Sample records for vibratory stress relief

  1. Study on Vibratory Stress Relief Technology for the Structural Parts of Hydraulic Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lianmin; Hou, Shunqiang; Zeng, Qingliang; Liu, Jintao

    This paper mainly compares two methods thermal aging and VSR for structural parts of the hydraulic support. VSR using the spectrum harmonic vibration aging technology has the same effect in the elimination of stress with thermal aging, and is superior to thermal aging in stabling dimensional accuracy and increasing payload capacity of the works.

  2. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

  3. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

  4. 46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

  5. Method for residual stress relief and retained austenite destabilization

    DOEpatents

    Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2004-08-10

    A method using of a magnetic field to affect residual stress relief or phase transformations in a metallic material is disclosed. In a first aspect of the method, residual stress relief of a material is achieved at ambient temperatures by placing the material in a magnetic field. In a second aspect of the method, retained austenite stabilization is reversed in a ferrous alloy by applying a magnetic field to the alloy at ambient temperatures.

  6. An experimental investigation of thermal stress relief in two steels

    SciTech Connect

    Cammett, J.T.; Luken, R.C.; Dotson, R.D. [Naval Aviation Depot, Cherry Point, NC (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Thermal relief of residual stresses was studied in AISI 4340 alloy steel (38 HRC) and AISI 1070 spring steel (45 HRC). Residual Stresses in simple strip-geometry specimens introduced by shot peening, abusive grinding, and mechanical bending were measured by X-ray diffraction before and after thermal treatments for varying times over the temperature range of 375 F to 1,050 F. Results correlated well with a time-temperature parameter having the same form as the Larson-Miller parameter commonly used to correlate creep deformation and stress-rupture behavior of metallic materials. Thermal stress relief results exhibited not only a material dependence, but also an apparent dependence on the initial magnitude of residual stress before thermal treatment and, possibly, on the manner of their creation.

  7. Stress-relief cracking of a new ferritic steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawrocki, Jesse Gerald

    The mechanism of stress-relief cracking in the coarse-grained heat-affected zone (CGHAZ) of low-alloy ferritic steels was studied through a tempering study, stress-relaxation testing, and detailed microstructural characterization. A new ferritic alloy steel, HCM2S, was used as the model system. Common 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel, which is susceptible to stress-relief cracking, was used for comparison to HCM2S. The CGHAZ was simulated using Gleeble techniques. A dense distribution of small tungsten-rich carbides within the prior austenite grains induced secondary hardening in the CGHAZ of HCM2S. The CGHAZ of 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel exhibited secondary hardening due to the intragranular precipitation of many Fe-rich M3C carbides. The hardness of HCM2S was more stable at longer times and high temperatures than 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel due to the intragranular precipitation of small W and V-rich carbides. The CGHAZs of HCM2S and 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel were susceptible to stress-relief cracking between 575 and 725°C. HCM2S exhibited C-curve behavior with respect to the time to failure as a function of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) temperature. No segregation of tramp elements to prior austenite grain boundaries was detected in HCM2S. Both intergranular and intragranular carbide precipitation controlled the stress-relief cracking behavior. The amount of intergranular failure increased with test temperature due to the increasing amounts of Fe-rich M3C carbides at the prior austenite grain boundaries. These carbides acted as cavity nucleation sites. The cavities coalesced to form microcracks along prior austenite grain boundaries. Eventually, the remaining uncracked areas could not support the load and failed by ductile rupture. The balance of intergranular and intragranular carbide precipitation resulted in the C-curve behavior. The nose of the C-curve occurred at 675°C. The intragranular regions were strong because of a dense distribution of W/Fe-rich carbides, but the prior austenite grain boundaries were weak due to a large amount of intergranular M3C carbides. A mechanism for stress-relief cracking in the CGHAZ of HCM2S has been proposed. The results of this study form a basis for heat treating and welding processing variables for HCM2S and 2.25Cr-1 Mo steel to avoid stress-relief cracking. In addition, these results can be applied to other materials to avoid microstructures susceptible to stress-relief cracking.

  8. FREEZE-FRAME: Fast Action Stress Relief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childre, Doc Lew

    Recent scientific research has proven that we can, not only manage our stress, we can even prevent it. Ways to achieve stress management are presented in this book. It details a method called FREEZE-FRAME, a process in which individuals mentally stop the chaos that surrounds them and then calmly contemplate their situation. The text opens with an…

  9. Meditation, stress relief, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Julie

    2015-05-01

    As the pace of life increases, stress is becoming endemic, and in the radiologic sciences, stress is keenly felt by technologists and patients. Meditation, a potential remedy to stress, is the subject of an increasing number of medical studies that often rely upon radiologic imaging scans to determine the physiological effects of meditation on brain activity. A wide range of meditation techniques have beneficial effects on the mind, body, and emotions. Radiologic technologists might find that meditation improves their quality of life as well as their level of job satisfaction, allowing them to provide improved quality of care to their patients. PMID:25995404

  10. Stress and Relief: Parents Attending a Respite Program

    PubMed Central

    McLennan, John D.; Doig, Jenna; Rasmussen, Carmen; Hutcheon, Emily; Urichuk, Liana

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine changes in stress among parents of children with special needs in a respite service and consider parental experience of the service. Methods: Families who were enrolled in a ten-month centre-based respite program were invited to participate in the evaluation. Change in parent stress, indexed by the Parent Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), was determined. These results were compared with findings from exploratory qualitative interviews with a subset of parents and a small comparison group who also completed the PSI-SF. Results: At baseline, 69% of parents (n=45) had high total stress scores on the PSI-SF. No significant improvements were detected on parent stress over time or differences from improvements in the comparison group. In contrast, the subgroup of parents (n=10) who participated in the qualitative interviews described substantial benefits from the respite program including a sense of relief and having time for other activities. Conclusions: It is proposed that the respite program may have provided a temporary break to parents thereby bestowing a sense of relief, but was not adequate to impact on more chronic stress patterns, suggesting that these are related but separate constructs and experiences. PMID:23133460

  11. High voltage bushing having weathershed and surrounding stress relief collar

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage electric bushing comprises a hollow elongated dielectric weathershed which encloses a high voltage conductor. A collar formed of high voltage dielectric material is positioned over the weathershed and is bonded thereto by an interface material which precludes moisture-like contaminants from entering between the bonded portions. The collar is substantially thicker than the adjacent weathershed which it surrounds, providing relief of the electric stresses which would otherwise appear on the outer surface of the weathershed. The collar may include a conductive ring or capacitive foil to further relieve electric stresses experienced by the bushing.

  12. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

  13. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

  14. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

  15. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

  16. 46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

  17. Thermal stress-relief treatments for 2219 aluminum alloy are evaluated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Evaluation of three thermal stress relief treatments for 2219 aluminum alloy in terms of their effect on residual stress, mechanical properties, and stress corrosion resistance. The treatments are post aging and stress relieving fullscale and subscale parts formed in the aged T81 condition, and aging subscale parts formed in the unaged T31 condition.

  18. Thermo-mechanical stress relief analysis in PMMA and 6000 series aluminum

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Scott, S.B. (Scott A.). Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Stress relief of materials produced in bulk is a key part of the manufacturing process. The most common kinds are either thermal or mechanical and are commonly applied to commercial metal alloys. A third type, thermo-mechanical, ...

  19. Mechanism of Improving Fretting Fatigue Strength by Stress-Relief Groove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Shunsuke; Ono, Hiroaki; Kawakami, Kota; Kubota, Masanobu; Kondo, Yoshiyuki

    The effectiveness of stress-relief groove that significantly improves the fretting fatigue strength has been validated through many fatigue tests using a full-scale railway wheelset. However, the reason for this increase has not been yet fully understood. The objective of this study is to clarify the mechanism responsible for the improvement of the fretting fatigue strength by a stress-relief groove. In this study, fretting fatigue tests using a pre-cracked specimen was done based on the assumption that the fretting fatigue phenomenon can be regarded as a crack propagation problem. In the experiment, the fretting fatigue strength was improved by the stress-relief groove. The result suggested that the propagation of the pre-crack was suppressed by the stress-relief groove. An FEM analysis showed the reason for the suppression of the crack propagation. The mode I stress intensity factor of the pre-crack was reduced by the stress-relief groove. This was achieved by both relaxation of the stress around the contact edge and development of static compressive stress field by severe concentration of the contact pressure due to overhang.

  20. Stress production and relief in the gold/silicon eutectic die-attach process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hund, T. D.; Burchett, S. N.

    1983-06-01

    Eutectic braze thickness and package cooling rate for stress relief in eutectically bonded die were evaluated. Two package types, a 30 pin leadless chip carrier and a 28 pin flat pack were used as models in finite element stress calculations to study these parameters on the maximum principal stress, maximum circumferential stress, and maximum shear stress. Bonding temperature, creep rate, silicon tensile strength, and the effects of surface defects on silicon tensile strength were studied to evaluate their effects on stresses in the die. It is indicated that with a thicker eutectic braze and a slower cooling rate, die can be eutectically attached without excessive stress.

  1. Experimental and analytical evaluation of the effects of simulated engine inlets on the blade vibratory stresses of the SR-3 model prop-fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Prem N.

    1985-01-01

    A cooperative wind tunnel test program, referred to as GUN-3, had been conducted previously to assess the effect of inlet configuration and location on the inlet face pressure recovery and inlet drag in the presence of a high-speed advanced turboprop. These tests were conducted with the inlets located just downstream of the SR-3 model Prop-Fan, a moderately swept, eight-bladed 62.2 cm (24.5 inch) diameter advanced, high-speed turboprop model fabricated from titanium. During these tests, two blades of the SR-3 model Prop-Fan were strain gaged to measure the vibratory blade stresses occurring during the inlet aerodynamic test program. The purpose of the effort reported herein was to reduce and analyze the test results related to the vibratory strain gage measurements obtained. Three inlet configurations had been tested. These were: (1) single scoop, (2) twin scoop, and (3) annular. Each of the three inlets was tested at a position just behind the rotor. The single scoop inlet was also tested at a position further aft. Tests were also done without an inlet. These results emphasize the importance of avoiding critical speeds in the continuous operating range.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Vibratory Stresses in a Concentric-Ring Direct-Air-Cycle Nuclear Fuel Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiarito, Patrick T.

    1957-01-01

    Preliminary tests made by the General Electric Company indicated that aerodynamic loads might cause large enough distortions in the thin sheet-metal rings of a nuclear fuel element to result in structural failure. The magnitude of the distortions in a test fuel element was determined from strains measured with airflow conditions simulating those expected during engine operation. The measured vibratory strains were low enough to indicate the improbability of failure by fatigue. A conservative estimate of the radial deflection that accompanied peak strains in the outer ring was +0.0006 inch.

  3. Stress-relief displacements induced by drilling--applications to holographic measurements of in situ stress

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, T.J.; Smither, C.L.

    1992-04-24

    The holographic stressmeter is an instrument which has been developed at Caltech to allow determination of the complete stress tensor from in situ borehole measurements. The stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a small sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses, concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall in the vicinity of the sidehole. The first part of this study uses a thin infinite elastic plate subjected to plane stress at infinity to model the displacements at the borehole wall. However, the existence of some holograms which were difficult to model closely led us to examine the validity of this model. In order to investigate the problem further, we performed a two-dimensional finite element analysis for an elastic box with a terminated hole. We varied the dimensions of the hole to see what effect the radius and depth of the hole might have on the displacements. The plate model predicts that the depth of the hole should have no effect on the horizontal components of displacement, but the finite element results show that the magnitude of both components of the displacement depends on the depth of the sidehole. After considering these results, we developed a new model for the analysis of stress-relief displacements, following the work of Youngdahl and Sternberg (1965). For holes with a depth-to-diameter ratio greater than unity, the simple plane stress elastic plate solution breaks down and does not adequately model the displacements at the surface of the body and near the hole. Since these are the areas most critical to calculate accurately with the holographic technique, the revised model does a better job of fitting the observed data.

  4. Stress-relief displacements induced by drilling: Applications to holographic measurements of in situ stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, T. J.; Smither, C. L.

    1992-04-01

    The holographic stressmeter is an instrument which has been developed at Caltech to allow the determination of the complete stress tensor from in situ borehole measurements. The stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a small sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall in the vicinity of the sidehole. The first part of this study uses a thin infinite elastic plate subjected to plane stress at infinity to model the displacements at the borehole wall. However, the existence of some holograms which were difficult to model closely led us to examine the validity of this model. In order to investigate the problem further, we performed a two-dimensional finite element analysis for an elastic box with a terminated hole. We varied the dimensions of the hole to see what effect the radius and depth of the hole might have on the displacements. The plate model predicts that the depth of the hole should have no effect on the horizontal components of displacement, but the finite element results show that the magnitude of both components of the displacement depends on the depth of the sidehole. After considering these results, we developed a new model for the analysis of stress-relief displacements, following the work of Youngdahl and Sternberg (1965). For holes with a depth-to-diameter ratio greater than unity, the simple plane stress elastic plate solution breaks down and does not adequately model the displacements at the surface of the body and near the hole. Since these are the areas most critical to calculate accurately with the holographic technique, the revised model does a better job of fitting the observed data.

  5. Effectiveness of a Stress-Relief Initiative for Primary Caregivers of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Jung; Lin, Jin-Ding; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Wu, Sheng-Ru

    2010-01-01

    Background: This study provides a perspective on the mental health status and analyses the effectiveness of a stress-relief program for primary caregivers of adolescents with intellectual disability (ID). Method: Seventy-seven primary caregivers of people with ID were recruited (intervention group, n = 31; non-intervention group, n = 46) to the…

  6. Laughter and Stress Relief in Cancer Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a therapeutic laughter program and the number of program sessions on anxiety, depression, and stress in breast cancer patients. A randomized controlled trial was conducted involving 31 patients who received four sessions of therapeutic laughter program comprised and 29 who were assigned to the no-program control group. Scores for anxiety, depression, and stress were measured using an 11-point numerical rating scale. While no change was detected in the control group, the program group reported reductions of 1.94, 1.84, and 2.06 points for anxiety, depression, and stress, respectively (p < 0.01, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01). Scores decreased significantly after the first therapeutic laughter session (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, and p < 0.01). As the therapeutic laughter program was effective after only a single session in reducing anxiety, depression, and stress in breast cancer patients, it could be recommended as a first-line complementary/alternative therapy. PMID:26064177

  7. Twinning in ferroelectric and ferroelastic ceramics: stress relief

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Arlt

    1990-01-01

    The regular twinning in ceramics and metals below the temperature of a ferroelastic or ferroelectric structural phase transition is a result of energy minimization. Here homogeneous elastic energy is reduced at the expense of twin wall energy. The twin density depends on the gram sizeg; under homogeneous stress the total elastic energy of a grain increases ?g3. Any kind of

  8. Stress relief from reconstructions on SbSi,,001... Yao He, X. H. Zhang, and J. G. Che*

    E-print Network

    Che, Jingguang

    Stress relief from reconstructions on SbÕSi,,001... Yao He, X. H. Zhang, and J. G. Che* Surface; revised manuscript recieved 15 April 2002; published 11 November 2002 The structures and stress of the Sb)2 1 surface is found to be under a tensile stress of 1.0 eV/(1 1 cell along the dimer bond

  9. Mechanisms of stress relief cracking in titanium stabilised austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabaud-Reytier, M.; Allais, L.; Caes, C.; Dubuisson, P.; Pineau, A.

    2003-11-01

    The heat affected zone (HAZ) of AISI 321 welds may exhibit a serious form of cracking during service at high temperature. This form of damage, called 'stress relief cracking', is known to be due to work hardening but also to aging due to Ti(C,N) precipitation on dislocations which modifies the mechanical behaviour of the HAZ. The present study aims to analyse the latter embrittlement mechanism in one specific heat of 321 stainless steel. To this end, different HAZs are simulated using an annealing heat-treatment, followed by various cold rolling and aging conditions. Then, we study the effects of work hardening and aging on Ti(C,N) precipitation, on the mechanical (hardness, tensile and creep) behaviour of the simulated HAZs and on their sensitivity to intergranular crack propagation through stress relaxation tests performed on pre-cracked CT type specimens tested at 600 °C. It is shown that work hardening is the main parameter of the involved mechanism but that aging does not promote crack initiation although it leads to titanium carbide precipitation. Therefore, the role of Ti(C,N) precipitation on stress relief cracking mechanisms is discussed. An attempt is made to show that solute drag effects are mainly responsible for this form of intergranular damage, rather than Ti(C,N) precipitation.

  10. Relief of the internal stress in ternary boron carbonitride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Deyan; Cheng, Wenjuan; Qin, Juan; Yue, Jinshun; Xie, Erqing; Chen, Guanghua

    2002-05-01

    Ternary boron carbonitride (BCN) thin films were deposited by radio frequency reactive sputtering. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption measurements suggested that the films are atomic-level hybrids composed of B, C and N atoms. The structure of the samples is graphitic BC 2N. High compressive stresses were observed in the films deposited on silicon and fused silica substrates. When the films were peeled off the substrates, the absorption bands in the FT-IR spectra shift to lower wavenumbers due to the stress relief. The compressive stresses caused buckling of the films, and the buckling patterns were related to the used substrates. For the samples deposited on Si wafer, a branching type buckling pattern was observed, while a telephone-cord morphology was noted for the samples deposited on fused silica plate. The telephone-cord morphology can be explained based on the buckling-driven delamination theory proposed by Oritiz and Gioia [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 42 (1994) 531].

  11. Development of a focusing micromirror device with an in-plane stress relief structure in SOI technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronast, Wolfgang; Mescheder, Ulrich; Müller, Bernhard; Huster, Rolf

    2013-03-01

    A new design concept for a dynamically focusing micromachined silicon membrane mirror with 6 mm diameter and electrostatic actuation was realized. To eliminate the influence of residual stress a special stress relief design of the membrane`s suspension was developed in order to achieve a distortion-free optical mirror (distortion < ?/10 (? = 1064 nm). Even silicon membranes fabricated in SOI technology mostly suffer from buckling by residual compressive stress caused by mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion between silicon and the buried silicon oxide layer [1, 2].This often leads to severe distortion of stress sensitive devices such as membrane based micro mirror devices [3]. Even though a tensile pre-stress might improve the distortion in case of a non-deformed membrane, a tensile stress in the membrane increases the stiffness and thus reduces the sensitivity e.g. for capacitive sensors or for actuating devices. Different methods are reviewed for stress compensation or stress relief in membranes. We developed and fabricated a new stress relief structure which reduces the stress induced deformation of membranes and leads to substantially flat micromirrors of high optical quality. This is achieved by a special tangential beam suspension which allows an in-plane expansion or contraction of the membrane proportional to its inherent compressive or tensile stress. Optimized beam structures and the voltage dependence of the mirror's deflection were determined by 3D FEM simulations. For membranes with a compressive pre-stress of -20MPa simulations show a decrease in bow to values < 18 nm in comparison with 700 nm for a conventional rigidly clamped membrane. A deflection of 16 ?m within an aperture of 5 mm diameter is theoretically achieved by a voltage U0 = 200 V resulting in a minimal focal length of 97 mm. The fabricated devices have been characterized by the means of interferometric optical measurement. The measurement results are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of FEM simulations.

  12. Analysis of rotor vibratory loads using higher harmonic pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Bliss, Donald B.; Boschitsch, Alexander H.; Wachspress, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental studies of isolated rotors in forward flight have indicated that higher harmonic pitch control can reduce rotor noise. These tests also show that such pitch inputs can generate substantial vibratory loads. The modification is summarized of the RotorCRAFT (Computation of Rotor Aerodynamics in Forward flighT) analysis of isolated rotors to study the vibratory loading generated by high frequency pitch inputs. The original RotorCRAFT code was developed for use in the computation of such loading, and uses a highly refined rotor wake model to facilitate this task. The extended version of RotorCRAFT incorporates a variety of new features including: arbitrary periodic root pitch control; computation of blade stresses and hub loads; improved modeling of near wake unsteady effects; and preliminary implementation of a coupled prediction of rotor airloads and noise. Correlation studies are carried out with existing blade stress and vibratory hub load data to assess the performance of the extended code.

  13. Silicon Bulk Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, T. K.; Gutierrez, R. C.; Wilcox, J. Z.; Stell, C.; Vorperian, V.; Calvet, R.; Li, W. J.; Charkaborty, I.; Bartman, R.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on design, modeling, fabrication, and characterization of a novel silicon bulk micromachined vibratory rate gyroscope designed for microspacecraft applications. The new microgyroscope consists of a silicon four leaf cloverstructure with a post attached to the center.

  14. Does Daily Kangaroo Care Provide Sustained Pain and Stress Relief in Preterm Infants?

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Anita J.; Yates, Charlotte C.; Williams, D. Keith; Chang, Jason Y.; Hall, Richard Whit

    2014-01-01

    Objectives 1. Determine whether stress in preterm infants, measured with salivary cortisol, decreases after five days of Kangaroo Care (KC) compared to five days of Standard Care (SC). 2. To determine whether kangaroo care provides sustainable pain relief beyond the period of skin-to-skin holding. Study Design Preterm infants (n=38) born at 27-30 weeks gestational age were randomized to either the KC or the SC group and received the allocated intervention starting on day of life (DOL) five and continuing for five days. Salivary cortisol was collected on DOL five and again on DOL ten. Differences were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and t tests. Pain during nasal suctioning over five days was assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). Result 1. Adequate saliva samples for salivary cortisol were collected for 13 KC infants and 11 SC infants. There was no main effect of group (p=0.49), but there was a significant main effect of age (DOL five versus DOL ten), with salivary cortisol levels decreasing in both groups (p=0.02). 2. Pain scores for both groups (n=38) indicted mild to moderate pain during suctioning, with no significant difference in pain scores between groups. Conclusion 1. KC did not affect salivary cortisol levels in preterm neonates, but levels in both the KC and SC groups decreased over time from DOL five to ten. Salivary cortisol may vary with age of infant. 2. Infants experience pain during routine suctioning and may require pain management. PMID:24246458

  15. VIBRATORY SPIRAL BLANCHER-COOLER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the demonstration project was to test the commercial feasibility of the vibratory spiral blancher-cooler, a newly designed steam blancher and air cooler that previous small scale tests showed could reduce the wasteload and energy consumption of preparing vegetabl...

  16. Quasi-static intergranular cracking in a Cu-Sn alloy: An analog of stress relief cracking of steels

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera, E.V.; Menyhard, M.; Bika, D.; Rothman, B.; McMahon, C.J. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Intergranular cracking in a laboratory-made Cu-8wt%Sn alloy at 265 to 300{degree}C in vacuum was studied in order to explore the hypothesis that this could serve as an analog to the brittle mode of stress-relief cracking in steels and to test the mechanism proposed earlier to explain that phenomenon. This mechanism involves the stress-induced intergranular penetration along grain boundaries of a surface-adsorbed embrittling element. Sulfur is the active element in this regard in steels, and tin was envisioned as playing the same role in Cu-Sn alloys. Auger spectroscopy was used to confirm earlier reports of the surface activity of tin and to determine the segregation kinetics in the present polycrystals; no other elements were found to segregate to surfaces to any significant degree in the present alloy. Crack growth measurements showed that intergranular cracking occurs in an intermittent manner at an average rate on the order of 0.1 {mu}m/sec over a range of crack length. Crack initiation was found to be remarkably sensitive to the stress intensity, implying the existence of a threshold. The fracture appearance in the regions of slow crack growth was similar to that observed in steels undergoing stress-relief cracking at 500--600{degree}C. It was concluded that the quasi-static intergranular cracking in the steels and in the Cu-Sn alloy represent two aspects of the same generic phenomenon and that the proposed mechanism of stress-induced intergranular impurity penetration is valid. It is believed that liquid-and solid-metal embrittlement are closely related to the type of intergranular cracking described here.

  17. Quasi-static intergranular cracking in a Cu-Sn alloy: An analog of stress relief cracking of steels

    SciTech Connect

    Barrera, E.V.; Menyhard, M.; Bika, D.; Rothman, B.; McMahon, C.J. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    Intergranular cracking in a laboratory-made Cu-8wt%Sn alloy at 265 to 300{degree}C in vacuum was studied in order to explore the hypothesis that this could serve as an analog to the brittle mode of stress-relief cracking in steels and to test the mechanism proposed earlier to explain that phenomenon. This mechanism involves the stress-induced intergranular penetration along grain boundaries of a surface-adsorbed embrittling element. Sulfur is the active element in this regard in steels, and tin was envisioned as playing the same role in Cu-Sn alloys. Auger spectroscopy was used to confirm earlier reports of the surface activity of tin and to determine the segregation kinetics in the present polycrystals; no other elements were found to segregate to surfaces to any significant degree in the present alloy. Crack growth measurements showed that intergranular cracking occurs in an intermittent manner at an average rate on the order of 0.1 {mu}m/sec over a range of crack length. Crack initiation was found to be remarkably sensitive to the stress intensity, implying the existence of a threshold. The fracture appearance in the regions of slow crack growth was similar to that observed in steels undergoing stress-relief cracking at 500--600{degree}C. It was concluded that the quasi-static intergranular cracking in the steels and in the Cu-Sn alloy represent two aspects of the same generic phenomenon and that the proposed mechanism of stress-induced intergranular impurity penetration is valid. It is believed that liquid-and solid-metal embrittlement are closely related to the type of intergranular cracking described here.

  18. Mechanical characterization and modeling of brazed tungsten and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy using stress relief interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Dandan; Zhou, Zhangjian; Yum, Youngjin; Aktaa, Jarir

    2014-12-01

    A rapidly solidified foil-type Ti-Zr based amorphous filler with a melting temperature of 850 °C was used to braze tungsten to Cu-Cr-Zr alloy for water cooled divertors and plasma facing components application. Brazed joints of dissimilar materials suffer from a mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion. In order to release the residual stress caused by the mismatch, brazed joints of tungsten and Cu-Cr-Zr alloy using different interlayers were studied. The shear strength tests of brazed W/Cu joints show that the average strength of the joint with a W70Cu30 composite plate interlayer reached 119.8 MPa, and the average strength of the joint with oxygen free high conductivity copper (OFHC Cu)/Mo multi-interlayers reached 140.8 MPa, while the joint without interlayer was only 16.6 MPa. Finite element method (FEM) has been performed to investigate the stress distribution and effect of stress relief interlayers. FEM results show that the maximum von Mises stress occurs in the tungsten/filler interface and that the filler suffers the peak residual stresses and becomes the weakest zone. And the use of OFHC Cu/Mo multi-interlayers can reduce the residual stress significantly, which agrees with the mechanical experiment data.

  19. Fatigue Life Estimation of Structures Subjected to Vibratory Loading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fressinet; F. Fuchs; P. Madelpech

    \\u000a Fatigue life is commonly estimated by an analysis of the stress time history through a peak-valley counting method and the\\u000a damage is calculated thanks to a damage summation method. Unfortunately, vibratory loadings are often random and this kind\\u000a of calculation would be very time consuming. Such spectra require other methods and that’s why especially dedicated models\\u000a have been developed. Known

  20. Validated numerical analysis of residual stresses in Safety Relief Valve (SRV) nozzle mock-ups

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Muránsky; M. C. Smith; P. J. Bendeich; L. Edwards

    2011-01-01

    In general, the tensile residual stresses typically associated with weldments, and the presence of corrosive environments, are a major concern due to the possibility of Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). In the case of the dissimilar metal welds typically used in the primary circuits of pressurised light water nuclear reactors the presence of tensile residual stress and corrosive environment leads to

  1. Relief Sculpture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Trudy

    2005-01-01

    Relief sculpture is an art form that is midway between painting and sculpture in the round. It is a process in which the subject stands out or projects a surface from the background. The surface has several levels. It can be low relief or high relief (deep or almost round) or anywhere in between. The most common example of low relief is a coin…

  2. Mood foods: working mothers' receptiveness to food with stress-relief properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Clare Gamble; Christina Maree Bava; Mark Wohlers

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand stress triggers frequently experienced by relatively affluent working mothers of young children, to explore the situational context surrounding the various coping strategies used and to assess the value of foods specifically targeted at affecting stress (i.e. “mood foods”). Women with young children were selected as the focus because the greater

  3. Vibratory tactile display for textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikei, Yasushi; Ikeno, Akihisa; Fukuda, Shuichi

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a tactile display that produces vibratory stimulus to a fingertip in contact with a vibrating tactor matrix. The display depicts tactile surface textures while the user is exploring a virtual object surface. A piezoelectric actuator drives the individual tactor in accordance with both the finger movement and the surface texture being traced. Spatiotemporal display control schemes were examined for presenting the fundamental surface texture elements. The temporal duration of vibratory stimulus was experimentally optimized to simulate the adaptation process of cutaneous sensation. The selected duration time for presenting a single line edge agreed with the time threshold of tactile sensation. Then spatial stimulus disposition schemes were discussed for representation of other edge shapes. As an alternative means not relying on amplitude control, a method of augmented duration at the edge was investigated. Spatial resolution of the display was measured for the lines presented both in perpendicular and parallel to a finger axis. Discrimination of texture density was also measured on random dot textures.

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase is required for genotoxic stress relief in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ulm, Roman; Revenkova, Ekaterina; di Sansebastiano, Gian-Pietro; Bechtold, Nicole; Paszkowski, Jerzy

    2001-01-01

    Genotoxic stress activates complex cellular responses allowing for the repair of DNA damage and proper cell recovery. Although plants are exposed constantly to increasing solar UV irradiation, the signaling cascades activated by genotoxic environments are largely unknown. We have identified an Arabidopsis mutant (mkp1) hypersensitive to genotoxic stress treatments (UV-C and methyl methanesulphonate) due to disruption of a gene that encodes an Arabidopsis homolog of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (AtMKP1). Growth of the mkp1 mutant under standard conditions is indistinguishable from wild type, indicating a stress-specific function of AtMKP1. MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs), the potent inactivators of MAP kinases, are considered important regulators of MAP kinase signaling. Although biochemical data from mammalian cell cultures suggests an involvement of MKPs in cellular stress responses, there is no in vivo genetic support for this view in any multicellular organism. The genetic and biochemical data presented here imply a central role for a MAP kinase cascade in genotoxic stress signaling in plants and indicate AtMKP1 to be a crucial regulator of the MAP kinase activity in vivo, determining the outcome of the cellular reaction and the level of genotoxic resistance. PMID:11274055

  5. Light-induced stress relief to improve flaw tolerance in network polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Kevin N.; Dunn, Martin L.; Scott, Timothy F.; Turpin, Lucas P.; Qi, H. Jerry [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    We demonstrate the ability to use photoactivated stress relaxation to improve flaw tolerance in network polymers. Unlike most self-healing polymers, which effectively close flaws by locally introducing healing agents (such as uncured resins), here light is used to relax elevated stresses around a flaw before it reaches a critical state, which reduces the threat that the flaw poses to the structural integrity of the material. In this study, we fabricate specimens with well-defined flaws and uniaxially stretch them to failure. By irradiating the specimens with UV light (365 nm) before failure, the nominal strain at failure is increased by 70% and the corresponding nominal stress is increased by 30% compared with nonirradiated specimens. To better understand the phenomena that occur at the multiaxial stress state at the flaw, we model the photomechanics using a recently developed finite element approach that accurately describes the light propagation, photochemistry, radical-induced network evolution, and the mechanical behavior of the material. Model predictions agree well with the experimental results and elucidate the role that photoinduced stress relaxation has on improving flaw tolerance.

  6. TEM investigations on the effect of chromium content and of stress relief treatment on precipitation in Alloy 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sennour, M.; Chaumun, E.; Crépin, J.; Duhamel, C.; Gaslain, F.; Guerre, C.; de Curières, I.

    2013-11-01

    Nickel-base alloys are widely used in nuclear Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). Most of them have been found susceptible to Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in nominal PWR primary water. The time to initiation depends on the material and is longer for weld metals than for Alloy 600. This study will focus on Alloy 82, which is used in Dissimilar Metal Welds (DMWs). In service, DMWs are either in the as-welded state or have undergone a stress relief treatment. Previous SCC studies showed that the heat treatment reduces significantly the SCC susceptibility of the weld. In this context, this study focuses on the microstructure characterization of the weld in the as-welded state and in the heat-treated state. As chromium content is also a key factor for the SCC susceptibility, welds with low chromium content and medium chromium content were studied. The lower SCC susceptibility of the heat-treated welds was attributed to intergranular Cr23C6 resulting from a combined effect of heat treatment and chromium and carbon contents. These intergranular carbides could explain the better behavior of Alloy 82, compared to other nickel-base alloys.

  7. Stress-relief displacements induced by drilling--applications to holographic measurements of in situ stress. Final technical report, August 15, 1988--August 14, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, T.J.; Smither, C.L.

    1992-04-24

    The holographic stressmeter is an instrument which has been developed at Caltech to allow determination of the complete stress tensor from in situ borehole measurements. The stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a small sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses, concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall in the vicinity of the sidehole. The first part of this study uses a thin infinite elastic plate subjected to plane stress at infinity to model the displacements at the borehole wall. However, the existence of some holograms which were difficult to model closely led us to examine the validity of this model. In order to investigate the problem further, we performed a two-dimensional finite element analysis for an elastic box with a terminated hole. We varied the dimensions of the hole to see what effect the radius and depth of the hole might have on the displacements. The plate model predicts that the depth of the hole should have no effect on the horizontal components of displacement, but the finite element results show that the magnitude of both components of the displacement depends on the depth of the sidehole. After considering these results, we developed a new model for the analysis of stress-relief displacements, following the work of Youngdahl and Sternberg (1965). For holes with a depth-to-diameter ratio greater than unity, the simple plane stress elastic plate solution breaks down and does not adequately model the displacements at the surface of the body and near the hole. Since these are the areas most critical to calculate accurately with the holographic technique, the revised model does a better job of fitting the observed data.

