Note: This page contains sample records for the topic video ccd camera from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Calibration of CCD video cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By implementation of CCD video cameras with matrix array sensors in an analytical plotter, a hardware and software system for digital on-line image correlation to be used for conventional photogrammetric measurement was established. Geometric and radiometric calibration of the system is described. Connection of the CCD matrix sensors to the coordinate system of the analytical plotter is highlighted. For geometric and radiometric real time corrections for each pixel, methods for the determination of pixel by pixel or at least of regional correction parameters are discussed.

Guelch, E.

1986-11-01

2

CCD Camera  

DOEpatents

A CCD camera capable of observing a moving object which has varying intensities of radiation eminating therefrom and which may move at varying speeds is shown wherein there is substantially no overlapping of successive images and wherein the exposure times and scan times may be varied independently of each other.

Roth, Roger R. (Minnetonka, MN)

1983-01-01

3

CCD Camera  

DOEpatents

A CCD camera capable of observing a moving object which has varying intensities of radiation emanating therefrom and which may move at varying speeds is shown wherein there is substantially no overlapping of successive images and wherein the exposure times and scan times may be varied independently of each other. 7 figs.

Roth, R.R.

1983-08-02

4

Interline transfer CCD camera  

DOEpatents

An interline CCD sensing device for use in a camera system, includes an imaging area sensitive to impinging light, for generating charges corresponding to the intensity of the impinging light. Sixteen independent registers R1 - R16 sequentially receive the interline data from the imaging area, corresponding to the generated charges. Sixteen output amplifiers S1 - S16 and sixteen ports P1 - P16 for sequentially transferring the interline data, one pixel at a time, in order to supply a desired image transfer speed. The imaging area is segmented into sixteen independent imaging segments A1 - A16, each of which corresponds to one register, on output amplifier, and one output port. Each one of the imaging segments A1 - A16 includes an array of rows and columns of pixels. Each pixel includes a photogate area, an interline CCD channel area, and an anti-blooming area. The anti-blooming area is, in turn, divided into an anti-blooming barrier and an anti-blooming drain.

Prokop, M.S.; McCurnin, T.W.; Stump, C.J.; Stradling, G.L.

1993-12-31

5

Radiometric CCD camera calibration and noise estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in measured image irradiance have many physical causes and are the primary cue for several visual processes, such as edge detection and shape from shading. Using physical models for charged-coupled device (CCD) video cameras and material reflectance, we quantify the variation in digitized pixel values that is due to sensor noise and scene variation. This analysis forms the basis

Glenn E. Healey; Raghava Kondepudy

1994-01-01

6

Instrument an Off-Shelf CCD Imaging Sensor Into a Handheld Multispectral Video Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter, we report the feasibility study of converting an ordinary off-shelf charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging sensor into a multispectral imaging instrument, using the multispectral bruises detection as an example. The resulting handheld device is capable of producing in real-time multiple pixel-registered images centered at different wavelengths in a single exposure, thereby providing overwhelming operational convenience. The results are

Dingrong Yi; Linghua Kong; Fengtao Wang; Fuhan Liu; Stephen Sprigle; Ali Adibi

2011-01-01

7

Omnifocus video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The omnifocus video camera takes videos, in which objects at different distances are all in focus in a single video display. The omnifocus video camera consists of an array of color video cameras combined with a unique distance mapping camera called the Divcam. The color video cameras are all aimed at the same scene, but each is focused at a different distance. The Divcam provides real-time distance information for every pixel in the scene. A pixel selection utility uses the distance information to select individual pixels from the multiple video outputs focused at different distances, in order to generate the final single video display that is everywhere in focus. This paper presents principle of operation, design consideration, detailed construction, and over all performance of the omnifocus video camera. The major emphasis of the paper is the proof of concept, but the prototype has been developed enough to demonstrate the superiority of this video camera over a conventional video camera. The resolution of the prototype is high, capturing even fine details such as fingerprints in the image. Just as the movie camera was a significant advance over the still camera, the omnifocus video camera represents a significant advance over all-focus cameras for still images.

Iizuka, Keigo

2011-04-01

8

A matrix CCD camera for astronomical observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A CCD camera based on a liquid-nitrogen-cooled virtual-phase buried-channel CCD matrix is described. High-resolution spectra of stars obtained at the 2.6-m reflector with this camera are presented. The comparison of the spectra taken with the new camera and with the CCD-2000 camera at the same telescope shows that the new camera is more sensitive within the entire spectral range from 3940 to 10,830 A.

Beriozin, V. Yu.; Zuyev, A. G.; Kiryan, G. V.; Rybakov, M. I.; Khvilivitsky, A. T.; Ilyin, I. V.; Petrov, P. P.; Savanov, I. S.; Scherbakov, A. G.

1991-10-01

9

Actual properties of CCD cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The information approach was applied to a determination of the actual properties of CCD-cameras. This approach is very useful when we have to establish from spectrograms, interferograms, holograms or other recorded data a set of functions that describe how the object under investigation behaves in space and time. Moreover this approach allows the actual properties of the measuring device be taken into account in order to determine the lower bound of experimental errors both before and after the measurement and to check how much use is made of the information that is contained in the recorded data. One of the best professional-quality CCD-cameras (ST-7I, Santa Barbara Instrument Group) was chosen for experimental investigation. Both the transfer (spread) function and the frequency-contrast function of this CCD-camera were determined experimentally and the optical channel fluctuation noise and the signal-to-noise ratio were measured as well. It has been shown that due to light scattering in the semiconductor base of the CCD matrix the amplitudes of high spatial frequency components of the image are reduced; the smaller the frequency of the light, the smaller are the amplitudes of the spatial frequency components of the output image. It has been ascertained that the relative error of the recorded image can be as small as one percent if the whole of the dynamic range is used (the full well capacity is equal to 40,000e) and if the highest spatial frequency of the image is small enough. But if the highest spatial frequency of the image fc is limited by pixel steps ? (? approximately equals 1/2 fc ), the relative error increases due to contrast reduction of the high spatial frequency and the relative error of the reconstructed input intensity distribution of the image more than doubles. This experimental result is very close to that derived from the calculated output image information. These experimental and simulation results are illustrated by recently obtained data.

Kryzhko, V. V.; Pergament, Michael M.; Pergament, M. M.; Simonov, V. V.; Wolferz, A. A.

2003-07-01

10

Light Field Video Camera.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present the Light Field Video Camera, an array of CMOS image sensors for video image based rendering applications. The device is designed to record a synchronized video dataset from over one hundred cameras to a hard disk array using as few as one PC p...

B. Wilburn M. Smulski K. Lee M. A. Horowitz

2000-01-01

11

Multiple Sensor Camera for Enhanced Video Capturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A resolution of camera has been drastically improved under a current request for high-quality digital images. For example, digital still camera has several mega pixels. Although a video camera has the higher frame-rate, the resolution of a video camera is lower than that of still camera. Thus, the high-resolution is incompatible with the high frame rate of ordinary cameras in market. It is difficult to solve this problem by a single sensor, since it comes from physical limitation of the pixel transfer rate. In this paper, we propose a multi-sensor camera for capturing a resolution and frame-rate enhanced video. Common multi-CCDs camera, such as 3CCD color camera, has same CCD for capturing different spectral information. Our approach is to use different spatio-temporal resolution sensors in a single camera cabinet for capturing higher resolution and frame-rate information separately. We build a prototype camera which can capture high-resolution (2588×1958 pixels, 3.75 fps) and high frame-rate (500×500, 90 fps) videos. We also proposed the calibration method for the camera. As one of the application of the camera, we demonstrate an enhanced video (2128×1952 pixels, 90 fps) generated from the captured videos for showing the utility of the camera.

Nagahara, Hajime; Kanki, Yoshinori; Iwai, Yoshio; Yachida, Masahiko

12

A CCD based focal spot camera.  

PubMed

Rapid, quantative assessment of x-radiation source intensity distributions would be useful in several areas of radiation physics. A simple x-ray sensitive CCD based camera for the measurement of focal spot and radiation beam intensity profiles has been constructed. Focal spot images recorded with the CCD camera and radiographic emulsion are compared and the advantage of the CCD camera in rapidly recording true radiation intensity distributions is demonstrated. PMID:7708858

Speller, R D; Martínez-Dávalos, A; Farquharson, M

1995-02-01

13

CCD camera detection of HIV infection.  

PubMed

Rapid and precise quantification of the infectivity of HIV is important for molecular virologic studies, as well as for measuring the activities of antiviral drugs and neutralizing antibodies. An indicator cell line, a CCD camera, and image-analysis software were used to quantify HIV infectivity. The cells of the P4R5 line, which express the receptors for HIV infection as well as beta-galactosidase under the control of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat, were infected with HIV and then stained 2 days later with X-gal to turn the infected cells blue. Digital images of monolayers of the infected cells were captured using a high resolution CCD video camera and a macro video zoom lens. A software program was developed to process the images and to count the blue-stained foci of infection. The described method allows for the rapid quantification of the infected cells over a wide range of viral inocula with reproducibility, accuracy and at relatively low cost. PMID:19151943

Day, John R

2009-01-01

14

An auto-focusing CCD camera mount  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional methods of focusing a CCD camera are either time consuming, difficult or, more importantly, indecisive. This paper describes a device designed to allow the observer to be confident that the camera will always be properly focused by sensing a selected star image and automatically adjusting the camera's focal position.

