by developing gyros that operate in the balanced mode. The balanced mode creates zero net momentum and reduces energy loss through an anchor. The gyro can differentially cancel measurement errors from external vibration along both sensor axes. The vibration sensitivity of the balanced-mode gyroscope including structural imbalance from microfabrication reduces as the absolute difference between in-phase parasitic mode and operating mode frequencies increases. The parasitic sensing mode frequency is designed larger than the operating mode frequency to achieve both improved vibration insensitivity and shock resistivity. A single anchor is used in order to minimize thermoresidual stress change. We developed two gyroscope based on these design principles. The Balanced Oscillating Gyro (BOG) is a quad-mass tuning-fork rate gyroscope. The relationship between gyro design and modal characteristics is studied extensively using finite element method (FEM). The gyro is fabricated using the planar Si-on-glass (SOG) process with a device thickness of 100microm. The BOG is evaluated using the first-generation analog interface circuitry. Under a frequency mismatch of 5Hz between driving and sense modes, the angle random walk (ARW) is measured to be 0.44°/sec/?Hz. The performance is limited by quadrature error and low-frequency noise in the circuit. The Cylindrical Rate-Integrating Gyroscope (CING) operates in whole-angle mode. The gyro is completely axisymmetric and self-aligned to maximize mechanical isotropy. The gyro offers a large frequency ratio of ˜1.7 between parasitic and the wineglass modes. The CING is fabricated using the 3D Si-on-glass (SOG) process with a device thickness of 300microm. The 1st and 2nd generation CINGs operate at 18kHz and 3kHz, respectively and demonstrate a frequency mismatch of < 1% and a large Q (˜20,000 at 18kHz and ˜100,000 at 3kHz under exact mode matching). In the rate-sensing mode, the first-generation CING (18kHz) demonstrates an Ag of 0.05, an angle random walk (ARW) of 7°/?hr, and a bias stability of 72°/hr without temperature compensation. The performance is limited by the Ag, white noise in the phase-lock loop (PLL) in the interface circuitry, and temperature control. In the rate-sensing mode, the second-generation CING measures an Ag of 0.0065, an ARW of 0.09°/?hr, and a bias stability of 129°/hr without temperature compensation. The performance is limited by A g and XXVI temperature compensation. In the rate-integration mode, the gyro demonstrates precession with an Ag of 0.011+/-0.001 under a frequency mismatch of 20˜80mHz during several hours of operation.

  2. 30 CFR 44.16 - Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order...Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order...the temporary relief shall remain in effect until modified, affirmed or set...

  3. Unilateral contact induced blade/casing vibratory interactions in impellers: Analysis for rigid casings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batailly, Alain; Meingast, Markus; Legrand, Mathias

    2015-02-01

    This contribution addresses the vibratory analysis of unilateral-contact induced structural interactions between a bladed impeller and its surrounding rigid casing. Such assemblies can be found in helicopter or small aircraft engines for instance and the interactions of interest shall arise due to the always tighter operating clearances between the rotating and stationary components. The investigation is conducted by extending to cyclically symmetric structures an in-house time-marching based tool dedicated to unilateral contact occurrences in turbomachines. The main components of the considered impeller together with the associated assumptions and modelling principles considered in this work are detailed. Typical dynamical features of cyclically symmetric structures, such as the aliasing effect and frequency clustering are explored in this nonlinear framework by means of thorough frequency-domain analyses and harmonic trackings of the numerically predicted impeller displacements. Additional contact maps highlight the existence of critical rotational velocities at which displacements potentially reach high amplitudes due to the synchronization of the bladed assembly vibratory pattern with the shape of the rigid casing. The proposed numerical investigations are also compared to a simpler and (almost) empirical criterion: it is suggested, based on nonlinear numerical simulations with a linear reduced order model of the impeller and a rigid casing, that this criterion may miss important critical velocities emanating from the unfavorable combination of aliasing and contact-induced higher harmonics in the vibratory response of the impeller. Overall, this work suggests a way to enhance guidelines to improve the design of impellers in the context of nonlinear and nonsmooth dynamics.

  4. Mating Behaviour and Vibratory Signalling in Non-Hearing Cave Crickets Reflect Primitive Communication of Ensifera

    PubMed Central

    Stritih, Nataša; ?okl, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    In Ensifera, the lack of well-supported phylogeny and the focus on acoustic communication of the terminal taxa hinders understanding of the evolutionary history of their signalling behaviour and the related sensory structures. For Rhaphidophoridae, the most relic of ensiferans following morphology-based phylogenies, the signalling modes are still unknown. Together with a detailed description of their mating process, we provide evidence on vibratory signalling for the sympatric European species Troglophilus neglectus and T. cavicola. Despite their temporal shift in reproduction, the species’ behaviours differ significantly. Signalling by abdominal vibration constitutes an obligatory part of courtship in T. neglectus, while it is absent in T. cavicola. Whole-body vibration is expressed after copulation in both species. While courtship signalling appears to stimulate females for mating, the function of post-copulation signals remains unclear. Mating and signalling of both species were found to take place in most cases on bark, and less frequently on other available substrates, like moss and rock. The signals’ frequency spectra were substrate dependent, but with the dominant peak always expressed below 120 Hz. On rock, the intensity of T. neglectus courtship signals was below the species’ physiological detection range, presumably constraining the evolution of such signalling in caves. The species’ behavioural divergence appears to reflect their divergent mating habitats, in and outside caves. We propose that short-range tremulation signalling in courtship, such as is expressed by T. neglectus, represents the primitive mode and context of mechanical signalling in Ensifera. The absence of high-frequency components in the signals may be related to the absence of the crista acoustica homologue (CAH) in the vibratory tibial organ of Rhaphidophoridae. This indirectly supports the hypothesis proposing that the CAH, as an evolutionary precursor of the ear, evolved in Ensifera along the (more) complex vibratory communication, also associated with signals of higher carrier frequency. PMID:23094071

  5. Mating behaviour and vibratory signalling in non-hearing cave crickets reflect primitive communication of Ensifera.

    PubMed

    Stritih, Nataša; ?okl, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    In Ensifera, the lack of well-supported phylogeny and the focus on acoustic communication of the terminal taxa hinders understanding of the evolutionary history of their signalling behaviour and the related sensory structures. For Rhaphidophoridae, the most relic of ensiferans following morphology-based phylogenies, the signalling modes are still unknown. Together with a detailed description of their mating process, we provide evidence on vibratory signalling for the sympatric European species Troglophilus neglectus and T. cavicola. Despite their temporal shift in reproduction, the species' behaviours differ significantly. Signalling by abdominal vibration constitutes an obligatory part of courtship in T. neglectus, while it is absent in T. cavicola. Whole-body vibration is expressed after copulation in both species. While courtship signalling appears to stimulate females for mating, the function of post-copulation signals remains unclear. Mating and signalling of both species were found to take place in most cases on bark, and less frequently on other available substrates, like moss and rock. The signals' frequency spectra were substrate dependent, but with the dominant peak always expressed below 120 Hz. On rock, the intensity of T. neglectus courtship signals was below the species' physiological detection range, presumably constraining the evolution of such signalling in caves. The species' behavioural divergence appears to reflect their divergent mating habitats, in and outside caves. We propose that short-range tremulation signalling in courtship, such as is expressed by T. neglectus, represents the primitive mode and context of mechanical signalling in Ensifera. The absence of high-frequency components in the signals may be related to the absence of the crista acoustica homologue (CAH) in the vibratory tibial organ of Rhaphidophoridae. This indirectly supports the hypothesis proposing that the CAH, as an evolutionary precursor of the ear, evolved in Ensifera along the (more) complex vibratory communication, also associated with signals of higher carrier frequency. PMID:23094071

  6. Automated relief representation for visualisation of archaeological monuments and other

    E-print Network

    Automated relief representation for visualisation of archaeological monuments and other (such as road and rail embankments). The traditional method of relief representation within archae of representation--superior in specific circumstances, to alternatives such as contours and relief shading. However

  7. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178...Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with §...

  8. 49 CFR 178.348-4 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.348-4 Section 178...Vehicle Transportation § 178.348-4 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure and vacuum relief system in...

  9. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178...Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with §...

  10. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178...Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with §...

  11. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178...Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with §...

  12. Reconstruction of Dislocation Potential Relief by Means of Self-Blocking Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B. A., E-mail: bella@imp.uran.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division (Russian Federation); Ivanov, M. A., E-mail: ivanov@imp.kiev.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kurdjumov Institute of Metal Physics (Ukraine); Plotnikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-15

    The effect of dislocation self-blocking in intermetallic compounds with an anomalous temperature dependence of yield stress has been theoretically and experimentally analyzed. In essence, this effect is a dislocation self-immersion in a deep potential relief valley (without external stress). The possibility of reconstructing the relief shape (from one-valley to two-valley) is shown and the relief parameters are reported. The allowed and forbidden regions for self-blocking are revealed. The method for determining the ratio of the valley depths by measuring the self-blocking limiting angles between the dislocation segments is proposed. Transmission electron microscopy images of the dislocation structure can be used to this end. As an example, this ratio is estimated for a superpartial dislocation sliding in the cube plane in Ni{sub 3}Ge.

  13. Relief of Pain and Suffering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    The symposium and exhibit titled Pain and Suffering in History - Narrative Science, Medicine and Culture marks the dedication of the John C. Liebeskind History of Pain Collection at the Louise M. Darling Biomedical Library, UCLA. The Relief of Pain and Suffering site, prepared in conjunction with the aforementioned symposium and exhibit, gives us plenty for which to be thankful in terms of advancements in the area of pain management. Tracing the modern roots of this field back to the nineteenth century and earlier, users can view historical pictures of botanicals, tools, and early writings all related to the alleviation of pain and suffering. Descriptions of syndromes like phantom limbs and causalgia abound as users travel towards the 21st century. Modern methods discussed include interdisciplinary team approaches to pain management and the Hospice movement's philosophies on pain treatment. Users can navigate the site in a variety of ways: through a series of topical links off of the main page, by moving through the site using arrow buttons, or through an index of illustrations and keywords. A final page of links to professional organizations related to the field nicely rounds out the site.

  14. Local shape of pictorial relief

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-01-01

    How is pictorial relief represented in visual awareness? Certainly not as a “depth map,” but perhaps as a map of local surface attitudes (Koenderink & van Doorn, 1995). Here we consider the possibility that observers might instead, or concurrently, represent local surface shape, a geometrical invariant with respect to motions. Observers judge local surface shape, in a picture of a piece of sculpture, on a five-point categorical scale. Categories are cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup–flat, where “flat” denotes the absence of shape. We find that observers readily perform such a task, with full resolution of a shape index scale (cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup), and with excellent self-consistency over days. There exist remarkable inter-observer differences. Over a group of 10 naive observers we find that the dispersion of judgments peaks at the saddle category. There may be a relation of this finding to the history of the topic—Alberti's (1827) omission of the saddle category in his purportedly exhaustive catalog of local surface shapes. PMID:25469225

  15. Local shape of pictorial relief.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-01-01

    How is pictorial relief represented in visual awareness? Certainly not as a "depth map," but perhaps as a map of local surface attitudes (Koenderink & van Doorn, 1995). Here we consider the possibility that observers might instead, or concurrently, represent local surface shape, a geometrical invariant with respect to motions. Observers judge local surface shape, in a picture of a piece of sculpture, on a five-point categorical scale. Categories are cap-ridge-saddle-rut-cup-flat, where "flat" denotes the absence of shape. We find that observers readily perform such a task, with full resolution of a shape index scale (cap-ridge-saddle-rut-cup), and with excellent self-consistency over days. There exist remarkable inter-observer differences. Over a group of 10 naive observers we find that the dispersion of judgments peaks at the saddle category. There may be a relation of this finding to the history of the topic-Alberti's (1827) omission of the saddle category in his purportedly exhaustive catalog of local surface shapes. PMID:25469225

  16. A numerical 2D simulation of part motion in vibratory bowl feeders by discrete element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafizadeh, H.; Ziaei-Rad, S.

    2013-06-01

    Vibratory bowl feeder is known as one of the major machines in automatic assembly. The feeding parts in a vibratory bowl feeder are experiencing repeated impacts with friction that can be considered as a typical non-linear dynamic problem. In this paper, a 2D numerical model based on discrete element method has been developed to perform a more accurate investigation on the dynamic behavior of a feeding part. In contrast to previous researches, it was assumed that the feeding part was not a point mass, instead, a rectangular shape that can rotate and have three degrees of freedom. By performing the simulation for various vibration amplitudes, a good degree of agreement was observed between calculated data and the experimental data reported in the literature. It was shown that, depending on the vibration amplitude, the graph of mean conveying velocity versus amplitude was composed of three distinct regions. It was found that while the coefficient of friction mostly affects the conveying velocity in sliding regime, it did not have a significant effect on the conveying velocity after a critical point in hopping regime. The mean conveying velocity was dependent on the part shape and vibration angle. The proposed model is capable of demonstrating both the periodic and chaotic behavior of the feeding part.