  8. GEC Ferranti piezo vibratory gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuttall, J. D.

    1993-01-01

    Prototypes of a piezo-electric vibratory angular rate transducer (gyroscope) (PVG) have been constructed and evaluated. The construction is on the lines suggested by Burdess. The sensitive element is a cylinder of radially poled piezo-electric ceramic. The cylinder is metallized inside and out, and the outer metallization is divided into eight electrodes. The metallization on the inside is earthed. A phase locked loop, using pairs of the electrodes, causes the cylinder to vibrate in one of its two fundamental, degenerate modes. In the presence of rotation, some of the vibration is coupled into the outer mode. This can be detected, or suppressed with a closed-up technique and provides a measure of rotation rate. The gyroscope provides a number of advantages over rotating mass and optical instruments: low size and mass, lower power consumption, potentially high reliability, potentially good dormancy, low cost and high maximum rate.

  9. Residual stress relief due to fatigue in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. A.; Mori, T.; Comyn, T. P.; Ringgaard, E.; Wright, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    High energy synchrotron XRD was employed to determine the lattice strain ?{111} and diffraction peak intensity ratio R{200} in tetragonal PZT ceramics, both in the virgin poled state and after a bipolar fatigue experiment. It was shown that the occurrence of microstructural damage during fatigue was accompanied by a reduction in the gradient of the ?{111}-cos2 ? plot, indicating a reduction in the level of residual stress due to poling. In contrast, the fraction of oriented 90° ferroelectric domains, quantified in terms of R{200}, was not affected significantly by fatigue. The change in residual stress due to fatigue is interpreted in terms of a change in the average elastic stiffness of the polycrystalline matrix due to the presence of inter-granular microcracks.

  10. Relief of the internal stress in ternary boron carbonitride thin films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deyan He; Wenjuan Cheng; Juan Qin; Jinshun Yue; Erqing Xie; Guanghua Chen

    2002-01-01

    Ternary boron carbonitride (BCN) thin films were deposited by radio frequency reactive sputtering. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption measurements suggested that the films are atomic-level hybrids composed of B, C and N atoms. The structure of the samples is graphitic BC2N. High compressive stresses were observed in the films deposited on silicon and fused silica

  11. Non-inertial calibration of vibratory gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutierrez, Roman C. (Inventor); Tang, Tony K. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The electrostatic elements already present in a vibratory gyroscope are used to simulate the Coriolis forces. An artificial electrostatic rotation signal is added to the closed-loop force rebalance system. Because the Coriolis force is at the same frequency as the artificial electrostatic force, the simulated force may be introduced into the system to perform an inertial test on MEMS vibratory gyroscopes without the use of a rotation table.

  12. Disability and posttraumatic stress disorder in disaster relief workers responding to September 11, 2001 World Trade Center disaster.

    PubMed

    Evans, Susan; Patt, Ivy; Giosan, Cezar; Spielman, Lisa; Difede, JoAnn

    2009-07-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that social and occupational disability plays a significant role in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The purpose of this study was to assess the role of social/occupational disability and to identify predictors of the development of PTSD in a group of disaster relief workers (DRWs) who had been deployed to the World Trade Center (WTC) following September 11, 2001. Eight hundred forty-two utility workers completed a battery of comprehensive tests measuring PTSD and social occupational functioning. Results indicated a significant association between PTSD symptoms and impaired social/occupational functioning. Symptomatic workers were also more likely to have a history of trauma, panic disorder, and depression. Those with a history of trauma, depression, generalized anxiety disorder or panic reported significantly more disability than those without a psychiatric history. Careful screening of PTSD and social/occupational functioning in DRWs following a disaster is warranted so that early treatment can be undertaken to prevent a chronic and disabling course. PMID:19388060

  13. Fracture properties of hydrided Zircaloy-4 cladding in recrystallization and stress-relief anneal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Hung; Tsay, Leu-Wen

    2012-03-01

    In this work, the stress-relieved (SRA) and recrystallized (RXA) Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens were hydrogen-charged to the target concentration of 300 wppm and then manufactured into X-specimens for fracture toughness test. The hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens in both SRA and RXA conditions were investigated. At the hydrogen concentration level of 300 wppm, J-integral values for RXA cladding were higher than those for SRA cladding at both 25 °C and 300 °C. The formation of brittle zirconium hydrides had a significant impact on the fracture toughness of Zircaloy-4 cladding in both SRA and RXA states, especially at 25 °C. Among all the tests, SRA cladding tested at 25 °C exhibited a great loss of the fracture toughness. The micrographic and fractographic observations further demonstrated that the fracture toughness of Zircaloy-4 cladding would be improved by the coarse grains in RXA cladding, but degraded by zirconium hydrides precipitated along the grain boundary.

  14. Optimization of stress relief heat treatment of PHWR pressure tubes (Zr 2.5Nb alloy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhuri, Gargi; Srivastava, D.; Gurumurthy, K. R.; Shah, B. K.

    2008-12-01

    The micro-structure of cold worked Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tube material consists of elongated grains of ?-zirconium enclosed by a thin film of ?-zirconium phase. This ?-Zr phase is unstable and on heating, progressively decomposes to ?-Zr phase and ?-phase enriched with Nb and ultimately form ? Nb. Meta-stable ?-phase precipitates as an intermediate step during decomposition depending on the heat treatment schedule, ???+???+?+???+???+? Morphological changes occur in the ?-zirconium phase during the decomposition. The continuous ligaments of ? Zr phase turn into a discontinuous array of particles followed by globulization of the ?-phase. The morphological changes impose a significant effect on the creep rate and on the delayed hydride cracking velocity due to reduction in the hydrogen diffusion coefficient in ? Zr. If the continuity of ?-phase is disrupted by heat treatment, the effective diffusion coefficient decreases with a concomitant reduction in DHC velocity. The pressure tubes for the Indian PHWRs are made by a process of hot extrusion followed by cold pilgering in two stages and an intermediate annealing. Autoclaving at 400 °C for 36 h ensures stress relieving of the finished tubes. In the present studies, autoclaving duration at 400 °C was varied from 24 h to 96 h at 12 h-steps and the micro-structural changes in the ?-phase were observed by TEM. Dislocation density, hardness and the micro-structural features such as thickness of ?-phase, inter-particle spacing and volume fraction of the phases were measured at each stage. Autoclaving for a longer duration was found to change the morphology of ?-phase and increase the inter-particle spacing. Progressive changes in the aspect ratio of the ?-phase and their size and distribution are documented and reported. These micro-structural modifications are expected to decrease DHC velocity during reactor operation.

  15. Type I and Type II Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes

    E-print Network

    Tang, William C

    Type I and Type II Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes Andrei M. Shkel Mechanical & Aerospace-mail: ashkel@uci.edu Abstract-- All Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes (MVG) are based on the principle of vibration. Vibratory Gyroscopes can be classified into two broad types, angle gyroscopes (or Type I

  16. Normal modes for piecewise linear vibratory systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shyh-Leh Chen; Steven W. Shaw

    1996-01-01

    A method to construct the normal modes for a class of piecewise linear vibratory systems is developed in this study. The approach utilizes the concepts of Poincaré maps and invariant manifolds from the theory of dynamical systems. In contrast to conventional methods for smooth systems, which expand normal modes in a series form around an equilibrium point of interest, the

  17. Damage tolerance based life prediction in gas turbine engine blades under vibratory high cycle fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, D.P.; deLaneuville, R.E.; Cunningham, S.E. [United Technologies Pratt and Whitney, West Palm Beach, FL (United States)

    1997-01-01

    A novel fracture mechanics approach has been used to predict crack propagation lives in gas turbine engine blades subjected to vibratory high cycle fatigue (HCF). The vibratory loading included both a resonant mode and a nonresonant mode, with one blade subjected to only the nonresonant mode and another blade to both modes. A life prediction algorithm was utilized to predict HCF propagation lives for each case. The life prediction system incorporates a boundary integral element (BIE) derived hybrid stress intensity solution, which accounts for the transition from a surface crack to corner crack to edge crack. It also includes a derivation of threshold crack length from threshold stress intensity factors to give crack size limits for no propagation. The stress intensity solution was calibrated for crack aspect ratios measured directly from the fracture surfaces. The model demonstrates the ability to correlate predicted missions to failure with values deduced from fractographic analysis. This analysis helps to validate the use of fracture mechanics approaches for assessing damage tolerance in gas turbine engine components subjected to combined steady and vibratory stresses.

  18. Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream

    DOEpatents

    Merrigan, M.A.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1990-11-13

    A vibratory fluid pump is described having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments. 3 figs.

  19. Continuous Tuning and Calibration of Vibratory Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken

    2003-01-01

    A method of control and operation of an inertial reference unit (IRU) based on vibratory gyroscopes provides for continuously repeated cycles of tuning and calibration. The method is intended especially for application to an IRU containing vibratory gyroscopes that are integral parts of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and that have cloverleaf designs, as described in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The method provides for minimization of several measures of spurious gyroscope output, including zero-rate offset (ZRO), angle random walk (ARW), and rate drift. These benefits are afforded both at startup and thereafter during continuing operation, in the presence of unknown rotation rates and changes in temperature. A vibratory gyroscope contains a precision mechanically resonant structure containing two normal modes of vibration nominally degenerate in frequency and strongly coupled via a Coriolis term. In the case of the cloverleaf design MEMS gyro, these normal modes of vibration are plate rocking modes. The rocking motion of the plate is described by giving two angles, theta(sub 1) and theta(sub 2). A proof mass consisting of a post orthogonal to the plate ensures a high degree of Coriolis coupling of vibratory energy from one mode into the other under inertial rotation. The plate is driven and sensed capacitively across a few-microns-wide gap, and the normal mode frequencies can be tuned electrostatically by DC voltages applied across this gap. In order to sense rotation, the resonator plate is caused to rock in the theta(sub 1) direction, then any small motions in the theta(sub 2) direction are sensed, rebalanced, and interpreted as inertial rotation. In this scenario, the "drive" has been assigned to the theta(sub 1) direction, and the "sense" has been assigned to the theta(sub 2) direction.

  20. A surface-micromachined tunable vibratory gyroscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yongsoo Oh; Byeungleul Lee; Seogsoon Baek; Hosuk Kim; Jeonggon Kim; Seokjin Kang; Cimoo Song

    1997-01-01

    A tunable vibratory microgyroscope was fabricated by surface micromachining technology. The 7.5 ?m-thick polysilicon structural layer was deposited using LPCVD at 625°C. The resonant frequency in the detection mode was higher than that in the driving mode so that gyroscope could be tuned to the resonant frequencies by applying the inter-plate DC bias. The gyroscope was driven in a resonant

  1. Vibratory stimulation for treatment of anejaculation in quadriplegic men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon L. Pryor; Suzanne C. LeRoy; Theodore C. Nagel; Hugh C. Hensleigh

    1995-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction and infertility are common problems following spinal cord injury. Most men with complete spinal cord lesions do not ejaculate during coitus. Vibratory stimulation applied to the frenulum of the penis in six quadriplegic male subjects produced ejaculates for intrauterine inseminations. Pregnancies occurred in five of the six partners. Vibratory stimulation is a relatively safe and effective means to

  2. Micromachined Vibratory Diffraction Grating Scanner for Multiwavelength Collinear Laser Scanning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangya Zhou; Fook Siong Chau

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an effective method to achieve multiwavelength collinear laser scanning using micromachined vibratory grating scanners, which have the potential to scan at high frequencies without the optical performance degradation resulting from dynamic nonrigid-body deformation. An optical simulation model has been developed to predict the scanning patterns of the vibratory grating scanners. The proposed multiwavelength collinear scanning method was

  3. Manufacturing-induced residual stresses in optical glasses and crystals: Example of residual stress relief by magnetorheological finishing (MRF) in commercial silicon wafers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Lambropoulos; Steven R. Arrasmith; Stephen D. Jacobs; Donald Golini

    2001-01-01

    The Twyman effect refers to the generation by grinding of residual compressive stresses on the surface of a brittle material. Two issues are the correlation of stress-induced deformation (bowing) with the compressive force, and the depth over which the compressive stress acts. We summarize results from optical glasses, and we then apply a new analysis to optical crystals, specifically silicon.

  4. Vibratory Shock Compaction of Granular Nuclear Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amme, Robert C.

    2004-05-01

    Vibratory Shock Compaction (VSC) is a proven means for quickly forming strong, durable solids from a wide variety of granular materials[1]. Calcination of tank and other forms of high level radioactive wastes results in fine granular material that is quite amenable to volume reduction and stabilization. We have employed utilities coal ash as a calcine waste surrogate, blended with a quartz/feldspar-rich sand and 0-20% proportions of a borosilicate glass. The blends were compacted at room temperature and fired so that the glass melt could form an efficient binder. Included in the blend are small quantities of three RCRA metals, chromium, cadmium and lead, to permit testing for heavy metal stability. The VSC process is described and the results presented in terms of the waste form dissolution rates, compressive strengths, elastic moduli as determined from resonant frequency measurements, and heavy metal leach rates from Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure measurements. Vibratory shock compaction employing glass binders appears to be a viable alternative to traditional vitrification processes for granular waste forms. [1] See http://www.resonantshockcompact.com

  5. Making Precise Resonators for Mesoscale Vibratory Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2004-01-01

    An alternative approach to the design and fabrication of vibratory gyroscopes is founded on the use of fabrication techniques that yield best results in the mesoscopic size range, which is characterized by overall device dimensions of the order of a centimeter. This approach stands in contradistinction to prior approaches in (1) the macroscopic size range (the size range of conventional design and fabrication, characterized by overall device dimensions of many centimeters) and (2) the microscopic size range [the size range of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), characterized by overall device dimensions of the order of a millimeter or less]. The mesoscale approach offers some of the advantage of the MEMS approach (sizes and power demands smaller than those of the macroscale approach) and some of the advantage of the macroscale approach (the possibility of achieving relative dimensional precision greater than that of the MEMS approach). Relative dimensional precision is a major issue in the operation of a vibratory gyroscope. The heart of a vibratory gyroscope is a mechanical resonator that is required to have a specified symmetry in a plane orthogonal to the axis about which rotation is to be measured. If the resonator could be perfectly symmetrical, then in the absence of rotation, a free vibration of the resonator could remain fixed along any orientation relative to its housing; that is, the gyroscope could exhibit zero drift. In practice, manufacturing imprecision gives rise to some asymmetry in mass, flexural stiffness or dissipation, resulting in a slight drift or beating motion of an initial vibration pattern that cannot be distinguished from rotation. In the mesoscale approach, one exploits the following concepts: For a given amount of dimensional error generated in manufacturing, the asymmetry and hence the rate-of-rotation drift of the gyroscope can be reduced by increasing the scale. The decrease in asymmetry also reduces coupling of vibrations to the external environment. Mechanical thermal noise and electronic measurement noise and drift can also be reduced by increasing the size of the resonator and its associated sensors.

  6. Research on Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro's Character of Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhong; Fu, Mengyin; Li, Qing; Liu, Ning; Liu, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a new type Coriolis vibratory gyro that was inspired by Chinese traditional clocks. The resonator fuses based on a variable thickness axisymmetric multicurved surface shell. Its characteristics can directly influence the performance of BVG. The BVG structure not only has capabilities of bearing high overload, high impact and, compared with the tuning fork, vibrating beam, shell and a comb structure, but also a higher frequency to overcome the influence of the disturbance of the exterior environment than the same sized hemispherical resonator gyroscope (HRG) and the traditional cylinder vibratory gyroscope. It can be widely applied in high dynamic low precision angular rate measurement occasions. The main work is as follows: the issue mainly analyzes the structure and basic principle, and investigates the bell-shaped resonator's mathematical model. The reasonable structural parameters are obtained from finite element analysis and an intelligent platform. Using the current solid vibration gyro theory analyzes the structural characteristics and principles of BVG. The bell-shaped resonator is simplified as a paraboloid of the revolution mechanical model, which has a fixed closed end and a free opened end. It obtains the natural frequency and vibration modes based on the theory of elasticity. The structural parameters are obtained from the orthogonal method by the research on the structural parameters of the resonator analysis. It obtains the modal analysis, stress analysis and impact analysis with the chosen parameters. Finally, using the turntable experiment verifies the gyro effect of the BVG. PMID:23575033

  7. Parametrically disciplined operation of a vibratory gyroscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor); Hayworth, Ken J. (Inventor); Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Peay, Chris S. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Parametrically disciplined operation of a symmetric nearly degenerate mode vibratory gyroscope is disclosed. A parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope having a natural oscillation frequency in the neighborhood of a sub-harmonic of an external stable clock reference is produced by driving an electrostatic bias electrode at approximately twice this sub-harmonic frequency to achieve disciplined frequency and phase operation of the resonator. A nearly symmetric parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope that can oscillate in any transverse direction and has more than one bias electrostatic electrode that can be independently driven at twice its oscillation frequency at an amplitude and phase that disciplines its damping to zero in any vibration direction. In addition, operation of a parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope is taught in which the precession rate of the driven vibration pattern is digitally disciplined to a prescribed non-zero reference value.

  8. Dynamically tuned vibratory micromechanical gyroscope accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byeungleul; Oh, Yong-Soo; Park, Kyu-Yeon; Ha, Byeoungju; Ko, Younil; Kim, Jeong-gon; Kang, Seokjin; Choi, Sangon; Song, Ci M.

    1997-11-01

    A comb driving vibratory micro-gyroscope, which utilizes the dynamically tunable resonant modes for a higher rate- sensitivity without an accelerational error, has been developed and analyzed. The surface micromachining technology is used to fabricate the gyroscope having a vibrating part of 400 X 600 micrometers with 6 mask process, and the poly-silicon structural layer is deposited by LPCVD at 625 degrees C. The gyroscope and the interface electronics housed in a hermetically sealed vacuum package for low vibrational damping condition. This gyroscope is designed to be driven in parallel to the substrate by electrostatic forces and subject to coriolis forces along vertically, with a folded beam structure. In this scheme, the resonant frequency of the driving mode is located below than that of the sensing mode, so it is possible to adjust the sensing mode with a negative stiffness effect by applying inter-plate voltage to tune the vibration modes for a higher rate-sensitivity. Unfortunately, this micromechanical vibratory gyroscope is also sensitive to vertical acceleration force, especially in the case of a low stiffness of the vibrating structure for detecting a very small coriolis force. In this study, we distinguished the rate output and the accelerational error by phase sensitivity synchronous demodulator and devised a feedback loop to maintain resonant frequency of the vertical sensing mode by varying the inter-plate tuning voltage according to the accelerational output. Therefore, this gyroscope has a high rate-sensitivity without an acceleration error, and also can be used for a resonant accelerometer. This gyroscope was tested on the rotational rate table at the separation of 50(Hz) resonant frequencies by dynamically tuning feedback loop. Also self-sustained oscillating loop is used to apply dc 2(V) + ac 30(mVpk) driving voltage to the drive electrodes. The characteristics of the gyroscope at 0.1 (deg/sec) resolution, 50 (Hz) bandwidth, and 1.3 (mV/deg/sec) sensitivity.

  9. LOX, GOX and Pressure Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLeod, Ken; Stoltzfus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen relief systems present a serious fire hazard risk with often severe consequences. This presentation offers a risk management solution strategy which encourages minimizing ignition hazards, maximizing best materials, and utilizing good practices. Additionally, the relief system should be designed for cleanability and ballistic flow. The use of the right metals, softgoods, and lubricants, along with the best assembly techniques, is stressed. Materials should also be tested if data is not available and a full hazard analysis should be conducted in an effort to minimize risk and harm.

  10. Vertical-plane pendulum absorbers for minimizing helicopter vibratory loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amer, K. B.; Neff, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The use of pendulum dynamic absorbers mounted on the blade root and operating in the vertical plane to minimize helicopter vibratory loads was discussed. A qualitative description was given of the concept of the dynamic absorbers and some results of analytical studies showing the degree of reduction in vibratory loads attainable are presented. Operational experience of vertical plane dynamic absorbers on the OH-6A helicopter is also discussed.

  11. Parameter identification of a vibratory system with a clearance

    E-print Network

    Franck, Charles Graves

    1987-01-01

    PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION OF A VIBRATORY SYSTEM WITH A CLEARANCE A Thesis by CHARLES GRAVES FRANCK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1987 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION OF A VIBRATORY SYSTEM WITH A CLEARANCE A Thesis by CHARLES GRAVES FRANCK Approved as to style and content by: FCEz ~i. -. ~wgc s R. M. Alexander (Co-Chairman of Committee...

  12. The influence of long-time stress relief treatments on the dynamic fracture toughness properties of ASME SA508 C1 2a and ASME SA533 Gr B C1 2 pressure vessel steels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Logsdon

    1982-01-01

    Dynamic fracture toughness tests were performed on SA508 Cl 2a and SA533 Gr B Cl 2 parent base materials which had been subjected\\u000a to one of three longtime post weld type stress relief heat treatments: 48 hours at 1000 °F (538 °C), 24 hours at 1125 °F (607\\u000a °C), and 48 hours at 1125 °F (607 °C). Linear elastic Kld

  13. OMP peptides activate the DegS stress-sensor protease by a relief of inhibition mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Jungsan; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    In the E. coli periplasm, C-terminal peptides of misfolded outer-membrane porins (OMPs) bind to the PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease, triggering cleavage of a transmembrane regulator and transcriptional activation of stress genes. We show that an active-site DegS mutation partially bypasses the requirement for peptide activation and acts synergistically with mutations that disrupt contacts between the protease and PDZ domains. Biochemical results support an allosteric model, in which these mutations, active-site modification, and peptide/substrate binding act in concert to stabilize proteolytically active DegS. Cocrystal structures of DegS in complex with different OMP peptides reveal activation of the protease domain with varied conformations of the PDZ domain and without specific contacts from the bound OMP peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the binding of OMP peptides activates proteolysis principally by relieving inhibitory contacts between the PDZ domain and the protease domain of DegS. PMID:19836340

  14. OMP Peptides Activate the DegS Stress-Sensor Protease by a Relief of Inhibition Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Jungsan; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.; MIT

    2010-03-19

    In the E. coli periplasm, C-terminal peptides of misfolded outer-membrane porins (OMPs) bind to the PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease, triggering cleavage of a transmembrane regulator and transcriptional activation of stress genes. We show that an active-site DegS mutation partially bypasses the requirement for peptide activation and acts synergistically with mutations that disrupt contacts between the protease and PDZ domains. Biochemical results support an allosteric model, in which these mutations, active-site modification, and peptide/substrate binding act in concert to stabilize proteolytically active DegS. Cocrystal structures of DegS in complex with different OMP peptides reveal activation of the protease domain with varied conformations of the PDZ domain and without specific contacts from the bound OMP peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the binding of OMP peptides activates proteolysis principally by relieving inhibitory contacts between the PDZ domain and the protease domain of DegS.

  15. Structural Calculations of Drip Shield Exposed to Vibratory Ground Motion

    SciTech Connect

    S. Mastilovic

    2003-06-16

    The objective of this calculation is twofold. First, to determine whether or not separation of interlocking drip shield (DS) segments occurs during vibratory ground motion. Second, if DS separation does not occur, to estimate the area of the DS for which the residual 1st principal stress exceeds a certain limit. (The area of DS plate-1 and DS plate-2 [see Attachment I] where the residual 1st principal stress exceeds a certain limit will be, for brevity, referred to as ''the damaged area'' throughout this document; also, DS plate-1 and DS plate-2 will be referred to, for brevity, as ''DS plates'' henceforth.) The stress limit used throughout this document is defined as 50 percent of yield strength of the DS plate material, Titanium Grade 7 (Ti-7) (SB-265 R52400), at temperature of 150 C. A set of 15 calculations is performed at two different annual frequencies of occurrence (annual exceedance frequency): 10{sup -6} per year (1/yr) and 10{sup -7} 1/yr . (Note: Due to computational problems only five realizations at 10{sup -7} 1/yr are presented in this document.) Additionally, one calculation is performed at the annual frequency of occurrence of 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -4} 1/yr. The scope of this document is limited to reporting whether or not the DS separation occurs. If the DS separation does not occur the scope is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of the damaged area. All these results are evaluated for the DS plates. This calculation is intended for use in support of the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application seismicity modeling. This calculation is associated with the DS design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group. AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses'' (Ref. 1) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The DS is classified as Quality Level 1 (Ref. 5, p. 7). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (Ref. 4). The information provided by Attachment I is that of the potential design of the type of DS considered in this calculation, and provides the potential dimensions and materials for the DS design. Designs of the 21-PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) waste package (WP) and emplacement pallet (pallet, for brevity, throughout the document) used in this calculation are those defined in References 24 and 22, respectively. All obtained results are valid for these designs only.

  16. Modifications of Fabrication of Vibratory Microgyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Sam Y.; Yee, Karl Y.; Wiberg, Dean

    2005-01-01

    A micromachining process for the fabrication of vibratory microgyroscopes from silicon wafers, and aspects of the microgyroscope design that are inextricably linked with the fabrication process, have been modified in an effort to increase production yields from perspectives of both quantity and quality. Prior to the modifications, the effective production yield of working microgyroscopes was limited to one or less per wafer. The modifications are part of a continuing effort to improve the design and increase production yields to more than 30 working microgyroscopes per wafer. A discussion of pertinent aspects of the unmodified design and the unmodified fabrication process is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the modifications. The design of the microgyroscope package was not conducive to high yield and rapid testing of many microgyroscopes. One of the major impediments to high yield and testing was found to lie in vibration- isolation beams around the four edges of each microgyroscope, which beams were found to be unnecessary for achieving high resonance quality factors (Q values) characterizing the vibrations of petallike cantilevers. The fabrication process included an 8- m-deep plasma etch. The purpose of the etch was to create 8- m vertical gaps, below which were to be placed large gold evaporated electrodes and sensing pads to drive and sense resonant vibrations of the "petals." The process also included a step in which bridges between dies were cut to separate the dies. The etched areas must be kept clean and smooth (free of debris and spikes), because any object close to 8 m high in those areas would stop the vibrations. However, it was found that after the etch, there remained some spikes with heights that were, variously, almost as high or as high as the etch depth. It also was found that the cutting of bridges created silicon debris, some of which lodged in the 8- m gaps and some of which landed on top of the petals. The masses added to the petals by the debris altered resonance frequencies and/or Q values to unacceptable degrees. Hence, the spikes and the debris have been conjectured to cause most of the observed malfunctions of newly fabricated microgyroscopes. Another pertinent aspect of the unmodified design and process was the fabrication of electrodes and the 8- m capacitance gap on a 500- m-thick wafer, and the fabrication of a 3-mm-thick baseplate from another wafer. It was necessary to bond these wafers to each other in an assembly step that was later found to be superfluous in that it could be eliminated by a suitable modification of the design.

  17. Design And Fabrication of Anautomatic Mode Controlled Vibratory Gyroscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. T. Sung; J. Y. Lee; J. G. Lee; T. Kang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new approach for performance enhancement of MEMS vibratory gyroscope by means of automatic mode control scheme. The suggested method automatically tunes resonant frequencies of two lateral modes to be identically matched. This draws sensitivity improvement of the sensor and removes manual tuning effort, which are desirable features to achieve a high performance for the

  18. Vibration sensitivity analysis of MEMS vibratory ring gyroscopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sang Won Yoon; Sangwoo Lee; Khalil Najafi

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed model for possible vibration effects on MEMS degenerate gyroscopes represented by vibratory ring gyroscopes. Ring gyroscopes are believed to be relatively vibration-insensitive because the vibration modes utilized during gyro operation are decoupled from the modes excited by environmental vibration. Our model incorporates four vibration modes needed to describe vibration-induced errors: two flexural modes (for gyro

  19. Modification of piezoelectric vibratory gyroscope resonator parameters by feedback control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip W. Loveday; Craig A. Rogers

    1998-01-01

    A method for analyzing the effect of feedback control on the dynamics of piezoelectric resonators used in vibratory gyroscopes has been developed. This method can be used to determine the feasibility of replacing the traditional mechanical balancing operations, used to adjust the resonant frequency, by displacement feedback and for determining the velocity feedback required to produce a particular bandwidth. Experiments

  20. Active structural error suppression in MEMS vibratory rate integrating gyroscopes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Painter; A. M. Shkel

    2003-01-01

    Due to restrictive tolerancing in microfabrication, structural imperfections that reduce performance of fabricated micro devices are typical. In microelectromechanical vibratory gyroscopes, feedback control is a common strategy in attempting to correct the imperfections. However, a purely feedback control can be insufficient for compensation of all the errors, requiring post processing in the form of laser trimming to achieve higher levels

  1. Late-Cenozoic relief evolution under evolving climate: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Valla, Pierre; Herman, Fred

    2014-05-01

    The present review is an attempt to summarize quantitative evidence of Late Cenozoic changes in topographic relief on Earth. We first define different meanings of the word "relief", as it is commonly used, and detail the metrics used to quantify it. We then specify methodological tools used to quantify relief change (primarily lowtemperature thermochronometry and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides), and analyze published evidence for different regions. Our review first show that relief changes and rates of changes are more important at mid-, than high- or low-latitudes, and appear to be insensitive to mean precipitation rates. We also show that relief change is positive (relief increases) in most of the reported cases (~80%). We subsequently define two functional relationships between relief and erosion, depending on the chosen definition of relief, and propose a conceptual model of landscape memory. We conclude, following others, that erosion rates depends non-linearly on relief evolution, itself being a function of the spatial distribution and rates of erosion. The relief increases documented in this review may be related led to erosion rate increases during the same timescales. Lastly, we discuss the importance of glacial and periglacial processes on Late Cenozoic relief and erosion rate changes, and stress the importance of frost shattering and glacial erosion at mid- and high-latitudes.

  2. A laboratory investigation of vibratory compaction of dry soils

    E-print Network

    Webster, Cecil Ray

    1984-01-01

    -Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. Louis J. Thompson Dr, Wayne A. Dunlap In arid regions where water may not be available for standard field compaction operations, compaction of soils at low moisture contents may be necessary. To determine whether these cohesive... and cohesionless soils can be adequately compacted in a dry state, a laboratory vibratory soil compactor was built and used to conduct the investigation. After analyzing the effects of frequency of vibration, acceleration, static weight, and moisture content...

  3. Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ning; Su, Zhong; Li, Qing; Fu, MengYin; Liu, Hong; Fan, JunFang

    2013-01-01

    The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements. PMID:23966183

  4. Innovative decontamination technology by abrasion in vibratory vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbri, Silvio; Ilarri, Sergio [National Atomic Energy Commission - CNEA, Avda. del Libertador 8250, CP 1429, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The possibility of using conventional vibratory vessel technology as a decontamination technique is the motivation for the development of this project. The objective is to explore the feasibility of applying the vibratory vessel technology for decontamination of radioactively-contaminated materials such as pipes and metal structures. The research and development of this technology was granted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Abrasion processes in vibratory vessels are widely used in the manufacture of metals, ceramics, and plastics. Samples to be treated, solid abrasive media and liquid media are set up into a vessel. Erosion results from the repeated impact of the abrasive particles on the surface of the body being treated. A liquid media, generally detergents or surfactants aid the abrasive action. The amount of material removed increases with the time of treatment. The design and construction of the machine were provided by Vibro, Argentina private company. Tests with radioactively-contaminated aluminum tubes and a stainless steel bar, were performed at laboratory level. Tests showed that it is possible to clean both the external and the internal surface of contaminated tubes. Results show a decontamination factor around 10 after the first 30 minutes of the cleaning time. (authors)

  5. Speeding earthquake disaster relief

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortensen, Carl; Donlin, Carolyn; Page, Robert A.; Ward, Peter

    1995-01-01

    In coping with recent multibillion-dollar earthquake disasters, scientists and emergency managers have found new ways to speed and improve relief efforts. This progress is founded on the rapid availability of earthquake information from seismograph networks.

  6. What a Relief!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard H. Tucker

    2001-10-01

    Middle school students in a rural Illinois school visualized and learned more about landforms after making a relief model from a topographic map. They achieved a deeper understanding of topography as the representation of the features and configuration of

  7. Influence of long-time stress relief treatments on the dynamic fracture toughness properties of ASME SA508 C1 2a and ASME SA533 GR B C12 pressure vessel steels

    SciTech Connect

    Logsdon, W.A.

    1982-03-01

    Dynamic fracture toughness tests were performed on materials which had been subjected to one of three long-time post weld type stress relief heat treatments: 48 hours at 1000/degree/F (538/degree/C), 24 hours at 1125/degree/F (607/degree/C), and 48 hours at 1125/degree/F (607/degree/C). Linear elastic K/sub Id/ results were obtained at low temperatures while J-integral techniques were utilized to evaluate dynamic fracture toughness over the transition and upper shelf temperature ranges. Tensile, Charpy impact, and drop weight nil-ductility transition tests as well as room temperature, air environment fatigue crack growth rate tests (SA508 Cl 2a only) were also performed. The fracture toughness of both materials exceeded the ASME specified minimum reference toughness K/sub IR/ curve. 17 refs.

