Note: This page contains sample records for the topic vibratory stress relief from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Research on High-Frequency Vibratory Stress Relief for Small Assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

To relieve the residual stress in small assembly, a method called high-frequency vibratory stress relief was researched. Microscopic origin of residual stress was analyzed according to the theory of crystal dislocation, which shows that the appeared unstable dislocations and localized energy concentrating are the main reason to produce residual stress. And then the mechanism of high frequency vibratory stress relief

Wen He; Xiao-Yin Cheng; Run-Jie Shen

2006-01-01

2

The effectiveness evaluation of 314L stainless steel vibratory stress relief by dynamic stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibratory stress relief (VSR) is a procedure to reduce the residual stress by means of vibrating dynamic stress. Currently, real-time and quantitative evaluating the effectiveness of VSR is an important problem. Cyclic loading, or dynamic stress, imposed on the welded structure during VSR affect the reduction of residual stresses directly. This paper examines the cyclic stress and strain of type

D. Rao; D. Wang; L. Chen; C. Ni

2007-01-01

3

Texture Evolution and Residual Stress Relaxation in a Cold-Rolled Al-Mg-Si-Cu Alloy Using Vibratory Stress Relief Technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last half century, vibratory stress relief (VSR) has come to be recognized as a technique with several unique benefits, and it has found applications in various industries. However, the mechanisms involved remain unclear, and the textures corresponding to residual stress relaxation were rarely reported in the existing literature. The purpose of this study is to discuss the texture evolution and residual stress relaxation in a cold-rolled Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy using VSR technique. All the residual stress measurements were performed using a standard X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Measurement of texture was performed on the specimen surface using conventional pole figure (PF) as well as orientation distribution functions (ODFs) methods. Results indicate that the VSR technique can be applied to weaken the ?-fiber and cause the residual stress of the rolled samples to gradually approach uniformity in XRD analysis. The best relaxation of the compressive residual stress reaches about 52.6 pct, but relaxation of the tensile residual stress is less than 10 pct. After the VSR process for 20 minutes, the texture intensities of PFs (200) and (220) as compared to those in nonvibration are nearly homogeneously distributed. Furthermore, the texture of (111) PF perpendicular to normal direction (ND), which is affected by vibratory force parallel to ND, almost disappears.

Wang, Jia-Siang; Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lin, Chi-Ming; Kuo, Che-Wei; Wu, Weite

2013-02-01

4

The vibratory stress relief of a marine shafting of 35 # bar steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The marine shafting is made from a 35# bar steel. The 35# bar steel is named based on PR China national standard GB 699-88, “Quality carbon structure steel technical requirements,” the 35# bar steel corresponds to 060A35, B.S. The bar steel was hot rolled, piled and air cooled; hot rolling, cooling and microstructure transformation formed macro residual stress in the

M. C. Sun; Y. H. Sun; R. K. Wang

2004-01-01

5

Study on Vibratory Stress Relief Technology for the Structural Parts of Hydraulic Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper mainly compares two methods thermal aging and VSR for structural parts of the hydraulic support. VSR using the\\u000a spectrum harmonic vibration aging technology has the same effect in the elimination of stress with thermal aging, and is superior\\u000a to thermal aging in stabling dimensional accuracy and increasing payload capacity of the works.

Lianmin Cao; Shunqiang Hou; Qingliang Zeng; Jintao Liu

2011-01-01

6

Stress relief of transition zones  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment.

Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.

1984-01-01

7

Evaluation of Syntactic Polysulfide Stress Relief Coatings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of phenolic microballoons on the pot life of syntactic polysulfide was evaluated. Material formulations and processing parameters were studied to develop procedures for applying a stress relief coating on electrical components to adequately pro...

T. E. Neet

1976-01-01

8

Stress Relief of Transition Zones.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansio...

J. Woodward D. van Rooyen

1984-01-01

9

Residual stress, stress relief, and inhomogeneity in aluminum plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through-thickness residual-stress profiles in rolled 7050-T74 aluminum plate were measured before and after stress relief by stretching (-Tx51). Measurement required adapting the crack-compliance method to measure both in-plane stress components. Unexpected features in the profiles could be explained by through-thickness yield strength variations caused by crystallographic texture.

Michael B Prime; Michael R Hill

2002-01-01

10

Constant and variable amplitude loading of 6261 aluminium alloy I-beams with welded cover plates—Influence of weld quality and stress relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the constant amplitude and variable amplitude (VA) fatigue performance of 6261-T6 aluminium 1-beams with a welded rectangular cover plate is reported. The test programme involved >100 specimens and considered the effects of weld ‘quality’ (in terms of weld toe angle, leg length and heat input), and thermal and vibratory stress relief on stress-life curves under simple repeated

M. N. James; A. E. Paterson; N. Sutcliffe

1997-01-01

11

The effectiveness of stress relief features in austenitic drillcollar connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standards designs for stress relief features and unmodified joints in non-magnetic (austenitic) drillcollar connections are investigated using finite element stress analysis. An NC-61 connection containing API pin and box stress relief grooves and box boreback features are compared. In addition to the recognized problem of fatigue failure from critically loaded threads, instances of stress corrosion cracking in pin bores have

K. A Macdonald

1996-01-01

12

46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

2009-10-01

13

46 CFR 54.30-10 - Method of performing mechanical stress relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Method of performing mechanical stress relief. 54.30-10 Section 54...ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Stress Relief § 54.30-10 Method of performing mechanical stress relief. (a) The mechanical...

2010-10-01

14

Determination of elastic modulus of stress relief cores of shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overcoring procedure for the determination of the magnitude and direction of underground in-situ stresses in a coalmine entry roof is reviewed. For an isotropic rock, the direction of the principal lateral stresses can be computed directly from the stress-relief measurements of diametrical deformation for the three axes of the borehole in the roof. However, the computation of the magnitude

Szwilski; AB Szwilski

1982-01-01

15

Residual stress relief in MAG welded joints of dissimilar steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the relief of residual stress in welded joints between austenitic and non-alloyed ferritic–pearlitic steels. A series of similar and dissimilar steel joints based on the 18G2A (ferritic–pearlitic) and 1H18N10T (austenitic) steels were produced, some of which were stress relieved by annealing and some by mechanical prestressing. For the as-welded and stress relieved test joints the residual stresses

P Sedek; J. Brózda; L. Wang; P. J. Withers

2003-01-01

16

RELIEF OF THERMAL STRESSES THROUGH CREEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equations are developed for analyzing the effects of thermal creep on ; stress distributions. In formulating these elasto-plastic equations, the tensile ; test stress-strain creep data are extended, to compound stresses by means of the ; Mises-Hencky hypothesis. The various equations are manipulated to yield a ; numerical procedure by means of which the stress and strain components are ;

H. Poritsky; F. A. Fend

1957-01-01

17

Stress relief from alternately buckled dimers in Si(100)  

Microsoft Academic Search

First-principles calculations of the surface stress for the c(4×2) buckled-dimer reconstruction of the clean Si(100) surface reveal a significant relief of a compressive contribution to the stress in the direction parallel to the dimer rows, and thus a decrease of the stress anisotropy, when compared to similar calculations for 2×1 reconstructions. We show that the mechanism involved is not just

Alberto García; John E. Northrup

1993-01-01

18

FREEZE-FRAME: Fast Action Stress Relief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent scientific research has proven that we can, not only manage our stress, we can even prevent it. Ways to achieve stress management are presented in this book. It details a method called FREEZE-FRAME, a process in which individuals mentally stop the chaos that surrounds them and then calmly contemplate their situation. The text opens with an…

Childre, Doc Lew

19

Determination of elastic modulus of stress relief cores of shale  

SciTech Connect

The overcoring procedure for the determination of the magnitude and direction of underground in-situ stresses in a coalmine entry roof is reviewed. For an isotropic rock, the direction of the principal lateral stresses can be computed directly from the stress-relief measurements of diametrical deformation for the three axes of the borehole in the roof. However, the computation of the magnitude of the in-situ principal stresses requires that the Young's modulus of the host rock can be determined. The degree of influence of anisotropy of the rock on the orientation of the principal lateral in-situ stresses is also examined.

Szwilski, A.B.

1982-03-01

20

Stress-Relief Embrittlement of AX-140 and E-11018 Weld Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An attempt was made to arrive at optimum stress-relief treatments (maximum relief of residual stress with minimum increase in transition temperature) for AX-140 and E-11018 weld metals. Stress-relief of E-11018 results in acceptable toughness (although so...

A. H. Rosenstein W. H. Asche

1967-01-01

21

46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C... Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...of this chapter or by mechanical stress relief under Subpart 54.30 of...

2010-10-01

22

46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C... Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...of this chapter or by mechanical stress relief under Subpart 54.30 of...

2009-10-01

23

High voltage bushing having weathershed and surrounding stress relief collar  

DOEpatents

A high voltage electric bushing comprises a hollow elongated dielectric weathershed which encloses a high voltage conductor. A collar formed of high voltage dielectric material is positioned over the weathershed and is bonded thereto by an interface material which precludes moisture-like contaminants from entering between the bonded portions. The collar is substantially thicker than the adjacent weathershed which it surrounds, providing relief of the electric stresses which would otherwise appear on the outer surface of the weathershed. The collar may include a conductive ring or capacitive foil to further relieve electric stresses experienced by the bushing.

Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1981-01-01

24

Propellant stress relief groove for the Titan 4 SRMU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method has been developed to design a propellant stress relief groove (SRG) for solid rocket motors. The method considers a time-dependent pressure distribution in both burn-back and 'burn-forward' analyses and allows a desired bondline stress condition to be incorporated into the SRG design. Application of the method to obtain an improved propellant SRG for the Titan IV Solid Rocket Motor Upgrade (SRMU) is illustrated in this report. The improved propellant SRG obtained from this method for the Titan IV SRMU provides significant enhancement in the propellant structural margin of safety throughout motor firing.

Chang, I.-Shih

1993-11-01

25

Stress and Stress Relief in the Educational Research Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Factors that increase stress and those that decrease stress were studied with 33 graduate students in an introductory educational research course. Participants completed the Statistical Anxiety Rating Scale (STARS) (R. Cruse, R. Cash, and D. Bolton, 1985) and were asked to rate their anxiety daily during the 4 weeks of the class. The instructor's…

Wilson, Vicki A.

26

46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Equipment Construction § 154.655 Stress relief for independent tanks type C...Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat...

2011-10-01

27

Nucleation and Growth of Stress Relief Patterns in Sputtered Molybdenum Films  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress relief patterns in sputtered molybdenum films were studied by Nomarski differential interference contrast microscope. As a result of the very large biaxial compressive stress in the film plane, ranging from E\\/16 to E\\/130 (where E is Young's modulus), the films were partially buckled and detached from the substrate, exhibiting one of two modes of stress relief pattern, wrinkled spots

Keiichi Ogawa; Tsuneo Ohkoshi; Tomoyuki Takeuchi; Tadashi Mizoguchi; Tsuyoshi Masumoto

1986-01-01

28

Stress Relief Cracking Studies of 2 1/4Cr1Mo Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The stress relief cracking susceptibility of coarse grained heat affected zone microstructures of 2 1/4 Cr 1Mo steel has been assessed using a recently developed constant displacement stress relief cracking test procedure. Two types of test are described:...

C. A. Hippsley B. C. Edwards

1984-01-01

29

Membranes fabricated with a deep singel corrugation for package stress reduction and residual stress relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin square membranes including a deep circular corrugation are realized and tested for application in a strain-based pressure sensor. Package-induced stresses are reduced and relief of the residual stress is obtained, resulting in a large pressure sensitivity and a reduced temperature sensitivity. Finite element method simulations were carried out, showing that the pressure-deflection behaviour of the structure is close to

V L Spieringt; S. Bouwstra; J. F. Burger; M. C. Elwenspoek

1993-01-01

30

Meta-Lax method of stress reduction in welds. Phase 2 study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is the second phase of ongoing research into the mechanics and feasibility of using the Meta-Lax method of vibratory stress relief in place of thermal methods of stress relief. The first phase of this research revealed results that were similar...

S. M. Smith

1992-01-01

31

High temperature stress relief cavitation of an Al-bearing ?-brass  

Microsoft Academic Search

High temperature stress relief intergranular cavitation and subsequent room temperature embrittlement of an aluminium-bearinga-brass has been studied metallographically. The behaviour of a cast susceptible to cavitation has been compared to one which does not exhibit intergranular cavitation during stress relief, and which is subsequently more ductile at room temperature. A number of micro-analytical techniques (SIMS and EDX) failed to reveal

L. Kjellsson; L. E. Svensson; R. Sundberg; G. L. Dunlop

1978-01-01

32

Estimates of heat stress relief needs for Holstein dairy cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of environmental heat stress are required for heat stress relief measures in cattle. Heat stress is commonly assessed by the temperature- humidity index (THI), the sum of dry and wet bulb temperatures. The THI does not include an interaction between temperature and humidity, although evapora- tive heat loss increases with rising air temperature. Coat, air velocity, and radiation effects

A. Berman

2010-01-01

33

Mechanism of Improving Fretting Fatigue Strength by Stress-Relief Groove  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of stress-relief groove that significantly improves the fretting fatigue strength has been validated through many fatigue tests using a full-scale railway wheelset. However, the reason for this increase has not been yet fully understood. The objective of this study is to clarify the mechanism responsible for the improvement of the fretting fatigue strength by a stress-relief groove. In this study, fretting fatigue tests using a pre-cracked specimen was done based on the assumption that the fretting fatigue phenomenon can be regarded as a crack propagation problem. In the experiment, the fretting fatigue strength was improved by the stress-relief groove. The result suggested that the propagation of the pre-crack was suppressed by the stress-relief groove. An FEM analysis showed the reason for the suppression of the crack propagation. The mode I stress intensity factor of the pre-crack was reduced by the stress-relief groove. This was achieved by both relaxation of the stress around the contact edge and development of static compressive stress field by severe concentration of the contact pressure due to overhang.

Kataoka, Shunsuke; Ono, Hiroaki; Kawakami, Kota; Kubota, Masanobu; Kondo, Yoshiyuki

34

In situ stress measurement by the stress relief technique using a multi-component borehole instrument  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a two-dimensional method for calculating principal stresses on a plane by measuring strain changes obtained by the stress relief technique using a multi-component borehole instrument. If the ratio of the radius of the core to that of the borehole is 1.4-2.0, a uniform strain change occurs in any stress field due to the overcoring. It is therefore desirable that the radius of the core obtained by overcoring is larger than that of the borehole by a few orders of magnitude. We applied the proposed calculation method to a stress measurement performed at the Hishikari mine, southwest Japan. The maximum and minimum principal stresses were determined to be 5.0 and -0.2 MPa, respectively. The nearly vertical stress was estimated to be 1.5 MPa, which was merely 30% of the predicted vertical stress (5.6 MPa). One of causes of the small vertical stress obtained in this study is considered to be the limitation of the two-dimensional method for calculating principal stresses.

Mukai, A.; Yamauchi, T.; Ishii, H.; Matsumoto, S.

2007-03-01

35

46 CFR 154.655 - Stress relief for independent tanks type C.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...an independent tank type C of: (a) Carbon and carbon-manganese steel must be stress relieved by post-weld heat treatment under § 54.25-7 of this chapter or by mechanical stress relief under subpart 54.30 of this chapter; or...

2012-10-01

36

Residual stresses in a multi-pass weld in an austenitic stainless steel plate before and after thermal stress relief  

SciTech Connect

Changes in residual stresses due to thermal stress relief were determined in a welded 1/2 in. thick 304 stainless steel plate from two residual stress maps determined with the neutron diffraction technique. The 304 stainless plate was made from two 6 {times} 12 {times} 1/2 in. pieces joined along the length by a gas tungsten arc welding process. Multi-pass welds were made with a semiautomatic welding machine employing cold-wire feed of type 308 stainless steel filler alloy. The thermal stress relief treatment consisted of heating to 1150 F, holding for one hour at temperature and then air cooling. Strain components were measured along the weld direction (longitudinal), perpendicular to the weld line in the plate (transverse), and normal to the plate. Measurements were confined to the plane bisecting the weld at the center of the plate. The strain components were converted to stresses assuming that the measured strains were along the principal axes of the strain tensor. Parameters used in the calculation were E=224 GPa and v=0.25. As-welded longitudinal stresses are compressive in the base metal and become strongly tensile through the heat affected zone and into the fusion zone. The transverse stresses follow the longitudinal trend but with a lower magnitude while the normal stresses are small throughout. The stress relief treatment reduced the magnitudes of all the stresses. In the weld zone the longitudinal stress was lowered by 30% and the spatial range of residual stresses was reduced as well.

Spooner, S.; Wang, X.L.; Hubbard, C.R.; David, S.A.

1994-06-01

37

Stress-relief displacements induced by drilling--applications to holographic measurements of in situ stress  

SciTech Connect

The holographic stressmeter is an instrument which has been developed at Caltech to allow determination of the complete stress tensor from in situ borehole measurements. The stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a small sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses, concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall in the vicinity of the sidehole. The first part of this study uses a thin infinite elastic plate subjected to plane stress at infinity to model the displacements at the borehole wall. However, the existence of some holograms which were difficult to model closely led us to examine the validity of this model. In order to investigate the problem further, we performed a two-dimensional finite element analysis for an elastic box with a terminated hole. We varied the dimensions of the hole to see what effect the radius and depth of the hole might have on the displacements. The plate model predicts that the depth of the hole should have no effect on the horizontal components of displacement, but the finite element results show that the magnitude of both components of the displacement depends on the depth of the sidehole. After considering these results, we developed a new model for the analysis of stress-relief displacements, following the work of Youngdahl and Sternberg (1965). For holes with a depth-to-diameter ratio greater than unity, the simple plane stress elastic plate solution breaks down and does not adequately model the displacements at the surface of the body and near the hole. Since these are the areas most critical to calculate accurately with the holographic technique, the revised model does a better job of fitting the observed data.

Ahrens, T.J.; Smither, C.L.

1992-04-24

38

Stress relief mechanism in layer-wise laser directly sintered porcelain ceramics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of laser sintering parameters on the temperature in the interaction zone between laser and ceramic materials has been experimentally studied. High energy density and small hatching space cause an increase of sintering temperature and a decrease of mechanical strength for the final porcelain components after being post treated in a furnace. A stress relief mechanism has been put

Xiaoyong Tian; Bo Sun; Jürgen G. Heinrich; Dichen Li

2010-01-01

39

Practical Estimate of Deformations and Stress Relief Factors for Deep Tunnels Supported by Shotcrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even though ground-support interaction in the vicinity of the tunnel face is a typical 3D problem, tunnel support design is usually based on simplified plane strain models, which are strongly dependent on the assumed degree of ground stress relief at the time of lining installation. The paper focuses on tunnels supported by shotcrete close to the face, where the interaction

A. Graziani; D. Boldini; R. Ribacchi

2005-01-01

40

Stress relief coalbed methane drainage by surface vertical wells in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the status of engineering practice, technology and research related to stress relief coalbed methane (CBM) drainage using surface wells in China during the past 10years. Comments are provided on the theory and technical progress of this method. In high gas mining areas, such as the Huainan, Huaibei and Tiefa mining areas, characterized by heavily sheared coals with

Shuxun Sang; Hongjie Xu; Liangcai Fang; Guojun Li; Huazhou Huang

2010-01-01

41

Effectiveness of a Stress-Relief Initiative for Primary Caregivers of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: This study provides a perspective on the mental health status and analyses the effectiveness of a stress-relief program for primary caregivers of adolescents with intellectual disability (ID). Method: Seventy-seven primary caregivers of people with ID were recruited (intervention group, n = 31; non-intervention group, n = 46) to the…

Hu, Jung; Lin, Jin-Ding; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Wu, Sheng-Ru

2010-01-01

42

Effectiveness of a Stress-Relief Initiative for Primary Caregivers of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: This study provides a perspective on the mental health status and analyses the effectiveness of a stress-relief program for primary caregivers of adolescents with intellectual disability (ID). Method: Seventy-seven primary caregivers of people with ID were recruited (intervention group, n = 31; non-intervention group, n = 46) to the…

Hu, Jung; Lin, Jin-Ding; Yen, Chia-Feng; Loh, Ching-Hui; Hsu, Shang-Wei; Lin, Lan-Ping; Wu, Sheng-Ru

2010-01-01

43

Stress-Relief Heat Treatment of Manganese-Nickel-Aluminum Bronze and Manganese-Bronze Weldments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tensile properties, weldability, general corrosion, and corrosion-fatigue properties were determined as a function of stress-relief heat treatment for both cast Mn-Ni-Al bronze and manganese-bronze propeller alloys. It was found that Mn-Ni-Al bronze is su...

C. A. Zanis

1975-01-01

44

LOFT Pressurizer Pressure Relief Piping System Stress Analysis and Fatigue Life Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A stress analysis was performed on the LOFT Pressurizer Pressure Relief System to determine if it met the requirements of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, 1974 Edition, for Class 1 and Class 2 components. Deadweight, thermal expansio...

J. W. Muffett

1978-01-01

45

Stress and Relief of Misfit Strain of Ge\\/Si(001)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intrinsic stress of the Stranski-Krastanov system Ge\\/Si(001) was investigated in the range 700-1050 K. Characteristic stress features indicate that the relief of the misfit strain proceeds mainly in two steps: (i) by the formation of 3D islands on top of the Ge wetting layer and (ii) via misfit dislocations in larger 3D islands and upon their percolation. The temperature

G. Wedler; J. Walz; T. Hesjedal; E. Chilla; R. Koch

1998-01-01

46

Stress relief procedures for low carbon steel (1020) welded components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a part of series of investigation which aims to study the effect of post weld heat treatments (PWHTs) on the residual stress of low carbon steel AISI 1020 welded components.In this study different PWHT parameters have been investigated by applying different schemes of soaking temperatures of 450, 550 and 650°C, heating rates of 50, 100 and 400°C\\/h,

A. G. Olabi; M. S. J. Hashmi

1996-01-01

47

Temperature\\/Stress Distributions in a Stress-Relief-Type Plate of Functionally Graded Materials under Thermal Shock  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a numerical technique for analyzing one-dimensional transient temperature and stress distributions in a stress-relief-type plate of functionally graded ceramic-metal based materials (FGMs), in relation to both the temperature-dependent thermal properties and continuous and gradual variation of the thermo-mechanical properties of the FGM. The FGM plate is assumed to be initially in steady state of temperature gradient, suffering

Hideo Awaji; Hiromitsu Takenaka; Sawao Honda; Tadahiro Nishikawa

2001-01-01

48

Edge Effects on Growth of Ordered Stress Relief Patterns in Free Sustained Aluminum Films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unusual form of ordered stress relief patterns is observed in a nearly free sustained aluminum film system deposited on liquid substrates by the thermal evaporation method. The edge effects on the growth of the ordered patterns are systematically studied. It is found that the patterns initiate from the film edges, preexisting ordered patterns, or other imperfections of the film. When the patterns extend in the film regions, they decay gradually and finally disappear. If they develop along the boundaries, however, the sizes are almost unchanged over several millimeters. The stress relief patterns look like rectangular waves in appearance, which are proven to evolve from sinusoidal to triangular waves gradually. The morphological evolution can be well explained by the general theory of buckling of plates.

Yu, Sen-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Ju; Chen, Miao-Gen

2010-06-01

49

A photo-patternable stress relief material for plastic packaged integrated circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports the use of a photo-patternable silicone as an integrated-circuit package stress-relief material. This material is implemented as a final wafer-fabrication masking step over the previously patterned passivation layer. The process uses standard wafer-fabrication equipment and passivation layer masks. The wafers are processed following usual procedures. Results indicate that plastic-packaged circuits which are coated with the photosensitive silicone elastometer exhibit

MYRON CAGAN; DOUG RIDLEY

1988-01-01

50

Vibratory Spiral Blancher-Cooler.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the demonstration project was to test the commercial feasibility of the vibratory spiral blancher-cooler, a newly designed steam blancher and air cooler that previous small scale tests showed could reduce the wasteload and energy consumpt...

J. L. Bomben J. S. Hudson W. C. Dietrich R. Rand J. W. Farquhar

1978-01-01

51

Quasi-static intergranular cracking in a Cu-Sn alloy; An analog of stress relief cracking of steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is related to the general problem of time-dependent intergranular fracture which appears to result from a loss of cohesion along grain boundaries, induced by the concentration of an embrittling element in the boundaries as a result of the application of a stress. The prototypical example of this phenomenon is the brittle mode of stress-relief cracking (SRC) in steels,

E BARRERA; M MENYHARD; D BIKA; B ROTHMAN; C MCMAHONJR

1992-01-01

52

Acoustic wave propagation in a fluid-filled borehole surrounded by a formation with stress-relief-induced anisotropy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stress relief associated with the drilling of a borehole may lead to an anisotropic formation in the vicinity of the borehole, where the properties in the radial direction differ from those in the axial and tangential directions. Thus, axial and radial compressional acoustic velocities are different, and similarly, the velocity of an axial shear-wave depends on whether the polarization

Lasse Renlie; A. M. Raaen

1993-01-01

53

Quasi-static intergranular cracking in a Cu-Sn alloy: An analog of stress relief cracking of steels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Intergranular cracking in a laboratory-made Cu-8wt%Sn alloy at 265 to 300(degree)C in vacuum was studied in order to explore the hypothesis that this could serve as an analog to the brittle mode of stress-relief cracking in steels and to test the mechanis...

E. V. Barrera M. Menyhard D. Bika B. Rothman C. J. McMahon

1991-01-01

54

Development of a focusing micromirror device with an in-plane stress relief structure in SOI technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new design concept for a dynamically focusing micromachined silicon membrane mirror with 6 mm diameter and electrostatic actuation was realized. To eliminate the influence of residual stress a special stress relief design of the membrane`s suspension was developed in order to achieve a distortion-free optical mirror (distortion < ?/10 (? = 1064 nm). Even silicon membranes fabricated in SOI technology mostly suffer from buckling by residual compressive stress caused by mismatch in the coefficients of thermal expansion between silicon and the buried silicon oxide layer [1, 2].This often leads to severe distortion of stress sensitive devices such as membrane based micro mirror devices [3]. Even though a tensile pre-stress might improve the distortion in case of a non-deformed membrane, a tensile stress in the membrane increases the stiffness and thus reduces the sensitivity e.g. for capacitive sensors or for actuating devices. Different methods are reviewed for stress compensation or stress relief in membranes. We developed and fabricated a new stress relief structure which reduces the stress induced deformation of membranes and leads to substantially flat micromirrors of high optical quality. This is achieved by a special tangential beam suspension which allows an in-plane expansion or contraction of the membrane proportional to its inherent compressive or tensile stress. Optimized beam structures and the voltage dependence of the mirror's deflection were determined by 3D FEM simulations. For membranes with a compressive pre-stress of -20MPa simulations show a decrease in bow to values < 18 nm in comparison with 700 nm for a conventional rigidly clamped membrane. A deflection of 16 ?m within an aperture of 5 mm diameter is theoretically achieved by a voltage U0 = 200 V resulting in a minimal focal length of 97 mm. The fabricated devices have been characterized by the means of interferometric optical measurement. The measurement results are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of FEM simulations.

Kronast, Wolfgang; Mescheder, Ulrich; Müller, Bernhard; Huster, Rolf

2013-03-01

55

Selection of slim hole core rods by vibratory analysis  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research was to determine the nature of the core rod vibrations and characterize their vibratory spectrums in order that an optimal core rod size could be chosen. The research was performed for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, US Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, which is directing the coring of boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This paper describes the axial, torsional, and transient buckling vibratory models developed for the selection of optimum core rod size. The axial and torsional vibratory core rod simulator (VCRS) models are coupled by way of a transient buckling wave which propagates over the length of the core rod. This paper reports the frequencies and magnitudes of the stresses in the 101 core rod now in use. In addition, four core bit vibratory forcing functions for thrust and torque wee developed. The thrust and torque frequencies and magnitudes for the bit forcing functions were extracted from full-size laboratory core bit tests with fast Fourier transforms. The natural frequencies of the core rod were determined with closed-form solution models and were confirmed with a finite element model. Finally, a selection of core rod sizes were modeled to determine the best size to minimize damaging stress which stems from vibration.

Eustes, A.W. III; Mitchell, B.J.; Stoner, M.S. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Drilling Engineering Research Group

1994-12-01

56

The Meta-Lax method of stress reduction in welds. Phase 2 study  

SciTech Connect

This study is the second phase of ongoing research into the mechanics and feasibility of using the Meta-Lax method of vibratory stress relief in place of thermal methods of stress relief. The first phase of this research revealed results that were similar to, and even superior to those achieved using thermal methods. The testing here was designed to eliminate the effects of interbead tempering by utilizing single pass bead-on-plate welds only. A metallurgical explanation for the success of the Meta-Lax method was not found. No significant structure or chemical changes were noted when used with ASTM A36 or AISI 4140 materials, and the phenomena noted in phase I was apparently due to interbead tempering. The theory of accelerated aging has been proposed and studies exist which observed dislocation motion as a result of vibratory treatment. It is evident that the vibratory stress relief system does not impart sufficient energy to bring about the magnitude of change seen with thermal methods. however the physical improvement is a reality, and vibratory methods should be evaluated further.

Smith, S.M.

1992-07-31

57

The Meta-Lax method of stress reduction in welds. [ASTM A36; AISI 4140  

SciTech Connect

This study is the second phase of ongoing research into the mechanics and feasibility of using the Meta-Lax method of vibratory stress relief in place of thermal methods of stress relief. The first phase of this research revealed results that were similar to, and even superior to those achieved using thermal methods. The testing here was designed to eliminate the effects of interbead tempering by utilizing single pass bead-on-plate welds only. A metallurgical explanation for the success of the Meta-Lax method was not found. No significant structure or chemical changes were noted when used with ASTM A36 or AISI 4140 materials, and the phenomena noted in phase I was apparently due to interbead tempering. The theory of accelerated aging has been proposed and studies exist which observed dislocation motion as a result of vibratory treatment. It is evident that the vibratory stress relief system does not impart sufficient energy to bring about the magnitude of change seen with thermal methods. however the physical improvement is a reality, and vibratory methods should be evaluated further.

Smith, S.M.

1992-07-31

58

Hydrologic effects of stress-relief fracturing in an Appalachian Valley  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A hydrologic study at Twin Falls State Park, Wyoming County, West Virginia, was made to determine how fracture systems affect the occurrence and movement of ground water in a typical valley of the Appalachian Plateaus Physiographic Province. Twin Falls was selected because it is generally unaffected by factors that would complicate an analysis of the data. The study area was the Black Fork Valley at Twin Falls. The valley is about 3 miles long and 400 to 600 feet wide and is cut into massive sandstone units interbedded with thin coal and shale beds. The study was made to determine how aquifer characteristics were related to fracture systems in this valley, so that the relation could be applied to studies of other valleys. Two sites were selected for test drilling, pumping tests, and geophysical studies. One site is in the upper part of the valley, and the second is near the lower central part. At both sites, ground water occurs mainly in horizontal bedding-plane fractures under the valley floor and in nearly vertical and horizontal slump fractures along the valley wall. The aquifer is under confined conditions under the valley floor and unconfined conditions along the valley wall. The fractures pinch out under the valley walls, which form impermeable barriers. Tests of wells near the valley center indicated a change in storage coefficient as the cone of depression caused by pumping reached the confined-unconfined boundaries; the tests also indicated barrier-image effects when the cone reached the impermeable boundaries. Drawdown from pumping near the center of the valley affected water levels at both sites, indicating a hydraulic connection from the upper to the lower end of the valley. Stream gain-and-loss studies show that ground water discharges to the stream from horizontal fractures beneath Black Fork Falls, near the mouth of Black Fork. The fracture systems that constitute most of the transmissive part of the aquifer at Twin Falls are like those described as being formed from stress relief. As stress-relief fractures have been described in other valleys of the Appalachian Plateaus, the same aquifer conditions may exist in those valleys.

Wyrick, Granville G.; Borchers, James W.

1981-01-01

59

Stress Relief to Prevent Stress Corrosion in the Transition Region of Expanded Alloy 600 Steam-Generator Tubing. Final Report (PWR).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The feasibility of preventing primary side roll transition cracking has been investigated, using induction heating to attain stress relief of expanded Ni-Cr-Fe Alloy 600 steam generator tubing. Work on rolled tubing and U-bends has shown that temperatures...

J. Woodward D. van Rooyen

1983-01-01

60

Roof control of stress-relief jointing near outcrops in central Appalachian drift coal mines. Information Circular/1992  

SciTech Connect

The report discusses some practical applications of a geotechnical investigation conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines that can help mine operators meet revised Federal regulations in their roof control plans. The investigation, designed to characterize roof conditions near the coalbed outcrop in drift coal mines in eastern Kentucky, revealed that weathered stress-relief joints near outcrop are crucial ground control factors in the region. The joints' origin and character were determined through underground mapping of many joints in coal mine roof and detailed observations and measurements of joint trends and physical characteristics in widely separated strip mine highwalls and roadcuts. This resulted in an understanding of stress-relief-joint patterns and the effect of various rock types on the intensity of weathering in the joints. That information is used in the report to show how stress-relief joints contribute to roof failure and how, through improved roof support and mine planning, safer roof support plans can be developed.

Sames, G.P.; Moebs, N.N.

1992-01-01

61

A simple estimating method for reduction of welding residual stresses in thick welded joint from stress-relief annealing. Part 2: The characteristics of reduction of welding residual stresses in very thick joints during SR treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress-relief annealing (SR treatment) is often applied to relieve welding residual stresses in the fabrication process of pressure vessels, etc. This study aims at development of an efficient method as simple as hand calculation to estimate reduction of residual stresses of very thick welded joint by SR treatment. In the first report, an estimating method was developed for relaxation tests,

K. Nakacho; Y. Ueda

1999-01-01

62

Stress-Relief Cracking Susceptibility of a New Ferritic Steel - Part I: Single-Pass Heat-Affected Zone Simulations;Welding Journal Research Suppliment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effect of energy input and post-weld heat treatment temperature on the stress-relief cracking susceptibility of a new ferritic steel was investigated and compared to conventional 2.25Cr-1Mo steel.

J. G. Nawrocki J. N. Dupont Robino A. R. Marder

1999-01-01

63

Trap Design for Vibratory Bowl Feeders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibratory bowl feeder is the oldest and still most common ap- proach to the automated feeding (orienting) of industrial parts. In this paper, the authors consider a class of vibratory bowl filters that can be described by removing polygonal sections from the track; this class of filters is referred to as traps. For an n-sided polygonal part and an

Robert-paul Berretty; Kenneth Y. Goldberg; Mark H. Overmars; A. Frank Van Der Stappen

2001-01-01

64

Trap Design for Vibratory Bowl Feeders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibratory bowl feeder is the oldest and still most common ap- proach to the automated feeding (orienting) of industrial parts. In this paper we consider a class of vibratory bowl lters that can be described by removing polygonal sections from the track; we refer to this class of lters as traps. For an n-sided polygonal part and an m-sided

Robert-paul Berretty; Kenneth Y. Goldberg; Lawrence Cheung; Mark H. Overmars; Gordon Smith; A. Frank Van Der Stappen

1999-01-01

65

Comparison of Stress Relief Mechanisms of Metal Films Deposited on Liquid Substrates by Thermal Evaporating and Sputtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various metal film systems, deposited on liquid (silicone oil) substrates by thermal evaporating and DC-magnetron sputtering methods, have been successfully fabricated and the stress relief mechanisms are systematically studied by analyzing the characteristic surface morphologies. The experiment shows that the evaporating metal films can move on silicone oil surfaces freely due to the nearly zero adhesion of solid-liquid interface, which results in spontaneous formation of ordered surface patterns with a characteristic sandwiched structure driven by the internal stress. For the sputtering metal film system, however, the top surface of silicone oil can be modified to form an elastomeric polymer layer on the liquid substrate during deposition. Subsequent cooling of the system creates a higher compressive stress in the film, which is relieved by buckling of the film to form periodic wavy structures because the adhesion of solid-elastomer interface is quite strong.