  17. Structural-Acoustic Coupling Effects on the Non-Vacuum Packaging Vibratory Cylinder Gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Wu, Yulie; Zhang, Yongmeng; Tao, Yi; Zheng, Yu; Xiao, Dingbang

    2013-01-01

    The resonant shells of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes are commonly packaged in metallic caps. In order to lower the production cost, a portion of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes do not employ vacuum packaging. However, under non-vacuum packaging conditions there can be internal acoustic noise leading to considerable acoustic pressure which is exerted on the resonant shell. Based on the theory of the structural-acoustic coupling, the dynamical behavior of the resonant shell under acoustic pressure is presented in this paper. A finite element (FE) model is introduced to quantitatively analyze the effect of the structural-acoustic coupling. Several main factors, such as sealing cap sizes and degree of vacuum which directly affect the vibration of the resonant shell, are studied. The results indicate that the vibration amplitude and the operating frequency of the resonant shell will be changed when the effect of structural-acoustic coupling is taken into account. In addition, an experiment was set up to study the effect of structural-acoustic coupling on the sensitivity of the gyroscope. A 32.4 mV/°/s increase of the scale factor and a 6.2 Hz variation of the operating frequency were observed when the radial gap size between the resonant shell and the sealing cap was changed from 0.5 mm to 20 mm. PMID:24351631

  18. Dispersive and non-dispersive waves through plants: implications for arthropod vibratory communication

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Jérôme; Magal, Christelle; Sueur, Jérôme

    2007-01-01

    Vibratory communication in arthropods is a widespread phenomenon. Arthropods living on plants have been reported to use only dispersive bending waves in the context of prey–predator, competition, social and sexual interactions. Differences in signal structure have also been postulated to work as species recognition mechanisms and speciation agents. Using two identical laser Doppler vibrometers and a wavelet analysis, we quantified the wave propagation modes in rush stems (Juncus effusus) over the whole range of frequencies used by arthropods. A non-dimensionalized analysis shows that mechanical waves propagate not only as dispersive bending waves, but also as non-dispersive waves. Our analysis implies that an arthropod can communicate through non-dispersive bending waves by either producing signals of high frequencies or by choosing large stems, two widely different options tapping into the physiological and the behavioural repertoires, respectively. Non-dispersive waves, unreported so far in insect vibratory communication in plants, present serious advantages over dispersive bending waves in terms of signal integrity and may well be much more widely used than anticipated, in particular for species recognition. PMID:17284408

  19. A Study of the Temperature Characteristics of Vibration Mode Axes for Vibratory Cylinder Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yulie; Xi, Xiang; Tao, Yi; Wu, Xiaomei; Wu, Xuezhong

    2011-01-01

    The zero bias stability, which is an important performance parameter for vibratory cylinder gyroscopes, is high sensitive to temperature change. It is considered that the varying temperature makes the vibration mode axes unstable, which has significant influence on the zero bias stability. This paper will investigate this problem in detail. First, the relationships between the angular positions of vibration mode axes and the zero bias are analyzed. Secondly, the thermal-modal model of the cylinder resonator with several defects such as mass imbalance, frequency split (FS), and geometry errors are developed by ANSYS. Simulation results show that with the increase of temperature, angular positions of the vibration mode axes obviously change, which leads to a dramatic zero bias drift. Finally, several major influence factors on the angular position stability of vibration mode axes, including frequency split, geometry errors, thermal elastic modulus coefficient (TEMC) and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) are analyzed in detail. Simulation results in this paper will be helpful for deep understanding of the drift principle of zero bias induced by temperature for vibratory cylinder gyroscopes and also be helpful for further temperature compensation or control. PMID:22164038

  20. Effect On The Processing Characteristics Of ZnO Varistors Produced Using Vibratory Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelleher, M. C.; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Each manufacturing stage in the production of zinc oxide varistors from powder preparation to the final encapsulated device is important not only for the formation of the varistor component with optimum microstructure and thus electrical characteristics but also for avoiding the introduction of flaws and reduced yield. In this paper the authors describe and discuss the effect of multi-elemental oxide additives having been milled for different durations using a vibratory mill with cylindrical zirconia media on the powder characteristics of the subsequent processing stages. A commercial ZnO varistor formulation was used. The subsequent processing stages that are given particular attention include first spray drying and second milling. The characteristics include agglomerate size, powder density and elemental uniformity of the first spray-dried powders, and particle size, specific surface area, zirconium concentration and pore size of the second milled powders. They were evaluated using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopic, mercury porosimetry, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. Some interesting correlations are observed between the powder properties and vibratory milling durations of the mixed metal oxide additives (MMOA).

  1. An Overview of A Perturbation Analysis for Uni-directionally Coupled Vibratory Gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Huy; Palacios, Antonio; In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Neff, Joseph

    2011-04-01

    The complex behaviours of gyroscope systems have been scientifically researched and thoroughly studied for decades. Most of scientific research involving gyroscopes specifically concentrates on studying the designs and fabrications at the circuitry level. Although gaining a recent popularity with the low cost of MEMS device that offers an attractive approach for gyroscope fabrications, its performance is far from meeting the requirements for an inertial grade guidance system. To improve the performance, our current research is theoretically focusing upon investigating the dynamics of vibratory gyroscopes coupled in a ring configuration. Particularly, a certain topology of arrangements among coupled gyroscopes can be designed and studied to enhance robustness. The main operation depends mostly on an external source for a stable oscillation in the drive axis, while an oscillatory motion in the sense axis, which is used to detect an angular rate of rotation, is enabled through the transfers of energy from the drive via the Coriolis force. With the mathematical model depicted as Duffing oscillators, however, by adding a certain coupling among gyroscopes, a similar behavior to a Duffing oscillator is expected, only with more complicated dynamics at a higher dimension. A number of Perturbation methods have popularly been carried out, to seek for a general asymptotic solution of typical Duffing oscillators. In this work as an overview, the two-time scale Perturbation expansion is asymptotically applied on the uni-directionally coupled vibratory gyroscopes to find an analytical solution which is then compared to the numerical one.

  2. Trauma Exposure and PTSD Symptoms in International Relief and Development Personnel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia B. Eriksson; Hendrika Vande Kemp; Richard Gorsuch; Stephen Hoke; David W. Foy

    2001-01-01

    International relief and development personnel may be directly or indirectly exposed to traumatic events that put them at risk for developing symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In order to identify areas of risk and related reactions, surveys were administered to 113 recently returned staff from 5 humanitarian aid agencies. Respondents reported high rates of direct and indirect exposure to

  3. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...1614.505 Section 1614.505 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.505 Interim relief....

  4. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...1614.505 Section 1614.505 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.505 Interim relief....

  5. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...1614.505 Section 1614.505 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.505 Interim relief....

  6. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...1614.505 Section 1614.505 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.505 Interim relief....

  7. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...1614.505 Section 1614.505 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.505 Interim relief....

  8. Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery

    MedlinePLUS

    PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery This handout is for informational purposes only. Talk with your doctor or health care team if you have any questions about ...

  9. Epistasis analysis using ReliefF.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    Here we introduce the ReliefF machine learning algorithm and some of its extensions for detecting and characterizing epistasis in genetic association studies. We provide a general overview of the method and then highlight some of the modifications that have greatly improved its power for genetic analysis. We end with a few examples of published studies of complex human diseases that have used ReliefF. PMID:25403540

  10. Rain Hampers Tsunami Relief Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The cleanup and relief efforts from the recent tsunamis continue in coastal communities that were ravaged by the waves all across the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains have further complicated the matter and added to the misery in parts of eastern Sri Lanka. Between December 28, 2004, and January 5, 2005, up to 10 to 15 inches of rain may have fallen along the southeast coast of the island, and as much as 20 inches (red areas) fell just offshore. This rainfall map was created by the TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which monitors rainfall over the global tropics. The map shows that many other regions around the Indian Ocean were also affected by the rains, including Malaysia and parts of Sumatra. The heaviest rains fell on December 31 and January 4. The rains were likely the result of a combination of the northeast monsoon interacting with the topography and an active phase of what is known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (or 30-60 day oscillation). The MJO is a large-scale disturbance that propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean into the West Pacific Ocean, bringing extended periods of unsettled weather with it. Individual convective complexes within the MJO can last on the order of a day. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. NASA image produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) and caption by Steve Lang (SSAI/NASA GSFC).

  11. Menopause: Symptom Relief and Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of menopause and tips for dealing with them. Hot flashes Try to notice what triggers your hot flashes and avoid those things. Possible triggers to ... foods, alcohol, caffeine, stress, or being in a hot place. Dress in layers and remove some when ...

  12. Application of Computer Modelling Technique to the Study of the Effect of Vibratory Rooftop Equipment on Indoor Acoustical Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Jiang; C. M. Mak

    2003-01-01

    Despite the benefits of thermal comfort provided by rooftop equipment such as air-conditioning equipment, vibratory equipment can cause problems in indoor acoustical environment. The building structure where the rooftop equipment is placed vibrates and emits sound into indoor space. Although considerable engineering works such as installation of vibration isolators are employed, the amount of the sound emitted by the building

  13. Authority in Online Disaster Relief Communities 1 Running Head: AUTHORITY IN ONLINE DISASTER RELIEF COMMUNITIES

    E-print Network

    Kiesler, Sara

    COMMUNITIES Approaches to Authority in Online Disaster Relief Communities after Hurricane Katrina Cristen study of distributed networks of volunteers that emerged online following Hurricane Katrina. Online Disaster Relief Communities after Hurricane Katrina Hurricane Katrina flooded 80% of New Orleans and left

  14. Understanding the role of nonlinearities in the transduction of vibratory energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masana, Ravindra Shiva Charan

    The last two decades have witnessed several advances in micro-fabrication technologies and electronics, leading to the development of small, low-power devices for wireless sensing, data transmission, actuation, and medical implants. Unfortunately, the actual implementation of such devices in their respective environment has been hindered by the lack of scalable energy sources that are necessary to power and maintain them. Batteries, which remain the most commonly used power source, have not kept pace with the demands of these devices, especially in terms of energy density. In light of this challenge, the concept of vibratory energy harvesting has flourished in recent years as a possible alternative to power and maintain low-power electronics. While linear vibratory energy harvesters have received the majority of the literature's attention, a significant body of the current research activity is focused on the concept of purposeful inclusion of nonlinearities for broadband transduction. When compared to their linear resonant counterparts, nonlinear energy harvesters have a wider steady-state frequency bandwidth, leading to the common belief that they can be utilized to improve performance especially in random and non-stationary vibratory environments. This dissertation aims to critically investigate this belief by drawing a clearer picture of the role of nonlinearities in the transduction of energy harvesters and by defining the conditions under which nonlinearities can be used to enhance performance. To achieve this goal, the Thesis is divided into three parts. The first part investigates the performance of mono- and bi-stable energy harvesters under harmonic excitations and carries a detailed analysis of their relative performance. The second part investigates their response to broadband and narrowband random excitations and again analyzes their relative behavior. The third part exploits the super-harmonic resonance bands of bi-stable energy harvesters for the purpose of scavenging energy from low-frequency excitations. As a platform to achieve the Thesis objectives, a piezoelectric energy harvester consisting of an axially loaded clamped-clamped beam bi-morph is considered. The harvester can operate with mono- (pre-buckling) and bi-stable (post-buckling) characteristics with minimal alterations to the design. Theoretical and experimental studies performed on the proposed harvester are presented to delineate the influence of the nonlinearity on its performance, in particular, and nonlinear vibratory energy harvesters in general. It is demonstrated that the intentional inclusion of nonlinearities in energy harvesters makes these devices more tolerant to variations in the excitation and design parameters around their nominal values as compared to a linear device. However, the Thesis also pointed out many issues that can result from the complexity and non-uniqueness of solutions associated with nonlinear systems. It became apparent that the performance of a nonlinear energy harvester is very much dependent on the level and nature of the excitation in conjunction with the potential shape of the harvester. This makes developing direct performance metrics, similar to what has been done for linear harvesters, a challenging problem which should constitute a major avenue of future research efforts.

  15. An untethered shoe with vibratory feedback for improving gait of Parkinson's patients: the PDShoe.

    PubMed

    Winfree, Kyle N; Pretzer-Aboff, Ingrid; Hilgart, David; Aggarwal, Rajeev; Behari, Madhuri; Agrawal, Sunil

    2012-01-01

    Subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have trouble with ambulation. Some research has shown that auxiliary cueing in the form of vision, audio, or vibration can improve the gait of PD patients. We have developed a new vibratory feedback shoe, known as the PDShoe, which builds on existing research. This device can modulate both frequency and amplitude of feedback for the wearer. It is untethered, and thus can be worn during daily activities. Pressure and tactor status data are transmitted wirelessly over a personal area network to a notebook computer. This computer can also control the tactor actuation and stimulation frequency. This paper describes the details of design and construction of the PDShoe. A preliminary evaluation with four Parkinson's disease subjects and two healthy subjects is included to show the usability of the device. PMID:23366113

  16. Sectioning of contaminated components for decontamination by vibratory finishing and electropolishing

    SciTech Connect

    Fetrow, L.K.; Allen, R.P.

    1981-09-01

    This report summarizes work conducted to develop, adapt, and evaluate a variety of techniques for sectioning glove boxes, chemical processing equipment, pipes, ducts, and other contaminated components in preparation for decontamination by vibratory finishing and electropolishing. These sectioning studies were conducted with a special 10-ft x 20-ft x 10-ft stainless-steel, walk-in glove box equipped for either hands-on operation via gloves and personnel entry, or remote operation using master slave manipulators and a bridge crane. Several sectioning techniques have been evaluated with respect to effectiveness, versatility, secondary waste generation, and capability for remote operation. The methods include wet and dry plasma arc torch cutting, mechanical sawing and nibbling, abrasive cutting, and hydraulic shearing and punching. The results of these comparison studies show that the plasma arc torch is a very rapid and effective metal cutting tool for size reduction applications. However, its use to prepare material for decontamination should be minimized because of problems with smoke generation, torch manipulation, waste generation, and entrainment of contamination. Mechanical saws eliminate all but the waste generation problem, but are very slow and labor intensive. Mechanical nibblers are fast and produce a waste form that can be decontaminated, but are limited with respect to the geometry and thickness of material that can be sectioned. High-speed abrasive saws provide high cutting rates, but produce nontreatable waste from the cut as well as from blade wear. Hydraulic shearing rapidly produces sectioned material in the small sizes required for decontamination by vibratory finishing. The kerf material also can be decontaminated. However, the glove box first must be sectioned into relatively narrow strips by one of the other techniques.

  17. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    SciTech Connect

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1986-03-17

    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  18. Electroglottographic parameterization of the effects of gender, vowel and phonatory registers on vocal fold vibratory patterns: an Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Paul, Nilanjan; Kumar, Suman; Chatterjee, Indranil; Mukherjee, Biswarup

    2011-01-01

    In-depth study on laryngeal biomechanics and vocal fold vibratory patterns reveal that a single vibratory cycle can be divided into two major phases, the closed and open phase, which is subdivided into opening and closing phases. Studies reveal that the relative time course of abduction and adduction, which in turn is dependent on the relative relaxing and tensing of the vocal fold cover and body, to be the determining factor in production of a particular vocal register like the modal (or chest), falsetto, glottal fry registers. Studies further point out Electroglottography to be particularly suitable for the study of vocal vibratory patterns during register changes. However, to date, there has been limited study on quantitative parameterization of EGG wave form in vocal fry register. Moreover, contradictory findings abound in literature regarding effects of gender and vowel types on vocal vibratory patterns, especially during phonation at different registers. The present study endeavors to find out the effects of vowel and gender differences on the vocal fold vibratory patterns in different registers and how these would be reflected in standard EGG parameters of Contact Quotient (CQ) and Contact Index (CI), taking into consideration the Indian sociolinguistic context. Electroglottographic recordings of 10 young adults (5 males and 5 females) were taken while the subjects phonated the three vowels /a/,/i/,/u/ each in two vocal registers, modal and vocal fry. Obtained raw EGG were further normalized using the Derived EGG algorithm and theCQ and CI values were derived. Obtained data were subject to statistical analysis using the 3-way ANOVA with gender, vowel and vocal register as the three variables. Post-hoc Dunnett C multiple comparison analysis were also performed. Results reveal that CQ values are significantly higher in vocal fry than modal phonation for both males and females, indicating a relatively hyperconstricted vocal system during vocal fry. The males have significantly greater CQ values than females both at modal and vocal fry phonations which indicate that the males are predisposed to greater vocal fold constriction. Females demonstrated no significant increase in CI values in vocal fry state; and in some cases actually decrease in the CI values which suggest an inherently distinct vocal fold physiological adjustment from that in males. No vowel effects were found in any conditions. Perturbation values (CQP and CIP) are significantly more in vocal fry register than in modal register, and the increase was more in case of females than males. The findings give strong evidence to certain hypotheses in literature regarding effects of vowel, gender and phonatory register on vocal fold vibratory patterns. PMID:22319713

  19. Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara M; Mulvogue, Tamsin

    2009-01-01

    Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress), sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care. PMID:19389223

  20. Relief of pain from a phantom limb by peripheral stimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Lundeberg

    1985-01-01

    In the present study, 24 patients suffering pain from a phantom limb were given vibratory stimulation or placebo as a pain-relieving measure. During stimulation, a reduction in pain was reported by 75% of the patients as compared to 44% during placebo. Depending on the phantom sensation, the best pain-reducing site was found to be either the area of pain or

  1. Tsunami-Relief Groups Advise K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Marianne D.

    2005-01-01

    As American schools pitch in with an array of charitable projects in response to the tsunami in South Asia, experts say educators and students should consider carefully how they can most effectively support relief groups, avoid fund-raising scams, and incorporate their efforts into service-learning programs. When students returned to school after…

  2. Lake Tahoe Faults, Shaded Relief Map

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Shaded relief map of western part of the Lake Tahoe basin, California. Faults lines are dashed where approximately located, dotted where concealed, bar and ball on downthrown side. Heavier line weight shows principal range-front fault strands of the Tahoe-Sierra frontal fault zone (TSFFZ). Opaque wh...