  8. Automated Measurement of Vocal Fold Vibratory Asymmetry from High-Speed Videoendoscopy Recordings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Daryush D.; Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Quatieri, Thomas F.; Hillman, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In prior work, a manually derived measure of vocal fold vibratory phase asymmetry correlated to varying degrees with visual judgments made from laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) recordings. This investigation extended this work by establishing an automated HSV-based framework to quantify 3 categories of vocal fold vibratory

  9. A systematic method for tuning the dynamics of electrostatically actuated vibratory gyros

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong Joon Kim; R. T. M'Closkey

    2006-01-01

    High-performance vibratory gyroscopes require two degenerate modal frequencies for maximizing the rate-induced signals relative to noise produced by signal conditioning electronics. The present paper introduces a systematic approach for tuning these modes in vibratory gyros that employ electrostatic actuation. The key contribution shows how a parametric model, which captures the dependence of the sensor dynamics on the bias electrodes' potentials,

  10. A MEM Vibratory Gyro with Mode-Matching Achieved by Resonator Mass Loading

    E-print Network

    M'Closkey, Robert T.

    of magnitude. In MEM gyros, tuning is typically achieved by biasing dedicated electrodes so as to createA MEM Vibratory Gyro with Mode-Matching Achieved by Resonator Mass Loading Dennis Kim and Robert M for a vibratory rate gyro based on a novel MEM resonator whose design facilitates frequency mismatch reduction via

  11. Investigation of the Effect of Blade Sweep on Rotor Vibratory Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarzanin, F. J., Jr.; Vlaminck, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of helicopter rotor blade planform sweep on rotor vibratory hub, blade, and control system loads has been analytically investigated. The importance of sweep angle, sweep initiation radius, flap bending stiffness and torsion bending stiffness is discussed. The mechanism by which sweep influences the vibratory hub loads is investigated.

  12. Utilization of Mechanical Quadrature in Silicon MEMS Vibratory Gyroscope to Increase and

    E-print Network

    Tang, William C

    Utilization of Mechanical Quadrature in Silicon MEMS Vibratory Gyroscope to Increase and Expand of the long term in-run bias stability of Coriolis vibratory gyroscopes. The approach is based on utilization of the mechanical quadra- ture error in gyroscopes to compensate for variation in system parameters. The proposed

  13. NON-AXISYMMETRIC CORIOLIS VIBRATORY GYROSCOPE WITH WHOLE ANGLE, FORCE REBALANCE, AND SELF-CALIBRATION

    E-print Network

    Tang, William C

    NON-AXISYMMETRIC CORIOLIS VIBRATORY GYROSCOPE WITH WHOLE ANGLE, FORCE REBALANCE, AND SELF detailed performance status and projections for the silicon MEMS Quadruple Mass Gyroscope (QMG) ­ a unique high Q, lumped mass, mode-symmetric Class II Coriolis Vibratory Gyroscope (CVG) with interchangeable

  14. [Mental health support for disaster relief personnel].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Sho

    2014-01-01

    The Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake, which occurred on March 11, 2011, caused serious damage and resulted in numerous fatalities and almost 20,000 missing persons. Furthermore, a major accident accompanied by exudation of radioactive material occurred in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A statement regarding the victims' mental health was issued by the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology on May 21, 2011, which established the Department of Disaster Psychiatry for the provision and assurance of long-term mental care support for the victims. The Department of Disaster Psychiatry was consequently reformed in April 2012, focusing on the following objectives: to verify the validity of current mental support methods; to ensure disaster psychiatry and medical care in Japan; and to promote human resource development that can respond to future large-scale disasters. Mental health support for disaster victims is of highest priority. However, the mental health of relief personnel, who act as front liners during disasters (i. e., police officers, fire fighters, Self-Defense Forces, and health care workers), has often been neglected. Therefore, countermeasures for the problems faced by relief personnel are indispensable for a more effective reconstruction. Volunteers are also important members of the disaster relief team and they have witnessed the actual tragedy, and some have experienced burnout. Thus, they require sufficient mental health support, as do relief personnel. We thought that the mental health of disaster relief personnel is an important issue; thus, we report their mental health needs, the systematic correspondence to disaster stress, and our works for relief assistance. As first responders, relief personnel even without prior disaster education proceed to the area of disaster and may get injured. We therefore suggest that prior to the occurrence of any disaster, networking, education, and disaster awareness should be advocated among relief personnel and volunteers to safeguard their mental health. However, programs on these subjects remain insufficient. We extend our utmost respect and appreciation to the disaster relief workforce for doing their best to save lives. We hope that this aids in the reconstruction process of such affected areas. PMID:24783446

  15. Relief valve testing study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2001-01-01

    Reclosing pressure-actuated valves, commonly called relief valves, are designed to relieve system pressure once it reaches the set point of the valve. They generally operate either proportional to the differential between their set pressure and the system pressure (gradual lift) or by rapidly opening fully when the set pressure is reached (pop action). A pop action valve allows the maximum

  16. Vent Relief Valve Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Shown is the disassembly, examination, refurbishment and testing of the LH2 ( liquid hydrogen) and LOX (liquid oxygen) vent and relief valves for the S-IVB-211 engine stage in support of the Constellation/Ares project. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

  17. NGDC Coastal Relief Model

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Geophysical Data Center

    This gridded database provides an interactive shaded relief map of the entire coastal zone of the conterminous US, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. Click on an area of coastline for a more detailed map, then click on 1 degree square blocks for even greater detail. Images may be zoomed in and out depending on what scale the viewer requires.

  18. Tylenol Extended Relief Overdose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward W Cetarukcol; Richard C Dartcol; Katherine M Hurlbutcol; Rivka S Horowitzcol; Richard Shihcol

    1997-01-01

    In this report we describe the toxicokinetics of the Tylenol Extended Relief (TER) preparation of acetaminophen in human overdose. We collected 41 cases of TER overdose from five regional poison centers. Patients who met the following criteria were studied: a single ingestion of TER alone; confirmed time of ingestion; at least four acetaminophen determinations; and normal concentrations of liver function

  19. High Relief Block Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

  20. The underwater sound field from vibratory pile driving.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Peter H; Dall'Osto, David R; Farrell, Dara M

    2015-06-01

    Underwater noise from vibratory pile driving was observed using a vertical line array placed at range 16?m from the pile source (water depth 7.5?m), and using single hydrophones at range 417?m on one transect, and range 207 and 436?m on another transect running approximately parallel to a sloping shoreline. The dominant spectral features of the underwater noise are related to the frequency of the vibratory pile driving hammer (typically 15-35?Hz), producing spectral lines at intervals of this frequency. The mean-square pressure versus depth is subsequently studied in third-octave bands. Depth and frequency variations of this quantity observed at the vertical line array are well modeled by a field consisting of an incoherent sum of sources distributed over the water column. Adiabatic mode theory is used to propagate this field to greater ranges and model the observations made along the two depth-varying transects. The effect of shear in the seabed, although small, is also included. Bathymetric refraction on the transect parallel to the shoreline reduced mean-square pressure levels at the 436-m measurement site. PMID:26093441

  1. Relief in Ink and Metal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheahan, Lael M.

    1983-01-01

    All ages can enjoy printmaking activities, from a simple glue line relief print to an aluminum foil relief which gives the impression of metal embossing. Projects which can be geared to all levels of elementary education are described. (RM)

  2. Facility location in humanitarian relief

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Balcik; B. M. Beamon

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we consider facility location decisions for a humanitarian relief chain responding to quick-onset disasters. In particular, we develop a model that determines the number and locations of distribution centres in a relief network and the amount of relief supplies to be stocked at each distribution centre to meet the needs of people affected by the disasters. Our

  3. pain relief after surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. BLOCH; ELSABE SMYTHE

    Summary A two-phase, double-blind study was performed to assess the efficacy of various drugs in the relief of postoperative pain. Oral analgesia with two compounds (paracetamol 320 mg, caffeine 32 mg, codeine phosphate 8 mg and meprobamate 150 mg (Stopayne; Rio Ethicals) and dipyrone 500 mg, pitofenone hydrochloride 5 mg and fenpiverinium bromide 0,1 mg (Baralgan HS; Albert» was found

  4. Parametric identification of a vibratory system with a clearance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, R. M.; Noah, S. T.; Franck, C. G.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation of a vibratory system with a clearance was conducted. A finite element model and an equivalent single-degree-of-freedom closed-form solution were used to determine the dynamic parameters and response of an experimental structure interacting with a gap. The closed-form solution is obtained by taking advantage of the piecewise linearity of the system. Results from these solution methods are in agreement with experimental data. The results also suggest that the closed-form solution approximates the response of the experimental structure with accuracy greater than that of the finite element model. The closed-form solution was also used to determine the gap size of the structure. The parameter identification procedure utilized in this study appears to be simple to use and can be readily extended to other types of piecewise-linear multi-degree-of-freedom systems.

  5. Adaptive control of a vibratory angle measuring gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungsu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive control algorithm for realizing a vibratory angle measuring gyroscope so that rotation angle can be directly measured without integration of angular rate, thus eliminating the accumulation of numerical integration errors. The proposed control algorithm uses a trajectory following approach and the reference trajectory is generated by an ideal angle measuring gyroscope driven by the estimate of angular rate and the auxiliary sinusoidal input so that the persistent excitation condition is satisfied. The developed control algorithm can compensate for all types of fabrication imperfections such as coupled damping and stiffness, and mismatched stiffness and un-equal damping term in an on-line fashion. The simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed control algorithm that is capable of directly measuring rotation angle without the integration of angular rate. PMID:22163667

  6. Adaptive Control of a Vibratory Angle Measuring Gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungsu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive control algorithm for realizing a vibratory angle measuring gyroscope so that rotation angle can be directly measured without integration of angular rate, thus eliminating the accumulation of numerical integration errors. The proposed control algorithm uses a trajectory following approach and the reference trajectory is generated by an ideal angle measuring gyroscope driven by the estimate of angular rate and the auxiliary sinusoidal input so that the persistent excitation condition is satisfied. The developed control algorithm can compensate for all types of fabrication imperfections such as coupled damping and stiffness, and mismatched stiffness and un-equal damping term in an on-line fashion. The simulation results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the developed control algorithm that is capable of directly measuring rotation angle without the integration of angular rate. PMID:22163667

  7. The assessment of mixing/solid suspension in a slab tank due to vibratory agitation

    E-print Network

    Ramsey, Christopher Joseph

    1988-01-01

    THE ASSESSMENT OF MIXING/SOLID SUSPENSION IN A SLAB TANK DUE TO VIBRATORY AGITATION A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER JOSEPH RAMSEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering THE ASSESSMENT OF MIXING/SOLID SUSPENSION IN A SLAB TANK DUE TO VIBRATORY AGITATION A Thesis by CHRISTOPHER JOSEPH RAMSEY Approved as to style and content by: Gar B. Tatterson...

  8. Fluid relief and check valve

    DOEpatents

    Blaedel, K.L.; Lord, S.C.; Murray, I.

    1986-07-17

    A passive fluid pressure relief and check valve allows the relief pressure to be slaved to a reference pressure independently of the exhaust pressure. The pressure relief valve is embodied by a submerged vent line in a sealing fluid, the relief pressure being a function of the submerged depth. A check valve is embodied by a vertical column of fluid (the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of fluid). The pressure is vented into an exhaust system which keeps the exhaust out of the area providing the reference pressure.

  9. ReliefWeb

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The goal of ReliefWeb is to provide "reliable and relevant humanitarian information and analysis" and "help [people] make sense of humanitarian crises worldwide." ReliefWeb is administered by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), and was started in 1996. The "Countries & Emergencies" tab across the top of the page allows visitors to choose countries on a map or from a list, and get many pieces of information. Once they have clicked on a country, visitors will find the latest updates on the situation from "NGOs", "News", "Gov'ts", and the "Academic World". In addition, they will find "Background Information" on the country, the "Latest Maps" that might show road conditions or shelter/home conditions; and job "Vacancies" available in the area for humanitarian professionals. Back on the homepage, the "Policy & Issues" tab takes visitors to a large list of topics and thematic documents. Malaria, water scarcity, food insecurity and land mines are just some of the many issues addressed in these documents, which are produced by many different non-profits, non-government groups, and humanitarian organizations.

  10. Waiver Plan Generates Relief, Fret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson; McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    While the Obama administration's plan to offer states relief from parts of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act--if they agree to embrace unspecified education redesign priorities--has drawn kudos from some quarters, it isn't sitting well in others. Officials in a number of states have praised the idea as an opportunity for badly needed relief from…

  11. Chemical Comic Relief

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Selegue and James Holler at the University of Kentucky have provided this ingenious learning resource, Chemical Comic Relief. Visitors to the site click on an element on the periodic table to see a list of comic pages involving that element. For example, clicking on Oxygen brings up a list of comics including Four Color: Ricky Nelson, which shows Ricky discussing oxygen to attempt (unsuccessfully) to impress a girl. Some pages include a summary discussing both the comic as well as the element it features, and the site also offers a chronological History of Chemistry in the Comics -- an album of comic pages from the 1930s to the present. To gain a greater understanding of the technical aspects (atomic weight, key data and description, and history) of each element, the user can link to the WebElements Website.

  12. 7 CFR 276.5 - Injunctive relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Injunctive relief. 276.5 Section 276...DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM STATE AGENCY LIABILITIES AND FEDERAL SANCTIONS § 276.5 Injunctive relief. (a) General...Secretary may seek injunctive relief against the State...

  13. The effect of external cues with vibratory stimulation on spatiotemporal gait parameters in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Myoung; Lim, Hee Sung; Song, Chang Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of current study was to investigate the effect of external cues using vibratory stimulation on spatiotemporal gait parameters in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects] Thirty patients, who had suffered a stroke, were selected from general hospitals in Seoul, Republic of Korea. [Methods] Each participant was subjected to six walking trials: three trials with vibratory stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle and three trials without any stimulation. The spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured with a GAITRite system. [Results] The global gait parameters—velocity and cadence—were significantly more increased, and the temporal parameters—step time, stride time, and double limb support—were significantly more decreased with vibratory stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle than with no stimulation. While single limb support was increased under vibratory stimulation, the difference was not significant between the two groups. The spatial gait parameter—stride length—showed a significant improvement; however, there was no significant enhancement in gait symmetry with regard to step length and step time [Conclusion] These results indicate that the application of external cues using vibratory stimulation during gait may control gait parameters and improve gait performance. Thus, this intervention could be used for gait rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients. PMID:25729172

  14. The effect of external cues with vibratory stimulation on spatiotemporal gait parameters in chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Myoung; Lim, Hee Sung; Song, Chang Ho

    2015-02-01

    [Purpose] The aim of current study was to investigate the effect of external cues using vibratory stimulation on spatiotemporal gait parameters in patients with chronic stroke. [Subjects] Thirty patients, who had suffered a stroke, were selected from general hospitals in Seoul, Republic of Korea. [Methods] Each participant was subjected to six walking trials: three trials with vibratory stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle and three trials without any stimulation. The spatiotemporal gait parameters were measured with a GAITRite system. [Results] The global gait parameters-velocity and cadence-were significantly more increased, and the temporal parameters-step time, stride time, and double limb support-were significantly more decreased with vibratory stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle than with no stimulation. While single limb support was increased under vibratory stimulation, the difference was not significant between the two groups. The spatial gait parameter-stride length-showed a significant improvement; however, there was no significant enhancement in gait symmetry with regard to step length and step time [Conclusion] These results indicate that the application of external cues using vibratory stimulation during gait may control gait parameters and improve gait performance. Thus, this intervention could be used for gait rehabilitation in chronic stroke patients. PMID:25729172

  15. Oscillation Control Algorithms for Resonant Sensors with Applications to Vibratory Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungsu; Tan, Chin-Woo; Kim, Haedong; Hong, Sung Kyung

    2009-01-01

    We present two oscillation control algorithms for resonant sensors such as vibratory gyroscopes. One control algorithm tracks the resonant frequency of the resonator and the other algorithm tunes it to the specified resonant frequency by altering the resonator dynamics. Both algorithms maintain the specified amplitude of oscillations. The stability of each of the control systems is analyzed using the averaging method, and quantitative guidelines are given for selecting the control gains needed to achieve stability. The effects of displacement measurement noise on the accuracy of tracking and estimation of the resonant frequency are also analyzed. The proposed control algorithms are applied to two important problems in a vibratory gyroscope. The first is the leading-following resonator problem in the drive axis of MEMS dual-mass vibratory gyroscope where there is no mechanical linkage between the two proof-masses and the second is the on-line modal frequency matching problem in a general vibratory gyroscope. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control algorithms are effective. They ensure the proof-masses to oscillate in an anti-phase manner with the same resonant frequency and oscillation amplitude in a dual-mass gyroscope, and two modal frequencies to match in a general vibratory gyroscope. PMID:22454566

  16. Interference of Overlapping Insect Vibratory Communication Signals: An Eushistus heros Model

    PubMed Central

    ?okl, Andrej; Laumann, Raul Alberto; Žuni? Kosi, Alenka; Blassioli-Moraes, Maria Carolina; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Borges, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Plants limit the range of insect substrate-borne vibratory communication by their architecture and mechanical properties that change transmitted signal time, amplitude and frequency characteristics. Stinkbugs gain higher signal-to-noise ratio and increase communication distance by emitting narrowband low frequency vibratory signals that are tuned with transmission properties of plants. The objective of the present study was to investigate hitherto overlooked consequences of duetting with mutually overlapped narrowband vibratory signals. The overlapped vibrations of the model stinkbug species Eushistus heros, produced naturally or induced artificially on different plants, have been analysed. They represent female and male strategies to preserve information within a complex masked signal. The brown stinkbugs E. heros communicate with species and gender specific vibratory signals that constitute characteristic duets in the calling, courtship and rivalry phases of mating behaviour. The calling female pulse overlaps the male vibratory response when the latency of the latter is shorter than the duration of the female triggering signal or when the male response does not inhibit the following female pulse. Overlapping of signals induces interference that changes their amplitude pattern to a sequence of regularly repeated pulses in which their duration and the difference between frequencies of overlapped vibrations are related inversely. Interference does not occur in overlapped narrow band female calling pulses and broadband male courtship pulse trains. In a duet with overlapped signals females and males change time parameters and increase the frequency difference between signals by changing the frequency level and frequency modulation pattern of their calls. PMID:26098637

  17. Compression relief engine brake

    SciTech Connect

    Meneely, V.A.

    1987-10-06

    A compression relief brake is described for four cycle internal-combustion engines, comprising: a pressurized oil supply; means for selectively pressurizing a hydraulic circuit with oil from the oil supply; a master piston and cylinder communicating with a slave piston and cylinder via the hydraulic circuit; an engine exhaust valve mechanically coupled to the engine and timed to open during the exhaust cycle of the engine the exhaust valve coupled to the slave piston. The exhaust valve is spring-based in a closed state to contact a valve seat; a sleeve frictionally and slidably disposed within a cavity defined by the slave piston which cavity communicates with the hydraulic circuit. When the hydraulic circuit is selectively pressurized and the engine is operating the sleeve entraps an incompressible volume of oil within the cavity to generate a displacement of the slave piston within the slave cylinder, whereby a first gap is maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat; and means for reciprocally activating the master piston for increasing the pressure within the previously pressurized hydraulic circuit during at least a portion of the expansion cycle of the engine whereby a second gap is reciprocally maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat.

  18. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    MedlinePLUS

    ... mail this page Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Search the Consumer Updates ... when pollen counts are high. back to top Allergy Medicines For most children, symptoms may be controlled ...

  19. Menopause: Symptom Relief and Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... More information on menopause symptom relief and treatments Learning about menopause treatment options Most women do not ... medicine, and blood pressure medicine. Try taking slow, deep breaths when a flash starts. If you’re ...

  20. Damage identification in plates using vibratory power estimated from measured accelerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Young Cheol; Chung, Tae Young; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Jae Kwan

    2015-02-01

    Vibratory power is defined as the rate of energy transmitted through a cross section of unit width in a vibrating structure. It is known that the vibratory power is a function of the source and travel path. Therefore the spatial distribution of the vibratory power may contain information on the state of a structure. Vibratory power can be estimated experimentally by measuring accelerations. By combining numerical predictions with experimental measurements the location and severity of damage can be identified. This method has been successfully applied to prismatic beam problems. In the present work, the idea is extended to identifying damage in thin plate problems. To identify damage in thin plates by the proposed vibratory power method, the two-dimensional damage index and damage index ratio are newly introduced. The plate is assumed to be of uniform thickness and damaged in the form of a crack simulated as a straight cut of finite length. The vibratory power of the plate is estimated from frequency response functions to random excitations. First, the proposed method is applied numerically and then verified experimentally. Both numerical and experimental results show the present method can identify not only the location of damage but also its direction. The location and direction can be identified by investigating the damage index, the damage index ratio, and local principal axes of the index peak in the vicinity of the damage. The spatial distribution of the damage index, newly introduced in beam problems, can be considered as a scalar field in plate problems. In the neighborhood of the damage, the damage index has the shape of a semi-ellipsoid or a semi-ovoid, and it is found that the major principal axis corresponds to the direction of the crack. It enables us to identify the damage direction correctly without ambiguity.

  1. The monitoring system for vibratory disturbance detection in microgravity environment aboard the international space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laster, Rachel M.

    2004-01-01

    Scientists in the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications within the Microgravity Research Division oversee studies in important physical, chemical, and biological processes in microgravity environment. Research is conducted in microgravity environment because of the beneficial results that come about for experiments. When research is done in normal gravity, scientists are limited to results that are affected by the gravity of Earth. Microgravity provides an environment where solid, liquid, and gas can be observed in a natural state of free fall and where many different variables are eliminated. One challenge that NASA faces is that space flight opportunities need to be used effectively and efficiently in order to ensure that some of the most scientifically promising research is conducted. Different vibratory sources are continually active aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Some of the vibratory sources include crew exercise, experiment setup, machinery startup (life support fans, pumps, freezer/compressor, centrifuge), thruster firings, and some unknown events. The Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMs), which acts as the hardware and carefully positioned aboard the ISS, along with the Microgravity Environment Monitoring System MEMS), which acts as the software and is located here at NASA Glenn, are used to detect these vibratory sources aboard the ISS and recognize them as disturbances. The various vibratory disturbances can sometimes be harmful to the scientists different research projects. Some vibratory disturbances are recognized by the MEMS's database and some are not. Mainly, the unknown events that occur aboard the International Space Station are the ones of major concern. To better aid in the research experiments, the unknown events are identified and verified as unknown events. Features, such as frequency, acceleration level, time and date of recognition of the new patterns are stored in an Excel database. My task is to carefully synthesize frequency and acceleration patterns of unknown events within the Excel database into a new file to determine whether or not certain information that is received i s considered a real vibratory source. Once considered as a vibratory source, further analysis is carried out. The resulting information is used to retrain the MEMS to recognize them as known patterns. These different vibratory disturbances are being constantly monitored to observe if, in any way, the disturbances have an effect on the microgravity environment that research experiments are exposed to. If the disturbance has little or no effect on the experiments, then research is continued. However, if the disturbance is harmful to the experiment, scientists act accordingly by either minimizing the source or terminating the research and neither NASA's time nor money is wasted.

  2. Effects of parameter uncertainty on the response of vibratory systems to random excitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Kotulski; K. Sobczyk

    1987-01-01

    Vibratory systems subjected to a stationary random external excitation and having random uncertainties in parameters are analyzed. Some quantities characterizing the quality of such systems (quality measures) are defined and evaluated; they are, for example, the average number of level crossings, the average number of maxima, and the departure from normality. The effects of random uncertainty in system parameters on

  3. Vibratory densification of dispersion-type fuel elements for nuclear reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Živanovi?; V. Mikijelj

    1972-01-01

    Theoretical calculations are given of the distribution of particle sizes and weight proportions of individual fractions necessary for the attainment of maximum density in tubular, annular, and “inversed” fuel elements as a result of vibratory densification. It is shown that, in the attainment of a high and uniform packing density, of vital importance are the ratios between the dimensions of

  4. The Method of Averaging Using an Adaptive Notch Filter in Vibratory Gyroscopes

    E-print Network

    Horowitz, Roberto

    for controlling vibratory gyros, origi- nally proposed by D. D. Lynch [1], is based on the method of averaging [2 ) in the mixer, and are later used in the PI feedback control loops. As a result, the gyro performance on electrodes. Notches in the CIC decimator do not necessarily coincide with the resonant frequency. As a result

  5. Analysis of vibratory states in phonation using spectral features of the electroglottographic signal.

    PubMed

    Selamtzis, Andreas; Ternström, Sten

    2014-11-01

    The vocal folds can oscillate in several different ways, manifest to practitioners and clinicians as "registers" or "mechanisms," of which the two most often considered are modal voice and falsetto voice. Here these will be taken as instances of different "vibratory states," i.e., distinct quasi-stationary patterns of vibration of the vocal folds. State transitions are common in biomechanical nonlinear oscillators, and they are often abrupt and impossible to predict exactly. Therefore, vibratory states are a source of confounding variation, for instance when acquiring a voice range profile (VRP). In the quest for a state-based, non-invasive VRP, a semi-automatic method based on the short-term spectrum of the electroglottographic (EGG) signal was developed. The method identifies rapid vibratory state transitions, such as the modal-falsetto switch, and clusters the EGG data based on their similarities in the relative levels and phases of the lower frequency components. Productions of known modal and falsetto voice were accurately clustered by a Gaussian mixture model. When mapped into the VRP, this EGG-based clustering revealed connected regions of different vibratory sub-regimes in both modal and falsetto. PMID:25373977

  6. Characterizing Vibratory Kinematics in Children and Adults with High-Speed Digital Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rita; Dubrovskiy, Denis; Döllinger, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to quantify and identify characteristic vibratory motion in typically developing prepubertal children and young adults using high-speed digital imaging. Method: The vibrations of the vocal folds were recorded from 27 children (ages 5-9 years) and 35 adults (ages 21-45 years), with high speed at 4,000 frames per…

  7. Laterally oscillated and force-balanced micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Y. Park; C. W. Lee; Y. S. Oh; Y. H. Cho

    1997-01-01

    A new concept micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs, where the oscillating position sensing and force balancing take place on the wafer surface, has been developed. The gyroscope consists of: a grid-type planar mass; LT shape position sense electrodes for detecting the Coriolis motion; pairs of force-balancing electrodes to improve the linearity and dynamic range; prominence

  8. Research on new automobile power hydraulic braking system by vibratory energy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ding Zhi-hua; Lei Zheng-bao; Lei Mu-xi

    2011-01-01

    A new automobile power hydraulic braking system by vibratory energy is introduced which includes four vibration dampers, four energy accumulators, hydraulic booster, one storage tank, four wheel cylinders, four electromagnetic one-way valves, brake master cylinder, vacuum booster, brake pedal and loading sensing pressure proportioning valve(LSPV). Vibration damper is composed of nitrogen cavity, piston, piston rod, shell, rebound valve, compression valve,

  9. STRESS

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Hancey

    2010-04-27

    During this activity, students will use the available resources to learn more about stress, the effects of stress and how to handle stress. This activity focuses on the Utah fifth grade health core Standard 1: The students will learn ways to improve mental health and manage stress. During this project, students are given two different scenarios and ...

  10. Turbine generator pressure relief diaphragm

    SciTech Connect

    Groenendaal, J.C. Jr.; Huang, K.P.

    1993-06-29

    A steam turbine is described comprising: (a) a turbine housing operable to receive steam and having a relief opening therein surrounded by a turbine flange; (b) a shaft positioned within the housing; (c) a plurality of rows of blades positioned along the longitudinal length of the shaft and extending radially outwardly therefrom; (d) a steam inlet pipe connected with the housing and operable as a conduit to allow the steam entering the housing to pass between the plurality of rows of blades to rotate the shaft; and (e) a pressure relief diaphragm associated with the turbine housing and operable to relieve excess pressure within the turbine housing, including: (i) a safety housing having a mounting flange thereon arranged to mate with the turbine flange so that the safety housing is positioned over the relief opening in the turbine housing; (ii) a first solid, frangible disc covering the relief opening in the turbine housing and having a peripheral portion interposed between the mounting flange on the safety housing and the turbine flange; (iii) a second solid disc positioned in the relief opening in the turbine flange in abutting contact with the first solid disc; (iv) first bolt means for securing the mounting flange on the safety housing to the turbine flange; (v) first spring washer means associated with the first bolt means for maintaining the positional relationship between the mounting flange on the safety housing and the turbine flange; (vi) an annular ring positioned on the first solid disc and above the relief opening in the turbine housing; (vii) second bolt means for securing the second solid disc and the annular ring to the first solid disc; and (viii) second spring washer means associated with the second bolt means for maintaining the positional relationship among the first solid disc, the second solid disc and the annular ring.

  11. Pressure relief valve/safety relief valve testing

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.A.; Hamm, E.R.; Barber, J.R.

    1994-02-01

    Pressure vessels and piping systems are protected form overpressurization by pressure relief valves. These safety features are required to be tested-inspected on some periodic basis and, in most cases witnessed by a third party inspector. As a result nonconformances found by third parties Westinghouse Hanford Company initiated a task team to develop a pressure safety program. This paper reveals their findings.

  12. Petroleum industry assists hurricane relief

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-14

    This paper reports that the petroleum industry is aiding victims of last month's Hurricane Andrew with cash, clothing, food, water, and other supplies. Cash contributions announced as of last week totaled more than $2.7 million for distribution in South Florida and South Louisiana. Petroleum industry employees were collecting relief items such as bottled water and diapers for distribution in those areas.

  13. Dual rate pressure relief valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steeneken, J.

    1968-01-01

    Pressure relief valve vents at a slow bleed rate at one pressure level and at a higher bleed rate at a higher pressure level. The value housing contains a sleeve, inlet port, outlet port, an orifice, a ball and seat arrangement, and a belleville spring diaphragm.

  14. FLOODS CAUSES, MANAGEMENT AND RELIEF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Adamson

    SYNOPSIS: This paper provides an overview of the flooding problem, flood management and flood relief in Ireland. The paper begins with an examination of the causes of flooding, and in particular, the human activities that can increase flood risk. This leads into a review of the current concepts involved in managing present and future flood risk. The design and implementation

  15. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I triggers specified...available to all similarly situated customers; and (ii) The price cap... (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers...

  16. Financial Hardship and Emergency Relief in Victoria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benno Engels; Rivkah Nissim; Kathy Landvogt

    2011-01-01

    The existence and provision of emergency relief remains one of the more contentious aspects of poverty relief in Australia. This is largely due to a fundamental difference of opinion within government and the welfare sector about how to best tackle the financial hardship being experienced by people in need. Some contend that emergency relief should be expanded and better funded

  17. Financial Hardship and Emergency Relief in Victoria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benno Engels; Rivkah Nissim; Kathy Landvogt

    2012-01-01

    The existence and provision of emergency relief remains one of the more contentious aspects of poverty relief in Australia. This is largely due to a fundamental difference of opinion within government and the welfare sector about how to best tackle the financial hardship being experienced by people in need. Some contend that emergency relief should be expanded and better funded

  18. 7 CFR 1465.33 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Administration § 1465.33 Equitable relief. (a) If a participant...may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR part 635, section...The financial or technical liability for any action by a participant...may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR part 635,...

  19. 7 CFR 1466.33 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Administration § 1466.33 Equitable relief. (a) If a participant...requirements and may grant relief, to the extent it is deemed...The financial or technical liability for any action by a participant...participant may request equitable relief under § 635.3 in...

  20. Effectiveness of Property Tax Relief in Oregon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, William T.; Hwang, C. S.

    This study examines the effects of the 1979 Oregon Property Tax Relief Plan on 1980-81 school district budget decisions by comparing the available tax relief, the school expenditures, and the tax levies in the state for the years 1975-81. The history of direct and indirect property tax relief in Oregon is sketched for the years prior to 1979; the…

  1. Last Mile Distribution in Humanitarian Relief

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burcu Balcik; Benita M. Beamon; Karen Smilowitz

    2008-01-01

    Last mile distribution is the final stage of a humanitarian relief chain; it refers to delivery of relief supplies from local distribution centers (LDCs) to beneficiaries affected by disasters. In this study, we consider a vehicle-based last mile distribution system, in which an LDC stores and distributes emergency relief supplies to a number of demand locations. The main decisions are

  2. Performance measurement in humanitarian relief chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benita M. Beamon; Burcu Balcik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare performance measurement in the humanitarian relief chain with performance measurement in the commercial supply chain, develop performance metrics for the humanitarian relief chain, and present a framework that can be used as a basis for a performance measurement system in the relief sector. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The performance measurement analysis is

  3. HUMANITARIAN RELIEF CHAINS: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benita M. Beamon

    The objectives of this paper are to define, compare and contrast the commercial supply chain and the humanitarian relief chain, discuss an approach to performance measurement in the domain of humanitarian relief, and identify the challenges faced by relief chain logisticians in practice and research.

  4. Feeling Stressed? Stress Relief Might Help Your Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Editor: Vicki Contie Contributors: Vicki Contie, Alan Defibaugh (illustrations), Helen Fields, Britny Kish, and Harrison Wein Attention Editors: Reprint our articles and illustrations in your own publication. Our material is not ...