Yu, Sen-Jiang; Zhang, Yong-Ju; Chen, Miao-Gen

66

Permanent relief from intermittent cold stress-induced fibromyalgia-like abnormal pain by repeated intrathecal administration of antidepressants  

PubMed Central

Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by chronic widespread pain, which is often refractory to conventional painkillers. Numerous clinical studies have demonstrated that antidepressants are effective in treating FM pain. We previously established a mouse model of FM-like pain, induced by intermittent cold stress (ICS). Results In this study, we find that ICS exposure causes a transient increase in plasma corticosterone concentration, but not in anxiety or depression-like behaviors. A single intrathecal injection of an antidepressant, such as milnacipran, amitriptyline, mianserin or paroxetine, had an acute analgesic effect on ICS-induced thermal hyperalgesia at post-stress day 1 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, repeated daily antidepressant treatments during post-stress days 1-5 gradually reversed the reduction in thermal pain threshold, and this recovery was maintained for at least 7 days after the final treatment. In addition, relief from mechanical allodynia, induced by ICS exposure, was also observed at day 9 after the cessation of antidepressant treatment. In contrast, the intravenous administration of these antidepressants at conventional doses failed to provide relief. Conclusions These results suggest that the repetitive intrathecal administration of antidepressants permanently cures ICS-induced FM pain in mice.

2011-01-01

67

In-situ stress measurement program-field results. Determination of the regional stress field in New York State and adjacent areas by in-situ strain relief measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mapping of stress orientations and magnitudes in rock outcrops to identify domains of uniform stress were studied. These uniform stress domains help to redefine uniform stress field domains in rock outcrops of tectonic provinces, and are applicable to the problems of earthquake hazard analysis. An overcoring technique to obtain and evaluate the significance of strain-relief measurements over a relatively

M. L. Sbar; T. Engelder; W. Prell

1975-01-01

68

Quasi-static intergranular cracking in a Cu-Sn alloy: An analog of stress relief cracking of steels  

SciTech Connect

Intergranular cracking in a laboratory-made Cu-8wt%Sn alloy at 265 to 300{degree}C in vacuum was studied in order to explore the hypothesis that this could serve as an analog to the brittle mode of stress-relief cracking in steels and to test the mechanism proposed earlier to explain that phenomenon. This mechanism involves the stress-induced intergranular penetration along grain boundaries of a surface-adsorbed embrittling element. Sulfur is the active element in this regard in steels, and tin was envisioned as playing the same role in Cu-Sn alloys. Auger spectroscopy was used to confirm earlier reports of the surface activity of tin and to determine the segregation kinetics in the present polycrystals; no other elements were found to segregate to surfaces to any significant degree in the present alloy. Crack growth measurements showed that intergranular cracking occurs in an intermittent manner at an average rate on the order of 0.1 {mu}m/sec over a range of crack length. Crack initiation was found to be remarkably sensitive to the stress intensity, implying the existence of a threshold. The fracture appearance in the regions of slow crack growth was similar to that observed in steels undergoing stress-relief cracking at 500--600{degree}C. It was concluded that the quasi-static intergranular cracking in the steels and in the Cu-Sn alloy represent two aspects of the same generic phenomenon and that the proposed mechanism of stress-induced intergranular impurity penetration is valid. It is believed that liquid-and solid-metal embrittlement are closely related to the type of intergranular cracking described here.

Barrera, E.V.; Menyhard, M.; Bika, D.; Rothman, B.; McMahon, C.J. Jr.

1991-01-01

69

Quasi-static intergranular cracking in a Cu-Sn alloy: An analog of stress relief cracking of steels  

SciTech Connect

Intergranular cracking in a laboratory-made Cu-8wt%Sn alloy at 265 to 300{degree}C in vacuum was studied in order to explore the hypothesis that this could serve as an analog to the brittle mode of stress-relief cracking in steels and to test the mechanism proposed earlier to explain that phenomenon. This mechanism involves the stress-induced intergranular penetration along grain boundaries of a surface-adsorbed embrittling element. Sulfur is the active element in this regard in steels, and tin was envisioned as playing the same role in Cu-Sn alloys. Auger spectroscopy was used to confirm earlier reports of the surface activity of tin and to determine the segregation kinetics in the present polycrystals; no other elements were found to segregate to surfaces to any significant degree in the present alloy. Crack growth measurements showed that intergranular cracking occurs in an intermittent manner at an average rate on the order of 0.1 {mu}m/sec over a range of crack length. Crack initiation was found to be remarkably sensitive to the stress intensity, implying the existence of a threshold. The fracture appearance in the regions of slow crack growth was similar to that observed in steels undergoing stress-relief cracking at 500--600{degree}C. It was concluded that the quasi-static intergranular cracking in the steels and in the Cu-Sn alloy represent two aspects of the same generic phenomenon and that the proposed mechanism of stress-induced intergranular impurity penetration is valid. It is believed that liquid-and solid-metal embrittlement are closely related to the type of intergranular cracking described here.

Barrera, E.V.; Menyhard, M.; Bika, D.; Rothman, B.; McMahon, C.J. Jr.

1991-12-31

70

Formation of different surface reliefs of metallic glasses under mechanical stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The micro- and nanoreliefs of loaded lateral surfaces and fracture surfaces of foils of the Fe77Ni1Si9B13, Fe58Ni20Si9B13, and Fe70Cr15B15 amorphous alloys have been investigated using scanning tunneling and atomic force microscopy. The isotropic and anisotropic surface reliefs have been examined. The fractal dimensions of the surfaces of loaded specimens and the fracture surfaces along and across the direction of crack propagation have been estimated using the box counting method. Fractal characteristics of the surfaces, such as the Hölder exponent and the half-width of the singularity spectrum, have been calculated using the wavelet transform method. It has been found that, on the topographies with a clearly pronounced anisotropy of the relief, the surface is fractal in only one direction, and the surface is fractal in two directions on the topographies with a less pronounced anisotropy of the relief. The fractal characteristics of the lateral surfaces and the fracture surfaces with allowance made for their anisotropy have close values. It has been shown that the formation of two types of fracture surfaces is adequately described in terms of the model of a cellular automaton.

Korsukov, V. E.; Betekhtin, V. I.; Varkentin, M. S.; Hilarov, V. L.; Kadomtsev, A. G.; Korsukova, M. M.; Obidov, B. A.

2013-04-01

71

Relief Sculpture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Relief sculpture is an art form that is midway between painting and sculpture in the round. It is a process in which the subject stands out or projects a surface from the background. The surface has several levels. It can be low relief or high relief (deep or almost round) or anywhere in between. The most common example of low relief is a coin…

Lawrence, Trudy

2005-01-01

72

The Development of an Electronic Stress Relief Device that Monitors Physical Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress is often defined as a fight-or-flight response to a situation that is perceived as challenging and anxiety provoking. As a result of stress our body releases hormone known as adrenaline. Numerous studies show that high stress level cause illness mainly because the chemicals secreted by our body during high stress periods are not neutralized. Physical exercise and relaxation (laughter)

A. Grewal; A. Shekar

2008-01-01

73

How Do You Spell Relief? Alleviating Job Stress Caused by Organizations and Executives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|College business officers should examine whether they and their institutions are practicing stress-inducing activities, and modify current practice to reduce stress on employees. Stresses can originate in the organizational framework, managerial style, or manager personality. Review of individual and organizational actions possible causing stress

Ginsburg, Sigmund G.

1991-01-01

74

Parametrically Disciplined Operation of a Vibratory Gyroscope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Parametrically disciplined operation of a symmetric nearly degenerate mode vibratory gyroscope is disclosed. A parametrically-disciplined inertial wave gyroscope having a natural oscillation frequency in the neighborhood of a sub-harmonic of an external s...

K. V. Shcheglov K. J. Hayworth A. D. Challoner C. S. Peay

2005-01-01

75

A Model for stress generation and relief in oxide — Metal systems during a temperature change  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an oxidized metal is cooled from a high temperature, stresses are produced at the metal-scale interface, owing to the difference in thermal expansion rates of the oxide and metal. Such stresses become time- and temperature-dependent if the scale or underlying metal creeps as cooling occurs. A model is presented which describes thermally induced stresses in the scale and accounts

John J. Barnes; John G. Goedjen; David A. Shores

1989-01-01

76

The effect of stress-relief on ambient microcrack porosity in core samples from the Kent Cliffs (New York) and Moodus (Connecticut) scientific research boreholes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meglis, I.L., Engelder, T. and Graham, E.K., 1991. The effect of stress-relief on ambient microcrack porosity in core samples from the Kent Cliffs (New York) and Moodus (Connecticut) scientific research boreholes. In: J.-C. Mareschal (Editor), Intraplate Deformation, Neotectonics, Seismicity, and the State of Stress in Eastern North America. Tectonophysics, 186: 163-173. As part of crustal stress studies in the northeastern

Irene L. Meglis; T. Engelder; E. K. Graham

1991-01-01

77

A simple estimating method for reduction of welding residual stresses in thick welded joint from stress-relief annealing. Part 1: Development of the analytical method for relaxation tests and its applicability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress-relief annealing (SR treatment) is often applied to relieve welding residual stresses in the fabrication process of pressure vessels etc. This study aims at development of an efficient method as simple as hand calculation to estimate reduction of residual stresses of very thick welded joint by SR treatment. In this first report, an estimating method is developed for relaxation tests,

K. Nakacho; Y. Ueda

1996-01-01

78

Restoration and stress relief through physical activities in forests and parks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field survey assessed the restorative effects of visiting an urban forest and a city park in Zurich, Switzerland. Respondents rated their headaches, level of stress, and how balanced they felt both prior to visiting the outdoor location and at the time of being interviewed. Suffering from headaches and stress decreased significantly, and feeling well-balanced increased significantly. The recovery ratio

Ralf Hansmann; Stella-Maria Hug; Klaus Seeland

2007-01-01

79

Introducing a silicone under the bump configuration for stress relief in a wafer level package  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microelectronics devices continue to evolve towards increased functionality, thinner die, increased reliability, and reduced cost, requiring a change in material and process requirements for the next generation of packages (i.e. stacked chip packages and wafer level packages (WLP)). Stress reduction is a key factor for many devices, particularly those that have thinner die and those that are subjected to stresses

M. Vanden Bulckel; M. Gonzalez; B. Vandeveldel; C. Winters; E. Beynel; L. Larson; B. R. Harkness; G. Gardner; M. Mohamed; J. Sudbury-Holtschlag; H. Meynen

2003-01-01

80

Stress relief and texture formation in aluminium nitride by plasma immersion ion implantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect on the intrinsic stress in AlN films of applying pulsed bias during cathodic arc deposition has been studied. We find that the stress depends only on the pulse voltage–pulse frequency product, Vf. The form of the dependence is well fitted by an exponential function whose parameters can be interpreted physically. The preferred orientation changes progressively with Vf, from

B K Gan; M M M Bilek; D R McKenzie; Yang Shi; D A Tompsett; M B Taylor; D G McCulloch

2004-01-01

81

Mood foods: working mothers' receptiveness to food with stress-relief properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand stress triggers frequently experienced by relatively affluent working mothers of young children, to explore the situational context surrounding the various coping strategies used and to assess the value of foods specifically targeted at affecting stress (i.e. “mood foods”). Women with young children were selected as the focus because the greater

Joanna Clare Gamble; Christina Maree Bava; Mark Wohlers

2010-01-01

82

Integration of Low-? Dielectric Liner in Through Silicon Via and Thermomechanical Stress Relief  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through silicon via (TSV) consists of a copper (Cu) core isolated by a dielectric liner. The thermomechanical stress originating from the mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion of Cu and silicon is a serious concern on mechanical reliability and electrical variability. The effect on thermomechanical stress by replacing the conventional liner (silicon dioxide) with a low-? liner (carbon-doped silicon dioxide) is studied. By micro-Raman analysis, it is observed that the biaxial stress in silicon at the immediate vicinity of Cu-TSV is relieved by 29--45% with a low-? liner due to its smaller elastic modulus.

Ghosh, Kaushik; Zhang, Jiye; Zhang, Lin; Dong, Yuanwei; Li, Hongyu; Tan, Cher Ming; Xia, Guangrui; Tan, Chuan Seng

2012-12-01

83

Nucleation rate reduction through stress relief of thermally annealed hydrogenated amorphous silicon films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of film stress on crystallite nucleation is investigated in 0.11 ?m thick, thermally annealed hydrogenated amorphous silicon films. Using a recently developed optical method, the crystallite density is measured as the films are isochronally annealed at 600 °C, which enables the determination of the crystallite nucleation rate. This rate is significantly suppressed around scratches, cleaved film edges, and laser ablated areas, extending laterally as much as 100-150 ?m from these regions where the film connectivity is disrupted. ?-Raman measurements of the transverse optical mode of Si demonstrate an accompanying reduction in tensile stress in the regions where nucleation is suppressed. The first measurements of nucleation rate in stress and in stress relieved areas in the same film are presented.

Dabney, M. S.; van Hest, M. F. A. M.; Mahan, A. H.; Ginley, D. S.

2013-05-01

84

Three-dimensional stress relief displacement resulting from drilling a blind hole in acrylic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of optically based, hole-drilling stress measurements require accurate knowledge of the three-dimensional relaxation displacements induced by the drilling of a blind hole into the surface of a stressed object. These displacements are calculated using two closed-form solutions proposed earlier and a numerical finite element technique. Double exposure holographic fringe patterns calculated from the analytic displacements are in poor agreement

D. R. Schmitt; Y. Li

1996-01-01

85

MAP Kinase-Mediated Stress Relief that Precedes and Regulates the Timing of Transcriptional Induction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In yeast, hyperosmotic stress causes an immediate dissociation of most proteins from chromatin, presumably because cells are unprepared for, and initially unresponsive to, increased ion concentrations in the nucleus. Osmotic stress activates Hog1 MAP kinase, which phosphorylates at least two proteins located at the plasma membrane, the Nha1 Na+\\/H+ antiporter and the Tok1 potassium channel. Hog1 phosphorylation stimulates Nha1 activity,

Markus Proft; Kevin Struhl

2004-01-01

86

The salt stress relief and growth promotion effect of Rs5 on cotton  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of the Rs-5 bacteria strain, identified as Klebsiella oxytoca and isolated with ACC as the sole nitrogen source, on salt stressed cotton seedling growth was studied. It was demonstrated\\u000a that Rs-5 could obviously relieve salt stress and promote cotton seedling growth. After treatment with Rs-5, the individual\\u000a plant height and dry weight of cotton increased by 14.9 and

Haitao Yue; Wenping Mo; Chun Li; Yuanyuan Zheng; Hui Li

2007-01-01

87

Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase is required for genotoxic stress relief in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Genotoxic stress activates complex cellular responses allowing for the repair of DNA damage and proper cell recovery. Although plants are exposed constantly to increasing solar UV irradiation, the signaling cascades activated by genotoxic environments are largely unknown. We have identified an Arabidopsis mutant (mkp1) hypersensitive to genotoxic stress treatments (UV-C and methyl methanesulphonate) due to disruption of a gene that encodes an Arabidopsis homolog of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase (AtMKP1). Growth of the mkp1 mutant under standard conditions is indistinguishable from wild type, indicating a stress-specific function of AtMKP1. MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs), the potent inactivators of MAP kinases, are considered important regulators of MAP kinase signaling. Although biochemical data from mammalian cell cultures suggests an involvement of MKPs in cellular stress responses, there is no in vivo genetic support for this view in any multicellular organism. The genetic and biochemical data presented here imply a central role for a MAP kinase cascade in genotoxic stress signaling in plants and indicate AtMKP1 to be a crucial regulator of the MAP kinase activity in vivo, determining the outcome of the cellular reaction and the level of genotoxic resistance. PMID:11274055

Ulm, R; Revenkova, E; di Sansebastiano, G P; Bechtold, N; Paszkowski, J

2001-03-15

88

Light-induced stress relief to improve flaw tolerance in network polymers  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the ability to use photoactivated stress relaxation to improve flaw tolerance in network polymers. Unlike most self-healing polymers, which effectively close flaws by locally introducing healing agents (such as uncured resins), here light is used to relax elevated stresses around a flaw before it reaches a critical state, which reduces the threat that the flaw poses to the structural integrity of the material. In this study, we fabricate specimens with well-defined flaws and uniaxially stretch them to failure. By irradiating the specimens with UV light (365 nm) before failure, the nominal strain at failure is increased by 70% and the corresponding nominal stress is increased by 30% compared with nonirradiated specimens. To better understand the phenomena that occur at the multiaxial stress state at the flaw, we model the photomechanics using a recently developed finite element approach that accurately describes the light propagation, photochemistry, radical-induced network evolution, and the mechanical behavior of the material. Model predictions agree well with the experimental results and elucidate the role that photoinduced stress relaxation has on improving flaw tolerance.

Long, Kevin N.; Dunn, Martin L.; Scott, Timothy F.; Turpin, Lucas P.; Qi, H. Jerry [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)

2010-03-15

89

Generation and relief of mechanical stresses in ion irradiated SiC and SiO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the generation and relief of mechanical stresses in 6H-SiC and in ?-quartz during bombardment with 50keV Ne- and Na-ions at 77K as a function of the applied ion fluence, by measuring the curvature change of the samples utilising mechanical surface profiling (MSP). In addition, the irradiation induced damage was depth profiled by means of Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry in Channeling geometry (RBS-C). Density alterations could be deduced by combining the results on surface swelling obtained by MSP with the thickness of the ion beam modified layer observed with RBS-C. Bombardment with ion fluences below a critical fluence ?c (nucleation regime) results in the accumulation of defect agglomerates and/or small amorphous zones in a still crystalline surrounding. At ?c a coherent amorphous layer has formed, buried at the depth of maximum energy deposition. Further irradiation at higher fluences results in the growth of this layer perpendicular to the surface (growth regime). In the nucleation regime, strong compressive stresses of the order of 1.5-3GPa are generated by the excess volume of the defect agglomerates. Only small volume swelling could be detected in this regime. After the amorphous layer extends to the surface, slow release of the compressive stresses could be observed, which was completed after application of ?=3?c (SiC) and ?=10?c (SiO2), respectively. The stress relaxation is accompanied by strong volume swelling perpendicular to the surface and a continuous decrease of the atomic density by up to about 20%. At still higher fluences, further growth of the amorphous layer occurs at reduced, but constant density.

Harbsmeier, Felix; Conrad, Jens; Bolse, Wolfgang

1998-03-01

90

Extending the Potential of Evaporative Cooling for Heat-Stress Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factorswereanalyzedthatlimittherangeofenviron- mental conditions in which stress from heat may be relieved by evaporative cooling in shaded animals. Evaporative cooling reduces air temperature (Ta), but increases humidity. Equations were developed to pre- dict Ta reduction as a function of ambient temperature and humidity and of humidity in cooled air. Predictions indicated that a reduction of Ta becomes marginal at humidities beyond

A. Berman

2006-01-01

91

Comparison of plastic, viscoplastic, and creep models when modelling welding and stress relief heat treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major concern when carrying out welding and heat treatment simulations is to accurately model material behaviour as it varies with temperature and composition. Early in the product development process, a less sophisticated material model may be suitable to compare different concepts where less accuracy in deformation and residual stress is acceptable. At later stages in the product development process,

H Alberg; D Berglund

2003-01-01

92

Effects of the stress-relief conditions on a martensite stainless-steel welded component  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an investigation of the effect of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) on the mechanical properties and residual stress of high-chromium steel AISI 410 used in aircraft engines. In this study, three different heating rates, three different cooling rates and three different durations were investigated. The soaking temperature was 550°C for all these conditions. In order

A. G Olabi; M. S. J Hashmi

1998-01-01

93

Analysis of Internal Stress Relief Achieved by Functional Electrical Stimulation Application for Pressure Ulcer Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the United States, 1.4 million people who rely on wheelchairs for mobility develop serious pressure ulcer (PU) at pressure\\u000a areas such as ischium and sacrum due to prolonged sitting. Recently, functional electrical stimulation (FES) has been proposed\\u000a as a means to prevent development of PU through the redistribution and the reduction of the internal stresses within the deep\\u000a tissue

Dohyung Lim; Keyoung Jin Chun; Byeong Hee Won; Jong-In Youn; Mohsen Makhsous

94

Stress-relief displacements induced by drilling--applications to holographic measurements of in situ stress. Final technical report, August 15, 1988--August 14, 1990  

SciTech Connect

The holographic stressmeter is an instrument which has been developed at Caltech to allow determination of the complete stress tensor from in situ borehole measurements. The stressmeter uses double-exposure holographic interferometry to record the displacements induced by the drilling of a small sidehole into the borehole wall. The local stresses, which are the result of the far-field stresses, concentrated at the borehole, cause deformation of the surface of the borehole wall in the vicinity of the sidehole. The first part of this study uses a thin infinite elastic plate subjected to plane stress at infinity to model the displacements at the borehole wall. However, the existence of some holograms which were difficult to model closely led us to examine the validity of this model. In order to investigate the problem further, we performed a two-dimensional finite element analysis for an elastic box with a terminated hole. We varied the dimensions of the hole to see what effect the radius and depth of the hole might have on the displacements. The plate model predicts that the depth of the hole should have no effect on the horizontal components of displacement, but the finite element results show that the magnitude of both components of the displacement depends on the depth of the sidehole. After considering these results, we developed a new model for the analysis of stress-relief displacements, following the work of Youngdahl and Sternberg (1965). For holes with a depth-to-diameter ratio greater than unity, the simple plane stress elastic plate solution breaks down and does not adequately model the displacements at the surface of the body and near the hole. Since these are the areas most critical to calculate accurately with the holographic technique, the revised model does a better job of fitting the observed data.

Ahrens, T.J.; Smither, C.L.

1992-04-24

95

Fracture properties of hydrided Zircaloy-4 cladding in recrystallization and stress-relief anneal conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the stress-relieved (SRA) and recrystallized (RXA) Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens were hydrogen-charged to the target concentration of 300 wppm and then manufactured into X-specimens for fracture toughness test. The hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of Zircaloy-4 cladding specimens in both SRA and RXA conditions were investigated. At the hydrogen concentration level of 300 wppm, J-integral values for RXA cladding were higher than those for SRA cladding at both 25 °C and 300 °C. The formation of brittle zirconium hydrides had a significant impact on the fracture toughness of Zircaloy-4 cladding in both SRA and RXA states, especially at 25 °C. Among all the tests, SRA cladding tested at 25 °C exhibited a great loss of the fracture toughness. The micrographic and fractographic observations further demonstrated that the fracture toughness of Zircaloy-4 cladding would be improved by the coarse grains in RXA cladding, but degraded by zirconium hydrides precipitated along the grain boundary.

Hsu, Hsiao-Hung; Tsay, Leu-Wen

2012-03-01

96

The effect of NaCl stress and relief on gas exchange properties of two olive cultivars differing in tolerance to salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young olive plants (Olea europaea L.) were grown either in hydroponic or soil culture in a glasshouse over two growing seasons. Plants were exposed to NaCl concentrations between 0 and 200 mM for 34–35 days followed by 30–34 days of relief from stress to determine the effect of salinity on gas exchange of two cultivars ('Frantoio' and 'Leccino') differing in

Massimiliano Tattini; Leonardo Lombardini; Riccardo Gucci

1997-01-01

97

Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream  

DOEpatents

A vibratory fluid pump is described having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments. 3 figs.

Merrigan, M.A.; Woloshun, K.A.

1990-11-13

98

Vibratory facilitation of strength in fatigued muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gabriel DA, Basford JR, An K-N. Vibratory facilitation of strength in fatigued muscle. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:1202-5. Objective: To assess the effects of tendon vibration on isometric torque and electromyographic activity of fatigued muscles. Design: Subjects performed a 30-trial isometric (2-s maximal effort contractions alternating with 6-s rest periods) elbow extensor fatigue series. Three additional trials with the same

David A. Gabriel; Jeffrey R. Basford; Kai-Nan An

2002-01-01

99

A surface-micromachined tunable vibratory gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tunable vibratory microgyroscope was fabricated by surface micromachining technology. The 7.5 ?m-thick polysilicon structural layer was deposited using LPCVD at 625°C. The resonant frequency in the detection mode was higher than that in the driving mode so that gyroscope could be tuned to the resonant frequencies by applying the inter-plate DC bias. The gyroscope was driven in a resonant

Yongsoo Oh; Byeungleul Lee; Seogsoon Baek; Hosuk Kim; Jeonggon Kim; Seokjin Kang; Cimoo Song

1997-01-01

100

5-7-5 line defects on As/Si(100) : A general stress-relief mechanism for V/IV surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An entire family of nano-scale trenches, ridges, and steps has been observed experimentally on AsH3 -exposed Si(100) . Some of these line structures have been observed previously, but their structures have remained a mystery. Theoretical modeling shows that they are all based upon the same stress-relieving 5-7-5 core structure. The strong similarities between line structures on As/Si(100) , P/Si(100) , As/Ge(100) , and other V/IV surfaces lead to a much broader conclusion: 5-7-5 line structures are a general form of stress relief for group-V terminated Si and Ge surfaces.

McMahon, W. E.; Batyrev, Iskander G.; Hannappel, T.; Olson, J. M.; Zhang, S. B.

2006-07-01

101

A simple estimating method for reduction of welding residual stresses in thick welded joint from stress-relief annealing. Part 2: The characteristics of reduction of welding residual stresses in very thick joints during SR treatment  

SciTech Connect

Stress-relief annealing (SR treatment) is often applied to relieve welding residual stresses in the fabrication process of pressure vessels, etc. This study aims at development of an efficient method as simple as hand calculation to estimate reduction of residual stresses of very thick welded joint by SR treatment. In the first report, an estimating method was developed for relaxation tests, in uniaxial stress state, at changing and constant temperatures because the stress relaxation phenomenon is considerably similar to that observed in the SR treatment of a joint. In this report, the stresses relaxed by SR treatment in a very thick welded joint are analyzed accurately by the finite element method based on thermal elastic-plastic-creep theory. The characteristics of the changes of the welding residual stresses in multiaxial stress state are studied in detail for further development of the estimating method to SR treatment of a very thick welded joint, of which the stress state and boundary condition are very complex.

Nakacho, K.; Ueda, Y. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan). Joining and Welding Research Inst.

1999-02-01

102

Impact velocity measurement of media in a vibratory finisher  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface-normal impact velocity distributions, impact frequencies and impact power per unit area were measured using a force sensor in a vibratory finisher for two types of spherical media. These parameters control the degree, rate and character of plastic deformation and erosion of a workpiece surface in vibratory finishing. The force sensor was also used to quantify the effect of

D. Ciampini; M. Papini; J. K. Spelt

2007-01-01

103

Vibratory Shock Compaction of Granular Nuclear Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibratory Shock Compaction (VSC) is a proven means for quickly forming strong, durable solids from a wide variety of granular materials[1]. Calcination of tank and other forms of high level radioactive wastes results in fine granular material that is quite amenable to volume reduction and stabilization. We have employed utilities coal ash as a calcine waste surrogate, blended with a quartz/feldspar-rich sand and 0-20% proportions of a borosilicate glass. The blends were compacted at room temperature and fired so that the glass melt could form an efficient binder. Included in the blend are small quantities of three RCRA metals, chromium, cadmium and lead, to permit testing for heavy metal stability. The VSC process is described and the results presented in terms of the waste form dissolution rates, compressive strengths, elastic moduli as determined from resonant frequency measurements, and heavy metal leach rates from Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure measurements. Vibratory shock compaction employing glass binders appears to be a viable alternative to traditional vitrification processes for granular waste forms. [1] See http://www.resonantshockcompact.com

Amme, Robert C.

2004-05-01

104

The Stress-Relief Cracking Susceptibility of a New Ferritic Steel - Part I: Single-Pass Heat-Affected Zone Simulations  

SciTech Connect

The stress-relief cracking susceptibility of single-pass welds in a new ferritic steel, HCM2S, has been evaluated and compared to 2.25Cr-1Mo steel using Gleeble techniques. Simulated coarse-grained heat-affected zones (CGHAZ) were produced under a range of energy inputs and tested at various post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) temperatures. Both alloys were tested at a stress of 325 MPa. The 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel was also tested at 270 MPa to normalize for the difference in yield strength between the two materials. Light optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the CGHAZ microstructure. The ''as-welded'' CGHAZ of each alloy consisted of lath martensite or bainite and had approximately equal prior austenite grain sizes. The as-welded hardness of the 2.25Cr-1Mo steel CGHAZ was significantly higher than that of the HCM2S alloy. Over the range studied energy input had no effect on the as-welded microstructure or hardness of either alloy. The energy input also had no effect on the stress-relief cracking susceptibility of either material. Both alloys failed intergranularly along prior austenite grain boundaries under all test conditions. The 2.25Cr-1Mo steel samples experienced significant macroductility and some microductility when tested at 325 MPa. The ductility decreased significantly when tested at 270 MPa but was still higher that than of HCM2S at each test condition. The time to failure decreased with increasing PWHT Temperature for each material. There was no significant difference in the times to failure between the two materials. Varying energy input and stress had no effect on the time-to failure. The ductility, as measured by reduction in are% increased with increasing PWHT temperature for 2.25 Cr-1Mo steel tested at both stresses. However, PWHT temperature had no effect on the ductility of HCM2S. The hardness of the CGHAZ for 2.25Cr-1Mo steel decreased significantly after PWHT, but remained constant for HCM2S. The differences in stress-relief cracking response are discussed in terms of the differences in composition and expected carbide precipitation sequence for each alloy during PWHT.

NAWROCKI,J.G.; DUPONT,J.N.; ROBINO,CHARLES V.; MARDER,A.R.

1999-12-15

105

Strain relief during Ge hut cluster formation on Si(001) studied by high-resolution LEED and surface-stress-induced optical deflection  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of Ge hut cluster formation and the evolution of film stress have been studied during Ge deposition at 400 and 500 deg. C by high-resolution low-energy electron diffraction and surface-stress-induced optical deflection. The hut clusters grow coherent to the Si substrate but show an increased layer distance of 4% due to strain-induced tetragonal distortion. The distortion of the Ge unit cell adds up to more than 8%. The sudden onset of hut formation is observed at 3.5 monolayers of Ge. Individual hut clusters instantly grow to a width of 20 nm. The strain relief of the order of 15%-20% is maximized by complete dissociation of the Ge wetting layer. Together with this Ge only two additional monolayers of Ge are necessary to cover the entire surface with fully evolved hut clusters.

Horn-von Hoegen, M.; Mueller, B.H.; Grabosch, T.; Kury, P. [Institut fuer Laser- und Plasmaphysik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-45117 Essen (Germany)

2004-12-15

106

A drive-free vibratory gyroscope.  

PubMed

Computational and analytical works have shown that certain coupling schemes can lead to significant enhancements in sensitivity, accuracy, and lower costs for a wide range of sensor devices whose output and performance depends directly on the ability of individual units to generate stable limit cycle oscillations. Vibratory gyroscopes are very good candidates for this new paradigm as their accuracy and sensitivity are directly dependent on the ability of a driving signal to produce and maintain oscillations with stable amplitude, phase, and frequency. To achieve higher accuracy, we show proof of concept of a novel scheme: a drive-free coupled gyroscope system in which the coupling alone can lead to self-regulated limit cycle oscillations in the drive- and sense-axes with stable constant amplitude and phase-locking. PMID:21456817

Vu, Huy; Palacios, Antonio; In, Visarath; Longhini, Patrick; Neff, Joseph D

2011-03-01

107

Prediction of turbine blade vibratory response due to upstream vane distress  

SciTech Connect

Turbine blades and vanes operate in a hostile environment, which leads to deterioration of these components over time. This paper describes detailed calculations to predict the vibratory response of a high-pressure turbine blade due to the excitation produced by a single distressed upstream vane in a modern turbofan engine. The approach includes detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the steady flowfield produced by the distressed vane, Fourier decomposition of the flow variables to determine the harmonic content, unsteady CFD analysis to determine the resulting vibratory response of the blade, and crack propagation analysis to determine blade life. Predictions of vibratory stress and threshold crack size are summarized as functions of vane distress level. The results, which indicate that this type of vane distress can indeed be a significant excitation source for the blades, are shown to be in good agreement with engine experience. The method provides, for the first time, a quantitative approach to setting limits for acceptable levels of vane distress in the field.

Panovsky, J.; Carson, S.M. [GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1998-07-01

108

Responses to Changes in Ca2+ Supply in Two Mediterranean Evergreens, Phillyrea latifolia and Pistacia lentiscus, During Salinity Stress and Subsequent Relief  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Changes in root-zone Ca2+ concentration affect a plant's performance under high salinity, an issue poorly investigated for Mediterranean xerophytes, which may suffer from transient root-zone salinity stress in calcareous soils. It was hypothesized that high-Ca2+ supply may affect differentially the response to salinity stress of species differing in their strategy of Na+ allocation at organ level. Phillyrea latifolia and Pistacia lentiscus, which have been reported to greatly differ for Na+ uptake and transport rates to the leaves, were studied. Methods In plants exposed to 0 mm or 200 mm NaCl and supplied with 2·0 mm or 8·0 mm Ca2+, under 100 % solar irradiance, measurements were conducted of (a) gas exchange, PSII photochemistry and plant growth; (b) water and ionic relations; (c) the activity of superoxide dismutase and the lipid peroxidation; and (d) the concentration of individual polyphenols. Gas exchange and plant growth were also estimated during a period of relief from salinity stress. Key Results The performance of Pistacia lentiscus decreased to a significantly smaller degree than that of Phillyrea latifolia because of high salinity. Ameliorative effects of high-Ca2+ supply were more evident in Phillyrea latifolia than in Pistacia lentiscus. High-Ca2+ reduced steeply the Na+ transport to the leaves in salt-treated Phillyrea latifolia, and allowed a faster recovery of gas exchange and growth rates as compared with low-Ca2+ plants, during the period of relief from salinity. Salt-induced biochemical adjustments, mostly devoted to counter salt-induced oxidative damage, were greater in Phillyrea latifolia than in Pistacia lentiscus. Conclusions An increased Ca2+ : Na+ ratio may be of greater benefit for Phillyrea latifolia than for Pistacia lentiscus, as in the former, adaptive mechanisms to high root-zone salinity are primarily devoted to restrict the accumulation of potentially toxic ions in sensitive shoot organs.

Tattini, Massimiliano; Traversi, Maria Laura

2008-01-01

109

Fabrication of UO2 Fuel Rod by Vibratory Compaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of vibratory compacted fuel have become very active in view of the cost reduction possibilities in fuel fabrication. Recent advances in UO2-PuO2 fuels, symbolized in the realization of ATR and FBR, have also given impetus to these studies. This report describes a fabrication technique applicable to various vibratory compaction fuel rods, and also specifies some requirements governing the compaction

Kazuo MARUYA; Yasutaka OSAWA; Takeshi AIZAWA; Shuichiro TAKAHASHI

1967-01-01

110

A simple estimating method for reduction of welding residual stresses in thick welded joint from stress-relief annealing. Part 1: Development of the analytical method for relaxation tests and its applicability  

SciTech Connect

Stress-relief annealing (SR treatment) is often applied to relieve welding residual stresses in the fabrication process of pressure vessels etc. This study aims at development of an efficient method as simple as hand calculation to estimate reduction of residual stresses of very thick welded joint by SR treatment. In this first report, an estimating method is developed for relaxation tests, in uniaxial stress state, at changing and constant temperatures because the stress relaxation phenomenon is very similar to that observed in the SR treatment of a joint. Using the various relations between stress and strains in the relaxation tests, estimating equations are formulated in order to simply calculate the change of the stress. The results obtained by applying the equations are compared with the highly accurate analytical result based on the finite element method. Both results show such a good coincidence that the appropriateness of the adopted method is confirmed. In the next report, this method is extended to SR treatment of a very thick welded joint, of which the stress state and boundary condition are very complex.

Nakacho, K.; Ueda, Y. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan). Joint and Welding Research Inst.