  3. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ineligibility or program violation, the participant may request equitable relief under 7 CFR 635.3. (b) If, during the term of a WHIP cost-share agreement, a participant has been found in violation of a provision of the cost-share agreement, the O&M...

  4. 7 CFR 760.106 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...C. 1501-1524) or (ii) Application closing date for NAP. (b) Equitable relief will not be granted to participants...or intent of defeating the purposes of a program of insurance, NAP, or any other program administered under this part or...

  5. The Ins and Outs of Relief Casting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on clay casting that introduces students to relief sculpture. The unit takes three 45 to 50 minute class periods three weeks apart. Discusses each class session in detail: (1) creating the casting; (2) turning out and rinsing the casting; and (3) enriching the surface with color. (CMK)

  6. Stress relief: improving structural strength of 3D printable objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ondrej Stava; Juraj Vanek; Bedrich Benes; Nathan Carr; Radomír M?ch

    The use of 3D printing has rapidly expanded in the past couple of years. It is now possible to produce 3D-printed objects with exceptionally high fidelity and precision. However, although the quality of 3D printing has improved, both the time to print and the material costs have remained high. Moreover, there is no guarantee that a printed model is structurally

  7. Cavity Stress Relief Method To Stimulate Demethanation Boreholes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Alain; G. M. Denes

    1984-01-01

    Most demethanation programs which use boreholes from the surface to access the coal, incorporate a stimulation program to enhance the well production. In most cases, the stimulation selected is a frac using nitrogen foam or other fluids. Novacorp has determined that fracing the coal may not be the best technique to apply to a well. Novacorp, whose experience includes over

  8. Perception of Frequency, Amplitude and Azimuth of a Vibratory Dipole-Source by the Octavolateralis System of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)

    PubMed Central

    Dailey, Deena D.; Braun, Christopher B.

    2011-01-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were conditioned to suppress respiration to a 40 Hz vibratory source and subsequently tested for stimulus generalization to frequency, stimulus amplitude and position (azimuth). Animals completely failed to generalize to frequencies separated by octave intervals, both lesser and greater than the CS. However they did appear to generalize weakly to an aerial loudspeaker stimulus of the same frequency (40 Hz) after conditioning with an underwater vibratory source. Animals had a gradually decreasing amount of generalization to amplitude changes, suggesting a perceptual dimension of loudness. Animals generalized largely or completely to the same underwater source presented at a range of source azimuths. When these azimuths were presented at a transect of 3 cm, some animals did show decrements in generalization, while others did not. This suggests that although azimuth may be perceived more saliently at distances closer to a dipole source, perception of position is not immediately salient in conditioned vibratory source detection. Differential responding to test stimuli located towards the head or tail suggests the presence of perceptual differences between sources that are rostral or caudal with respect to the position of the animal or perhaps the head. PMID:21574689

  9. Investigating acoustic correlates of human vocal fold vibratory phase asymmetry through modeling and laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Daryush D; Zaéartu, Matías; Quatieri, Thomas F; Deliyski, Dimitar D; Hillman, Robert E

    2011-12-01

    Vocal fold vibratory asymmetry is often associated with inefficient sound production through its impact on source spectral tilt. This association is investigated in both a computational voice production model and a group of 47 human subjects. The model provides indirect control over the degree of left-right phase asymmetry within a nonlinear source-filter framework, and high-speed videoendoscopy provides in vivo measures of vocal fold vibratory asymmetry. Source spectral tilt measures are estimated from the inverse-filtered spectrum of the simulated and recorded radiated acoustic pressure. As expected, model simulations indicate that increasing left-right phase asymmetry induces steeper spectral tilt. Subject data, however, reveal that none of the vibratory asymmetry measures correlates with spectral tilt measures. Probing further into physiological correlates of spectral tilt that might be affected by asymmetry, the glottal area waveform is parameterized to obtain measures of the open phase (open/plateau quotient) and closing phase (speed/closing quotient). Subjects' left-right phase asymmetry exhibits low, but statistically significant, correlations with speed quotient (r=0.45) and closing quotient (r=-0.39). Results call for future studies into the effect of asymmetric vocal fold vibration on glottal airflow and the associated impact on voice source spectral properties and vocal efficiency. PMID:22225054

  10. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves...maximum attainable working pressure of the cargo tank inerting system exceeds the set pressure of the relief valves...15-25 of this chapter. Atmospheric Control in Cargo...

  11. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves...maximum attainable working pressure of the cargo tank inerting system exceeds the set pressure of the relief valves...15-25 of this chapter. Atmospheric Control in Cargo...

  12. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves...maximum attainable working pressure of the cargo tank inerting system exceeds the set pressure of the relief valves...15-25 of this chapter. Atmospheric Control in Cargo...

  13. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves...maximum attainable working pressure of the cargo tank inerting system exceeds the set pressure of the relief valves...15-25 of this chapter. Atmospheric Control in Cargo...

  14. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves...maximum attainable working pressure of the cargo tank inerting system exceeds the set pressure of the relief valves...15-25 of this chapter. Atmospheric Control in Cargo...

  15. 31 CFR 306.111 - Procedure for applying for relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...U.S. SECURITIES Relief for Loss, Theft, Destruction, Mutilation, or Defacement...relief. Prompt report of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement...he represents the owner. (b) The identity of the security by title of...

  16. 31 CFR 306.111 - Procedure for applying for relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...U.S. SECURITIES Relief for Loss, Theft, Destruction, Mutilation, or Defacement...relief. Prompt report of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement...he represents the owner. (b) The identity of the security by title of...

  17. 31 CFR 306.111 - Procedure for applying for relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...U.S. SECURITIES Relief for Loss, Theft, Destruction, Mutilation, or Defacement...relief. Prompt report of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement...he represents the owner. (b) The identity of the security by title of...

  18. 31 CFR 306.111 - Procedure for applying for relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...U.S. SECURITIES Relief for Loss, Theft, Destruction, Mutilation, or Defacement...relief. Prompt report of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or defacement...he represents the owner. (b) The identity of the security by title of...

  19. 30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will MMS grant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...203.53 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT...General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.53 What relief will...royalty payments due under end-of-life relief will not exceed the royalty...

  20. Towards Optimal Pain Relief: Acupuncture and Spinal Cord Stimulation

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Towards Optimal Pain Relief: Acupuncture and Spinal Cord Stimulation Richard Al'o 1 , Kenneth Al is a discrete optimization problem, e.g., for pain relief methodologies such as acupuncture and spinal cord problems related to pain relief: ffl problems of acupuncture, and ffl problems related to spinal cord

  1. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105...in This Part § 105.10-20 Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or...

  2. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105...in This Part § 105.10-20 Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or...

  3. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105...in This Part § 105.10-20 Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or...

  4. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105...in This Part § 105.10-20 Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or...

  5. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve. 105.10-20 Section 105...in This Part § 105.10-20 Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or...

  6. Uncertainty in Humanitarian Supply Chains for Disaster Relief

    E-print Network

    Clark, Alistair

    Uncertainty in Humanitarian Supply Chains for Disaster Relief Alistair Clark University of the West Model Uncertainty Realism Conclusions References Humanitarian Logistics for Disaster Relief Aim: Get relief aid to victims as fast as possible. Much interest: Balcik et al. (2008), Vitoriano et al. (2011

  7. Humanitarian Supply Chain Network Models for Disaster Relief

    E-print Network

    Clark, Alistair

    Humanitarian Supply Chain Network Models for Disaster Relief Alistair Clark University of the West / 20 #12;Outline Intro Basic Model Robust Model Realism Conclusions References Humanitarian Logistics for Disaster Relief Aim: Get relief aid to victims as fast as possible. Much interest: Balcik et al. (2008

  8. Crisis Communication Practices at an International Relief Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genova, Gina L.

    2006-01-01

    When a disaster strikes, the affected population relies upon the swift response and aid rendered by relief organizations such as the California-based Direct Relief International. Since 1948, Direct Relief's mission has been to provide essential material resources to locally run health programs in areas affected by natural disasters, wars, and…

  9. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section...General Design Requirements § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class...and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material...

  10. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of approved...

  11. 46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief systems. 154.801 Section... Cargo Vent Systems § 154.801 Pressure relief systems. (a) Each cargo...3 ) or less must have at least one pressure relief valve. (b) Each cargo...

  12. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of approved...

  13. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of approved...

  14. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section...General Design Requirements § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class...and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material...

  15. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section...General Design Requirements § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class...and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material...

  16. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section...General Design Requirements § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class...and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material...

  17. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of approved...

  18. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section...General Design Requirements § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class...and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material...

  19. Water Replacement Schedules in Heat Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Although early ingestion of cold water appears to lead to greater relief from heat stress during physical exertion than late ingestion, this difference is reduced toward the end of an hour's work in high heat and humidity. (CK)

  20. Beyond Faraday's crispations: nonlinear patterns of granular flow on a vibratory conveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruelle, C. A.; Götzendorfer, A.; Kreft, J.; Svenšek, D.

    2009-06-01

    When granular material is shaken both in horizontal and vertical direction simultaneously, as commonly done in vibratory conveyors that are well established in routine industrial production for controlled transport of bulk solids, the transported goods can exhibit a surprisingly large variety of surface patterns. For example, if a monolayer of glass beads is vibrated in a circularly manner in a narrow annular channel, a coexistence of a solid-like and a gas-like domain can be observed. The solid fraction decreases with increasing acceleration and shows hysteresis. The sharp boundaries between the two regions travel around the channel faster than the particles are transported. By using a molecular dynamics simulation we were able to extract the local granular temperature and number density. It was found that the number density in the solid phase is several times that in the gas, while the temperature is orders of magnitude lower. If the number of particles is increased further, localized period-doubling waves arise. These solitary wave packets are accompanied by a locally increased particle density. The width and velocity of the granular wave pulses are measured as a function of the bed height. A continuum model for the material distribution, based on the measured granular transport velocity as a function of the bed thickness, captures the essence of the experimental findings.

  1. Two novel measurements for the drive-mode resonant frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Luo, Bing; Jiang, Mingming; He, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kanghua

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG), one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and inconvenient because of the requirements of many test points, a lot of data storage and off-line analyses. In this paper, we propose two novel measurement methods, the search method and track method, respectively. The former is based on the magnitude-frequency characteristics of the drive mode, utilizing a one-dimensional search technique. The latter is based on the phase-frequency characteristics, applying a feedback control loop. Their performances in precision, noise resistivity and efficiency are analyzed through detailed simulations. A test system is implemented based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and experiments are carried out. By comparing with the common approach, feasibility and superiorities of the proposed methods are validated. In particular, significant efficiency improvements are achieved whereby the conventional frequency method consumes nearly 5,000 s to finish a measurement, while only 5 s is needed for the track method and 1 s for the search method. PMID:24256977

  2. Fluctuating wall pressure and vibratory response of a cylindrical elastic shell due to confined jet excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, K. W.

    1988-07-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was conducted to investigate the flow-induced noise and vibration caused by confined jet flows in a cylindrical duct. Unrestricted pipe flow and flows restricted by various orifices were tested for a wide range of velocities to simulate the flow in piping systems. Wall pressure data showed that the noise levels vary with the pipe's axial location, and the peak noise is located near the end of the jet potential core. A non-dimensional wall pressure spectrum was established for the various confined jets by the Strouhal relationship, where the length scale is the jet hydraulic diameter. This jet pressure spectrum agrees with the wall pressure spectrum of a turbulent boundary layer above a rigid plane. Correlations of wall pressure fluctuations and pipe wall acceleration signals showed that jet flows generate more deterministic features than pipe flow. The coherent functions of the wall pressure and pipe wall acceleration signals are relatively high near the exit of the jet. The high coherence is probably due to to the large-scale coherent structures. An analytical model was developed to study the effect of the turbulent jet flow field on the wall pressure and vibratory motion of the duct wall. Based on flow field measurements, the blocked surface pressure was calculated using Lighthill's method, and then used to drive the fluid-filled shell. The wall pressure and pipe wall acceleration were determined by solving the coupled fluid-solid interaction problem.

  3. Programmable Mechanobioreactor for Exploration of the Effects of Periodic Vibratory Stimulus on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cashion, Avery T.; Caballero, Montserrat; Halevi, Alexandra; Pappa, Andrew; Dennis, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A programmable bioreactor using a voice-coil actuator was developed to enable research on the effects of periodic vibratory stimulus on human and porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We hypothesized that low frequency vibrations would result in a cartilage phenotype and higher frequency vibrations would result in a bone phenotype. The mechanical stimulation protocol is adjusted from a computer external to the incubator via a USB cable. Once programmed, the embedded microprocessor and sensor system on the bioreactor execute the protocol independent of the computer. In each test, a sinusoidal stimulus was applied to a culture plate in 1-min intervals with a 15-min rest following each, for a total of 15?h per day for 10 days. Frequencies of 1 and 100?Hz were applied to cultures of both human and porcine umbilical cord–derived MSCs. Chondrogenesis was determined by Alcian blue staining for glycosaminoglycans and an increased differentiation index (ratio of mRNA for collagen II and collagen I). Osteogenic differentiation was indicated with Alizarin red for calcium staining and increased bone morphogenetic protein 2 mRNA. One-hertz stimulation resulted in a cartilage phenotype for both human and porcine MSCs, while 100-Hz stimulation resulted in a bone phenotype. PMID:24570842

  4. The President's Agenda for Tax Relief

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    In early 2001, President Bush released a summary of his agenda for tax relief. He claims to offer a "bold and fair tax relief plan that will reduce the inequities of the current tax code and help ensure that America remains prosperous." Highlights of Bush's proposal include doubling the child care credit to $1,000 per child, reinstating the ten percent deduction for two-earner couples, thus reducing the "marriage penalty," and eliminating inheritance taxes. The rather celebratory summary provides a short explanation of each element of the new tax plan, along with several charts on topics including consumer debt, tax rates for Americans on the edge of poverty, and the tax reduction for the poorest families. Finally, the report offers an easy-to-understand, side-by-side comparison of the current tax code and the Bush plan.