  5. Northern Sudan in 1991: food crisis and the international relief response.

    PubMed

    Kelly, M; Buchanan-Smith, M

    1994-03-01

    By the end of 1991, less than half the amount of relief food requested for North Sudan at the beginning of the year had been delivered. Despite ample evidence of social and economic stress and high rates of child malnutrition, many donors felt that relief needs had been exaggerated, and were unwilling to accept that relief assistance was urgently needed. The feeble response of the main food aid donors is explained initially by the politics of relief in 1990/91, which seriously delayed the launch of the relief operation. These problems were compounded by an oversimplified understanding of famine among some sections of the relief community, and by the orientation of the international relief system to crisis indicators. Toward the end of 1991, donors argued that despite the shortfall in relief assistance there had been no deaths from starvation, and therefore local people had 'coped' better than expected. This paper challenges that view by arguing that excess deaths did occur, but went unnoticed and unremarked. Local people's 'coping strategies', which supposedly 'saved the day', actually had very negative and sometimes fatal consequences. PMID:8044639

  6. Vibratory Loads Data from a Wind-Tunnel Test of Structurally Tailored Model Helicopter Rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeager, William T., Jr.; Hamouda, M-Nabil H.; Idol, Robert F.; Mirick, Paul H.; Singleton, Jeffrey D.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to investigate the use of a Bell Helicopter Textron (BHT) rotor structural tailoring concept, known as rotor nodalization, in conjunction with advanced blade aerodynamics as well as to evaluate rotor blade aerodynamic design methodologies. A 1/5-size, four-bladed bearingless hub, three sets of Mach-scaled model rotor blades were tested in forward flight from transition up to an advance ratio of 0.35. The data presented pertain only to the evaluation of the structural tailoring concept and consist of fixed-system and rotating system vibratory loads. These data will be useful for evaluating the effects of tailoring blade structural properties on fixed-system vibratory loads, as well as validating analyses used in the design of advanced rotor systems.

  7. Thermal and vibratory thresholds after liposuction in patients with Dercum's disease.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Emma; Svensson, Henry; Rosén, Ingmar; Brorson, Håkan

    2011-04-01

    Dercum's disease is characterised by pronounced pain in the adipose tissue and a number of associated symptoms and is, in most patients, accompanied by obesity. Postoperative sensory change after liposuction is a well-known side effect, and probably caused by mechanical trauma to the nerves. The aim of this investigation was to find out whether the thermal and sensory sensation changed after liposuction in patients with Dercum's disease. The thermal and vibratory thresholds were examined preoperatively, and three and 12 months after, liposuction in 39 affected patients. There were only small differences in thermal and vibratory thresholds three and 12 months after liposuction compared with preoperatively, and none of these was statistically significant. PMID:21504276

  8. ReliefWeb Map Centre

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As a project of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, ReliefWeb has a mandate to strengthen the response capacity of the humanitarian relief community through the timely dissemination of reliable information on response, preparedness, and disaster prevention. The Map Centre page of the Web site contains links to a wealth of informative maps that carry on the organizations mandate by providing humanitarian content in cartographic form. Some of the maps available include Iraq food storage sites, Argentina flood location map, an overview of Liberian conflict, landslides in Papua New Guinea, and many more. The maps can be browsed by geographic location and subject, or searched by various parameters, making it an easy-to-use and helpful resource for anyone seeking informative maps that can be freely downloaded.

  9. A low-noise HV interface circuit for MEMS vibratory gyroscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tingting Tao; Wengao Lu; Ran Fang; Yacong Zhang; Zhongjian Chen

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a low-noise high voltage (HV) CMOS Interface ASIC designed for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes. A closed-loop control is realized in the driving mode. An in-chip level shifter is designed in the loop to achieve a high DC voltage level of 5V which can excite the gyroscope. A DC biasing method is adopted in the interface circuit to convert

  10. Mechanical Assessment of the Drep Shield Subject to Vibratory Motion and Dynamic and Static Rock Loading

    SciTech Connect

    R.C. Quittmeyer

    2005-11-16

    The purpose of the drip shield (DS) is to divert water that may seep into emplacement drifts from contacting the waste packages, and to protect the waste packages from impact or static loading from rockfall. The objective of this document is to summarize, into one location, the results of a series of supporting engineering calculations that were developed to study the effect of static and dynamic loads on the mechanical performance of the DS. The potential DS loads are a result of: (1) Potential earthquake vibratory ground motion, and resulting interaction of the DS, waste package and pallet, and drift invert; (2) Dynamic impacts of rockfall resulting from emplacement drift damage as a result of earthquake vibratory motion; and (3) Static load of the caved rock rubble that may come to rest on the DS as a result of vibratory motion or from time-dependent yielding of the rock mass surrounding the emplacement drift. The potential mechanical failure mechanisms that may result from these loads include: (1) Overturning and/or separation of the interlocking DS segments; (2) Loss of structural integrity and stability of the DS, including excessive deformation or buckling; and (3) Localized damage to the top and side-wall plates of the DS. The scope of this document is limited to summarizing results presented in the supporting calculations in the areas of analysis of the potential for DS collapse, and determination of the damaged surface area of the DS plates. New calculations are presented to determine whether or not separation of DSs occur under vibratory motion.

  11. Double-Layered Vibratory Grating Scanners for High-Speed High-Resolution Laser Scanning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Du; Guangya Zhou; Koon Lin Cheo; Qingxin Zhang; Hanhua Feng; Fook Siong Chau

    2010-01-01

    A novel micromachined electrostatic double-layered vibratory grating scanner has been successfully developed for high-speed high-resolution laser scanning applications. This paper presents its design, modeling, fabrication, and measurement results. A comprehensive dynamic model considering the geometric nonlinearity of the platform suspension flexures is also proposed to predict the dynamic performance of the device at large scanning amplitudes. Compared with previously reported

  12. UNICEF: USA Kosovo Relief Efforts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Last Friday, the US Committee for UNICEF launched a new Website dedicated to providing the latest information on humanitarian relief efforts in Kosovo and neighboring nations. The site features official UNICEF press releases on recent events, situation reports on the region's status, data on the refugee crisis, and an Alert! mailing list, which keeps subscribers up-to-date on important issues affecting the human rights of children in the Balkans and worldwide.

  13. The Bas-Relief Ambiguity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter N. Belhumeur; David J. Kriegman; Alan L. Yuille

    1999-01-01

    When an unknown object with Lambertian reflectance is viewed orthographically, there is an implicit ambiguity in determining its 3-d structure: we show that the object's visible surface f(x, y) is indistinguishable from a “generalized bas-relief” transformation of the object's geometry, \\u000a$$ {\\\\bar f} $$\\u000a (x, y) = ?f(x, y) + µx + ?y, and a corresponding transformation on the object's

  14. Debt relief and fiscal sustainability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Edwards

    2003-01-01

    In this paper I analyze the relationship between fiscal policy,aggregate public sector debt sustainability, and debt relief. I develop a methodology to compute the fiscal policy path that is compatible with aggregate\\u000a debt sustainability in the post-HIPC era. The model explicitly considers the role of domestic debt and quantifies the extent\\u000a to which future debt sustainability depends on the availability

  15. Guidelines for pressure relief system modernization

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, V.H.; Hu, L.L.; Lee, N.D. [Allstates/JBEK, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Pressure relief systems protect against catastrophic accidents caused by equipment overpressure. Despite their importance, pressure relief systems do not always receive adequate attention during design, construction, and maintenance. This is often due to the application of outdated analysis and calculation methods. The American Institute of Chemical Engineers` Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) has developed new methods to design relief systems for runaway reactions and for two-phase, vapor-liquid relief. The Occupational Safety and Health Adminstration`s Process Safety Management Regulation recognizes these new methods as {open_quotes}good engineering practice{close_quotes}. Application of these new methods has shown that a number of existing relief systems are inadequate. This article describes an approach to systematically modernize existing pressure relief systems using DIERS technology. 23 refs., 12 tabs.

  16. Stress

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Deaton

    2011-06-10

    This project collects resources for studying mental health and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. Watch the following video for positive things teens do to reduce the stress ...

  17. Pressure relief subsystem design description

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1986-07-01

    The primary function of the Pressure Relief Subsystem, a subsystem of the Vessel System, is to provide overpressure protection to the Vessel System. When the overpressure setpoint is reached, pressure is reduced by permitting the flow of primary coolant out of the Vessel System. This subsystem also provides the flow path by which purified helium is returned to the vessel system, either as circulating purge/flow from the Helium Purification Subsystem or make-up helium from the Helium Storage and Transfer Subsystem.

  18. Stress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blood glucose elevation in response to mental stress. Learning to Relax For some people with diabetes, controlling ... uncross your legs and arms. Take in a deep breath. Then push out as much air as ...

  19. Stress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Some changes are major, such as marriage or divorce, serious illness, or a car accident. Other changes ... sudden negative change, such as losing a job, divorce, or illness. Traumatic stress, experienced in an event ...

  20. What controls the relief of rocky headlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2014-09-01

    Rocky headlands are a common feature of coastlines but vary in their cross-shore "relief" (i.e., how far a headland extends offshore from the coastline), causing some coastlines to be more sinuous and others smoother. What controls headland relief? Most models of headland relief are qualitative and focus on the relationship between wave energy and rock strength but leave out other factors.

  1. Vibratory sources as compound stimuli for the octavolateralis systems: Dissection of specific stimulation channels using multiple behavioral approaches

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Christopher B.; Coombs, Sheryl

    2010-01-01

    An underwater vibratory source simultaneously presents acoustic and hydrodynamic disturbances. Because vibratory dipole sources are poor sonic projectors, most researchers have assumed that such sources are of greatest relevance to the lateral line system (LL). Both hydroacoustic principles and empirical studies have shown that vibratory dipole sources are also a potent stimulus to the inner ear of fishes. Responses to vibratory sources in mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi) were assessed using unconditioned orienting, differential and non-differential-classical conditioning. Orienting responses are dominated by LL inputs and eliminated by LL pharmacological inactivation. Simple conditioning depends on inputs from other systems and was not affected by LL inactivation. Differential conditioning alters behavioral control, and sculpin could be conditioned to ignore substrate borne vibrations and respond only to hydroacoustic stimulation of the ear. The lateral line and inner ear of mottled sculpin do not necessarily exhibit range fractionation, as both systems operate over a similar distance from the animal (within 1.5 body lengths) and respond to many of the same sources. Vibratory dipole sources generate compound stimuli that simultaneously activate multiple octavolateralis systems, and animals make use of the channels differentially under different behavioral tasks. PMID:20384404

  2. Formulating disaster relief when needs are unknown.

    PubMed

    May, P J

    1982-01-01

    As in most cases of natural disasters, relief needs arising out of the Mount St. Helens volcanic eruptions in May 1980 were greatly overestimated. Technical, bureaucratic, and political considerations all contribute to the upward bias in such cases. The errors in early estimates of relief needs can be reduced by systematic means. But more important than obtaining good early estimates is maintaining an effective control over actual disaster relief expenditures. As it turns out, the more effective systems of control usually go hand in hand with poorer early estimates, creating a dilemma for the management for disaster relief. PMID:10257572

  3. Mating behaviour and vibratory signalling in non-hearing cave crickets reflect primitive communication of Ensifera.

    PubMed

    Stritih, Nataša; ?okl, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    In Ensifera, the lack of well-supported phylogeny and the focus on acoustic communication of the terminal taxa hinders understanding of the evolutionary history of their signalling behaviour and the related sensory structures. For Rhaphidophoridae, the most relic of ensiferans following morphology-based phylogenies, the signalling modes are still unknown. Together with a detailed description of their mating process, we provide evidence on vibratory signalling for the sympatric European species Troglophilus neglectus and T. cavicola. Despite their temporal shift in reproduction, the species' behaviours differ significantly. Signalling by abdominal vibration constitutes an obligatory part of courtship in T. neglectus, while it is absent in T. cavicola. Whole-body vibration is expressed after copulation in both species. While courtship signalling appears to stimulate females for mating, the function of post-copulation signals remains unclear. Mating and signalling of both species were found to take place in most cases on bark, and less frequently on other available substrates, like moss and rock. The signals' frequency spectra were substrate dependent, but with the dominant peak always expressed below 120 Hz. On rock, the intensity of T. neglectus courtship signals was below the species' physiological detection range, presumably constraining the evolution of such signalling in caves. The species' behavioural divergence appears to reflect their divergent mating habitats, in and outside caves. We propose that short-range tremulation signalling in courtship, such as is expressed by T. neglectus, represents the primitive mode and context of mechanical signalling in Ensifera. The absence of high-frequency components in the signals may be related to the absence of the crista acoustica homologue (CAH) in the vibratory tibial organ of Rhaphidophoridae. This indirectly supports the hypothesis proposing that the CAH, as an evolutionary precursor of the ear, evolved in Ensifera along the (more) complex vibratory communication, also associated with signals of higher carrier frequency. PMID:23094071

  4. Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 158 km (98 miles) x 122 km (77 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North approximately at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

  5. Inexpensive tamper proof safety relief valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frankewich, P. A.

    1970-01-01

    Basic relief valve has added safety relief valve capability that relieves overpressure before failure can occur. It may be installed in inaccesible areas with a high degree of reliability, constructed from a variety of materials, and adapted to the user's specific application.

  6. Aspirator increases relief valve poppet stroke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biddle, M. E.

    1967-01-01

    Addition of an aspirator to a relief valve increases the valve poppet stroke under dynamic flow conditions. The aspirator allows poppet inlet dynamic forces to overcome relief valve spring force. It reduces the fluid pressure in the skirt cavity by providing a low pressure sense probe.

  7. Earthquake relief in less industrialized areas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This symposium was organized by the Swiss Society of Engineers and Architects and by the Specialized Group for Bridge and Structural Engineering. Authors are specialists from private and governmental disaster relief organizations, earthquake engineers and suppliers of products for rescue operations and reconstruction. Case histories include; Economic consequences of earthquakes; Reconstruction with indigenous and intermediate technology; General aspects of relief operations and reconstruction.

  8. Customer service in emergency relief chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Oloruntoba; Richard Gray

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore, analyse and discuss the published concepts of “the customer” and “customer service” in the context of managing international emergency relief chains. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This is a literature-based approach that extends concepts usually applied in a commercial context to the area of humanitarian aid and emergency relief chains in particular. Findings

  9. Humanitarian logistics in disaster relief operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gyöngyi Kovács; Karen M. Spens

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to further the understanding of planning and carrying out logistics operations in disaster relief. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Topical literature review of academic and practitioner journals. Findings – Creates a framework distinguishing between actors, phases, and logistical processes of disaster relief. Drawing parallels of humanitarian logistics and business logistics, the paper discovers and describes the unique characteristics

  10. Analysis of inservice inspection relief requests

    SciTech Connect

    Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.

    1989-08-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require inspection (ISI) of boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power plants be performed in accordance with a referenced edition and addenda of Section XI, ``Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components,`` of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The regulations permit licensees to request relief from the NRC from specific ASME Code requirements that are determined to be impractical for the specific licensee. The NRC evaluates these requests and may grant such relief, but the NRC may also impose alternative or augmented inspections to assure structural reliability. The purpose,of this task was to evaluate the basis for ISI nondestructive examination (NDE) relief requests and to evaluate the effect of proposed ASME Code changes that would reduce the need for such requests or provide for more complete information in relief requests. This report contains the results of an analysis of an ISI relief request data base that has been expanded to include 1195 ISI relief requests versus the 296 relief requests covered in the first report in April 1987, EGG-SD-7430. Also relief requests were added to the data base which came from both first and second 10-year inspection intervals for several facilities. This provided the means to analyze the effect of recently approved ASME Code cases and updated Code requirements, some of which have been published as a result of earlier work on this task.

  11. 30 CFR 44.16 - Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order...Application for temporary relief; relief to give effect to the proposed decision and order...the temporary relief shall remain in effect until modified, affirmed or set...

  12. 26 CFR 1.6015-4 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...return for which a liability remains unpaid...qualify for full relief under § 1...grant equitable relief from joint and several liability to a requesting...Therefore, relief is not available...obtain a refund of liabilities already...

  13. 27 CFR 24.158 - Extent of relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...24.158 Extent of relief. (a) General...has filed a notice for relief from liability as provided in § 24...Notwithstanding such relief, the surety will...and for all other liabilities incurred, during...

  14. 46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154...CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED... § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo...

  15. Relaxation relief/relaxation/reduction/improvement offers relief for

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    for physical training and can provide an immune system boost. It can also reduce anxiety, fatigue, and stress specializes in Swedish Relaxation Massage, Sports Massage, Myofascial Release, Neuromuscular Therapy, Energy

  16. Reconstruction of Dislocation Potential Relief by Means of Self-Blocking Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B. A., E-mail: bella@imp.uran.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division (Russian Federation); Ivanov, M. A., E-mail: ivanov@imp.kiev.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kurdjumov Institute of Metal Physics (Ukraine); Plotnikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-15

    The effect of dislocation self-blocking in intermetallic compounds with an anomalous temperature dependence of yield stress has been theoretically and experimentally analyzed. In essence, this effect is a dislocation self-immersion in a deep potential relief valley (without external stress). The possibility of reconstructing the relief shape (from one-valley to two-valley) is shown and the relief parameters are reported. The allowed and forbidden regions for self-blocking are revealed. The method for determining the ratio of the valley depths by measuring the self-blocking limiting angles between the dislocation segments is proposed. Transmission electron microscopy images of the dislocation structure can be used to this end. As an example, this ratio is estimated for a superpartial dislocation sliding in the cube plane in Ni{sub 3}Ge.

  17. Structural-Acoustic Coupling Effects on the Non-Vacuum Packaging Vibratory Cylinder Gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xiang; Wu, Xuezhong; Wu, Yulie; Zhang, Yongmeng; Tao, Yi; Zheng, Yu; Xiao, Dingbang

    2013-01-01

    The resonant shells of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes are commonly packaged in metallic caps. In order to lower the production cost, a portion of vibratory cylinder gyroscopes do not employ vacuum packaging. However, under non-vacuum packaging conditions there can be internal acoustic noise leading to considerable acoustic pressure which is exerted on the resonant shell. Based on the theory of the structural-acoustic coupling, the dynamical behavior of the resonant shell under acoustic pressure is presented in this paper. A finite element (FE) model is introduced to quantitatively analyze the effect of the structural-acoustic coupling. Several main factors, such as sealing cap sizes and degree of vacuum which directly affect the vibration of the resonant shell, are studied. The results indicate that the vibration amplitude and the operating frequency of the resonant shell will be changed when the effect of structural-acoustic coupling is taken into account. In addition, an experiment was set up to study the effect of structural-acoustic coupling on the sensitivity of the gyroscope. A 32.4 mV/°/s increase of the scale factor and a 6.2 Hz variation of the operating frequency were observed when the radial gap size between the resonant shell and the sealing cap was changed from 0.5 mm to 20 mm. PMID:24351631

  18. A Study of the Temperature Characteristics of Vibration Mode Axes for Vibratory Cylinder Gyroscopes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yulie; Xi, Xiang; Tao, Yi; Wu, Xiaomei; Wu, Xuezhong

    2011-01-01

    The zero bias stability, which is an important performance parameter for vibratory cylinder gyroscopes, is high sensitive to temperature change. It is considered that the varying temperature makes the vibration mode axes unstable, which has significant influence on the zero bias stability. This paper will investigate this problem in detail. First, the relationships between the angular positions of vibration mode axes and the zero bias are analyzed. Secondly, the thermal-modal model of the cylinder resonator with several defects such as mass imbalance, frequency split (FS), and geometry errors are developed by ANSYS. Simulation results show that with the increase of temperature, angular positions of the vibration mode axes obviously change, which leads to a dramatic zero bias drift. Finally, several major influence factors on the angular position stability of vibration mode axes, including frequency split, geometry errors, thermal elastic modulus coefficient (TEMC) and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) are analyzed in detail. Simulation results in this paper will be helpful for deep understanding of the drift principle of zero bias induced by temperature for vibratory cylinder gyroscopes and also be helpful for further temperature compensation or control. PMID:22164038

  19. Effect On The Processing Characteristics Of ZnO Varistors Produced Using Vibratory Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelleher, M. C.; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Each manufacturing stage in the production of zinc oxide varistors from powder preparation to the final encapsulated device is important not only for the formation of the varistor component with optimum microstructure and thus electrical characteristics but also for avoiding the introduction of flaws and reduced yield. In this paper the authors describe and discuss the effect of multi-elemental oxide additives having been milled for different durations using a vibratory mill with cylindrical zirconia media on the powder characteristics of the subsequent processing stages. A commercial ZnO varistor formulation was used. The subsequent processing stages that are given particular attention include first spray drying and second milling. The characteristics include agglomerate size, powder density and elemental uniformity of the first spray-dried powders, and particle size, specific surface area, zirconium concentration and pore size of the second milled powders. They were evaluated using laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopic, mercury porosimetry, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis. Some interesting correlations are observed between the powder properties and vibratory milling durations of the mixed metal oxide additives (MMOA).

  20. Vibratory noise in anthropogenic habitats and its effect on prey detection in a web-building spider

    E-print Network

    Elias, Damian Octavio

    Vibratory noise in anthropogenic habitats and its effect on prey detection in a web-building spider with field measurements on natural substrates suggest that spiders' predatory performance is higher when webs: anthropogenic substrate garden spider habitat change prey detection seismic noise substrate-borne vibration

  1. TOWARDS INERTIAL GRADE VIBRATORY MICROGYROS: A HIGH-Q IN-PLANE SILICON-ON-INSULATOR TUNING FORK DEVICE

    E-print Network

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    and implementation of an in-plane solid-mass single-crystal silicon tuning fork gyro that has potential to achieve of 12Hz. MOTIVATION MEMS vibratory gyros have yet to achieve inertial grade performance, i.e., rate is fabricated, the sense mode is tuned electrostatically using the tuning electrodes to match the drive mode

  2. Vibratory sources as compound stimuli for the octavolateralis systems: dissection of specific stimulation channels using multiple behavioral approaches.

    PubMed

    Braun, Christopher B; Coombs, Sheryl

    2010-04-01

    Underwater vibratory sources simultaneously present acoustic and hydrodynamic disturbances. Because vibratory dipole sources are poor sonic projectors, most researchers have assumed that such sources are of greatest relevance to the lateral line system. Both hydroacoustic principles and empirical studies have shown that dipole sources are also a potent stimulus to the inner ear. Responses to vibratory sources in mottled sculpin (Cottus bairdi) were assessed using unconditioned orienting, differential and nondifferential conditioning. Orienting responses are dominated by lateral line inputs and eliminated by lateral line inactivation. Simple conditioning depends on inputs from other systems and was not affected by lateral line inactivation. Differential conditioning alters behavioral control, and sculpin could be conditioned to ignore substrate-borne vibrations and respond only to hydroacoustic stimulation of the ear. The lateral line and inner ear of mottled sculpin do not necessarily exhibit range fractionation, as both systems operate over a similar distance (within 1.5 body lengths) and respond to many of the same sources. Vibratory dipole sources generate compound stimuli that simultaneously activate multiple octavolateralis systems, and sculpin make use of the channels differentially under different behavioral tasks. PMID:20384404

  3. OPEC reorganization could spell relief

    SciTech Connect

    Crouse, P.C.

    1987-02-01

    Last year proved to be one of carnage in the oil industry, with only the large, vertically integrated, international oil companies showing strength during the oil price collapse. Independent producers and the manufacturing/service sector watched 50% or greater reductions in income. And this year holds little prospect for significant relief during its first half, although the last half could be better if and when Opec decides to once again test its strength. An Iranian victory in the Iran/Iraq war could also cause an upward movement in price. However, price instability should be less than in 1986, as the business heads toward a consensus price via political factors. The U.S. economy again showed improvement through 1986, with moderate growth of 2.6% in Gross National Product (GNP). The ongoing expansion has lasted four years and is already 17 months longer than the average peacetime expansion. However, important energy components did not show strength, and industrial production continued at level rates for the past two years.

  4. Local shape of pictorial relief

    PubMed Central

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-01-01

    How is pictorial relief represented in visual awareness? Certainly not as a “depth map,” but perhaps as a map of local surface attitudes (Koenderink & van Doorn, 1995). Here we consider the possibility that observers might instead, or concurrently, represent local surface shape, a geometrical invariant with respect to motions. Observers judge local surface shape, in a picture of a piece of sculpture, on a five-point categorical scale. Categories are cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup–flat, where “flat” denotes the absence of shape. We find that observers readily perform such a task, with full resolution of a shape index scale (cap–ridge–saddle–rut–cup), and with excellent self-consistency over days. There exist remarkable inter-observer differences. Over a group of 10 naive observers we find that the dispersion of judgments peaks at the saddle category. There may be a relation of this finding to the history of the topic—Alberti's (1827) omission of the saddle category in his purportedly exhaustive catalog of local surface shapes. PMID:25469225

  5. Local shape of pictorial relief.

    PubMed

    Koenderink, Jan; van Doorn, Andrea; Wagemans, Johan

    2014-01-01

    How is pictorial relief represented in visual awareness? Certainly not as a "depth map," but perhaps as a map of local surface attitudes (Koenderink & van Doorn, 1995). Here we consider the possibility that observers might instead, or concurrently, represent local surface shape, a geometrical invariant with respect to motions. Observers judge local surface shape, in a picture of a piece of sculpture, on a five-point categorical scale. Categories are cap-ridge-saddle-rut-cup-flat, where "flat" denotes the absence of shape. We find that observers readily perform such a task, with full resolution of a shape index scale (cap-ridge-saddle-rut-cup), and with excellent self-consistency over days. There exist remarkable inter-observer differences. Over a group of 10 naive observers we find that the dispersion of judgments peaks at the saddle category. There may be a relation of this finding to the history of the topic-Alberti's (1827) omission of the saddle category in his purportedly exhaustive catalog of local surface shapes. PMID:25469225

  6. Pictorial relief for equiluminant images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Doorn, Andrea J.; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink, Jan J.

    2005-03-01

    Pictorial relief depends strongly on "cues" in the image. For isoluminant renderings some cues are missing, namely all information that is related to luminance contrast (e.g., shading, atmospheric perspective). It has been suggested that spatial discrimination and especially pictorial space suffer badly in isoluminant conditions. We have investigated the issue through quantitative measurement of pictorial depth-structure under normal and isoluminant conditions. As stimuli we used monochrome halftone photographs, either as such, or "transposed" to Red/Green or Green/Red hue modulations. We used two distinct methods, one to probe pictorial pose (by way of correspondences settings between pictures of an object in different poses), the other to probe pictorial depth (by way of attitude settings of a gauge figure to a perceptual "fit"). In both experiments the depth reconstructions for Red/Green, Green/Red and monochrome conditions were very similar. Moreover, observers performed equally well in Red/Green, Green/Red and monochrome conditions. Thus, the general conclusion is that observers did not do markedly worse with the isoluminant Red/Green and Green/Red transposed images. Whereas the transposed images certainly looked weird, they were easily interpreted. Much of the structure of pictorial space was apparently preserved. Thus the notion that spatial representations are not sustained under isoluminant conditions should be applied with caution.

  7. Relief: A Scalable Actuated Shape Display

    E-print Network

    Leithinger, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Relief is an actuated tabletop display, which is able to render and animate three-dimensional shapes with a malleable surface. It allows users to experience and form digital models like geographical terrain in an intuitive ...

  8. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.20 Equitable relief. (a) If a participant relied upon the advice or action...

  9. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.20 Equitable relief. (a) If a participant relied upon the advice or action...

  10. Estimating Attributes: Analysis and Extensions of RELIEF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Kononenko

    1994-01-01

    In the context of machine learning from examples this paper deals with the problem of estimating the quality of attributes with and without dependencies among them. Kira and Rendell (1992a,b) developed an algorithm called RELIEF, which was shown to be very efficient in estimating attributes. Original RELIEF can deal with discrete and continuous attributes and is limited to only two-class

  11. Component lead wire strain relief for random vibration environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardina, V. M.

    Printed circuit boards exposed to severe random vibration environments for prolonged periods often experience fatigue failures. The failures occur in connection with severed circuit traces, fractured solder joints, fretting corrosion of connector contact pins, or broken lead wires on electronic components. The present investigation is mainly concerned with the latter cause of failure. Aspects of lead wire geometry are defined and factors contributing to the development of bending stress in the lead wires are examined. Such factors are related to environmental load applications, board-specific characteristics, and component-specific characteristics. Attention is given to effects of component location, questions concerning the selection of the proper strain relief, the effects of lead length on stresses, the proper component orientation, and the characteristics of different types of components. A sample problem is also discussed.

  12. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section...Application for Relief § 171.3 Oral presentations seeking relief. (a) For violation...filing a petition, may make an oral presentation seeking relief in accordance with...

  13. Understanding the role of nonlinearities in the transduction of vibratory energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masana, Ravindra Shiva Charan

    The last two decades have witnessed several advances in micro-fabrication technologies and electronics, leading to the development of small, low-power devices for wireless sensing, data transmission, actuation, and medical implants. Unfortunately, the actual implementation of such devices in their respective environment has been hindered by the lack of scalable energy sources that are necessary to power and maintain them. Batteries, which remain the most commonly used power source, have not kept pace with the demands of these devices, especially in terms of energy density. In light of this challenge, the concept of vibratory energy harvesting has flourished in recent years as a possible alternative to power and maintain low-power electronics. While linear vibratory energy harvesters have received the majority of the literature's attention, a significant body of the current research activity is focused on the concept of purposeful inclusion of nonlinearities for broadband transduction. When compared to their linear resonant counterparts, nonlinear energy harvesters have a wider steady-state frequency bandwidth, leading to the common belief that they can be utilized to improve performance especially in random and non-stationary vibratory environments. This dissertation aims to critically investigate this belief by drawing a clearer picture of the role of nonlinearities in the transduction of energy harvesters and by defining the conditions under which nonlinearities can be used to enhance performance. To achieve this goal, the Thesis is divided into three parts. The first part investigates the performance of mono- and bi-stable energy harvesters under harmonic excitations and carries a detailed analysis of their relative performance. The second part investigates their response to broadband and narrowband random excitations and again analyzes their relative behavior. The third part exploits the super-harmonic resonance bands of bi-stable energy harvesters for the purpose of scavenging energy from low-frequency excitations. As a platform to achieve the Thesis objectives, a piezoelectric energy harvester consisting of an axially loaded clamped-clamped beam bi-morph is considered. The harvester can operate with mono- (pre-buckling) and bi-stable (post-buckling) characteristics with minimal alterations to the design. Theoretical and experimental studies performed on the proposed harvester are presented to delineate the influence of the nonlinearity on its performance, in particular, and nonlinear vibratory energy harvesters in general. It is demonstrated that the intentional inclusion of nonlinearities in energy harvesters makes these devices more tolerant to variations in the excitation and design parameters around their nominal values as compared to a linear device. However, the Thesis also pointed out many issues that can result from the complexity and non-uniqueness of solutions associated with nonlinear systems. It became apparent that the performance of a nonlinear energy harvester is very much dependent on the level and nature of the excitation in conjunction with the potential shape of the harvester. This makes developing direct performance metrics, similar to what has been done for linear harvesters, a challenging problem which should constitute a major avenue of future research efforts.

  14. Vibratory signals and prey capture in orb-weaving spiders ( Zygiella x-notata, Nephila clavipes ; Araneidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diemut Klfirner; Friedrich G. Barth

    1982-01-01

    Prey catching behavior in most spiders is dominated by vibratory signals generated by prey animals. We have studied the release of the predatory behavior in two orb weavers,Zygiella x-notata andNephila clavipes (Araneidae) and measured threshold curves by applying sinusoidal stimuli to the webs (Fig. 1).1.Resting position: WhileZygiella mostly stays in its retreat with one or both of its 1st legs

  15. Spontaneous variations in resting blood flow, postischaemic peak flow and vibratory perception in the feet of diabetics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. J. Christensen

    1969-01-01

    Summary  The variability of the resting blood flow in the foot was studied by means of venous-occlusion plethysmography in 25 diabetics and 16 non-diabetics. — To evaluate the functional state of the vessels themselves, the postischaemic peak flow was studied in the same patients. To obtain an estimate of the functional state of the nerves the vibratory perception threshold was determined.