1996-08-01

111

Stress concentration factors of flat end to cylindrical shell connection with a fillet or stress relief groove subjected to internal pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

For fatigue assessment of pressure vessels (parts), as proposed by the CEN Technical Committee 54, the knowledge of some stress quantities in the structure is necessary, e.g. equivalent stresses according to Tresca's yield criterion and principal stresses at welds. In this article, these quantities are given in the form of stress concentration factors for the flat end to cylindrical shell

Reinhard Preiss

1997-01-01

112

Complex vibratory patterns in an elephant larynx.  

PubMed

Elephants' low-frequency vocalizations are produced by flow-induced self-sustaining oscillations of laryngeal tissue. To date, little is known in detail about the vibratory phenomena in the elephant larynx. Here, we provide a first descriptive report of the complex oscillatory features found in the excised larynx of a 25 year old female African elephant (Loxodonta africana), the largest animal sound generator ever studied experimentally. Sound production was documented with high-speed video, acoustic measurements, air flow and sound pressure level recordings. The anatomy of the larynx was studied with computed tomography (CT) and dissections. Elephant CT vocal anatomy data were further compared with the anatomy of an adult human male. We observed numerous unusual phenomena, not typically reported in human vocal fold vibrations. Phase delays along both the inferior-superior and anterior-posterior (A-P) dimension were commonly observed, as well as transverse travelling wave patterns along the A-P dimension, previously not documented in the literature. Acoustic energy was mainly created during the instant of glottal opening. The vestibular folds, when adducted, participated in tissue vibration, effectively increasing the generated sound pressure level by 12 dB. The complexity of the observed phenomena is partly attributed to the distinct laryngeal anatomy of the elephant larynx, which is not simply a large-scale version of its human counterpart. Travelling waves may be facilitated by low fundamental frequencies and increased vocal fold tension. A travelling wave model is proposed, to account for three types of phenomena: A-P travelling waves, 'conventional' standing wave patterns, and irregular vocal fold vibration. PMID:24133151

Herbst, Christian T; Svec, Jan G; Lohscheller, Jörg; Frey, Roland; Gumpenberger, Michaela; Stoeger, Angela S; Fitch, W Tecumseh

2013-11-01

113

Stress distribution in a glassfiber-reinforced plastic shell structure under impulsive transverse loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper outlines a method and results of experimental determination of vibratory stresses in a shell structure contacting\\u000a with a medium. The stresses peak at the junction between the shell and the branch pipe. It is established that when the shell\\u000a is in contact with the medium, the vibratory stresses are much higher, while the vibratory accelerations are much lower

P. Z. Lugovoi; V. V. Sivak; V. F. Sivak

2009-01-01

114

Efficacy of a vibratory stimulus for the relief of HIV-associated neuropathic pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain related to HIV disease is frequently debilitating. Of the many pain syndromes that occur in persons with HIV, distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSPN) is particularly devastating. Because DSPN often responds, at best, only partially to available pharmacologic interventions, non-pharmacologic interventions need to be investigated. Vibration has been suggested to be effective for reducing pain in other populations with chronic pain.

Judith A. Paice; Susan Shott; F. Parke Oldenburg; Janice Zeller; Barbara Swanson

2000-01-01

115

Numerical Simulation of Stress-Relief Effects of Protective Layer Extraction / Symulacja numeryczna skutków odpr??enia warstwy zabezpieczaj?cej w trakcie jej wybierania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field test and laboratory analog model test on the stress-relief effects of protective layer extraction are time-consuming and laborious. In this paper, on the basis of full consideration of rock heterogeinity and in combination with gas geology at Pingdingshan Mine 5, a numerical model was estalished with the gas-solid coupling rock failure process analysis system RFPA-Gas to simulate the stress variation law, roof and floor deformation, fracture evolution law, displacement in the protected seam, change in gas permeability and gas migration law during protective layer extraction. The simulation results repoduced stress variations in coal and rock strata, roof and floor deformation and fracture evolution process during protective layer extraction. The movement of rock strata were characterized by upper three zones and lower two zones: caving zone, fracture zone and bending subsidence zone in the vertical direction in the overlying strata; floor deformation and failure zone and elasto-plastic deformation zone in the vertical direction in the underlying strata. It showed that stress relief occurred in the protected seam, which led to vertical and horizontal displacements, significant increase in gas permeability, gas desorption and migration. Hence, the outburst threat in the protected seam was eliminated. Meanwhile, with comprehensive analysis of variaition of stress state, deformation characteristics and fracture distribution in coal seam and with consideration of changes in gas leakage rate, gas pressure and permeability, according to gas leakage rate, the floor strata of the protecive layer were divided into four leakage zones. They corresponded to four zones with different stress states and fracture development: original leakage zone - slow reducing leakage zone - dramatic increasing leakage zone- steady increasing leakage zone. This classification provides a clear direction for gas control in the protective layer. The simulation results are in good agreement with the stress-relief effects in field. Badania terenowe oraz modelowanie w warunkach laboratoryjnych skutków odpr??enia warstwy zabezpieczaj?cej w trakcie wydobycia s? niezwykle czasoch?onne i skomplikowane. Uwzgl?dniaj?c niejednorodno?? ska? i wykorzystuj?c dane geologiczne i o obecno?ci gazów w kopalni Pindingshan 5, opracowano model numeryczny p?kania ska? w uk?adzie gaz-cia?o sta?e w oparciu o analiz? uk?adu RFPA-Gaz. Model wykorzystano do symulacji zmian napr??e?, odkszta?ce? stropu i sp?gu, propagacji p?kni??, przemieszcze? w pok?adach zabezpieczonych, zmian w przepuszczalno?ci gazów oraz migracji gazów w trakcie wybierania warstwy zabezpieczaj?cej. Wyniki symulacji odwzorowuj? zmiany napr??e?, odkszta?ce? stropu i sp?gu, propagacji p?kni?? w trakcie wybierania warstwy ochronnej. Ruchy warstw górotworu scharakteryzowano poprzez analiz? trzech stref nadk?adu i dwóch stref lez?cych poni?ej: w warstwach nadk?adu: strefy zawa?u, strefy sp?ka? oraz strefy osiadania (przemieszczenia w kierunku pionowym), w warstwach le??cych poni?ej: strefy odkszta?cenia i p?kania sp?gu, oraz strefy odkszta?ce? elastyczno- plastycznych w kierunku pionowym. Wykazano, ?e odpr??anie mia?o miejsce w pok?adzie zabezpieczaj?cym, co prowadzi?o do powstania przemieszcze? pionowych oraz poziomych, zanotowano tak?e znaczny wzrost przepuszczalno?ci gazów, desorpcji gazów oraz ich transportu. Z tych wzgl?dów zagro?enie wybuchem w pok?adzie ochronnym zosta?o wyeliminowane. Ca?o?ciowa analiza zmian stanu napr??enia, charakterystyki odkszta?ce? i rozk?adu p?kni?? w pok?adzie w?gla przeprowadzona zosta?a dla czterech stref przecieku gazów, wydzielonych w oparciu zmiany nat??enia wyp?ywu gazów, ci?nienia gazów oraz przepuszczalno?ci w odniesieniu do nat??enia przep?ywu gazu w sp?gu w warstwie ochronnej. Te cztery strefy odpowiada?y czterem strefom w których zanotowano odmienne stany napr??e? i rozk?adu sp?ka?: pierwotna strefa wycieku, powoli zmniejszaj?ca si? strefa wycieku, gram

Tian-Rang, Jia; Zi-Min, Zhang; Chun-An, Tang; Yong-Jun, Zhang

2013-06-01

116

Postural control adaptation during galvanic vestibular and vibratory proprioceptive stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective for this study was to investigate whether the adaptation of postural control was similar during galvanic vestibular stimulation and during vibratory proprioceptive stimulation of the calf muscles. Healthy subjects were tested during erect stance with eyes open or closed. An analysis method designed to consider the adaptive adjustments was used to evaluate the motion dynamics and the evoked

Per-Anders Fransson; Anna Hafström; Mikael Karlberg; Måns Magnusson; Annika Tjäder; Rolf Johansson

2003-01-01

117

Effect of vibratory weld conditioning on welded valve properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The approach to improve the quality of full welded valve by the application of vibratory weld conditioning (VWC) was investigated in this paper. The effect of VWC on the welded joint properties was studied. Cylinders with different thicknesses were welded by submerged arc welding (SAW). The experiment results show that the vibration applied during welding generally reduces the residual deformation

Lu Qinghua; Chen Ligong; Ni Chunzhen

2008-01-01

118

On the design of guillotine traps for vibratory bowl feeders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibratory bowl feeder remains the most common approach to the automated feeding (orienting) of industrial parts. We study the algorithmic design of a trap in the bowl feeder track that filters out all but one orientation of a given polygonal part. We propose a new class of traps that we call guillotine traps, which remove a portion of the

Onno C. Goemans; Anthony Levandowski; Ken Goldberg; A. Frank Van Der Stappen

2005-01-01

119

On the Design of Guillotine Traps for Vibratory Bowl Feeders  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó The vibratory bowl feeder remains the most com- mon approach to the automated feeding (orienting) of industrial parts. We study the algorithmic design of a trap in the bowl feeder track that lters out all but one orientation of a given polygonal part. We propose a new class of traps that we call guillotine traps, which remove a portion

Onno C. Goemans; Anthony Levandowskiz; Ken Goldbergz; A. Frank van der Stappen

120

Vibratory-Compaction Tests on Graphite Powders for Neutron Shielding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mistures of three size ranges of graphite powders have been vibratory packed to densities as high as 1.40 gm/cm exp 3 , which is 87.5 percent of the design density for the graphte segment of the FMIT test cell shield. Ultrasonic resonance vibration of the...

W. C. Morgan

1982-01-01

121

Active structural error suppression in MEMS vibratory rate integrating gyroscopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to restrictive tolerancing in microfabrication, structural imperfections that reduce performance of fabricated micro devices are typical. In microelectromechanical vibratory gyroscopes, feedback control is a common strategy in attempting to correct the imperfections. However, a purely feedback control can be insufficient for compensation of all the errors, requiring post processing in the form of laser trimming to achieve higher levels

C. C. Painter; A. M. Shkel

2003-01-01

122

Modification of piezoelectric vibratory gyroscope resonator parameters by feedback control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for analyzing the effect of feedback control on the dynamics of piezoelectric resonators used in vibratory gyroscopes has been developed. This method can be used to determine the feasibility of replacing the traditional mechanical balancing operations, used to adjust the resonant frequency, by displacement feedback and for determining the velocity feedback required to produce a particular bandwidth. Experiments

Philip W. Loveday; Craig A. Rogers

1998-01-01

123

OMP Peptides Activate the DegS Stress-Sensor Protease by a Relief of Inhibition Mechanism  

SciTech Connect

In the E. coli periplasm, C-terminal peptides of misfolded outer-membrane porins (OMPs) bind to the PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease, triggering cleavage of a transmembrane regulator and transcriptional activation of stress genes. We show that an active-site DegS mutation partially bypasses the requirement for peptide activation and acts synergistically with mutations that disrupt contacts between the protease and PDZ domains. Biochemical results support an allosteric model, in which these mutations, active-site modification, and peptide/substrate binding act in concert to stabilize proteolytically active DegS. Cocrystal structures of DegS in complex with different OMP peptides reveal activation of the protease domain with varied conformations of the PDZ domain and without specific contacts from the bound OMP peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the binding of OMP peptides activates proteolysis principally by relieving inhibitory contacts between the PDZ domain and the protease domain of DegS.

Sohn, Jungsan; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.; MIT

2010-03-19

124

Power Converter Control Circuits for Two-Mass Vibratory Conveying System With Electromagnetic Drive: Simulations and Experimental Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model of two-mass vibratory conveying system with electromagnetic vibratory actuator (EVA) and possible ways of their optimal control by using power converter is presented in this paper. Vibratory conveyors are commonly used in industry to carry a wide variety of particulate and granular materials. Application of electromagnetic vibratory drive combined with power converters provides flexibility during work. The

eljko V. Despotovic; Zoran Stojiljkovic

2007-01-01

125

The influence of long-time stress relief treatments on the dynamic fracture toughness properties of ASME SA508 C1 2a and ASME SA533 Gr B C1 2 pressure vessel steels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic fracture toughness tests were performed on SA508 Cl 2a and SA533 Gr B Cl 2 parent base materials which had been subjected\\u000a to one of three longtime post weld type stress relief heat treatments: 48 hours at 1000 °F (538 °C), 24 hours at 1125 °F (607\\u000a °C), and 48 hours at 1125 °F (607 °C). Linear elastic Kld

W. A. Logsdon

1982-01-01

126

Impact of IC wafer fab and assembly fab processes on package stress induced product reliability issues - an insight into the package stress relief design rules by simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the impact of the layout of the top metal of the integrated circuit (IC) and the most relevant process and material parameters of IC wafer fab and assembly fab on package stress induced damages to the ICs during temperature cycling is studied by means of thermo-mechanical simulations with experimental verifications. Besides die size, the materials for passivation,

Y. Li; M. A. J. van Gils; W. D. van Driel; R. B. R. van Silfhout; J. Bisschop; J. H. J. Janssen; G. Q. Zhang

2008-01-01

127

Mechanical Assessment of the Waste Package Subject to Vibratory Motion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to provide an integrated overview of the calculation reports that define the response of the waste package and its internals to vibratory ground motion. The calculation reports for waste package response to vibratory ground motion are identified in Table 1-1. Three key calculation reports describe the potential for mechanical damage to the waste package, fuel assemblies, and cladding from a seismic event. Three supporting documents have also been published to investigate sensitivity of damage to various assumptions for the calculations. While these individual reports present information on a specific aspect of waste package and cladding response, they do not describe the interrelationship between the various calculations and the relationship of this information to the seismic scenario class for Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This report is designed to fill this gap by providing an overview of the waste package structural response calculations.

M. Gross

2004-10-14

128

Robust adaptive control for a MEMS vibratory gyroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an adaptive sliding mode controller for a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory z-axis gyroscope.\\u000a The proposed adaptive sliding mode controller can real-time estimate the angular velocity and the damping and stiffness coefficients.\\u000a The stability of the closed-loop system can be guaranteed with the proposed adaptive sliding mode control strategy. The numerical\\u000a simulation for MEMS gyroscope is investigated to

J. Fei; C. Batur

2009-01-01

129

Characterization of the Bell-Shaped Vibratory Angular Rate Gyro  

PubMed Central

The bell-shaped vibratory angular rate gyro (abbreviated as BVG) is a novel shell vibratory gyroscope, which is inspired by the Chinese traditional bell. It sensitizes angular velocity through the standing wave precession effect. The bell-shaped resonator is a core component of the BVG and looks like the millimeter-grade Chinese traditional bell, such as QianLong Bell and Yongle Bell. It is made of Ni43CrTi, which is a constant modulus alloy. The exciting element, control element and detection element are uniformly distributed and attached to the resonator, respectively. This work presents the design, analysis and experimentation on the BVG. It is most important to analyze the vibratory character of the bell-shaped resonator. The strain equation, internal force and the resonator's equilibrium differential equation are derived in the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. When the input angular velocity is existent on the sensitive axis, an analysis of the vibratory character is performed using the theory of thin shells. On this basis, the mode shape function and the simplified second order normal vibration mode dynamical equation are obtained. The coriolis coupling relationship about the primary mode and secondary mode is established. The methods of the signal processing and control loop are presented. Analyzing the impact resistance property of the bell-shaped resonator, which is compared with other shell resonators using the Finite Element Method, demonstrates that BVG has the advantage of a better impact resistance property. A reasonable means of installation and a prototypal gyro are designed. The gyroscopic effect of the BVG is characterized through experiments. Experimental results show that the BVG has not only the advantages of low cost, low power, long work life, high sensitivity, and so on, but, also, of a simple structure and a better impact resistance property for low and medium angular velocity measurements.

Liu, Ning; Su, Zhong; Li, Qing; Fu, MengYin; Liu, Hong; Fan, JunFang

2013-01-01

130

Vibratory compaction tests on graphite powders for neutron shielding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mistures of three size ranges of graphite powders have been vibratory packed to densities as high as 1.40 gm\\/cm³, which is 87.5 percent of the design density for the graphte segment of the FMIT test cell shield. Ultrasonic resonance vibration of the particles was determined to be an impractical method for achieving the required density. Possible options for fabricating the

1982-01-01

131

Innovative decontamination technology by abrasion in vibratory vessels  

SciTech Connect

Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The possibility of using conventional vibratory vessel technology as a decontamination technique is the motivation for the development of this project. The objective is to explore the feasibility of applying the vibratory vessel technology for decontamination of radioactively-contaminated materials such as pipes and metal structures. The research and development of this technology was granted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Abrasion processes in vibratory vessels are widely used in the manufacture of metals, ceramics, and plastics. Samples to be treated, solid abrasive media and liquid media are set up into a vessel. Erosion results from the repeated impact of the abrasive particles on the surface of the body being treated. A liquid media, generally detergents or surfactants aid the abrasive action. The amount of material removed increases with the time of treatment. The design and construction of the machine were provided by Vibro, Argentina private company. Tests with radioactively-contaminated aluminum tubes and a stainless steel bar, were performed at laboratory level. Tests showed that it is possible to clean both the external and the internal surface of contaminated tubes. Results show a decontamination factor around 10 after the first 30 minutes of the cleaning time. (authors)

Fabbri, Silvio; Ilarri, Sergio [National Atomic Energy Commission - CNEA, Avda. del Libertador 8250, CP 1429, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2007-07-01

132

Vibratory Stimulation of the Skin by Electrostatic Field: Effects of Size of Electrode and Site of Stimulation on Thresholds.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The vibratory sensitivity of the skin was studied by means of an electrostatic force, and the effects of electrode-area and site of stimulation were determined. Electrostatic stimulation provided an effective means of determining vibratory sensitivity of ...

T. J. Moore

1967-01-01

133

Automated Measurement of Vocal Fold Vibratory Asymmetry from High-Speed Videoendoscopy Recordings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: In prior work, a manually derived measure of vocal fold vibratory phase asymmetry correlated to varying degrees with visual judgments made from laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) recordings. This investigation extended this work by establishing an automated HSV-based framework to quantify 3 categories of vocal fold vibratory

Mehta, Daryush D.; Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Quatieri, Thomas F.; Hillman, Robert E.

2011-01-01

134

Automated Measurement of Vocal Fold Vibratory Asymmetry from High-Speed Videoendoscopy Recordings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In prior work, a manually derived measure of vocal fold vibratory phase asymmetry correlated to varying degrees with visual judgments made from laryngeal high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV) recordings. This investigation extended this work by establishing an automated HSV-based framework to quantify 3 categories of vocal fold vibratory

Mehta, Daryush D.; Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Quatieri, Thomas F.; Hillman, Robert E.

2011-01-01

135

Limits to Relief  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Comparison of slope profiles in areas exhibiting widespread bedrock landsliding with the use of a model for the maximum size of stable hillslopes established that mountain-scale material strength can limit topographic relief. Conventional laboratory values for intact rock greatly exceeded integrative rock strength properties that were back-calculated from the upper limit to hillslope relief and gradient in the northern Cascade Range and Santa Cruz Mountains. Back-calculated strength values, however, were indistinguishable from those obtained through field and conventional laboratory measurements on the weakest members of each rock formation, as well as on glacial sediments along the Cascade front. These results contrast with the conventional assumption that relief is incision-limited and indicate that the relief of mountain ranges can reflect landscape-scale material strength, as well as the interaction of tectonic and climatic processes.

Schmidt, Kevin M.; Montgomery, David R.

1995-10-01

136

Federal Postconviction Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

A provision of the federal habeas corpus statute, 28 U.S.C. §2254(a) (1970), authorizes federal district courts to grant habeas corpus relief to persons detained pursuant to a state court judgment whenever the detention is in violation of federal law. But does §2254(a) authorize federal courts to grant habeas corpus relief to state prisoners convicted on the basis of evidence seized

Wilkes Donald E. Jr

1977-01-01

137

System modelling of a vibratory micromachined gyroscope with bar structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel bar structure vibratory micromachined gyroscope, which is actuated electrostatically and sensed capacitively at atmospheric pressure. The motion equations are presented and modelled by electrical equivalent circuits. The differential detection capacitance model and equivalent circuit model of the oscillating proof mass constitute the equivalent electrical model of gyroscope, which is implemented in the circuit simulation tool, PSPICE. The model also enables sensor simulation with the interfacing electronics to analyse the performances of the whole system and to optimize the design of the testing circuits. According to the model, a behavioural simulation of the system is performed. The simple performances of the gyroscope are tested using designed circuits. The measurement results show that the gyroscope has a good sensitivity and linear response at atmospheric pressure. The scale factor and nonlinearity of the gyroscope are 20 mV/°/s and 0.56%, respectively.

Che, Lufeng; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Yuelin

2003-01-01

138

Efficient stress relief in GaN heteroepitaxy on Si(1 1 1) using low-temperature AlN interlayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-temperature (LT) AlN interlayers can be applied to reduce the tensile stress and cracks in thick GaN layers on Si. Here, we present an X-ray diffractometry study revealing the influence of metalorganic chemical vapor phase deposition parameters on stress relaxation by these interlayers. The degree of stress relaxation is observed to strongly depend on interlayer deposition temperature. At low temperatures,

A. Reiher; J. Bläsing; A. Dadgar; A. Diez; A. Krost

2003-01-01

139

Relief texture mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an extension to texture mapping that supports the representation of 3-D surface details and view motion parallax. The results are correct for viewpoints that are static or moving, far away or nearby. Our approach is very simple: a relief texture (texture extended with an orthogonal displacement per texel) is mapped onto a polygon using a two-step process: First,

Manuel M. Oliveira; Gary Bishop; David F. McAllister

2000-01-01

140

Vibratory perception thresholds at the clavicle in patients with spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibratory perception thresholds were measured by an electromagnetic device applied over the clavicles of 64 patients with spinal cord injuries. Patients with neurological levels of C5 and below had low threshold values (0.63 +\\/- 0.23 micron of vibration amplitude; mean +\\/- SD) which were used as reference values. The patients with a neurological level of C1\\/2 had very high vibratory

I Herszkowicz; A Beri?; U Lindblom

1986-01-01

141

Relief in Ink and Metal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|All ages can enjoy printmaking activities, from a simple glue line relief print to an aluminum foil relief which gives the impression of metal embossing. Projects which can be geared to all levels of elementary education are described. (RM)|

Sheahan, Lael M.

1983-01-01

142

Relief in Ink and Metal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All ages can enjoy printmaking activities, from a simple glue line relief print to an aluminum foil relief which gives the impression of metal embossing. Projects which can be geared to all levels of elementary education are described. (RM)

Sheahan, Lael M.

1983-01-01

143

Statistically linearized optimal control of an electromagnetic vibratory energy harvester  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, an extension of linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) control theory is used to determine the optimal state feedback controller for a vibratory energy harvesting system with Coulomb friction. Specifically, the energy harvester is a base-excited single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) resonant oscillator with an electromagnetic transducer attached between the base and the moving mass. The development of the optimal controller for this system is based on statistical linearization, whereby the Coulomb friction force is replaced by an equivalent linear viscous damping term, which is calculated from the stationary covariance of the closed-loop system. It is shown that the covariance matrix and optimal feedback gain matrix can be computed by implementing an iterative algorithm involving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Furthermore, this theory is augmented to account for a non-quadratic dissipation in the electronics used to control the energy conversion. Simulation results are presented for the SDOF energy harvester in which the performance of the optimal state feedback control law is compared to the performance of the optimal static admittance over a range of disturbance bandwidths.

Cassidy, Ian L.; Scruggs, Jeffrey T.

2012-08-01

144

Vibratory perception thresholds in the female genital region.  

PubMed

Vibratory perception thresholds (VPT) were determined in the hands, feet and genital region by means of an electromagnetic vibrator and expressed in terms of amplitude of stimulator movements measured by an accelerometer. Eight healthy women volunteers aged 27-44 were examined on 8-11 occasions each during the menstrual cycle. Ninety-five further women, aged 35-45 were consecutively selected from the waiting list for hysterectomy for non-malignant disorders and examined on one occasion each. VPT measurements were correlated to menstrual phases and blood oestradiol values. In the healthy volunteer group the mean VPT for clitoris was 0.27 mu (SD 0.10, range 0.09-0.48), for hands 0.19 mu (SD 0.09, range 0.05-0.37) and feet 0.51 mu (SD 0.39, range 0.17-1.5). In none of the two groups were there any significant differences between the VPTs of the different phases of the menstrual cycles nor was there any significant correlation between VPT and serum oestradiol levels. PMID:1481653

Helström, L; Lundberg, P O

1992-12-01

145

Oscillation Control Algorithms for Resonant Sensors with Applications to Vibratory Gyroscopes  

PubMed Central

We present two oscillation control algorithms for resonant sensors such as vibratory gyroscopes. One control algorithm tracks the resonant frequency of the resonator and the other algorithm tunes it to the specified resonant frequency by altering the resonator dynamics. Both algorithms maintain the specified amplitude of oscillations. The stability of each of the control systems is analyzed using the averaging method, and quantitative guidelines are given for selecting the control gains needed to achieve stability. The effects of displacement measurement noise on the accuracy of tracking and estimation of the resonant frequency are also analyzed. The proposed control algorithms are applied to two important problems in a vibratory gyroscope. The first is the leading-following resonator problem in the drive axis of MEMS dual-mass vibratory gyroscope where there is no mechanical linkage between the two proof-masses and the second is the on-line modal frequency matching problem in a general vibratory gyroscope. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control algorithms are effective. They ensure the proof-masses to oscillate in an anti-phase manner with the same resonant frequency and oscillation amplitude in a dual-mass gyroscope, and two modal frequencies to match in a general vibratory gyroscope.

Park, Sungsu; Tan, Chin-Woo; Kim, Haedong; Hong, Sung Kyung

2009-01-01

146

Fluid relief and check valve  

DOEpatents

A passive fluid pressure relief and check valve allows the relief pressure to be slaved to a reference pressure independently of the exhaust pressure. The pressure relief valve is embodied by a submerged vent line in a sealing fluid, the relief pressure being a function of the submerged depth. A check valve is embodied by a vertical column of fluid (the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of fluid). The pressure is vented into an exhaust system which keeps the exhaust out of the area providing the reference pressure.

Blaedel, K.L.; Lord, S.C.; Murray, I.

1986-07-17

147

Mimicking of superoxide dismutase activity by protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL, and oxidative stress relief for cancer patients.  

PubMed

The protein-bound polysaccharide of Coriolus versicolor QUEL (PS-K) has been found to express antioxidant activity as an "ion-radical scavenger" in diamine oxidation reactions. The mode of this expression was examined to determine whether the drug functioned as a simple radical scavenger or mimicked the action of superoxide dismutase (SOD). The latter was confirmed in both enzymatic and nonenzymatic superoxide anion radical (O2-.) producing systems in vitro. The SOD mimetic activity of PS-K was demonstrated by quantitative analysis of hydrogen peroxide as the end product of O2-., its formation being assisted catalytically by SOD or PS-K. Analysis by electron spin resonance also confirmed the SOD mimetic activity of PS-K in a xanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction. Relative SOD activity with PS-K was approximately 1/8,000 in a KO2-O2-.-producing system. The SOD mimetic activity of PS-K resisted treatment by 0.7N HCl, 0.7N NaOH, boiling for 30 minutes in a double water bath, and digestion by pronase. Fractionation according to differences in molecular mass caused no significant increase in relative SOD activity within a certain range of molecular mass, indicating that there is no definite molecule expressing SOD mimetic activity. Tumor-bearing rats and human patients with digestive tract cancer who suffered from oxidative stress were relieved by a single intraperitoneal administration of PS-K or a 1-day peroral prescription. PMID:1627273

Kariya, K; Nakamura, K; Nomoto, K; Matama, S; Saigenji, K

1992-03-01

148

Segmenting Periodic Reliefs on Triangle Meshes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decorative reliefs are widely used for e.g. packaging and porcelain design. In periodic reliefs, the relief repeats a pattern, for example all the way around an underlying surface of revolution. Reverse- engineering of existing reliefs allows them to be re-applie d to dif- ferent base surfaces; we show here how to segment a single repeat unit of a periodic relief

Shenglan Liu; Ralph R. Martin; Frank C. Langbein; Paul L. Rosin

2007-01-01

149

Debt Relief and Civil War  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the 41 HIPCs, 11 are classified by the IMF and World Bank as conflict-affected. Can debt relief reduce the level of violent conflict in these countries? By providing additional resources to finance broad-based public spending, debt relief could help to redress the grievances that contribute to conflict. It could also reduce the ability of those motivated by greed to

Tony Addison; S. Mansoob Murshed

2001-01-01

150

Waiver Plan Generates Relief, Fret  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While the Obama administration's plan to offer states relief from parts of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act--if they agree to embrace unspecified education redesign priorities--has drawn kudos from some quarters, it isn't sitting well in others. Officials in a number of states have praised the idea as an opportunity for badly needed relief

Klein, Alyson; McNeil, Michele

2011-01-01

151

Vibratory Ventilation Decreases Filtration of Fluid in the Lungs of Newborn Lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. To compare effects of vibratory and mechanical ventilation on fluid balance in the newborn lung, we measured pulmonary arterial and left atrial pressures, pleural and airway pressures, lung blood flow and lymph flow, and concentrations of protein in lymph and plasma of 19 healthy lambs, 2-4 weeks old, during a 2- to 4-hour period of spontaneous breathing, followed by

J. Usha Raj; Robert B. Goldberg; Richard D. Bland

152

Choice of dynamic parameters of filters with vibratory removal of precipitate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The direction of the oscillatory movements of the filter element, which may be transverse or longitudinal movements with respect to the vertical filtering surface, is of substantial significance for vibratory precipitate removal. In the case of transverse oscillations, the constructional system of the filter is simpler and the loss of energy in imparting the oscillations is a minimum. In consequence,

V. I. Sokolov; U. G. Shamsutdinov

1969-01-01

153

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A BUNCH SHAKER FOR VIBRATORY DATE DETACHMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to design and develop an experimental shaker for vibratory date detachment. The prototype machine was constructed and tested on Shahani dates fruit bunch. The bunch shaker was powered by a continuous variable speed motor. The rotational speed of the power unit could be continuously varied from 0 to 1400 rpm by means of a

M. Abounajmi; M. Loghavi

154

Acute and residual effects of vibratory stimulation on explosive strength in elite and amateur athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen elite and 14 amateur athletes were subjected to vibratory stimulation during bilateral biceps curl exercises of explosive strength exertion. The athletes performed two separate series of three sets of exercises in random order. The second set of one series was administered with superimposed vibration of 44 Hz and an acceleration of about 30 m .s-2 transmitted through the two-arms handle

V. B. ISSURIN; G. TENENBAUM

1999-01-01

155

Vibratory signals enhance mate-guarding in a water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mating males of the water strider Gerris remigisproduce vibratory signals when-single males grasp mating pairs. When played through live females with dead males on their backs, these signals repelled mating attempts by single males. A previous study showed that male mate-guarding enhances female foraging effectiveness in this species. Thus male mate-guarding signals also enhance female foraging effectiveness.

R. Stimson Wilcox; Joia Di Stefano

1991-01-01

156

Can vibratory feedback be used to improve postural stability in persons with transtibial limb loss?  

PubMed

The use of vibration as a feedback modality to convey motion of the body has been shown to improve measures of postural stability in some groups of patients. Because individuals using transtibial prostheses lack sensation distal to the amputation, vibratory feedback could possibly be used to improve their postural stability. The current investigation provided transtibial prosthesis users (n = 24, mean age 48 yr) with vibratory feedback proportional to the signal received from force transducers located under the prosthetic foot. Postural stability was evaluated by measuring center of pressure (CoP) movement, limits of stability, and rhythmic weight shift while participants stood on a force platform capable of rotations in the pitch plane (toes up/toes down). The results showed that the vibratory feedback increased the mediolateral displacement amplitude of CoP in standing balance and reduced the response time to rapid voluntary movements of the center of gravity. The results suggest that the use of vibratory feedback in an experimental setting leads to improvements in fast open-loop mechanisms of postural control in transtibial prosthesis users. PMID:23341316

Rusaw, David; Hagberg, Kerstin; Nolan, Lee; Ramstrand, Nerrolyn

2012-01-01

157

Blades: a New Class of Geometric Primitives for Feeding 3D Parts on Vibratory Tracks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vibratory bowl feeder remains the most com- mon approach to the automated feeding (orienting) of indus- trial parts. We study the algorithmic design of devices on the bowl feeder track that filter out all but one orientation of a given polyhedral part. In this context, we propose a simple new primitive, consisting of one horizontally mounted convex polygonal metal

Onno C. Goemans; Kenneth Y. Goldberg; A. Frank Van Der Stappen

2006-01-01

158

Laterally oscillated and force-balanced micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new concept micro vibratory rate gyroscope supported by fish hook shape springs, where the oscillating position sensing and force balancing take place on the wafer surface, has been developed. The gyroscope consists of: a grid-type planar mass; LT shape position sense electrodes for detecting the Coriolis motion; pairs of force-balancing electrodes to improve the linearity and dynamic range; prominence

K. Y. Park; C. W. Lee; Y. S. Oh; Y. H. Cho

1997-01-01

159

Control of Vibratory Energy Harvesters in the Presence of Nonlinearities and Power-Flow Constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past decade, a significant amount of research activity has been devoted to developing electromechanical systems that can convert ambient mechanical vibrations into usable electric power. Such systems, referred to as vibratory energy harvesters, have a number of useful of applications, ranging in scale from self-powered wireless sensors for structural health monitoring in bridges and buildings to energy harvesting from ocean waves. One of the most challenging aspects of this technology concerns the efficient extraction and transmission of power from transducer to storage. Maximizing the rate of power extraction from vibratory energy harvesters is further complicated by the stochastic nature of the disturbance. The primary purpose of this dissertation is to develop feedback control algorithms which optimize the average power generated from stochastically-excited vibratory energy harvesters. This dissertation will illustrate the performance of various controllers using two vibratory energy harvesting systems: an electromagnetic transducer embedded within a flexible structure, and a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam. Compared with piezoelectric systems, large-scale electromagnetic systems have received much less attention in the literature despite their ability to generate power at the watt--kilowatt scale. Motivated by this observation, the first part of this dissertation focuses on developing an experimentally validated predictive model of an actively controlled electromagnetic transducer. Following this experimental analysis, linear-quadratic-Gaussian control theory is used to compute unconstrained state feedback controllers for two ideal vibratory energy harvesting systems. This theory is then augmented to account for competing objectives, nonlinearities in the harvester dynamics, and non-quadratic transmission loss models in the electronics. In many vibratory energy harvesting applications, employing a bi-directional power electronic drive to actively control the harvester is infeasible due to the high levels of parasitic power required to operate the drive. For the case where a single-directional drive is used, a constraint on the directionality of power-flow is imposed on the system, which necessitates the use of nonlinear feedback. As such, a sub-optimal controller for power-flow-constrained vibratory energy harvesters is presented, which is analytically guaranteed to outperform the optimal static admittance controller. Finally, the last section of this dissertation explores a numerical approach to compute optimal discretized control manifolds for systems with power-flow constraints. Unlike the sub-optimal nonlinear controller, the numerical controller satisfies the necessary conditions for optimality by solving the stochastic Hamilton-Jacobi equation.

Cassidy, Ian L.

160

Allergy Relief for Your Child  

MedlinePLUS

... Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Allergy Relief for Your Child Search the Consumer Updates ... when pollen counts are high. back to top Allergy Medicines For most children, symptoms may be controlled ...