  5. High Pressure Source/Cryostat Relief Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wintercorn, S.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab

    1987-08-13

    This report addresses solutions to the potential problem of cryostat over pressurization by the nominal 65 psi MWAP LAr source dewar. Uncontrolled (by reason of failure) filling of a 15 psi MW AP cryostat by the LAr fill line could cause over pressurization by overwhelming the provided cryostat relief system. Three levels of protection against over pressurization by the source dewar are mentioned in this report; the reduced (operational) relief pressure, the source pressure regulator, and the LAr dewar cooling loop. Only the first of these is recognized by the ASME code as sufficient protection, the others provide operational convenience and avoid the loss of detector fluid. Flow limiting device solutions are not considered because of the conflicting requirement to empty and fill the cryostats rapidly (within one eight hour shift), e.g. the movement of the cryostat from the assembly hall to the collision hall, or the inverse operation.

  6. Improve safety with pilot operated relief valves

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, G. [Anderson, Greenwood and Co., Stafford, TX (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A weakness inherent in balanced bellows pressure relief valves (PRVs) that can cause premature failure can be avoided by using pilot operated PRVs as an alternative. Now better able to handle adverse service conditions, pilot operated PRVs are suitable for a wide range of gas, liquid and mixed-phase services. Traditionally, however, balanced bellows PRVs have been applied as overpressure protection for three notable reasons: a constant PRV set pressure with the presence of variable, superimposed back pressure (at the PRV outlet prior to its opening); valve stability and adequate capacity when built-up back pressure (at the PRV outlet during its relief cycle) exceeds 10%; and spring and guided parts barriered from the process fluid. With these benefits in mind, balanced bellows PRVs have been generally adapted by many hydrocarbon processing companies that have experienced costly, and often dangerous, premature bellows failures. Corrosion, valve instability and/or bellows flutter are causes of these failures.

  7. Neuraxial pain relief for intractable cancer pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Sloan

    2007-01-01

    Most patients with cancer pain achieve good analgesia using traditional analgesics and adjuvant medications; however, an important\\u000a minority of patients (2% to 5%) suffers from severe and refractory cancer pain. For these individuals, spinal analgesics (intrathecal\\u000a or epidural) provide significant hope for pain relief over months or years of treatment to help improve quality of life. Spinal\\u000a analgesics have been

  8. National Geophysical Data Center: Relief Globe Slides

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2000-01-01

    This set of 20 slides contains 14 global views of the Earth in full color shaded relief, showing land and undersea topography. The planet is seen from vantage points over the poles and each major ocean and land mass. Also included are a rectangular Mercator projection view of the whole Earth, as well as displays of crustal plates and their relation to world seismic activity. The images are computer-generated from a digital database of oceanic bathymetry and land topography.

  9. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  10. Extraction of relief from visual motion.

    PubMed

    Werkhoven, P; van Veen, H A

    1995-07-01

    We quantified the ability of human subjects to discriminate the relative distance of two points from a slanted plane when viewing the projected velocities of this scene (orthographic projection). The relative distance from a plane (called relief) is a 3-D property that is invariant under linear (affine) transformations. As such, relief can in principle be extracted from the instantaneous projected velocity field; a metric representation, which requires the extraction of visual acceleration, is not required. The stimulus consisted of a slanted plane P (specified by three points) and two points Q1 and Q2 that are non-coplanar with P. This configuration of points oscillated rigidly around the vertical axis. We have measured the systematic error and accuracy with which human subjects estimate the relative distance of points Q1 and Q2 from plane P as a function of the slant of P. The systematic error varies with slant: it is low for small slant values, reaches a maximum for medium slant values, and drops again for high slant values. The accuracy covaries with the systematic error and is thus high for small and large slant values and low for medium slant values. These results are successfully modeled by a simple relief-from-motion computation based on local estimates of projected velocities. The data are well predicted by assuming (1) a measurement error in velocity estimation that varies proportionally to velocity (Weber's law) and (2) an eccentricity-dependent underestimation of velocity. PMID:7644325

  11. Relief of some small landforms on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J.; Plaut, J. J.; Parker, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    Three sets of radar images have been acquired under different viewing conditions by the Magellan synthetic aperture radar: (1) left-looking with varied incidence angles (cycle 1); (2) right-looking with nearly constant incidence angles (cycle 2); and (3) left-looking with varied incidence angles, most of which were smaller than those in (1) except for those acquired on passes across Maxwell Montes with incidence angles larger than those in (1) (cycle 3). Image displacements in the radar images that are caused by the relief of landforms provide several methods of estimating this relief: (1) monoscopic measurements of foreshortening of landforms that are symmetrical in the plane of the look-direction of the radar (includes radial symmetry); (2) stereoscopic measurements of parallax in same-side image pairs (cycles 1-2 and 3); and (3) measurements of parallax in opposite-side image pairs (cycles 1-2 and/or 2-3). Success in methods 2 and 3 (especially 3) depends on identifying conjugate image points in the two images. Here, we report our preliminary results for five impact craters, seven small volcanic edifices, and two lava flows. The three methods mentioned above lead to the interesting result that Venusian impact craters have depth-diameter ratios like those on Mars rather than those on Earth, but some appear partly filled. Our results for de Lalande and Melba also suggest filling, but there may be other causes for their relatively small depth-diameter ratios. A host of small volcanic edifices have relief that can be crudely estimated using the above methods. Relief/diameter ratios for our cratered cones are about the same as those of Icelandic lava shields; some Venusian cones resemble the Martian shields of Mareotis-Tempe and Ceraunius Fossae, but the Venusian relief diameter ratios are larger. The smallest cratered dome is similar in size and profile to a Martian dome north of Uranius Patera; the smallest cratered cone resembles one in Chryse Planitia. Lava flows on Venus that are thick enough to measure are rare, but we have applied methods 1 and 3 to the huge flow of Ovda Regio and flows of an unusual volcano, Mahuea Tholus.

  12. Pain relief is a human right.

    PubMed

    Daher, Michel

    2010-01-01

    For centuries, medical and surgical treatment has emphasized saving the life of the patient rather than ameliorating the patient's pain, particularly when there were few options for the latter. Today at the dawn of the 21st century, the best available evidence indicates a major gap between an increasingly understanding of the pathophysiology of pain and widespread inadequacy of its treatment. Epidemiologic evidence has proven that chronic pain is a widespread public health issue. Studies of cancer patients' pain control consistently reveal that up to half of patients receive inadequate analgesia and 30% do not receive appropriate drugs for their pain. Equally, for patients suffering HIV/AIDS, 60%-100% will experience pain at some stage in their illness. In the developed world, this gap has prompted a series of declarations and actions by national and international bodies advocating better pain control. One response to the worldwide undertreatment of pain has been to promote the concept that pain relief is a public health issue of such critical importance as to constitute an international imperative and fundamental human right. The importance of pain relief as the core of the medical ethic is clear. Pain clinicians promote the status of pain management beyond that of appropriate clinical practice or even an ethic of good medicine. They advocate a paradigm shift in the medical professions' perspective on pain management, from simply good practice to an imperative founded on patient rights. There is a need to promote policies which create conditions where human beings can bear even incurable illnesses and death in a dignified manner. This must help health professionals or lay groups to initiate a powerful agenda to reform local statutes. The essential components of such legislation are: 1. Reasonable pain management is a right. 2. Doctors have a duty to listen to and reasonably respond to a patient's report of pain. 3. Provision of necessary pain relief is immune from potential legal liability. 4. Doctors who are notable or willing to ensure adequate analgesia must refer to a colleague who has this expertise. 5. Pain management must be a compulsory component of continuing medical education. For too long, pain and its management have been prisoners of myth, irrationality, ignorance, and cultural bias. We are confident that the Pain Relief and Palliative Care Working Group under the auspices of the Lebanese Cancer Society is the main promoter of Palliative Care in Lebanon whose main goal is to relieve suffering and improve quality of life of the cancer patients, and advocate pain relief as a human right. PMID:20590358

  13. Helium pressures in RHIC vacuum cryostats and relief valve requirements from magnet cooling line failure

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the RHIC magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, would pressurize the insulating vacuum in the magnet and transfer line cryostats. Insufficient relief valves on the cryostats could cause a structural failure. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the vacuum cryostat and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed to calculate the helium pressure inside the cryostat. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces were included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Existing relief valve sizes were reviewed to make sure that the maximum stresses, caused by the calculated maximum pressures inside the cryostats, did not exceed the allowable stresses, based on the ASME Code B31.3 and ANSYS results. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The S/F simulation results show that the highest internal pressure in the cryostats, due to the magnet line failure, is {approx}37 psig (255115 Pa); (2) Based on the simulation, the temperature on the cryostat chamber, INJ Q8-Q9, could drop to 228 K, which is lower than the material minimum design temperature allowed by the Code; (3) Based on the ASME Code and ANSYS results, the reliefs on all the cryostats inside the RHIC tunnel are adequate to protect the vacuum chambers when the magnet cooling lines fail; and (4) In addition to the pressure loading, the thermal deformations, due to the temperature decrease on the cryostat chambers, could also cause a high stress on the chamber, if not properly supported.

  14. [A micromanipulator for intraoperative vibratory hearing assessment with an implantable hearing aid transducer].

    PubMed

    Lehner, R; Maassen, M M; Leysieffer, H; Zenner, H P

    1998-05-01

    First concepts of implantable hearing aids to be coupled to the ossicular chain are available for patients with combined or sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). To ensure that hearing can be improved intraoperative coupling of a test transducer to the ossicular chain is mandatory for allowing surgical anatomy to be checked and vibratory hearing tests to be performed. To achieve this, the test transducer has to be held and positioned securely in situ for some minutes, avoiding risks for middle or inner ear structures. This is not possible using conventional surgical instruments. Thus, a micromanipulator to hold the test transducer during intraoperative hearing tests was developed. This surgical device allows the surgeon safe, risk-free, and controlled coupling of the test transducer to the ossicular chain with one axial and three rotational degrees of freedom. With the aid of a conventional ear retractor (2x2 prongs), the manipulator is fixed at the patient's ear. In conjunction with a piezoelectric test transducer, the manipulator was used in nine patients during local anesthesia. The test transducer is part of an electronic hearing implant (Tübingen implant) specifically designed for SNHL that may be coupled to a middle ear ossicle or the perilymph of the cochlea. The micromanipulator was easy to handle. It allowed accurate positioning of the test transducer in the ear and the desired coupling of the transducer's probe tip to the ossicular chain during auditory tests. According to the principles of integrated safety, the intraoperative risk of ossicular or inner ear injuries caused, for instance, by the patient's head movement is minimized. The design of the manipulator system is universal, also allowing its use for other electronic hearing implants or minimal invasive surgery after minor modifications. PMID:9647922

  15. Transient response and stability of the AGC-PI closed-loop controlled MEMS vibratory gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, J.; Chi, X. Z.; Ding, H. T.; Lin, L. T.; Yang, Z. C.; Yan, G. Z.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a detailed study on the transient response and stability of the automatic gain control (AGC) with a proportion-integral (PI) controller for a MEMS vibratory gyroscope, which constructs a closed-loop control system to make the gyroscope achieve a constant amplitude vibration at its resonant frequency. The nonlinear mathematical model for the control system is established by applying the averaging and linearization method, which is evaluated through numerical simulations. The stability and convergence characteristics of the whole loop are investigated by using the phase plane method and Routh-Hurwitz criterion. The analysis provides a quantitative methodology for selecting the system parameters to approach stability and an optimal transient response. The negative impact induced by drift of the resonant frequency and Q-factor is also discussed. Simulation results predicted by the model are shown to be in close agreement with the experimental results carried out on a doubly decoupled bulk micromachined gyroscope. By optimizing the control parameters, the measured rising time is less than 100 ms without obvious overshoot. The setting time of the whole loop is less than 200 ms with the relative fluctuation of velocity amplitude within approximately 16 ppm for an hour. The resulting overall performance of the gyroscope is tested under atmospheric pressure. The resonant frequencies and the Q-factor of the drive mode and sense mode are 2.986 kHz, 213 and 3.199 kHz, 233, respectively. The gyroscope achieves a scale factor of 27.6 mV/deg/s with nonlinearity less than 120 ppm in the full-scale range of 800° s-1. The threshold of sensitivity is measured to be about 0.005° s-1 with noise equivalent angular rate evaluated to be 0.001°/s/Hz1/2.

  16. Digital shaded-relief map of Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

    2004-01-01

    The Digital Shaded-Relief Map of Venezuela is a composite of more than 20 tiles of 90 meter (3 arc second) pixel resolution elevation data, captured during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. The SRTM, a joint project between the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), provides the most accurate and comprehensive international digital elevation dataset ever assembled. The 10-day flight mission aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour obtained elevation data for about 80% of the world's landmass at 3-5 meter pixel resolution through the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. SAR is desirable because it acquires data along continuous swaths, maintaining data consistency across large areas, independent of cloud cover. Swaths were captured at an altitude of 230 km, and are approximately 225 km wide with varying lengths. Rendering of the shaded-relief image required editing of the raw elevation data to remove numerous holes and anomalously high and low values inherent in the dataset. Customized ArcInfo Arc Macro Language (AML) scripts were written to interpolate areas of null values and generalize irregular elevation spikes and wells. Coastlines and major water bodies used as a clipping mask were extracted from 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Venezuela (Bellizzia and others, 1976). The shaded-relief image was rendered with an illumination azimuth of 315? and an altitude of 65?. A vertical exaggeration of 2X was applied to the image to enhance land-surface features. Image post-processing techniques were accomplished using conventional desktop imaging software.

  17. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  18. Building Pressure Control in VAV System with Relief Air Fan

    E-print Network

    Pang, X.; Liu, M.; Zheng, B.

    2005-01-01

    Building Pressure Control in VAV Systems with Relief Air Fan Xiufeng Pang, Mingsheng Liu, PhD, P.E., Bin Zheng University of Nebraska, Lincoln—ESL 1110 So. 67 th St, Omaha, NE, 68182 Abstract Building pressure control is critical... to energy conservation and indoor air quality by preventing excessive infiltration or exfiltration. In the supply and the return/relief fan Air Handling Unit (AHU) system, better space pressurization can be achieved when return/relief fan operates...