  16. Vibratory response of a mirror support\\/positioning system for the Advanced Photon Source Project at Argonne National Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ipek Basdogan; Thomas J. Royston; Ahmed A. Shabana; Deming Shu; Tuncer M. Kuzay

    1996-01-01

    The vibratory response of a typical mirror support\\/positioning system used at the experimental stations of the advanced photon source (APS) project at Argonne National Laboratory is investigated. Positioning precision and stability are especially critical when the supported mirror directs a high-intensity beam aimed at a distant target. Stability may be compromised by low level, low frequency seismic and facility-originated vibrations

  17. Finite Element Method Simulation of Double-Ended Tuning-Fork Quartz Resonator for Application to Vibratory Gyro-Sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenji Sato; Atsushi Ono; Yoshiro Tomikawa

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose a double-ended tuning-fork quartz resonator for a flatly supported vibratory gyro-sensor in parallel with its rotating plane. The resonator has the advantages of ease of miniaturization and high resistance to external shock, because the height of the proposed resonator is less than that of the conventional vertical-type tuning-fork. In addition, the proposed resonator has

  18. Preliminary evaluation of cavitation resistance of type 316LN stainless steel in mercury using a vibratory horn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. J. Pawel; E. T. Manneschmidt

    2003-01-01

    Type 316LN stainless steel in a variety of conditions (annealed, cold-worked, surface-modified) was exposed to cavitation conditions in stagnant mercury using a vibratory horn. The test conditions included peak-to-peak displacement of the specimen surface of 25 ?m at a frequency of 20 kHz and a mercury temperature in the range ?5 to 80 °C. Following a brief incubation period in

  19. Motor task performance under vibratory feedback early poststroke: single center, randomized, cross-over, controled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Vítor Tedim; Bento, Virgílio; Ruano, Luís; Ribeiro, David Dieteren; Fontão, Luís; Mateus, Cátia; Barreto, Rui; Colunas, Márcio; Alves, Ana; Cruz, Bárbara; Branco, Catarina; Rocha, Nelson P.; Coutinho, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Stroke rehabilitation is far from meeting patient needs in terms of timing, intensity and quality. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of an innovative technological tool, combining 3D motion analysis with targeted vibratory feedback, on upper-limb task performance early poststroke (<4 weeks). The study design was a two-sequence, two-period, randomized, crossover trial (NCT01967290) in 44 patients with upper-limb motor deficit (non-plegic) after medial cerebral artery ischemia. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the experimental session (repetitive motor task under vibratory feedback and 3D motor characterization) or the active comparator (3D motor characterization only). The primary outcome was the number of correct movements per minute on a hand-to-mouth task measured independently. Vibratory feedback was able to modulate motor training, increasing the number of correct movements by an average of 7.2/min (95%CI [4.9;9.4]; P < 0.001) and reducing the probability of performing an error from 1:3 to 1:9. This strategy may improve the efficacy of training on motor re-learning processes after stroke, and its clinical relevance deserves further study in longer duration trials. PMID:25011667

  20. Motor task performance under vibratory feedback early poststroke: single center, randomized, cross-over, controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Vítor Tedim; Bento, Virgílio; Ruano, Luís; Ribeiro, David Dieteren; Fontão, Luís; Mateus, Cátia; Barreto, Rui; Colunas, Márcio; Alves, Ana; Cruz, Bárbara; Branco, Catarina; Rocha, Nelson P; Coutinho, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Stroke rehabilitation is far from meeting patient needs in terms of timing, intensity and quality. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of an innovative technological tool, combining 3D motion analysis with targeted vibratory feedback, on upper-limb task performance early poststroke (<4 weeks). The study design was a two-sequence, two-period, randomized, crossover trial (NCT01967290) in 44 patients with upper-limb motor deficit (non-plegic) after medial cerebral artery ischemia. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the experimental session (repetitive motor task under vibratory feedback and 3D motor characterization) or the active comparator (3D motor characterization only). The primary outcome was the number of correct movements per minute on a hand-to-mouth task measured independently. Vibratory feedback was able to modulate motor training, increasing the number of correct movements by an average of 7.2/min (95%CI [4.9;9.4]; P < 0.001) and reducing the probability of performing an error from 1:3 to 1:9. This strategy may improve the efficacy of training on motor re-learning processes after stroke, and its clinical relevance deserves further study in longer duration trials. PMID:25011667

  1. Prescription opioid use among addictions treatment patients : Nonmedical use for pain relief vs. other forms of nonmedical use

    PubMed Central

    Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Eisenberg, Anna; Whiteside, Lauren; Price, Amanda; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Ilgen, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Differences between those who engage in nonmedical prescription opioid use for reasons other than pain relief and those who engage in nonmedical use for reasons related to pain only are not well understood. Methods Adults in a residential treatment program participated in a cross-sectional self-report survey. Participants reported whether they used opioids for reasons other than pain relief (e.g., help sleep, improve mood, or relieve stress). Within those with past-month nonmedical opioid use (n=238), logistic regression tested differences between those who reported use for reasons other than pain relief and those who did not. Results Nonmedical use of opioids for reasons other than pain relief was more common (66%) than nonmedical use for pain relief only (34%), and those who used for reasons other than pain relief were more likely to report heavy use (43% vs. 11%). Nonmedical use for reasons other than pain relief was associated with having a prior overdose (Odds Ratio [OR]=2.54), 95% CI:1.36-4.74) and use of heroin (OR=4.08, 95% CI:1.89-8.79), barbiturates (OR=6.44, 95% CI:1.47, 28.11), and other sedatives (OR=5.80, 95% CI: 2.61, 12.87). Individuals who reported nonmedical use for reasons other than pain relief had greater depressive symptoms (13.1 vs. 10.5) and greater pain medication expectancies across all three domains (pleasure/social enhancement, pain reduction, negative experience reduction). Conclusions Among patients in addictions treatment, individuals who report nonmedical use of prescription opioids for reasons other than pain relief represent an important clinical sub-group with greater substance use severity and poorer mental health functioning. PMID:23254228

  2. Water Replacement Schedules in Heat Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Londeree, Ben R.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Although early ingestion of cold water appears to lead to greater relief from heat stress during physical exertion than late ingestion, this difference is reduced toward the end of an hour's work in high heat and humidity. (CK)

  3. The Ins and Outs of Relief Casting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Describes a unit on clay casting that introduces students to relief sculpture. The unit takes three 45 to 50 minute class periods three weeks apart. Discusses each class session in detail: (1) creating the casting; (2) turning out and rinsing the casting; and (3) enriching the surface with color. (CMK)

  4. The power of volunteers in disaster relief.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M

    1993-08-01

    Hurricane Andrew, one of the worst natural disasters in American history, brought out the spirit of caring in medical personnel as volunteers from all over the country came to aid the hurricane's victims. The following is an example of how one massive relief effort can make a difference in thousands of lives. PMID:10127533

  5. Tsunami-Relief Groups Advise K-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Marianne D.

    2005-01-01

    As American schools pitch in with an array of charitable projects in response to the tsunami in South Asia, experts say educators and students should consider carefully how they can most effectively support relief groups, avoid fund-raising scams, and incorporate their efforts into service-learning programs. When students returned to school after…

  6. Analysis of inservice inspection relief requests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Aldrich; J. F. Cook

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require inspection (ISI) of boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power plants be performed in accordance with a referenced edition and addenda of Section XI, ``Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components,`` of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The regulations permit licensees to request relief from the

  7. Analysis of inservice inspection relief requests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Aldrich; J. F. Cook

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require inspection (ISI) of boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power plants be performed in accordance with a referenced edition and addenda of Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components,'' of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The regulations permit licensees to request relief from the

  8. Stress relief: improving structural strength of 3D printable objects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ondrej Stava; Juraj Vanek; Bedrich Benes; Nathan Carr; Radomír M?ch

    The use of 3D printing has rapidly expanded in the past couple of years. It is now possible to produce 3D-printed objects with exceptionally high fidelity and precision. However, although the quality of 3D printing has improved, both the time to print and the material costs have remained high. Moreover, there is no guarantee that a printed model is structurally

  9. Stress relief cracking in creep resisting low alloy ferritic steels.

    E-print Network

    Tait, Robert Andrew

    1976-10-26

    that the intergranular fracture facets were cov~red with small cavities, each of which loTas associated with particles of V4C3 , 200 - 600 ~ in diameter which indicated the possibility of heterogeneous cavity nucleation (as discussed in the next section). *An...

  10. Reliability of MEMS packaging: vacuum maintenance and packaging induced stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Hoon Choa

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the dominant reliability issues of MEMS packaging that include vacuum maintenance and packaging induced stress, are discussed, and design considerations to improve the reliability are presented. The MEMS vibratory gyroscope sensor is fabricated with anodically bonded wafer level vacuum packaging followed by die-bonding and wire-bonding processes. The epoxy-molding compound (EMC) is applied to encapsulate the gyroscope sensor.

  11. Magneto-vibratory separation of glass and bronze granular mixtures immersed in a paramagnetic liquid.

    PubMed

    López-Alcaraz, P; Catherall, A T; Hill, R J A; Leaper, M C; Swift, Michael R; King, P J

    2007-10-01

    A fluid-immersed granular mixture may spontaneously separate when subjected to vertical vibration, separation occurring when the ratio of particle inertia to fluid drag is sufficiently different between the component species of the mixture. Here, we describe how fluid-driven separation is influenced by magneto-Archimedes buoyancy, the additional buoyancy force experienced by a body immersed in a paramagnetic fluid when a strong inhomogeneous magnetic field is applied. In our experiments glass and bronze mixtures immersed in paramagnetic aqueous solutions of MnCl2 have been subjected to sinusoidal vertical vibration. In the absence of a magnetic field the separation is similar to that observed when the interstitial fluid is water. However, at modest applied magnetic fields, magneto-Archimedes buoyancy may balance the inertia/fluid-drag separation mechanism, or it may dominate the separation process. We identify the vibratory and magnetic conditions for four granular configurations, each having distinctive granular convection. Abrupt transitions between these states occur at well-defined values of the magnetic and vibrational parameters. In order to gain insight into the dynamics of the separation process we use computer simulations based on solutions of the Navier-Stokes' equations. The simulations reproduce the experimental results revealing the important role of convection and gap formation in the stability of the different states. PMID:17972012

  12. Electrophysiological responses to vibratory stimulation in the brainstem of the tadpole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Andrea M.; Two, Aimee; Horowitz, Seth S.

    2005-04-01

    Maturation of saccular responses to vibratory stimuli in 3 axes was measured in the Rana catesbeiana tadpole across metamorphic development. The animal was suspended in a water-filled circular aluminum dish attached to a shaker table system consisting of 5 vibration exciters producing sinusoidal, translational movements in the x, y, and z planes. Multi-unit responses were recorded from the medulla with tungsten or platinum-iridium microelectrodes. Recording sites were electrolytically marked to verify electrode placement. Data were collected from 16 animals in late larval stages, before onset of metamorphic climax. Most recording sites were sensitive to vibrations in the z (vertical) direction, indicating a saccular origin of the response. Vibration frequencies of 40 Hz or below produced the strongest activity, with thresholds below a displacement of 10 nm. Secondary sensitivity was sometimes observed to either x (body-longitudinal) or y (body-lateral) directions of movement. Although some sites produced strong phase-locked activity to the stimulation, others showed more diverse temporal patterns of response. Active recording sites were found in the medial vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, reticular gray, and dorsal superior olivary nucleus. These data suggest that tadpole saccule is functional early in larval development, with sensitivity similar to that observed in adult bullfrogs.

  13. Beyond Faraday's crispations: nonlinear patterns of granular flow on a vibratory conveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruelle, C. A.; Götzendorfer, A.; Kreft, J.; Svenšek, D.

    2009-06-01

    When granular material is shaken both in horizontal and vertical direction simultaneously, as commonly done in vibratory conveyors that are well established in routine industrial production for controlled transport of bulk solids, the transported goods can exhibit a surprisingly large variety of surface patterns. For example, if a monolayer of glass beads is vibrated in a circularly manner in a narrow annular channel, a coexistence of a solid-like and a gas-like domain can be observed. The solid fraction decreases with increasing acceleration and shows hysteresis. The sharp boundaries between the two regions travel around the channel faster than the particles are transported. By using a molecular dynamics simulation we were able to extract the local granular temperature and number density. It was found that the number density in the solid phase is several times that in the gas, while the temperature is orders of magnitude lower. If the number of particles is increased further, localized period-doubling waves arise. These solitary wave packets are accompanied by a locally increased particle density. The width and velocity of the granular wave pulses are measured as a function of the bed height. A continuum model for the material distribution, based on the measured granular transport velocity as a function of the bed thickness, captures the essence of the experimental findings.

  14. Two Novel Measurements for the Drive-Mode Resonant Frequency of a Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Luo, Bing; Jiang, Mingming; He, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kanghua

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG), one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and inconvenient because of the requirements of many test points, a lot of data storage and off-line analyses. In this paper, we propose two novel measurement methods, the search method and track method, respectively. The former is based on the magnitude-frequency characteristics of the drive mode, utilizing a one-dimensional search technique. The latter is based on the phase-frequency characteristics, applying a feedback control loop. Their performances in precision, noise resistivity and efficiency are analyzed through detailed simulations. A test system is implemented based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and experiments are carried out. By comparing with the common approach, feasibility and superiorities of the proposed methods are validated. In particular, significant efficiency improvements are achieved whereby the conventional frequency method consumes nearly 5,000 s to finish a measurement, while only 5 s is needed for the track method and 1 s for the search method. PMID:24256977

  15. Two novel measurements for the drive-mode resonant frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ancheng; Hu, Xiaoping; Luo, Bing; Jiang, Mingming; He, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kanghua

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG), one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and inconvenient because of the requirements of many test points, a lot of data storage and off-line analyses. In this paper, we propose two novel measurement methods, the search method and track method, respectively. The former is based on the magnitude-frequency characteristics of the drive mode, utilizing a one-dimensional search technique. The latter is based on the phase-frequency characteristics, applying a feedback control loop. Their performances in precision, noise resistivity and efficiency are analyzed through detailed simulations. A test system is implemented based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and experiments are carried out. By comparing with the common approach, feasibility and superiorities of the proposed methods are validated. In particular, significant efficiency improvements are achieved whereby the conventional frequency method consumes nearly 5,000 s to finish a measurement, while only 5 s is needed for the track method and 1 s for the search method. PMID:24256977

  16. Programmable Mechanobioreactor for Exploration of the Effects of Periodic Vibratory Stimulus on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cashion, Avery T.; Caballero, Montserrat; Halevi, Alexandra; Pappa, Andrew; Dennis, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A programmable bioreactor using a voice-coil actuator was developed to enable research on the effects of periodic vibratory stimulus on human and porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We hypothesized that low frequency vibrations would result in a cartilage phenotype and higher frequency vibrations would result in a bone phenotype. The mechanical stimulation protocol is adjusted from a computer external to the incubator via a USB cable. Once programmed, the embedded microprocessor and sensor system on the bioreactor execute the protocol independent of the computer. In each test, a sinusoidal stimulus was applied to a culture plate in 1-min intervals with a 15-min rest following each, for a total of 15?h per day for 10 days. Frequencies of 1 and 100?Hz were applied to cultures of both human and porcine umbilical cord–derived MSCs. Chondrogenesis was determined by Alcian blue staining for glycosaminoglycans and an increased differentiation index (ratio of mRNA for collagen II and collagen I). Osteogenic differentiation was indicated with Alizarin red for calcium staining and increased bone morphogenetic protein 2 mRNA. One-hertz stimulation resulted in a cartilage phenotype for both human and porcine MSCs, while 100-Hz stimulation resulted in a bone phenotype. PMID:24570842

  17. 49 CFR 601.42 - Emergency relief docket.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency relief docket. 601.42 Section...ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Emergency Procedures for Public Transportation Systems § 601.42 Emergency relief docket. (a) By...

  18. 27 CFR 28.73 - Relief of surety from bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...has filed application for relief from liability, as provided in § 28.72, the surety shall be relieved from liability for withdrawals or claims...given. Notwithstanding such relief, the liability of the surety shall...

  19. 27 CFR 19.251 - Relief of surety from bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...filed application for relief from liability as provided in § 19...be relieved of future liability with respect to production...Notwithstanding such relief, the surety shall...produced, or for other liabilities incurred,...

  20. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves...maximum attainable working pressure of the cargo tank inerting system exceeds the set pressure of the relief valves...15-25 of this chapter. Atmospheric Control in Cargo...

  1. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves...maximum attainable working pressure of the cargo tank inerting system exceeds the set pressure of the relief valves...15-25 of this chapter. Atmospheric Control in Cargo...

  2. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves...maximum attainable working pressure of the cargo tank inerting system exceeds the set pressure of the relief valves...15-25 of this chapter. Atmospheric Control in Cargo...

  3. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves...maximum attainable working pressure of the cargo tank inerting system exceeds the set pressure of the relief valves...15-25 of this chapter. Atmospheric Control in Cargo...

  4. Reading, Writing and Drawing in Relief: The IPO Relief-Drawing Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melotte, H. E. M.; Engel, F. L.

    1980-01-01

    The article describes an improved relief drawing set designed for use with visually impaired persons that allows durable, tangible, and visible embossed images to be made with a ball-point pen. (Author/PHR)

  5. Crisis Communication Practices at an International Relief Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genova, Gina L.

    2006-01-01

    When a disaster strikes, the affected population relies upon the swift response and aid rendered by relief organizations such as the California-based Direct Relief International. Since 1948, Direct Relief's mission has been to provide essential material resources to locally run health programs in areas affected by natural disasters, wars, and…

  6. 27 CFR 41.128 - Relief of surety from bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relief of surety from bond. 41.128...Tobacco Products § 41.128 Relief of surety from bond. Where...subpart has filed application for relief from liability as provided in § 41.127,...

  7. 27 CFR 26.73 - Relief of surety from bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relief of surety from bond. 26.73...Termination of Bonds § 26.73 Relief of surety from bond. Where...subpart has filed application for relief from liability, as provided in § 26.72,...

  8. Towards Optimal Pain Relief: Acupuncture and Spinal Cord Stimulation

    E-print Network

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    Towards Optimal Pain Relief: Acupuncture and Spinal Cord Stimulation Richard Al'o 1 , Kenneth Al is a discrete optimization problem, e.g., for pain relief methodologies such as acupuncture and spinal cord problems related to pain relief: ffl problems of acupuncture, and ffl problems related to spinal cord

  9. Coordination in humanitarian relief chains: Practices, challenges and opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burcu Balcik; Benita M. Beamon; Caroline C. Krejci; Kyle M. Muramatsu; Magaly Ramirez

    2010-01-01

    Humanitarian relief environments engage a large number and variety of actors, each with different missions, interests, capacity, and logistics expertise. While coordination mechanisms within the domain of commercial supply chain management have been well studied, coordination in humanitarian relief chains is still in its infancy. In this study, we review the challenges in coordinating humanitarian relief chains and describe the

  10. An Integrated Disaster Relief Supply Chain Network Model with

    E-print Network

    Nagurney, Anna

    Relief Supply Chain Network Model #12;Background: Natural Disasters The number of natural disasters An Integrated Disaster Relief Supply Chain Network Model #12;Background: Natural Disasters Nagurney, Masoumi, and Yu An Integrated Disaster Relief Supply Chain Network Model #12;Background: Natural Disasters

  11. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves...FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design...Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves...must have a combined relief capacity, including the...

  12. High Pressure Source/Cryostat Relief Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Wintercorn, S.J.; Mulholland, G.T.; /Fermilab

    1987-08-13

    This report addresses solutions to the potential problem of cryostat over pressurization by the nominal 65 psi MWAP LAr source dewar. Uncontrolled (by reason of failure) filling of a 15 psi MW AP cryostat by the LAr fill line could cause over pressurization by overwhelming the provided cryostat relief system. Three levels of protection against over pressurization by the source dewar are mentioned in this report; the reduced (operational) relief pressure, the source pressure regulator, and the LAr dewar cooling loop. Only the first of these is recognized by the ASME code as sufficient protection, the others provide operational convenience and avoid the loss of detector fluid. Flow limiting device solutions are not considered because of the conflicting requirement to empty and fill the cryostats rapidly (within one eight hour shift), e.g. the movement of the cryostat from the assembly hall to the collision hall, or the inverse operation.

  13. The President's Agenda for Tax Relief

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2001-01-01

    In early 2001, President Bush released a summary of his agenda for tax relief. He claims to offer a "bold and fair tax relief plan that will reduce the inequities of the current tax code and help ensure that America remains prosperous." Highlights of Bush's proposal include doubling the child care credit to $1,000 per child, reinstating the ten percent deduction for two-earner couples, thus reducing the "marriage penalty," and eliminating inheritance taxes. The rather celebratory summary provides a short explanation of each element of the new tax plan, along with several charts on topics including consumer debt, tax rates for Americans on the edge of poverty, and the tax reduction for the poorest families. Finally, the report offers an easy-to-understand, side-by-side comparison of the current tax code and the Bush plan.

  14. Static-transmission-error vibratory-excitation contributions from plastically deformed gear teeth caused by tooth bending-fatigue damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, W. D.; Reagor, C. P.

    2007-02-01

    To assess gear health and detect gear-tooth damage, the vibratory response from meshing gear-pair excitations is commonly monitored by accelerometers. In an earlier paper, strong evidence was presented suggesting that, in the case of tooth bending-fatigue damage, the principal source of detectable damage is whole-tooth plastic deformation; i.e. yielding, rather than changes in tooth stiffness caused by tooth-root cracks. Such plastic deformations are geometric deviation contributions to the "static-transmission-error" (STE) vibratory excitation caused by meshing gear pairs. The STE contributions caused by two likely occurring forms of such plastic deformations on a single tooth are derived, and displayed in the time domain as a function of involute "roll distance." Example calculations are provided for transverse contact ratios of Qt=1.4 and 1.8, for spur gears and for helical-gear axial contact ratios ranging from Qa=1.2 to Qa=3.6. Low-pass- and band-pass-filtered versions of these same STE contributions also are computed and displayed in the time domain. Several calculations, consisting of superposition of the computed STE tooth-meshing fundamental harmonic contribution and the band-pass STE contribution caused by a plastically deformed tooth, exhibit the amplitude and frequency or phase modulation character commonly observed in accelerometer-response waveforms caused by damaged teeth. General formulas are provided that enable computation of these STE vibratory-excitation contributions for any form of plastic deformation on any number of teeth for spur and helical gears with any contact ratios.

  15. Helium pressures in RHIC vacuum cryostats and relief valve requirements from magnet cooling line failure

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the RHIC magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, would pressurize the insulating vacuum in the magnet and transfer line cryostats. Insufficient relief valves on the cryostats could cause a structural failure. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the vacuum cryostat and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed to calculate the helium pressure inside the cryostat. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces were included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Existing relief valve sizes were reviewed to make sure that the maximum stresses, caused by the calculated maximum pressures inside the cryostats, did not exceed the allowable stresses, based on the ASME Code B31.3 and ANSYS results. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The S/F simulation results show that the highest internal pressure in the cryostats, due to the magnet line failure, is {approx}37 psig (255115 Pa); (2) Based on the simulation, the temperature on the cryostat chamber, INJ Q8-Q9, could drop to 228 K, which is lower than the material minimum design temperature allowed by the Code; (3) Based on the ASME Code and ANSYS results, the reliefs on all the cryostats inside the RHIC tunnel are adequate to protect the vacuum chambers when the magnet cooling lines fail; and (4) In addition to the pressure loading, the thermal deformations, due to the temperature decrease on the cryostat chambers, could also cause a high stress on the chamber, if not properly supported.

  16. Frequency split elimination method for a solid-state vibratory angular rate gyro with an imperfect axisymmetric-shell resonator.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhen; Fu, Mengyin; Deng, Zhihong; Liu, Ning; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The resonator of a solid-state vibratory gyro is responsible for sensing angular motion. Frequency splitting of an axisymmetric-shell resonator is a common problem caused by manufacturing defects. The defect causes a frequency difference between two working modes which consist of two nodes and two antinodes. The difference leads to the loss of gyroscopic effect, and thus the resonator cannot sense angular motion. In this paper, the resonator based on an axisymmetric multi-curved surface shell structure is investigated and an approach to eliminate frequency splits is proposed. Since axisymmetric multi-curved surface shell resonators are too complex to be modeled, this paper proposes a simplified model by focusing on a common property of the axisymmetric shell. The resonator with stochastic imperfections is made equivalent to a perfect shell with an imperfect mass point. Rayleigh's energy method is used in the theoretical analysis. Finite element modeling is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the elimination approach. In real cases, a resonator's frequency split is eliminated by the proposed approach. In this paper, errors in the theoretical analysis are discussed and steps to be taken when the deviation between assumptions and the real situation is large are figured out. The resonator has good performance after processing. The elimination approach can be applied to any kind of solid-state vibratory gyro resonators with an axisymmetric shell structure. PMID:25648707

  17. Frequency Split Elimination Method for a Solid-State Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro with an Imperfect Axisymmetric-Shell Resonator

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhen; Fu, Mengyin; Deng, Zhihong; Liu, Ning; Liu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The resonator of a solid-state vibratory gyro is responsible for sensing angular motion. Frequency splitting of an axisymmetric-shell resonator is a common problem caused by manufacturing defects. The defect causes a frequency difference between two working modes which consist of two nodes and two antinodes. The difference leads to the loss of gyroscopic effect, and thus the resonator cannot sense angular motion. In this paper, the resonator based on an axisymmetric multi-curved surface shell structure is investigated and an approach to eliminate frequency splits is proposed. Since axisymmetric multi-curved surface shell resonators are too complex to be modeled, this paper proposes a simplified model by focusing on a common property of the axisymmetric shell. The resonator with stochastic imperfections is made equivalent to a perfect shell with an imperfect mass point. Rayleigh's energy method is used in the theoretical analysis. Finite element modeling is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the elimination approach. In real cases, a resonator's frequency split is eliminated by the proposed approach. In this paper, errors in the theoretical analysis are discussed and steps to be taken when the deviation between assumptions and the real situation is large are figured out. The resonator has good performance after processing. The elimination approach can be applied to any kind of solid-state vibratory gyro resonators with an axisymmetric shell structure. PMID:25648707

  18. Finite Element Method Simulation of Double-Ended Tuning-Fork Quartz Resonator for Application to Vibratory Gyro-Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kenji; Ono, Atsushi; Tomikawa, Yoshiro

    2003-05-01

    In the present paper, we propose a double-ended tuning-fork quartz resonator for a flatly supported vibratory gyro-sensor in parallel with its rotating plane. The resonator has the advantages of ease of miniaturization and high resistance to external shock, because the height of the proposed resonator is less than that of the conventional vertical-type tuning-fork. In addition, the proposed resonator has two end-support parts. The resonator also has the following features: (1) the vibration energy of the resonator is trapped in the driving part, therefore the resonator is only slightly affected by the support parts and (2) unwanted output signals can be removed by differential connection of the output signals from two symmetric detection electrodes. The resonator was designed using the finite element method (FEM), and its characteristics were also simulated by FEM. The obtained results show that the double-ended tuning-fork quartz resonator is applicable as a vibratory gyro-sensor, and the I/O voltage ratio of the gyro-sensor was found to be proportional to the applied angular velocity. That is, we clarified that the double-ended tuning-fork quartz resonator could be used as a gyro-sensor.

  19. Digital shaded-relief map of Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

    2004-01-01

    The Digital Shaded-Relief Map of Venezuela is a composite of more than 20 tiles of 90 meter (3 arc second) pixel resolution elevation data, captured during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. The SRTM, a joint project between the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), provides the most accurate and comprehensive international digital elevation dataset ever assembled. The 10-day flight mission aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour obtained elevation data for about 80% of the world's landmass at 3-5 meter pixel resolution through the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. SAR is desirable because it acquires data along continuous swaths, maintaining data consistency across large areas, independent of cloud cover. Swaths were captured at an altitude of 230 km, and are approximately 225 km wide with varying lengths. Rendering of the shaded-relief image required editing of the raw elevation data to remove numerous holes and anomalously high and low values inherent in the dataset. Customized ArcInfo Arc Macro Language (AML) scripts were written to interpolate areas of null values and generalize irregular elevation spikes and wells. Coastlines and major water bodies used as a clipping mask were extracted from 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Venezuela (Bellizzia and others, 1976). The shaded-relief image was rendered with an illumination azimuth of 315? and an altitude of 65?. A vertical exaggeration of 2X was applied to the image to enhance land-surface features. Image post-processing techniques were accomplished using conventional desktop imaging software.

  20. Sprouty2 in the Dorsal Hippocampus Regulates Neurogenesis and Stress Responsiveness in Rats

    E-print Network

    Dow, Antonia L.

    Both the development and relief of stress-related psychiatric conditions such as major depression (MD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been linked to neuroplastic changes in the brain. One such change involves ...

  1. Shaded Relief of Rio Sao Francisco, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image acquired by SRTM shows an area south of the Sao Francisco River in Brazil. The scrub forest terrain shows relief of about 400 meters (1300 feet). Areas such as these are difficult to map by traditional methods because of frequent cloud cover and local inaccessibility. This region has little topographic relief, but even subtle changes in topography have far-reaching effects on regional ecosystems. The image covers an area of 57 km x 79 km and represents one quarter of the 225 km SRTM swath. Colors range from dark blue at water level to white and brown at hill tops. The terrain features that are clearly visible in this image include tributaries of the Sao Francisco, the dark-blue branch-like features visible from top right to bottom left, and on the left edge of the image, and hills rising up from the valley floor. The San Francisco River is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, forestation and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  2. The Application of High-temperature Strain Gauges to the Measurements of Vibratory Stresses in Gas-turbine Buckets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemp, R H; Morgan, W C; Manson, S S

    1947-01-01

    The feasibility of measuring the vibration in the buckets of a gas turbine under service conditions of speed and temperature was determined by use of a high temperature wire strain gauge cemented to a modified supercharger turbine bucket. A high-temperature wire strain gauge and the auxiliary mechanical and electrical equipment developed for the investigation are described.

  3. Collaborative Geospatial Data as Applied to Disaster Relief: Haiti 2010

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Clark; Patton Holliday; Robyn Chau; Harris Eisenberg; Melinda Chau

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a The aftermath of Haiti’s January 12 earthquake typified disaster relief in that efficiency and situational awareness were\\u000a reduced by the chaotic, uncoordinated influx of relief and aid. The lack of an environment in which information could be shared\\u000a was a major component of this chaos. The application of geographic information (GIS) technology was a significant contribution\\u000a to the relief efforts

  4. Photoinduced surface relief studies in an acrylamide-based photopolymer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavani Kotakonda; Izabela Naydenova; Suzanne Martin; Vincent Toal

    2007-01-01

    Surface relief gratings (SRGs) have been optically recorded in a dry, self-developing acrylamide-based photopolymer. An investigation of the dependence of photoinduced surface relief amplitude and profile on recording intensity, UV post-exposure, thickness of the sample, composition of the photopolymer and temperature at constant spatial frequency was carried out using white light interferometry. Non-sinusoidal surface relief grating profiles which depend on

  5. 4. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, DETAIL OF ABUTMENT, GRIFFIN RELIEF SCULPTURE, CA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, DETAIL OF ABUTMENT, GRIFFIN RELIEF SCULPTURE, CA. 1940. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Grumman Avenue Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

  6. TRU-waste decontamination and size reduction review, June 1983, US DOE\\/PNC technology exchange. [Electropolishing, vibratory cleaning and spray decontamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W. Jr

    1983-01-01

    A review of transuranic (TRU) noncombustible waste decontamination and size reduction technology is presented. Electropolishing, vibratory cleaning, and spray decontamination processes developed at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) are highlighted. TRU waste size reduction processes at (PNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), and SRL are also highlighted.

  7. Jacketed cryogenic piping is stress relieved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Jacketed design of piping used to transfer cryogenic fluids, relieves severe stresses associated with the temperature gradients that occur during transfer cycles and ambient periods. The inner /transfer/ pipe is preloaded in such a way that stress relief takes place automatically as cycling occurs.

  8. DATA ANALYSIS FOR STRESS MEASUREMENTS BY OVERCORING

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DATA ANALYSIS FOR STRESS MEASUREMENTS BY OVERCORING: NEW OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES LIZEUR A., Pr. Eng. INERIS. BAUCHERON V., Gr. Student, University Nancy I ABSTRACT The data processing for in situ measunements by overcoring (or stress-relief in gênerai) is classically performed by the least squares method

  9. Topographic relief driven by variations in surface rock density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Jean; Simon-Labric, Thibaud; Murray, Kendra E.; Reiners, Peter W.

    2014-07-01

    Earth's surface topography is generated by tectonically induced variations in crustal thickness combined with erosion and, to a lesser degree, by vertical stresses caused by convection in the underlying mantle. Rock hardness and resistance to erosion are also commonly thought to influence topography because hard rocks, such as granites and basalts, usually form topographic highs in the landscape. Here we use analytical and numerical models to simulate the erosion-induced isostatic rebound of rocks. We find that the isostatic rebound that accompanies erosion causes denser rocks to occupy higher elevations in the landscape, thereby creating topographic relief that is proportional to surface rock density differences rather than rock hardness. We quantify this effect, taking into account the flexural strength of the continental lithosphere. We show that in a steady-state erosional setting, density-dependent isostatic rebound can cause the densest rocks to be exhumed at double the rate of surrounding, less-dense rocks and has a stronger effect than typical rock hardness variations. The results imply that denser rock formations should erode faster and therefore be characterized by younger thermochronological ages. Thermochronological data sets from the Kinabalu granite in Borneo and the Shakhdara-Alichur gneiss domes in Pamir confirm this counter-intuitive result. Our findings imply that lateral variations in surface rock density have significant control on the shaping of the large-scale features of Earth's surface.

  10. Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This shaded relief topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are five rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, Zhilovaya, and Kakhtana. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in yellow. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from red through green back to red) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet)similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 240 km (150 miles) x 122 km (77 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

  11. Shaded relief of Bahia State, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image is the first to show the full 240-kilometer-wide (150 mile)swath collected by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The area shown is in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The semi-circular mountains along the left side of the image are the Serra Da Jacobin, which rise to 1100 meters (3600 feet) above sea level. The total relief shown is approximately 800 meters (2600 feet). The top part of the image is the Sertao, a semi-arid region, that is subject to severe droughts during El Nino events. A small portion of the San Francisco River, the longest river (1609 kilometers or 1000 miles) entirely within Brazil, cuts across the upper right corner of the image. This river is a major source of water for irrigation and hydroelectric power. Mapping such regions will allow scientists to better understand the relationships between flooding cycles, drought and human influences on ecosystems.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  12. 49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...made in the setting. When setting safety relief valves, the water level shall...of the length of the visible water glass, as measured from the bottom of the... The set pressure of the lowest safety relief valve shall be indicated...

  13. 49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...made in the setting. When setting safety relief valves, the water level shall...of the length of the visible water glass, as measured from the bottom of the... The set pressure of the lowest safety relief valve shall be indicated...

  14. Horizontal cooperation in disaster relief logistics: benefits and impediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine F. Schulz; Alexander Blecken

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to further the understanding of opportunities involved in horizontal cooperation in disaster relief logistics. The potential and realized benefits of horizontal cooperation in disaster relief logistics, as well as related impediments are investigated. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Case study research into three cooperative humanitarian organization initiatives. Findings – To a large extent, the same

  15. Integral valve provides automatic relief and remote venting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, R. F.