Arbour, R. W.

1994-08-01

15

The design of EUV CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design of CCD camera that is part of the EUV detector to be used in Space Solar Telescope. It will run at the solar synchronous circular orbit with 735 km height. In this paper, a CCD camera is designed composed of the CCD sensor module, the analog system and the embedded controller with an NIOSII soft-core processor based on FPGA. The analog system is first introduced in detail including power and bias voltage supply circuit, 16 bit A/D converter, power protecting circuit, amplifier circuit, and CCD driving clocks generation circuit. NIOS II embedded system is then presented including system hardware and NIOS II processor. Finally, evaluation results of this camera are also presented including readout noise, gain, linearity, dynamic range and full well capacity.

Shang, Yuanyuan; Guan, Yong; Liu, Yingfei; Zhao, Xiaoxu

2008-08-01

16

Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head  

DOEpatents

A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close(0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA)

2000-01-01

17

Jack & the Video Camera  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article narrates how the use of video camera has transformed the life of Jack Williams, a 10-year-old boy from Colorado Springs, Colorado, who has autism. The way autism affected Jack was unique. For the first nine years of his life, Jack remained in his world, alone. Functionally non-verbal and with motor skill problems that affected his…

Charlan, Nathan

2010-01-01

18

Linear array CCD sensor for multispectral camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design, operational and performance features are described for a new 2048 element CCD array in a ceramic package for beam sharing focal plane arrangements on remote sensing satellites. The device, labeled the TH 7805, furnishes 13 micron square pixels at 13 microns pitch over the 480-930 nm interval, two video outputs and a single-phase, buried channel CCD register. Each n-p

J. Chabbal; G. Boucharlat; F. Capppechi; R. Benoit-Gonin

1985-01-01

19

The CCD cameras of RATS project.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the characteristics and the performances of the CCD cameras that will be used by the project RATS (RAdial velocity and Transit Search) that is an italian-ESA collaboration whose main goal is the search of extrasolar planet using the transit method. We describe the characteristics of the variuos cameras and the first tests at the Asiago Schmidt telescope at Cima Ekar.

Scuderi, S.; Claudi, R. U.; Favata, F.; Bonanno, G.; Bruno, P.; Cosentino, R.; Belluso, M.; Calí, A.; Timpanaro, M. C.; Chiomento, V.; Farisato, G.; Frigo, A.; Gianesini, G.; Traverso, L.; Rebeschini, M.; Strazzabosco, D.

20

C.C.D. Readout of a Picosecond Streak Camera with an Intensified C.C.D.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper deals with a digital streak camera readout device. The device consists in a low light level television camera made of a solid state C.C.D. array coupled to an image intensifier associated to a video-digitizer coupled to a micro-computer system....

M. Lemonier J. C. Richard C. Cavailler A. Mens G. Raze

1984-01-01

21

High-speed CCD camera at NAOC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high speed CCD camera has been completed at the National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC). A Kodak CCD was used in the camera. Two output ports are used to read out CCD data and total speed achieved 60M pixels per second. The Kodak KAI-4021 image sensor is a high-performance 2Kx2K-pixel interline transfer device. The 7.4? square pixels with micro lenses provide high sensitivity and the large full well capacity results in high dynamic range. The inter-line transfer structure provides high quality image and enables electronic shuttering for precise exposure control. The electronic shutter provides a method of precisely controlling the image exposure time without any mechanical components. The camera is controlled by a NIOS II family of embedded processors, which is Altera's second-generation soft-core embedded processor for FPGAs. The powerful embedded processors make the camera with splendid features to satisfy continuously appearing new observational requirements. This camera is very flexible and is easy to implement new special functions. Since FPGA and other peripheral logic signals are triggered by a single master clock, the whole system is perfectly synchronized. By using this technique the camera cuts off the noise dramatically.

Zhao, Zhaowang; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yangbin

2006-07-01

22

Two-channel, robotic CCD-camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design of a compact two-channel CCD-camera for the 0.8 m Cassegrain telescope operated at the Wendelstein Observatory. To achieve a high efficiency this camera is equipped with two channels, operating in the wavelength range of 400 - 540 nm and 570 - 900 nm, respectively. Each channel is provided with a filter slider for three positions, an independent photometric shutter, and a 2k x 2k CCD (80% peak efficiency). The camera can simultaneously record a red and a blue image of its 10.7' x 10.7' field of view. In addition it has an offset guider and supports robotic operation: Active cooling provides the operating temperature of 160 K avoiding the use of liquid nitrogen. Both CCDs share a single cryostat and can be aligned during operation. The complete vacuum control including pumping and cryopump cleaning can be operated remotely.

Goessl, Claus A.; Mitsch, Wolfgang; Altmann, Werner; Hopp, Ulrich; Barwig, Heinz

2003-03-01

23

A CCD camera for cinematograpic use in astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of a CCD camera for use in astronomy is described. The CCD employed in this design is a two-phase Thomson buried channel CCD that can operate as a bare or intensified CCD; the window generation, shutter, and gain adjustment for the CCD are examined. The three parts of the camera consist of: (1) optical components, (2) image intensifier and CCD, and (3) the electronics and power supply. The photometric performance of the camera is evaluated; it displays good performance for applications requiring high resolution for small field imagery and for multiaperture photometry.

Fort, B.; Picat, J. P.; Loubs, C.; Dupin, J. P.; Tilloles, P.

24

Linear array CCD sensor for multispectral camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design, operational and performance features are described for a new 2048 element CCD array in a ceramic package for beam sharing focal plane arrangements on remote sensing satellites. The device, labeled the TH 7805, furnishes 13 micron square pixels at 13 microns pitch over the 480-930 nm interval, two video outputs and a single-phase, buried channel CCD register. Each n-p photodiode is linked to a Si coating by a gate storing the photocharges. Crosstalk between elements is less than 1 percent and the rms noise level is 180 micro-V. The array output sensitivity is 1.37 micro-V/electron, linearity to less than 1 percent, and a 10 MHz maximum data rate. The entire sensor package draws under 150 mW power from the spacecraft. The TH 7805 has withstood over 10 krads in tests without exhibiting faults.

Chabbal, J.; Boucharlat, G.; Capppechi, F.; Benoit-Gonin, R.

1985-10-01

25

High-speed CCD readout camera system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high resolution fast readout camera system has been developed around a specialized full frame 512 * 512 pixel format CCD sensor in conjunction with EEV Ltd. An equivalent readout rate of 600 frames per second with a spatial resolution of 24 line pairs per mm at the Nyquist limit is achieved. A binning capability increases the readout rate by up to a factor of four. The system dynamic range is in excess of 1000:1. System features include image analysis for computer with dedicated software, non volatile memory, high resolution and real time displays, instantly reset able, single shot image capture capability and remote head operation.

Smith, Graham W.; Phillips, P. J.; Middleton, M. J.; Archibald, A. W.

1994-10-01

26

Remote control video camera for meteor observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing a new video system using the commercial off-the-shelf components which is possible to be remotely controlled via internet System is based on the Watec CCD camera which is mounted on the steerable mounting The mounting is connected to the video server with its own unique IP address Web-based interface enables to remotely aim the camera to desired azimuth and elevation The video signal is processed in real-time by a computer which stores meteor sequences in a digital form The main purpose of this experiment is to monitor the sky for the meteors over the year Because this new system will operate within the reach of the photographic network it is expected that it will provide simultaneous data for some fireballs too Due to better sensitivity and instant imaging mode of the used CCD camera we will be able to describe in more detail fragmentation processes of larger meteoroids as well as the beginning and terminal parts of the luminous trajectories of some meteors

Koten, P.; Spurny, P.; Borovicka, J.; Abe, S.

27

Linear CCD-Camera and Its Noise Characteristics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A CCD-camera based on a linear 2000-element charge-coupled light sensor K1200Cl2 has been designed. Construction of the camera is described. Distortion brought to a digital image by the camera are analyzed. Results of investigations of camera random noise...

A. L. Men'shikov V. N. Polyakov V. I. Prikhod'ko

1987-01-01

28

SELF-CALIBRATING TRIANGULATION OF AIRBORNE LINEAR ARRAY CCD CAMERAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since their first introduction, linear array CCD cameras play an important role in the airborne optical digital sensors market, together with matrix array CCD sensors. Most of the aerial linear array cameras work with the three-line-scanner (TLS) principle. The methods and algorithms to process airborne linear array imagery opened a wide research area to the scientists due to its fairly

S. Kocaman; L. Zhang; A. Gruen

29

The CCD Camera and Its Applications in Science Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Illustrates some of the possible uses of the CCD camera in science teaching. Starts with the introduction of Flexcam which is a type of CCD camera used primarily by biology teachers and uses Flexcam to demonstrate observations and scientific skills in connection with the TV monitor. (Author/YDS)|

Chun, Cecilia K. W.; Lam, Chi-Chung; Mak, S. Y.