161

Surface relief of TiNiCu thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiNiCu thin film shape memory alloys are potential materials for microactuator. In our previous research, the various natural surface relief of crystallized TiNiCu thin film was observed, and it was related with compositions and the sputtering deposition conditions. In order to understand the origin and nature of the surface relief, the temperature-resistance measurement, X-ray diffraction and atomic fore microscopic study were performed. For Ti48.4Ni46.3Cu5.3 thin films, the transformation temperatures are below 0 degree(s)C, and the natural surface is smooth at 12 degree(s)C since the microstructure is austenite. For Ti51Ni44Cu5 thin films, two typical kinds of surface relief, e.g., chrysanthemum and rock candy, were observed at 12 degree(s)C. The chrysanthemum on the martensitic block relief is Ti-rich G.P. zone and will not disappear in thermal cycles later. It is also found that the Ti-rich G.P. zone is related with the thin films formed under lower sputtering Ar pressure. The rock candy relief is a typical martensite surface relief and will disappear when heating to the austenite phase. During crystallization process, the inherent compressive stress introduced under the condition of higher sputtering pressure is helpful to the transition from G.P. zones to Ti2(NiCu) precipitates and the increase of the transformation temperatures.

Cheng, Xiulan; Xu, Dong; Cai, Bingchu; Wang, Li; Chen, Jian; Li, Gang; Xu, Shi

2001-10-01

162

Occupational Trauma and Mental Illness: Combat, Peacekeeping or Relief Work and the NCS-R  

PubMed Central

Objective Peacekeepers, relief workers and military members experience multiple traumas, and trauma is believed to increase risk for psychiatric distress. We examined whether combat and/or peacekeeping or relief work was associated with subsequent mental illness. Methods Using data from the US National Co-morbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) (n = 2,383), we estimated whether combat, peacekeeping or relief work were associated with increased prevalence of mental illness through bivariate cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression. Results Combat was associated with increased subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol or drug issues more than peacekeeping or relief work. Conclusions Combat, alone or combined with peacekeeping/relief work, appears to be a risk factor for subsequent PTSD and issues with drugs and alcohol. Peacekeeping/relief work without combat does not appear to be associated with these diagnoses.

Connorton, Ellen; Perry, Melissa J.; Hemenway, David; Miller, Matthew

2011-01-01

163

Mechanical Assessment of the Drep Shield Subject to Vibratory Motion and Dynamic and Static Rock Loading  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the drip shield (DS) is to divert water that may seep into emplacement drifts from contacting the waste packages, and to protect the waste packages from impact or static loading from rockfall. The objective of this document is to summarize, into one location, the results of a series of supporting engineering calculations that were developed to study the effect of static and dynamic loads on the mechanical performance of the DS. The potential DS loads are a result of: (1) Potential earthquake vibratory ground motion, and resulting interaction of the DS, waste package and pallet, and drift invert; (2) Dynamic impacts of rockfall resulting from emplacement drift damage as a result of earthquake vibratory motion; and (3) Static load of the caved rock rubble that may come to rest on the DS as a result of vibratory motion or from time-dependent yielding of the rock mass surrounding the emplacement drift. The potential mechanical failure mechanisms that may result from these loads include: (1) Overturning and/or separation of the interlocking DS segments; (2) Loss of structural integrity and stability of the DS, including excessive deformation or buckling; and (3) Localized damage to the top and side-wall plates of the DS. The scope of this document is limited to summarizing results presented in the supporting calculations in the areas of analysis of the potential for DS collapse, and determination of the damaged surface area of the DS plates. New calculations are presented to determine whether or not separation of DSs occur under vibratory motion.

R.C. Quittmeyer

2005-11-16

164

The vibratory innocent heart murmur in schoolchildren: A case-control Doppler echocardiographic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 810 schoolchildren (aged 5–14 years) the prevalence of a grade 1–3\\/6 vibratory innocent heart murmur (VIHM) is 41%. Restricted to a grade 2 or 3 VIHM, the prevalence is 14%, decreasing from 21% in the age-class 5–6 years to 8% for children 13–14 years of age. The prevalence of a grade 3 VIHM is 1%. Together with a matched

A. Van Oort; J. Hopman; T. De Boo; T. Van Der Werf; J. Rohmer; O. Daniëls

1994-01-01

165

Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscopes Controlled by a High-Order Bandpass Sigma-Delta Modulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work reports on the design of novel closed-loop control systems for the sense mode of a vibratory-rate gyroscope based on a high-order sigma-delta modulator (SigmaDeltaM). A low-pass and two distinctive bandpass topologies are derived, and their advantages discussed. So far, most closed-loop force-feedback control systems for these sensors were based on low-pass SigmaDeltaM's. Usually, the sensing element of a

Yufeng Dong; Michael Kraft; William Redman-White

2007-01-01

166

Cost-benefits of a mobile, trailer-contained, vibratory finishing decontamination facility  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to determine the cost-benefits of a vibratory finishing process, developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which has been used successfully to remove a variety of transuranic (TRU) contaminants from surfaces of metallic and nonmetallic wastes. Once TRU contaminants are removed, the metallic and nonmetallic materials can be disposed of as low-level waste (LLW). Otherwise, these materials would be disposed of in geologic repositories. This study provides an economic evaluation of the vibratory finishing process as a possible method for use in decontaminating and decommissioning retired facilities at Hanford and oher sites. Specifically, the economic evaluation focuses on a scoping design for a mobile, trailer-contained facility, which could be used in the field in conjunction with decontamination and decommissioning operations. The capital cost of the mobile facility is estimated to be about $1.09 million including contingency and working capital. Annual operating costs, including disposal costs, are estimated to be $440,000 for processing about 6340 ft/sup 3//yr of pre-sectioned, TRU-contaminated material. Combining the operating cost and the capital cost, annualized at a discount rate of 10%, the total annual cost estimate is $602,000. The unit cost for vibratory finishing is estimated to be about $11/ft/sup 3/ of original reference glove box volume (Abrams et at. 1980). All costs are in first quarter 1981 dollars. Although not directly comparable, the unit cost for the vibratory finishing process is very favorable when considered beside typical, substantially higher, unit costs for processing and geologically disposing of TUR-contaminated materials. The probable accuracy of this study cost estimate is about +- 30%. It is therefore recommended that a detailed cost estimate be prepared if a mobile facility is designed.

Hazelton, R.F.; McCoy, M.W.

1982-07-01

167

Robust Design of a Decoupled Vibratory Microgyroscope Considering Over-Etching as a Fabrication Tolerance Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust optimal design of a bulk-micromachined, decoupled vibratory microgyroscope was carried out to determine geometric dimensions such that the gyroscopic performance is least affected by a fabrication tolerance. Electro-mechanical vibration analysis considering the sensing electrodes and the electronic signal processing were performed to obtain the frequency responses that influence the gyroscopic performance. A statistically distributed lateral over-etching (LOE) developed

Sung Kyu Ha; Hee-Moon Jeong; Juno Kim

2006-01-01

168

Effect of vocal fold injury location on vibratory parameters in excised canine larynges  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect of vocal fold injury location on vibratory amplitude and lateral phase difference. Study design Repeated measures with each excised canine larynx serving as own control. Setting Basic science study conducted in university laboratory. Methods Vocal fold vibration of excised canine larynges was recorded with a high speed camera before and after inducing vocal fold injury at one of five locations: anterior, middle, posterior, medial, or superior. Medial and superior injuries were created within the middle third of the vocal fold. Five larynges were used for each of the five injury locations. Kymography was performed at the midpoint of the vocal folds for each video. Pre- and post-injury vibratory amplitude and lateral phase difference were compared for each location. Results The anterior and medial injuries produced consistent decreases in vibratory amplitude. Middle and posterior injuries may slightly decrease amplitude. Superior injuries seemed to have no effect on amplitude. Anterior and medial injuries induce phase asymmetry between the right and left vocal folds. Middle injuries appeared to affect phase difference slightly, whereas posterior and superior injuries had no effect. Conclusion Injury to the anterior or medial portions of the vocal fold may be most likely to cause abnormal vocal fold vibration. Using caution in these locations during phonosurgery may favor superior post-operative vocal outcomes.

Krausert, Christopher R.; Ying, Di; Choi, Seong Hee; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Jiang, Jack J.

2013-01-01

169

Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC), an office of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), in conjunction with the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has developed a 24 arc-second integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation model of Southern Alaska. This Coastal Relief Model (CRM) was generated from diverse digital datasets that were obtained from NGDC, the United States Geological Survey, and other U.S. and international agencies. The CRM spans 170° to 230° E and 48.5° to 66.5° N, including the Gulf of Alaska, Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands, and Alaska’s largest communities: Anchorage, Fairbanks, and Juneau. The CRM provides a framework for enabling scientists to refine tsunami propagation and ocean circulation modeling through increased resolution of geomorphologic features. It may also be useful for benthic habitat research, weather forecasting, and environmental stewardship. Shaded-relief image of the Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model.

Lim, E.; Eakins, B.; Wigley, R.

2009-12-01

170

Pressure relief valve/safety relief valve testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pressure vessels and piping systems are protected form overpressurization by pressure relief valves. These safety features are required to be tested-inspected on some periodic basis and, in most cases witnessed by a third party inspector. As a result nonc...

W. A. Murray E. R. Hamm J. R. Barber

1994-01-01

171

Pressure relief valve\\/safety relief valve testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure vessels and piping systems are protected form overpressurization by pressure relief valves. These safety features are required to be tested-inspected on some periodic basis and, in most cases witnessed by a third party inspector. As a result nonconformances found by third parties Westinghouse Hanford Company initiated a task team to develop a pressure safety program. This paper reveals their

W. A. Murray; E. R. Hamm; J. R. Barber

1994-01-01

172

Temporal Processing of Vibratory Communication Signals at the Level of Ascending Interneurons in Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)  

PubMed Central

During mating, males and females of N. viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) produce sex- and species-specific calling and courtship substrate-borne vibratory signals, grouped into songs. Recognition and localization of these signals are fundamental for successful mating. The recognition is mainly based on the temporal pattern, i.e. the amplitude modulation, while the frequency spectrum of the signals usually only plays a minor role. We examined the temporal selectivity for vibratory signals in four types of ascending vibratory interneurons in N. viridula. Using intracellular recording and labelling technique, we analyzed the neurons' responses to 30 pulse duration/interval duration (PD/ID) combinations. Two response arrays were created for each neuron type, showing the intensity of the responses either as time-averaged spike counts or as peak instantaneous spike rates. The mean spike rate response arrays showed preference of the neurons for short PDs (below 600 ms) and no selectivity towards interval duration; while the peak spike rate response arrays exhibited either short PD/long ID selectivity or no selectivity at all. The long PD/short ID combinations elicited the weakest responses in all neurons tested. No response arrays showed the receiver preference for either constant period or duty cycle. The vibratory song pattern selectivity matched the PD of N. viridula male vibratory signals, thus pointing to temporal filtering for the conspecific vibratory signals already at level of the ascending interneurons. In some neurons the responses elicited by the vibratory stimuli were followed by distinct, regular oscillations of the membrane potential. The distance between the oscillation peaks matched the temporal structure of the male calling song, indicating a possible resonance based mechanism for signal recognition.

Zorovic, Maja

2011-01-01

173

Electrochemical cell pressure relief devices  

SciTech Connect

A unitary end wall for an electrochemical cell container is described. The end wall comprises a central portion, encompassing the center of the wall, a peripheral portion surrounding the central portion, bridge means for connecting the central portion to the peripheral portion, one or more curved lines of frangibility and one or more pressure relief tabs remote from the center of the wall. Each pressure relief tab is bounded by one of the curved lines of frangibility extending only partially around the tab. The wall is substantially devoid of wrinkles or scores other than the one or more curved lines of frangibility. The wall is adapted to fracture along each line of frangibility upon exposure to a pressure above a predetermined limit so that each pressure relief tab can bend away from the remainder of the wall and provide an opening for relief of the pressure remote from the center of the wall. The bridge means is operative to retain the central portion in place relative to the peripheral portion upon fracture of the wall along the one or more lines of frangibility.

Marchak, G.E.

1988-02-02

174

Humanitarian Relief and Civil Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effects of famine relief efforts (food aid) in regions undergoing civil war. In our model, warlords seize a fraction of all aid entering the region. How much they loot affects their choice of army size; therefore the manner in which aid is delivered influences warfare. We identify a delivery plan for aid which minimizes total recruitment in

Max Blouin; Stéphane Pallage

2007-01-01

175

Stress  

MedlinePLUS

... free. Enroll today. Home > Living with Diabetes > Complications Stress Listen Stress results when something causes your body ... so glucose piles up in the blood. How Stress Affects Diabetes Many sources of stress are long- ...

176

Mating Behaviour and Vibratory Signalling in Non-Hearing Cave Crickets Reflect Primitive Communication of Ensifera  

PubMed Central

In Ensifera, the lack of well-supported phylogeny and the focus on acoustic communication of the terminal taxa hinders understanding of the evolutionary history of their signalling behaviour and the related sensory structures. For Rhaphidophoridae, the most relic of ensiferans following morphology-based phylogenies, the signalling modes are still unknown. Together with a detailed description of their mating process, we provide evidence on vibratory signalling for the sympatric European species Troglophilus neglectus and T. cavicola. Despite their temporal shift in reproduction, the species’ behaviours differ significantly. Signalling by abdominal vibration constitutes an obligatory part of courtship in T. neglectus, while it is absent in T. cavicola. Whole-body vibration is expressed after copulation in both species. While courtship signalling appears to stimulate females for mating, the function of post-copulation signals remains unclear. Mating and signalling of both species were found to take place in most cases on bark, and less frequently on other available substrates, like moss and rock. The signals’ frequency spectra were substrate dependent, but with the dominant peak always expressed below 120 Hz. On rock, the intensity of T. neglectus courtship signals was below the species’ physiological detection range, presumably constraining the evolution of such signalling in caves. The species’ behavioural divergence appears to reflect their divergent mating habitats, in and outside caves. We propose that short-range tremulation signalling in courtship, such as is expressed by T. neglectus, represents the primitive mode and context of mechanical signalling in Ensifera. The absence of high-frequency components in the signals may be related to the absence of the crista acoustica homologue (CAH) in the vibratory tibial organ of Rhaphidophoridae. This indirectly supports the hypothesis proposing that the CAH, as an evolutionary precursor of the ear, evolved in Ensifera along the (more) complex vibratory communication, also associated with signals of higher carrier frequency.

Stritih, Natasa; Cokl, Andrej

2012-01-01

177

Fundamental understanding, prediction and validation of rotor vibratory loads in steady-level flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work isolates the physics of aerodynamics and structural dynamics from the helicopter rotor aeromechanics problem, investigates them separately, identifies the prediction deficiencies in each, improves upon them, and couples them back together. The objective is to develop a comprehensive analysis capability for accurate and consistent prediction of rotor vibratory loads in steady level flight. The rotor vibratory loads are the dominant source of helicopter vibration. There are two critical vibration regimes for helicopters in steady level flight: (1) low speed transition and (2) high speed forward flight. The mechanism of rotor vibration at low speed transition is well understood---inter-twinning of blade tip vortices below the rotor disk. The mechanism of rotor vibration at high speed is not clear. The focus in this research is on high speed flight. The goal is to understand the key mechanisms involved and accurately model them. Measured lift, chord force, pitching moment and damper force from the UH-60A Flight Test Program are used to predict, validate and refine the rotor structural dynamics. The prediction errors originate entirely from structural modeling. Once validated, the resultant blade deformations are used to predict and validate aerodynamics. Air loads are calculated using a table look up based unsteady lifting-line model and compared with predictions from a 3-dimensional unsteady CFD model. Both Navier-Stokes and Euler predictions are studied. (Abstract shortened by UMI.) The 3D Navier-Stokes CFD analysis is then consistently coupled with a rotor comprehensive analysis to improve prediction of rotor vibratory loads at high speed. The CFD-comprehensive code coupling is achieved using a loose coupling methodology. The CFD analysis significantly improves section pitching moment prediction near the blade tip, because it captures the steady and unsteady 3D transonic effects. Accurate pitching moments drive elastic twist deformations which together with a refined rotor wake model generate the right vibratory airload harmonics at all radial stations. The flap bending moments, torsion bending moments and pitch link load predictions are significantly improved by CFD coupling. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

Datta, Anubhav

178

Process for forming integral edge seals in porous gas distribution plates utilizing a vibratory means  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for producing an integral edge seal in a gas distribution plate for a fuel cell comprising providing a porous gas distribution plate; and forming a sealing layer along an edge thereof by impregnating the pores in the layer with a material adapted to provide a seal which is operative dry. When wetted by an electrolyte of the cell, the impregnating step is carried out while vibratory energy is applied to the material whereby the pores in the edge are more uniformly sealed throughout the cross-section of the edge plate.

Feigenbaum, H.; Pudick, S.

1988-03-01

179

The Bas-Relief Ambiguity  

Microsoft Academic Search

When an unknown object with Lambertian reflectance is viewed orthographically, there is an implicit ambiguity in determining its 3-d structure: we show that the object's visible surface f(x, y) is indistinguishable from a “generalized bas-relief” transformation of the object's geometry, \\u000a$$ {\\\\bar f} $$\\u000a (x, y) = ?f(x, y) + µx + ?y, and a corresponding transformation on the object's

Peter N. Belhumeur; David J. Kriegman; Alan L. Yuille

1999-01-01

180

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring loaded pressure relief valve mustâ...

2011-10-01

181

46 CFR 64.59 - Spring loaded pressure relief valve.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spring loaded pressure relief valve. 64.59 Section...Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.59 Spring loaded pressure relief valve. A spring loaded pressure relief valve mustâ...

2012-10-01

182

46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.57 Acceptance of pressure relief devices. A pressure relief device for an MPT must...

2012-10-01

183

46 CFR 64.57 - Acceptance of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.57 Acceptance of pressure relief devices. A pressure relief device for an MPT must...

2011-10-01

184

Relief  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... sodium, Directions purified water, sodium benzoate, • do not give more than directed (see overdose warning) sorbitol solution, xanthan gum • shake ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

185

A study of the temperature characteristics of vibration mode axes for vibratory cylinder gyroscopes.  

PubMed

The zero bias stability, which is an important performance parameter for vibratory cylinder gyroscopes, is high sensitive to temperature change. It is considered that the varying temperature makes the vibration mode axes unstable, which has significant influence on the zero bias stability. This paper will investigate this problem in detail. First, the relationships between the angular positions of vibration mode axes and the zero bias are analyzed. Secondly, the thermal-modal model of the cylinder resonator with several defects such as mass imbalance, frequency split (FS), and geometry errors are developed by ANSYS. Simulation results show that with the increase of temperature, angular positions of the vibration mode axes obviously change, which leads to a dramatic zero bias drift. Finally, several major influence factors on the angular position stability of vibration mode axes, including frequency split, geometry errors, thermal elastic modulus coefficient (TEMC) and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) are analyzed in detail. Simulation results in this paper will be helpful for deep understanding of the drift principle of zero bias induced by temperature for vibratory cylinder gyroscopes and also be helpful for further temperature compensation or control. PMID:22164038

Wu, Yulie; Xi, Xiang; Tao, Yi; Wu, Xiaomei; Wu, Xuezhong

2011-08-04

186

Dispersive and non-dispersive waves through plants: implications for arthropod vibratory communication.  

PubMed

Vibratory communication in arthropods is a widespread phenomenon. Arthropods living on plants have been reported to use only dispersive bending waves in the context of prey-predator, competition, social and sexual interactions. Differences in signal structure have also been postulated to work as species recognition mechanisms and speciation agents. Using two identical laser Doppler vibrometers and a wavelet analysis, we quantified the wave propagation modes in rush stems (Juncus effusus) over the whole range of frequencies used by arthropods. A non-dimensionalized analysis shows that mechanical waves propagate not only as dispersive bending waves, but also as non-dispersive waves. Our analysis implies that an arthropod can communicate through non-dispersive bending waves by either producing signals of high frequencies or by choosing large stems, two widely different options tapping into the physiological and the behavioural repertoires, respectively. Non-dispersive waves, unreported so far in insect vibratory communication in plants, present serious advantages over dispersive bending waves in terms of signal integrity and may well be much more widely used than anticipated, in particular for species recognition. PMID:17284408

Casas, Jérôme; Magal, Christelle; Sueur, Jérôme

2007-04-22

187

A Study of the Temperature Characteristics of Vibration Mode Axes for Vibratory Cylinder Gyroscopes  

PubMed Central

The zero bias stability, which is an important performance parameter for vibratory cylinder gyroscopes, is high sensitive to temperature change. It is considered that the varying temperature makes the vibration mode axes unstable, which has significant influence on the zero bias stability. This paper will investigate this problem in detail. First, the relationships between the angular positions of vibration mode axes and the zero bias are analyzed. Secondly, the thermal-modal model of the cylinder resonator with several defects such as mass imbalance, frequency split (FS), and geometry errors are developed by ANSYS. Simulation results show that with the increase of temperature, angular positions of the vibration mode axes obviously change, which leads to a dramatic zero bias drift. Finally, several major influence factors on the angular position stability of vibration mode axes, including frequency split, geometry errors, thermal elastic modulus coefficient (TEMC) and thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) are analyzed in detail. Simulation results in this paper will be helpful for deep understanding of the drift principle of zero bias induced by temperature for vibratory cylinder gyroscopes and also be helpful for further temperature compensation or control.

Wu, Yulie; Xi, Xiang; Tao, Yi; Wu, Xiaomei; Wu, Xuezhong

2011-01-01

188

Tsunami relief. After the wave.  

PubMed

With the official toll from the Boxing Day tsunami now standing at 300,000, Alexis Nolan and Emma Forrest talk to health service managers who gave more than money to the relief effort--they travelled to the disaster area and gave their time and expertise. The impact on their professional and personal lives was considerable. As Mathi Chandrakumar, clinical director of Kent Health Protection Unit, puts it: 'My heart is there, I feel very sad. I will probably go back.' PMID:15787421

Nolan, Alexis; Forrest, Emma

2005-03-01

189

Effects of a Respite From Work on Burnout: Vacation Relief and Fade-Out  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a quasi-experiment designed to examine the relief from job stress and burnout afforded by a vacation respite, 76 clerks completed measures of job stress and burnout twice before a vacation, once during vacation, and twice after vacation. There was a decline in burnout during the vacation and a return to prevacation levels by the time of the second postvacation

Mina Westman; Dov Eden

1997-01-01

190

Anesthetic block of the dorsal penile nerve inhibits vibratory-Induced ejaculation in men with spinal cord injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We investigated which nerve pathways are necessary to achieve ejaculation using penile vibratory stimulation (PVS) in men with spinal cord injury (SCI).Methods. Eight men with SCI were selected based on the presence of a bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) and consistent antegrade ejaculation with PVS. Level of injury was cervical (4), upper thoracic (4), and lower thoracic (1). Mean age was

Jeff A Wieder; Nancy L Brackett; Charles M Lynne; Joshua T Green; Teodoro C Aballa

2000-01-01

191

Correlation of the Vocal Fold Vibratory Pattern to the Post-Operative Surgical Wound in the Porcine Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surgical injury to the human vocal folds causing changes in vibration, cannot be studied in a well-controlled fashion due to ethical considerations. Therefore, miniswine served as an animal model to study the effect on vibratory function after surgical in...

D. B. Blakeslee R. Banks V. D. Eusterman D. Brooks

1992-01-01

192

Low-Level Liquid Waste Processing Pilot Studies Using a Vibratory Shear Enhancing Process (VSEP) for Filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous EPRI study evaluated potential treatment methods for the removal of iron from BWR waste streams. Of the methods investigated, high shear filtration using the vibratory shear-enhanced process (VSEP) showed the most promise to effectively and economically remove high iron concentrations from backwash receiving tank waste. A VSEP filter uses oscillatory vibration to create high shear at the surface

S. Bushart; P. Tran; R. Asay

2002-01-01

193

Striatal neuronal activity during the initiation and execution of hand movements made in response to visual and vibratory cues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recordings were obtained from 146 neurons in the neostriatum of rhesus monkeys while they performed wrist movements in response to visual and vibratory cues. Of these, 75 putamen and 29 caudate neurons exhibited changes in firing rate that were temporally related to the onset of the wrist movements and that began prior to movement onset. This premovement activity (PMA) usually

T. W. Gardiner; R. J. Nelson

1992-01-01

194

STRESS  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During this activity, students will use the available resources to learn more about stress, the effects of stress and how to handle stress. This activity focuses on the Utah fifth grade health core Standard 1: The students will learn ways to improve mental health and manage stress. During this project, students are given two different scenarios and ...

Hancey, Ms.

2010-04-27

195

7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 636.20 Equitable relief....

2013-01-01

196

Strain relief of heteroepitaxial bcc-Fe(001) films.  

PubMed

The strain relief of heteroepitaxial bcc-Fe(001) films, deposited at 520-570 K onto MgO(001), has been investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy. In accordance with real-time stress measurements, the tensile misfit strain is relieved during coalescence of flat, mainly 2-3 monolayers (ML) high Fe islands at the high thickness of approximately 20 ML. To accommodate the misfit between merging strain-relaxed islands, a network of 1/2[111] screw dislocations is formed. A strong barrier for dislocation glide--which is typical for bcc metals--is most likely responsible for the big delay in strain relief of Fe/MgO(001), since only the elastic energy of the uppermost layer(s) is available for the formation of an energy-costly intermediate layer. PMID:15601175

Wedler, G; Schneider, C M; Trampert, A; Koch, R

2004-11-29

197

Vibratory thresholds in the hands: comparison of patients with suprathalamic lesions with normal subjects.  

PubMed

Absolute thresholds for sensation of a 100-Hz mechanical sine-wave stimulus applied with an electromagnetic vibrator were measured on eight stimulus points in the glabrous skin of the human hand in normal subjects and in patients with verified, circumscribed unilateral suprathalamic lesions of the hemispheres. In both groups, the threshold on the hypothenar eminence was lower than the threshold on the third digit, which in turn had a lower threshold than the fifth digit. For each locus of stimulation, there was a rectilinear regression of threshold with age. Women had lower thresholds than men. The spatial distribution of the thresholds might suggest that Pacinian corpuscles are the receptors activated by threshold stimulation. Unilateral suprathalamic lesions of the hemisphere did not cause any elevation of vibratory thresholds. PMID:7447766

Roland, P E; Nielsen, V K

1980-12-01

198

System-level simulation of vibratory micromachined gyroscope with fence structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An equivalent circuit model of a novel fence structure vibratory micromachined gyroscope's oscillating properties is modeled by electrical equivalent circuits according to its dynamics equation. Equivalent circuit model of oscillating and differential detection capacitance model are implemented in the circuit simulation tool PSPICE, which is available in oscillating properties analysis such as oscillating's transient response, steady response and frequency response to angular rate to optimize working mode of the gyroscope. The model also enables sensor simulation with the interfacing electronics to analyse the performances of the whole system. Behavioral simulation of the system is performed to prove the function of detection circuits. The simulation results and measurement results show that the design of circuits is feasible.

Lufeng, Che; Bin, Xiong; Yuelin, Wang

2004-04-01

199

Sectioning of contaminated components for decontamination by vibratory finishing and electropolishing  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work conducted to develop, adapt, and evaluate a variety of techniques for sectioning glove boxes, chemical processing equipment, pipes, ducts, and other contaminated components in preparation for decontamination by vibratory finishing and electropolishing. These sectioning studies were conducted with a special 10-ft x 20-ft x 10-ft stainless-steel, walk-in glove box equipped for either hands-on operation via gloves and personnel entry, or remote operation using master slave manipulators and a bridge crane. Several sectioning techniques have been evaluated with respect to effectiveness, versatility, secondary waste generation, and capability for remote operation. The methods include wet and dry plasma arc torch cutting, mechanical sawing and nibbling, abrasive cutting, and hydraulic shearing and punching. The results of these comparison studies show that the plasma arc torch is a very rapid and effective metal cutting tool for size reduction applications. However, its use to prepare material for decontamination should be minimized because of problems with smoke generation, torch manipulation, waste generation, and entrainment of contamination. Mechanical saws eliminate all but the waste generation problem, but are very slow and labor intensive. Mechanical nibblers are fast and produce a waste form that can be decontaminated, but are limited with respect to the geometry and thickness of material that can be sectioned. High-speed abrasive saws provide high cutting rates, but produce nontreatable waste from the cut as well as from blade wear. Hydraulic shearing rapidly produces sectioned material in the small sizes required for decontamination by vibratory finishing. The kerf material also can be decontaminated. However, the glove box first must be sectioned into relatively narrow strips by one of the other techniques.

Fetrow, L.K.; Allen, R.P.

1981-09-01

200

Pain relief as an opponent process: a psychophysical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relief from pain in humans is frequently measured by computing the reduction on an 11-point pain intensity scale. However, this definition of relief may be insufficient to capture the utility of pain relief for the individual. Based on pain literature and evidence from studies examining relief and reward, it is clear that pain relief is a broad concept comprising several

Siri Leknes; Jonathan C. W. Brooks; Katja Wiech; Irene Tracey

2008-01-01

201

Relief and Distress after Marital Separation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examined relief and distress as responses to the termination of marriage in a study of 205 individuals soon after their final separation. Results showed that relief is a frequent response to marital separation. Group differences in response were associated with the rewards and costs of ending a marriage. (JAC)|

Spanier, Graham B.; Thompson, Linda

1983-01-01

202

Methods for Researching Humanitarian Relief Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the field of humanitarian relief is sparse. Yet, ineffective communication and coordination in response to disasters such as Hurricane Katrina highlight the need to research humanitarian relief information and communication systems (HR ICS) from a user-centered perspective. Currently, with little research done in the humanitarian sector, and even less done focusing on the user experience of humanitarian personnel,

Steve Lappenbusch

2006-01-01

203

Analysis of inservice inspection relief requests  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require inspection (ISI) of boiling or pressurized water-cooled nuclear power plants be performed in accordance with a referenced edition and addenda of Section XI, ``Rules for Inservice Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant components,`` of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The regulations permit licensees to request relief from the NRC from specific ASME Code requirements that are determined to be impractical for the specific licensee. The NRC evaluates these requests and may grant such relief, but the NRC may also impose alternative or augmented inspections to assure structural reliability. The purpose,of this task was to evaluate the basis for ISI nondestructive examination (NDE) relief requests and to evaluate the effect of proposed ASME Code changes that would reduce the need for such requests or provide for more complete information in relief requests. This report contains the results of an analysis of an ISI relief request data base that has been expanded to include 1195 ISI relief requests versus the 296 relief requests covered in the first report in April 1987, EGG-SD-7430. Also relief requests were added to the data base which came from both first and second 10-year inspection intervals for several facilities. This provided the means to analyze the effect of recently approved ASME Code cases and updated Code requirements, some of which have been published as a result of earlier work on this task.

Aldrich, D.A.; Cook, J.F.

1989-08-01

204

Sampling of Stochastic Input Parameters for Rockfall Calculations and for Structural Response Calculations Under Vibratory Ground Motion  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this scientific analysis is to define the sampled values of stochastic (random) input parameters for (1) rockfall calculations in the lithophysal and nonlithophysal zones under vibratory ground motions, and (2) structural response calculations for the drip shield and waste package under vibratory ground motions. This analysis supplies: (1) Sampled values of ground motion time history and synthetic fracture pattern for analysis of rockfall in emplacement drifts in nonlithophysal rock (Section 6.3 of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'', BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]); (2) Sampled values of ground motion time history and rock mechanical properties category for analysis of rockfall in emplacement drifts in lithophysal rock (Section 6.4 of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'', BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107]); (3) Sampled values of ground motion time history and metal to metal and metal to rock friction coefficient for analysis of waste package and drip shield damage to vibratory motion in ''Structural Calculations of Waste Package Exposed to Vibratory Ground Motion'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167083]) and in ''Structural Calculations of Drip Shield Exposed to Vibratory Ground Motion'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163425]). The sampled values are indices representing the number of ground motion time histories, number of fracture patterns and rock mass properties categories. These indices are translated into actual values within the respective analysis and model reports or calculations. This report identifies the uncertain parameters and documents the sampled values for these parameters. The sampled values are determined by GoldSim V6.04.007 [DIRS 151202] calculations using appropriate distribution types and parameter ranges. No software development or model development was required for these calculations. The calculation of the sampled values allows parameter uncertainty to be incorporated into the rockfall and structural response calculations that support development of the seismic scenario for the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA). The results from this scientific analysis also address project requirements related to parameter uncertainty, as specified in the acceptance criteria in ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]). This document was prepared under the direction of ''Technical Work Plan for: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170528]) which directed the work identified in work package ARTM05. This document was prepared under procedure AP-SIII.9Q, ''Scientific Analyses''. There are no specific known limitations to this analysis.

M. Gross

2004-09-01

205

49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Setting of safety relief valves. 230.49 Section 230...MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Safety Relief Valves § 230.49 Setting of safety relief valves. (a) Qualifications of...

2011-10-01

206

49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Setting of safety relief valves. 230.49 Section 230...MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Safety Relief Valves § 230.49 Setting of safety relief valves. (a) Qualifications of...

2012-10-01

207

14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 125.165 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

2013-01-01

208

14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing agent container pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. 121.267 Section...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR...Extinguishing agent container pressure relief. Extinguishing agent...containers must be provided with a pressure relief to prevent...

2013-01-01

209

49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Setting of safety relief valves. 230.49 Section 230.49 Transportation... Boilers and Appurtenances Safety Relief Valves § 230.49 Setting of safety relief valves. (a) Qualifications of individual...

2010-10-01

210

46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154.806 Shipping ...Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have a combined...

2012-10-01

211

49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Setting of safety relief valves. 230.49 Section 230.49 Transportation... Boilers and Appurtenances Safety Relief Valves § 230.49 Setting of safety relief valves. (a) Qualifications of individual...

2009-10-01

212

46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154.806 Shipping ...Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each cargo tank must have a combined...

2011-10-01

213

A Mode-Matching ?? Closed-Loop Vibratory-Gyroscope Readout Interface with a 0.004°\\/s\\/?Hz Noise Floor over a 50Hz Band  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mode-matching DeltaSigma closed-loop vibratory-gyroscope readout interface fabricated in a 0.35 mum CMOS process is presented. This paper describes the architecture and circuits used to exploit mode matching effectively to attain order-of-magnitude noise and power dissipation reductions over state-of-the-art implementations without sacrificing other aspects of system performance. As micromachined vibratory gyroscopes push to lower noise floors, mode matching is necessary

Chinwuba D. Ezekwe; Bernhard E. Boser

2008-01-01

214

Vibratory Massage in Mechanically Ventilated Patients – A Pilot Study on Heart and Lung-Transplanted Patients and Patients with Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryIntroduction: The manual vibratory massage is part of the pneumotherapeutic concept besides autogenic drainage, the thorax-extend positioning, the ‘pursed lips’, pack grips and special exercises applied to improve the costo-abdominal and costo-sternal mechanism of respiration. Objective: Our aim was to examine the influence of manual vibratory massage on the respiratory situation of postoperative patients under mechanical ventilation with special interest

Th. J. Doering; H. G. Fieguth; B. Stevernagel; J. Brix; M. Konitzer; B. Schneider; G. C. Fischer

1997-01-01

215

Pictorial relief for equiluminant images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pictorial relief depends strongly on "cues" in the image. For isoluminant renderings some cues are missing, namely all information that is related to luminance contrast (e.g., shading, atmospheric perspective). It has been suggested that spatial discrimination and especially pictorial space suffer badly in isoluminant conditions. We have investigated the issue through quantitative measurement of pictorial depth-structure under normal and isoluminant conditions. As stimuli we used monochrome halftone photographs, either as such, or "transposed" to Red/Green or Green/Red hue modulations. We used two distinct methods, one to probe pictorial pose (by way of correspondences settings between pictures of an object in different poses), the other to probe pictorial depth (by way of attitude settings of a gauge figure to a perceptual "fit"). In both experiments the depth reconstructions for Red/Green, Green/Red and monochrome conditions were very similar. Moreover, observers performed equally well in Red/Green, Green/Red and monochrome conditions. Thus, the general conclusion is that observers did not do markedly worse with the isoluminant Red/Green and Green/Red transposed images. Whereas the transposed images certainly looked weird, they were easily interpreted. Much of the structure of pictorial space was apparently preserved. Thus the notion that spatial representations are not sustained under isoluminant conditions should be applied with caution.

van Doorn, Andrea J.; de Ridder, Huib; Koenderink, Jan J.