    1969-01-01

    In-line, pilot-operated, differential area, poppet type valve provides both automatic relief of a tank at a precise over-pressure and remote control of tank venting. Relief and vent operations are separate functions incorporated in an integral valve package.

  16. Emergency planning: Small airport scheduling in disaster relief

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhen Yang; Guoqing Wang; Dapeng Zhou

    2012-01-01

    We study a novel small airport scheduling problem encountered in Wenchuan Earthquake and in Yushu Earthquake (China) disaster relief. The small airport has one runway for taking off and landing airplanes and several identical aircraft stands for discharging. To make the relief supplies arrive at the disaster area more quickly, the problem is to find a schedule with minimum schedule

  17. Simulating Distribution of Emergency Relief Supplies for Disaster Response Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young M. Lee; Soumyadip Ghosh; Markus Ettl

    2009-01-01

    In the event of disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes and terrorism, emergency relief supplies need be distributed to disas- ter victims in timely manner to protect the health and lives of the victims. We develop a modeling framework for disaster re- sponse where the supply chain of relief supplies and distribution operations are simulated, and analytics for the optimal transportation

  18. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements...Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General. There must be...

  19. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements...Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General. There must be...

  20. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements...Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a) General. There must be...

  1. Ethiopian Relief: A Case Study in Failed Public Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapel, Gage W.

    1988-01-01

    Examines how InterAid, a private-sector relief agency, responded to the false charge that it had misappropriated $20 million purportedly raised for Ethiopian famine relief. Suggests that it was not primarily negative reporting that retarded the strength of InterAid, but InterAid's inability to demonstrate shared common interests with its primary…

  2. Uncertainty in Humanitarian Supply Chains for Disaster Relief

    E-print Network

    Clark, Alistair

    Uncertainty in Humanitarian Supply Chains for Disaster Relief Alistair Clark University of the West.g., trucks, helicopters, aircraft, ... n, m Nodes in the relief supply chain, including the locations of needy recipients. N Network arcs n m in the supply chain. t Time period in the planning horizon, e

  3. Humanitarian Supply Chain Network Models for Disaster Relief

    E-print Network

    Clark, Alistair

    Humanitarian Supply Chain Network Models for Disaster Relief Alistair Clark University of the West types, e.g., trucks, helicopters, aircraft, ... , Nodes in the relief supply chain, including the locations of needy recipients. Network arcs in the supply chain. Time period in the planning horizon, e

  4. Geospatial Data Fusion: Training GIS for Disaster Relief Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jared L. Ware

    This paper will focus on the fusion of data (high-resolution imagery, multispectral imagery, raster, vector, and text data) to train geospatial analysts to support disaster relief operations. Many government and defense agencies routinely coordinate for disaster relief operations such as floods, fires, hurricanes, and earthquakes. These agencies are expected to share crucial data (sometimes available in a variety of formats)

  5. Argon Dewar Relief Set Pressure Modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1991-03-19

    This engineering note documents the calculations of Kelly Dixon, used to determine the maximum allowable set pressure for the argon dewar low relief valve, tag number PSV620A, Anderson Greenwood Type 526J. The original setting was 16 psig. This value was chosen in order to protect against cryostat overpressurization by the source dewar (see D0 Engineering Note 115), however, the following calculations will show that the set pressure can be raised to approximately 18.5 psig, which would result in a faster filling of the cryostat, along with a higher level of liquid argon. Three other engineering notes were revised to reflect the change in set pressure according to this note. They are notes 115, 219, and 263.

  6. Dual-mass vibratory rate gyroscope with suppressed translational acceleration response and quadrature-error correction capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, William A. (Inventor); Juneau, Thor N. (Inventor); Lemkin, Mark A. (Inventor); Roessig, Allen W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A microfabricated vibratory rate gyroscope to measure rotation includes two proof-masses mounted in a suspension system anchored to a substrate. The suspension has two principal modes of compliance, one of which is driven into oscillation. The driven oscillation combined with rotation of the substrate about an axis perpendicular to the substrate results in Coriolis acceleration along the other mode of compliance, the sense-mode. The sense-mode is designed to respond to Coriolis accelerationwhile suppressing the response to translational acceleration. This is accomplished using one or more rigid levers connecting the two proof-masses. The lever allows the proof-masses to move in opposite directions in response to Coriolis acceleration. The invention includes a means for canceling errors, termed quadrature error, due to imperfections in implementation of the sensor. Quadrature-error cancellation utilizes electrostatic forces to cancel out undesired sense-axis motion in phase with drive-mode position.

  7. Emergency relief venting of the infrared telescope liquid helium dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, E. W.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the emergency relief venting of the liquid helium dewar of the Spacelab 2 infrared telescope experiment in the event of a massive failure of the dewar guard vacuum. Such a failure, resulting from a major accident, could cause rapid heating and pressurization of the liquid helium in the dewar and lead to relief venting through the emergency relief system. The heat input from an accident is estimated for various fluid conditions in the dewar and the relief process as it takes place through one or both of the emergency relief paths is considered. It is shown that under all reasonable circumstances the dewar will safely relieve itself, and the pressure will not exceed 85 percent of the proof pressure or 63 percent of the burst pressure.

  8. 48 CFR 252.229-7010 - Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). 252.229-7010 Section 252...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70...Relief from Customs Duty on Fuel (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a)...

  9. 48 CFR 252.229-7008 - Relief from import duty (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Relief from import duty (United Kingdom). 252.229-7008 Section 252...229-7008 Relief from import duty (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70...clause: Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) Any import...

  10. 48 CFR 252.229-7008 - Relief from import duty (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Relief from import duty (United Kingdom). 252.229-7008 Section 252...229-7008 Relief from import duty (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70...clause: Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) Any import...

  11. 48 CFR 252.229-7010 - Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). 252.229-7010 Section 252...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229.402-70...Relief from Customs Duty on Fuel (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a)...

  12. 19 CFR 210.69 - Approval of complainant's temporary relief bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...of complainant's temporary relief bond. (a) In accordance...Commission before the temporary relief sought by the complainant...about the surety's assets, liabilities, net worth, real estate...bond is approved and temporary relief is issued, if any...

  13. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. ...Devices § 882.5880 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief...

  14. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. ...Devices § 882.5880 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief...

  15. 21 CFR 882.5880 - Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. ...Devices § 882.5880 Implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted spinal cord stimulator for pain relief...

  16. 30 CFR 1204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not...

  17. 30 CFR 1204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.201...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

  18. 30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.205...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  19. 30 CFR 1204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.201...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

  20. 30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.205...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  1. 30 CFR 1204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.201...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

  2. 30 CFR 1204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not...

  3. 30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.205...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  4. 30 CFR 1204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not...

  5. 30 CFR 1204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.201...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

  6. 30 CFR 1204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not...

  7. 30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.205...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  8. 32 CFR 232.10 - Servicemembers Civil Relief Act protections unaffected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Servicemembers Civil Relief Act protections unaffected. 232...LIMITATIONS ON TERMS OF CONSUMER CREDIT EXTENDED TO SERVICE...Servicemembers Civil Relief Act protections unaffected. Nothing...Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (50 U.S.C....

  9. 30 CFR 204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 204.205 ...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  10. 30 CFR 204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will MMS not...

  11. 30 CFR 204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 204.201 ...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

  12. 19 CFR 206.55 - Investigations to evaluate the effectiveness of relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Investigations to evaluate the effectiveness of relief. 206.55 Section 206...55 Investigations to evaluate the effectiveness of relief. (a) Investigation...investigation for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of the relief action in...

  13. North exterior elevation of Pope Quadrangle. Note the bas relief ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North exterior elevation of Pope Quadrangle. Note the bas relief sculpture over the doorway, which includes the school motto, Aspirando et Perseverando. - Avon Old Farms School, 500 Avon Old Farms Road, Avon, Hartford County, CT

  14. SHADED RELIEF, HILLSHADE, DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM), ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shaded relief of the state of Arizona developed from 1-degree US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEM is a terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. ...

  15. SHADED RELIEF, HILLSHADE, DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL (DEM), NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Shaded relief of the state of Nevada developed from 1-degree US Geological Survey (USGS) Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). DEM is a terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. ...

  16. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...TTMA RP No. 81-97 “Performance of Spring Loaded Pressure Relief Valves on MC 306...so as to minimize the accumulation of material that could impair the operation or...

  17. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...TTMA RP No. 81-97 “Performance of Spring Loaded Pressure Relief Valves on MC 306...so as to minimize the accumulation of material that could impair the operation or...

  18. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...TTMA RP No. 81-97 “Performance of Spring Loaded Pressure Relief Valves on MC 306...so as to minimize the accumulation of material that could impair the operation or...

  19. 46 CFR 105.10-20 - Pressure vacuum relief valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-20 Pressure vacuum relief valve. (a) The term...

  20. 49 CFR 390.23 - Relief from regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Relief from regulations. 390.23 Section 390.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  1. Some effects of applied stress on early stages of cavitation damage. [test facilities for analyzing cavitation flow damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemppainen, D. J.; Hammitt, F. G.

    1974-01-01

    The phenomenon of cavitation flow damage is discussed. The initial phases of damage and the effect of external stresses on the extent to which damage is incurred are analyzed. Three experimental facilities were used to procure the data required: (1) a water loop with venturi, (2) a mercury loop with venturi, and (3) a vibratory facility (stationary specimen, nonflow system). A description of each system is provided for the clarification of test conditions. Photographs of typical cavitation damage instances are included.

  2. Revving up for Relief: Harley-Davidson at the ITC

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dorothy Robyn, for the case program at the Kennedy School of Government.

    Published in 1986, this Kennedy School case tells the story of Harley-Davidson's application to the ITC for temporary relief from high levels of imported Japanese motorcycles. The case lays out, in considerable detail, Harley's justification for protection and the Japanese manufacturers' counterarguments. The case is presented in two parts, the first focusing on the extent of the "injury" an the second on the nature of the relief Harley requested.

  3. Velocity profiles in a hot jet by simplified RELIEF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-11-01

    Raman Excitation + Laser Induced Electronic Fluorescence (RELIEF) is a double resonance velocimetry technique in which oxygen molecules are vibrationally excited via stimulated Raman scattering at a specific location within a flow field. After suitable time delay, typically 1-10 microseconds, the displacement of the tagged molecules is determined by laser induced fluorescence imaging. Providing support for the installation of simplified RELIEF flow tagging instrumentation at NASA LaRC was the principal goal of this research.

  4. Pain Relief Through an Antinociceptive Effect After Radiofrequency Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norimasa Takahashi; James P. Tasto; Mark Ritter; Nobuyasu Ochiai; Seiji Ohtori; Hideshige Moriya; David Amiel

    2007-01-01

    Background: Many patients with chronic tendinosis have experienced early pain relief after application of bipolar radiofrequency treatment. Pathologic nerve ingrowth or nerve irritation in the tendon has been considered as a possible cause of the pain experienced with tendinosis.Hypothesis: Bipolar radiofrequency treatment will ablate nerve fibers, resulting in pain relief.Study Design: Controlled laboratory study.Methods: Eighteen Sprague-Dawley rats were used in

  5. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.

    Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.

    East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.

    North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.

    South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the occurrence of simple erosional processes acting upon fairly uniform bedrock. Very smooth plateaus here are remnants of landforms most likely developed under geologic and environmental conditions much different than those present today. Fractures paralleling the coast are likely related to the opening of the Atlantic Ocean as South America drifted away from Africa, starting about 130 million years ago.

    To the southwest, broad lowlands host the Gran Chaco and Pampas regions. The depositional Gran Chaco drainages run almost exclusively from west to east from the Andes Mountains to the western edge of the Brazilian Highlands as a result of the much greater sediment supply from the Andes. Geologic processes on the Pampas are much more diverse, with stream erosion, stream deposition, subsidence, and wind processes all evident, even at the one-kilometer resolution shown here.

    Further south, Patagonia also displays these geologic processes plus more prominent volcanic features, including bumpy mesas, which are lava plateaus with small (and some large) volcanic cones. At its southern tip South America breaks into islands that include Tierra del Fuego and the Straits of Magellan.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth

  6. Southern California Shaded Relief, Color as Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    From the desert to the mountains to the sea,' this image shows in striking detail the varied topography of Southern California. The data, which cover an area one and a half times the size of New Jersey, were acquired in 15 seconds by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The large V-shape across the center of the image is the intersection of the mountains uplifted along two major faults. The San Andreas Fault is the lower part of the 'V' and the Garlock Fault is the upper part. Between the faults is the western Mojave Desert, including the alternate landing site for the Shuttle at Edwards Air Force Base, near the center of the image. The Pacific Coast appears in the lower left of the image, from Oxnard at the left center edge, curving southeast to Los Angeles. The flat blue area along the top is the southern end of California's Central Valley. Along the right edge of the image is NASA's Goldstone Deep Space Tracking Station. Scientists will use data like these to study a broad range of topics, including ecology, the environment, geology, as well as to make assessments of seismic, flood, and wildfire hazards.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 3000 meters (10,000 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 250 km (155 miles) x 150 km (93 miles) Location: 34.8 deg. North lat., 118.0 deg. West lon. Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

  7. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1200 meters (about 4000 feet).

    Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

    This shaded relief image was created directly from an SRTM elevation model by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 98.1 kilometers (60.8 miles) by 148.1 kilometers (91.8 miles) Location: 27.3 degrees North latitude, 54.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  8. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief Anaglyph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1,200 meters (about 4,000 feet).

    Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 98.1 kilometers (60.8 miles) by 148.1 kilometers (91.8 miles) Location: 27.3 degrees North latitude, 54.5 degrees East longitude Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  9. Neotectonic stresses in Fennoscandia: field observations and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    The present-day stress state of Fennoscandia is traditionally viewed as the combination of far field sources and residual glacial loading stresses. Investigations were conducted in different regions of Norway with the purpose of detecting and measuring stress-relief features and to derive from them valuable information on the crustal stress state. Stress-relief features are induced by blasting and sudden rock unloading in road construction and quarrying operations and are common in Norway and very likely in other regions of Fennoscandia. Stress relief at the Earth's surface is diagnostic of anomalously high stress levels at shallow depths in the crust and appears to be a characteristic of the formerly glaciated Baltic and Canadian Precambrian shields. The studied stress-relief features are, in general, indicative of NW-SE compression, suggesting ridge-push as the main source of stress. Our derived stress directions are also in excellent agreement with the ones derived from other kinds of stress indicators, including focal mechanisms from deep earthquakes, demonstrating that stress-relief features are valuable for neotectonic research. As a second step we applied numerical modelling techniques to simulate the neotectonic stress field in Fennoscandia with particular emphasis to southern Norway. A numerical method was used to reconstruct the structure of the Fennoscandian lithosphere. The numerical method involves classical steady-state heat equations to derive lithosphere thickness, geotherm and density distribution and, in addition, requires the studied lithosphere to be isostatically compensated at its base. The a priori crustal structure was derived from previous geophysical studies. Undulations of the geoid were used to calibrate the models. Once the density structure of the Fennoscandian lithosphere is reconstructed it is straightforward to quantify its stress state and compare modelling results with existing stress indicators. The modelling suggests that present-day stress magnitudes are far to be uniform in Scandinavia. For example the modelling predicts that the topography of the southern Norwegian Mountains creates Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) levels higher than the ones characterising the surrounding regions. This results in significant buoyancy forces competing locally with the regional ridge-push. GPE decreases almost gradually towards the Gulf of Bothnia where strong compressive stresses are predicted. A local departure from the regional NW-SE trend for the maximum horizontal stress axes is simulated in Trøndelag, Norway. This local stress deviation is supported by stress-relief observations and in situ stress measurements. Our modelling suggests that it results from the combined effects of the weak rheology of the Møre-Trøndelag Fault Complex and topographic stresses associated with the southern Norwegian Scandes mountains.

  10. Shaded relief, color as height, Salalah, Oman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This elevation map shows a part of the southern coast of the Arabian Peninsula including parts of the countries of Oman and Yemen. The narrow coastal plain on the right side of the image includes the city of Salahlah, the second largest city in Oman. Various crops, including coconuts, papayas and bananas, are grown on this plain. The abrupt topography of the coastal mountains wrings moisture from the monsoon, enabling agriculture in the otherwise dry environment of the Arabian Peninsula. These mountains are historically significant as well: Some scholars believe these mountains are the 'southern mountains' of the book of Genesis.

    This image brightness corresponds to shading illumination from the right, while colors show the elevation as measured by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to brown at the highest elevations. This image contains about 1400 meters (4600 feet) of total relief. The Arabian Sea is colored blue.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI)space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 149 by 40 kilometers (92 by 25 miles) Location: 16.9 deg. North lat., 53.7 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top right Date Acquired: February 15, 2000 Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  11. 30 CFR 204.211 - When may MMS rescind relief for a property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS rescind relief for a property? 204.211 ...Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.211 When may MMS rescind relief for a property? (a) MMS may retroactively rescind the relief for...

  12. 30 CFR 203.69 - If my application is approved, what royalty relief will I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...deep gas royalty relief under §§ 203.40 through 203.49 or ultra-deep gas royalty relief under §§ 203.30 through 203.36, we will take the deep gas royalty relief or ultra-deep gas royalty relief into account in determining...

  13. 30 CFR 203.69 - If my application is approved, what royalty relief will I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...deep gas royalty relief under §§ 203.40 through 203.49 or ultra-deep gas royalty relief under §§ 203.30 through 203.36, we will take the deep gas royalty relief or ultra-deep gas royalty relief into account in determining...

  14. 30 CFR 203.69 - If my application is approved, what royalty relief will I receive?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...deep gas royalty relief under §§ 203.40 through 203.49 or ultra-deep gas royalty relief under §§ 203.30 through 203.36, we will take the deep gas royalty relief or ultra-deep gas royalty relief into account in determining...

  15. Sound-suppressing structure with thermal relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, D. O.; Holowach, J. (inventors)

    1978-01-01

    Sound-suppressing structure comprising stacked acoustic panels wherein the inner high frequency panel is mounted for thermal expansion with respect to the outer low frequency panel is discussed. Slip joints eliminate the potential for thermal stresses, and a thermal expansion gap between the panels provides for additional relative thermal growth while reducing heat convection into the low frequency panel.

  16. Changes In CO2 Gas Flux And Soil Temperatures Induced By A Vibratory Seismic Source At Solfatara (Phlegrean Fields, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Gresse, M.; Chiodini, G.; Byrdina, S.; Woith, H.; Bruno, P. P.

    2014-12-01

    Solfatara, the most active crater of Phlegrean Fields (Italy) is characterized by a fumarolic activity and an intense diffuse degassing, with 1500 tons of CO2 and > 3000 tons of water vapor released per day. A major part of the emitted water vapor is condensed at the near surface producing a thermal power flux around 100 MW, and contributing substantially to the total water input into the hydrothermal system. On May 2014, during a seismic experiment (RICEN) in the frame of the MED-SUV European project, a Minivib vibratory seismic source was used to generate a frequency modulated seismic signal at different points of Solfatara. We performed CO2 flux measurements at a few meters from the seismic source during the vibrations. In certain points, the vibrations induced a remarkable increase in the CO2 diffuse degassing, with a flux that doubled during the low-frequency seismic vibrations and returned to previous values afterwards. The observed CO2 flux increase could be due to permeability enhancement in the sub-surface soil layers during the seismic vibrations. Close to Fangaia mud pool, we also monitored the soil temperature at different levels above the condensation depth and observed transient temperature changes during the vibrations but also outside the vibration periods. Seismic vibrations likely favor the triggering of thermal instabilities of gravitational or convective origin in the liquid-saturated condensate layer.

  17. Low-Level Liquid Waste Processing Pilot Studies Using a Vibratory Shear Enhancing Process (VSEP) for Filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Bushart, S.; Tran, P.; Asay, R.

    2002-02-25

    A previous EPRI study evaluated potential treatment methods for the removal of iron from BWR waste streams. Of the methods investigated, high shear filtration using the vibratory shear-enhanced process (VSEP) showed the most promise to effectively and economically remove high iron concentrations from backwash receiving tank waste. A VSEP filter uses oscillatory vibration to create high shear at the surface of the filter membrane. This high shear force significantly improves the filter's resistance to fouling thereby enabling high throughputs with very little secondary waste generation. With a VSEP filter, the waste feed stream is split into two effluents- a permeate stream with little or no suspended solids and a concentrate stream with a suspended solids concentration much higher than that of the feed stream. To evaluate the feasibility of using a VSEP concept for processing typical high iron containing BWR radwaste, a surrogate feedstream containing up to 1,700 ppm iron oxide (as Fe2O3) was used. This surrogate waste simulates radioactive waste found at Exelon's Limerick and Peach Bottom (powdered resin condensate) plants, and in Hope Creek's (deep bed condensate) radwaste systems. Testing was done using a series L (laboratory scale) VSEP unit at the manufacturer's and contractor's laboratories. These tests successfully demonstrated the VSEP capability for producing highly concentrated waste streams with totally ''recyclable'' permeate (e.g., greater than 95% recovery).

  18. Ireland, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Ireland comprises a large central lowland of limestone with a relief of hills surrounded by a discontinuous border of coastal mountains which vary greatly in geological structure. The mountain ridges of the south are composed of old red sandstone separated by limestone river valleys. Granite predominates in the mountains of Galway, Mayo and Donegal in the west and north-west and in Counties Down and Wicklow on the east coast, while a basalt plateau covers much of the north-east of the country. The central plain, which is broken in places by low hills, is extensively covered with glacial deposits of clay and sand. It has considerable areas of bog and numerous lakes. The island has seen at least two general glaciations and everywhere ice-smoothed rock, mountain lakes, glacial valleys and deposits of glacial sand, gravel and clay mark the passage of the ice.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Location: 53.5 degrees North latitude, 8 degrees West longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  19. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.

    The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C.

    Location: 30 degrees north latitude, 34 degrees east longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 289 by 445 kilometers (180 by 277 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  20. Gulf Coast, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    The topography of the Gulf Coast states is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image on the top (see Figure 1) is a standard view showing southern Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and the panhandle of Florida. Green colors indicate low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    For the view on the bottom (see Figure 2), elevations below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored light blue. These low coastal elevations are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges. Planners can use data like these to predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

    Location: 31 degrees north latitude, 88 degrees west longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 702 by 433 kilometers (435 by 268 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  1. Southern Florida, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The very low topography of southern Florida is evident in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image on the left is a standard view, with the green colors indicating low elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. In this exaggerated view even those highest elevations are only about 60 meters (197 feet) above sea level.

    For the view on the right, elevations below 5 meters (16 feet) above sea level have been colored dark blue, and lighter blue indicates elevations below 10 meters (33 feet). This is a dramatic demonstration of how Florida's low topography, especially along the coastline, make it especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges. Planners can use data like these to predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

    Location: 27 degrees north latitude, 81 degrees west longitude Orientation: North toward the top, Mercator projection Size: 397 by 445 kilometers (246 by 276 miles) Image Data: shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 2000

  2. A study of Macrophomina phaseolina, soybean, and water stress

    E-print Network

    Shokes, Frederick Milton

    1975-01-01

    on abaxial av and adaxial leaf surfaces were fully open at irradiances of -2 -1 25 and 200 p Einsteins m s respectively, The ef'feet of' soil water stress on stomatal apertures was both immediate via a reduction in turgor, and long lasting. Soil moisture... stress grea. ly increased stomatal resistance as leaf water potential decreased 'oelow ? 12 bar . Stomatal response to light measured after relief of water stress clearly demon- stratedd that stress altered leaf resistance. Plants at full bloom...

  3. Precise guidance puts record-depth relief well in target

    SciTech Connect

    Uzcategui, H.; Hewitt, D.; Golindano, R.

    1991-06-01

    When surface operations fail to contain a blowout, or when both surface and subsurface operations are required, it becomes necessary to drill a relief well. When this happens, planners gather and organize to drill a fast, efficient, and non-damaging kill well. The optimum relief- well operation would call for, first and foremost, the lower cost of only one kill well (as opposed to the days prior to advancements in guidance and near-well magnetic detection, when operators often automatically started several relief wells). Second, an efficient kill well must be drilled without time-consuming and costly sidetracks to the intersect. And third, a precise, close intersect is needed to establish a dynamic kill, which brings the blowout under control without formation damage, leaving a productive well in its place in the field. Factors that increase the difficulty of a relief well - such as great depth, an imprecisely surveyed blowing well, troublesome drilling and high pressure - usually lead planners to accept much less than the optimum relief well described above.

  4. In-situ stress state in the China’s Sea and adjacent areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianli Gao; Jianmin Ding; Guoping Liang; Dahuang Xia; Qiliang Guo

    1992-01-01

    Based on 141 data of in-situ stress orientations data of breakouts, stress reliefs and hydraulic fracture tests, and some\\u000a data of stress magnitudes from oil-well hydrofracturing operations, this paper discusses in-situ stress regime and the tectonic\\u000a stress provinces in the China’s Sea and adjacent areas. Furthermore, the origin of tectonic stress field is expounded.\\u000a \\u000a The research results show that the

  5. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  6. An appraisal of symptom relief after coronary bypass grafting.

    PubMed Central

    Frick, M. H.

    1976-01-01

    Subjective symptomatic improvement is experienced by 90% of patients after coronary bypass surgery. Objective exercise testing reduces this incidence to 70%. An analysis of the multifactorial genesis of pain relief based on data of non-randomized trials reveals that graft patency plays a dominant but not unique role in causing improved symptomatology. In a number of cases, intra-operative myocardial infarctions seem to explain the pain relief but may also have opposite effects. Changes in left ventricular function operate bidirectionally but data on this variable in relation to changes in symptomatology are not amenable for detailed analysis. Progression in native vessel lesions apparently opposes pain relief and has its greatest impact in connection with graft closure. Residual post-operative angina is evidently related also to incomplete revascularization. PMID:64978

  7. Percutaneous Relief of Tension Pneumomediastinum in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, Helen Hoi-lun; Kwok, Philip Chong-hei; Lai, Albert Kwok-hung; Fan, Tsz Wo; Chan, Susan Chi-hum [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 30 Gascoigne Road, Kowloon, Department of Radiology and Imaging, Hong Kong (China); Miu, Ting Yat; Chan, Grace Lai-har [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, 30 Gascoigne Road, Kowloon, Pediatrics, Hong Kong (China)

    2003-11-15

    The purpose of this article was to describe the experience of relieving tension pneumomediastinum by a fluoroscopic-guided percutaneous method. We inserted a percutaneous drainage catheter with a Heimlich valve under fluoroscopic guidance to relieve the tension pneumomediastinum in a 2-year-old girl who suffered from dermatomyositis with lung involvement. This allowed immediate relief without the need for surgery. The procedure was repeated for relapsed tension pneumomediastinum. Good immediate results were achieved in each attempt. We conclude that percutaneous relief of pneumomediastinum under fluoroscopic guidance can be performed safely and rapidly in patients not fit for surgery.

  8. Pain relief at the end of life: nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia.

    PubMed

    Brorson, Hanna; Plymoth, Henrietta; Örmon, Karin; Bolmsjö, Ingrid

    2014-03-01

    Patients with dementia receive suboptimal palliative care, and this patient group is at risk to have pain at the end of life. Because communicative impairments are common in this patient group, nurses play an important caregiver role in identifying, assessing, and relieving patients' pain. This study aimed to describe nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia. This descriptive exploratory qualitative study was based on seven semistructured interviews. Burnard's content analysis inspired the data analysis. Two main categories were identified: (1) nurses' experience of difficulties concerning pain relief and (2) nurses' experience of resources concerning pain relief. Nurses experienced difficulties, such as feeling of powerlessness because of difficulties in obtaining adequate prescriptions for analgesics, ethical dilemmas, feeling of inadequacy because analgesia did not have the desired effect, and a feeling of not being able to connect with the patient. Factors, including knowledge about the patient, professional experience, utilization of pain assessment tools, interpersonal relationships, and interprofessional cooperation, served as resources and enabled end-of-life pain relief. The results of this study highlight the complexity of pain relief in patients with dementia at the end of life from a nursing perspective. The inability of patients with dementia to verbally communicate their pain makes them a vulnerable patient group, dependent on their caregivers. Knowing the life story of the patient, professional experience, teamwork based on good communication, and use of a pain assessment tool were reported by the nurses to improve pain relief at the end of life for patients with dementia. PMID:23453467

  9. Performance of Ultrathin Silicon Solar Microcells with Nanostructures of Relief

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    , Urbana, Illinois 61801 ABSTRACT Recently developed classes of monocrystalline silicon solar microcells with monocrystalline silicon. Several emerging strategies exist for using this form of silicon in ways that offerPerformance of Ultrathin Silicon Solar Microcells with Nanostructures of Relief Formed by Soft

  10. Improved Relief Valve Would Be Less Susceptible to Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farner, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    The balanced-piston relief valve with side vented reaction cavity has been proposed as an improved alternative to a conventional high-pressure, high-flow relief valve. The proposed valve would be less susceptible to failure. A typical conventional high-pressure, high-flow relief valve contains a piston that is exposed to the upstream pressure across the full valve-seat diameter and is held against the valve seat and the upstream pressure by a large spring. In the event of an increase in upstream pressure to a level above the valve set point (the pressure above which the valve opens), the opening force on the piston can be so large that the piston becomes accelerated to a speed high enough that the ensuing hard impact of the piston within the valve housing results in failure of the valve. For a given flow cross section, the proposal would significantly reduce the force, thereby reducing susceptibility to failure. A basic version of the proposed balanced-piston relief valve with side vented reaction cavity is described.

  11. Detail view to show one of the limestone relief panels ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view to show one of the limestone relief panels depicting one of the agencies of the Commerce Department, here the Lighthouse Service - United States Department of Commerce, Bounded by Fourteenth, Fifteenth, and E streets and Constitution Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Continuous narcotic infusions for relief of postoperative pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J J Church

    1979-01-01

    Relief of acute pain after surgery or trauma is still inadequate in many centres, most patients being treated with intermittent intramuscular injections of narcotic analgesics. Over the past three years continuous intravenous narcotic infusions have been used at this hospital to treat postoperative pain; recently a system has been devised whereby an hourly dose is given and the dispenser recharged

  13. Inventory modelling for complex emergencies in humanitarian relief operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benita M. Beamon; Stephen A. Kotleba

    2006-01-01

    The increasing complexity and magnitude of global emergency relief operations create a critical need for effective and efficient humanitarian supply chain management processes. The irregular demand patterns and unusual constraints inherent in large-scale emergencies present unique challenges to physical supply systems. Indeed, the logistical needs of non-governmental organisations frequently surpass the capabilities of current emergency response approaches. There is only

  14. Conceptual design of pressure relief systems for cryogenic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grohmann, S.; Süßer, M.

    2014-01-01

    The conceptual design of pressure relief systems is an important aspect in the early phase of any cryogenic system design, because a prudent and responsible evaluation of relief systems involves much more than just relief devices. The conceptual design consists of various steps: At first, hazard scenarios must be considered and the worst-case scenario identified. Next, a staged interaction against pressure increase is to be defined. This is followed by the selection of the general type of pressure relief device for each stage, such as safety valve and rupture disc, respectively. Then, a decision concerning their locations, their capacities and specific features must be taken. Furthermore, it is mandatory to consider the inlet pressure drop and the back pressure in the exhaust line for sizing the safety devices. And last but not least, economic and environmental considerations must be made in case of releasing the medium to the atmosphere. The development of the system's safety concept calls for a risk management strategy based on identification and analysis of hazards, and consequent risk mitigation using a system-based approach in compliance with the standards.

  15. 5. DIABLO DAM: DETAIL VIEW OF RELIEF VALVES AT ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DIABLO DAM: DETAIL VIEW OF RELIEF VALVES AT ELEVATION 1044. VALVE IN FOREGROUND IS A BUTTERFLY VALVE SIX FEET IN DIAMETER; VALVE TO THE REAR IS A JOHNSON-TYPE NEEDLE VALVE BOTH VALVES WERE MANUFACTURED BY THE PELTON WATER WHEEL COMPANY, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Diablo Dam, On Skagit River, 6.9 miles upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  16. Parenteral opioids for labor pain relief: A systematic review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leanne Bricker; Tina Lavender

    2002-01-01

    Parenteral opioids are commonly used for labor pain relief and have been the subject of research for many years. The objectives of this review were to determine the safety and effectiveness of parenteral opioids in this context. Of 85 trials systematically reviewed, 48 comprising more than 9800 were included, but the number of trials contributing data to individual outcome measures

  17. 30 CFR 1204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 1204.207...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.207...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  18. 30 CFR 1204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 1204.207...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.207...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  19. 30 CFR 1204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 1204.207...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.207...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  20. 30 CFR 1204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 1204.207...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.207...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  1. 76 FR 6819 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ...States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil...to participate or not participate in accounting and auditing relief for Federal oil...69 FR 55076), provide two types of accounting and auditing relief for Federal...

  2. 75 FR 1654 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ...States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil...to participate or not participate in accounting and auditing relief for Federal oil...Regulations (CFR), to provide two types of accounting and auditing relief for Federal...

  3. 30 CFR 204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 204.207 ...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 204.207 ...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

  4. 46 CFR 53.05-2 - Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... false Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2...05-2 Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2). (a) The relief valve requirements for hot water boilers must be as indicated...

  5. 46 CFR 53.05-2 - Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... false Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2...05-2 Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2). (a) The relief valve requirements for hot water boilers must be as indicated...

  6. 46 CFR 53.05-2 - Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... false Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2...05-2 Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2). (a) The relief valve requirements for hot water boilers must be as indicated...