2002-01-01

30

A virtual-phase CCD camera for the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CCD camera, called the Big Red Imaging CCD Camera (BRICC), is described. Particular attention is given to the instrument CCDs (the TI-4849 CCD), the CCD camera head and dewar, and the CCD controller. It is noted that the CCD control electronics are commanded by an RCA 1802 COSMAC microprocessor.

G. A. Luppino

1989-01-01

31

A virtual-phase CCD camera for the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A CCD camera, called the Big Red Imaging CCD Camera (BRICC), is described. Particular attention is given to the instrument CCDs (the TI-4849 CCD), the CCD camera head and dewar, and the CCD controller. It is noted that the CCD control electronics are commanded by an RCA 1802 COSMAC microprocessor.

Luppino, G. A.

1989-10-01

32

Development of CCD Imaging Block for Single Chip Color Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the home use portable color camera and the camera recorder (VTR equipped with camera) market is getting larger. This kind of camera requires to be more compact and light-weighted, and to have a higher quality picture. CCD Image Sensor allows the camera to be small-sized and light-weighted, providing many advantages, such as low image lag, low image

Yoshiteru Ogawa; Yasuo Nakada; Hiromichi Yasui; Shigeyuki Ochi

1985-01-01

33

Opinion rating of comparison photographs of television pictures from CCD cameras under irradiation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the development of a general method of testing the effects of gamma radiation on CCD television cameras, this is a report of an experimental study on the optimisation of still photographic representation of video pictures recorded before and du...

V. M. Reading A. A. Dumbreck

1991-01-01

34

Solid-State Video Camera for the Accelerator Environment  

SciTech Connect

Solid-State video cameras employing CMOS technology have been developed and tested for several years in the SLAC accelerator, notably the PEPII (BaBar) injection lines. They have proven much more robust than their CCD counterparts in radiation areas. Repair is simple, inexpensive, and generates very little radioactive waste.

Brown, R.L.V.; Roster, B.H.; Yee, C.K. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA 94309 (United States)

2004-11-10

35

Solid-State Video Camera for the Accelerator Environment  

SciTech Connect

Solid-State video cameras employing CMOS technology have been developed and tested for several years in the SLAC accelerator; notably the PEPII (BaBar) injection lines. They have proven much more robust than their CCD counterparts in radiation areas. Repair is simple, inexpensive, and generates very little radioactive waste.

Brown, R

2004-05-27

36

Solid State Television Camera (CCD-Buried Channel).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of an all solid state television camera, which uses a buried channel charge coupled device (CCD) as the image sensor, was undertaken. A 380 x 488 element CCD array is utilized to ensure compatibility with 525 line transmission and display ...

1976-01-01

37

Kyiv meridian axial circle with a new CCD camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specifications of a new Apogee Alta U47 CCD camera mounted at the Kyiv meridian axial circle (MAC) are presented. The camera\\u000a is based on the 1024 × 1024 pxl e2v CCD47-10 with pixel sizes of 13 × 13 ?m. Observations are carried out in the scan-drift\\u000a mode with an effective exposure time of 77 s for equatorial stars. The MAC

V. L. Karbovs’ky; P. F. Lazorenko; V. N. Andruk; V. V. Kleshchenok; M. O. Litvin; K. O. Bogatyrev; E. V. Denisyuk

2011-01-01

38

ITANET CCD camera for Near-Earth Objects photometric observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) observational research programme undertaken at the Department of Physics and Astronomy of Catania University, a CCD camera was developed to be used at the 41/61-cm Schmidt telescope of M.G. Fracastoro station. The camera, equipped with BVRI Johnson filters and mounting a bare, front-illuminated 2048×2048 Kodak KAF-4202 CCD with 9 ?m pixel-size, was realised at the Catania Astrophysical Observatory Laboratory for Detectors (COLD). The optimisation of the operating conditions of both electronics and cryogenics and the CCD characterisation are presented.

Gandolfi, D.; Blanco, C.; Bonanno, G.; Belluso, M.; Bruno, P.; Calí, A.; Scuderi, S.; Timpanaro, M. C.; Claudi, R. U.

39

A CCD camera probe for a superconducting cyclotron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors developed a probe for a K1200 superconducting cyclotron based on a charge coupled device (CCD) TV camera that works in a 6 T magnetic field. The camera looks at the beam spot on a scintillating screen. The TV image is processed by a frame grabber that digitizes and displays the image in pseudocolor in real time. This probe

F. Marti; R. Blue; J. Kuchar; J. A. Nolen; B. Sherrill; J. Yurkon

1991-01-01

40

Streak Camera Performance with Large-Format CCD Readout.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ICF program at Livermore has a large inventory of optical streak cameras that were built in the 1970s and 1980s. The cameras include micro-channel plate image-intensifier tubes (IIT) that provide signal amplification and early lens-coupled CCD readout...

R. A. Lerche D. S. Andrews P. M. Bell R. L. Griffith J. W. McDonald

2003-01-01

41

Streak Camera Performance with Large-Format CCD Readout  

SciTech Connect

The ICF program at Livermore has a large inventory of optical streak cameras that were built in the 1970s and 1980s. The cameras include micro-channel plate image-intensifier tubes (IIT) that provide signal amplification and early lens-coupled CCD readouts. Today, these cameras are still very functional, but some replacement parts such as the original streak tube, CCD, and IIT are scarce and obsolete. This article describes recent efforts to improve the performance of these cameras using today's advanced CCD readout technologies. Very sensitive, large-format CCD arrays with efficient fiber-optic input faceplates are now available for direct coupling with the streak tube. Measurements of camera performance characteristics including linearity, spatial and temporal resolution, line-spread function, contrast transfer ratio (CTR), and dynamic range have been made for several different camera configurations: CCD coupled directly to the streak tube, CCD directly coupled to the IIT, and the original configuration with a smaller CCD lens coupled to the IIT output. Spatial resolution (limiting visual) with and without the IIT is 8 and 20 lp/mm, respectively, for photocathode current density up to 25% of the Child-Langmuir (C-L) space-charge limit. Temporal resolution (fwhm) deteriorates by about 20% when the cathode current density reaches 10% of the C-L space charge limit. Streak tube operation with large average tube current was observed by illuminating the entire slit region through a Ronchi ruling and measuring the CTR. Sensitivity (CCD electrons per streak tube photoelectron) for the various configurations ranged from 7.5 to 2,700 with read noise of 7.5 to 10.5 electrons. Optimum spatial resolution is achieved when the IIT is removed. Maximum dynamic range requires a configuration where a single photoelectron from the photocathode produces a signal that is 3 to 5 times the read noise.

Lerche, R A; Andrews, D S; Bell, P M; Griffith, R L; McDonald, J W; Torres, P III; Vergel de Dios, G

2003-07-08

42

Printed circuit board for a CCD camera head  

DOEpatents

A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close (0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA)

2002-01-01

43

CTK: A new CCD Camera at the University Observatory Jena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassegrain-Teleskop-Kamera (CTK) is a new CCD imager which is operated at the University Observatory Jena since begin of 2006. This article describes the main characteristics of the new camera. The properties of the CCD detector, the CTK image quality, as well as its detection limits for all filters are presented. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University.

Mugrauer, M.

2009-05-01

44

High-speed, photon-counting CCD cameras for astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of electron multiplying CCD cameras require a very different approach from that appropriate for slow scan CCD operation. This paper describes the main problems in using electron multiplying CCDs for high-speed, photon counting applications in astronomy and how these may be substantially overcome. With careful design it is possible to operate the E2V Technologies L3CCDs at rates well

Craig Mackay; Tim D. Staley; David King; Frank Suess; Keith Weller

2010-01-01

45

A Spectrograph and CCD Camera For an Undergraduate Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have built a combined spectrograph and CCD camera for a 0.5 m student laboratory telescope on the roof of the Physics and Astronomy building at Rutgers University. The instrument is designed to be permanently mounted on the telescope, thus minimizing instrument changes and maintenance. Moving one of the fold mirrors out of the light-path also permits visual observing. The CCD camera and the spectrograph share a common focal plane so that the camera can be used for guiding while taking spectra. Light reaches the spectrograph through four optical fibers and 66 nm of spectrum is recorded on a second CCD, with a resolution of 0.2 nm. This instrument was developed with support from Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey and the National Science Foundation through grant DUE 93-51745.

Pryor, C.; Williams, T. B.; Merritt, D. R.; Molnar, M. R.