2005-03-01

216

Stress  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project collects resources for studying mental health and stress issues with middle schoolers. Teens and stress Science NetLinks: The Laughing Brain 2: A Good Laugh Dealing with anger Stress-o-meter Look at each of the above sites. Choose one and read the content. Write a one-paragraph summary. Play interactive games and take quizzes. Keep a log of what you do. Tell which site you liked best and why. Watch the following video for positive things teens do to reduce the stress ...

Deaton, Mrs.

2011-06-10

217

Vibratory signals and prey capture in orb-weaving spiders ( Zygiella x-notata, Nephila clavipes ; Araneidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prey catching behavior in most spiders is dominated by vibratory signals generated by prey animals. We have studied the release of the predatory behavior in two orb weavers,Zygiella x-notata andNephila clavipes (Araneidae) and measured threshold curves by applying sinusoidal stimuli to the webs (Fig. 1).1.Resting position: WhileZygiella mostly stays in its retreat with one or both of its 1st legs

Diemut Klfirner; Friedrich G. Barth

1982-01-01

218

Preliminary evaluation of cavitation resistance of type 316LN stainless steel in mercury using a vibratory horn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 316LN stainless steel in a variety of conditions (annealed, cold-worked, surface-modified) was exposed to cavitation conditions in stagnant mercury using a vibratory horn. The test conditions included peak-to-peak displacement of the specimen surface of 25 ?m at a frequency of 20 kHz and a mercury temperature in the range ?5 to 80 °C. Following a brief incubation period in

S. J. Pawel; E. T. Manneschmidt

2003-01-01

219

Reconstruction of Dislocation Potential Relief by Means of Self-Blocking Effect  

SciTech Connect

The effect of dislocation self-blocking in intermetallic compounds with an anomalous temperature dependence of yield stress has been theoretically and experimentally analyzed. In essence, this effect is a dislocation self-immersion in a deep potential relief valley (without external stress). The possibility of reconstructing the relief shape (from one-valley to two-valley) is shown and the relief parameters are reported. The allowed and forbidden regions for self-blocking are revealed. The method for determining the ratio of the valley depths by measuring the self-blocking limiting angles between the dislocation segments is proposed. Transmission electron microscopy images of the dislocation structure can be used to this end. As an example, this ratio is estimated for a superpartial dislocation sliding in the cube plane in Ni{sub 3}Ge.

Greenberg, B. A., E-mail: bella@imp.uran.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division (Russian Federation); Ivanov, M. A., E-mail: ivanov@imp.kiev.ua [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kurdjumov Institute of Metal Physics (Ukraine); Plotnikov, A. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division (Russian Federation)

2010-11-15

220

Perception of Frequency, Amplitude and Azimuth of a Vibratory Dipole-Source by the Octavolateralis System of Goldfish (Carassius auratus)  

PubMed Central

Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were conditioned to suppress respiration to a 40 Hz vibratory source and subsequently tested for stimulus generalization to frequency, stimulus amplitude and position (azimuth). Animals completely failed to generalize to frequencies separated by octave intervals, both lesser and greater than the CS. However they did appear to generalize weakly to an aerial loudspeaker stimulus of the same frequency (40 Hz) after conditioning with an underwater vibratory source. Animals had a gradually decreasing amount of generalization to amplitude changes, suggesting a perceptual dimension of loudness. Animals generalized largely or completely to the same underwater source presented at a range of source azimuths. When these azimuths were presented at a transect of 3 cm, some animals did show decrements in generalization, while others did not. This suggests that although azimuth may be perceived more saliently at distances closer to a dipole source, perception of position is not immediately salient in conditioned vibratory source detection. Differential responding to test stimuli located towards the head or tail suggests the presence of perceptual differences between sources that are rostral or caudal with respect to the position of the animal or perhaps the head.

Dailey, Deena D.; Braun, Christopher B.

2011-01-01

221

Vibratory response of a mirror support/positioning system for the Advanced Photon Source project at Argonne National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The vibratory response of a typical mirror support/positioning system used at the experimental station of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) project at Argonne National Laboratory is investigated. Positioning precision and stability are especially critical when the supported mirror directs a high-intensity beam aimed at a distant target. Stability may be compromised by low level, low frequency seismic and facility-originated vibrations traveling through the ground and/or vibrations caused by flow-structure interactions in the mirror cooling system. The example case system has five positioning degrees of freedom through the use of precision actuators and rotary and linear bearings. These linkage devices result in complex, multi-dimensional vibratory behavior that is a function of the range of positioning configurations. A rigorous multibody dynamical approach is used for the development of the system equations. Initial results of the study, including estimates of natural frequencies and mode shapes, as well as limited parametric design studies, are presented. While the results reported here are for a particular system, the developed vibratory analysis approach is applicable to the wide range of high-precision optical positioning systems encountered at the APS and at other comparable facilities.

Basdogan, I.; Shu, Deming; Kuzay, T.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Royston, T.J.; Shabana, A.A. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

1996-08-01

222

Quick-Relief Medications for Lung Diseases  

MedlinePLUS

... Relief Medications Anticholinergics Short-Acting Beta-Agonists Oral Steroids Long-Term Control Medications Devices for Inhaled Medications ... agonists relax the smooth muscles around the airways. Steroid Pills and Syrups (Oral Steroids) Steroid pills and ...

223

Disaster Relief: Domestic Action in the Spotlight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Disaster relief is examined as one means for the Army, including Active Army, Army National Guard, and Army Reserve, to particularly demonstrate and execute its domestic action capabilities and thereby gain community and Congressional support. The examina...

E. J. Rush

1973-01-01

224

32 CFR 516.19 - Injunctive relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.19 Injunctive relief. (a) General....

2013-07-01

225

Insoles Provide Little Arthritis Pain Relief  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Insoles provide little arthritis pain relief: review (*this news item will not be available after ... for people with knee osteoarthritis, suggests a new review of past studies. Researchers found that across 12 ...

226

All Natural Pain Relief Inc. Warning Letter  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Your Soy Futura™ product is also misbranded within the ... Page 2 – All Natural Pain Relief, Inc., Warning ... of your website and the products that your ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

227

Supply Chain Management in Humanitarian Relief Logistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hundreds of millions of people are affected by disasters each year. This thesis explores the use of supply chain management techniques to overcome the barriers encountered by logistics managers during humanitarian relief operations. Using grounded theory ...

W. K. Rodman

2004-01-01

228

Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery  

MedlinePLUS

... and language needs, call (614) 293-3259. Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery Relaxation helps lessen tension. One ... your pain. Imagery does not replace your pain medicine. It works with your pain medicine to help ...

229

Estimating Attributes: Analysis and Extensions of RELIEF  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of machine learning from examples this paper deals with the problem of estimating the quality of attributes with and without dependencies among them. Kira and Rendell (1992a,b) developed an algorithm called RELIEF, which was shown to be very efficient in estimating attributes. Original RELIEF can deal with discrete and continuous attributes and is limited to only two-class

Igor Kononenko

1994-01-01

230

Political Incumbency and Drought Relief in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since gaining independence, a number of African governments have responded to protect citizens from drought-induced threats of famine. Government relief has either involved limited disbursements of food aid and large income restoring labour-intensive public works programme for the able bodied (labour-based relief), or the universal distribution of free food aid (free food aid). This paper examines why some African governments

Ngonidzashe Munemo

2007-01-01

231

Menopause: Symptom Relief and Treatments  

MedlinePLUS

... of menopause and tips for dealing with them. Hot flashes Try to notice what triggers your hot flashes and avoid those things. Possible triggers to ... foods, alcohol, caffeine, stress, or being in a hot place. Dress in layers and remove some when ...

232

Glottal area and vibratory patterns studied with simultaneous stroboscopy, flow glottography, and electroglottography.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between variations in glottal area and vibratory patterns during phonation studied with stroboscopy and glottographic methods. Two normal speaking male and three female subjects were examined by means of simultaneous stroboscopy, flow glottography, and electroglottography. Estimations were made of the glottal area from pressure and flow data using the formula described by van den Berg. Significant correlations were found for the male phonations between estimations and measurements of the minimum glottal area (glottal insufficiency). Estimations of the peak glottal area were also significantly correlated to measured peak glottal area for values below 25 mm2. The estimated minimum area tended to be higher, whereas the estimated peak area values were lower than the corresponding glottal area measurements. This might be explained by variations in glottal and supraglottal geometry for different modes of phonation and by sub- and supraglottal acoustic interaction. Several glottographic parameters for the male phonations were highly correlated with the measurements of glottal insufficiency and also differed significantly between normal, pressed, and breathy hypofunctional modes of phonation. The presence of a hump in the first part of the closed phase for the flow glottogram seems to indicate that a clearly visible mucosal wave is present during vocal fold vibration. PMID:7731222

Hertegård, S; Gauffin, J

1995-02-01

233

Electrophysiological responses to vibratory stimulation in the brainstem of the tadpole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Maturation of saccular responses to vibratory stimuli in 3 axes was measured in the Rana catesbeiana tadpole across metamorphic development. The animal was suspended in a water-filled circular aluminum dish attached to a shaker table system consisting of 5 vibration exciters producing sinusoidal, translational movements in the x, y, and z planes. Multi-unit responses were recorded from the medulla with tungsten or platinum-iridium microelectrodes. Recording sites were electrolytically marked to verify electrode placement. Data were collected from 16 animals in late larval stages, before onset of metamorphic climax. Most recording sites were sensitive to vibrations in the z (vertical) direction, indicating a saccular origin of the response. Vibration frequencies of 40 Hz or below produced the strongest activity, with thresholds below a displacement of 10 nm. Secondary sensitivity was sometimes observed to either x (body-longitudinal) or y (body-lateral) directions of movement. Although some sites produced strong phase-locked activity to the stimulation, others showed more diverse temporal patterns of response. Active recording sites were found in the medial vestibular nucleus, lateral vestibular nucleus, reticular gray, and dorsal superior olivary nucleus. These data suggest that tadpole saccule is functional early in larval development, with sensitivity similar to that observed in adult bullfrogs.

Simmons, Andrea M.; Two, Aimee; Horowitz, Seth S.

2005-04-01

234

Optimization of partial-state feedback for vibratory energy harvesters subjected to broadband stochastic disturbances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many applications of vibratory energy harvesting, the external disturbance is most appropriately modeled as a broadband stochastic process. Optimization of the average power generated from such disturbances is a feedback control problem, and solvable via LQG (linear-quadratic-Gaussian) control theory. Implementing the optimal feedback controller requires a power electronic drive capable of two-way power flow, which can impose dynamic relationships between the voltage and current of the transducer. Determining the optimal energy harvesting current control is accomplished by solving a nonstandard Riccati equation. In this paper we show that appropriate tuning of the passive parameters in the harvesting system results in a decoupled solution to the Riccati equation and a corresponding controller that only requires half of the states for feedback. However, even when such tuning methods are not used and the solution to the Riccati equation does not decouple, it is possible to determine the states in the feedback law that contribute the most to the average power generated by the harvester. As such, partial-state feedback gains can be optimized using a gradient descent method. Two energy harvesting examples are presented, including a single-degree-of-freedom oscillator with an electromagnetic actuator and a piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam, to demonstrate these concepts.

Cassidy, Ian L.; Scruggs, Jeffrey T.; Behrens, Sam

2011-08-01

235

Magneto-vibratory separation of glass and bronze granular mixtures immersed in a paramagnetic liquid.  

PubMed

A fluid-immersed granular mixture may spontaneously separate when subjected to vertical vibration, separation occurring when the ratio of particle inertia to fluid drag is sufficiently different between the component species of the mixture. Here, we describe how fluid-driven separation is influenced by magneto-Archimedes buoyancy, the additional buoyancy force experienced by a body immersed in a paramagnetic fluid when a strong inhomogeneous magnetic field is applied. In our experiments glass and bronze mixtures immersed in paramagnetic aqueous solutions of MnCl2 have been subjected to sinusoidal vertical vibration. In the absence of a magnetic field the separation is similar to that observed when the interstitial fluid is water. However, at modest applied magnetic fields, magneto-Archimedes buoyancy may balance the inertia/fluid-drag separation mechanism, or it may dominate the separation process. We identify the vibratory and magnetic conditions for four granular configurations, each having distinctive granular convection. Abrupt transitions between these states occur at well-defined values of the magnetic and vibrational parameters. In order to gain insight into the dynamics of the separation process we use computer simulations based on solutions of the Navier-Stokes' equations. The simulations reproduce the experimental results revealing the important role of convection and gap formation in the stability of the different states. PMID:17972012

López-Alcaraz, P; Catherall, A T; Hill, R J A; Leaper, M C; Swift, Michael R; King, P J

2007-10-31

236

Improvement of mechanical performance for vibratory microgyroscope based on sense mode closed-loop control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve its structural sensitivity, a vibratory microgyroscope is commonly sealed in high vacuum to increase the drive mode quality factor. The sense mode quality factor of the microgyroscope will also increase simultaneously after vacuum sealing, which will lead to a long decay time of free response and even self-oscillation of the sense mode. As a result, the mechanical performance of the microgyroscope will be seriously degraded. In order to solve this problem, a closed-loop control technique is presented to adjust and optimize the sense mode quality factor. A velocity feedback loop was designed to increase the electric damping of the sense mode vibration. A circuit was fabricated based on this technique, and experimental results indicate that the sense mode quality factor of the microgyroscope was adjusted from 8052 to 428. The decay time of the sense mode free response was shortened from 3 to 0.5 s, and the vibration-rejecting ability of the microgyroscope was improved obviously without sensitivity degradation.

Xiao, Dingbang; Su, Jianbin; Chen, Zhihua; Hou, Zhanqiang; Wang, Xinghua; Wu, Xuezhong

2013-04-01

237

46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65...HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that...

2010-10-01

238

46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-10-01 2009-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65...HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that...

2009-10-01

239

46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vacuum relief device. 64.65 Section 64.65...HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.65 Vacuum relief device. (a) Each MPT that...

2012-10-01

240

The Use of Knowledge in Natural Disaster Relief Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

To successfully coordinate natural disaster relief, society must solve Hayek’s “knowledge, problem” at three critical information nodes: (1) identification of disaster; (2) determination of what relief is needed and who needs which relief resources; and (3) evaluation of on-going relief efforts. This paper investigates the comparative ability of government and the private sector to do this. We find that government

Russell S. Sobel; Peter T. Leeson

2006-01-01

241

Component lead wire strain relief for random vibration environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Printed circuit boards exposed to severe random vibration environments for prolonged periods often experience fatigue failures. The failures occur in connection with severed circuit traces, fractured solder joints, fretting corrosion of connector contact pins, or broken lead wires on electronic components. The present investigation is mainly concerned with the latter cause of failure. Aspects of lead wire geometry are defined and factors contributing to the development of bending stress in the lead wires are examined. Such factors are related to environmental load applications, board-specific characteristics, and component-specific characteristics. Attention is given to effects of component location, questions concerning the selection of the proper strain relief, the effects of lead length on stresses, the proper component orientation, and the characteristics of different types of components. A sample problem is also discussed.

Scardina, V. M.

242

Residual Stresses in an Overstrained Thick-Walled Cylinder.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Radial and tangential residual stresses are determined as a function of stress relief temperature. Disks were sliced from a hydraulically overexpanded cylinder and subjected to various heat treatments. Residual stresses remaining after heat treatment were...

S. J. Acquaviva

1967-01-01

243

Non-pharmacological pain relief in labour.  

PubMed

Pain in normal labour can be relieved using many non-pharmacological methods including:- Techniques that reduce painful stimuli: Assuming various upright positions to ease the pain, encourage labour progress and increase the diameter of the pelvis. Techniques that activate peripheral sensory receptors: Of the various techniques used, intradermal injection of sterile water (ISW) results in over 50% of pain relief compared to 18% in the 'dry needling' group, Dahl V., Aarmes T. One RCT concluded that ISW is more effective than TENS for relieving low back pain in labour. Two trials, Erkkola et al and Bundsen et al found that mothers using TENS received good to moderate pain relief 48%: 37% and 31%: 55%. There were no ill effects produced in the newborn infant. The use of essential oils, lavender, frankincense and rose for relief of anxiety and fear were favourably reported by E. Burn et al. Also for the effectiveness rating of pain by parity and labour onset more women recorded a positive or equivocal score than a negative one. The use of Active Birth embraces many methods of non-pharmacological pain relief including using a humane approach and providing continuous emotional support by a companion or caregiver throughout labour. Two Bangkok hospitals, using Active Birth, showed a marked reduction in the use of pharmacological pain relief. Conclusion: Pharmacological methods to help alleviate the pain of labour should only be used as a last resort. PMID:21213523

Habanananda, Tanit

2004-10-01

244

The Effect of Leflunomide on Cold and Vibratory Sensation in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of peripheral neuropathy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with leflunomide (LEF) by quantitative sensory testing (QST). Method A total of 94 patients were enrolledin this study, out of which 47 patients received LEF. The other 47 patients received alternative disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and served as the control group. The demographic characteristics, laboratory findings, concomitant diseases, and medication history were evaluated at the time of QST. The cooling (CDT) and vibratory detection threshold (VDT) as the representative components of QST were measured. Results Age, gender, RA duration, ESR, and CRP did not show any significant differences between the two groups. VDT did not demonstrate any significant difference in both groups. However, CDT in LEF group was significantly higher than that of the control group (8.6±2.7 in LEF vs. 5.6±3.8 in control). The proportion of RA patients in the LEF group showing abnormally high CDT was over 2 times greater than that of the control group, but these findings were not statistically significant. Age, RA duration (or LEF medication in LEF group), ESR, and CRP did not show significant correlation with CDT in both groups. VDT significantly correlated with age in both groups. Conclusion LEF treatment in patients with RA may lead to abnormal CDT in QST. CDT value was not affected by age, RA duration, disease activity, or LEF duration. It remains to be determined whether QST may be a valuable non-invasive instrument to evaluate the early sensory changes in patients with RA taking LEF.

Kim, Hyung Kuk; Park, Si-Bog; Park, Jong Woo; Jang, Seong-Ho; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung

2012-01-01

245

Efficient and effective extraction of vocal fold vibratory patterns from high-speed digital imaging  

PubMed Central

Objectives High-speed digital imaging can provide valuable information on disordered voice production in voice science. However, the large amounts of high-speed image data with limited image resolutions produce significant challenges for computer analysis, and thus effective and efficient image edge extraction methods allowing for the batch analysis of high-speed images of vocal folds is clinically important. In this paper, a novel algorithm for automatic image edge detection is proposed to effectively and efficiently process high-speed images of the vocal folds. Methods The method integrates Lagrange interpolation, differentiation, and Canny edge detection, which allow objective extraction of aperiodic vocal fold vibratory patterns from large numbers of high-speed digital images. This method and two other popular algorithms, histogram and active contour, are performed on 10 sets of high-speed video data from excised larynx experiments in order to compare their performances in analyzing high-speed images. The accuracy in computing glottal area and the computation time of these methods are investigated. Results and Discussion The results show that our proposed method provides the most accurate and efficient detection, and is applicable when processing low resolution images. In this study, we focus on developing a method to effectively and efficiently process high-speed image data from excised larynges. However in addition we show the clinical potential of this method by use of example high-speed image data obtained from a patient with vocal nodules. Conclusions The proposed automatic image-processing algorithm may provide a valuable biomedical application for the clinical assessment of vocal disorders by use of high-speed digital imaging.

Zhang, Yu; Bieging, Erik; Tsui, Henry; Jiang, Jack J.

2010-01-01

246

Angular circulation speed of tablets in a vibratory tablet coating pan.  

PubMed

In this work, a single tablet model and a discrete element method (DEM) computer simulation are developed to obtain the angular circulation speed of tablets in a vibratory tablet coating pan for range of vibration frequencies and amplitudes. The models identify three important dimensionless parameters that influence the speed of the tablets: the dimensionless amplitude ratio (a/R), the Froude number (a?2/g), and the tablet-wall friction coefficient, where a is the peak vibration amplitude at the drum center, ? is the vibration angular frequency, R is the drum radius, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The models predict that the angular circulation speed of tablets increases with an increase in each of these parameters. The rate of increase in the angular circulation speed is observed to decrease for larger values of a/R. The angular circulation speed reaches an asymptote beyond a tablet-wall friction coefficient value of about 0.4. Furthermore, it is found that the Froude number should be greater than one for the tablets to start circulating. The angular circulation speed increases as Froude number increases but then does not change significantly at larger values of the Froude number. Period doubling, where the motion of the bed is repeated every two cycles, occurs at a Froude number larger than five. The single tablet model, although much simpler than the DEM model, is able to predict the maximum circulation speed (the limiting case for a large value of tablet-wall friction coefficient) as well as the transition to period doubling. PMID:23325382

Kumar, Rahul; Wassgren, Carl

2013-01-17

247

Glovebox pressure relief and check valve  

SciTech Connect

This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

Blaedel, K.L.

1986-03-17

248

Relief diffracted elements recorded on absorbent photopolymers.  

PubMed

Relief surface changes provide interesting possibilities for storing diffractive optical elements on photopolymers and are an important source of information for characterizing and understanding the material behavior. In this paper we use a 3-dimensional model, based on direct parameter measurements, for predicting the relief structures generated on without-coverplate photopolymers. We have analyzed different spatial frequency and recording intensity distributions such as binary and blazed periodic patterns. This model was successfully applied to different photopolymers with different values of monomer diffusion. PMID:22565744

Gallego, S; Márquez, A; Ortuño, M; Francés, J; Pascual, I; Beléndez, A

2012-05-01

249

Recent trends in the international relief system.  

PubMed

Since 1991 the international relief system has been undergoing a process of rapid and fundamental change associated with the end of the Cold War period. The principal changes concern (i) the international community's approach to national sovereignty and the 'right' of armed intervention in support of humanitarian objectives, and (ii) organisatwnal changes aimed at improving the coordination and effectiveness of the response by donor organisations and the United Nations. This paper describes these changes and attempts to place them in the context of earlier trends within the international relief system, notably the enhanced role of non-governmental organisations, which occurred during the 1980s. PMID:20958767

Borton, J

1993-09-01

250

Dynamical behavior of a class of vibratory systems with symmetrical rigid stops near the point of codimension two bifurcation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-degree-of-freedom vibratory system having symmetrically placed rigid stops is considered. The system consists of linear components, but the maximum displacement of one of the masses is limited to a threshold value by the symmetrical rigid stops. Repeated impacts usually occur in the vibratory system due to the rigid amplitude constraints. Such models play an important role in the studies of mechanical systems with clearances or gaps. Local codimension two bifurcation of maps, involving a real eigenvalue and a complex conjugate pair escaping the unit circle simultaneously, is analyzed by using the center manifold theorem technique and normal form method for maps. Symmetrical double-impact periodic motion and Poincaré map of the system are derived analytically. A center manifold theorem technique is applied to reduce the Poincaré map to a three-dimensional one, and the normal form map associated with the codimension two bifurcation is obtained. Local behaviors of the vibratory systems with symmetrical rigid stops, near the points of codimension two bifurcations, are reported by the presentation of results for a two-degree-of-freedom vibratory system with symmetrical stops. The existence and stability of symmetrical double-impact periodic motion are analyzed explicitly. Also, local bifurcations at the points of change in stability, are analyzed. Near the point of codimension two bifurcation, there exists not only Hopf bifurcation of period-one double-impact motion, but also pitchfork bifurcation of the motion. Pitchfork bifurcation of period-one double-impact symmetrical motion results in the period-one double-impact unsymmetrical motion. The unsymmetrical double-impact motion is of two antisymmetrical forms due to different initial conditions and symmetrical stops. With change of the forcing frequency, the unsymmetrical double-impact periodic motion will undergo Hopf bifurcation. Moreover the period-one double-impact symmetrical motion will undergo Hopf bifurcation directly as the forcing frequency is changed in the contrary direction. The routes of quasi-periodic impact motions to chaos are observed by results from simulation.

Luo, G. W.; Zhang, Y. L.; Zhang, J. G.

2006-10-01

251

Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens  

PubMed Central

Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress), sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care.

Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara M; Mulvogue, Tamsin

2009-01-01

252

Alfentanil as procedural pain relief in newborn infants.  

PubMed Central

AIMS: To assess the need for, and the suitability of, alfentanil for pain relief during tracheal suction used in assisted ventilation in newborn infants. METHODS: In a randomised, controlled, double blind, crossover trial, placebo (10 micrograms/kg) and 20 micrograms/kg alfentanil were infused in random order two minutes before three separate endotracheal suctions, at least six hours apart, to 10 infants. Measurements were made of physiological variables, behaviour, and stress hormones. RESULTS: After placebo infusion heart rate significantly increased (median 14; interquartile range 12-16 beats/minute) as did behavioural pain score (5; 3-5). Alfentanil (20 micrograms/kg) attenuated the heart rate increase, normalised the pain score, and caused a decrease in plasma adrenaline activity (0.3; 0.2-0.7 nmol/l). Noradrenaline concentration showed a nonsignificant decreasing trend with increasing alfentanil dose and beta endorphin was unchanged. Rigidity was noted in the placebo (n = 2), 10 micrograms/kg (n = 2), and 20 micrograms/kg (n = 5) alfentanil groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Tracheal suction is a painful procedure. The dose of alfentanil required for pain relief (20 micrograms/kg) causes a high incidence of rigidity and thus should be used only with muscle relaxant.

Saarenmaa, E; Huttunen, P; Leppaluoto, J; Fellman, V

1996-01-01

253

The power of volunteers in disaster relief.  

PubMed

Hurricane Andrew, one of the worst natural disasters in American history, brought out the spirit of caring in medical personnel as volunteers from all over the country came to aid the hurricane's victims. The following is an example of how one massive relief effort can make a difference in thousands of lives. PMID:10127533

Robinson, M

1993-08-01

254

Emergency fund-raising for disaster relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred members of the public were interviewed in high street and railway station locations in central London to ascertain the considerations that encourage them to donate generously to a disaster relief fund-raising appeal. It emerged that the major fund-raising triggers involved media representations of the indigency of aid recipients, portrayals of people helping themselves, and highly emotive advertising imagery.

Roger Bennett; Rita Kottasz

2000-01-01

255

LOFT Technical Specifications Regarding Relief Valves Testing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Technical Specification requirement for testing relief valves per common nuclear industry practice, is to measure set pressure only. The testing is done on the plant, on a test stand, or by a testing laboratory. Leak testing as performed by the indust...

R. H. Larson

1977-01-01

256

Immunizing Arbitrators from Claims for Equitable Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article begins with a summary of the historical origins of the judicial and arbitral immunity doctrines. Next, the article discusses the courts' refusal to extend judicial immunity to claims for declaratory, injunctive, or other equitable relief, except perhaps in the case of federal judges. The article then explores the propriety of recognizing a similar limitation in cases construing the

Michael D. Moberly

2012-01-01

257

CONDITIONAL AID, SOVEREIGN DEBT, AND DEBT RELIEF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is debt relief the best instrument to increase the consumption of the poor in HIPCs? To answer this question, we present a model of conditional aid as an implicit contract between altruistic donors (concerned about the consumption of the poor), and recipient government representing the interests of the well-offs. This contract is played out over an infinite horizon, and is

Tito Cordell; GIOVANNI DELL' ARICCIA; KENNETH M. KLETZER

258

Tsunami-Relief Groups Advise K-12  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As American schools pitch in with an array of charitable projects in response to the tsunami in South Asia, experts say educators and students should consider carefully how they can most effectively support relief groups, avoid fund-raising scams, and incorporate their efforts into service-learning programs. When students returned to school after…

Hurst, Marianne D.

2005-01-01

259

Chattanooga, Tennessee, Brainerd Area Flood Relief Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project proposes flood relief to part of the Brainerd area of Chattanooga from South Chickamauga Creek headwater floods and Tennessee River backwater floods. The plan consists of constructing 3.8 miles of levee with an average height of 23 feet and re...

1973-01-01

260

Non-Pharmacological Pain Relief in Labour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain in normal labour can be relieved using many non-pharmacological methods including:- Techniques that reduce painful stimuli: Assuming various upright positions to ease the pain, encourage labour progress and increase the diameter of the pelvis. Techniques that activate peripheral sensory receptors: Of the various techniques used, intradermal injection of sterile water (ISW) results in over 50% of pain relief compared

Tanit Habanananda

2004-01-01

261

The Ins and Outs of Relief Casting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a unit on clay casting that introduces students to relief sculpture. The unit takes three 45 to 50 minute class periods three weeks apart. Discusses each class session in detail: (1) creating the casting; (2) turning out and rinsing the casting; and (3) enriching the surface with color. (CMK)

Greene, Yvonne

2000-01-01

262

Relief and Distress after Marital Separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relief and distress as responses to the termination of marriage are examined in a study of a nonprobability sample of 205 individuals in central Pennsylvania. Respondents were interviewed in depth soon after their final separation. Retrospective measures are used to assess the rewards and costs of ending marriage from three sources-attrations in marriage, external pressures to remain married, and alternative

Graham B. Spanier; Linda Thompson

1983-01-01

263

The origin and relief of common pain.  

PubMed

Where pain of the musculoskeletal system is present, commonly, this pain is without objective evidence of disease, trauma, or disorder. Absence of an apparent cause for common pain prompts the consideration of mechanical stress as a contributing factor. The principal stress of the musculoskeletal system is postural. By posture it is usually meant the distribution of body mass with respect to gravity. Past efforts to predict chronic pain by postural analysis or to reduce such pain by strengthening, conscious control or splinting of posture has had marginal success. Past failure to relate posture to pain is attributable to (1) ubiquity of sub-optimal posture that precludes clinical comparison to those with optimal posture; (2) presupposition that the causal relation between posture and pain is of the observational class of causality rather than the manipulable kind; (3) a definition of posture that is too narrow to complete the picture; and (4) inadequate methods for reduction of postural asymmetry to an extent that is sufficient to elicit a significant and enduring effect on sub-optimal posture and related pain. Posture can be defined more broadly as the stance of the body performing within the boundaries of posture and which is mediated by the Postural Control System towards greatest stability (Fx. 1). The stance of the body is the arrangement of the body with respect to gravity and other accelerative forces. The postural boundaries are the set of forces that resist acceleration and thereby provide the limits within which one functions stably, and this resistance is currently approximated by six principal sources of resistance to acceleration: viscous, elastic, neuromuscular, rigid, viscoelastic, and inertial. The Postural Control System is located in the brainstem and modulates body stance to more economically and stably effect and resist acceleration. The rigid boundaries can be so with respect to compressive, tractive, or tensile qualities that permits three kinds of motion: translation, rotation and oscillation. An example of postural boundaries that are rigid with respect to compression and tensile character are the bones that bear weight. In contrast, ligaments provide a tractive rigidity and musculotendons a relatively elastic boundary. Joint surfaces are considered boundaries that are rigid but not perfectly so. Of fundamental importance are those joints that arc lowermost in a column of the musculoskeletal system namely: (1) the feet and ankles that support the entirety of the musculoskeletal system and; (2) the base of the sacrum that supports the vertebral spine. This broadened definition of posture leads to a greatly enhanced manipulability of posture in the upright stance and alleviation of more than two-thirds of common pain by the coherent combination of (1) manual manipulation to reduce somatic dysfunction; (2) foot orthotics to optimize the amplitude of the arches of the feet and vertically align the ankle; (3) a heel lift to level the sacral base; (4) and a group of therapeutic postures configured to minimize restriction of peripheral soft tissue reflective of the earlier posture, all aimed to optimize posture. Mediated by the postural control system, manipulation of postural boundaries accordingly modifies the structure and function of the entire musculoskeletal system. Typically, this relief is maintained by foot orthotic and heel lift alone without maintenance by manual manipulation, medication, or exercise. PMID:11542803

Irvin, R E

1998-01-01

264

Terrain-Emboss, Its Application to Shaded Relief Production by Relief Model Photography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A simplified hand-tooling technique for model making has for some years been under development at the Aeronautical Chart and Information Center for the primary purpose of improving production of shaded relief portrayal on USAF charts. Basic concepts, some...

G. E. Bebermeyer

1964-01-01

265

Internal Controls Over Payments for Emergency Disaster Relief Transportation Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is our second report assessing internal controls over the emergency disaster relief transportation services contract. We issued our initial report, Internal Controls Over the Emergency Disaster Relief Transportation Services Contract (Report Number A...

D. A. Dobbs

2006-01-01

266

46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section...Piping Systems § 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading...to relieve cargo pressure and to remove liquid...

2012-10-01

267

46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section...Piping Systems § 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading...to relieve cargo pressure and to remove liquid...

2011-10-01

268

27 CFR 44.66 - Relief from liability for tax.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Relief from liability for tax. 44...Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... Relief from liability for tax. A...manufacturer of tobacco products or cigarette...relieved of the liability for tax on tobacco products, or...

2013-04-01

269

Property Tax Relief Programs for the Elderly. An Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Second of three in a 15 - month program evaluation for HUD, this report analyzes the effects of property tax relief programs for the elderly, particularly the circuit breaker form of relief, on economic and political behavior. The actual housing condition...

1975-01-01

270

Enforcing Compliance with IDEA: Dispute Resolution and Appropriate Relief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion of dispute resolution and remedies under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act focuses on the due process hearing as well as alternative dispute resolution, appropriate relief, reimbursements, compensatory relief, punitive damages, and attorneys' fees. (DB)

Dagley, David

1995-01-01

271

20 CFR 255.16 - Administrative relief from recovery.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Administrative relief from recovery. 255.16 Section 255.16 Employees...REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT RECOVERY OF OVERPAYMENTS § 255.16 Administrative relief from recovery. (a) Where the Board seeks...

2010-04-01

272

20 CFR 631.86 - Limitations on disaster relief employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.86 Limitations on disaster relief employment. No individual...related to recovery from a single natural disaster (described in §...

2009-04-01

273

20 CFR 631.86 - Limitations on disaster relief employment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Disaster Relief Employment Assistance § 631.86 Limitations on disaster relief employment. No individual...related to recovery from a single natural disaster (described in §...

2010-04-01

274

Anti-Seizure Medications: Relief from Nerve Pain  

MedlinePLUS

... be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Anti-seizure medications: Relief from nerve pain By Mayo Clinic ... share your e-mail address Sign up Anti-seizure medications: Relief from nerve pain Anti-seizure drugs ...

275

46 CFR 64.65 - Vacuum relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...device. 64.65 Section 64.65 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs...

2011-10-01

276

46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs...

2011-10-01

277

46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...devices. 64.71 Section 64.71 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs...

2012-10-01

278

Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image of Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale (Alaska Department of Natural Resources, 1994), using the 1,000-m digital elevation data set referred to below. An important difference between our image and these previous ones is the method of reproduction: like the Thelin and Pike (1991) image, our image is a composite of halftone images that yields sharp resolution and preserves contrast. Indeed, the first impression of many viewers is that the Alaskan image and the Thelin and Pike image are composites of satellite-generated photographs rather than an artificial rendering of a digital elevation model. A shaded-relief image represents landforms in a natural fashion; that is, a viewer perceives the image as a rendering of reality. Thus a shaded-relief image is intrinsically appealing, especially in areas of spectacular relief. In addition, even subtle physiographic features that reflect geologic structures or the type of bedrock are visible. To our knowledge, some of these Alaskan features have not been depicted before and so the image should provide earth scientists with a new 'look' at fundamental geologic features of Alaska.

Riehle, J. R.; Fleming, M. D.; Molnia, B. F.; Dover, J. H.; Kelley, J. S.; Miller, M. L.; Nokleberg, W. J.; Plafker, George; Till, A. B.