  7. 46 CFR 53.05-2 - Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... false Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2...05-2 Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2). (a) The relief valve requirements for hot water boilers must be as indicated...

  8. 46 CFR 53.05-2 - Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... false Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2...05-2 Relief valve requirements for hot water boilers (modifies HG-400.2). (a) The relief valve requirements for hot water boilers must be as indicated...

  9. 41 CFR 50-204.71 - Safety relief devices for compressed gas containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Safety relief devices for compressed gas...PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL...and Mists § 50-204.71 Safety relief devices for compressed...

  10. 41 CFR 50-204.71 - Safety relief devices for compressed gas containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Safety relief devices for compressed gas...PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 204-SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL...and Mists § 50-204.71 Safety relief devices for compressed...

  11. 49 CFR 179.400-21 - Test of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Test of pressure relief valves. 179.400-21 Section 179...TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless...400-21 Test of pressure relief valves. Each valve must be tested with air or...

  12. 49 CFR 179.400-21 - Test of pressure relief valves.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...false Test of pressure relief valves. 179.400-21 Section 179...TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless...400-21 Test of pressure relief valves. Each valve must be tested with air or...

  13. 25 CFR 170.920 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to emergency relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...purpose of the provisions relating to emergency relief? 170.920 Section 170.920 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Emergency Relief § 170.920 What is the purpose of the provisions...

  14. 25 CFR 170.920 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to emergency relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...purpose of the provisions relating to emergency relief? 170.920 Section 170.920 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Emergency Relief § 170.920 What is the purpose of the provisions...

  15. 25 CFR 170.920 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to emergency relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...purpose of the provisions relating to emergency relief? 170.920 Section 170.920 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Emergency Relief § 170.920 What is the purpose of the provisions...

  16. 25 CFR 170.920 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to emergency relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...purpose of the provisions relating to emergency relief? 170.920 Section 170.920 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Emergency Relief § 170.920 What is the purpose of the provisions...

  17. 25 CFR 170.920 - What is the purpose of the provisions relating to emergency relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...purpose of the provisions relating to emergency relief? 170.920 Section 170.920 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT...PROGRAM Miscellaneous Provisions Emergency Relief § 170.920 What is the purpose of the provisions...

  18. Certain Cash Contributions for Haiti Relief Can Be Deducted on Your 2009 Tax Return

    E-print Network

    , distributed mobile computing (e.g., sensors, con- ferences), disaster relief (e.g., flood, earthquake), war.g., warfront activities, search and rescue, disaster relief operations, etc.), the mobile nodes are often

  19. 76 FR 1209 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2011. The designated ERD for calendar year 2011 is docket number...

  20. 75 FR 3782 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2010. The designated ERD for calendar year 2010 is docket number...

  1. 77 FR 5293 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2012. The designated ERD for calendar year 2012 is docket number...

  2. 78 FR 3964 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2013. The designated ERD for calendar year 2013 is docket number...

  3. 46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section...LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-15 Safety relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank...

  4. 46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section...LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-15 Safety relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank...

  5. 46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section...LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-15 Safety relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank...

  6. 46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section...LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-15 Safety relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank...

  7. 46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section...LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-15 Safety relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank...

  8. 76 FR 78130 - Mortgage Acts and Practices-Advertising (Regulation N); Mortgage Assistance Relief Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...which is conducted to induce the purchase of any service, by use of one or more telephones...the mortgage assistance relief service; (11) The total cost to purchase the mortgage assistance relief service; or (12) The terms,...

  9. Effect of tensile stress on cavitation damage formation in mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naoe, Takashi; Kogawa, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoshihito; Futakawa, Masatoshi

    2010-03-01

    Cavitation erosion or so called pitting damage was investigated under tensile stress conditions in mercury. In MW-class liquid metal spallation targets, pitting damage is a critical issue to satisfy required power and/or lifetime of the target vessel. Cavitation occurs by negative pressure which is induced through pressure wave propagation due to proton beam injection. Pitting damage is formed by microjet and/or shock wave during cavitation bubble collapse. A mercury target vessel suffers tensile stress due to thermal stress or welding. In order to investigate the effect of tensile stress on pitting damage formation, cavitation erosion tests were performed using stress imposed specimens in mercury. An ultrasonic vibratory horn and electro-Magnetic IMpact Testing Machine (MIMTM) were used to vary the cavitation intensity. In the incubation period of pitting damage, damaged area was slightly increased with increasing imposed tensile stress. In the steady state period, a mean depth of erosion was increased by the tensile stress. Additionally, in order to quantitatively evaluate the effect of tensile stress, an indentation test with Vickers indenter was carried out to quasi-statically simulate the impact load. From the measurement of the diagonal length of the indent aspect ratio and hardness, it is recognized that the threshold of the deformation, i.e. pitting damage formation, was decreased by the tensile stress.

  10. 40 CFR 61.242-8 - Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service and connectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...relief services in liquid service and connectors. 61.242-8 Section 61.242-8...relief services in liquid service and connectors. (a) If evidence of a potential...relief devices in liquid service and connectors, the owner or operator shall...

  11. 40 CFR 61.242-8 - Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service and connectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...relief services in liquid service and connectors. 61.242-8 Section 61.242-8...relief services in liquid service and connectors. (a) If evidence of a potential...relief devices in liquid service and connectors, the owner or operator shall...

  12. 46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91 Section 64.91 Shipping...Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that is—...

  13. 46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91 Section 64.91 Shipping...Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that is—...

  14. 46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91 Section 64.91 Shipping...Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that is—...

  15. 46 CFR 36.10-1 - Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL. 36.10-1 Section...and Accessory Equipment § 36.10-1 Cargo pump relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Cargo pump relief valves and pressure gages may be...

  16. 46 CFR 36.10-1 - Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL. 36.10-1 Section...and Accessory Equipment § 36.10-1 Cargo pump relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Cargo pump relief valves and pressure gages may be...

  17. 46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91 Section 64.91 Shipping...Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that is—...

  18. 46 CFR 36.10-1 - Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL. 36.10-1 Section...and Accessory Equipment § 36.10-1 Cargo pump relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Cargo pump relief valves and pressure gages may be...

  19. 46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91 Section 64.91 Shipping...Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that is—...

  20. 46 CFR 36.10-1 - Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL. 36.10-1 Section...and Accessory Equipment § 36.10-1 Cargo pump relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Cargo pump relief valves and pressure gages may be...

  1. NC-ERP Rapid Implementation in Sichuan Post-earthquake for Relief Material Management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Huifen; Cui Lei

    2009-01-01

    In earthquake relief, the broad effects of humanitarian relief include delivery medical material to victims. Scientific relief need quick response of logistics supply chain, which include tracking situational urgency at various locations such as lack of food and medical supplies. The paper introduced the rapid adoption of NC-ERP in Sichuan post-earthquake which was donated by UFIDA. With the rapid implementation

  2. Disaster relief decision support system of army aviation based on the “3S” integrated technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuxin Jin; Jiangang Yan; Donghua Pan

    2010-01-01

    Disaster relief is a systematic project, application of 3S integration technology in disaster relief support is a hot topic and the development trend in current disaster relief. With the constant development of space technology and satellite accuracy, as well as the expansion of GIS supported by computer software and hardware, 3S technology is bound to permeate every link of disaster

  3. Research on the Impact of Mobile Commerce on Earchquake Relief Management: The View of System Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shurong Han; Licheng Ren; Wenxiang Shi

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the complete causal loop diagram of the earthquake relief operations management is deduced.On the basis of this, the role of mobile telecommunications is revealed in earthquake relief operations management under the condition of the mobile telecommunications facilities were interrupted and resumpted after Wenchuan earthquake took place. And then, the causal loop diagram of the earthquake relief operations

  4. An analysis of tomb reliefs depicting boat construction from the Old Kingdom period in Egypt 

    E-print Network

    Rogers, Edward Morgan

    1996-01-01

    Among the aspects of daily life represented on the walls of private tombs during the Old Kingdom in Egypt are reliefs depicting the construction of boat hulls. Examination of the twenty known reliefs and relief fragments which date to this period...

  5. 40 CFR 61.242-8 - Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service and connectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...relief services in liquid service and connectors. 61.242-8 Section 61.242-8...relief services in liquid service and connectors. (a) If evidence of a potential...relief devices in liquid service and connectors, the owner or operator shall...

  6. 40 CFR 61.242-8 - Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service and connectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...relief services in liquid service and connectors. 61.242-8 Section 61.242-8...relief services in liquid service and connectors. (a) If evidence of a potential...relief devices in liquid service and connectors, the owner or operator shall...

  7. 40 CFR 61.242-8 - Standards: Pressure relief services in liquid service and connectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...relief services in liquid service and connectors. 61.242-8 Section 61.242-8...relief services in liquid service and connectors. (a) If evidence of a potential...relief devices in liquid service and connectors, the owner or operator shall...

  8. 40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 264.1054...Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except...each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be...

  9. 40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 265.1054...Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except...each pressure relief device in gas/vapor service shall be...

  10. 31 CFR 256.60 - How do I get paid for a Private Relief Bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false How do I get paid for a Private Relief Bill? 256.60 Section 256.60 Money...OBTAINING PAYMENTS FROM THE JUDGMENT FUND AND UNDER PRIVATE RELIEF BILLS Private Relief Bills § 256.60 How do I get paid...

  11. 31 CFR 256.60 - How do I get paid for a Private Relief Bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false How do I get paid for a Private Relief Bill? 256.60 Section 256.60 Money...OBTAINING PAYMENTS FROM THE JUDGMENT FUND AND UNDER PRIVATE RELIEF BILLS Private Relief Bills § 256.60 How do I get paid...

  12. 80 FR 22606 - Grand Canyon National Park Quiet Aircraft Technology Incentive: Seasonal Relief From Allocations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2015-04-22

    ...Seasonal Relief From Allocations in the Dragon and Zuni Point Corridors AGENCY: Federal...seasonal relief from allocations in the Dragon and Zuni Point corridors for commercial...Relief From Allocations for QT in the Dragon and Zuni Point Corridors Following...

  13. 30 CFR 203.50 - Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief? 203.50 Section 203...Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.50 Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief? You may apply for...

  14. 30 CFR 203.51 - How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief? 203.51 Section 203...Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.51 How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief? You must submit...

  15. 30 CFR 203.50 - Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief? 203.50 Section 203...Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.50 Who may apply for end-of-life royalty relief? You may apply for...

  16. 30 CFR 203.51 - How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief? 203.51 Section 203...Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.51 How do I apply for end-of-life royalty relief? You must submit...

  17. 30 CFR 203.77 - May I voluntarily give up relief if conditions change?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false May I voluntarily give up relief if conditions change? 203.77...General § 203.77 May I voluntarily give up relief if conditions change? Yes, you may voluntarily give up relief by sending a letter to that...

  18. 30 CFR 203.77 - May I voluntarily give up relief if conditions change?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false May I voluntarily give up relief if conditions change? 203.77...General § 203.77 May I voluntarily give up relief if conditions change? Yes, you may voluntarily give up relief by sending a letter to that...

  19. Cryostat "UV" Relief Valve Selection and Process Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

    1987-08-11

    This report describes the selection of the relief valves for the D-Zero cryostats. The selection was based on the flow requirements calculated in D-Zero engineering note 3740.214,224-EN-6 under fire conditions (1200 F, no vacuum) for the central cryostat; 264 SCFM. This value was calculated from section 5.3.5 of 'Pressure Relief Device Standards; S 1.3-Compressed Gas Storage Containers', published by the Compressed Gas Association, Inc. The flow calculated above is far greater than the required fire condition flow capacity of 264 SCFM. The improbable 70 F flow temperature value of 738 SCFM is still much greater than the required fire capacity. The flow capacity of the paralleled supplemental rupture disc is 2640 SCFM, independently greater than the fire condition flow requirement.

  20. Medical relief for the 2011 Japan earthquake: a nursing account.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Satoko; Kako, Mayumi; Mayner, Lidia

    2014-03-01

    In 2011 the east coast of Japan experienced a massive earthquake which triggered a devastating tsunami destroying many towns and killing over 15?000 people. The work presented in this paper is a personal account that outlines the relief efforts of the Humanitarian Medical Assistance team and describes the efforts to provide medical assistance to evacuees. The towns most affected had a large proportion of older people who were more likely to have chronic conditions and required medication to sustain their health. Since personal property was destroyed in the tsunami many older people were left without medication and also did not remember which type of medication they were taking. Some evacuees had brought a list of their medication with them, this assisted relief teams in obtaining the required medication for these people. The more successful evacuation centers had small numbers of evacuees who were given tasks to administer the center that kept them occupied and active. PMID:24305171

  1. Developing Countries: Debt Relief Initiative for Poor Countries Facing Challenges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Released in June 2000, this 184-page report from the General Accounting Office reviews the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative. Originally undertaken by the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 1996 as a way of providing financial relief to the most indebted countries in the world, the initiative was enhanced in September 1999 as a response to the continuing vulnerability of these countries. According to this report, the initiative "will provide significant debt relief . . . with the debt for six of the seven countries the GAO analyzed projected to be reduced be one-third or more. However, given the continued fragility of these countries, the initiative is not likely to provide recipients with a lasting exit from their debt problems, unless they achieve strong, sustained economic growth." For more information on the Debt Initiative for the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries, see the August 27, 1999 Scout Report.

  2. Pain relief in labour by transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. T. van der Spank; D. C. Cambier; H. M. C. De Paepe; L. A. G. Danneels; E. E. Witvrouw; L. Beerens

    2000-01-01

    For several years Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) has been used in the management of chronic and acute\\u000a pain. The aim of this trial was to determine its effectiveness in providing pain relief during labour as well as its influence\\u000a on the incidence of requests for epidural analgesia. The experimental group (receiving TENS by a burst – conventional obstetric\\u000a TENS-apparatus)

  3. Formation and dynamics of polymer surface relief gratings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Henneberg; Th. Geue; M. Saphiannikova; U. Pietsch; P. Rochon; A. Natansohn

    2001-01-01

    Time resolved VIS and X-ray scattering experiments have been performed during the formation of a surface relief grating on a polymer film containing an azobenzene side-chain homopolymer (poly{(4-nitrophenyl)[4-[[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]ethylamino]phenyl]diazene} (pDR1M), TG=129°C) upon holographic exposure with circularly polarised laser light of 488nm. Using fixed geometric conditions for both experiments, the time evolution of the first order grating peak was observed. Short time

  4. NATIONAL SECURITY: Relief, Rebukes Follow Agreement on Lee.

    PubMed

    Lawler, A

    2000-09-15

    What began as an explosive case of alleged nuclear espionage is expected to end quietly soon when physicist Wen Ho Lee walks free from an Albuquerque, New Mexico, courtroom after 9 months in jail. The ignominious collapse of the government's case and Lee's release have embarrassed federal prosecutors. However, the news was a relief to Asian-American researchers and others who say Lee's status as a suspect had heightened racial tensions at the national labs. PMID:17839923

  5. Effect of tip relief on endurance characteristics of super nitralloy and AISI M-50 spur gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted with two groups of 8.89-centimeter (3.5-in.) pitch diameter spur gears with standard 20 deg involute profile with tip relief made of CVM Super-Nitralloy (5Ni-2Al) and CVM AISI M-50 at a temperature of 350 K (170 F). Super-Nitralloy gears with tip relief had a life 150 percent that of gears without tip relief. An increased scoring phenomenon was noted with the Super-Nitralloy gears with tip relief. Through-hardened AISI M-50 gears with tip relief failed due to tooth fracture. AISI M-50 gears without tip relief had a life approximately 40 times greater than the AISI M-50 gears with tip relief.

  6. Vibratory process control transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langdon, R. M.

    1980-09-01

    Industrial systems based on digital transmission of information offer the advantage of minimizing external electrical interference. Variable-frequency-output transducers, compatible with digital systems, use flexural vibration of mechanical structures inserted in liquid to measure the liquid's level, density, and viscosity. Level is measured with devices with a basic design consisting of a metal tube, one end of which is mounted to a tank wall, the other end submerged in the tank's liquid. When voltage is applied to lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) transducers bonded to the inside of the tube, the transducers contract lengthwise, causing a bending moment in the tube. Calculations based on the relationship between depth and vibration frequency are then used to determine the liquid's level. Accuracies are better than 1% in low-viscosity liquids. The paper also describes experimental density probes whose measurement accuracies range from 0.005 gm/cc to 0.0005 gm/cc, and viscosity devices that determine both dynamic and kinematic viscosity.

  7. Neural mechanisms underlying the induction and relief of perceptual curiosity

    PubMed Central

    Jepma, Marieke; Verdonschot, Rinus G.; van Steenbergen, Henk; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Curiosity is one of the most basic biological drives in both animals and humans, and has been identified as a key motive for learning and discovery. Despite the importance of curiosity and related behaviors, the topic has been largely neglected in human neuroscience; hence little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying curiosity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate what happens in our brain during the induction and subsequent relief of perceptual curiosity. Our core findings were that (1) the induction of perceptual curiosity, through the presentation of ambiguous visual input, activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), brain regions sensitive to conflict and arousal; (2) the relief of perceptual curiosity, through visual disambiguation, activated regions of the striatum that have been related to reward processing; and (3) the relief of perceptual curiosity was associated with hippocampal activation and enhanced incidental memory. These findings provide the first demonstration of the neural basis of human perceptual curiosity. Our results provide neurobiological support for a classic psychological theory of curiosity, which holds that curiosity is an aversive condition of increased arousal whose termination is rewarding and facilitates memory. PMID:22347853

  8. 30 CFR 204.206 - What will MMS do when it receives my request for other relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false What will MMS do when it receives my request for other relief...Relief § 204.206 What will MMS do when it receives my request for other relief...for other relief under § 204.205(b), it will notify you in writing as...

  9. TAX RELIEF FOR DONATIONS Section 848A of the Taxes Consolidation Act, 1997 provides for a scheme of tax relief for

    E-print Network

    Humphrys, Mark

    TAX RELIEF FOR DONATIONS Section 848A of the Taxes Consolidation Act, 1997 provides for a scheme of tax relief for certain "eligible charities" and other "approved bodies" in respect of donations is 250. Donations made by instalments (e.g. Standing Order) will also qualify. For the purposes of tax

  10. 12 CFR 742.4 - RegFlex Relief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...control can be delegated; (6) “Stress testing” of investments. Section...of this chapter concerning “stress testing” of securities holdings...federally-insured credit union only; (2) Student loans. Student loans pursuant to §...

  11. The Reasons for Using Acupuncture for Pain Relief

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Roghyeh; Heidarnia, Mohamad Ali; Zagheri Tafreshi, Mansoure; Rassouli, Maryam; Soori, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acupuncture has recently received considerable attention around the world due to its cost-effectiveness, few side effects, and well-established analgesic properties. Objectives: The present study aimed to identify the factors that might lead to using acupuncture for pain relief. Patients and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted using conventional content analysis method. The study population included eight patients and six highly experienced acupuncturists, who were able to express their opinion and were willing to take part in the study. The inclusion criteria for patients were being under treatment with acupuncture for pain relief or a history of treatment during the last year and age > 18 years. All highly trained acupuncturists with minimum of one-year active experience were included. The data were collected via semi-structured in-depth interviews. Categories were extracted through inductive analysis and codes and eventually, themes emerged. Data rigor was assured by data collection triangulation, participants’ variety, and external and members’ check. Results: Initially, 1311 primary codes were extracted, then the related codes were divided into 127 subcategories according to their similarities, and after reduction and integration process, 16 categories were developed from subcategories and eventually five themes were determined, including conventional medicine limitation, efficacy of acupuncture, external promoters, internal promoters, and acupuncture inhibitors. Conclusions: The important factors that affect choosing acupuncture for pain relief included conventional medicine limitations, external promoters, internal promoters, acupuncture efficacy, and acupuncture inhibitors. More interest can be drawn to this technique by basic planning to enhance some of the underlying factors and eliminate obstacles to its further applicability. PMID:25593727

  12. Building Pressure Control in VAV System with Relief Air Fan

    E-print Network

    Pang, X.; Liu, M.; Zheng, B.

    2005-01-01

    Building Pressure Control in VAV Systems with Relief Air Fan Xiufeng Pang, Mingsheng Liu, PhD, P.E., Bin Zheng University of Nebraska, Lincoln—ESL 1110 So. 67 th St, Omaha, NE, 68182 Abstract Building pressure control is critical....02 inch w.g. Moreover, undesirable “wind” occurred at the connection linking the east wing and the west wing, which was served by heat pump systems and had acceptable building pressure. DUCT PRESSURE SENOR BUILDING PRESSURE SENSOR VFD P P VFD 1st...

  13. A multi-objective robust stochastic programming model for disaster relief logistics under uncertainty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Bozorgi-Amiri; M. S. Jabalameli; S. M. J. Mirzapour Al-e-Hashem

    Humanitarian relief logistics is one of the most important elements of a relief operation in disaster management. The present\\u000a work develops a multi-objective robust stochastic programming approach for disaster relief logistics under uncertainty. In\\u000a our approach, not only demands but also supplies and the cost of procurement and transportation are considered as the uncertain\\u000a parameters. Furthermore, the model considers uncertainty

  14. Virtually Stress Free: Keeping Online Graduate Management Students Healthy from Afar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinak, M. Linda

    2012-01-01

    This article examines stress experienced by graduate management students in an online learning environment. I use qualitative methodology to examine data collected from 32 students in 2 sections of a graduate online course. Findings identify 6 categories of stressors experienced by the students as well as 6 categories of stress relief agents.…

  15. How absent negativity relates to affect and motivation: an integrative relief model

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Roland; Smith, Kevin J. M.; Kordts-Freudinger, Robert; Reichardt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    The present paper concerns the motivational underpinnings and behavioral correlates of the prevention or stopping of negative stimulation – a situation referred to as relief. Relief is of great theoretical and applied interest. Theoretically, it is tied to theories linking affect, emotion, and motivational systems. Importantly, these theories make different predictions regarding the association between relief and motivational systems. Moreover, relief is a prototypical antecedent of counterfactual emotions, which involve specific cognitive processes compared to factual or mere anticipatory emotions. Practically, relief may be an important motivator of addictive and phobic behaviors, self destructive behaviors, and social influence. In the present paper, we will first provide a review of conflicting conceptualizations of relief. We will then present an integrative relief model (IRMO) that aims at resolving existing theoretical conflicts. We then review evidence relevant to distinctive predictions regarding the moderating role of various procedural features of relief situations. We conclude that our integrated model results in a better understanding of existing evidence on the affective and motivational underpinnings of relief, but that further evidence is needed to come to a more comprehensive evaluation of the viability of IRMO. PMID:25806008

  16. Raised Relief Mars Globe Brings the Red Planet Closer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Globe 20x is the first digitally produced raised relief globe to be sold at retail establishments. The rises and dips of the Martian landscape have been multiplied by 20 to make the shapes more noticeable to human touch and sight. They make this globe, with its over 1 million elevation points, a visually stunning introduction to the planet. Spectrum 3D used the NASA digital land elevation data to aim lasers that then shaped and defined the master globe s surface. Subsequent copies were then made by creating a master globe mold. The molded copies are hand finished by workers who remove errant edges or lines that may appear on the raw globes and then paint the surfaces. The result is a globe that measures in at 18 inches in diameter, roughly 1:15,729,473 scale of the actual planet. The exaggerated raised relief is like having a 3-D digital microscope for planetary shapes. This makes the landmarks easier to learn and understand, as it provides easy visuals for orientation. People have a natural propensity for understanding 3-D shapes more easily than numbers or words. The 3-D globes appeal to both the kinetic and visual learning aspects of the brain, making it easy for people to readily memorize the landmarks and to make a mental model that they will remember for a long time.

  17. Pain relief in childbirth: changing historical and feminist perspectives.

    PubMed

    Skowronski, G A

    2015-07-01

    Pain during human childbirth is ubiquitous and severe. Opium and its derivatives constitute the oldest effective method of pain relief and have been used in childbirth for several thousand years, along with numerous folk medicines and remedies. Interference with childbirth pain has always been criticised by doctors and clergy. The 19th century saw the introduction of three much more effective approaches to childbirth pain; diethyl ether, chloroform and nitrous oxide. Access to pain relief was demanded by the first wave of feminist activists as a woman's right. They popularised the use of 'twilight sleep', a combination of morphine and scopolamine, which fell into disrepute as its adverse effects became known. From the 1960s, as epidural analgesia became more popular, a second wave of feminists took the opposite position, calling for a return to non-medicalised, female-controlled, 'natural' childbirth and, in some cases, valorising the importance of the pain experience as empowering for women. However, from the 1990s, a third wave of feminist thought has begun to emerge, revalidating a woman's right to choose a 'technological', pain-free birth, rather than a 'natural' one, and regarding this as a legitimate feminist position. PMID:26126073

  18. Shaded Relief of South Africa, Northern Cape Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Located north of the Swartberg Mountains in South Africa's Northern Cape Province, this topographic image shows a portion of the Great Karoo region. Karoo is an indigenous word for 'dry thirst land.' The semi-arid area is known for its unique variety of flora and fauna. The topography of the area, with a total relief of 200 meters (650 feet), reveals much about the geologic history of the area. The linear features seen in the image are near-vertical walls of once-molten rock, or dikes, that have intruded the bedrock. The dikes are more resistant to weathering and, therefore, form the linear wall-like features seen in the image. In relatively flat arid areas such as this, small changes in the topography can have large impacts on the water resources and the local ecosystem. These data can be used by biologists to study the distribution and range of the different plants and animals. Geologists can also use the data to study the geologic history of this area in more detail.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from green at the lowest elevations to reddish at the highest elevations. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

  19. Modeling subsurface stormflow initiation in low-relief landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Luisa; Vaché, Kellie B.; Rhett Jackson, C.; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2015-04-01

    Shallow lateral subsurface flow as a runoff generating mechanism at the hillslope scale has mostly been studied in steeper terrain with typical hillside angles of 10 - 45 degrees. These studies have shown that subsurface stormflow is often initiated at the interface between a permeable upper soil layer and a lower conductivity impeding layer, e.g. a B horizon or bedrock. Many studies have identified thresholds of event size and soil moisture states that need to be exceeded before subsurface stormflow is initiated. However, subsurface stormflow generation on low-relief hillslopes has been much less studied. Here we present a modeling study that investigates the initiation of subsurface stormflow on low-relief hillslopes in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA. Hillslopes in this region typically have slope angles of 2-5 degrees. Topsoils are sandy, underlain by a low-conductivity sandy clay loam Bt horizon. Subsurface stormflow has only been intercepted occasionally in a 120 m long trench, and often subsurface flow was not well correlated with stream signals, suggesting a disconnect between subsurface flow on the hillslopes and stream flow. We therefore used a hydrologic model to better understand which conditions promote the initiation of subsurface flow in this landscape, addressing following questions: Is there a threshold event size and soil moisture state for producing lateral subsurface flow? What role does the spatial pattern of depth to the impeding clay layer play for subsurface stormflow dynamics? We reproduced a section of a hillslope, for which high-resolution topographic data and depth to clay measurements were available, in the hydrologic model HYDRUS-3D. Soil hydraulic parameters were based on experimentally-derived data. The threshold analysis was first performed using hourly climate data records for 2009-2010 from the study site to drive the simulation. For this period also trench measurements of subsurface flow were available. In addition, we also ran a longer-term simulation, using daily climate data for a nine year period to include more variable climate conditions in the threshold analysis. The model captured the observed subsurface flow instances very well. The threshold analysis indicated that the occurrence of subsurface stormflow uncommon, with a large proportion of the water perching above the clay layer percolating vertically into the clay layer. Event sizes of approximately 70-80 mm were required for initiating subsurface stormflow. The hourly data from 2009-2010 was subsequently used to test if the actual spatial distribution of depth to clay is a major control for the occurrence and magnitude of lateral subsurface flow. Results suggest that in this low-relief landscape also a spatially uniform mean depth to clay reproduces well the hydrologic behavior.

  20. Relief and snow avalanches in the Tatra Mts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R?czkowska, Zofia; D?ugosz, Micha?; Rojan, El?bieta

    2015-04-01

    Snow avalanches are among the main factors influencing the high-mountain environment of the Tatra Mts. and their denudation system in the three uppermost geoecological belts. Dirty avalanches are assumed to be an important morphogenetic factor but also relief affects spatial differentiation of snow avalanche activity. The research aims to recognize the geomorphological conditions for avalanches and assessment of the morphogenetic role of avalanches in the whole Tatra Mts. For recognition of geomorphological conditions of snow avalanches activity was made map of avalanches paths, based on maps of snow avalanches occurred in the recent past, air- photos and digital terrain model. Starting zone and transition zone were specified within each path. For each type of designated zones the morphometric analysis was made, taking in account slope aspect and inclination. The map presents more than 3700 avalanche paths. The number of avalanche paths is more than double in the High Tatras than in the Western Tatras. Morphometric features and altitudinal range of avalanche paths also differ in individual parts of the Tatras what correspond with the relief differences. Length of avalanche paths reach up to 3138 m and in average is the biggest avalanche in the Bielanske Tatra. The paths are located about 200 m higher in the High Tatras than in other parts of the massif. There is no clear relationship between exposure of the slopes and the distribution of the avalanche path, while relationship with slope inclination is distinct. Over 70% of the avalanche paths occur on slopes 26-55o. Similar patterns were found in the distribution of avalanche accumulation zones. Detailed studies of morphogenetic role of avalanches are conducted in four chosen avalanche paths located both in the Western and the High Tatras. Measuring points of erosion, transport and accumulation installed there in the autumn 2012 are checked two times a year. It was found that effects of snow avalanches on the relief is characterised by temporal and spatial variability. The study are supported by the National Science Centre, project no 2011/03/B/ST10/06115

  1. Influence of adsorption kinetics on stress evolution in magnetron-sputtered SiO{sub 2} and SiN{sub x} films

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jingping [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 390, Qinghe Road, Jiading District, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Fang Ming; He Hongbo; Shao Jianda [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 390, Qinghe Road, Jiading District, Shanghai 201800 (China); Li Zhaoyang [Shanghai Institute of Laser Plasma, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2013-07-21

    An in situ multi-beam optical sensor system was used to monitor and analyze the force per unit width (F/w) and stress evolution during several stages in magnetron-sputtered SiO{sub 2} and SiN{sub x} films. Stress was observed to relieve quickly after interrupt and recover rapidly after growth resumption in both films. Stress relief was reversible in SiO{sub 2} film but partial reversible in SiN{sub x} film. Stress relief results from both physical and chemical adsorption. Stress recovery is caused by physical desorption. And chemical adsorption results in an irreversible stress relief component. No chemical adsorption occurs in SiO{sub 2} film because of the stable chemical structure. The relationship between adsorption kinetics and films' mechanical behavior is revealed.

  2. www.health.harvard.edu Portable Guide to Stress Relief 1 Your portable guide

    E-print Network

    Starnbach, Michael

    time. 2. Often angry or irritated? Con- sider the weight of cognitive distortions. Are you magnify- ing. This works equally well when you're learning relaxation response techniques, too. 4. Overextended? Clear, a body scan, or a mindful walk. Practically any exercise--a brisk walk, a quick run, a sprint up and down

  3. Spray shadowing for stress relief and mechanical locking in thick protective coatings

    DOEpatents

    Hollis, Kendall (Los Alamos, NM); Bartram, Brian (Los Alamos, NM)

    2007-05-22

    A method for applying a protective coating on an article, comprising the following steps: selecting an article with a surface for applying a coating thickness; creating undercut grooves on the article, where the grooves depend beneath the surface to a bottom portion with the grooves having an upper width on the surface and a lower width on the bottom portion connected by side walls, where at least one of the side walls connects the upper width and the lower width to form an undercut angle with the surface less than 90.degree.; and, applying the protective coating onto the article to fill the undercut grooves and cover the surface, thereby forming weak paths within the protective coating.

  4. The effectiveness of stress relief etching for improving bipolar device characteristics

    E-print Network

    Reed, Lynn Gillespie

    1975-01-01

    the number of dislocations formed during thermal cycling. An optimum etch time is found, and bipolar devices are built on Sirtl etched starting material. Measurements are made of the breakdown voltages, leakage currents, current gains and minority carrier... Voltage Leakage Current Minority Carrier Lifetime Transistor Gain Page 16 16 17 21 22 26 27 29 29 31 31 38 Devices Produced At Texas Instruments . 38 V. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY, APPENDIX A. 41 43 45 Vl Test...

  5. When transcriptome meets metabolome: fast cellular responses of yeast to sudden relief of glucose

    E-print Network

    Shmulevich, Ilya

    When transcriptome meets metabolome: fast cellular responses of yeast to sudden relief of glucose 4.7.06 Within the first 5 min after a sudden relief from glucose limitation, Saccharomyces. At the metabolite level, a severe drop of the AXP pools directly after glucose addition was not accompanied by any

  6. An emergency logistics distribution approach for quick response to urgent relief demand in disasters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2007-01-01

    Quick response to the urgent relief needs right after natural disasters through efficient emergency logistics distribution is vital to the alleviation of disaster impact in the affected areas, which remains challenging in the field of logistics and related study areas. This paper presents a hybrid fuzzy clustering-optimization approach to the operation of emergency logistics co-distribution responding to the urgent relief

  7. Counterfactually Mediated Emotions: A Developmental Study of Regret and Relief in a Probabilistic Gambling Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habib, M.; Cassotti, M.; Borst, G.; Simon, G.; Pineau, A.; Houde, O.; Moutier, S.