1996-05-01

46

High-speed, photon-counting CCD cameras for astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of electron multiplying CCD cameras require a very different approach from that appropriate for slow scan CCD operation. This paper describes the main problems in using electron multiplying CCDs for high-speed, photon counting applications in astronomy and how these may be substantially overcome. With careful design it is possible to operate the E2V Technologies L3CCDs at rates well in excess of that claimed by the manufacturer, and that levels of clock induced charge dramatically lower than those experienced with commercial cameras that need to operate at unity gain. Measurements of the performance of the E2V Technologies CCD201 operating at 26 MHz will be presented together with a guide to the effective reduction of clock induced charge levels. Examples of astronomical results obtained with our cameras are presented.

Mackay, Craig; Staley, Tim D.; King, David; Suess, Frank; Weller, Keith

2010-07-01

47

Detection of the degradation of CBERS-02 CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) was developed by China in cooperation with Brazil. As one of the most important payload, CCD camera is expected to play an important role in the application of CBERS. Vicarious calibrations have been conducted every one year and cross-calibration is one of the methods to the calibration. Our effort is to probe the methodology of radiometric cross-calibration the CCD with MODIS and detect the degradation of the CCD camera since it was launched. The radiometric and reflectance coefficients and offsets for four CCD spectral bands were obtained based on the cross-calibration with four calibration targets. Results were validated by the synchro surface targets spectral measurement at Dunhuang site. The TOA radiances from calculation and simulation were consistent within 1%. Comparing our results with the coefficients based on vicarious calibration show that the average variation of the two independent methods was with 6%. Based on many times of radiometric-cross calibration of the CCD with the MODIS, the time series of radiometric coefficients for the CCD were obtained. Results illuminated that the response of the CCD have degraded, which could reach up to 3%- 7% per month

Li, Xiaoying; Gu, Xingfa; Yu, Tao; Min, Xiangjun; Zhang, Yong; Li, Xiaowen

2005-10-01

48

High-speed camera with a back-thinned 16-port frame transfer CCD sensor  

SciTech Connect

A high-frame-rate CCD camera is described, based on the a new, back-thinned, 512 x 512 pixel frame transfer sensor with 16 video ports. The sensor allows for imaging beyond the visible range within a large dynamic range. Circuits for testing and evaluation of the sensor over a large range of charge transfer clock frequencies and the measured data are presented. The performance of the device when driven to the readout speed limit is also discussed.

Turko, B.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Yates, G.J.; Albright, K.L.; Pena, C.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1995-12-01

49

CCD-Camera images of BEST-TWO and processing results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A survey is presented of the 'still video' pictures that have been recorded with 3 CCD-cameras during the BEST-TWO trial in Mourmelon, France. The composition of and selection for two databases is described, and the results of processing with the FELimage processing algorithm are given. A statistical analysis of these processing results is carried out and described. For each scenario, one or more examples of processed images are given.

Boden, J. A.; Deutekom, M.; Wilmink, M. J.

1993-04-01

50

Design of a new CCD-camera neutron radiography detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new electronic neutron radiography detector has been designed at the Paul Scherrer Institute with the aim of providing a tool for scientific and industrial radiography applications requiring high-quantitative precision.The basic principle of the detector is the combination of a CCD-camera with a neutron-sensitive scintillator screen. The light from the screen is reflected to the camera by a mirror and

Helena Pleinert; Eberhard Lehmann; Sonja Körner

1997-01-01

51

High frame rate CCD cameras with fast optical shutters for military and medical imaging applications  

SciTech Connect

Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed and prototyped high-frame rate intensified/shuttered Charge-Coupled-Device (CCD) cameras capable of operating at kilohertz frame rates (non-interlaced mode) with optical shutters capable of acquiring nanosecond-to-microsecond exposures each frame. These cameras utilize an Interline Transfer CCD, Loral Fairchild CCD-222 with 244 {times} 380 pixels operated at pixel rates approaching 100 Mhz. Initial prototype designs demonstrated single-port serial readout rates exceeding 3.97 Kilohertz with greater than 51p/mm spatial resolution at shutter speeds as short as 5ns. Readout was achieved by using a truncated format of 128 {times} 128 pixels by partial masking of the CCD and then subclocking the array at approximately 65Mhz pixel rate. Shuttering was accomplished with a proximity focused microchannel plate (MCP) image intensifier (MCPII) that incorporated a high strip current MCP and a design modification for high-speed stripline gating geometry to provide both fast shuttering and high repetition rate capabilities. Later camera designs use a close-packed quadruple head geometry fabricated using an array of four separate CCDs (pseudo 4-port device). This design provides four video outputs with optional parallel or time-phased sequential readout modes. The quad head format was designed with flexibility for coupling to various image intensifier configurations, including individual intensifiers for each CCD imager, a single intensifier with fiber optic or lens/prism coupled fanout of the input image to be shared by the four CCD imagers or a large diameter phosphor screen of a gateable framing type intensifier for time sequential relaying of a complete new input image to each CCD imager. Camera designs and their potential use in ongoing military and medical time-resolved imaging applications are discussed.

King, N.S.P.; Albright, K.; Jaramillo, S.A.; McDonald, T.E.; Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Turko, B.T. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-09-01

52

Driving techniques for high frame rate CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a high-frame rate CCD camera capable of operating at 100 frames/s. This camera utilizes Kodak KAI-0340, an interline transfer CCD with 640(vertical)×480(horizontal) pixels. Two output ports are used to read out CCD data and pixel rates approaching 30 MHz. Because of its reduced effective opacity of vertical charge transfer registers, interline transfer CCD can cause undesired image artifacts, such as random white spots and smear generated in the registers. To increase frame rate, a kind of speed-up structure has been incorporated inside KAI-0340, then it is vulnerable to a vertical stripe effect. The phenomena which mentioned above may severely impair the image quality. To solve these problems, some electronic methods of eliminating these artifacts are adopted. Special clocking mode can dump the unwanted charge quickly, then the fast readout of the images, cleared of smear, follows immediately. Amplifier is used to sense and correct delay mismatch between the dual phase vertical clock pulses, the transition edges become close to coincident, so vertical stripes disappear. Results obtained with the CCD camera are shown.

Guo, Weiqiang; Jin, Longxu; Xiong, Jingwu

2008-03-01

53

A study of Einstein Observatory fields with a CCD camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photometry at R and I wavelengths obtained with a 100 x 100 pixel CCD camera for fields containing X-ray sources discovered by the Einstein X-ray Observatory is presented. One field contains an anonymous distant cluster of galaxies for which an approximate redshift is reported. In two of the three Draco fields, faint sources are found having stellar appearance but anomalous

R. Schild; R. Leach; T. Weekes; H. Gursky

1980-01-01

54

Michrocam concept of CCD Cranz Schardin high-speed camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The old Cranz Schardin (C.S.) concept of multi-exposures high- speed visualization system has been reduced to the size of one CCD sensor. As a result of this concept, that have been called michrocam, integrates the advantages of both the Cranz Schardin systems and the modern numerical camera. Michrocam is a shadowgraph and schlieren visualization device. Thanks to this miniaturization, very

A. Merlen; C. Begue; L. Derbesse; Ph. Pernod; C. Ahyi

2001-01-01

55

Unsupervised estimation of signal-dependent CCD camera noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with an original method to estimate the noise introduced by optical imaging systems, such as CCD cameras. The power of the signal-dependent photon noise is decoupled from the power of the signal-independent electronic noise. The method relies on the multivariate regression of sample mean and variance. Statistically similar image pixels, not necessarily connected, produce scatterpoints that are clustered along a straight line, whose slope and intercept measure the signal-dependent and signal-independent components of the noise power, respectively. Experimental results carried out on a simulated noisy image and on true data from a commercial CCD camera highlight the accuracy of the proposed method and its applicability to separate R-G-B components that have been corrected for the nonlinear effects of the camera response function, but not yet interpolated to the the full size of the mosaiced R-G-B image.

Aiazzi, Bruno; Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Selva, Massimo; Stefani, Lorenzo

2012-12-01

56

Vision system using linear CCD cameras in fluorescent magnetic particle inspection of axles of railway wheelsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic magnetic particle inspection based vision system using CCD camera is a new development of magnetic particle inspection. A vision system using linear CCD cameras in semiautomatic fluorescent magnetic particle inspection of axles of railway wheelsets is presented in this paper. The system includes four linear CCD cameras, a PCI data acquisition & logic control card, and an industrial computer.

Hongwei Hao; Luming Li; Yuanhui Deng

2005-01-01

57

Design of high-speed low-noise pre-amplifier for CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pre-amplifier circuit is critical for the noise performance of the high speed CCD camera. Its main functions are amplification and impedance transform. The high speed and low noise pre-amplifier of CCD camera is discussed and designed in this paper. The high speed and low noise operational amplifier OPA842 is adopted as the main part. The gain-set resistors for the amplifier are designed optimally. The different precision gain-set resistors are swept using Monte Carlo method. CCD video signal which has high DC offset voltage is AC coupled to the amplifier. The output signal of the amplifier is source terminated using 50 ohms matching resistor so as to transmit the video signal through coaxial cable. When the circuit works in high speed, the PCB will have important effect to circuit performance and can even cause the amplifier unstable due to the parasitic problem of PCB. So the parasitic model of the PCB is established and the PCB layout design issues are also presented. The design result shows that the pre-amplifier can be used in the camera whose pixel rate could be up to 40 MHz and its input referred noise density is about 3 nV/Hz1/2.