1997-01-01

279

Reliability of MEMS packaging: vacuum maintenance and packaging induced stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the dominant reliability issues of MEMS packaging that include vacuum maintenance and packaging induced stress, are discussed, and design considerations to improve the reliability are presented. The MEMS vibratory gyroscope sensor is fabricated with anodically bonded wafer level vacuum packaging followed by die-bonding and wire-bonding processes. The epoxy-molding compound (EMC) is applied to encapsulate the gyroscope sensor.

Sung-Hoon Choa

2005-01-01

280

Stress relief: improving structural strength of 3D printable objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of 3D printing has rapidly expanded in the past couple of years. It is now possible to produce 3D-printed objects with exceptionally high fidelity and precision. However, although the quality of 3D printing has improved, both the time to print and the material costs have remained high. Moreover, there is no guarantee that a printed model is structurally

Ondrej Stava; Juraj Vanek; Bedrich Benes; Nathan Carr; Radomír M?ch

281

Stress Relief during Solid-State Transformations in Minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work estimates the power dissipated by solid-state phase changes in the transition layer of the mantle. Earlier studies have shown these transitions occur by nucleation and growth, and that dislocations are induced in the matrix around the grain during growth. The small-scale flow allowed by the dislocations dissipates power as a sample transforms. This dissipation is easily found in

S. Morris

1992-01-01

282

30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will MMS grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.53 What relief will MMS grant...prices (see § 203.54), royalty payments due under end-of-life relief will not exceed the royalty obligations...

2010-07-01

283

30 CFR 203.53 - What relief will MMS grant?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for End-Of-Life Leases § 203.53 What relief will MMS grant...prices (see § 203.54), royalty payments due under end-of-life relief will not exceed the royalty obligations...

2009-07-01

284

Crisis Communication Practices at an International Relief Agency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When a disaster strikes, the affected population relies upon the swift response and aid rendered by relief organizations such as the California-based Direct Relief International. Since 1948, Direct Relief's mission has been to provide essential material resources to locally run health programs in areas affected by natural disasters, wars, and…

Genova, Gina L.

2006-01-01

285

Bilateral Anterior Cingulectomy for the Relief of Intractable Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral anterior cingulectomies were performed on 23 patients for the relief of intractable pain. 19 patients suffered from pain due to metastatic disease, 3 from arachnoiditis and 1 from a phantom limb syndrome. Of those patients suffering from pain due to metastatic disease, 10 (52.1%) obtained pain relief. Among the patients suffering from arachnoiditis, 1 obtained pain relief. The case

Donald H. Wilson; Alfred E. Chang

1974-01-01

286

Ground water pressure relief wells in shaft sinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern of pressure relief produced in a confined aquifer by a ring of vertical relief wells is conventionally evaluated by summation of simple contributions from individual wells. Where the wells surround an open excavation such as a shaft, the pattern is modified. This paper outlines the appropriate modifications. The resulting pattern of pressure relief and of shaft inflow is

R. A. Scott; G. P. Daw

1983-01-01

287

BOTSWANA'S APPROACH TO DROUGHT: HOW DISASTER RELIEF CAN BE DEVELOPMENTAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrating disaster relief and development is not a new concept. Addressing underlying problems that have made a society susceptible to disaster have their origins dating back to the Indian Famine Relief Codes of the 1860's. Today, this is a popular notion among many people involved with emergency response. Still, there are relatively few instances where disaster relief has emphasized both

Joe Siegle

1990-01-01

288

Iterative RELIEF for Feature Weighting: Algorithms, Theories and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

RELIEF is considered one of the most successful algorithms for assessing the quality of features. In this paper, we propose a set of new feature weighting algorithms that perform significantly better than RELIEF, without introducing a large increase in computational complexity. Our work starts from a mathematical interpretation of the seemingly heuristic RELIEF algorithm as an online method solving a

Yijun Suny

289

Iterative RELIEF for Feature Weighting: Algorithms, Theories, and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

RELIEF is considered one of the most successful algorithms for assessing the quality of features. In this paper, we propose a set of new feature weighting algorithms that perform significantly better than RELIEF, without introducing a large increase in computational complexity. Our work starts from a mathematical interpretation of the seemingly heuristic RELIEF algorithm as an online method solving a

Yijun Sun

2007-01-01

290

46 CFR 154.1846 - Relief valves: Changing set pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relief valves: Changing set pressure. 154.1846...GASES Operations § 154.1846 Relief valves: Changing set pressure. The master...changing of the set pressure of relief valves under § 154.802(b); (b)...

2012-10-01

291

46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping...Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo piping system from...

2012-10-01

292

46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping...Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo piping system from...

2011-10-01

293

46 CFR 154.1846 - Relief valves: Changing set pressure.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relief valves: Changing set pressure. 154.1846...GASES Operations § 154.1846 Relief valves: Changing set pressure. The master...changing of the set pressure of relief valves under § 154.802(b); (b)...

2011-10-01

294

TRU-waste decontamination and size reduction review, June 1983, US DOE/PNC technology exchange. [Electropolishing, vibratory cleaning and spray decontamination  

SciTech Connect

A review of transuranic (TRU) noncombustible waste decontamination and size reduction technology is presented. Electropolishing, vibratory cleaning, and spray decontamination processes developed at Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) are highlighted. TRU waste size reduction processes at (PNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), and SRL are also highlighted.

Becker, G.W. Jr.

1983-01-01

295

Systeme d'Analyse des Signaux (Acoustique et Vibratoires) et de Traitement de Donnees (Signal Analysis and Data Processing System (Acoustic and Vibratory)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The utilization of programs for acoustic and vibratory signal acquisition, analysis and processing on HP 9835 and HP 9854 C calculators is outlined. The programs are written in BASIC and are conversational. They link an analyzer, (or recorder) and a calcu...

Y. Birembaut

1982-01-01

296

Improve safety with pilot operated relief valves  

SciTech Connect

A weakness inherent in balanced bellows pressure relief valves (PRVs) that can cause premature failure can be avoided by using pilot operated PRVs as an alternative. Now better able to handle adverse service conditions, pilot operated PRVs are suitable for a wide range of gas, liquid and mixed-phase services. Traditionally, however, balanced bellows PRVs have been applied as overpressure protection for three notable reasons: a constant PRV set pressure with the presence of variable, superimposed back pressure (at the PRV outlet prior to its opening); valve stability and adequate capacity when built-up back pressure (at the PRV outlet during its relief cycle) exceeds 10%; and spring and guided parts barriered from the process fluid. With these benefits in mind, balanced bellows PRVs have been generally adapted by many hydrocarbon processing companies that have experienced costly, and often dangerous, premature bellows failures. Corrosion, valve instability and/or bellows flutter are causes of these failures.

Emerson, G. [Anderson, Greenwood and Co., Stafford, TX (United States)

1996-10-01

297

The President's Agenda for Tax Relief  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In early 2001, President Bush released a summary of his agenda for tax relief. He claims to offer a "bold and fair tax relief plan that will reduce the inequities of the current tax code and help ensure that America remains prosperous." Highlights of Bush's proposal include doubling the child care credit to $1,000 per child, reinstating the ten percent deduction for two-earner couples, thus reducing the "marriage penalty," and eliminating inheritance taxes. The rather celebratory summary provides a short explanation of each element of the new tax plan, along with several charts on topics including consumer debt, tax rates for Americans on the edge of poverty, and the tax reduction for the poorest families. Finally, the report offers an easy-to-understand, side-by-side comparison of the current tax code and the Bush plan.

2001-01-01

298

Thermohydraulic effects of safety relief valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of the thermohydraulic performance of the safety relief valve (SRV) is presented. The study showed that the single and two-phase conditions upstream the SRV cause significant changes in the flow through the SRV. Five SRVs were tested covering a pressure range of (4.5–75) bar. A numerical solution of the transient one-dimensional, two-phase flow conservation equations by the

A. A. Kendoush; Z. A. Sarkis; H. B. M. Al-Muhammedawi

1999-01-01

299

DEM-based Analysis of Local Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local relief (LR) mainly describes the complexity of the Earth’s surface at large spatial scales and reflects the degree to\\u000a which the Earth’s surface is incised by exogenic agents. This chapter probes the methodology of extracting LR from a 1-km\\u000a DEM and discusses the large-scale geomorphological characteristics of China. It proves that the optimum unit for measuring\\u000a LR is 42.25km2.

LIU Aili

300

LLTR relief system materials evaluation. [LMFBR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scope of Subtask Y4, Sodium\\/Water Reaction Recovery of Work Package Task Number SG037, Large Sodium\\/Water Reaction Test and Analysis, is to establish procedures for LMFBR plant cleanup and recovery following sodium\\/water reaction (SWR) events. Encompassed within the recovery aspects of this scope is the evaluation of steam generator and relief systems material behavior following SWR events. Of particular concern

W. J. Roit; P. J. Ring

1979-01-01

301

46 CFR 64.69 - Location of the pressure relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.69 Location of the pressure relief device. A pressure relief device must beâ...

2012-10-01

302

Measurements of in situ stress and mining-induced stress in Beiminghe Iron Mine of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to obtain the distribution rules of in situ stress and mining-induced stress of Beiminghe Iron Mine, the stress relief\\u000a method by overcoring was used to measure the in situ stress, and the MC type bore-hole stress gauge was adopted to measure\\u000a the mining-induced stress. In the in situ stress measuring, the technique of improved hollow inclusion cells was

Zhen-hua Ouyang; Chang-hong Li; Wan-cai Xu; Hao-jie Li

2009-01-01

303

Helium pressures in RHIC vacuum cryostats and relief valve requirements from magnet cooling line failure  

SciTech Connect

A catastrophic failure of the RHIC magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, would pressurize the insulating vacuum in the magnet and transfer line cryostats. Insufficient relief valves on the cryostats could cause a structural failure. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the vacuum cryostat and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed to calculate the helium pressure inside the cryostat. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces were included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Existing relief valve sizes were reviewed to make sure that the maximum stresses, caused by the calculated maximum pressures inside the cryostats, did not exceed the allowable stresses, based on the ASME Code B31.3 and ANSYS results. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The S/F simulation results show that the highest internal pressure in the cryostats, due to the magnet line failure, is {approx}37 psig (255115 Pa); (2) Based on the simulation, the temperature on the cryostat chamber, INJ Q8-Q9, could drop to 228 K, which is lower than the material minimum design temperature allowed by the Code; (3) Based on the ASME Code and ANSYS results, the reliefs on all the cryostats inside the RHIC tunnel are adequate to protect the vacuum chambers when the magnet cooling lines fail; and (4) In addition to the pressure loading, the thermal deformations, due to the temperature decrease on the cryostat chambers, could also cause a high stress on the chamber, if not properly supported.

Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

2011-03-28

304

Digital shaded-relief map of Venezuela  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Digital Shaded-Relief Map of Venezuela is a composite of more than 20 tiles of 90 meter (3 arc second) pixel resolution elevation data, captured during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) in February 2000. The SRTM, a joint project between the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), provides the most accurate and comprehensive international digital elevation dataset ever assembled. The 10-day flight mission aboard the U.S. Space Shuttle Endeavour obtained elevation data for about 80% of the world's landmass at 3-5 meter pixel resolution through the use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technology. SAR is desirable because it acquires data along continuous swaths, maintaining data consistency across large areas, independent of cloud cover. Swaths were captured at an altitude of 230 km, and are approximately 225 km wide with varying lengths. Rendering of the shaded-relief image required editing of the raw elevation data to remove numerous holes and anomalously high and low values inherent in the dataset. Customized ArcInfo Arc Macro Language (AML) scripts were written to interpolate areas of null values and generalize irregular elevation spikes and wells. Coastlines and major water bodies used as a clipping mask were extracted from 1:500,000-scale geologic maps of Venezuela (Bellizzia and others, 1976). The shaded-relief image was rendered with an illumination azimuth of 315? and an altitude of 65?. A vertical exaggeration of 2X was applied to the image to enhance land-surface features. Image post-processing techniques were accomplished using conventional desktop imaging software.

Garrity, Christopher P.; Hackley, Paul C.; Urbani, Franco

2004-01-01

305

Water Replacement Schedules in Heat Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although early ingestion of cold water appears to lead to greater relief from heat stress during physical exertion than late ingestion, this difference is reduced toward the end of an hour's work in high heat and humidity. (CK)|

Londeree, Ben R.; and others

1969-01-01

306

Turbulent structure measurements by RELIEF flow tagging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular tagging by Raman excitation + laser-induced electronic fluorescence (RELIEF) is applied to an isotropically turbulent air flow to demonstrate the utility of the technique for measurements of fundamental turbulence parameters. Lines which are 120 ?m in diameter are written into the flow and their displacement is recorded after several microseconds. From these images, the average flow velocity profile, the average turbulence intensity profile, and the lateral velocity correlation function are computed. The lines themselves can be examined for coherent structure, eddy diffusion, line stretching, curvature, etc.

Miles, R.; Lempert, W.; Zhang, B.

1991-10-01

307

Targinact--opioid pain relief without constipation?  

PubMed

Targinact (Napp Pharmaceuticals Ltd) is a modified-release combination product containing the strong opioid oxycodone plus the opioid antagonist naloxone. It is licensed for "severe pain, which can be adequately managed only with opioid analgesics".1 The summary of product characteristics (SPC) states that "naloxone is added to counteract opioid-induced constipation by blocking the action of oxycodone at opioid receptors locally in the gut". Advertising for the product claims "better pain relief", "superior GI [gastrointestinal] tolerability" and "improved quality of life" "compared to previous treatment in a clinical practice study (n=7836)". Here we consider whether Targinact offers advantages over using strong opioids plus laxatives where required. PMID:21123290

2010-12-01

308

Will Debt Relief Make a Difference? Impact and Expectations of the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) is the latest phase of debt reduction for poor countries from the World Bank, the IMF, and the African Development Bank. The MDRI, which will come close to full debt reduction for at least 19 (and perhaps as many as 40) qualifying countries, is being presented as a momentous leap forward in the battle

Todd Moss

2006-01-01

309

Iraq's Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential Implications for International Debt Relief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following the ouster of the Saddam Hussein regime in spring 2003, Iraq's external debt was estimated to be $125 billion. Reducing this debt to a sustainable level has been a priority of the U.S. government. Since 2003, debt relief negotiations have taken ...

M. A. Weiss

2008-01-01

310

Iraq's Debt Relief: Procedure and Potential Implications for International Debt Relief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Following the ouster of the Saddam Hussein regime in spring 2003, Iraq's external debt was estimated to be $125 billion. Reducing this debt to a sustainable level has been a priority of the U.S. government. Since 2003, debt relief negotiations have taken ...

M. A. Weiss

2007-01-01

311

Simulation effectively sites surge-relief facilities on Saudi pipeline  

SciTech Connect

Pipeline hydraulic and surge analysis studies of the Saudi Aramco East-West crude-oil pipeline assisted in expanding the system's capacity by 50%. Surge studies predicted that operational upsets, such as the trip of a pump station, cause excessive surge pressures in the pipeline system at new flow rates. Additional surge studies showed that surge-relief stations must be located downstream from each of six pump stations. The new surge-relief stations and an increase in capacity of existing surge-relief stations protect the pipelines at the higher flow rates. The paper describes modeling the system, the analysis of the hydraulics, surge analysis, acoustic transit times, relief valve simulation, surge-relief protection, surge-relief stations, station locations, simulation results, tank sizing, and valve testing.

Dempsey, J.J.; Al-Gouhi, A.H. (Saudi Arabian Oil Co., Dhahrain (Saudi Arabia))

1993-09-20

312

Robust Relief-Feature Weighting, Margin Maximization, and Fuzzy Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A latest advance in Relief-feature-weighting techniques is that the iterative procedure of Relief can be approximately expressed as a margin maximization problem, and therefore, its distinctive properties can be investigated with the help of optimization theory. Being motivated by this advance, the Relief-feature-weighting algorithm is investigated for the first time within a fuzzy-optimization framework. A new margin-based objective function that

Zhaohong Deng; Fu-Lai Chung; Shitong Wang

2010-01-01

313

4. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, DETAIL OF ABUTMENT, GRIFFIN RELIEF SCULPTURE, CA. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH, DETAIL OF ABUTMENT, GRIFFIN RELIEF SCULPTURE, CA. 1940. COLLECTION CONNECTICUT DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION. - Merritt Parkway, Grumman Avenue Bridge, Spanning Merritt Parkway, Norwalk, Fairfield County, CT

314

Mathematical Model of a General Motion of Vibratory Machines Driven by Motors of a Limited Power / Model matematyczny ruchu ogólnego maszyn wibracyjnych nap?dzanych silnikami ograniczonej mocy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The method of creating the mathematical model of over-resonant vibratory machines driven in a general motion by the inertial vibrator of a limited power is presented in the paper. This model can constitute the basis for digital simulation of single- or multi-drive vibratory machines used in industry. It allows to investigate the steady and transient states of these machines as well as to investigate the advanced problems of the free synchronisation of drives. W pracy przedstawiono sposób budowy modelu matematycznego nadrezonansowej maszyny wibracyjnej w ruchu ogólnym, nap?dzanej wibratorem inercyjnym ograniczonej mocy. Model ten mo?e stanowi? podstaw? dla symulacji cyfrowej jedno-, lub wielonap?dowych maszyn wibracyjnych u?ywanych w przemy?le. Pozwala on na badanie zarówno pracy ustalonej tych maszyn jak i ich stanów przej?ciowych oraz na badanie zaawansowanych problemów synchronizacji swobodnej nap?dów.

Michalczyk, Jerzy

2013-06-01

315

Influence of the Peierls relief on size effects in plastic deformation of micro- and nanocrystals of body-centered cubic metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of the Peierls relief and Peierls stresses on the size effects in micro- and nanocrystals of metals with a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice has been theoretically discussed in the framework of the dislocation-kinetic approach. It has been found that, as compared to micro- and nanocrystals with a facecentered cubic (fcc) lattice, for the bcc crystals, the exponent n in the power law ? ˜ D - n (where ? is the flow stress and D is the transverse size of the crystal) is the smaller, the higher is the critical temperature T c above which the Peierls relief ceases to control the motion of dislocations in the bcc metals. The specific features of the influence of the Peierls relief on the coefficient of strain-rate sensitivity of the flow stresses in microcrystals of the bcc lattice have also been discussed. The theoretical results have been illustrated by the experimental data available in the literature.

Malygin, G. A.

2012-06-01

316

FEM analysis of ultrasonic-vibration-assisted turning and the vibratory tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic assisted turning (UAT) is an advanced method developed for machining tough and brittle materials such as supper-alloys, ceramics and glass. Using MSC-Marc and Ansys, the authors studied machining of IN738 with a tool vibrating at ultrasonic frequency. The machining forces and stresses acting on the workpiece during the process, and the effect of process parameters such as cutting speed,

S. Amini; H. Soleimanimehr; M. J. Nategh; A. Abudollah; M. H. Sadeghi

2008-01-01

317

Argon Dewar Relief Set Pressure Modifications  

SciTech Connect

This engineering note documents the calculations of Kelly Dixon, used to determine the maximum allowable set pressure for the argon dewar low relief valve, tag number PSV620A, Anderson Greenwood Type 526J. The original setting was 16 psig. This value was chosen in order to protect against cryostat overpressurization by the source dewar (see D0 Engineering Note 115), however, the following calculations will show that the set pressure can be raised to approximately 18.5 psig, which would result in a faster filling of the cryostat, along with a higher level of liquid argon. Three other engineering notes were revised to reflect the change in set pressure according to this note. They are notes 115, 219, and 263.

Wu, J.; /Fermilab

1991-03-19

318

Maternal Health Considerations During Disaster Relief  

PubMed Central

When disasters strike resource-poor nations, women are often the most affected. They represent the majority of the poor, the most malnourished, and the least educated, and they account for more than 75% of displaced persons. The predisaster familial duties of women are magnified and expanded, and they have significantly less support and fewer resources than they had before the incident. Moreover, after the disaster, they bear the responsibility of caring for their children, the elderly, the injured, and the sick. Besides the effects of the disaster, women become more vulnerable to reproductive and sexual health problems and are at increased risk for physical and sexual violence. Women become both victims and the primary caretakers. Health practitioners are often not aware of these issues when providing emergency care. Developing a disaster relief team with experts in maternal health is necessary to improve women’s health outcome.

Nour, Nawal N

2011-01-01

319

Effects of acupuncture in pain relief based on EEG research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain is one of the most important sensations in daily life and getting the objective assessment criterion of pain relief is great difficult for researchers. The traditional Chinese medicine such as acupuncture has shown great potential in pain relief. Transcutaneous electrical acupoint stimulation (TEAS) has been used and spectral edgy frequency (SEF) of EEG has been extracted and used as

Jijun Tong; Danhua Zhu; Yuquan Chen; Yingying Lv; Huade Chen

2008-01-01

320

Simulating Distribution of Emergency Relief Supplies for Disaster Response Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the event of disasters such as hurricanes, earthquakes and terrorism, emergency relief supplies need be distributed to disas- ter victims in timely manner to protect the health and lives of the victims. We develop a modeling framework for disaster re- sponse where the supply chain of relief supplies and distribution operations are simulated, and analytics for the optimal transportation

Young M. Lee; Soumyadip Ghosh; Markus Ettl

2009-01-01

321

Emergency planning: Small airport scheduling in disaster relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study a novel small airport scheduling problem encountered in Wenchuan Earthquake and in Yushu Earthquake (China) disaster relief. The small airport has one runway for taking off and landing airplanes and several identical aircraft stands for discharging. To make the relief supplies arrive at the disaster area more quickly, the problem is to find a schedule with minimum schedule

Zhen Yang; Guoqing Wang; Dapeng Zhou

2012-01-01

322

Real-time relief mapping on arbitrary polygonal surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a technique for mapping relief textures onto arbitrary polygonal models in real time. In this approach, the mapping of the relief data is done in tangent space. As a result, it can be applied to polygonal representations of curved surfaces producing correct self-occlusions, interpenetrations, shadows and per-pixel lighting effects. The approach can be used to consistently add

Fábio Policarpo; Manuel M. Oliveira; João Luiz Dihl Comba

2005-01-01

323

[Deep Relief sonophoresis in degenerative changes of the knee joint].  

PubMed

We analysed 130 persons with osteoarthritis of knee and compared efficiency Deep Relief gel with sonophoresis and ultrasound with standard gel. Deep Relief has significant better effect for less pain and better improvement of functional capacity in comparison with ultrasound. Results of examination are statistic significant. PMID:15628250

Zjuzin, Nada; Mufti?, Mirsad; Avdi?, Dijana; Zubcevi?, Haris; Stefanovski, Mihajlo; Stefanovski, Gordana; Luka?, Tamara; Hoti?, Asia; Halilbegovi?, Emir; Kapidzi?, Nedima

2004-01-01

324

RELIABILITY TEST OF PRESSURE RELIEF DEVICES FOR ORGANIC FLUIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance characteristics of commercially available pressure relief ; devices in liquid and vapor Santowax R, were determined. The standard relief ; valve was not suitable for orgranic service because the spring was exposed to the ; organic, thereby causing fouling which prevented proper valve action. The ; bellows-protected valve operated satisfactorily and is recommended for OMR Piqua. ; Standard Monel

A. N. Gallegos; S. C. Spencer

1959-01-01

325

Limits on relief through constrained exchange on random graphs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agents are represented by nodes on a random graph (e.g., “small world”). Each agent is endowed with a zero-mean random value that may be either positive or negative. All agents attempt to find relief, i.e., to reduce the magnitude of that initial value, to zero if possible, through exchanges. The exchange occurs only between the agents that are linked, a constraint that turns out to dominate the results. The exchange process continues until Pareto equilibrium is achieved. Only 40 90% of the agents achieved relief on small-world graphs with mean degree between 2 and 40. Even fewer agents achieved relief on scale-free-like graphs with a truncated power-law degree distribution. The rate at which relief grew with increasing degree was slow, only at most logarithmic for all of the graphs considered; viewed in reverse, the fraction of nodes that achieve relief is resilient to the removal of links.

Laviolette, Randall A.; Ellebracht, Lory A.; Gieseler, Charles J.

2007-09-01

326

Analysis and Design of a 3rd Order Velocity-Controlled Closed-Loop for MEMS Vibratory Gyroscopes.  

PubMed

The time-average method currently available is limited to analyzing the specific performance of the automatic gain control-proportional and integral (AGC-PI) based velocity-controlled closed-loop in a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) vibratory gyroscope, since it is hard to solve nonlinear functions in the time domain when the control loop reaches to 3rd order. In this paper, we propose a linearization design approach to overcome this limitation by establishing a 3rd order linear model of the control loop and transferring the analysis to the frequency domain. Order reduction is applied on the built linear model's transfer function by constructing a zero-pole doublet, and therefore mathematical expression of each control loop's performance specification is obtained. Then an optimization methodology is summarized, which reveals that a robust, stable and swift control loop can be achieved by carefully selecting the system parameters following a priority order. Closed-loop drive circuits are designed and implemented using 0.35 ?m complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and experiments carried out on a gyroscope prototype verify the optimization methodology that an optimized stability of the control loop can be achieved by constructing the zero-pole doublet, and disturbance rejection capability (D.R.C) of the control loop can be improved by increasing the integral term. PMID:24051522

Wu, Huan-Ming; Yang, Hai-Gang; Yin, Tao; Jiao, Ji-Wei

2013-09-18

327

Low-Level Liquid Waste Processing Pilot Studies Using a Vibratory Shear Enhancing Process (VSEP) for Filtration  

SciTech Connect

A previous EPRI study evaluated potential treatment methods for the removal of iron from BWR waste streams. Of the methods investigated, high shear filtration using the vibratory shear-enhanced process (VSEP) showed the most promise to effectively and economically remove high iron concentrations from backwash receiving tank waste. A VSEP filter uses oscillatory vibration to create high shear at the surface of the filter membrane. This high shear force significantly improves the filter's resistance to fouling thereby enabling high throughputs with very little secondary waste generation. With a VSEP filter, the waste feed stream is split into two effluents- a permeate stream with little or no suspended solids and a concentrate stream with a suspended solids concentration much higher than that of the feed stream. To evaluate the feasibility of using a VSEP concept for processing typical high iron containing BWR radwaste, a surrogate feedstream containing up to 1,700 ppm iron oxide (as Fe2O3) was used. This surrogate waste simulates radioactive waste found at Exelon's Limerick and Peach Bottom (powdered resin condensate) plants, and in Hope Creek's (deep bed condensate) radwaste systems. Testing was done using a series L (laboratory scale) VSEP unit at the manufacturer's and contractor's laboratories. These tests successfully demonstrated the VSEP capability for producing highly concentrated waste streams with totally ''recyclable'' permeate (e.g., greater than 95% recovery).

Bushart, S.; Tran, P.; Asay, R.

2002-02-25

328

Random vibration and the single degree-of-freedom vibratory system: A symbolic quantification of isolation and packaging performance  

SciTech Connect

With twenty years of research, active and semi-active systems have been shown to have certain performance advantages over passive suspensions in certain operating regimes. Chalasani and Redfield and Karnopp have shown that, depending on the performance index and weightings, active control improves performance from little to moderately. There are situations where passive control is quite satisfactory and the complexities and cost of more active means may not be warranted. To further the understanding of the tradeoffs involved and the performance potentials of active suspensions, this paper symbolically quantifies the isolation and stroke performance for a one degree-of-freedom vibratory system subject to a stochastic disturbance input acting through the suspension. The system of this paper models that of tracked vehicles and a class of isolation systems quite well. It also gives insight into low and high frequency performance for two degree-of-freedom systems such as a typical suspension model for automobiles, aircraft, and rail vehicles. Because of the nature of the single degree-of-freedom model, issues of handling cannot be readily addressed in this work. The 1 DOF model does not adequately predict dynamic tire forces. The main contributions of this work are the closed form symbolic solutions developed for optimal suspension response and the demonstration of the marked similarity between the frequency and mean square response of the 1 degree-of-freedom model of this paper and the more involved 2 degree-of-freedom model incorporating a so-called unsprung mass.''

Redfield, R.C. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1994-01-01

329

Optimal and sub-optimal power management in broadband vibratory energy harvesters with one-directional power flow constraints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many applications of vibratory energy harvesting, the external disturbance are most appropriately modeled as broadband stochastic processes. Optimization of power generation from such disturbances is a feedback control problem, and solvable via a LQG control theory. However, attainment of this performance requires the power conversion system which interfaces the transducers with energy storage to be capable of bi-directional power flow, and there are many applications where this is infeasible. One of the most common approaches to power extraction with one-directional power flow constraints is to control the power conversion system to create a purely resistive input impedance, and then to optimize this effective resistance for maximal absorption. This paper examines the optimization of broadband energy harvesting controllers, subject to the constraint of one-directional power flow. We show that as with the unconstrained control problem, it can be framed as a "Quadratic-Gaussian" stochastic optimal control problem, although its solution is nonlinear and does not have a closed-form. This paper discusses the mathematics for obtaining the optimal power extraction controller for this problem, which involves the stationary solution to an associated Bellman-type partial differential equation. Because the numerical solution to this PDE is computationally prohibitive for harvester dynamics of even moderate complexity, a sub-optimal control design technique is presented, which is comparatively simple to compute and which exhibits analyticallycomputable lower bounds on generated power Examples focus a nondimensionalized, ideal, base-excited SDOF resonator with electromagnetic transduction.

Scruggs, J. T.; Cassidy, I. L.

2010-03-01

330

Feasibility study of a micromachined single-axis vibratory gyroscope using piezoelectric PNZT thin films for actuation and sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibratory gyroscopes measure the angular velocity of a system by making use of the Coriolis effect. We have proposed a new design using double-sided piezoelectric Nb-doped Pb(Zr20, Ti80)O3 films for actuation as well as sensing of a rate gyroscope. This design has the potential to increase the resolution of the device by increasing the mass of the gyro, that is, produce a meso-scale gyro using MEMS technology. Further, it could increase output signal amplitude by generating a higher Coriolis force, since PNZT films exhibit higher values of the effective transverse and longitudinal piezoelectric coefficients than some other piezoelectric materials. A three-dimensional finite element code, 'BAMAFEM', for dynamic analysis of gyroscopes was developed in-house. Validity of the new design was confirmed by simulations. The resonance frequency of the gyroscope was measured to be 12.60 kHz, which matches very well with the simulated results. In this paper are described the design and simulation of the gyroscope, the fabrication process, and testing of the device.

Kotru, Sushma; Highsmith, Alton; Zhong, Jian; Rincon, Veronica; Jackson, John E.; Ashley, Paul

2010-08-01

331

Feelings, Body Changes and Stress. A Curriculum for Pre-Schoolers on Stress Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Pre-School Stress Relief Project (PSSRP) is a primary mental health and substance abuse prevention project developed to provide training, consultation and educational resources in stress management. The Project's goal is to enable teachers to instruct high risk pre-schoolers in developing positive coping skills for stress reduction in their…

Humphrey, Gloria S.; Trotter, Jennie C.

332

Feelings, Body Changes and Stress. A Curriculum for Pre-Schoolers on Stress Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Pre-School Stress Relief Project (PSSRP) is a primary mental health and substance abuse prevention project developed to provide training, consultation and educational resources in stress management. The Project's goal is to enable teachers to instruct high risk pre-schoolers in developing positive coping skills for stress reduction in their…

Humphrey, Gloria S.; Trotter, Jennie C.

333

46 CFR 64.79 - Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device. 64.79 Section 64...64.79 Inspection of pressure and vacuum relief device. (a) The inspection of the pressure and vacuum relief device required in §...

2011-10-01

334

29 CFR 1905.11 - Variances and other relief under section 6(d).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Variances and other relief under section 6(d). 1905.11 Section 1905.11 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...Variations, Tolerances, Exemptions and Other Relief § 1905.11 Variances and other relief under section...

2013-07-01

335

29 CFR 1905.10 - Variances and other relief under section 6(b)(6)(A).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and other relief under section 6(b)(6)(A). 1905.10 Section 1905.10 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...Variations, Tolerances, Exemptions and Other Relief § 1905.10 Variances and other relief under section...

2013-07-01

336

48 CFR 252.229-7008 - Relief from import duty (United Kingdom).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Relief from import duty (United Kingdom). 252.229-7008 Section...229-7008 Relief from import duty (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229... Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) Any import...

2009-10-01

337

48 CFR 252.229-7010 - Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). 252.229-7010 Section...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229...Relief from Customs Duty on Fuel (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a)...

2010-10-01

338

48 CFR 252.229-7008 - Relief from import duty (United Kingdom).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Relief from import duty (United Kingdom). 252.229-7008 Section...229-7008 Relief from import duty (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229... Relief from Import Duty (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) Any import...

2010-10-01

339

48 CFR 252.229-7010 - Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). 252.229-7010 Section...Relief from customs duty on fuel (United Kingdom). As prescribed in 229...Relief from Customs Duty on Fuel (United Kingdom) (JUN 1997) (a)...

2009-10-01

340

30 CFR 1204.204 - What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not allow...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.204 What accounting and auditing relief will ONRR not...

2013-07-01

341

30 CFR 1204.201 - Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.201...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.201 Who may obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a) You...

2013-07-01

342

30 CFR 1204.205 - How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? 1204.205...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.205 How do I obtain accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

2013-07-01

343

Elastic strain relief in nitridated Ga metal buffer layers for epitaxial GaN growth  

SciTech Connect

Gallium nitride epitaxial layers were grown on sapphire by molecular-beam epitaxy using nitridated gallium metal films as buffer layers. The mechanical properties of the buffer layers were investigated and correlated with their chemical composition as determined by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy. Biaxial tension experiments were performed by bending the substrates in a pressure cell designed for simultaneous photoluminescence measurements. The shift of the excitonic luminescence peak was used to determine the stress induced in the main GaN epilayer. The fraction of stress transferred from substrate to main layer was as low as 27% for samples grown on nitridated metal buffer layers, compared to nearly 100% for samples on conventional low-temperature GaN buffer layers. The efficiency of stress relief increased in proportion to the fraction of metallic Ga in the nitridated metal buffer layers. These findings suggest GaN films containing residual metallic Ga may serve as compliant buffer layers for heteroepitaxy.

Kim, Yihwan; Shapiro, Noad A.; Feick, Henning; Armitage, Robert; Weber, Eicke R.; Yang, Yi; Cerrina, Franco

2001-02-12

344

Slipping processes in residual badlands reliefs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define slips as structures developed by more or less saturated colloidal suspension that slide down the walls of residual reliefs found in badlands. These suspensions seem to originate in the soils crowning gully reliefs and also from rainwater dripping onto the walls of poorly cemented sediments such as siltstone. We call this process slipping and the resulting morphologies represent a group of minor badlands forms, often linked to piping and fluting. Slipping occurs according to the following sequence of forms: 1. Mud droplets. These are irregular linear structures caused by mud droplets sliding down sub-vertical walls. The droplet is usually found at the end of a small channel. These morphologies represent the course of the sliding droplets that become fossilized and not the impact of the droplets on the sediment. 2. Slips sensu stricto. These are uninterrupted surface structures covering sub-vertical walls to a greater or lesser extent. The thickness of this type of covering varies from a few millimetres to 5cm. The inner structure of the slips consists of small laminas (» 100mm) and on the exterior they often present drip channels. A special case of these forms is butterfly structures, which appear in isolation, with repetitive patterns and the appearance of a winged insect stuck to the wall. 3. Pseudo-stalactites. These are free-standing conical regrowths with some similarity to stalactites in a karst cave. They occur when slips grow to over 5cm thick. The growth of these forms is similar to that of slips, with external superposition of fine, concentric layers with no central pore. A variety of these pseudo-stalactites are nodulous stalactites whose genesis is unknown. In this context, we should mention the existence of occasional stalagmites. In other cases, curtains of pseudo-stalactites can be found where these patterns are repeated finely. A more evolved stage of this form is the coalescence of pseudo-stalactites, representing a massive advance of this process. Pseudo-stalactites are normally found as vertical, but occasionally they lean, indicating movement of unstable blocks. The process can present recycling when some of the forms described become detached and fall. This is more likely on poorly sheltered surfaces, exposed to wind and the direct impact of rain and frost. All forms of slips suggests that these morphologies depend on the varying characteristics of the colloidal suspensions causing them, and constitute intermediate stages in the retention of sediments from erosion, which are very different to the alluvial sediments stored in the drainage network.