    2012-01-01

    Regret and relief are related to counterfactual thinking and rely on comparison processes between what has been and what might have been. In this article, we study the development of regret and relief from late childhood to adulthood (11.2-20.2 years), and we examine how these two emotions affect individuals' willingness to retrospectively…

  8. 26 CFR 1.6015-2 - Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...false Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers. 1.6015-2...6015-2 Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers. (a) In general...knowledge, see § 1.6015-3(c)(2). All of the facts and...

  9. 26 CFR 1.6015-2 - Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...false Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers. 1.6015-2...6015-2 Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers. (a) In general...knowledge, see § 1.6015-3(c)(2). All of the facts and...

  10. 26 CFR 1.6015-2 - Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...false Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers. 1.6015-2...6015-2 Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers. (a) In general...knowledge, see § 1.6015-3(c)(2). All of the facts and...

  11. 26 CFR 1.6015-2 - Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers. 1.6015-2...6015-2 Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers. (a) In general...knowledge, see § 1.6015-3(c)(2). All of the facts and...

  12. 26 CFR 1.6015-2 - Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...false Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers. 1.6015-2...6015-2 Relief from liability applicable to all qualifying joint filers. (a) In general...knowledge, see § 1.6015-3(c)(2). All of the facts and...

  13. Check valve installation in pilot operated relief valve prevents reverse pressurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswalt, L.

    1966-01-01

    Two check valves prevent reverse flow through pilot-operated relief valves of differential area piston design. Title valves control pressure flow to ensure that the piston dome pressure is always at least as great as the main relief valve discharge pressure.

  14. 27 CFR 19.250 - Application of surety for relief from bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Application of surety for relief from bond. 19.250 Section... Application of surety for relief from bond. A surety...date named, to be relieved of liability under said bond. Such...surety shall be relieved from liability to the extent set forth...

  15. 27 CFR 26.72 - Application of surety for relief from bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Application of surety for relief from bond. 26.72 Section... Application of surety for relief from bond. A surety...date named, to be relieved of liability under said bond. Such...surety shall be relieved from liability to the extent set forth...

  16. 27 CFR 28.72 - Application of surety for relief from bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Application of surety for relief from bond. 28.72 Section... Application of surety for relief from bond. A surety...date named, to be relieved of liability under said bond. Such...surety shall be relieved from liability to the extent set forth...

  17. 27 CFR 41.127 - Application of surety for relief from bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Application of surety for relief from bond. 41.127 Section... Application of surety for relief from bond. A surety...date named, to be relieved of liability under said bond. Such...surety shall be relieved from liability to the extent set forth...

  18. 27 CFR 24.157 - Application by surety for relief from bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Application by surety for relief from bond. 24.157 Section... Application by surety for relief from bond. A surety...specified date, to be relieved of liability under the bond. The...surety will be relieved from liability to the extent set forth...

  19. 27 CFR 25.103 - Notice by surety for relief from liability under bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Notice by surety for relief from liability under bond. 25.103 Section 25.103 Alcohol...Consents of Surety § 25.103 Notice by surety for relief from liability under bond. A surety may, at any...

  20. Japan Earthquake &Tsunami Relief The Institute for Japanese Studies extends its sympathy and

    E-print Network

    Japan Earthquake &Tsunami Relief The Institute for Japanese Studies extends its sympathy by the massive earthquake and tsunamis. Even with the large amount of information available, it will take time, and the students and faculty of The Ohio State University, is soliciting contributions for disaster relief

  1. 30 CFR 203.70 - What information must I provide after MMS approves relief?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Pre-Act Deep Water Leases and for Development and Expansion Projects § 203.70 What information must I provide after MMS approves relief? You must submit reports to us...

  2. 30 CFR 203.77 - May I voluntarily give up relief if conditions change?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Pre-Act Deep Water Leases and for Development and Expansion Projects § 203.77 May I voluntarily give up relief if conditions change? Yes, you may voluntarily give up...

  3. 75 FR 5639 - Notice of Establishment of Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-03

    ...Establishment of Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010 AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration...establishing an Emergency Relief Docket for calendar year 2010 so grantees and subgrantees...if the emergency lasts more than 45 calendar days, the grantee or subgrantee...

  4. 46 CFR 36.10-1 - Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Cargo pump relief valves-TB/ALL. 36.10-1 Section...ELEVATED TEMPERATURE CARGOES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 36.10-1 Cargo pump relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Cargo pump...

  5. 46 CFR 56.50-25 - Safety and relief valve escape piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Safety and relief valve escape piping. 56.50-25 Section...Systems § 56.50-25 Safety and relief valve escape piping. (a) Escape piping...generator, boiler, and superheater safety valves shall have an area of not less than...

  6. 46 CFR 56.50-25 - Safety and relief valve escape piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Safety and relief valve escape piping. 56.50-25 Section...Systems § 56.50-25 Safety and relief valve escape piping. (a) Escape piping...generator, boiler, and superheater safety valves shall have an area of not less than...

  7. 46 CFR 56.50-25 - Safety and relief valve escape piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Safety and relief valve escape piping. 56.50-25 Section...Systems § 56.50-25 Safety and relief valve escape piping. (a) Escape piping...generator, boiler, and superheater safety valves shall have an area of not less than...

  8. 46 CFR 58.16-15 - Valves and safety relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Valves and safety relief devices. 58.16-15...Cooking and Heating § 58.16-15 Valves and safety relief devices. (a...manually operated screw-down shutoff valve fitted with a handwheel installed...

  9. 46 CFR 58.16-15 - Valves and safety relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves and safety relief devices. 58.16-15...Cooking and Heating § 58.16-15 Valves and safety relief devices. (a...manually operated screw-down shutoff valve fitted with a handwheel installed...

  10. 46 CFR 58.16-15 - Valves and safety relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Valves and safety relief devices. 58.16-15...Cooking and Heating § 58.16-15 Valves and safety relief devices. (a...manually operated screw-down shutoff valve fitted with a handwheel installed...

  11. 46 CFR 58.16-15 - Valves and safety relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Valves and safety relief devices. 58.16-15...Cooking and Heating § 58.16-15 Valves and safety relief devices. (a...manually operated screw-down shutoff valve fitted with a handwheel installed...

  12. 46 CFR 58.16-15 - Valves and safety relief devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Valves and safety relief devices. 58.16-15...Cooking and Heating § 58.16-15 Valves and safety relief devices. (a...manually operated screw-down shutoff valve fitted with a handwheel installed...

  13. On the Influence of Poverty Relief and Educational Aid on Normal University Students' Specialty Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yun, Pei

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the influence of poverty relief and educational aid on the development of normal university students in their specialty; in particular, it focuses on its influence on their teaching internship, their study of professional courses, and the formation of professional ethics. The implementation of poverty relief and educational…

  14. A two-stage procurement model for humanitarian relief supply chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mauro Falasca; Christopher W. Zobel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss and to help address the need for quantitative models to support and improve procurement in the context of humanitarian relief efforts. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This research presents a two-stage stochastic decision model with recourse for procurement in humanitarian relief supply chains, and compares its effectiveness on an illustrative example with respect

  15. Caldera subsidence in areas of variable topographic relief: results from analogue modeling

    E-print Network

    Long, Bernard

    Caldera subsidence in areas of variable topographic relief: results from analogue modeling Yan 2002; accepted 17 March 2003 Abstract Calderas form in volcanic areas commonly associated with topographic relief. Pre-existing topography plays an important role in the style of the caldera subsidence

  16. 79 FR 66763 - Grand Canyon National Park Quiet Aircraft Technology Incentive: Seasonal Relief From Allocations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-11-10

    ...Seasonal Relief From Allocations in the Dragon and Zuni Point Corridors Authority: Moving...seasonal relief from allocations in the Dragon and Zuni Point corridors for commercial...is proposed to be made available in the Dragon and Zuni Point corridors during the...

  17. "There Is a Lot that I Want to Do": Reflections on the Relief Efforts in Haiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desgrottes, Maryse

    2011-01-01

    In October 2010, Harvard Educational Review editor Raygine DiAquoi interviewed Maryse Desgrottes, the mother of a close friend and a visible presence in the relief efforts in Petit Goave, Haiti. Desgrottes, a former physician's assistant turned educator and school superintendent, shares the story of her involvement in Haiti's relief efforts since…

  18. Automated Reduction of Visual Complexity in Small-Scale Relief Shading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna M. Leonowicz; Bernhard Jenny; Lorenz Hurni

    2010-01-01

    Shaded relief derived automatically from digital elevation models differs distinctly from traditional manual shading. Par- ticularly at small scales, many small topographic details that are present in terrain models disturb the clear portrayal of the main relief features. Automatic shading is therefore not appropriate for high-quality cartographic products. This paper proposes a new method of generalizing digital elevation models for

  19. 26 CFR 1.6015-1 - Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return. 1.6015-1 Section 1.6015-1...Returns Or Statements § 1.6015-1 Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return....

  20. 26 CFR 1.6015-1 - Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return. 1.6015-1 Section 1.6015-1...Returns Or Statements § 1.6015-1 Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return....

  1. 26 CFR 1.6015-1 - Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return. 1.6015-1 Section 1.6015-1...Returns Or Statements § 1.6015-1 Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return....

  2. 26 CFR 1.6015-1 - Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return. 1.6015-1 Section 1.6015-1...Returns Or Statements § 1.6015-1 Relief from joint and several liability on a joint return....

  3. Ensuring pain relief for children at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Grégoire, Marie-Claude; Frager, Gerri

    2006-01-01

    Pain management in the context of pediatric palliative care can be challenging. The present article reviews, through a case-based presentation, the nonpharmacological and pharmacological methods used to ensure adequate pain control in children facing end of life. Details on the impressive range of opioid dosages required and routes of administration are highlighted from published literature and clinical experience. Where available, evidence-based recommendations are provided. Potential side effects of pain medication and barriers to good pain control are discussed. Novel analgesics and innovative delivery methods are presented as future tools enhancing pain relief at the end of life. Some challenges to ethically grounded research in this important context of care are reviewed. PMID:16960633

  4. Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Interface relief upon explosion welding: Splashes and waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, B. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Inozemtsev, A. V.; Kuz'min, S. V.; Lysak, V. I.; Vlasova, A. M.; Pushkin, M. S.

    2015-04-01

    For copper-tantalum, aluminum-tantalum, and magnesium-titanium joints the character of the interface relief has been investigated in different regimes of explosion welding at, below, and above the lower limit of weldability. It has been found for the first time that protrusions on the plane interface have the shape of splashes. This shape is unusual with allowance for the fact that protrusions arise from the solid phase that experienced no melting. Upon transitioning to the region below the lower limit, the number of splashes decreases and they prove to be insufficient to provide weldability. Upon transitioning to a region somewhat above the lower limit, the interface becomes quasi-wavy and inhomogeneous and, in some places, in addition to the wavy surface, splashes are also observed. Splashes and waves have been observed simultaneously for the first time. Models that describe possible variants of their interrelation have been proposed.

  6. [Prolonged epidural analgesia with ultracaine for labor pain relief].

    PubMed

    Semenikhin, A A; Kim En Din

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged epidural analgesia (PEA) for labor pain relief and effect of this method of conduction blockade on the main vital systems of mother and newborn were studied. PEA with ultracain was used in 486 women aged 18-38 years. Puncture and catheterization of the epidural space was made at the level of the second-third lumbar vertebrae; a single dose of 1% ultracain was 1.0-1.2 mg/kg. Effects of this method on the hemodynamics, external respiration function, autonomic status, and newborn status were evaluated. PEA with ultracain proved to be highly effective and safe for the mother and exerted no depressive effect on the newborn. Positive characteristics of ultracain are the minimum latent period, long (86.8 +/- 5.1 min) duration of sensory blocking, and no side effects. PMID:11494895

  7. Multiple sclerosis fatigue relief by bilateral somatosensory cortex neuromodulation.

    PubMed

    Tecchio, Franca; Cancelli, Andrea; Cottone, Carlo; Zito, Giancarlo; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Ghazaryan, Anna; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Filippi, Maria Maddalena

    2014-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis-related fatigue is highly common and often refractory to medical therapy. Ten fatigued multiple sclerosis patients received two blocks of 5-day anodal bilateral primary somatosensory areas transcranial direct current stimulation in a randomized, double-blind sham-controlled, cross-over study. The real neuromodulation by a personalized electrode, shaped on the MR-derived primary somatosensory cortical strip, reduced fatigue in all patients, by 26 % in average (p = 0.002), which did not change after sham (p = 0.901). Anodal tDCS over bilateral somatosensory areas was able to relief fatigue in mildly disabled MS patients, when the fatigue-related symptoms severely hamper their quality of life. These small-scale study results support the concept that interventions modifying the sensorimotor network activity balances could be a suitable non-pharmacological treatment for multiple sclerosis fatigue. PMID:24854634

  8. Continuous intravenous morphine for pain relief after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Ray, D. C.; Drummond, G. B.

    1988-01-01

    We studied prospectively 247 consecutive patients given morphine by continuous intravenous infusion for 24 h to provide pain relief following elective abdominal surgery. Using a dose of 1 mg/kg supplemented by additional intramuscular morphine 5 mg as necessary, only 26% required more than two additional intramuscular doses for discomfort. In 71 patients, the infusion was discontinued temporarily, mostly because of low respiratory rates. These patients were older (P less than 0.01), and their mean respiratory rate over the 24 h was significantly less (P less than 0.001) than those in whom the infusion was continuous. The technique was inexpensive, easy to use in a general surgical ward, and safe provided certain rules were observed. PMID:3190130

  9. Post operative pain relief through intermittent mandibular nerve block.

    PubMed

    Sawhney, Chhavi; Agrawal, Pramendra; Soni, Kapil Dev

    2011-01-01

    Mandibular nerve block is often performed for diagnostic, therapeutic and anesthetic purposes for surgery involving mandibular region. Advantages of a nerve block include excellent pain relief and avoidance of the side effects associated with the use of opiods or Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs). A patient with maxillo facial trauma was scheduled for open reduction and internal fixation of right parasymphyseal mandibular fracture. The mandibular nerve was approached using the lateral extraoral approach with an 18-gauge i.v. cannula under general anesthesia. He received 4 ml boluses of 0.25% plain bupivacaine for intraoperative analgesia and 12 hourly for 48 h post operatively. VAS scores remained less than 4 through out observation period. The only side effect was numbness of ipsilateral lower jaw line, which subsided after local anesthetic administration was discontinued. Patient was discharged after four days. PMID:22442616

  10. Western Tibet relief evolution, insight from sedimentary record and thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahéo, Gweltaz; Gourbet, Loraine; Hervé Leloup, Philippe; Sorrel, Philippe; Shuster, David L.; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Quillévéré, Frédéric

    2014-05-01

    The Tibetan plateau is defined as a low relief high elevation zone, resulting from India-Asia convergence. However, its morphology is relatively heterogeneous. Especially the western Tibetan plateau is characterized by a strong relief, numerous peaks higher than 6000 m.a.s.l. and large (up to 10 km), deep (1-2 km) valleys. We investigate the origin of this particular morphology, coupling geomorphologic studies with sedimentary records and (U-Th)/He thermochronometry. The western Tibet Tertiary sedimentation is mostly characterized by conglomerates, red sandstone and siltstones related with alluvial fan deposits. Zircon U-Pb dating of interbedded trachyte flows implies that deposition started before 25 Ma and was still ongoing at 20 Ma. These continental, detrital deposits are filling wide open valleys during probable arid climatic conditions. Such valleys are thus interpreted as inherited basins, paleovalleys, formed before detrital sedimentation i.e. at ~25 Ma. Moreover, rare marine sediments were observed below the detrital deposits. Foraminifera suggest an Oligocene age, which implies that the paleovalleys already existed during the Oligocene, and that the emersion of the Western Tibetan Plateau occurred between the Oligocene and 25 Ma. This emersion thus occurred much later than the India-Asia collision (~50-45Ma) but is compatible with the onset of the main thickening phase of the Indian plate. The orientation of the inherited valley axis appears to be that of active strike slip faults that induced eastward extrusion of Western Tibet. This suggests that such extrusion was already active at the time of sedimentation (both marine and continental). Thus extrusion was also active during the plateau emersion at Oligocene time. The morphology of the valleys, and their sedimentary infilling, suggest that a significant relief, similar to present-day one (about 1000-2000m between valleys floor and surrounding peaks) already existed at the time of sedimentation. This implies that very little erosion and only uplift took place following plateau emersion. Assuming an Oligocene emersion and considering the present-day elevation of the valley floor (~ 4300-4500 m.a.s.l.) it yields a mean uplift rate of about 120-170m/Ma. In order to test the slow erosion hypothesis we performed apatite (U-Th)/He dating. Samples have been collected from a vertical profile in a Cretaceous granodiorite. Ages range from 13 to 22Ma. Based on the age variation with sampling elevation an apparent elevation rate of about 0.7 mm/yr is obtained. Modelling of age-elevation relationships indicates that the measured cooling ages are compatible with a slow, continuous exhumation/erosion rate from 25 Ma to the present time. This is similar to previous calculations obtained elsewhere on the Tibetan plateau. Today, the western Tibet is an internally drained area and local erosion induces filling of the paleovalleys. This implies that earlier erosion products were evacuated out of the plateau through the river network. Displacement along the Karakorum fault might be responsible from isolating Western Tibet from the nearby Indus drainage. In conclusion, this study suggests that western Tibet morphology is inherited from the ante-emersion relief (Oligocene?) that was preserved by combination of slow erosion and evacuation of the detrital sediments toward the Indus river network.

  11. Frequent yawning as an initial signal of fever relief.

    PubMed

    Gallup, Andrew C; Gallup, Jacqueline Aliotta

    2013-12-01

    Research suggests that yawning provides a brain cooling function in homeotherms, and that excessive yawning may be a useful diagnostic indicator of abnormal thermoregulation in humans. Accordingly, the frequency of yawning should increase during instances of hyperthermia, but not fever (i.e., pyrexia), since this represents an elevation in the homeostatic set point rather than thermoregulatory failure. To our knowledge, no research has investigated the association between yawning frequency and fever in humans. Here we present the hypothesis that frequent yawning could be used as an initial signal for fever relief, either through the effectiveness of antipyretics or the natural break of a fever. Applications of this research include the improved behavioral monitoring of patients. PMID:24119765

  12. Efficient beam splitting with continuous relief DOEs and microlens arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnaberski, Aliaksei; Miklyaev, Yuri; Pikhulya, Denis; Kleinschmidt, Lisa; Imgrunt, Waleri; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Lissotschenko, Vitalij

    2012-02-01

    Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) are of rising importance for many industrial laser applications, especially for laser beam shaping and laser beam splitting. Typically, such applications require high damage threshold of the diffractive optical elements as well as high diffraction efficiency. Usually DOEs with multilevel (step-like) phase profiles are made microlithographically and suffer from "quantisation" errors and scattering on profile derivative discontinuities. The steplike structure lowers the DOE damage threshold compared to the intrinsic material values. LIMO's microoptical technology is suitable for the production of high-precision free programmable continuous surface profiles in optical glasses, crystals and metals. It can be applied for manufacturing of microlens and micro-mirror arrays as well as for manufacturing of diffractive optics with continuous reliefs. Both the arrays and DOEs with continuous relief are suitable for high efficiency laser beam splitting. However, the design approaches to obtain a desirable solution for the corresponding continuous phase profiles are different. The results of the wave-optical simulations made by LIMO's own program and by VirtualLab software, and experimental studies for a 1 to 11 beam splitter with a continuous profile for the wavelength of 532 nm are presented. Continuous phase profiles for the DOEs were designed by a procedure based on the theory of beam splitting by a phase grating. Comparative theoretical and experimental studies were also done for splitting with a double-sided microlens array. For both types of beam splitting the efficiency can be very high (> 98%). The DOEs show especially high homogeneities of the resulting intensity distribution, however, they are much more sensitive to wavelength variations. The microlens arrays demonstrate even weaker ghost orders as the DOE splitters and their surface profiles are simpler. However, the efficiency and homogeneity suffer on interlens gaps.

  13. Disability and health-related rehabilitation in international disaster relief

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Jan D.; Li, Jianan; Gosney, James; Rathore, Farooq A.; Haig, Andrew J.; Marx, Michael; Delisa, Joel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Natural disasters result in significant numbers of disabling impairments. Paradoxically, however, the traditional health system response to natural disasters largely neglects health-related rehabilitation as a strategic intervention. Objectives To examine the role of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief along three lines of inquiry: (1) epidemiology of injury and disability, (2) impact on health and rehabilitation systems, and (3) the assessment and measurement of disability. Design Qualitative literature review and secondary data analysis. Results Absolute numbers of injuries as well as injury to death ratios in natural disasters have increased significantly over the last 40 years. Major impairments requiring health-related rehabilitation include amputations, traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries (SCI), and long bone fractures. Studies show that persons with pre-existing disabilities are more likely to die in a natural disaster. Lack of health-related rehabilitation in natural disaster relief may result in additional burdening of the health system capacity, exacerbating baseline weak rehabilitation and health system infrastructure. Little scientific evidence on the effectiveness of health-related rehabilitation interventions following natural disaster exists, however. Although systematic assessment and measurement of disability after a natural disaster is currently lacking, new approaches have been suggested. Conclusion Health-related rehabilitation potentially results in decreased morbidity due to disabling injuries sustained during a natural disaster and is, therefore, an essential component of the medical response by the host and international communities. Significant systematic challenges to effective delivery of rehabilitation interventions during disaster include a lack of trained responders as well as a lack of medical recordkeeping, data collection, and established outcome measures. Additional development of health-related rehabilitation following natural disaster is urgently required. PMID:21866223

  14. 75 FR 60846 - Notice of Intent To Establish the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...Establish the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board...establish The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Scientific Advisory Board...Board.'' The Board serves the Global AIDS Coordinator (``the...

  15. 49 CFR 195.264 - Impoundment, protection against entry, normal/emergency venting or pressure/vacuum relief for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...must be provided for each atmospheric pressure breakout tank. Pressure...relief venting installed on atmospheric pressure tanks built to API Specification...relief venting installed on atmospheric pressure tanks (such as those...

  16. 49 CFR 195.264 - Impoundment, protection against entry, normal/emergency venting or pressure/vacuum relief for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...must be provided for each atmospheric pressure breakout tank. Pressure...relief venting installed on atmospheric pressure tanks built to API Specification...relief venting installed on atmospheric pressure tanks (such as those...

  17. 49 CFR 195.264 - Impoundment, protection against entry, normal/emergency venting or pressure/vacuum relief for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...must be provided for each atmospheric pressure breakout tank. Pressure...relief venting installed on atmospheric pressure tanks built to API Specification...relief venting installed on atmospheric pressure tanks (such as those...

  18. 49 CFR 195.264 - Impoundment, protection against entry, normal/emergency venting or pressure/vacuum relief for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...must be provided for each atmospheric pressure breakout tank. Pressure...relief venting installed on atmospheric pressure tanks built to API Specification...relief venting installed on atmospheric pressure tanks (such as those...

  19. 49 CFR 195.264 - Impoundment, protection against entry, normal/emergency venting or pressure/vacuum relief for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...must be provided for each atmospheric pressure breakout tank. Pressure...relief venting installed on atmospheric pressure tanks built to API Specification...relief venting installed on atmospheric pressure tanks (such as those...

  20. 77 FR 71448 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ...States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil...69 FR 55076), provide two types of accounting and auditing relief for Federal onshore...properties from certain reporting, accounting, and auditing requirements....

  1. 76 FR 76757 - States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...ONRR-2011-0002] States' Decisions on Participating in Accounting and Auditing Relief for Federal Oil and Gas Marginal Properties...September 13, 2004 (69 FR 55076), provide two types of accounting and auditing relief for Federal onshore or Outer...

  2. 17 CFR 240.0-12 - Commission procedures for filing applications for orders for exemptive relief under Section 36 of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...person to whom any questions regarding the application should be directed. The Commission will not consider hypothetical or anonymous requests for exemptive relief. Each applicant shall state the basis for the relief sought, and identify the...

  3. 17 CFR 240.0-12 - Commission procedures for filing applications for orders for exemptive relief under Section 36 of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...person to whom any questions regarding the application should be directed. The Commission will not consider hypothetical or anonymous requests for exemptive relief. Each applicant shall state the basis for the relief sought, and identify the...

  4. 17 CFR 240.0-12 - Commission procedures for filing applications for orders for exemptive relief under Section 36 of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...person to whom any questions regarding the application should be directed. The Commission will not consider hypothetical or anonymous requests for exemptive relief. Each applicant shall state the basis for the relief sought, and identify the...

  5. 17 CFR 240.0-12 - Commission procedures for filing applications for orders for exemptive relief under Section 36 of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...person to whom any questions regarding the application should be directed. The Commission will not consider hypothetical or anonymous requests for exemptive relief. Each applicant shall state the basis for the relief sought, and identify the...

  6. 17 CFR 240.0-12 - Commission procedures for filing applications for orders for exemptive relief under Section 36 of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...person to whom any questions regarding the application should be directed. The Commission will not consider hypothetical or anonymous requests for exemptive relief. Each applicant shall state the basis for the relief sought, and identify the...

  7. Stress incontinence

    MedlinePLUS

    Incontinence - stress ... over 2 cups of urine in their bladder. Stress incontinence occurs when the muscles that control your ... the pelvic area or the prostate (in men) Stress incontinence is the most common type in women. ...

  8. Stress Testing

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Stress Testing? Stress testing provides information about how your heart works during ... is working hard and beating fast. During stress testing, you exercise (walk or run on a treadmill ...

  9. Life Stress

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Life Stress Health & Wellness Anger Stigma Suicide Prevention Families with Kids Alcohol and Drugs ... Resilience Satisfaction with Life Sexual Truama Sleep Spirituality Stigma Stress Work Adjustment Worry Videos Post-Traumatic Stress ...

  10. Acoustic-Frequency Vibratory Stimulation Regulates the Balance between Osteogenesis and Adipogenesis of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; Zhong, Dong-Yan; Luo, Zong-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis can be associated with the disordered balance between osteogenesis and adipogenesis of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). Although low-frequency mechanical vibration has been demonstrated to promote osteogenesis, little is known about the influence of acoustic-frequency vibratory stimulation (AFVS). BM-MSCs were subjected to AFVS at frequencies of 0, 30, 400, and 800?Hz and induced toward osteogenic or adipogenic-specific lineage. Extracellular matrix mineralization was determined by Alizarin Red S staining and lipid accumulation was assessed by Oil Red O staining. Transcript levels of osteogenic and adipogenic marker genes were evaluated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Cell proliferation of BM-MSCs was promoted following exposure to AFVS at 800?Hz. Vibration at 800?Hz induced the highest level of calcium deposition and significantly increased mRNA expression of COL1A1, ALP, RUNX2, and SPP1. The 800?Hz group downregulated lipid accumulation and levels of adipogenic genes, including FABP4, CEBPA, PPARG, and LEP, while vibration at 30?Hz supported adipogenesis. BM-MSCs showed a frequency-dependent response to acoustic vibration. AFVS at 800?Hz was the most favorable for osteogenic differentiation and simultaneously suppressed adipogenesis. Thus, acoustic vibration could potentially become a novel means to prevent and treat osteoporosis. PMID:25738155

  11. Relation of structural and vibratory kinematics of the vocal folds to two acoustic measures of breathy voice based on computational modeling

    PubMed Central

    Samlan, Robin A.; Story, Brad H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To relate vocal fold structure and kinematics to two acoustic measures: cepstral peak prominence (CPP) and the amplitude of the first harmonic relative to the second (H1-H2). Method A computational, kinematic model of the medial surfaces of the vocal folds was used to specify features of vocal fold structure and vibration in a manner consistent with breathy voice. Four model parameters were altered: degree of vocal fold adduction, surface bulging, vibratory nodal point, and supraglottal constriction. CPP and H1-H2 were measured from simulated glottal area, glottal flow and acoustic waveforms and related to the underlying vocal fold kinematics. Results CPP decreased with increased separation of the vocal processes, whereas the nodal point location had little effect. H1-H2 increased as a function of separation of the vocal processes in the range of 1–1.5 mm and decreased with separation > 1.5 mm. Conclusions CPP is generally a function of vocal process separation. H1*-H2* will increase or decrease with vocal process separation based on vocal fold shape, pivot point for the rotational mode, and supraglottal vocal tract shape, limiting its utility as an indicator of breathy voice. Future work will relate the perception of breathiness to vocal fold kinematics and acoustic measures. PMID:21498582

  12. A study on underground tunnel ventilation for piston effects influenced by draught relief shaft in subway system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chi-Ji Lin; Yew Khoy Chuah; Chia-Wei Liu

    2008-01-01

    This is a study on underground tunnel ventilation for piston effects influenced by draught relief shaft. Field measurements of transient air movement in the draught relief shaft for a typical Taipei underground subway station were taken under winter and summer conditions. It has been found that the air in the draught relief shaft has a maximum of 2m\\/s, and on

  13. 77 FR 68070 - Implementing Public Safety Broadband Provisions of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ...Provisions of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 AGENCY: Federal Communications...provisions of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012, adopted as DA 12-1462...a) of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012. List of...

  14. How to Master Stress 1. Understanding Stress

    E-print Network

    Kasman, Alex

    1 How to Master Stress 1. Understanding Stress Introduction to Stress Management Understanding Stress o Survival Stress o Internally Generated Stress o Environmental Stress, Job Stress and Fatigue How to Recognize Stress Optimizing Your Levels of Stress Managing Life Crises How stress can get

  15. San Gabriel Mountains, California, Shaded relief, color as height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the relationship of the urban area of Pasadena, California to the natural contours of the land. The image includes the alluvial plain on which Pasadena and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory sit, and the steep range of the San Gabriel Mountains. The mountain front and the arcuate valley running from upper left to the lower right are active fault zones, along which the mountains are rising. The chaparral-covered slopes above Pasadena are also a prime area for wildfires and mudslides. Hazards from earthquakes, floods and fires are intimately related to the topography in this area. Topographic data and other remote sensing images provide valuable information for assessing and mitigating the natural hazards for cities along the front of active mountain ranges.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 41 km (25 miles) x 29 km (18 miles) Location: 34.2 deg. North lat., 118.1 deg. West lon. Orientation: North toward upper right Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 16, 2000

  16. Through-thickness determination of phase composition and residual stresses in thermall barrier coatings using high- energy x-rays.

    SciTech Connect

    Weyant, , C. M.; Almer, J. D.; Faber, K. T.; Stony Brook Univ.

    2009-01-01

    High-energy X-rays were used to determine the local phase composition and residual stresses through the thickness of as-sprayed and heat-treated plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings consisting of a NiCoCrAlY bond coat and an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) topcoat produced with through-thickness segmentation cracks. The as-sprayed residual stresses reflected the combined influence of quenching stresses from the plasma spray process, thermal expansion mismatch between the topcoat, bond coat and substrate, and stress relief from the segmentation cracks. Heat treatments led to the formation of a thermally grown oxide (TGO) which was in compression in the plane, as well as relief of quenching stresses and development of a stress gradient in the YSZ topcoat. The high-energy X-ray technique used in this study revealed the effects that TGO and segmentation cracks have on the in-plane stress state of the entire coating.

  17. [Study of emotion recognition under anxiety based on physiological signals by relief method].

    PubMed

    Lei, Pei; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Xinwei; Chai, Xinyu

    2014-05-01

    Anxiety is usually generated because of the threatened feeling. The data of electrocardio, respiration, blood volume pulse and skin conductance signals were collected. The arithmetic of Relief were used for the feature selection and combined with k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) arithmetic and Support Vector Machine (SVM) arithmetic for classification. The results show that the combination of Relief-SVM is better than combination of Relief-kNN on the recognition of anxiety state. The emotion recognition based on multi-physiological signals is superior to that based on one single signal. PMID:25241512

  18. Long-standing pain relief of adiposis dolorosa (Dercum's disease) after intravenous infusion of lidocaine.

    PubMed

    Juhlin, L

    1986-08-01

    A 60-year-old woman with adiposis dolorosa for 20 years was treated with repeated intravenous infusions of lidocaine. Partial relief of pain in the legs was obtained after 1.3 gm. A dose of 5.2 gm lidocaine given for 4 days was needed for complete pain relief. The effect lasted for 3 weeks, and then the pain gradually returned. The patient has now been given two additional treatments with complete pain relief for 2 months. The mechanism of the effect remains unknown. PMID:3734188

  19. [Textual research on Capital's Puji Tang (Relief Houses) in the Qing Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liang, Jun

    2010-05-01

    Puji Tang (Relief Houses) was established in 1706 with the function of helping the poor, comforting and compensating people by medicine, therefore, which was supported by the Emperors of the Qing Dynasty. As a representation of medical relief organization of the Qing Dynasty, Puji Tang was developed from a folk relief organization to a government national organization. Because of the declination of the Qing Empire and the problems within its own organization, Puji Tang changed finally to an organization of reeducation through labor in 1907. PMID:21029716

  20. Examples, clarifications, and guidance on preparing requests for relief from pump and valve inservice testing requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Ransom, C.B.; Hartley, R.S. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-02-01

    In this report, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory reviewers discuss related to requests for relief from the American Society of Mechanical Engineers code requirements for inservice testing (IST) of safety-related pumps and valves at commercial nuclear power plants. This report compiles information and examples that may be useful to licensees in developing relief requests submitted to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for their consideration and provides insights and recommendations on related IST issues. The report also gives specific guidance on relief requests acceptable and not acceptable to the NRC and advises licensees in the use of this information for application at their facilities.