  19. 4. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, DETAIL OF ABUTMENT, GRIFFIN RELIEF SCULPTURE, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, DETAIL OF ABUTMENT, GRIFFIN RELIEF SCULPTURE, CA. 1940. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Grumman Avenue Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

  20. Fluctuating Wall Pressure and Vibratory Response of a Cylindrical Elastic Shell due to Confined Jet Excitations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kam Wing

    A theoretical and experimental study was conducted to investigate the flow-induced noise and vibration caused by confined jet flows in a cylindrical duct. Unrestricted pipe flow and flows restricted by various orifices were tested for a wide range of velocities to simulate the flow in piping systems. Wall pressure data showed that the noise levels vary with the pipe's axial location and the peak noise is located at the vicinity of the end of the jet potential core. A non-dimensional wall pressure spectrum was established for the various confined jets by the Strouhal relationship, where the length scale is the jet hydraulic diameter. This jet pressure spectrum agrees with the wall pressure spectrum of a turbulent boundary layer above a rigid plane. Correlations of wall pressure fluctuations and pipe wall acceleration signals showed that jet flows generate more deterministic features than pipe flow. The coherence functions of the wall pressure and pipe wall acceleration signals are relatively high near the exit of the jet. The high coherence is probably due to the large-scale coherent structures. An analytical model was developed to study the effect of the turbulent jet flow field on the wall pressure and vibratory motion of the duct wall. Based on flow field measurements, the blocked surface pressure was calculated using Lighthill's method, and then used to drive the fluid -filled shell. The wall pressure and pipe wall acceleration were determined by solving the coupled fluid solid interaction problem. The wall pressure was obtained by summing the blocked surface pressure and the pressure due to the wall vibration. An amplitude modulated convecting wave field was used to simulate the moving acoustic sources of the jet. The random nature of the turbulent jet was incorporated into the analytical model. Specifically, the acoustic pressure was assumed to result from hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations which are uncorrelated in the radial direction, but are correlated in the axial direction near the jet exit. Analytical and experimental results for wall pressure and acceleration then were compared for a wide range of parameters of interest. Results from comparisons showed reasonably good agreement.

  1. The Application of High-temperature Strain Gauges to the Measurements of Vibratory Stresses in Gas-turbine Buckets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, R H; Morgan, W C; Manson, S S

    1947-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring the vibration in the buckets of a gas turbine under service conditions of speed and temperature was determined by use of a high temperature wire strain gauge cemented to a modified supercharger turbine bucket. A high-temperature wire strain gauge and the auxiliary mechanical and electrical equipment developed for the investigation are described.

  2. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  3. Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This shaded relief topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are five rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, Zhilovaya, and Kakhtana. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in yellow. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from red through green back to red) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet)similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 240 km (150 miles) x 122 km (77 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

  4. 46 CFR 64.69 - Location of the pressure relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Location of the pressure relief device. 64.69 Section 64...PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.69 Location of the pressure relief device. A pressure relief...

  5. 46 CFR 64.69 - Location of the pressure relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Location of the pressure relief device. 64.69 Section 64...PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.69 Location of the pressure relief device. A pressure relief...

  6. 46 CFR 64.69 - Location of the pressure relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Location of the pressure relief device. 64.69 Section 64...PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.69 Location of the pressure relief device. A pressure relief...

  7. 46 CFR 64.69 - Location of the pressure relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Location of the pressure relief device. 64.69 Section 64...PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.69 Location of the pressure relief device. A pressure relief...

  8. 46 CFR 64.69 - Location of the pressure relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Location of the pressure relief device. 64.69 Section 64...PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.69 Location of the pressure relief device. A pressure relief...

  9. Correlations between climate network and relief data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peron, T. K. D.; Comin, C. H.; Amancio, D. R.; Costa, L. da F.; Rodrigues, F. A.; Kurths, J.

    2014-11-01

    In the last few years, the scientific community has witnessed an ongoing trend of using ideas developed in the study of complex networks to analyze climate dynamics. This powerful combination, usually called climate networks, can be used to uncover non-trivial patterns of weather changes throughout the years. Here we investigate the temperature network of the North American region and show that two network characteristics, namely degree and clustering, have marked differences between the eastern and western regions. We show that such differences are a reflection of the presence of a large network community on the western side of the continent. Moreover, we provide evidence that this large community is a consequence of the peculiar characteristics of the western relief of North America.

  10. Argon Dewar Relief Set Pressure Modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-03-19

    This engineering note documents the calculations of Kelly Dixon, used to determine the maximum allowable set pressure for the argon dewar low relief valve, tag number PSV620A, Anderson Greenwood Type 526J. The original setting was 16 psig. This value was chosen in order to protect against cryostat overpressurization by the source dewar (see D0 Engineering Note 115), however, the following calculations will show that the set pressure can be raised to approximately 18.5 psig, which would result in a faster filling of the cryostat, along with a higher level of liquid argon. Three other engineering notes were revised to reflect the change in set pressure according to this note. They are notes 115, 219, and 263.

  11. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements...Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General. There must be...

  12. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements...Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General. There must be...

  13. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements...Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General. There must be...

  14. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements...Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General. There must be...

  15. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements...Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General. There must be...

  16. Debt Relief and Growth: A study of Zambia and Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arne Bigsten; Jorgen Levin; Hakan Persson

    2001-01-01

    Abstract This paper discusses some issues on how,to evaluate the impact of HIPC debt relief in the cases of Tanzania and Zambia using two computable,general equilibrium models. Within our relatively simple model framework, we found that the macroeconomic impact of debt relief is modest. One reason for this relatively modest impact is that the annual injection of additional resources relative

  17. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...of each primary relief valve must be not less than...percent of the MAWP. The valve must close at not less...primary pressure relief valve must have a venting...have adequate vapor and liquid capacity to limit the...must be included on the metal specification...

  18. Borrowing Culture and Debt Relief: Evidence from a Policy Experiment

    E-print Network

    Bandyopadhyay, Antar

    before and after a nation-wide debt relief program undertaken by the Indian government in 2008, one of government intervention in debt markets can be huge (La Porta, Lopez De-Silanes, and ShBorrowing Culture and Debt Relief: Evidence from a Policy Experiment Sankar Dea Prasanna Tantrib

  19. Emergency relief venting of the infrared telescope liquid helium dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the emergency relief venting of the liquid helium dewar of the Spacelab 2 infrared telescope experiment in the event of a massive failure of the dewar guard vacuum. Such a failure, resulting from a major accident, could cause rapid heating and pressurization of the liquid helium in the dewar and lead to relief venting through the emergency relief system. The heat input from an accident is estimated for various fluid conditions in the dewar and the relief process as it takes place through one or both of the emergency relief paths is considered. It is shown that under all reasonable circumstances the dewar will safely relieve itself, and the pressure will not exceed 85 percent of the proof pressure or 63 percent of the burst pressure.

  20. Jacketed cryogenic piping is stress relieved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Jacketed design of piping used to transfer cryogenic fluids, relieves severe stresses associated with the temperature gradients that occur during transfer cycles and ambient periods. The inner /transfer/ pipe is preloaded in such a way that stress relief takes place automatically as cycling occurs.

  1. 30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section...28 Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices... (b) Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be...

  2. 30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...false Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section...28 Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices... (b) Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be...

  3. 30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section...28 Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices... (b) Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be...

  4. 30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section...28 Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices... (b) Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be...

  5. 30 CFR 18.28 - Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. 18.28 Section...28 Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage. (a) Devices... (b) Devices for pressure relief, ventilation, or drainage shall be...

  6. 48 CFR 252.229-7010 - Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). 252.229-7010 Section...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229...Relief from Customs Duty on Fuel (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a)...

  7. 48 CFR 252.229-7010 - Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). 252.229-7010 Section...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229...Relief from Customs Duty on Fuel (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a)...

  8. 48 CFR 252.229-7008 - Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) 252.229-7008 Section...229-7008 Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) As prescribed in 229.402-70... Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) (DEC 2011) Any import...

  9. 48 CFR 252.229-7008 - Relief from import duty (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Relief from import duty (United Kingdom). 252.229-7008 Section...229-7008 Relief from import duty (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229... Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) Any import...

  10. 48 CFR 252.229-7008 - Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) 252.229-7008 Section...229-7008 Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) As prescribed in 229.402-70... Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) (DEC 2011) Any import...

  11. 48 CFR 252.229-7010 - Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). 252.229-7010 Section...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229...Relief from Customs Duty on Fuel (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a)...

  12. 48 CFR 252.229-7008 - Relief from import duty (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Relief from import duty (United Kingdom). 252.229-7008 Section...229-7008 Relief from import duty (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229... Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) Any import...

  13. 48 CFR 252.229-7010 - Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). 252.229-7010 Section...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229...Relief from Customs Duty on Fuel (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a)...

  14. 48 CFR 252.229-7010 - Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). 252.229-7010 Section...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229...Relief from Customs Duty on Fuel (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a)...

  15. 48 CFR 252.229-7008 - Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) 252.229-7008 Section...229-7008 Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) As prescribed in 229.402-70... Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) (DEC 2011) Any import...

  16. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. ...Devices § 882.5880 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief...

  17. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. ...Devices § 882.5880 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief...

  18. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. ...Devices § 882.5880 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief...

  19. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. ...Devices § 882.5880 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief...

  20. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. ...Devices § 882.5880 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief...

  1. 21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5870 Section 882.5870...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to...

  2. 21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5870 Section 882.5870...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to...

  3. The humanitarian relief supply chain : analysis of the 2004 South East Asia earthquake and Tsunami

    E-print Network

    Russell, Timothy Edward

    2005-01-01

    Humanitarian relief supply chains are not well documented. This thesis describes humanitarian relief supply chains in general and those specifically utilized in the 2004 South East Asia Earthquake and Tsunami relief effort. ...

  4. 46 CFR 64.79 - Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device. 64.79 Section 64...64.79 Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device. (a) The inspection of the pressure and vacuum relief device required in §...

  5. 46 CFR 64.79 - Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device. 64.79 Section 64...64.79 Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device. (a) The inspection of the pressure and vacuum relief device required in §...

  6. 46 CFR 64.79 - Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device. 64.79 Section 64...64.79 Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device. (a) The inspection of the pressure and vacuum relief device required in §...

  7. 46 CFR 64.79 - Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device. 64.79 Section 64...64.79 Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device. (a) The inspection of the pressure and vacuum relief device required in §...

  8. 46 CFR 64.79 - Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device. 64.79 Section 64...64.79 Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device. (a) The inspection of the pressure and vacuum relief device required in §...

  9. 21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5870 Section 882.5870...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to...

  10. 21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5870 Section 882.5870...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to...

  11. 21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. 882.5870 Section 882.5870...Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used to...

  12. 30 CFR 204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 204.205 ...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  13. 30 CFR 204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not...

  14. 30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.205...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  15. 30 CFR 1204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.201...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

  16. 30 CFR 204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 204.201 ...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

  17. 30 CFR 1204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not...

  18. 30 CFR 1204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.201...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

  19. 30 CFR 1204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not...

  20. 30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.205...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  1. 30 CFR 1204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not...

  2. 30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.205...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  3. 30 CFR 1204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.201...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

  4. 30 CFR 1204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not...

  5. 30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.205...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  6. 30 CFR 1204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.201...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

  7. 40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  8. 49 CFR 178.338-8 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and...Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-8 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. Each tank...

  9. 49 CFR 192.199 - Requirements for design of pressure relief and limiting devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Requirements for design of pressure relief and limiting devices. 192...199 Requirements for design of pressure relief and limiting devices. Except for rupture discs, each pressure relief or pressure limiting...

  10. 40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Sources) § 61.242-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  11. 40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  12. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices, piping, valves...Transportation § 178.337-9 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. (1) See §...

  13. 40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Sources) § 61.242-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  14. 40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Sources) § 61.242-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  15. 49 CFR 178.338-8 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and...Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-8 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. Each tank...

  16. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure relief devices, piping, valves...Transportation § 178.337-9 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. (1) See §...

  17. 40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Sources) § 61.242-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  18. 40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  19. 40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  20. 40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Sources) § 61.242-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  1. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices, piping, valves...Transportation § 178.337-9 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. (1) See §...

  2. 40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  3. 40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  4. 40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  5. 49 CFR 178.338-8 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and...Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-8 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. Each tank...

  6. 40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  7. 49 CFR 178.338-8 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and...Vehicle Transportation § 178.338-8 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. Each tank...

  8. 40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  9. 40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  10. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure relief devices, piping, valves...Transportation § 178.337-9 Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings. (a) Pressure relief devices. (1) See §...

  11. Dual-mass vibratory rate gyroscope with suppressed translational acceleration response and quadrature-error correction capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, William A. (Inventor); Juneau, Thor N. (Inventor); Lemkin, Mark A. (Inventor); Roessig, Allen W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A microfabricated vibratory rate gyroscope to measure rotation includes two proof-masses mounted in a suspension system anchored to a substrate. The suspension has two principal modes of compliance, one of which is driven into oscillation. The driven oscillation combined with rotation of the substrate about an axis perpendicular to the substrate results in Coriolis acceleration along the other mode of compliance, the sense-mode. The sense-mode is designed to respond to Coriolis accelerationwhile suppressing the response to translational acceleration. This is accomplished using one or more rigid levers connecting the two proof-masses. The lever allows the proof-masses to move in opposite directions in response to Coriolis acceleration. The invention includes a means for canceling errors, termed quadrature error, due to imperfections in implementation of the sensor. Quadrature-error cancellation utilizes electrostatic forces to cancel out undesired sense-axis motion in phase with drive-mode position.

  12. Shaded relief, color as height, Fiji

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930's. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations top ink at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1300 meters(4300 feet) of total relief.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 192 km (119 miles) x 142 km (88 miles) Location: 17.8 deg. South lat., 178.0 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 19, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  13. Modulating the Behaviors of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Via the Combination of High-Frequency Vibratory Stimulations and Fibrous Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Zhixiang; Duncan, Randall L.