Díaz-Hernández, Jose Luis; Yepes, Jorge

2010-05-01

345

38 CFR 4.129 - Mental disorders due to traumatic stress.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01...Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. 4.129 Section 4.129...Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS...Mental disorders due to traumatic stress. When a mental...

2013-07-01

346

Evaluation of reward from pain relief.  

PubMed

The human experience of pain is multidimensional and comprises sensory, affective, and cognitive dimensions. Preclinical assessment of pain has been largely focused on the sensory features that contribute to nociception. The affective (aversive) qualities of pain are clinically significant but have received relatively less mechanistic investigation in preclinical models. Recently, operant behaviors such as conditioned place preference, avoidance, escape from noxious stimulus, and analgesic drug self-administration have been used in rodents to evaluate affective aspects of pain. An important advance of such operant behaviors is that these approaches may allow the detection and mechanistic investigation of spontaneous neuropathic or ongoing inflammatory/nociceptive (i.e., nonevoked) pain that is otherwise difficult to assess in nonverbal animals. Operant measures may allow the identification of mechanisms that contribute differentially to reflexive hypersensitivity or to pain affect and may inform the decision to progress novel mechanisms to clinical trials for pain therapy. Additionally, operant behaviors may allow investigation of the poorly understood mechanisms and neural circuits underlying motivational aspects of pain and the reward of pain relief. PMID:23496247

Navratilova, Edita; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; King, Tamara; Porreca, Frank

2013-03-15

347

Steroids Offer Mostly Short-Term Carpal Tunnel Relief  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Steroids offer mostly short-term carpal tunnel relief (*this ... 4, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Steroids By Kathryn Doyle NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Steroid ...

348

Careful: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage  

MedlinePLUS

... Careful: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Acetaminophen (a?SEET?a?MIN?o?fen) ... word or may have the abbreviation "APAP." Severe liver damage may occur and may lead to death ...

349

Parents: Acetaminophen in Pain Relief Medicines Can Cause Liver Damage  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage Acetaminophen (a?SEET?a?MIN?o?fen) ... whole word or may have the abbreviation "APAP." Liver damage: Giving your child more acetaminophen than directed ...

350

Careful: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Careful: Acetaminophen in pain relief medicines can cause liver damage. ... Severe liver damage may occur and may lead to death if you take: ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/consumers

351

46 CFR 193.15-40 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Systems, Details § 193.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary, relatively tight compartments such as refrigeration spaces, paint lockers, etc., shall be provided with suitable means for relieving excessive pressure accumulating within...

2011-10-01

352

46 CFR 95.16-35 - Pressure relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Fixed Clean Agent Gas Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.16-35 Pressure relief. Tight compartments, like refrigeration spaces and paint lockers, must have a way to relieve the accumulation of excessive pressure within the compartment when the...

2012-10-01

353

7. DETAIL, BAS RELIEF OF INDIAN HEAD, SECOND FLOOR LEVEL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. DETAIL, BAS RELIEF OF INDIAN HEAD, SECOND FLOOR LEVEL ABOVE NICHE, SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Administration Building, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

354

46 CFR 98.25-60 - Safety relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk § 98.25-60 Safety relief valves. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with two or more approved safety...

2012-10-01

355

46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Vent Systems...The pressure relief system must: (1) If the design temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F), be designed to...

2011-10-01

356

46 CFR 154.801 - Pressure relief systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Vent Systems...The pressure relief system must: (1) If the design temperature is below 0 °C (32 °F), be designed to...

2012-10-01

357

Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (SCRA): A Private Cause of Action.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Congress has long recognized the need to protect the legal interests of servicemembers whose service to the nation may compromise their ability to meet specified commercial and financial obligations. The purpose of the Servicemembers Civil Relief Act (SCR...

R. C. Mason

2010-01-01

358

46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...56.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping....

2011-10-01

359

Harnessing the Crowdsourcing Power of Social Media for Disaster Relief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Social media has recently played a critical role in natural disasters as an information propagator that can be leveraged for disaster relief. After the catastrophic Haiti earthquake on 12 January 2010, people published numerous texts and photos about thei...

D. Zeng G. Barbier H. Gao R. Goolsby

2011-01-01

360

Bladder Control Problems in Women: Lifestyle Strategies for Relief  

MedlinePLUS

... health /bladder-control-problem /WO00122 ">Bladder control problems in women: Lifestyle strategies for relief Guidelines for sites linking to MayoClinic.com Advertisement Mayo Clinic Store Check out these best-sellers ...

361

46 CFR 64.55 - Relief device location.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...location. 64.55 Section 64.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.55 Relief device location....

2011-10-01

362

46 CFR 64.47 - Type of relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...devices. 64.47 Section 64.47 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.47 Type of relief...

2011-10-01

363

46 CFR 64.47 - Type of relief devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...devices. 64.47 Section 64.47 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.47 Type of relief...

2012-10-01

364

Surface relief model for photopolymers without cover plating.  

PubMed

Relief surface changes provide interesting possibilities for storing diffractive optical elements on photopolymers and are an important source of information to characterize and understand the material behaviour. In this paper we present a 3-dimensional model based on direct measurements of parameters to predict the relief structures generated on the material. This model is successfully applied to different photopolymers with different values of monomer diffusion. The importance of monomer diffusion in depth is also discussed. PMID:21643349

Gallego, S; Márquez, A; Ortuño, M; Francés, J; Marini, S; Beléndez, A; Pascual, I

2011-05-23

365

Relief and Redress for Targets of Workplace Bullying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Workplace bullying is a particularly insidious form of counterproductive workplace behavior that results in significant costs\\u000a to both targets and organizations. We explore existing and potential avenues of relief and redress available to targets. Relief\\u000a refers to activities focused on eliminating the bullying as well as the mechanisms used to treat those who have been bullied.\\u000a Redress refers to third-party

Patricia Meglich-Sespico; Robert H. Faley; Deborah Erdos Knapp

2007-01-01

366

Revving up for Relief: Harley-Davidson at the ITC  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Published in 1986, this Kennedy School case tells the story of Harley-Davidson's application to the ITC for temporary relief from high levels of imported Japanese motorcycles. The case lays out, in considerable detail, Harley's justification for protection and the Japanese manufacturers' counterarguments. The case is presented in two parts, the first focusing on the extent of the "injury" an the second on the nature of the relief Harley requested.

Dorothy Robyn, For T.

367

Surface relief of TiNiCu thin films  

Microsoft Academic Search

TiNiCu thin film shape memory alloys are potential materials for microactuator. In our previous research, the various natural surface relief of crystallized TiNiCu thin film was observed, and it was related with compositions and the sputtering deposition conditions. In order to understand the origin and nature of the surface relief, the temperature-resistance measurement, X-ray diffraction and atomic fore microscopic study

Xiulan Cheng; Dong Xu; Bingchu Cai; Li Wang; Jian Chen; Gang Li; Shi Xu

2001-01-01

368

Differences in midwives' approaches to pain relief in labour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: to examine the influence of midwives' approaches on the care given to women for pain relief during labour.Design: non-participant observation was used to collect data on midwives' behaviours during interactions with women in labour.Setting: a large teaching hospital in Northern Ireland.Participants: observations focused on interactions that were related to pain relief and involved I I midwives caring for 15

B. Hally McCrea; Marion E. Wright; Tricia Murphy-Black

1998-01-01

369

Ion treatment of relief-phase holograms on dichromated gelatin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sputter speeds of DCG layers in different conditions of ion treatment were defined in both Ar inert medium and CF3Cl chemical active medium. A two-stage process of ion treatment was proposed for transfer of the surface relief on DCG into glass K-8. The samples of relief-phase holograms in glass 100 mm in diameter on spatial frequencies of 100 and 500 mm-1 were manufactured.

Kalyashova, Zoya N.; Mikhailova, A. G.; Travnikova, N. L.; Shevchenko, Natalia P.

1994-01-01

370

Every Heavenly Body When Created Will Have No Motion, Linear, Rotational and/or Vibratory Motion, Singly or in Some Combination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Each galaxy, star and planet is in a state of no motion, linear, rotational and/or vibratory motion. Orbital motion is linear motion in a force field such as gravity. These motions were created in the formation of the galaxy, star or planet unless modified by external events such as colliding galaxies or impacts such as meteors. Some motions, such as rotations and vibrations may be differential such as in the cases of our sun and the Milky Way galaxy. The basic equation for each heavenly body is as follows. E = mc^2 + 1/2mv^2 + 1/2I2?+ 1/2Kx^2 + WG+ WE+ WM. )

Brekke, Stewart

2010-02-01

371

Translocation and metabolism of glycine betaine by barley plants in relation to water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glycine betaine which accumulated in shoots of young barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L.) during an episode of water stress did not undergo net destruction upon relief of stress, but its distribution among plant organs changed. During stress, betaine accumulated primarily in mature leaves, whereas it was found mainly in young leaves after rewatering. Well-watered, stressed, and stressed-rewatered plants were

Juanita A. R. Ladyman; William D. Hitz; Andrew D. Hanson

1980-01-01

372

Human and Habitat Needs in Disaster Relief for Pacific Northwest Salmon Fisheries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1994, federal disaster relief programs have been implemented for New England, Pacific Coast, and Gulf Coast fisheries. The Pacific Northwest coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) fishery serves as a case study for results of a disaster relief program. To help salmon fishers, the U.S. gov- ernment declared an ecological disaster and provided $37 million in relief over 3 years. Relief

Courtland L. Smith; Jennifer Gilden

2000-01-01

373

Developing Countries: The United States Has Not Fully Funded Its Share of Debt Relief, and the Impact of Debt Relief on Countries' Poverty-Reducing Spending Is Unknown.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1996, the Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative was created to provide debt relief to poor countries that had reached unsustainable levels of debt. In 2005, the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative (MDRI) expanded upon the HIPC Initiative by...

2009-01-01

374

Stress and stress relief in dielectric thin films – the role of hydrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel crack propagation modes are reported in amorphous silicon-rich oxide (SiOx) films deposited onto (100) silicon substrates and subjected to thermal annealing. These include the formation of straight cracks aligned with ?001? directions in the underlying Si substrate as well as oscillating cracks aligned with ?011? directions in the underlying Si substrate. The cracks are shown to form as the

R. G. Elliman; T. D. M. Weijers-Dall; M. G. Spooner; Tae-Hyun Kim; A. R. Wilkinson

2006-01-01

375

Method for reducing encapsulation stress to ferrite pot cores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a method of reducing the mechanical stress caused when a ferrite pot core is encapsulated in a rigid epoxy. The stresses are due to the differences of coefficient of thermal expansion between the two materials. A stress relief medium,...

R. O. Sanchez

1994-01-01

376

Challenges and opportunities for humanitarian relief in Afghanistan.  

PubMed

Afghanistan is in the midst of a profound humanitarian crisis resulting primarily from long-standing armed conflict, a devastating drought, and massive population migration. The economy, government, and health care system are in shambles. Currently, as many as 5 million Afghans are in camps either as refugees in neighboring countries or as internally displaced persons within Afghanistan. Much of the rest of the population is in dire need of basic essentials such as food, water, shelter, and basic medical care. Those attempting to carry out humanitarian relief face many daunting challenges, such as reaching remote locations, coping with a dangerous security situation, and working with limited resources. However, there are opportunities in the short run to save many lives and substantially improve the plight of Afghans by carrying out appropriate and effective emergency relief programs. Over the long term, effective medical and public health relief efforts will be an essential part of rehabilitating and rebuilding this devastated country. PMID:12019467

Sharp, Trueman W; Burkle, Frederick M; Vaughn, Andrew F; Chotani, Rashid; Brennan, Richard J

2002-06-15

377

Ischemic Postconditioning Alleviates Neuronal Injury Caused by Relief of Carotid Stenosis in a Rat Model of Cerebral Hypoperfusion  

PubMed Central

The effects of early relief of heavy bilateral carotid stenosis and ischemic postconditioning on hippocampus CA1 neurons are still unclear. In this study, we used a rat model to imitate severe bilateral carotid stenosis in humans. The rats were divided into sham group, carotid stenosis group, stenosis relief group and ischemic postconditioning group. Ischemic postconditioning consisted of three cycles of 30 s ischemia and 30 s reperfusion. The cerebral blood flow was measured with a laser Doppler flowmeter. Neuronal death in the CA1 region was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the number of live neurons was assessed by cell counting under a light microscope. The levels of oxidative products MDA and 8-iso-PGF2?, inflammatory factors IL-1? and TNF-?, and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes SOD and CAT were assayed by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, respectively. We found that relief of carotid stenosis and ischemic postconditioning could increase cerebral blood flow. When stenosis was relieved, the percentage of live neurons was 66.6% ± 6.2% on day 3 and 62.3% ± 9.8% on day 27, which was significantly higher than 55.5% ± 4.8% in stenosis group. Ischemic postconditioning markedly improved the live neurons to 92.5% ± 6.7% on day 3 and 88.6% ± 9.1% on day 27. Further study showed that, neuronal death caused by relief of stenosis is associated with increased oxidative stress and enhanced inflammatory response, and the protection of ischemic postconditioning is related to inhibition of oxidative stress and suppression of inflammatory response.

Feng, Chunsheng; Luo, Tianfei; Qi, Li; Wang, Boyu; Luo, Yinan; Ge, Pengfei

2012-01-01

378

Ischemic postconditioning alleviates neuronal injury caused by relief of carotid stenosis in a rat model of cerebral hypoperfusion.  

PubMed

The effects of early relief of heavy bilateral carotid stenosis and ischemic postconditioning on hippocampus CA1 neurons are still unclear. In this study, we used a rat model to imitate severe bilateral carotid stenosis in humans. The rats were divided into sham group, carotid stenosis group, stenosis relief group and ischemic postconditioning group. Ischemic postconditioning consisted of three cycles of 30 s ischemia and 30 s reperfusion. The cerebral blood flow was measured with a laser Doppler flowmeter. Neuronal death in the CA1 region was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the number of live neurons was assessed by cell counting under a light microscope. The levels of oxidative products MDA and 8-iso-PGF2?, inflammatory factors IL-1? and TNF-?, and the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes SOD and CAT were assayed by specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits, respectively. We found that relief of carotid stenosis and ischemic postconditioning could increase cerebral blood flow. When stenosis was relieved, the percentage of live neurons was 66.6% ± 6.2% on day 3 and 62.3% ± 9.8% on day 27, which was significantly higher than 55.5% ± 4.8% in stenosis group. Ischemic postconditioning markedly improved the live neurons to 92.5% ± 6.7% on day 3 and 88.6% ± 9.1% on day 27. Further study showed that, neuronal death caused by relief of stenosis is associated with increased oxidative stress and enhanced inflammatory response, and the protection of ischemic postconditioning is related to inhibition of oxidative stress and suppression of inflammatory response. PMID:23202956

Feng, Chunsheng; Luo, Tianfei; Qi, Li; Wang, Boyu; Luo, Yinan; Ge, Pengfei

2012-10-18

379

Inversion of Speckle Interferometer Fringes for Hole-drilling Residual Stress Determinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speckle interferometric fringe patterns record stress-relief displacements induced by the drilling of blind- holes into prestressed objects. The quantitative determina- tion of residual stress states from such stress patterns is dif- ficult because of the ambiguity in the order of the observed fringes. The plane stress magnitudes are provided directly from selected fringe positions using a stochastic, iterative least squares

D. R. Schmitt; R. W. Hunt

1999-01-01

380

Inversion of speckle interferometer fringes for hole-drilling residual stress determinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Speckle interferometric fringe patterns record stress-relief displacements induced by the drilling of blind-holes into prestressed objects. The quantitative determination of residual stress state from such stress patterns is difficult because of the ambiguity in the order of the observed fringes. The plane stress magnitudes are provided directly from selected fringe positions using a stochastic, iterative least squares minimization approach. The

D. R. Schmitt; R. W. Hunt

2000-01-01

381

7 CFR 3201.59 - Topical pain relief products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...balms, creams and other topical treatments used for the relief of muscle, joint, headache, and nerve pain, as well as sprains...qualifying biobased carbon in the product as a percent of the weight (mass) of the total organic carbon in the finished product....

2013-01-01

382

Environmental health criteria for disaster relief and refugee camps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The very subjective nature of most environmental health criteria for disaster relief and refugee camps makes interpretation of minimum quantities of potable water and separation distances from sources of pollution difficult, even for the trained environmental health professional. A review of the literature and a survey carried out with international environmental health professionals were conducted to summarize both the least?preferred

Gary shook; A. J. Englande Jr

1992-01-01

383

[Women and motherhood in funerary reliefs from Attica].  

PubMed

Interest increasing about woman in Athens of classical period is closely linked to the social importance of motherhood. Pregnancy and childbirth bear remarkable risks both for the mother and the unborn child. There are large number of funerary reliefs erected in attica to commemorate the death in childbirth of young women. PMID:11623423

Sorge, E

1995-01-01

384

Uncalibrated Relief Reconstruction and Model Alignment from Binocular Disparities  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a computational scheme for uncalibrated reconstruction of scene structureup to a relief transformation from binocular disparities. This scheme, which wecall regional disparity correction (RDC), is motivated both by computational considerationsand by psychophysical observations regarding human stereoscopic depth perception.We describe an implementation of RDC, and demonstrate its performanceexperimentally. As an example of applications of RDC, we show how it

Jonas Gårding; John Porrill; John P. Frisby; John E. W. Mayhew

1996-01-01

385

Nursing Students Use of Nonpharmacologic Pain Relief Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of familiarity and use of music, guided imagery, relaxation, and distraction for pain control among baccalaureate nursing students at a mid-size public university in the Midwestern United States. Many studies have been done investigating the effectiveness of nonpharmacologic pain relief techniques and found positive results. There have been few studies

Lauren R. Brim

2011-01-01

386

50 CFR 11.12 - Petition for relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... If the respondent so chooses he may ask that no penalty be assessed or that the amount be reduced, and he may admit or contest the legal sufficiency of the charge and the Director's allegations of facts, by filing a petition for relief...

2011-10-01

387

Images and topographic relief at the north pole of Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of unique coverage of the north pole of Venus using a subset of 13 images from a total of about 775 synthetic aperture radar orbits during cycle 1 of the Magellan mission is reported. Images at 13 distinctly different azimuths are reported that range over 360 deg in longitude and that show the topographic relief at vastly different

Franz W. Leberl; Kelly E. Maurice; John K. Thomas; Craig E. Leff; Stephen D. Wall

1992-01-01

388

Bas-Relief Generation Using Adaptive Histogram Equalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm is presented to automatically generate bas-reliefs based on adaptive histogram equalization (AHE), starting from an input height field. A mesh model may alternatively be provided, in which case a height field is first created via orthogonal or perspective projection. The height field is regularly gridded and treated as an image, enabling a modified AHE method to be used

Xianfang Sun; Paul L. Rosin; Ralph R. Martin; Frank C. Langbein

2009-01-01

389

Continuous narcotic infusions for relief of postoperative pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relief of acute pain after surgery or trauma is still inadequate in many centres, most patients being treated with intermittent intramuscular injections of narcotic analgesics. Over the past three years continuous intravenous narcotic infusions have been used at this hospital to treat postoperative pain; recently a system has been devised whereby an hourly dose is given and the dispenser recharged

J J Church

1979-01-01

390

Critical mass flow rates through pressure relief valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simplified semi-empirical equations for the prediction of critical mass flow rates through pressure relief valves are presented. The fluid phases treated include hot and boiling liquids, liquid-vapor mixtures and saturated vapor. Predictive formulations are presented which express the critical mass flux explicitly in terms of reservoir temperature and pressure or reservoir quality, specific volumes of the liquid and vapor phases,

D. W. Sallet

1991-01-01

391

Property Tax Relief Programs for the Elderly: An Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This evaluation report analyzes the impact of property tax relief programs for the elderly on economic and political behavior. It is the result of a 15-month study conducted for the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Efforts to evaluate how prop...

1975-01-01

392

Bio magnetic energy in pain relief and healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frequency specificity of pulsed electro-magnetic energy is one of the most important factors in obtaining maximum benefits for pain relief and healing of damaged tissue. Waveforms, the harmonics available and the ON-OFF duty cycle must also be considered, and these are discussed. In summary, the parameters of the specifics discussed, demonstrate the most effective results to date in clinical use

Robert J. Grace

1998-01-01

393

A non-cosmopolitan case for sovereign debt relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops the argument that non-cosmopolitan considerations of justice justify relief of sovereign debt for highly indebted poor states. In particular, the article claims that considerations of national determination warrant some debt-forgiveness in the backdrop of unfair terms of global interaction. In a context of inequality, poor countries cannot generally afford to disregard the costs of ignoring the interests

Julia Maskivker

2010-01-01

394

Aerial robot piloted in steep relief by optic flow sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new vision based autopilot able to make a micro-air vehicle automatically navigate in steep relief. It uses onboard Optic Flow sensors inspired by the housefly's Elementary Motion Detectors (EMDs) that were previously investigated at our Laboratory with electrophysiological and micro-optical techniques. The paper investigates how the ground avoidance performances of the former OCTAVE robot could be

Franck Ruffier; Nicolas H. Franceschini

2008-01-01

395

President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief: Program Planning and Reporting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

U.S. assistance through the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has helped provide treatment, care, and prevention services overseas to millions affected by HIV/AIDS. In 2008, Congress reauthorized PEPFAR with the Tom Lantos and Henry J. H...

2011-01-01

396

Collaboration Services to Support Interactions in Disaster Relief Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many groupware applications developed on top of platforms supporting collaborative work are limited in their portability and interoperability because they are platform locked. In heterogeneous scenarios, such as disaster relief efforts or police operations, the interoperability of the several systems becomes a critical issue to coordinate the efforts of every operative unit. This paper presents a middleware called DCSL collaboration

S. F. Ochoa; R. Aldunate

2006-01-01

397

Debt relief, growth and price stability in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inspired by the negotiation of the foreign debt of Mexico in 1989 this paper provides a framework to show that, prior to debt relief, an LDC government which is indebted both domestically and externally has an additional incentive not to default on its external obligations. However, repayment of the external debt is shown to involve a delicate tradeoff between growth

Beatriz Armendáriz de Aghion; Patricia Armendáriz de Hinestrosa

1995-01-01

398

Grazing bifurcations and chatter in a pressure relief valve model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a simple mechanical model of a pressure relief valve. For a wide region of parameter values, the valve undergoes self-oscillations that involve impact with the valve seat. These oscillations are born in a Hopf bifurcation that can be either super- or sub-critical. In either case, the onset of more complex oscillations is caused by the occurrence of

Csaba H?s; Alan R. Champneys

399

Forsmark 1. Safety/Relief Valve Discharge Tests.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

ASEA-ATOM carried out an experiment in Forsmark 1 in 1978, in conjunction with discharge test, by means of the safety/relief valves. The tests have been carried out for the case of single valve actuation (SVA), multiple valve actuations (MVA) and consecut...

J. Fredell T. Henriksson

1981-01-01

400

120. Identical view of relief and safety valve of turbine ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

120. Identical view of relief and safety valve of turbine unit no. 1 with HAER measuring rod included for scale. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

401

123. View in subway of relief and safety valves for ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

123. View in subway of relief and safety valves for turbine unit no. 3; looking northeast. To right is entrance to Basement Room B-4. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

402

Bas-relief generation using adaptive histogram equalization.  

PubMed

An algorithm is presented to automatically generate bas-reliefs based on adaptive histogram equalization (AHE), starting from an input height field. A mesh model may alternatively be provided, in which case a height field is first created via orthogonal or perspective projection. The height field is regularly gridded and treated as an image, enabling a modified AHE method to be used to generate a bas-relief with a user-chosen height range. We modify the original image-contrast-enhancement AHE method to use gradient weights also to enhance the shape features of the bas-relief. To effectively compress the height field, we limit the height-dependent scaling factors used to compute relative height variations in the output from height variations in the input; this prevents any height differences from having too great effect. Results of AHE over different neighborhood sizes are averaged to preserve information at different scales in the resulting bas-relief. Compared to previous approaches, the proposed algorithm is simple and yet largely preserves original shape features. Experiments show that our results are, in general, comparable to and in some cases better than the best previously published methods. PMID:19423888

Sun, Xianfang; Rosin, Paul L; Martin, Ralph R; Langbein, Frank C

403

Characterization of photoresist thin films for surface relief holographic gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Depositions of highly uniform thin films of positive photoresist AR-P 3120 were carried out on glass substrates using spin coating technique. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to determine the thickness uniformity of the films. Formation of the surface relief gratings in photoresist and study of their surface profiles have also been described.

Kumar, Sanjiva; Biswas, A.; Prasad, Nisha; Debnath, Amrita; Tokas, R. B.; Udupa, D. V.; Sahoo, N. K.

2012-06-01

404

Broadband antireflective surface-relief structure for THz optics.  

PubMed

The requirements for a broadband antireflective structure in the THz spectral region are derived. Optimized structural parameters for a surface-relief grating adapted to the spectrum of an intended THz pulse are deduced. The effect of a structure fabricated into Topas((R)) by a single-point diamond-turning process is demonstrated. PMID:19532301

Brückner, Claudia; Pradarutti, Boris; Stenzel, Olaf; Steinkopf, Ralf; Riehemann, Stefan; Notni, Gunther; Tünnermann, Andreas

2007-02-01

405

Broadband antireflective surface-relief structure for THz optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements for a broadband antireflective structure in the THz spectral region are derived. Optimized structural parameters for a surface-relief grating adapted to the spectrum of an intended THz pulse are deduced. The effect of a structure fabricated into Topas® by a single-point diamond-turning process is demonstrated.

Brückner, Claudia; Pradarutti, Boris; Stenzel, Olaf; Steinkopf, Ralf; Riehemann, Stefan; Notni, Gunther; Tünnermann, Andreas

2007-02-01

406

Neotectonic stresses in Fennoscandia: field observations and modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present-day stress state of Fennoscandia is traditionally viewed as the combination of far field sources and residual glacial loading stresses. Investigations were conducted in different regions of Norway with the purpose of detecting and measuring stress-relief features and to derive from them valuable information on the crustal stress state. Stress-relief features are induced by blasting and sudden rock unloading in road construction and quarrying operations and are common in Norway and very likely in other regions of Fennoscandia. Stress relief at the Earth's surface is diagnostic of anomalously high stress levels at shallow depths in the crust and appears to be a characteristic of the formerly glaciated Baltic and Canadian Precambrian shields. The studied stress-relief features are, in general, indicative of NW-SE compression, suggesting ridge-push as the main source of stress. Our derived stress directions are also in excellent agreement with the ones derived from other kinds of stress indicators, including focal mechanisms from deep earthquakes, demonstrating that stress-relief features are valuable for neotectonic research. As a second step we applied numerical modelling techniques to simulate the neotectonic stress field in Fennoscandia with particular emphasis to southern Norway. A numerical method was used to reconstruct the structure of the Fennoscandian lithosphere. The numerical method involves classical steady-state heat equations to derive lithosphere thickness, geotherm and density distribution and, in addition, requires the studied lithosphere to be isostatically compensated at its base. The a priori crustal structure was derived from previous geophysical studies. Undulations of the geoid were used to calibrate the models. Once the density structure of the Fennoscandian lithosphere is reconstructed it is straightforward to quantify its stress state and compare modelling results with existing stress indicators. The modelling suggests that present-day stress magnitudes are far to be uniform in Scandinavia. For example the modelling predicts that the topography of the southern Norwegian Mountains creates Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE) levels higher than the ones characterising the surrounding regions. This results in significant buoyancy forces competing locally with the regional ridge-push. GPE decreases almost gradually towards the Gulf of Bothnia where strong compressive stresses are predicted. A local departure from the regional NW-SE trend for the maximum horizontal stress axes is simulated in Trøndelag, Norway. This local stress deviation is supported by stress-relief observations and in situ stress measurements. Our modelling suggests that it results from the combined effects of the weak rheology of the Møre-Trøndelag Fault Complex and topographic stresses associated with the southern Norwegian Scandes mountains.

Pascal, Christophe

2013-04-01

407

Technical Work Plan For: Calculation of Waste Packave and Drip Shield Response to Vibratory Ground Motion and Revision of the Seismic Consequence Abstraction  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the work scope covered by this technical work plan (TWP) is to develop new damage abstractions for the seismic scenario class in total system performance assessment (TSPA). The new abstractions will be based on a new set of waste package and drip shield damage calculations in response to vibratory ground motion and fault displacement. The new damage calculations, which are collectively referred to as damage models in this TWP, are required to represent recent changes in waste form packaging and in the regulatory time frame. The new damage models also respond to comments from the Independent Validation Review Team (IVRT) postvalidation review of the draft TSPA model regarding performance of the drip shield and to an Additional Information Need (AIN) from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).

M. Gross

2006-12-08

408

Fentanyl for the Relief of Refractory Breathlessness: A Systematic Review.  

PubMed

CONTEXT: Fentanyl is a potent opioid that has been proven to provide effective treatment for breakthrough cancer pain. Although opioids are the only drug group with evidence for the symptomatic treatment of breathlessness, evidence about the efficacy of fentanyl for the relief of breathlessness is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review to evaluate the current evidence for the use of fentanyl for the relief of breathlessness. METHODS: The review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses recommendation for systematic reviews. Four databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts) were screened using "fentanyl" and "dyspnoea" (and synonyms) as search terms. Hand search and contact with relevant authors completed the search. RESULTS: A total of 622 references were retrieved, 13 of which met the inclusion criteria for this review. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluated fentanyl for breathlessness, but one only included two patients. The other studies were before-after (n = 2) and case studies (n = 9). All studies reported successful relief of breathlessness after fentanyl application, but the only (pilot-) RCT failed to demonstrate a statistically significant difference compared with placebo. The nature and incidence of adverse events were comparable with other opioids, and no respiratory depression was observed. CONCLUSION: Descriptive studies yielded promising results for the use of fentanyl for the relief of breathlessness; however, efficacy trials are lacking. Fully powered RCTs are warranted to determine the efficacy of fentanyl for breathlessness relief, but these require pilot studies to evaluate effective size, study procedures, and outcome measures. PMID:23742735

Simon, Steffen T; Köskeroglu, Peyla; Gaertner, Jan; Voltz, Raymond

2013-06-01

409

The Individual Plaintiff's Right to Interim Relief Under Title VII: No Rhyme Nor Reason, But No Relief?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The enactment of Title VII erected a massive administrative system designed to investigate, prevent, and eliminate employment discrimination. However, the EEOC, even with increased enforcement powers, has been unable to handle its overwhelming caseload. A private right of action for interim relief is discussed. For journal availability see HE 508…

Essner, John R.

1976-01-01

410

27 CFR 19.171 - Surety notice of relief from bond liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01...notice of relief from bond liability. 19.171 Section 19.171 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...notice of relief from bond liability. (a) Notice to...

2013-04-01

411

27 CFR 19.172 - Relief of surety from bond liability.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01...Relief of surety from bond liability. 19.172 Section 19.172 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL...Relief of surety from bond liability. A surety that...

2013-04-01

412

78 FR 32296 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency...recipients most severely affected by Hurricane Sandy: the Metropolitan Transportation...bringing the total amount of Hurricane Sandy Emergency Relief funds...

2013-05-29

413

78 FR 33467 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency...recipients most severely affected by Hurricane Sandy. This amount was in addition...Relief Program Allocations for Hurricane Sandy, by...

2013-06-04

414

41 CFR 50-204.71 - Safety relief devices for compressed gas containers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Safety relief devices for compressed gas containers. 50-204.71 Section...STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SUPPLY CONTRACTS Gases, Vapors, Fumes, Dusts, and Mists ...Safety relief devices for compressed gas containers. Compressed gas...

2013-07-01

415

75 FR 3782 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2010 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2010. The designated ERD for calendar year 2010 is docket number...

2010-01-22

416

77 FR 5293 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2012 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2012. The designated ERD for calendar year 2012 is docket number...

2012-02-02

417

76 FR 1209 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2011. The designated ERD for calendar year 2011 is docket number...

2011-01-07

418

78 FR 3964 - Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Establishment of an Emergency Relief Docket for Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration...FRA's emergency relief docket (ERD) for calendar year 2013. The designated ERD for calendar year 2013 is docket number...

2013-01-17

419

49 CFR 179.100-19 - Tests of safety relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Tests of safety relief valves. 179.100-19 Section...PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 179.100-19 Tests of safety relief valves. (a) Each valve...

2009-10-01

420

49 CFR 179.100-19 - Tests of safety relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Tests of safety relief valves. 179.100-19 Section...PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 179.100-19 Tests of safety relief valves. (a) Each valve...

2010-10-01

421

49 CFR 179.100-19 - Tests of safety relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Tests of safety relief valves. 179.100-19 Section...PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... § 179.100-19 Tests of safety relief valves. (a) Each valve...

2012-10-01

422

40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas...AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE...for Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants for Equipment...63.165 Standards: Pressure relief devices in...

2013-07-01

423

40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.111 Standards: Pressure relief devices in...

2013-07-01

424

40 CFR 61.242-4 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL...Sources) § 61.242-4 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor...

2013-07-01

425

40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor...AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment... § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each...

2013-07-01

426

40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor...AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment... § 265.1054 Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each...

2013-07-01

427

Determination of Magnetization (Density) of Rocks Composing Relief, According to Magnetic (Gravitational) Survey.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The introduction of corrections for the intermediate layer in gravimetry and for the relief in gravimetry and magnetometry requires knowledge of the mean or effective density (magnetization) of the rocks composing the intermediate layer and relief. The me...

G. G. Rempel

1967-01-01

428

21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief...882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief...Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain...

2013-04-01

429

46 CFR 153.371 - Minimum relief valve setting for refrigerated cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.371 Minimum relief valve setting...refrigerated cargo tanks. The relief valve setting for a containment system that carries a refrigerated cargo must at...

2010-10-01

430

46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.370 Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting for a containment system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must...

2010-10-01

431

46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.370 Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. The relief valve setting for a containment system that carries a cargo at ambient temperature must...

2009-10-01

432

46 CFR 153.371 - Minimum relief valve setting for refrigerated cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting Systems § 153.371 Minimum relief valve setting...refrigerated cargo tanks. The relief valve setting for a containment system that carries a refrigerated cargo must at...

2009-10-01

433

21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification...electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply...electrical current to electrodes on a patient's skin to treat pain. (b) Classification....

2009-04-01

434

21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification...peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used...electrically a peripheral nerve in a patient to relieve severe intractable pain. The stimulator...

2010-04-01

435

21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification...peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used...electrically a peripheral nerve in a patient to relieve severe intractable pain. The stimulator...

2013-04-01

436

21 CFR 882.5870 - Implanted peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification...peripheral nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device that is used...electrically a peripheral nerve in a patient to relieve severe intractable pain. The stimulator...

2009-04-01

437

21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification...electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply...electrical current to electrodes on a patient's skin to treat pain. (b) Classification....

2010-04-01

438

46 CFR 64.69 - Location of the pressure relief device.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...device. 64.69 Section 64.69 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs...

2011-10-01

439

40 CFR 65.111 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.111 Standards: Pressure relief devices in...

2011-07-01

440

46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section...LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-15 Safety relief valvesâTB/ALL. (a) Each tank...

2012-10-01

441

46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section...LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-15 Safety relief valvesâTB/ALL. (a) Each tank...

2009-10-01

442

46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section...LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-15 Safety relief valvesâTB/ALL. (a) Each tank...

2010-10-01

443

46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section...LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-15 Safety relief valvesâTB/ALL. (a) Each tank...

2011-10-01

444

30 CFR 1204.207 - Who will approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? 1204.207...ALTERNATIVES FOR MARGINAL PROPERTIES Accounting and Auditing Relief § 1204.207...approve, deny, or modify my request for accounting and auditing relief? (a)...