Xue, Xucheng; Zhang, Shuyan; Li, Hongfa; Guo, Yongfei

2010-05-01

58

CCD camera response to diffraction patterns simulating particle images.  

PubMed

We present a statistical study of CCD (or CMOS) camera response to small images. Diffraction patterns simulating particle images of a size around 2-3 pixels were experimentally generated and characterized using three-point Gaussian peak fitting, currently used in particle image velocimetry (PIV) for accurate location estimation. Based on this peak-fitting technique, the bias and RMS error between locations of simulated and real images were accurately calculated by using a homemade program. The influence of the intensity variation of the simulated particle images on the response of the CCD camera was studied. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the position determination is very good and brings attention to superresolution PIV algorithms. Some tracks are proposed in the conclusion to enlarge and improve the study. PMID:23842270

Stanislas, M; Abdelsalam, D G; Coudert, S

2013-07-01

59

Adaptive regulation of CCD camera for real time eye tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an eye tracking method and an automatic focusing technique, which combine the regulation of the aperture with\\u000a the adjustment of the focus of the camera lens, are proposed to acquire clear eye images in the eye-gaze tracking system.\\u000a Firstly, the aperture of the CCD lens is controlled to adapt the system to external lighting circumstances with the

Ruian Liu; Xin Zhou; Nailin Wang; Mimi Zhang

2011-01-01

60

High frame rate CCD camera with fast optical shutter  

SciTech Connect

A high frame rate CCD camera coupled with a fast optical shutter has been designed for high repetition rate imaging applications. The design uses state-of-the-art microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPII) technology fostered/developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to support nuclear, military, and medical research requiring high-speed imagery. Key design features include asynchronous resetting of the camera to acquire random transient images, patented real-time analog signal processing with 10-bit digitization at 40--75 MHz pixel rates, synchronized shutter exposures as short as 200pS, sustained continuous readout of 512 x 512 pixels per frame at 1--5Hz rates via parallel multiport (16-port CCD) data transfer. Salient characterization/performance test data for the prototype camera are presented, temporally and spatially resolved images obtained from range-gated LADAR field testing are included, an alternative system configuration using several cameras sequenced to deliver discrete numbers of consecutive frames at effective burst rates up to 5GHz (accomplished by time-phasing of consecutive MCPII shutter gates without overlap) is discussed. Potential applications including dynamic radiography and optical correlation will be presented.

Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Turko, B.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1998-09-01

61

Free-Viewpoint Video from Depth Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depth cameras, which provide color and depth in- formation per pixel at video rates, offer exciting new opportunities in computer graphics. We address the challenge of supporting free-viewpoint video of dynamic 3D scenes using live data captured and streamed from widely-spaced viewpoints by a hand- ful of synchronized depth cameras. We introduce the concept of the depth hull, which is

Alexander Bogomjakov; Craig Gotsman; Marcus Magnor

62

On the Algorithm for BOAO CCD Camera Control Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of universal CCD camera control software for all BOAO CCD camera systems is proposed. The new software, running under Sun SPARCstation and motif based X window system with SunOS 4.1.3 operating system, replaces existing control software based on NeXTstation color and NeXTstep 2.1 operating system which is no more produced now. Several new features of the new software is introduced, some of which are 1) the image contrast is enhanced by color manipulation and display, 2) image zooming and trimming, 3) any size of image can be displayed in the scrolled window, and 4) the offset between telescope pointing position and CCD center is easily calculated by alt-azi map. Along with the above new features, the new software has advantages including ease of maintenance and upgrading and elimination of risk caused by hardware damage. Since September 1, the software beta version is being used by observers and there is not seen severe problem regarding the software itself, but several requests to equip more features to the software will be mirrored to future release.

Yuk, In-Soo; Park, Byeong-Gon

1996-12-01

63

Object tracking using multiple camera video streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two synchronized cameras are utilized to obtain independent video streams to detect moving objects from two different viewing angles. The video frames are directly correlated in time. Moving objects in image frames from the two cameras are identified and tagged for tracking. One advantage of such a system involves overcoming effects of occlusions that could result in an object in partial or full view in one camera, when the same object is fully visible in another camera. Object registration is achieved by determining the location of common features in the moving object across simultaneous frames. Perspective differences are adjusted. Combining information from images from multiple cameras increases robustness of the tracking process. Motion tracking is achieved by determining anomalies caused by the objects' movement across frames in time in each and the combined video information. The path of each object is determined heuristically. Accuracy of detection is dependent on the speed of the object as well as variations in direction of motion. Fast cameras increase accuracy but limit the speed and complexity of the algorithm. Such an imaging system has applications in traffic analysis, surveillance and security, as well as object modeling from multi-view images. The system can easily be expanded by increasing the number of cameras such that there is an overlap between the scenes from at least two cameras in proximity. An object can then be tracked long distances or across multiple cameras continuously, applicable, for example, in wireless sensor networks for surveillance or navigation.

Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Rojas, Diego; McLauchlan, Lifford

2010-04-01

64

CCD-camera-based head-up display test station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurement of the parameters required to calibrate and Acceptance Test a Head Up Display have traditionally been made using a Photometer and Theodolite. As HUD complexity has increased it has become an increasingly lengthy process subject to error. The concept of using a calibrated CCD Camera to combine the functions in a highly automated system is not new but creating a practical system for production with traceability to the traditional method has proven difficult. This paper describes the introduction of an automated measurement system to the Eurofighter Head Up display programme.

Bartlett, Christopher T.; Handley, Mark H.

2002-08-01

65

STK: A new CCD camera at the University Observatory Jena  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Schmidt-Teleskop-Kamera (STK) is a new CCD-imager, which is operated since begin of 2009 at the University Observatory Jena. This article describes the main characteristics of the new camera. The properties of the STK detector, the astrometry and image quality of the STK, as well as its detection limits at the 0.9 m telescope of the University Observatory Jena are presented. Based on observations obtained with telescopes of the University Observatory Jena, which is operated by the Astrophysical Institute of the Friedrich-Schiller-University.

Mugrauer, M.; Berthold, T.

2010-04-01

66

Ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity color camera with 300,000-pixel single CCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed an ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity portable color camera with a new 300,000-pixel single CCD. The 300,000-pixel CCD, which has four times the number of pixels of our initial model, was developed by seamlessly joining two 150,000-pixel CCDs. A green-red-green-blue (GRGB) Bayer filter is used to realize a color camera with the single-chip CCD. The camera is capable of ultrahigh-speed

K. Kitamura; T. Arai; J. Yonai; T. Hayashida; H. Ohtake; T. Kurita; K. Tanioka; H. Maruyama; J. Namiki; T. Yanagi; T. Yoshida; H. van Kuijk; Jan T. Bosiers; T. G. Etoh

2007-01-01

67

Optical system based on a CCD camera for ethanol detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports the optimization of an optical system used to detect and quantify volatile organic compounds (VOC). The sensor consisted of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sensing film deposited on a glass substrate by the spin-coating technique. The PDMS has the property of swelling and/or changing its refractive index when it interacts with molecules of VOC in vapor phase. In order to measure the PDMS swelling, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was employed to evaluate the interference fringe shift in a Pohl interferometric arrangement. With this approach, it is possible to use each pixel of the CCD camera as a single photodetector in the arrangement. Similarly, different computer algorithms were developed in order to acquire and process the obtained data. The improvements in the system allowed the acquisition and plot of 1 datum per second. The steady-state responses of the PDMS sensors in the presence of ethanol vapor were analyzed. The obtained results showed that noise level was reduced approximately three times after performing data processing.

Martínez-Hipatl, C.; Muñoz-Aguirre, S.; Muñoz-Guerrero, R.; Castillo-Mixcóatl, J.; Beltrán-Pérez, G.; Gutiérrez-Salgado, J. M.

2013-10-01

68

Video Analysis with a Web Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in technology have made video capture and analysis1 in the introductory physics lab even more affordable and accessible. The purchase of a relatively inexpensive web camera is all you need if you already have a newer computer and Vernier's2 Logger Pro 3 software. In addition to Logger Pro 3, other video analysis tools such as Videopoint3 and Tracker,4 which is freely downloadable, by Doug Brown could also be used. I purchased Logitech's5 QuickCam Pro 4000 web camera for $99 after Rick Sorensen6 at Vernier Software and Technology recommended it for computers using a Windows platform. Once I had mounted the web camera on a mobile computer with Velcro and installed the software, I was ready to capture motion video and analyze it.

Wyrembeck, Edward P.