    2013-01-01

    We are interested in the in vitro engineering of artificial vocal fold tissues via the strategic combination of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), physiologically relevant mechanical stimulations, and biomimetic artificial matrices. We have constructed a vocal fold bioreactor that is capable of imposing vibratory stimulations on the cultured cells at human phonation frequencies. Separately, fibrous poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffolds emulating the ligamentous structure of the vocal fold were prepared by electrospinning, were incorporated in the vocal fold bioreactor, and were driven into a wave-like motion in an axisymmetrical fashion by the oscillating air. MSC-laden PCL scaffolds were subjected to vibrations at 200?Hz with a normal center displacement of ?40??m for a total of 7 days. A continuous (CT) or a 1?h-on-1?h-off (OF) regime with a total dynamic culture time of 12?h per day was applied. The dynamic loading did not cause any physiological trauma to the cells. Immunohistotochemical staining revealed the reinforcement of the actin filament and the enhancement of ?5?1 integrin expression under selected dynamic culture conditions. Cellular expression of essential vocal fold extracellular matrix components, such as elastin, hyaluronic acid, and matrix metalloproteinase-1, was significantly elevated as compared with the static controls, and the OF regime is more conducive to matrix production than the CT vibration mode. Analyses of genes of typical fibroblast hallmarks (tenascin-C, collagen III, and procollagen I) as well as markers for MSC differentiation into nonfibroblastic lineages confirmed MSCs' adaptation of fibroblastic behaviors. Overall, the high-frequency vibratory stimulation, when combined with a synthetic fibrous scaffold, serves as a potent modulator of MSC functions. The novel bioreactor system presented here, as a versatile, yet well-controlled model, offers an in vitro platform for understanding vibration-induced mechanotransduction and for engineering of functional vocal fold tissues. PMID:23516973

  14. Slipping processes in residual badlands reliefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Hernández, Jose Luis; Yepes, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    We define slips as structures developed by more or less saturated colloidal suspension that slide down the walls of residual reliefs found in badlands. These suspensions seem to originate in the soils crowning gully reliefs and also from rainwater dripping onto the walls of poorly cemented sediments such as siltstone. We call this process slipping and the resulting morphologies represent a group of minor badlands forms, often linked to piping and fluting. Slipping occurs according to the following sequence of forms: 1. Mud droplets. These are irregular linear structures caused by mud droplets sliding down sub-vertical walls. The droplet is usually found at the end of a small channel. These morphologies represent the course of the sliding droplets that become fossilized and not the impact of the droplets on the sediment. 2. Slips sensu stricto. These are uninterrupted surface structures covering sub-vertical walls to a greater or lesser extent. The thickness of this type of covering varies from a few millimetres to 5cm. The inner structure of the slips consists of small laminas (» 100mm) and on the exterior they often present drip channels. A special case of these forms is butterfly structures, which appear in isolation, with repetitive patterns and the appearance of a winged insect stuck to the wall. 3. Pseudo-stalactites. These are free-standing conical regrowths with some similarity to stalactites in a karst cave. They occur when slips grow to over 5cm thick. The growth of these forms is similar to that of slips, with external superposition of fine, concentric layers with no central pore. A variety of these pseudo-stalactites are nodulous stalactites whose genesis is unknown. In this context, we should mention the existence of occasional stalagmites. In other cases, curtains of pseudo-stalactites can be found where these patterns are repeated finely. A more evolved stage of this form is the coalescence of pseudo-stalactites, representing a massive advance of this process. Pseudo-stalactites are normally found as vertical, but occasionally they lean, indicating movement of unstable blocks. The process can present recycling when some of the forms described become detached and fall. This is more likely on poorly sheltered surfaces, exposed to wind and the direct impact of rain and frost. All forms of slips suggests that these morphologies depend on the varying characteristics of the colloidal suspensions causing them, and constitute intermediate stages in the retention of sediments from erosion, which are very different to the alluvial sediments stored in the drainage network.

  15. Hybrid surface-relief/volume one dimensional holographic gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchetta, D. E.; Spegni, P.; Di Donato, A.; Simoni, F.; Castagna, R.

    2015-04-01

    Many one dimensional optically patterned photopolymers exist as surface relief or volume phase gratings. However, as far as we know, holographically recorded acrylate-based gratings in which both configurations are present are not described in literature. In this work we report a two steps fabrication process in which a large-area high-resolution hybrid volume/surface relief grating phase gratings is created in a thin film of multiacrylate material spinned on a proper designed substrate. Optical and morphological investigations, made on the optically patterned area, confirm the presence of a one dimensional double (surface relief and Bragg volume phase) periodic structure.

  16. Evaluation of reward from pain relief

    PubMed Central

    Navratilova, Edita; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The human experience of pain is multidimensional and comprises sensory, affective, and cognitive dimensions. Preclinical assessment of pain has been largely focused on the sensory features that contribute to nociception. The affective (aversive) qualities of pain are clinically significant but have received relatively less mechanistic investigation in preclinical models. Recently, operant behaviors such as conditioned place preference, avoidance, escape from noxious stimulus, and analgesic drug self-administration have been used in rodents to evaluate affective aspects of pain. An important advance of such operant behaviors is that these approaches may allow the detection and mechanistic investigation of spontaneous neuropathic or ongoing inflammatory/nociceptive (i.e., nonevoked) pain that is otherwise difficult to assess in nonverbal animals. Operant measures may allow the identification of mechanisms that contribute differentially to reflexive hypersensitivity or to pain affect and may inform the decision to progress novel mechanisms to clinical trials for pain therapy. Additionally, operant behaviors may allow investigation of the poorly understood mechanisms and neural circuits underlying motivational aspects of pain and the reward of pain relief. PMID:23496247

  17. 21 CFR 358.310 - Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...relief active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product is sodium sulfide 1 percent in a gel vehicle. The gel vehicle is an aqueous, semisolid system with large organic molecules interpenetrated with a...

  18. 21 CFR 358.310 - Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...relief active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product is sodium sulfide 1 percent in a gel vehicle. The gel vehicle is an aqueous, semisolid system with large organic molecules interpenetrated with a...

  19. 21 CFR 358.310 - Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...relief active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product is sodium sulfide 1 percent in a gel vehicle. The gel vehicle is an aqueous, semisolid system with large organic molecules interpenetrated with a...

  20. 21 CFR 358.310 - Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...relief active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product is sodium sulfide 1 percent in a gel vehicle. The gel vehicle is an aqueous, semisolid system with large organic molecules interpenetrated with a...

  1. 29 CFR 1614.501 - Remedies and relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...1614.501 Section 1614.501 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.501 Remedies and relief....

  2. 29 CFR 1614.501 - Remedies and relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...1614.501 Section 1614.501 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.501 Remedies and relief....

  3. 29 CFR 1614.501 - Remedies and relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...1614.501 Section 1614.501 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.501 Remedies and relief....

  4. 29 CFR 1614.501 - Remedies and relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...1614.501 Section 1614.501 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.501 Remedies and relief....

  5. 29 CFR 1614.501 - Remedies and relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...1614.501 Section 1614.501 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION FEDERAL SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.501 Remedies and relief....

  6. Parents: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Acetaminophen (a?SEET?a?MIN?o?fen) ... whole word or may have the abbreviation "APAP." Liver damage: Giving your child more acetaminophen than directed ...

  7. Careful: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Careful: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Acetaminophen (a?SEET?a?MIN?o?fen) ... word or may have the abbreviation "APAP." Severe liver damage may occur and may lead to death ...

  8. Rectangular Relief Diffraction Gratings for Coherent Lidar Beam Scanning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, H. J.; Chambers, D. M.; Dixit, S. N.; Britten, J. A.; Shore, B. W.; Kavaya, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    The application of specialized rectangular relief transmission gratings to coherent lidar beam scanning is presented. Two types of surface relief transmission grating approaches are studied with an eye toward potential insertion of a constant thickness, diffractive scanner where refractive wedges now exist. The first diffractive approach uses vertically oriented relief structure in the surface of an optical flat; illumination of the diffractive scanner is off-normal in nature. The second grating design case describes rectangular relief structure slanted at a prescribed angle with respect to the surface. In this case, illumination is normal to the diffractive scanner. In both cases, performance predictions for 2.0 micron, circularly polarized light at beam deflection angles of 30 or 45 degrees are presented.

  9. North exterior elevation of Pope Quadrangle. Note the bas relief ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North exterior elevation of Pope Quadrangle. Note the bas relief sculpture over the doorway, which includes the school motto, Aspirando et Perseverando. - Avon Old Farms School, 500 Avon Old Farms Road, Avon, Hartford County, CT

  10. 7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    Products that can be balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as well as sprains, bruises, swelling, and other aches. (b) Minimum biobased...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    Products that can be balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as well as sprains, bruises, swelling, and other aches. (b) Minimum biobased...

  12. 7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    Products that can be balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as well as sprains, bruises, swelling, and other aches. (b) Minimum biobased...

  13. 7 CFR 2902.59 - Topical pain relief products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    Products that can be balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as well as sprains, bruises, swelling, and other aches. (b) Minimum biobased...

  14. 7. DETAIL, BAS RELIEF OF INDIAN HEAD, SECOND FLOOR LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL, BAS RELIEF OF INDIAN HEAD, SECOND FLOOR LEVEL ABOVE NICHE, SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Administration Building, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

  15. Before, Now, and After: Assessing Hurricane Katrina Relief

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Forgette; Bryan Dettrey; Mark Van Boening; David A. Swanson

    2009-01-01

    We assess governmental and non-governmental responses to disasters using primary data of Hurricane Katrina survivors along\\u000a the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Non-governmental sources include nonprofit relief groups, faith-based organizations, and survivors’\\u000a self-identified social networks. We assess the impact of these governmental and non-governmental relief efforts on survivors’\\u000a economic, psychological, physical, and social effects from the disaster. Our results show that social

  16. Revving up for Relief: Harley-Davidson at the ITC

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dorothy Robyn, for the case program at the Kennedy School of Government.

    Published in 1986, this Kennedy School case tells the story of Harley-Davidson's application to the ITC for temporary relief from high levels of imported Japanese motorcycles. The case lays out, in considerable detail, Harley's justification for protection and the Japanese manufacturers' counterarguments. The case is presented in two parts, the first focusing on the extent of the "injury" an the second on the nature of the relief Harley requested.

  17. Velocity profiles in a hot jet by simplified RELIEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Raman Excitation + Laser Induced Electronic Fluorescence (RELIEF) is a double resonance velocimetry technique in which oxygen molecules are vibrationally excited via stimulated Raman scattering at a specific location within a flow field. After suitable time delay, typically 1-10 microseconds, the displacement of the tagged molecules is determined by laser induced fluorescence imaging. Providing support for the installation of simplified RELIEF flow tagging instrumentation at NASA LaRC was the principal goal of this research.

  18. Relief During the Great Depression in Australia and America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Price V. Fishback

    2012-01-01

    I compare and contrast the relief efforts in response to the extraordinary employment of the Great Depression in the U.S. and Australia. The effectiveness of relief spending in America at the local level is discussed with reference to a series of studies that I have performed with a series of co-authors. To compare the U.S. demographic results with the impact

  19. Southern California Shaded Relief, Color as Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    From the desert to the mountains to the sea,' this image shows in striking detail the varied topography of Southern California. The data, which cover an area one and a half times the size of New Jersey, were acquired in 15 seconds by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The large V-shape across the center of the image is the intersection of the mountains uplifted along two major faults. The San Andreas Fault is the lower part of the 'V' and the Garlock Fault is the upper part. Between the faults is the western Mojave Desert, including the alternate landing site for the Shuttle at Edwards Air Force Base, near the center of the image. The Pacific Coast appears in the lower left of the image, from Oxnard at the left center edge, curving southeast to Los Angeles. The flat blue area along the top is the southern end of California's Central Valley. Along the right edge of the image is NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Tracking Station. Scientists will use data like these to study a broad range of topics, including ecology, the environment, geology, as well as to make assessments of seismic, flood, and wildfire hazards.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 3000 meters (10,000 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 250 km (155 miles) x 150 km (93 miles) Location: 34.8 deg. North lat., 118.0 deg. West lon. Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

  20. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

    Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

    East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

    North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

    South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.

    To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.

    Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth

  1. Shaded relief, color as height, Salalah, Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This elevation map shows a part of the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula including parts of the countries of Oman and Yemen. The narrow coastal plain on the right side of the image includes the city of Salahlah, the second largest city in Oman. Various crops, including coconuts, papayas and bananas, are grown on this plain. The abrupt topography of the coastal mountains wrings moisture from the monsoon, enabling agriculture in the otherwise dry environment of the Arabian Peninsula. These mountains are historically significant as well: Some scholars believe these mountains are the 'southern mountains' of the book of Genesis.

    This image brightness corresponds to shading illumination from the right, while colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to brown at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1400 meters (4600 feet) of total relief. The Arabian Sea is colored blue.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 149 by 40 kilometers (92 by 25 miles) Location: 16.9 deg. North lat., 53.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top right Date Acquired: February 15, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  2. Statistical Performance Evaluation Of Soft Seat Pressure Relief Valves

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Stephen P.; Gross, Robert E.

    2013-03-26

    Risk-based inspection methods enable estimation of the probability of failure on demand for spring-operated pressure relief valves at the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This paper presents a statistical performance evaluation of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves. These pressure relief valves are typically smaller and of lower cost than hard seat (metal to metal) pressure relief valves and can provide substantial cost savings in fluid service applications (air, gas, liquid, and steam) providing that probability of failure on demand (the probability that the pressure relief valve fails to perform its intended safety function during a potentially dangerous over pressurization) is at least as good as that for hard seat valves. The research in this paper shows that the proportion of soft seat spring operated pressure relief valves failing is the same or less than that of hard seat valves, and that for failed valves, soft seat valves typically have failure ratios of proof test pressure to set pressure less than that of hard seat valves.

  3. Sound-suppressing structure with thermal relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, D. O.; Holowach, J. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    Sound-suppressing structure comprising stacked acoustic panels wherein the inner high frequency panel is mounted for thermal expansion with respect to the outer low frequency panel is discussed. Slip joints eliminate the potential for thermal stresses, and a thermal expansion gap between the panels provides for additional relative thermal growth while reducing heat convection into the low frequency panel.

  4. 76 FR 27171 - Northwestern Pacific Railroad Co.; Notice of Partial Relief from Emergency Order No. 21

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...has requested relief from Emergency Order No. 21 in its November...Co. requested relief from Emergency Order No. 21 and found that...Grant of Partial Relief In light of the foregoing, I grant NWP Co. partial relief from Emergency Order No. 21. The...

  5. The Relationship between Physical Function and Postural Sway during Local Vibratory Stimulation of Middle-aged People in the Standing Position

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tadashi; Sakai, Yoshihito; Kubo, Akira; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Ohno, Yasuo; Nakamura, Eishi; Sato, Noritaka; Morita, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical function and postural sway during local vibratory stimulation of middle-aged subjects in an upright position. [Subjects] The subjects were 25 healthy community-dwelling middle-aged people. [Methods] We measured postural sway using a Wii board while vibratory stimulations of 30, 60, or 240?Hz were applied to the subjects’ lumbar multifidus or gastrocnemius muscles. Physical function was evaluated by 5-m usual gait speed and grip strength. [Results] Gait speed was strongly correlated to the anteroposterior body sway in the upright position during 30?Hz gastrocnemius muscles vibration (GMV). [Conclusion] Postural sway during 30?Hz GMV was strongly associated with gait speed and showed a posterior displacement. These findings show that the lower leg’s response to balance control under 30?Hz proprioceptive stimulation might be a good indicator of declining gait function. PMID:25364130

  6. The Temporary Threshold Shift of Vibratory Sensation Induced by Hand-Arm Vibration Composed of Four One-Third Octave Band Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, K.; Taoda, K.; Yamashita, H.; Watanabe, S.