2013-07-01

445

Relief of Dyspnea Involves a Characteristic Brain Activation and a Specific Quality of Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Central processing of dyspnea relief remains largely un- known. Objectives: To identify physiologic determinants, quality of sensa- tion, and brain activation associated with dyspnea relief. Methods: Dyspnea relief was induced in 10 healthy volunteers by decreasing an adjustable external resistive load (z15-50 cm H2O\\/L\\/s). Brain imaging (positron emission tomography) was performed dur- ing either dyspnea or relief. Measurements and

Claudine Peiffer; Nicolas Costes; Philippe Herve ´; Luis Garcia-Larrea

446

Debris dams and the relief of headwater streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In forested, mountain landscapes where debris flows are common, their deposition commonly forms valley-spanning dams of wood, boulders, or complex mixtures of both in headwater valleys. Sediment impoundment behind these dams causes alluviation in what would otherwise be bedrock channels. In this paper, the effects of debris dams on the evolution of headwater valley profiles over geologic time are examined. In the Oregon Coast Range, USA, longitudinal profiles of three headwater channels (approximately 2 km 2 maximum contributing area), two of which are nominally bedrock, and all debris dams were surveyed. Channel and valley widths were measured, and surface bed material measurements (pebble counts) were taken at several locations along one stream. Cumulative relief in debris dams is highly variable within and among streams, reaching a maximum of 58% of profile relief at one location. The surveyed dams comprise 9.8%, 19%, and 6.4% of total basin relief in the three corresponding drainage basins, respectively. A model of bedrock erosion and channel profile evolution is derived that accounts for (a) fractional coverage by the channel of total valley width at any given time and (b) shielding by sediment impounded behind debris dams. The equation for incision rate, assumed constant, is solved for valley gradient as a function of contributing area, and parameter values are estimated from or supplied by field data. Results are compared to stream-gradient-contributing-area relationships obtained for the field sites. These comparisons suggest a strong effect of network structure, which varies significantly among the sites, on profile shape and relief because of the different susceptibilities to debris-flow deposition and, therefore, debris-dam formation. Longitudinal profiles with and without the effects of debris dams are modeled for one forced-alluvial, i.e., nominally bedrock, channel. For these model profiles, which extend only as far as the surveyed profile at this site, 55% of the profile relief is due to debris dams and the concomitant shielding of the bed by impounded sediment. The results suggest that a significant fraction of the relief of such forested, mountain landscapes is due to the effects of relatively immobile wood and boulders deposited in the valleys by debris flows.

Lancaster, Stephen T.; Grant, Gordon E.

2006-12-01

447

NC-ERP Rapid Implementation in Sichuan Post-earthquake for Relief Material Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In earthquake relief, the broad effects of humanitarian relief include delivery medical material to victims. Scientific relief need quick response of logistics supply chain, which include tracking situational urgency at various locations such as lack of food and medical supplies. The paper introduced the rapid adoption of NC-ERP in Sichuan post-earthquake which was donated by UFIDA. With the rapid implementation

Wang Huifen; Cui Lei

2009-01-01

448

30 CFR 203.77 - May I voluntarily give up relief if conditions change?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false May I voluntarily give up relief if conditions change? 203...Projects § 203.77 May I voluntarily give up relief if conditions change? Yes, you may voluntarily give up relief by sending a letter to...

2009-07-01

449

30 CFR 203.77 - May I voluntarily give up relief if conditions change?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false May I voluntarily give up relief if conditions change? 203...Projects § 203.77 May I voluntarily give up relief if conditions change? Yes, you may voluntarily give up relief by sending a letter to...

2010-07-01

450

46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. 153.370...GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting...relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. The relief...carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the...

2011-10-01

451

46 CFR 153.370 - Minimum relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. 153.370...GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Venting...relief valve setting for ambient temperature cargo tanks. The relief...carries a cargo at ambient temperature must at least equal the...

2012-10-01

452

COMPARISON BETWEEN SEVERAL SOFTWARES WITH THE FUNCTION OF GENERATING RELIEF SHADING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relief shading maps have become a popular and useful means for representing topography in a natural, aesthetic, and intuitive way. In this paper, a comparison among the applications in producing relief shading maps using ArcGIS, Photoshop, and MapWindow software is given. First, brief introductions to each application are given. Then, the color model differences, as well as some relief shading

Wu Yuqing; Tang Xinming

1984-01-01

453

46 CFR 30.10-55 - Pressure vacuum relief valve-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve-TB/ALL. 30.10-55... Definitions § 30.10-55 Pressure vacuum relief valveâTB/ALL. The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or...

2011-10-01

454

46 CFR 32.20-5 - Pressure vacuum relief valves-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valves-TB/ALL. 32.20-5...Equipment Installations § 32.20-5 Pressure vacuum relief valvesâTB/ALL. The pressure vacuum relief valve shall be of a type and size...

2011-10-01

455

46 CFR 30.10-55 - Pressure vacuum relief valve-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valve-TB/ALL. 30.10-55... Definitions § 30.10-55 Pressure vacuum relief valveâTB/ALL. The term pressure vacuum relief valve means any device or...

2012-10-01

456

46 CFR 32.20-5 - Pressure vacuum relief valves-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vacuum relief valves-TB/ALL. 32.20-5...Equipment Installations § 32.20-5 Pressure vacuum relief valvesâTB/ALL. The pressure vacuum relief valve shall be of a type and size...

2012-10-01

457

Debt Relief under the HIPC Initiative: Context and Outlook for Debt Sustainability and Resource Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses debt relief efforts by creditors to alleviate the debt burden of low- income countries. The Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) Initiative builds on traditional debt relief, and for the first time involves relief on multilateral debt. It seeks to reduce debt to sustainable levels and eliminate any debt overhang that might hinder growth and investment. It provides

Lisandro Abrego; Doris C. Ross

2001-01-01

458

Validated sizing rule against chatter of relief valves during gas service  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spring loaded relief valves are commonly used for protecting pressure loaded vessels, piping, etc. against overpressure. If the relief valve is installed improperly it may chatter while discharging. This behaviour is defined as an extremely rapid full opening and closing of the valve. The associated mechanical loads can damage the piping, equipment and the relief valve with the result of

J. Cremers; L. Friedel; B. Pallaks

2001-01-01

459

Research on the Impact of Mobile Commerce on Earchquake Relief Management: The View of System Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the complete causal loop diagram of the earthquake relief operations management is deduced.On the basis of this, the role of mobile telecommunications is revealed in earthquake relief operations management under the condition of the mobile telecommunications facilities were interrupted and resumpted after Wenchuan earthquake took place. And then, the causal loop diagram of the earthquake relief operations

Shurong Han; Licheng Ren; Wenxiang Shi

2008-01-01

460

33 CFR 149.105 - What are the requirements for the overflow and relief valves?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What are the requirements for the overflow and relief valves? 149.105 Section...105 What are the requirements for the overflow and relief valves? (a) Each...pressure. (b) The transfer system overflow or relief valve must not allow a...

2010-07-01

461

33 CFR 149.105 - What are the requirements for the overflow and relief valves?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false What are the requirements for the overflow and relief valves? 149.105 Section...105 What are the requirements for the overflow and relief valves? (a) Each...pressure. (b) The transfer system overflow or relief valve must not allow a...

2009-07-01

462

Emergency goods scheduling model and algorithm during initial stage of disaster relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

During initial stage of disaster relief, real time requirement and limited relief source quantity are the main features of relief work. To improve the efficiency and precision of emergency goods scheduling, a model is established for the multi-depot and multi disaster places, single category material requirement emergency scheduling problem. The objective of the model includes minimizing task complete time and

Chang Chunguang; Ma Xiang; Song Xiaoyu; Gao Bo

2010-01-01

463

49 CFR 179.220-24 - Tests of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief valves. 179.220-24... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW...179.220-24 Tests of pressure relief valves. Each safety relief valve must be tested by air or gas for compliance...

2011-10-01

464

49 CFR 179.220-24 - Tests of pressure relief valves.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief valves. 179.220-24... Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-111AW...179.220-24 Tests of pressure relief valves. Each safety relief valve must be tested by air or gas for compliance...

2012-10-01

465

46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91...Cargo Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that isâ (a) Fitted between the...

2012-10-01

466

46 CFR 38.25-10 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.25-10 Section 38...Inspections § 38.25-10 Safety relief valvesâTB/ALL. (a) The cargo tank safety relief valves shall be inspected at least once in...

2012-10-01

467

33 CFR 149.105 - What are the requirements for the overflow and relief valves?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements for the overflow and relief valves? 149.105 Section 149.105 Navigation...requirements for the overflow and relief valves? (a) Each oil and natural gas transfer...system (OTS/NGTS) must include a relief valve that, when activated, prevents...

2013-07-01

468

46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91...Cargo Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that isâ (a) Fitted between the...

2011-10-01

469

46 CFR 38.25-10 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.25-10 Section 38...Inspections § 38.25-10 Safety relief valvesâTB/ALL. (a) The cargo tank safety relief valves shall be inspected at least once in...

2011-10-01

470

An ad-hoc sensor network for disaster relief operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an ad-hoc sensor network especially developed for a disaster relief application that provides the rescue teams with a quickly deployable, cost-effective and reliable tool to collect information about the presence of people in a collapsed building space and the state of the ruins. The hardware\\/software architecture of the wireless sensor nodes is developed for a low cost

N. Pogkas; G. Karastergios; C. Antonopoulos; S. Koubias; G. Papadopoulos

2005-01-01

471

Negative-State Relief and the Empathy–Altruism Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted 3 studies to test Cialdini et al.’s (1987) suggestion that the motivation to help associated with empathic emotion is directed toward the egoistic goal of negative-state relief, not toward the altruistic goal of relieving the victim’s distress. To test this suggestion, we led empathically aroused Ss to anticipate an imminent mood-enhancing experience. We reasoned that if the motivation

C. Daniel Batson; Judy G. Batson; Cari A. Griffitt; Sergio Barrientos; J. Randall Brandt; Peter Sprengelmeyer; Michael J. Bayly

1989-01-01

472

NATIONAL SECURITY: Relief, Rebukes Follow Agreement on Lee.  

PubMed

What began as an explosive case of alleged nuclear espionage is expected to end quietly soon when physicist Wen Ho Lee walks free from an Albuquerque, New Mexico, courtroom after 9 months in jail. The ignominious collapse of the government's case and Lee's release have embarrassed federal prosecutors. However, the news was a relief to Asian-American researchers and others who say Lee's status as a suspect had heightened racial tensions at the national labs. PMID:17839923

Lawler, A

2000-09-15

473

The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the US response under former President George W. Bush to the global HIV\\/AIDS epidemic at the intersection of neo-conservatism and neo-liberalism, highlighting the various ways their distinct gender logics collide to reproduce masculine privilege and gender inequalities on a global scale. The President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) is the United States global HIV\\/AIDS policy and

Marcia Oliver

2012-01-01

474

Control of oncologic pain in relief of suffering. Our experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Pain and suffering are not synonymous terms. The concept of suffering is wider than just physical pain. People can suffer\\u000a for multiple causes, pain among them, but it is not the only reason since ?not all people who pain, suffer, neither all the\\u000a people who suffer, pains?. If our main objective is the achievement of the well-being and the relief

Manuel González Barón; María Antonia Lacasta Reverte; Amalio Ordóñez Gallego; Cristóbal Belda-Iniesta

2006-01-01

475

Wetting Transitions on Post-Built and Porous Reliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative study of wetting transitions on porous and post-built polymer surfaces is reported. The transitions were observed under vibration of droplets of different volumes deposited on the surfaces possessing controlled roughness. Initial wetting states were identified as the Cassie air-trapping (‘Fakir’) state for porous and the Wenzel state for post-built relief, whereas the final wetting state was the Cassie

Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Gene Whyman; Sagi Balter; Doron Aurbach

2012-01-01

476

119. Relief and safety valve of turbine unit no. 1, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

119. Relief and safety valve of turbine unit no. 1, located in the subway below the Generator Room; looking south. The safety valve was manufactured by the Chapman Valve Company of Springfield, Massachusetts. It is identical to the adjacent safety valve for turbine unit no. 2. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

477

Nurses’ perceptions of parental guidance in pediatric surgical pain relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to describe nurses’ perceptions of how they guide parents in the relief of their child's (aged 8–12 years) surgical pain in the hospital, and factors related to this function. The convenience sample consisted of 162nurses working on the pediatric surgical wards of five university hospitals in Finland. The data was collected with a Likert-type

Tarja Pölkki

2002-01-01

478

Effectiveness of pressure relief shafts - full scale assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of pressure relief shafts has often been proposed as a means of reducing pressure fluctuations and of improving passenger comfort on board high-speed trains in tunnels. The recently opened rail-link between Mattstetten-Rothrist in Switzerland is one of the first rail projects where such shafts became an integral part of the project right from the design stage. The effectiveness

Bernd Hagenah; Peter Reinke

479

An Ecological Footprint Approach to External Debt Relief  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies Martinez-Alier’s [Environ. Values 2 (1993) 97] “ecological debt” concept to the problem of debt relief, exploring the possibility of compensatory transfers from rich to poor countries based on existing ecological balances. I employ recent estimates on ecological footprints and ecosystem values to estimate the ecological debt to be distributed among eligible transfer recipients––all less-developed countries (LDCs). The

Mariano Torras

2003-01-01

480

Nucleus caudalis lesioning: Case report of chronic traumatic headache relief  

PubMed Central

Background: The nucleus caudalis dorsal root entry zone (DREZ) surgery is used to treat intractable central craniofacial pain. This is the first journal publication of DREZ lesioning used for the long-term relief of an intractable chronic traumatic headache. Case Description: A 40-year-old female experienced new-onset bi-temporal headaches following a traumatic head injury. Despite medical treatment, her pain was severe on over 20 days per month, 3 years after the injury. The patient underwent trigeminal nucleus caudalis DREZ lesioning. Bilateral single-row lesions were made at 1-mm interval between the level of the obex and the C2 dorsal nerve roots, using angled radiofrequency electrodes, brought to 80°C for 15 seconds each, along a path 1 to 1.2 mm posterior to the accessory nerve rootlets. The headache improved, but gradually returned. Five years later, her headaches were severe on over 24 days per month. The DREZ surgery was then repeated. Her headaches improved and the relief has continued for 5 additional years. She has remained functional, with no limitation in instrumental activities of daily living. Conclusions: The nucleus caudalis DREZ surgery brought long-term relief to a patient suffering from chronic traumatic headache.

Sandwell, Stephen E.; El-Naggar, Amr O.

2011-01-01

481

Neural mechanisms underlying the induction and relief of perceptual curiosity  

PubMed Central

Curiosity is one of the most basic biological drives in both animals and humans, and has been identified as a key motive for learning and discovery. Despite the importance of curiosity and related behaviors, the topic has been largely neglected in human neuroscience; hence little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms underlying curiosity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate what happens in our brain during the induction and subsequent relief of perceptual curiosity. Our core findings were that (1) the induction of perceptual curiosity, through the presentation of ambiguous visual input, activated the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), brain regions sensitive to conflict and arousal; (2) the relief of perceptual curiosity, through visual disambiguation, activated regions of the striatum that have been related to reward processing; and (3) the relief of perceptual curiosity was associated with hippocampal activation and enhanced incidental memory. These findings provide the first demonstration of the neural basis of human perceptual curiosity. Our results provide neurobiological support for a classic psychological theory of curiosity, which holds that curiosity is an aversive condition of increased arousal whose termination is rewarding and facilitates memory.

Jepma, Marieke; Verdonschot, Rinus G.; van Steenbergen, Henk; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

2012-01-01

482

Evaluation of Transcendental Meditation as a Method of Reducing Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcendental meditation is said to induce in its practitioners an altered state of consciousness resulting in relief of stress, an increased sense of awareness, and a sense of well-being. Release of catecholamines has been associated widely with stress and lends itself to quantitation. Plasma epinephrine and norephinephrine, as well as lactate, were measured in 12 volunteers before, during, and after

R. R. Michaels; M. J. Huber; D. S. McCann

1976-01-01

483

Stress Corrosion Cracking of A515 Grade 60 Carbon Steel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of welding method plate thickness, and subsequent stress relief treatment on the stress corrosion cracking propensity of ASTM A515 Grade 60 carbon steel plate exposed to a 5 M NaNO sub 3 solution at 19...

E. L. Moore

1971-01-01

484

[The importance of labor pain relief in the process of childbirth, the regional anaesthesia in caesarean section and in operational gynaecology].  

PubMed

Labor pain relief (anaesthesia) aims at making the patient comfortable, keep her from pain and stress and at the same time keep the baby from the difficulties caused by the stress of the mother. Our work aimed at introducing the methods of anaesthesia, defining their efficiency, selecting the time and method of anaesthesia in order to improve child birth process or timely intervention. All modern methods of labor pain relief have been established in the clinic: pharmacological, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), and regional anaesthesia (RA). RA makes 65% of all the pain relief cases, while 20% chooses other types of anaesthesia. Epidural sets of size 18-20 g and spinal syringes of size 25-26 g of Terumo and Braun, as well as 2% lidocaine and fentanyl were used. The statistics of the cases of anaesthesia given in our clinic proves that any method that helps the mother is approved. In 1999 cases of anaesthesia made 6.4%. RA was made only to 5 women. In 2003 82 patients (24%) chose pain relief with different methods. 33 of them (40.2%) chose RA and 49 of them (59.8%)--combined anaesthesia. Spinal anesthesia (SA) in caesarean section was administered to 11 (5%) patients. Total of 200 patients (60%) have been anaesthetized during the years of 2005-2006. 55 caesarean sections (25%) were performed with SA. Exclusive quality of pain relief, absolute relaxation, high assessment of infants by Apgar scale, excellent responses from the patients, absolutely favourable health condition of the woman during the first twenty four hours after the delivery and post operation period make RA an integral part of an obstetrical hospital. PMID:17057310

Ninidze, N N; Chelidze, G Dzh; Davarashvili, D I; Nikolaishvili, T G

2006-09-01

485

Relief as a Reward: Hedonic and Neural Responses to Safety from Pain  

PubMed Central

Relief fits the definition of a reward. Unlike other reward types the pleasantness of relief depends on the violation of a negative expectation, yet this has not been investigated using neuroimaging approaches. We hypothesized that the degree of negative expectation depends on state (dread) and trait (pessimism) sensitivity. Of the brain regions that are involved in mediating pleasure, the nucleus accumbens also signals unexpected reward and positive prediction error. We hypothesized that accumbens activity reflects the level of negative expectation and subsequent pleasant relief. Using fMRI and two purpose-made tasks, we compared hedonic and BOLD responses to relief with responses during an appetitive reward task in 18 healthy volunteers. We expected some similarities in task responses, reflecting common neural substrates implicated across reward types. However, we also hypothesized that relief responses would differ from appetitive rewards in the nucleus accumbens, since only relief pleasantness depends on negative expectations. The results confirmed these hypotheses. Relief and appetitive reward task activity converged in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which also correlated with appetitive reward pleasantness ratings. In contrast, dread and pessimism scores correlated with relief but not with appetitive reward hedonics. Moreover, only relief pleasantness covaried with accumbens activation. Importantly, the accumbens signal appeared to specifically reflect individual differences in anticipation of the adverse event (dread, pessimism) but was uncorrelated to appetitive reward hedonics. In conclusion, relief differs from appetitive rewards due to its reliance on negative expectations, the violation of which is reflected in relief-related accumbens activation.

Leknes, Siri; Lee, Michael; Berna, Chantal; Andersson, Jesper; Tracey, Irene

2011-01-01

486

Relief as a reward: hedonic and neural responses to safety from pain.  

PubMed

Relief fits the definition of a reward. Unlike other reward types the pleasantness of relief depends on the violation of a negative expectation, yet this has not been investigated using neuroimaging approaches. We hypothesized that the degree of negative expectation depends on state (dread) and trait (pessimism) sensitivity. Of the brain regions that are involved in mediating pleasure, the nucleus accumbens also signals unexpected reward and positive prediction error. We hypothesized that accumbens activity reflects the level of negative expectation and subsequent pleasant relief. Using fMRI and two purpose-made tasks, we compared hedonic and BOLD responses to relief with responses during an appetitive reward task in 18 healthy volunteers. We expected some similarities in task responses, reflecting common neural substrates implicated across reward types. However, we also hypothesized that relief responses would differ from appetitive rewards in the nucleus accumbens, since only relief pleasantness depends on negative expectations. The results confirmed these hypotheses. Relief and appetitive reward task activity converged in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which also correlated with appetitive reward pleasantness ratings. In contrast, dread and pessimism scores correlated with relief but not with appetitive reward hedonics. Moreover, only relief pleasantness covaried with accumbens activation. Importantly, the accumbens signal appeared to specifically reflect individual differences in anticipation of the adverse event (dread, pessimism) but was uncorrelated to appetitive reward hedonics. In conclusion, relief differs from appetitive rewards due to its reliance on negative expectations, the violation of which is reflected in relief-related accumbens activation. PMID:21490964

Leknes, Siri; Lee, Michael; Berna, Chantal; Andersson, Jesper; Tracey, Irene

2011-04-07

487

Strain relief and dislocation motion in III-nitride films grown on stepped and step-free 4H-SiC mesas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impetus for dislocation motion in thin films is generally understood in terms of Peach-Koehler forces. For the case of III-nitride films grown on step-free 4H-SiC mesas, however, it is the gradient of the strain energy from the mesa edge that is capable of driving misfit dislocations. Using the strain profile as a function of the distance from the mesa edge and the line tension of the c-plane threading arms, we have calculated the excess stress driving the half loop from the mesa edge into the mesa interior. We have also compared the half-loop excess stress with the excess stress driving the tilt of threading edge dislocations, which has been proposed as one of the principal strain relief mechanisms in III-nitride films. The excess stress driving c-plane half loops ranges from a few 1000 MPa at the mesa edge to few 100 MPa towards the mesa interior, while the excess stress driving the tilt of threading edge dislocations is in excess of 20 000 MPa. The greater excess stress driving dislocation tilt, however, does not dominate strain relief for III-nitride films on step-free SiC mesas due to the difficulty in nucleating threading dislocations in the absence of interfacial steps.

Twigg, M. E.; Bassim, N. D.; Mastro, M. A.; Eddy, C. R.; Henry, R. L.; Culbertson, J. C.; Holm, R. T.; Neudeck, P.; Powell, J. A.; Trunek, A. J.

2007-03-01

488

Post-Nargis medical care: experience of a Korean Disaster Relief Team in Myanmar after the cyclone.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the epidemiology and clinical data of patients observed by the Korean Disaster Relief Team, during its deployment in Myanmar, from 6 to 12 June 2008. A cross-sectional, medical record-based study in the Korean Disaster Relief Team clinic, established a month after the cyclone Nargis devastated Myanmar. Data collected included demographic variables, and whether or not the problem was acute or chronic, and traumatic or medical. We included 2641 patients in the study. Of those, 57.6% presented with an acute condition, and the rest had chronic conditions. Approximately 5% of the patients presented with trauma/injury; and in 29% of the trauma cases, the problem was directly related to the cyclone. The most common diagnostic category was musculoskeletal problems (21.5%), followed by respiratory (15.3%), and digestive (14.6%) abnormalities. A little over 5% of patients had posttraumatic stress disorder, and the odds ratio was 2.62 (95% confidence interval 1.63-4.21) for women to have posttraumatic stress disorder. Most of the patients (97.5%) had minor problems and were sent home. In conclusion, a huge unmet medical need in at-risk populations and a relatively large proportion of chronic medical conditions should be considered in any future planning of a similar type of disaster. PMID:19654547

Kim, Hoon; Han, Seung Baik; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Jun Sig; Hong, EunSeog

2010-02-01

489

Application of a spatially-weighted Relief algorithm for ranking genetic predictors of disease  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of genetic variants that are associated with disease is an important goal in elucidating the genetic causes of diseases. The genetic patterns that are associated with common diseases are complex and may involve multiple interacting genetic variants. The Relief family of algorithms is a powerful tool for efficiently identifying genetic variants that are associated with disease, even if the variants have nonlinear interactions without significant main effects. Many variations of Relief have been developed over the past two decades and several of them have been applied to single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. Results We developed a new spatially weighted variation of Relief called Sigmoid Weighted ReliefF Star (SWRF*), and applied it to synthetic SNP data. When compared to ReliefF and SURF*, which are two algorithms that have been applied to SNP data for identifying interactions, SWRF* had significantly greater power. Furthermore, we developed a framework called the Modular Relief Framework (MoRF) that can be used to develop novel variations of the Relief algorithm, and we used MoRF to develop the SWRF* algorithm. Conclusions MoRF allows easy development of new Relief algorithms by specifying different interchangeable functions for the component terms. Using MORF, we developed a new Relief algorithm called SWRF* that had greater ability to identify interacting genetic variants in synthetic data compared to existing Relief algorithms.

2012-01-01

490

High aspect ratio surface relief structures by photoembossing  

SciTech Connect

Photoembossing is a convenient and economical process to form complex surface relief structures in polymer thin films. We have improved the aspect ratio of photoembossed microstructures by adding t-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) to the polymerization mixture. The mechanism that is proposed is based on the radical transfer principle, where TBHQ converts acrylate radicals into stable phenol radicals that at elevated temperatures act as latent initiators, thereby controlling the kinetics without changing the number of polymerization active sites. As a result, the aspect ratio can be improved with a factor of 5-7 in comparison with previously proposed similar processes.

Hermans, Ko; Wolf, Florian K.; Perelaer, Jolke; Janssen, Rene A. J.; Schubert, Ulrich S.; Bastiaansen, Cees W. M.; Broer, Dirk J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Philips Research Laboratories, High Tech Campus 4, 5656 AE Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2007-10-22

491

Surface of the Earth, 2 minute color relief images  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the NOAA Satellite and Information Service features an image that was generated from digital databases of seafloor and land elevations on a 2-minute latitude/longitude grid (1 minute of latitude = 1 nautical mile, or 1.852 km). Clicking on a square will bring up a 512 x 512 pixel color relief image of the 45 degree area selected, clicking on the 512 x 512 image brings up the full-resolution 1350 x 1350 pixel color image of the area.

National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC); Noaa

492

Natural anti-inflammatory agents for pain relief  

PubMed Central

The use of both over-the-counter and prescription nonsteroidal medications is frequently recommended in a typical neurosurgical practice. But persistent long-term use safety concerns must be considered when prescribing these medications for chronic and degenerative pain conditions. This article is a literature review of the biochemical pathways of inflammatory pain, the potentially serious side effects of nonsteroidal drugs and commonly used and clinically studied natural alternative anti-inflammatory supplements. Although nonsteroidal medications can be effective, herbs and dietary supplements may offer a safer, and often an effective, alternative treatment for pain relief, especially for long-term use.

Maroon, Joseph C.; Bost, Jeffrey W.; Maroon, Adara

2010-01-01

493

Oxidative stress in COPD.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress is now recognized as a major predisposing factor in the pathogenesis of COPD. Existing therapies for COPD are ineffective at halting disease progression, with bronchodilators being the mainstay of pharmacotherapy, providing symptomatic relief only. It is, therefore, important for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms by which oxidative stress drives disease pathogenesis to develop novel and more effective therapies. Antioxidant capacity in COPD is substantially reduced as a result of cigarette smoking and exacerbations, with oxidative stress persisting long after the cessation of cigarette smoking or exacerbation, due to the continued production of reactive oxygen species from endogenous sources. We discuss (1) how oxidative stress arises in the lung, (2) how it is neutralized, (3) what genetic factors may predispose to the development of COPD, and (4) how this impacts inflammation and autoimmunity in the development of emphysema and small airways disease. Finally, various strategies have been considered to neutralize the increased oxidative burden present in COPD. This review highlights why current antioxidant strategies have so far failed and what promising alternatives are on the horizon. Moreover, a number of studies have shown that there is no single "magic bullet" to combat oxidative stress, but instead a combination therapy, targeting oxidative stress in the various subcellular compartments, may prove to be more effective in COPD. PMID:23880677

Kirkham, Paul A; Barnes, Peter J

2013-07-01

494

The importance of context: when relative relief renders pain pleasant.  

PubMed

Context can influence the experience of any event. For instance, the thought that "it could be worse" can improve feelings towards a present misfortune. In this study we measured hedonic feelings, skin conductance, and brain activation patterns in 16 healthy volunteers who experienced moderate pain in two different contexts. In the "relative relief context," moderate pain represented the best outcome, since the alternative outcome was intense pain. However, in the control context, moderate pain represented the worst outcome and elicited negative hedonic feelings. The context manipulation resulted in a "hedonic flip," such that moderate pain elicited positive hedonics in the relative relief context. Somewhat surprisingly, moderate pain was even rated as pleasant in this context, despite being reported as painful in the control context. This "hedonic flip" was corroborated by physiological and functional neuroimaging data. When moderate pain was perceived as pleasant, skin conductance and activity in insula and dorsal anterior cingulate were significantly attenuated relative to the control moderate stimulus. "Pleasant pain" also increased activity in reward and valuation circuitry, including the medial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortices. Furthermore, the change in outcome hedonics correlated with activity in the periacqueductal grey (PAG) of the descending pain modulatory system (DPMS). The context manipulation also significantly increased functional connectivity between reward circuitry and the PAG, consistent with a functional change of the DPMS due to the altered motivational state. The findings of this study point to a role for brainstem and reward circuitry in a context-induced "hedonic flip" of pain. PMID:23352758

Leknes, Siri; Berna, Chantal; Lee, Michael C; Snyder, Gregory D; Biele, Guido; Tracey, Irene

2012-12-13

495

Portable exothermal energy source for disaster relief operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This manuscript describes an example of transfer technology from a U.S. Government Laboratory to commercial products that meet national needs in the public safety and health care sectors. Funded by the U.S. Army, the first project is the development of a portable, non-powered food warming device for serving meals to soldiers in the field. The second project is being funded by the National Institutes of Health for development of a heat therapy device for relief from rheumatoid arthritis discomfort in the hands and other affected joints. Both of these heating devices are portable, reusable heat pack products that can be regenerated in a microwave oven or in boiling water. The knowledge developed during these two projects will be applied to many other related products. Applications in support of natural and manmade disaster relief include food warming heat packs for food service to victims and rescue workers in sustained black-out conditions, and heat pack warming blankets for emergency medical situations in which patients are in traumatic shock and the onset of hypothermia is imminent.

Zimbeck, Walter R.

1994-03-01

496

Debt Relief Remains at Center Stage in G-8 Summit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Leaders of the seven largest industrial nations were sharply criticized at the start of their annual economic summit, held this year in Okinawa, for not following through on last year's pledge to write off $100 billion of the $260 billion owed to the West by the most indebted states. Most of the opening discussions have focused on how the debt forgiveness process might be sped up or at least how to reschedule debt payments under better terms. By the start of the summit, debt relief should have been approved for nine countries, but only one, Uganda, is close to having its debts cancelled. Of the seven powers, only the UK has enacted 100 percent debt relief, cancelling bilateral debts owed by 41 of the world's poorest countries. Germany, one of the biggest creditors, opposes cancellation, leaving activists less than sanguine about the chances for full debt cancellation or any new initiatives from the summit. Since 1994, Russia has attended the political discussions at the summit (making it the G8), and this year President Putin is almost sure to lodge strong objections to the missile defense system under consideration in the US. On the way to the summit, Putin stopped in China and North Korea to gather support for his case. Another issue for President Clinton, who is expected to leave the summit early to return to the Mideast peace talks, is a growing opposition among Okinawans to the huge American military presence on the island.

De Nie, Michael W.

497

Haptics disambiguates vision in the perception of pictorial relief  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we demonstrate that touch decreases the ambiguity in a visual image. It has been previously found that visual perception of three-dimensional shape is subject to certain variations. These variations can be described by the affine transformation. While the visual system thus seems unable to capture the Euclidean structure of a shape, touch could potentially be a useful source to disambiguate the image. Participants performed a so-called 'attitude task' from which the structure of the perceived three-dimensional shape was calculated. One group performed the task with only vision and a second group could touch the stimulus while viewing it. We found that the consistency within the haptics+vision group was higher than in the vision-only group. Thus, haptics decreases the visual ambiguity. Furthermore, we found that the touched shape was consistently perceived as having more relief than the untouched the shape. It was also found that the direction of affine shear differences within the two groups was more consistent when touch was used. We thus show that haptics has a significant influence on the perception of pictorial relief.

Wijntjes, M. W. A.; Volcic, R.; Pont, S. C.; Koenderink, J. J.; Kappers, A. M. L.

2009-02-01

498

Scintigraphic Evidence for Relief of Airways Obstruction in Cystic Fibrosis  

PubMed Central

A simple scheme for quantifying lung perfusion scintigrams was developed to evaluate the efficacy of a therapeutic regimen for the relief of airways obstruction in cystic fibrosis patients. Ten hospitalized patients were given conventional therapy including administration of intravenous antibiotics, mucolytic aerosols, chest physical therapy, and adequate nutrition and hydration as adjuncts to a single bronchoscopic bronchial washing procedure. Quantitative scoring of the lung scintigram was based upon the severity of the perfusion defects in equivalent upper and lower lung fields, as viewed from right and left posterior oblique projections. Seven to ten days following bronchoscopic washing, scintigraphic scores were found to correlate with changes in both the forced vital capacity and the one-second, time forced expiratory volume (r = 0.78, 0.70, respectively; P <.05). The severity of defective lung perfusion indicated the loss of lung volume and perfusion due to airways obstruction and secondary hypoxic vasoconstriction. Chest radiography was less reflective of improvement than lung scintigraphy. It was concluded that serial pulmonary perfusion scintigrams provide a sensitive tool for evaluating the relief of airways obstruction in cystic fibrosis. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3

Millis, Richard M.; Kulczycki, Lucas L.; Harbert, John C.

1988-01-01

499

Phase relief imaging with confocal laser scanning system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) has become one of the most important biomedical research tools today due to its noninvasive and 3-D abilities. It enables imaging in living tissue with better resolution and contrast, and plays a growing role among microscopic techniques utilized for investigating numerous biological problems. In some cases, the sample was phase-sensitive, thus we introduce a novel method named laser oblique scanning optical microscopy (LOSOM) which could obtain a relief image in transparent sample directly. Through the LOSOM system, mouse kidney and HeLa cells sample were imaged and 10x, 20x and 40x magnify objective imaging results were realized respectively. Also, we compared the variation of pinhole size versus imaging result. One major parameters of LOSOM is the distance between fluorescence medium and the sample. Previously, this distance was set to 1.2 mm, which is the thickness of the slide. The experiment result showed that decreasing d can increase the signal level for LOSOM phase-relief imaging. We have also demonstrated the application of LOSOM in absorption imaging modality, when the specimen is non-transparent.

Peng, Tong; Xie, Hao; Ding, Yichen; Xi, Peng

2013-02-01

500

Humanitarian assistance and disaster relief: changing the face of defense.  

PubMed

The US Department of Defense (DOD) is evolving to meet new security challenges in the twenty-first century. Today's challenges result from growing political, environmental, and economic instability in important areas of the globe that threaten national and global security. Immediate outreach to foreign nations in times of violent instability or natural disaster fosters security and stability both for the affected country and for the United States. Foreign humanitarian assistance (FHA) is a rapidly evolving military mission that addresses conflict prevention, conflict, postconflict, and natural disasters. With DOD's extensive global medical resources, it is often uniquely qualified to execute a critical role in relief and/or public health efforts. When and how the American military will act in FHA and disaster relief is a still evolving doctrine with three issues deserving particular attention: aligning operations with host government leadership, preserving humanitarian space, and tailoring the US military's unique resources to the specific political and medical situation at hand. The DOD's response to a large-scale earthquake in Peru suggests useful approaches to these three issues, provides a template for future FHA mission, and points to strategic decisions and operational capabilities that need further development to establish the FHA mission firmly within DOD's repertoire of security engagement activities. PMID:19378667

Laraby, Patrick R; Bourdeaux, Margaret; Casscells, S Ward; Smith, David J; Lawry, Lynn