2009-01-01

69

Stereovision measurement technology with rotation CCD camera of multi-object  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aiming at these problems in real-time measurement about multiple targets in large scale, we propose a vision measuring method with CCD Rotation Ranging System (CRRS) to achieve the dynamic measurement with high-accuracy. CRRS is composed of mechanical rotating platform and Area scan CCD camera. The CCD camera is fixed on a mechanical rotating platform which is droved by motor. The CCD camera is used to ensure the position measurement of target. Firstly, we calibrate the CCD camera before the measurement. Secondly, the two CCD cameras is revolved and pitched by the rotating platform to measure a fixed field of the large area with high precision. The two CCD cameras composed of a Binocular stereo vision system to measure the local coordinates of the target. Thirdly, the poses of two CCD cameras are got from the rotating platform, so we can translate the local coordinates of target to the global coordinates. The experiment results show that, the measurement device can measure the targets precisely and efficiently, with non-contact the rotation CCD probe.

Li, Xiaofeng; Jin, Jing; Li, Weimin

2011-10-01

70

A fast focal-reducing camera for CCD imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the design and performance of the OREAD focal-reducing camera, constructed for use at the Cassegrain focus of the Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT Observatory McGraw-Hill 1.3-meter telescope. OREAD is an all-refractive optical system providing a 50-mm collimated beam suitable for commercially available narrow-band filters or grisms. Its collimator and field lens are custom-made to decrease the severe coma which would otherwise be present at the extremities of its 30-arc-min field. When used with a CCD such as the TI 800 x 800, OREAD provides a field of view of 0.1 square degree at 1.5 arcsec/pixel. The focal ratio of OREAD of f/1.63 allows sky-limited narrow-band images to be obtained with exposures of only moderate duration. In an Appendix, some limitations inherent in coarsely sampled data obtained with CCDs are examined.

Aldering, Gregory S.; Bothun, Gregory D.

1991-12-01

71

Towards full-field photothermoelastic microscopy using a CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a new method which allows extracting thermoelastic images by full-field method using in-plane measurement. The aim of this work is to show that it is possible to extract the in-plane thermoelastic field. Recently, a vibrometric measurement method has been developed at FEMTO-ST Institute for measuring in-plane displacement with nanometer and sub nanometer resolutions. The use of this method with thermography imaging allowed us to extract thermal expansion of micro samples heated by photothermal or thermoelectrical excitation. In this paper, we present an innovating technique to image thermoelastic field of these investigated samples. This technique is based on a CCD (charge-coupled device) camera which has been optimized for the previously presented applications.

Charnay, J.; Teyssieux, D.; Cretin, B.

2010-03-01

72

Solid state, CCD-buried channel, television camera study and design  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of an all solid state television camera design, which uses a buried channel charge-coupled device (CCD) as the image sensor, was undertaken. A 380 x 488 element CCD array was utilized to ensure compatibility with 525 line transmission and display monitor equipment. Specific camera design approaches selected for study and analysis included (a) optional clocking modes for either

K. A. Hoagland; H. Balopole

1976-01-01

73

High-frame-rate CCD cameras with fast optical shutters for military and medical imaging applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has designed and prototyped high-frame rate intensified\\/shuttered Charge-Coupled-Device (CCD) cameras capable of operating at Kilohertz frame rates (non-interfaced mode) with optical shutters capable of acquiring nanosecond-to- microsecond exposures each frame. These cameras utilize an Interline Transfer CCD, Loral Fairchild CCD-222 with 244 (vertical) X 380 (horizontal) pixels operated at pixel rates approaching 100 Mhz. Initial

Nicholas S. King; Kevin L. Albright; Steven A. Jaramillo; Thomas E. McDonald; George J. Yates; Bojan T. Turko

1994-01-01

74

Real-time lock-in imaging by a newly developed high-speed image-processing charge coupled device video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Real-time lock-in imaging with high-frequency modulation (up to 16 kHz) was successfully performed at high spatial resolution (640×480 pixels) using a newly developed high-speed image-processing charge coupled device (CCD) video camera. To achieve high-resolution lock-in imaging, the high-speed image-processing CCD video camera incorporates a high-definition TV image sensor that uses a high-definition frame-interline-transfer (FIT) CCD architecture. A novel FIT-CCD driving method, in which vertical CCD shift registers are utilized as a temporary frame memory, enables lock-in imaging at a modulation frequency in excess of the video frame rate (30 Hz). Furthermore, since the high-speed image-processing CCD video camera has a function for subtracting images taken with high-frequency modulation, a lock-in image with no background contrast can be observed in real time. The phase detection function for lock-in imaging, when coupled with real-time image processing using the high-speed image-processing CCD video camera, makes it possible to dynamically observe the phase distribution in a two-dimensional area. As a demonstration of the real-time lock-in imaging, the wave pattern that appears on the surface of water was successfully visualized by a real-time lock-in imaging system that uses the high-speed image-processing CCD video camera.

Nishikata, Kentarou; Kimura, Yoshihide; Takai, Yoshizo; Ikuta, Takashi; Shimizu, Ryuichi

2003-03-01

75

Design and Development of Multi-Purpose CCD Camera System with Thermoelectric Cooling: Hardware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed and developed a multi-purpose CCD camera system for three kinds of CCDs; KAF-0401E(768×512), KAF-1602E(1536×1024), KAF-3200E(2184×1472) made by KODAK Co.. The system supports fast USB port as well as parallel port for data I/O and control signal. The packing is based on two stage circuit boards for size reduction and contains built-in filter wheel. Basic hardware components include clock pattern circuit, A/D conversion circuit, CCD data flow control circuit, and CCD temperature control unit. The CCD temperature can be controlled with accuracy of approximately 0.4° C in the max. range of temperature, ? 33° C. This CCD camera system has with readout noise 6 e^{-}, and system gain 5 e^{-}/ADU. A total of 10 CCD camera systems were produced and our tests show that all of them show passable performance.

Kang, Y.-W.; Byun, Y. I.; Rhee, J. H.; Oh, S. H.; Kim, D. K.

2007-12-01

76

Astronomical Station Vidojevica: In Situ Test of the Alta Apogee U42 CCD Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the CCD camera most used by observers of the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade is the ALTA Apogee U42. It is used for both photometric and astrometric observations. Therefore, it is very important to know different measurable parameters which describe the condition of the camera - linearity, gain, readout noise etc. In this paper, we present a thorough test of this camera.

Vince, O.

2012-12-01

77

Ultrahigh-definition experimental camera system with an 8M-pixel CCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultra-high definition experimental camera system has been designed with double the horizontal and vertical resolution of HDTV. An 8M-pixel CCD with a progressive 60 frame-per- second scan-rate has been developed for the system. The 34 mm X 17.2 mm image area has 4046 (H) X 2048 (V) active imaging pixels with 8.4-micrometers squares. This CCD has a split- frame transfer structure and sixteen 37.125 MHz outputs so that the vertical and horizontal transfer frequencies are almost the same as those of HDTV. The split-frame transfer structure halves the required VCCD clock speeds and thus improves charge transfer efficiency. The multiple-output structure with its 16 outputs enables high data-rate imaging for ultra-high resolution moving pictures. In the signal processing section, analog gain adjustment circuits correct for the mismatches in the characteristics of outputs, and a correlated double-sampling technology is employed on each of the 16 CCD output signals. The output signals are digitized by 12-bit ADCs. The converted signals are then sent to the digital signal processing (DSP) circuits. In the DSP circuits, the upper half of the captured image is vertically inverted. All of the output data is then merged into a 4K X 2K pixel image and reformatted to create twenty-four 640 (H) X 480 (V) pixel sub-images for image processing. After contour compensation processing, the video signals are converted into an analog signal and presented on two ultra high resolution video monitors.

Mitani, Kohji; Sugawara, Masayuki; Shimamoto, Hiroshi; Smith, Charles R.; Farrier, Michael G.; Tang, Queintin; Okano, Fumio

2000-05-01

78

A Performance Study of the CCD Cameras of the Joint Laboratory of Optical Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A performance study of several CCD cameras of the Chinese Joint Laboratory of Optical Astronomy (CJLOA) is presented. The main results are: 1 We propose a modified classical method to analyse the linearity of CCD cameras. This method is more sensitive and accurate as well as more intuitive, especially in measuring around the 0.1%--0.2% range of nonlinearity. 2) To illustrate the advantage of the method, the linearity performance of the CCD cameras at CJLOA has been measured and analysed. 3) For the CCD systems tested, there is no unique formula to represent the correlation over the entire CCD frame between the deviation from linearity and the pixel value, i.e., different pixel has different correction even though their pixel values are the same. 4) For the BFOSC (BAO Faint Object Spectrograph Camera) Loral CCD camera and the Tek CCD camera at the 1.56-m reflector, blooming (bleeding) happens long before saturation, and we suspect whether it could have resulted from the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) not being high enough.