    1997-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to define the multiple effect hand-arm vibration composed of four equally effective one-third octave band vibrations (63 Hz, 125 Hz, 250 Hz and 500 Hz) on the temporary threshold shift in vibratory sensation.Seven healthy subjects were exposed to vibration by grasping a vibrated handle in a soundproof thermo-regulated room. The vibratory sensation threshold at 125 Hz was measured before and after vibration exposure at an exposed fingertip. At first we determined each acceleration of the component one-third octave band vibrations for each subject. These should induce the same magnitude of temporary threshold shift in vibratory sensation immediately after the vibration exposure (TTSv.0as induced by the reference one-third octave band vibration (250 Hz, 4g). We measured TTSv.tfor the exposures of the composed vibrations and the four component vibrations. TTSv.0was determined for each exposure according to the exponential recovery model stated in the previous study.The TTSv.0induced by the composite vibration was not longer than that which might have been induced by each component vibration. This result confirms our previous speculation that the component of the vibration inducing the largest TTSv.0determines TTSv.0by broadband random vibration.

  7. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.

    Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200-foot)-long mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 1,113 by 638 kilometers (692 by 396 miles) Location: 55 degrees North latitude, 160 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  8. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Location: 53.5 degrees North latitude, 8 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  9. 30 CFR 203.80 - When can I get royalty relief if I am not eligible for royalty relief under other sections in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...REVENUE MANAGEMENT RELIEF OR REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Pre-Act Deep...to the applicable levels of the royalty suspension volumes and price thresholds, provide inadequate encouragement to...

  10. Neotectonic stresses in Fennoscandia: field observations and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    The present-day stress state of Fennoscandia is traditionally viewed as the combination of far field sources and residual glacial loading stresses. Investigations were conducted in different regions of Norway with the purpose of detecting and measuring stress-relief features and to derive from them valuable information on the crustal stress state. Stress-relief features are induced by blasting and sudden rock unloading in road construction and quarrying operations and are common in Norway and very likely in other regions of Fennoscandia. Stress relief at the Earth's surface is diagnostic of anomalously high stress levels at shallow depths in the crust and appears to be a characteristic of the formerly glaciated Baltic and Canadian Precambrian shields. The studied stress-relief features are, in general, indicative of NW-SE compression, suggesting ridge-push as the main source of stress. Our derived stress directions are also in excellent agreement with the ones derived from other kinds of stress indicators, including focal mechanisms from deep earthquakes, demonstrating that stress-relief features are valuable for neotectonic research. As a second step we applied numerical modelling techniques to simulate the neotectonic stress field in Fennoscandia with particular emphasis to southern Norway. A numerical method was used to reconstruct the structure of the Fennoscandian lithosphere. The numerical method involves classical steady-state heat equations to derive lithosphere thickness, geotherm and density distribution and, in addition, requires the studied lithosphere to be isostatically compensated at its base. The a priori crustal structure was derived from previous geophysical studies. Undulations of the geoid were used to calibrate the models. Once the density structure of the Fennoscandian lithosphere is reconstructed it is straightforward to quantify its stress state and compare modelling results with existing stress indicators. The modelling suggests that present-day stress magnitudes are far to be uniform in Scandinavia. For example the modelling predicts that the topography of the southern Norwegian Mountains creates Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) levels higher than the ones characterising the surrounding regions. This results in significant buoyancy forces competing locally with the regional ridge-push. GPE decreases almost gradually towards the Gulf of Bothnia where strong compressive stresses are predicted. A local departure from the regional NW-SE trend for the maximum horizontal stress axes is simulated in Trøndelag, Norway. This local stress deviation is supported by stress-relief observations and in situ stress measurements. Our modelling suggests that it results from the combined effects of the weak rheology of the Møre-Trøndelag Fault Complex and topographic stresses associated with the southern Norwegian Scandes mountains.

  11. Evaluation of a portable stress management device.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeon; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Portable consumer health management devices are increasingly gaining attention from health consumers. StressEraser is a portable biofeedback device widely advertised as a stress reliever and cognition enhancer. However number of evaluation studies assessing effect of StressEraser on cognitive performance improvement and stress relief is very limited. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of StressEraser on cognitive performance and stress relief using a crossover design. A computerized psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) was selected as a mental stressor. The cognitive performance and stress level were measured in fourteen subjects having two 10-minute PVTs and 10-minute StressEraser intervention in between the PVTs. All main PVT metrics of cognitive performance (MeanRT, MedianRT, and Fastest 10%) became significantly worse after StressEraser application (P<0.05). On the other hand, six heart rate variability (HRV) parameters (MeanRR, SDNN, RMSSD, aLF, aHF, and LF/HF) used to assess stress level showed no significant differences between the first and the second PVTs. Furthermore, the subjective stress levels reported by the study subjects after the first and the second PVTs were not significantly different. We concluded that the StressEraser had a negative effect on cognitive performance and no effect on stress level. PMID:25676982

  12. Analysis and design of a 3rd order velocity-controlled closed-loop for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huan-ming; Yang, Hai-gang; Yin, Tao; Jiao, Ji-wei

    2013-01-01

    The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model's transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop's performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 ?m complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term. PMID:24051522

  13. Random vibration and the single degree-of-freedom vibratory system: A symbolic quantification of isolation and packaging performance

    SciTech Connect

    Redfield, R.C. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    With twenty years of research, active and semi-active systems have been shown to have certain performance advantages over passive suspensions in certain operating regimes. Chalasani and Redfield and Karnopp have shown that, depending on the performance index and weightings, active control improves performance from little to moderately. There are situations where passive control is quite satisfactory and the complexities and cost of more active means may not be warranted. To further the understanding of the tradeoffs involved and the performance potentials of active suspensions, this paper symbolically quantifies the isolation and stroke performance for a one degree-of-freedom vibratory system subject to a stochastic disturbance input acting through the suspension. The system of this paper models that of tracked vehicles and a class of isolation systems quite well. It also gives insight into low and high frequency performance for two degree-of-freedom systems such as a typical suspension model for automobiles, aircraft, and rail vehicles. Because of the nature of the single degree-of-freedom model, issues of handling cannot be readily addressed in this work. The 1 DOF model does not adequately predict dynamic tire forces. The main contributions of this work are the closed form symbolic solutions developed for optimal suspension response and the demonstration of the marked similarity between the frequency and mean square response of the 1 degree-of-freedom model of this paper and the more involved 2 degree-of-freedom model incorporating a so-called unsprung mass.''

  14. Possibility of application of small-size robots with vibratory piezoelectric actuators for inspection of physical state of surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanenko, D. A.; Minchenya, V. T.; Asimov, R. M.; Zimmermann, K.

    2012-05-01

    The article describes design and principle of control of small-size inspection robot with vibratory piezoelectric actuator and possibility of its application for non-destructive evaluation (NDE). Controlled movement of robot is implemented using single bimorph piezoelement by means of frequency control of electric voltage applied to piezoelement. Such scheme of control is realized as a result of application of structural asymmetry principle consisting in relative shift of resonant characteristics of robot supporting elements (legs) by means of imparting geometric asymmetry to them. During movement of robot upon inspected surface each of its legs excites in substrate elastic waves which can be registered by another robot as a consequence of piezoelectric effect reversibility. As a result group of communicating robots (robotic swarm) will be able to distribute over the surface of inspected object and perform its multiagent control. This will give possibility to accelerate and simplify inspection of large and geometrically-complex objects. Autonomy and compactness of the described robots will also make reasonable their application for NDE of hard-to-access surfaces and potentially hazardous objects.

  15. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique.

    Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area.

    The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water.

    The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Location: 3 degrees south latitude, 35 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 223 by 223 kilometers (138 by 138 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  16. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  17. Percutaneous Relief of Tension Pneumomediastinum in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, Helen Hoi-lun; Kwok, Philip Chong-hei; Lai, Albert Kwok-hung; Fan, Tsz Wo; Chan, Susan Chi-hum [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 30 Gascoigne Road, Kowloon, Department of Radiology and Imaging, Hong Kong (China); Miu, Ting Yat; Chan, Grace Lai-har [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 30 Gascoigne Road, Kowloon, Pediatrics, Hong Kong (China)

    2003-11-15

    The purpose of this article was to describe the experience of relieving tension pneumomediastinum by a fluoroscopic-guided percutaneous method. We inserted a percutaneous drainage catheter with a Heimlich valve under fluoroscopic guidance to relieve the tension pneumomediastinum in a 2-year-old girl who suffered from dermatomyositis with lung involvement. This allowed immediate relief without the need for surgery. The procedure was repeated for relapsed tension pneumomediastinum. Good immediate results were achieved in each attempt. We conclude that percutaneous relief of pneumomediastinum under fluoroscopic guidance can be performed safely and rapidly in patients not fit for surgery.

  18. Pain relief at the end of life: nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Brorson, Hanna; Plymoth, Henrietta; Örmon, Karin; Bolmsjö, Ingrid

    2014-03-01

    Patients with dementia receive suboptimal palliative care, and this patient group is at risk to have pain at the end of life. Because communicative impairments are common in this patient group, nurses play an important caregiver role in identifying, assessing, and relieving patients' pain. This study aimed to describe nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia. This descriptive exploratory qualitative study was based on seven semistructured interviews. Burnard's content analysis inspired the data analysis. Two main categories were identified: (1) nurses' experience of difficulties concerning pain relief and (2) nurses' experience of resources concerning pain relief. Nurses experienced difficulties, such as feeling of powerlessness because of difficulties in obtaining adequate prescriptions for analgesics, ethical dilemmas, feeling of inadequacy because analgesia did not have the desired effect, and a feeling of not being able to connect with the patient. Factors, including knowledge about the patient, professional experience, utilization of pain assessment tools, interpersonal relationships, and interprofessional cooperation, served as resources and enabled end-of-life pain relief. The results of this study highlight the complexity of pain relief in patients with dementia at the end of life from a nursing perspective. The inability of patients with dementia to verbally communicate their pain makes them a vulnerable patient group, dependent on their caregivers. Knowing the life story of the patient, professional experience, teamwork based on good communication, and use of a pain assessment tool were reported by the nurses to improve pain relief at the end of life for patients with dementia. PMID:23453467

  19. MODELING OF ROYALTY RELIEF FOR MATURE OIL FIELDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Felipe; Saul Barisnik

    The operation of mature petroleum fields is frequently uneconomic due to the low production volume and to the excessive load of taxes and governmental participations that these fields are submitted to. This work presents a deterministic model for royalty relief, using a combination of different types of decline curves, operational costs, and prices of several oil types, making an analysis

  20. 7 CFR 635.6 - Equitable relief by State Conservationists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...or (3) The highly erodible land and wetland conservation requirements under subtitles B or C of Title XII of the Food Security Act of 1985 (16 U.S.C. 3811 et seq .). (c) Relief shall only be made under this part after...

  1. 78 FR 49242 - Relief From Joint and Several Liability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...allows a taxpayer who is divorced or legally separated from...request for relief, does not affect the IRS's consideration of...omitted from the return. H and W divorced soon after and, in late December...2001. The taxpayers were divorced in 2005. On her separate...

  2. Alignment of reactive LC mesogen by relief diffraction grating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Soloviev; Yuri B. Boiko; Piero P. Perlo; Chander P. Grover

    2002-01-01

    It is demonstrated experimentally that an efficient alignment of a reactive liquid crystal (LC) mesogen is achievable by employing a relief diffraction grating having a pitch smaller than the correlation length of the LC mesogen. Full alignment of the reactive LC mesogen using a 500 lines\\/mm diffraction grating is confirmed by polarization microscopy. A grating of 200 lines\\/mm exhibited partial

  3. 7 CFR 635.6 - Equitable relief by State Conservationists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...or (3) The highly erodible land and wetland conservation requirements under subtitles B or C of Title XII of the Food Security Act of 1985 (16 U.S.C. 3811 et seq.). (c) Relief shall only be made under this part after...

  4. 7 CFR 635.6 - Equitable relief by State Conservationists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...or (3) The highly erodible land and wetland conservation requirements under subtitles B or C of Title XII of the Food Security Act of 1985 (16 U.S.C. 3811 et seq. ). (c) Relief shall only be made under this part after...

  5. Broadband antireflective surface-relief structure for THz optics.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Claudia; Pradarutti, Boris; Stenzel, Olaf; Steinkopf, Ralf; Riehemann, Stefan; Notni, Gunther; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2007-02-01

    The requirements for a broadband antireflective structure in the THz spectral region are derived. Optimized structural parameters for a surface-relief grating adapted to the spectrum of an intended THz pulse are deduced. The effect of a structure fabricated into Topas((R)) by a single-point diamond-turning process is demonstrated. PMID:19532301

  6. The Use of Fuzzy Measures in Pain Relief Control

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    the suffering of the patients suffering from the chronic pain, it is desirable to stop the pain sig­ nals fromThe Use of Fuzzy Measures in Pain Relief Control Vladik KREINOVICH \\Lambda and Nadipuram R. PRASAD\\Lambda Department of Electrical Engineering, New Mexico State University Abstract: Many people suffer from

  7. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...must be able to withstand a dynamic pressure surge reaching 30...must certify that the device model was designed and tested... Each pressure relief device model must be successfully flow...pressure are considered to be one model. The testing requirements...

  8. Bio magnetic energy in pain relief and healing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Grace

    1998-01-01

    Frequency specificity of pulsed electro-magnetic energy is one of the most important factors in obtaining maximum benefits for pain relief and healing of damaged tissue. Waveforms, the harmonics available and the ON-OFF duty cycle must also be considered, and these are discussed. In summary, the parameters of the specifics discussed, demonstrate the most effective results to date in clinical use

  9. Broadband antireflective surface-relief structure for THz optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brückner, Claudia; Pradarutti, Boris; Stenzel, Olaf; Steinkopf, Ralf; Riehemann, Stefan; Notni, Gunther; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2007-02-01

    The requirements for a broadband antireflective structure in the THz spectral region are derived. Optimized structural parameters for a surface-relief grating adapted to the spectrum of an intended THz pulse are deduced. The effect of a structure fabricated into Topas® by a single-point diamond-turning process is demonstrated.