Yao, Bao-An; Zhang, Chun-Sheng; Lin, Qing

2004-08-01

79

A new testing method of SNR for cooled CCD imaging camera based on stationary wavelet transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooled CCD (charge coupled device) imaging camera has found wide application in the field of astronomy, color photometry, spectroscopy, medical imaging, densitometry, chemiluminescence and epifluorescence imaging. A Cooled CCD (CCCD) imaging camera differs from traditional CCD/CMOS imaging camera in that Cooled CCD imaging camera can get high resolution image even in the low illumination environment. SNR (signal noise ratio) is most popular parameter of digital image quality evaluation. Many researchers have proposed various SNR testing methods for traditional CCD imaging camera, however, which is seldom suitable to Cooled CCD imaging camera because of different main noise source. In this paper, a new testing method of SNR is proposed to evaluate the quality of image captured by Cooled CCD. Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT) is introduced in the testing method for getting more exact image SNR value. The method proposed take full advantage of SWT in the image processing, which makes the experiment results accuracy and reliable. To further refining SNR testing results, the relation between SNR and integration time is also analyzed in this article. The experimental results indicate that the testing method proposed accords with the SNR model of CCCD. In addition, the testing values for one system are about one value, which show that the proposed testing method is robust.

Liu, Yan; Liu, Qianshun; Yu, Feihong

2013-08-01

80

Vision system using linear CCD cameras in fluorescent magnetic particle inspection of axles of railway wheelsets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic magnetic particle inspection based vision system using CCD camera is a new development of magnetic particle inspection. A vision system using linear CCD cameras in semiautomatic fluorescent magnetic particle inspection of axles of railway wheelsets is presented in this paper. The system includes four linear CCD cameras, a PCI data acquisition & logic control card, and an industrial computer. The unique characteristic of striation induced by UV light flicker in scanning image acquired by linear CCD camera are investigated, and some digital image processing methods for images of magnetic particle indications are designed to identify the cracks, including image pre-processing using wavelet, edge detection based connected region using Candy operator and double thresholds. The experimental results show that the system can detect the article cracks effectively, and may improve inspection quality highly and increase productivity practically.

Hao, Hongwei; Li, Luming; Deng, Yuanhui

2005-05-01

81

High-frame rate CCD cameras with fast optical shutters for mine detection and surveillance applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed and prototyped high-frame rate intensified/shuttered charged coupled device (CCD) cameras for potential use by the US military for land and sea mine detection and related surveillance applications. The complete ...

N. S. P. King K. A. Albright T. E. McDonald G. J. Yates B. T. Turko

1993-01-01

82

The in-flight spectroscopic calibration of the Swift XRT CCD camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) focal plane camera houses a front-illuminated MOS CCD, providing a spectral response of 145 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. We describe the status of the CCD X-ray spectral redistribution matrices, which are made using a Monte-Carlo simulation technique based on physical models of the CCD response. We emphasize how the model has been refined following

A. P. Beardmore; O. Godet; A. F. Abbey; J. P. Osborne; K. L. Page; A. A. Wells; M. R. Goad

2006-01-01

83

The In-flight Spectroscopic Performance of the Swift XRT CCD Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swift X-ray Telescope focal plane camera is a front-illuminated MOS CCD, providing a spectral response kernel of 145 eV FWHM at 5.9keV. We describe the status of the CCD X-ray spectral response matrices, which are made using a Monte-Carlo simulation technique based on physical models of the CCD response. We emphasize how the model has been refined following in-flight

Andrew Beardmore; O. Godet; A. F. Abbey; J. P. Osborne; K. L. Page; A. A. Wells

2006-01-01

84

Solid State, CCD-Buried Channel, Television Camera Study and Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of an all solid state television camera design, which uses a buried channel charge-coupled device (CCD) as the image sensor, was undertaken. A 380 x 488 element CCD array was utilized to ensure compatibility with 525 line transmission and...

K. A. Hoagland H. Balopole

1976-01-01

85

Design of high-speed low-noise pre-amplifier for CCD camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-amplifier circuit is critical for the noise performance of the high speed CCD camera. Its main functions are amplification and impedance transform. The high speed and low noise pre-amplifier of CCD camera is discussed and designed in this paper. The high speed and low noise operational amplifier OPA842 is adopted as the main part. The gain-set resistors for the amplifier

Xucheng Xue; Shuyan Zhang; Hongfa Li; Yongfei Guo

2010-01-01

86

Flux Calibration of the ACS CCD Cameras IV. Absolute Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ISRs I-III in this series define the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) for the CCD detectors, the encircled energy fractions, and the optical throughput degradation. This fourth ISR establishes the absolute flux calibration for the photometry, as corrected with the algorithms specified in I-III. Synthetic photometry from the SEDs of three primary hot 30,000-60,000K WDs define these sensitivity calibrations for the standard HRC and WFC filters. Even though the external uncertainty for the absolute flux of the three primary WD flux standards is ?1%, the internal consistency of the sensitivities is ?0.3%. However, when these WD sensitivities are applied to the cooler F, G, and K stars, there are internal inconsistencies of 1-2% for the F775W, F814W, and F850LP filters. For the same cooler stars, the other broadband filters are internally consistent to better than the 1% ACS flux calibration goal after applying the corrections and calibrations specified here. One filter F435W requires a small shift of the long wavelength edge of the bandpass by 18 °A toward longer wavelengths in order to reduce the cool star residuals from as much as 2% to <0.5%; but wavelength shifts cannot remedy the flux discrepancies for the F, G, and K stars in the three long wavelength filters. For HRC, the sensitivities change by 0.5-2% as a monotonic function of wavelength because of improvements in data processing. Additional residual corrections for individual filters are typically <0.5% for wide filters in both cameras. For the medium and narrow filters, these residuals are as large as ?3% for the WFC F550M and ?4% for HRC F344N. After implementing these throughput updates, the synthetic predictions of the WFC and HRC count rates for the average of the three primary WD standard stars agree with the observations to 0.1% for every filter.

Bohlin, Ralph C.

2012-02-01

87

A New Concept of Handy Video Recording Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

High density recording technology is going to realize the very compact VCR system. And all solid state color video camera which has many advantages over conventioal tube type cameras, e. g. light-weight, low power consumption, high reliability, lag elimination and high picture quality, has been developed.1) The authors have developed a handy video recording camera-the MAG CAMERA, which is shown

K. Mohri; Y. Yumde; M. Umemura; Y. Noro; S. Watatani

1981-01-01

88

The image pretreatment based on the FPGA inside digital CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a space project, a digital CCD camera which can image more clearly in the 1 Lux light environment has been asked to design . The CCD sensor ICX285AL produced by SONY Co.Ltd has been used in the CCD camera. The FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chip XQR2V1000 has been used as a timing generator and a signal processor inside the CCD camera. But in the low-light environment, two kinds of random noise become apparent because of the improving of CCD camera's variable gain, one is dark current noise in the image background, the other is vertical transfer noise. The real time method for eliminating noise based on FPGA inside the CCD camera would be introduced. The causes and characteristics of the random noise have been analyzed. First, several ideas for eliminating dark current noise had been motioned; then they were emulated by VC++ in order to compare their speed and effect; Gauss filter has been chosen because of the filtering effect. The vertical transfer vertical noise has the character that the vertical noise points have regular ordinate in the image two-dimensional coordinates; and the performance of the noise is fixed, the gray value of the noise points is 16-20 less than the surrounding pixels. According to these characters, local median filter has been used to clear up the vertical noise. Finally, these algorithms had been transplanted into the FPGA chip inside the CCD camera. A large number of experiments had proved that the pretreatment has better real-time features. The pretreatment makes the digital CCD camera improve the signal-to-noise ratio of 3-5dB in the low-light environment.

Tian, Rui; Liu, Yan-Ying

2009-07-01

89

Development of filter exchangeable 3CCD camera for multispectral imaging acquisition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a lot of methods to acquire multispectral images. Dynamic band selective and area-scan multispectral camera has not developed yet. This research focused on development of a filter exchangeable 3CCD camera which is modified from the conventional 3CCD camera. The camera consists of F-mounted lens, image splitter without dichroic coating, three bandpass filters, three image sensors, filer exchangeable frame and electric circuit for parallel image signal processing. In addition firmware and application software have developed. Remarkable improvements compared to a conventional 3CCD camera are its redesigned image splitter and filter exchangeable frame. Computer simulation is required to visualize a pathway of ray inside of prism when redesigning image splitter. Then the dimensions of splitter are determined by computer simulation which has options of BK7 glass and non-dichroic coating. These properties have been considered to obtain full wavelength rays on all film planes. The image splitter is verified by two line lasers with narrow waveband. The filter exchangeable frame is designed to make swap bandpass filters without displacement change of image sensors on film plane. The developed 3CCD camera is evaluated to application of detection to scab and bruise on Fuji apple. As a result, filter exchangeable 3CCD camera could give meaningful functionality for various multispectral applications which need to exchange bandpass filter.