  10. FISHERIES DISASTER RELIEF PROGRAM (FDRP) ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY 2007

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    FISHERIES DISASTER RELIEF PROGRAM (FDRP) ANNUAL REPORT FOR FY 2007 P.I. Name: Robert L. Humphreys of the Project (one paragraph) The purpose is to evaluate whether distinct trace element signatures exist within to unique otolith trace element signatures by site. If successful, these markers will provide a basis

  11. Situation Assessment Model for UAV Disaster Relief in the City

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jia Ren; Xiao-guang Gao

    2011-01-01

    A situation assessment model based on structure- variable discrete dynamic Bayesian network (SVDDBN) of sorting information is proposed for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), which can be applied in the condition of disaster relief in the city when pop-up threats appear. The model is built on the basis of the SVDDBN, makes an uncertain classification on pop- up threats observing information

  12. 5. DIABLO DAM: DETAIL VIEW OF RELIEF VALVES AT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DIABLO DAM: DETAIL VIEW OF RELIEF VALVES AT ELEVATION 1044. VALVE IN FOREGROUND IS A BUTTERFLY VALVE SIX FEET IN DIAMETER; VALVE TO THE REAR IS A JOHNSON-TYPE NEEDLE VALVE BOTH VALVES WERE MANUFACTURED BY THE PELTON WATER WHEEL COMPANY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Dam, On Skagit River, 6.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  13. How Tax Relief for Training Can Make a Real Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Companies received more than 5 billion British Pounds last year from the Exchequer in tax relief for work-related training. That is equivalent to the turnover of more than 250 further education colleges. And it vastly overshadows the 50 million British Pounds Growth and Innovation Fund set up to support employers' initiatives to improve skills and…

  14. A Closer Look: The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balmer, Mary

    2013-01-01

    School districts may be affected by the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 with regard to fixed assets management and education entities. The act avoids the scheduled increases to individual income tax rates for most Americans and extends a host of expired and expiring tax provisions for both individuals and businesses. The provisions described…

  15. Polarization behavior and mode structure of elliptical surface relief VCSELs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miren Camarena; Guy Verschaffelt; Maria-Cristina Moreno; Lieven Desmet; Heiko J. Unold; Rainer Michalzik; Hugo Thienpont; Jan Danckaert; Irina Veretennicoff; Krassimir Panajotov

    2003-01-01

    Summary form only given. We investigate the polarization behavior and the mode structure of elliptical surface relief vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers. The polarization direction is governed by the orientation of the index ellipsoid, whereas the lasing mode is determined by the losses anisotropy.

  16. Building relations with women's organisations in relief work.

    PubMed

    Gell, F

    1997-02-01

    An Oxfam Emergency Team arrived in Ingushetia in the Northern Caucasus region of the former Soviet Union in August 1996 to set up a program of shelter, rehabilitation, and relief in response to the large influx of people displaced by conflicts in the neighboring republics of Chechnya and North Ossetia. The team was also tasked with contacting community organizations such as women's groups and developing a relationship with them through joint relief work. The Chechen population was comprised of mainly women, children, and the elderly. The internally displaced population of 100,000 people is now scattered throughout the republic in collective centers and host families. Small committees of women were formed to help identify the most vulnerable residents and to distribute winter clothing. It was found during the relief work that fledgling women's groups are establishing themselves as vehicles for change, increasingly open to work with and learn from international organizations such as Oxfam. The Chechen branch of the Union of North Caucasian Women and the Ingushetian ALMOS played leading roles in peacemaking, human rights observance, and humanitarian relief. PMID:12320800

  17. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks...shall be of the flanged type, made of metal not subject to rapid deterioration...For tolerance for pressure relief valves, see § 179.500-16(a).)...

  18. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Tax-Free Deliveries/Performance according to the Offshore Tax Relief Agreement) or other documentary evidence acceptable to the German tax authorities. All purchases made and paid for on a tax-free basis during a 30-day period may be accumulated,...

  19. 49 CFR 179.300-15 - Pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...even and without checks. (c) Pressure relief devices shall be set for start-to-discharge and rupture discs shall burst at a pressure not exceeding that specified in § 179.301. (d) Fusible plugs shall function at a temperature not...

  20. Conceptual design of pressure relief systems for cryogenic application

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, S. [Institute for Technical Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Engler-Bunte-Ring 21, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany and Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 E (Germany); Süßer, M. [Institute for Technical Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-01-29

    The conceptual design of pressure relief systems is an important aspect in the early phase of any cryogenic system design, because a prudent and responsible evaluation of relief systems involves much more than just relief devices. The conceptual design consists of various steps: At first, hazard scenarios must be considered and the worst-case scenario identified. Next, a staged interaction against pressure increase is to be defined. This is followed by the selection of the general type of pressure relief device for each stage, such as safety valve and rupture disc, respectively. Then, a decision concerning their locations, their capacities and specific features must be taken. Furthermore, it is mandatory to consider the inlet pressure drop and the back pressure in the exhaust line for sizing the safety devices. And last but not least, economic and environmental considerations must be made in case of releasing the medium to the atmosphere. The development of the system's safety concept calls for a risk management strategy based on identification and analysis of hazards, and consequent risk mitigation using a system-based approach in compliance with the standards.

  1. Delayed relief of hemifacial spasm after microvascular decompression.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lei; Zhong, Jun; Zhu, Jin; Dou, Ning-Ning; Liu, Ming-Xing; Li, Shi-Ting

    2015-03-01

    Microvascular decompression (MVD) has been accepted worldwide as a reasonable treatment for hemifacial spasm (HFS); however, resolution of the HFS is often gradual. To conclude the delayed relief rate of the MVD for the treatment of HFS, we conducted a systematic review. Using the keywords delayed relief, hemifacial spasm, or microvascular decompression, articles published in English-language journals and indexed in PubMed between June 1, 1994 and June 1, 2014 on the treatment of HFS with emphasis on delayed relief were considered for this study. Twelve articles with 2727 patients with HFS were finally enrolled in this review. Among all the patients, the ratio of male versus female was 1:2.7, and left versus right was 1:1.6. The average age at surgery was 52.5 years (49.1-55.9 y), with HFS symptom duration of 68.4 months (38.4-98.4 mo) before the surgery. The average follow-up duration was 49 months (6.4-121.6 mo). After examining all the patients, we obtained a mean postoperative success rate of 85.1% (76.5%-93.5%), but the success rate after the MVD immediately is only 71.8% (59.5%-84%). The mean rate of delayed relief was 25.4% (18.8%-37.1%). Approximately 13.1% (5.9%-19.7%) of the patients with symptom recurrence resorted to repeated MVD during the follow-up period. Accordingly, MVD is the most effective treatment for patients with HFS, but some of the patients may experienced delayed relief, which could be avoided if a thorough decompression of the facial nerve root had been obtained. PMID:25668113

  2. 46 CFR 58.16-15 - Valves and safety relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Valves and safety relief devices...RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-15 Valves and safety relief devices...operated screw-down shutoff valve fitted with a...

  3. 46 CFR 58.16-15 - Valves and safety relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Valves and safety relief devices...RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-15 Valves and safety relief devices...operated screw-down shutoff valve fitted with a...

  4. 46 CFR 58.16-15 - Valves and safety relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Valves and safety relief devices...RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-15 Valves and safety relief devices...operated screw-down shutoff valve fitted with a...

  5. 30 CFR 203.48 - Do I keep royalty relief if prices rise significantly?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION... Royalty Relief for Drilling Deep Gas Wells on Leases Not Subject to Deep Water Royalty Relief § 203...entirely less than 200 meters deep, before December 18,...

  6. 78 FR 3964 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2013. The designated ERD for calendar year 2013 is docket number...

  7. 75 FR 3782 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2010. The designated ERD for calendar year 2010 is docket number...

  8. 76 FR 1209 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2011. The designated ERD for calendar year 2011 is docket number...

  9. 77 FR 5293 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2012. The designated ERD for calendar year 2012 is docket number...

  10. 30 CFR 203.81 - What supplemental reports do royalty-relief applications require?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false What supplemental reports do royalty-relief applications require...OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Required Reports § 203.81 What supplemental reports do royalty-relief applications...

  11. 46 CFR 56.50-25 - Safety and relief valve escape piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Safety and relief valve escape piping. 56.50-25 Section 56.50-25...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements...50-25 Safety and relief valve escape piping. (a) Escape piping from...

  12. 78 FR 33467 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency...recipients most severely affected by Hurricane Sandy. This amount was in addition to...Emergency Relief Program Allocations for Hurricane Sandy, by...

  13. 19 CFR 210.66 - Initial determination concerning temporary relief; Commission action thereon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT...concerning temporary relief; Commission action thereon...on temporary relief is issued on the 70-day or...

  14. 40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 63.165 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure...

  15. 40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 63.165 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure...

  16. 40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 65.111 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Compliance standard. Except during pressure releases as provided for in...

  17. 40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 63.165 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure...

  18. 40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 65.111 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Compliance standard. Except during pressure releases as provided for in...

  19. 40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 63.165 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure...

  20. 40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 65.111 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Compliance standard. Except during pressure releases as provided for in...

  1. 77 FR 59408 - Finding of Equivalence; Alternate Pressure Relief Valve Settings on Certain Vessels Carrying...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ...Finding of Equivalence; Alternate Pressure Relief Valve Settings on Certain Vessels...Policy Letter 04-12, ``Alternative Pressure Relief Valve Settings on Vessels Carrying...Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (BPVC) Section VIII...

  2. 40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 63.165 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure...

  3. 40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 65.111 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Compliance standard. Except during pressure releases as provided for in...

  4. 40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Equipment Leaks § 65.111 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...Compliance standard. Except during pressure releases as provided for in...

  5. 30 CFR 1204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 1204.207...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.207...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  6. 30 CFR 204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 204.207 ...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.207 ...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  7. 75 FR 1654 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ...States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil...to participate or not participate in accounting and auditing relief for Federal oil...Regulations (CFR), to provide two types of accounting and auditing relief for Federal...

  8. 76 FR 6819 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ...States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil...to participate or not participate in accounting and auditing relief for Federal oil...69 FR 55076), provide two types of accounting and auditing relief for Federal...

  9. 30 CFR 1204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 1204.207...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.207...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  10. 30 CFR 1204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 1204.207...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.207...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  11. 30 CFR 1204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 1204.207...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.207...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  12. Pressure-relief valve selection to match facility to be protected against overpressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu. I. Taras'ev; Yu. D. Simkin

    1969-01-01

    safety rules in effect; pressure-relief requirements and specifications for specific relief valves designed to deal with overpressure; performance characteristics of the relief valve; design pressure of the process equipment to be protected against overpressure; physical properties of the medium to be dropped out in pressure-relief steps; information on sizing of the pipes through which the drop-out stream travels; data on

  13. 30 CFR 203.69 - If my application is approved, what royalty relief will I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION...Royalty Relief for Pre-Act Deep Water Leases and for Development...lease has earned or may earn deep gas royalty relief under...through 203.49 or ultra-deep gas royalty relief...

  14. 30 CFR 204.203 - What is the other relief option?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.203 What is the other...may request any type of accounting and auditing relief that is appropriate for production...under § 204.204 and meets the statutory requirements of § 204.5. Examples of relief...

  15. 46 CFR 38.25-10 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.25-10 Section 38.25-10 Shipping COAST...Tests and Inspections § 38.25-10 Safety relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) The cargo tank safety relief valves shall...

  16. 30 CFR 203.51 - How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief? 203.51...Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION...Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.51 How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief?...

  17. 30 CFR 203.50 - Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief? 203.50...Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION...Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.50 Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief? You...

  18. 46 CFR 32.20-5 - Pressure vacuum relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valves-TB/ALL. 32.20-5...Equipment Installations § 32.20-5 Pressure vacuum relief valves—TB/ALL. The pressure vacuum relief valve shall be of a type and size...

  19. 46 CFR 32.20-5 - Pressure vacuum relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valves-TB/ALL. 32.20-5...Equipment Installations § 32.20-5 Pressure vacuum relief valves—TB/ALL. The pressure vacuum relief valve shall be of a type and size...

  20. 46 CFR 32.20-5 - Pressure vacuum relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valves-TB/ALL. 32.20-5...Equipment Installations § 32.20-5 Pressure vacuum relief valves—TB/ALL. The pressure vacuum relief valve shall be of a type and size...

  1. 46 CFR 32.20-5 - Pressure vacuum relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valves-TB/ALL. 32.20-5...Equipment Installations § 32.20-5 Pressure vacuum relief valves—TB/ALL. The pressure vacuum relief valve shall be of a type and size...

  2. 46 CFR 30.10-55 - Pressure vacuum relief valve-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve-TB/ALL. 30.10-55... Definitions § 30.10-55 Pressure vacuum relief valve—TB/ALL. The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or...

  3. 46 CFR 30.10-55 - Pressure vacuum relief valve-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve-TB/ALL. 30.10-55... Definitions § 30.10-55 Pressure vacuum relief valve—TB/ALL. The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or...

  4. 30 CFR 203.51 - How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief? 203.51 Section...Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.51 How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief? You...

  5. 30 CFR 203.50 - Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief? 203.50 Section...Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.50 Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief? You may...

  6. 46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. 153.370 Section...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting...system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the cargo's...

  7. 46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. 153.370 Section...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting...system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the cargo's...

  8. 46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. 153.370 Section...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting...system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the cargo's...

  9. 46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. 153.370 Section...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting...system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the cargo's...

  10. 46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. 153.370 Section...Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting...system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the cargo's...

  11. The Constructed Relief: Put the Carving Tools Away and Build a Sculpture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostyniuk, Ron

    1990-01-01

    Describes origins of the constructed relief and shows some examples of contemporary artists' work. Suggests using this history to motivate students to construct their own reliefs. Outlines a four-step lesson: preliminary drawing, finished drawing, mock-up relief, and finished construction using durable materials, such as wood, acrylic sheet, or…

  12. 49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section...SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105...103-4 Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. (a) Safety relief...

  13. 49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section...SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105...103-4 Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. (a) Safety relief...

  14. 49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section...SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105...103-4 Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. (a) Safety relief...

  15. 49 CFR 179.500-16 - Tests of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief devices. 179.500-16 Section...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-16 Tests of pressure relief devices. (a) Pressure relief valves shall be tested by air or...

  16. 49 CFR 179.500-16 - Tests of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief devices. 179.500-16 Section...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-16 Tests of pressure relief devices. (a) Pressure relief valves shall be tested by air or...

  17. 49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section...SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105...103-4 Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. (a) Safety relief...

  18. 49 CFR 179.500-16 - Tests of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief devices. 179.500-16 Section...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-16 Tests of pressure relief devices. (a) Pressure relief valves shall be tested by air or...

  19. 49 CFR 179.103-4 - Safety relief devices and pressure regulators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. 179.103-4 Section...SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-105...103-4 Safety relief devices and pressure regulators. (a) Safety relief...

  20. 49 CFR 179.500-16 - Tests of pressure relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief devices. 179.500-16 Section...DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500-16 Tests of pressure relief devices. (a) Pressure relief valves shall be tested by air or...