Lee, Hoyoung; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Moon S.; Noh, Sang Ha

2012-05-01

90

A video camera system for multispectral sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief description is given of a 4-band video data acquisition system designed to operate with one recorder in narrow spectral bands in the visible and near IR spectrum. It is designed to utilize four black and white solid-state cameras, a custom-built multiplexer, one 3/4 or 1/2 inch tape recorder, and a small black and white monitor. The acquired imagery can be played back as is in rapid-band sequencing for viewing or the individual bands can be displayed in 'freeze frame' mode for digitization and computer image processing. The first flight using ultricon tube (f = 8 mm) cameras at three diferent altitudes was conducted in October 1984 north of Toronto. The results given here describe digital analysis at 256 x 256 pixel resolution of two sets of 4-band video taken with 40 nm bandpass filters centered at 550 nm, 650 nm, 700 nm, and 800 nm wavelengths, one set taken at 305 m, and the other at 610 m altitude.

King, D.; Vlcek, J.; Shemilt, S.

91

Sensors for 3D Imaging: Metric Evaluation and Calibration of a CCD/CMOS Time-of-Flight Camera  

PubMed Central

3D imaging with Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras is a promising recent technique which allows 3D point clouds to be acquired at video frame rates. However, the distance measurements of these devices are often affected by some systematic errors which decrease the quality of the acquired data. In order to evaluate these errors, some experimental tests on a CCD/CMOS ToF camera sensor, the SwissRanger (SR)-4000 camera, were performed and reported in this paper. In particular, two main aspects are treated: the calibration of the distance measurements of the SR-4000 camera, which deals with evaluation of the camera warm up time period, the distance measurement error evaluation and a study of the influence on distance measurements of the camera orientation with respect to the observed object; the second aspect concerns the photogrammetric calibration of the amplitude images delivered by the camera using a purpose-built multi-resolution field made of high contrast targets.

Chiabrando, Filiberto; Chiabrando, Roberto; Piatti, Dario; Rinaudo, Fulvio

2009-01-01

92

First Test Results with a Ccd Camera Developed by INPE.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Instituto de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) (Brazilian Space Research Center) developed a prototype of an airborne opto-electronic camera for multispectral imaging. This camera is based entirely on solid-state principles and the earth's surface is imaged ...

M. A. Andradesiqueira A. Lopesfilho J. Diasdematos R. Pereiradacunha

1989-01-01

93

Color video camera capable of 1,000,000 fps with triple ultrahigh-speed image sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed an ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity, color camera that captures moving images of phenomena too fast to be perceived by the human eye. The camera operates well even under restricted lighting conditions. It incorporates a special CCD device that is capable of ultrahigh-speed shots while retaining its high sensitivity. Its ultrahigh-speed shooting capability is made possible by directly connecting CCD storages, which record video images, to photodiodes of individual pixels. Its large photodiode area together with the low-noise characteristic of the CCD contributes to its high sensitivity. The camera can clearly capture events even under poor light conditions, such as during a baseball game at night. Our camera can record the very moment the bat hits the ball.

Maruyama, Hirotaka; Ohtake, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Tetsuya; Yamada, Masato; Kitamura, Kazuya; Arai, Toshiki; Tanioka, Kenkichi; Etoh, Takeharu G.; Namiki, Jun; Yoshida, Tetsuo; Maruno, Hiromasa; Kondo, Yasushi; Ozaki, Takao; Kanayama, Shigehiro

2005-03-01

94

Design of a very high frame rate camera based on an asynchronous CCD driving method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very high frame rate camera is designed based on an innovative CCD driving method. The CCD driving method is mainly implemented on frame transfer CCDs. Asynchronous drive timing sequences are applied in the image and storage section of the CCDs. Several rows of the charge in the image section are binned onto the same row in the storage section, and there are the same number of images to be stored in the storage section before they are read out. Based on the new driving method, the frame transfer CCDs can work at a very high frame rate in acquiring burst images though the reading speed remains at a lower level. A very high frame rate camera is designed in this paper. The innovative CCD driving method is mainly of concern. An e2v's CCD60 is adopted in the camera system, whose full size resolution is 128×128, and the up most frame rate is 1000 Hz in the conventional CCD driving method. By using the presented method, the CCD60 based imager is capable of operating at up to 40000 frames per second (fps) at a recognizable resolution of 128×32. Comparing cameras using traditional binning and region of interest technologies, the frame rate is normally less than 5000 fps while the resolution is only 32×32 left.

Li, Bin-Kang; Yang, Shao-Hua; Guo, Ming-An; Wang, Kui-Lu; Xia, Jing-Tao; Luo, Tong-Ding

2011-06-01

95

CCD CAMERA CALIBRATION BASED ON THE SUN'S IMAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Nikon D70s Digital camera with resolution of 6M, equipped with a narrow angle Nikkor 85 mm f\\/1.8D lens and suitable filters; was calibrated successfully, by two sets of the sun's images. Each set was taken while the camera's orientation was held unchanged for more than a hour. During this time the sun's image cross the camera's field of view

U. Ethrog

2006-01-01

96

Relative orientation of videos from range imaging cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the determination of camera relative orientation in videos from time of flight (ToF) range imaging camera. The task of estimating the relative orientation is realized by fusion of range flow and optical flow constraints, which integrates the range and the intensity channels in a single framework. We demonstrate our approach on videos from a ToF camera involving camera translation and rotational motion and compare it with the ground truth data. Furthermore we distinguish camera motion from an independently moving object using a robust adjustment.

Ghuffar, Sajid; Ressl, Camillo; Pfeifer, Norbert

2013-04-01

97

Demonstrations of Optical Spectra with a Video Camera  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of a video camera may markedly improve demonstrations of optical spectra. First, the output electrical signal from the camera, which provides full information about a picture to be transmitted, can be used for observing the radiant power spectrum on the screen of a common oscilloscope. Second, increasing the magnification by the camera

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2012-01-01

98

A Multi-Camera Framework for Interactive Video Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a framework that allows for a straightforward development of multi-camera controlled interactive video games. Compared to traditional gaming input devices, cameras provide players with many degrees of freedom and a natural kind of interaction. The use of cameras can even obsolete the need for special clothing or other tracking devices. This partly accounted for the success of the

Tom Cuypers; Cedric Vanaken; Yannick Francken; Frank Van Reeth; Philippe Bekaert

2008-01-01

99

Study of atmospheric discharges caracteristics using with a standard video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study is showed some preliminary statistics on lightning characteristics such as: flash multiplicity, number of ground contact points, formation of new and altered channels and presence of continuous current in the strokes that form the flash. The analysis is based on the images of a standard video camera (30 frames.s-1). The results obtained for some flashes will be compared to the images of a high-speed CCD camera (1000 frames.s-1). The camera observing site is located in São José dos Campos (23°S,46° W) at an altitude of 630m. This observational site has nearly 360° field of view at a height of 25m. It is possible to visualize distant thunderstorms occurring within a radius of 25km from the site. The room, situated over a metal structure, has water and power supplies, a telephone line and a small crane on the roof. KEY WORDS: Video images, Lightning, Multiplicity, Stroke.

Ferraz, E. C.; Saba, M. M. F.

100

Generation of high-quality depth maps using hybrid camera system for 3-D video  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a hybrid camera system combining one time-of-flight depth camera and multiple video cameras to generate multi-view video sequences and their corresponding depth maps. In order to obtain the multi-view video-plus-depth data using the hybrid camera system, we capture multi-view videos using multiple video cameras and a single view depth video with the depth camera. After

Eun-Kyung Lee; Yo-Sung Ho

2011-01-01

101

Design and performance of a metrology camera with 6- and 28-million pixel CCD sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital Close-Range Photogrammetry has made tremendous improvements over the last years. Many of the elements contributing to those improvements were the advances in algorithms and their implementation into commercial systems. It has become customary that production personnel without photogrammetric know-how use systems. Another area of major change is the use of Digital Close-Range Photogrammetry systems in machine control. These applications require totally automated systems without human supervision. While the algorithmic performance of such systems is a difficult task other issues, such as ultra high-resolution cameras suitable for the rough environment and their response time, are critical elements for the acceptance of such systems. Cameras with much higher resolutions and better performance have been appearing on the market over the last years. There are Cameras with CCD-sensors containing 4kx4k pixels are available. While these cameras offer a larger sensor their performance is not dramatically better than that of the widely used cameras using 3kx2k sensors. Actually the price/performance of these cameras is poorer. A new camera series offering both 3kx2k and 7kx4k sensors with a custom optics and a high-performance CCD-sensor read-out was designed to break current accuracy barriers. Innovations included in these cameras include custom optics. This allows the optics to be tuned to the application and not just general photography needs. They take advantage of the full dynamic range offered by the CCD-sensor, i.e. use of a 12 bit analog-to-digital converter and 16 bit per pixel in order to take full advantage of the CCD-sensor. They have an optical/mechanical design to assure an extreme geometric stability of the camera. Finally they include an 'on-board' processor to perform all image computations within the camera.

Beyer, Horst A.

1998-12-01

102

Initial laboratory evaluation of color video cameras: Phase 2  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video cameras used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. The monochrome cameras were selected over color cameras because they have greater sensitivity and resolution. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color camera technology is rapidly changing and because color information is useful for identification purposes, Sandia National Laboratories has established an on-going program to evaluate the newest color solid-state cameras. Phase One of the Sandia program resulted in the SAND91-2579/1 report titled: Initial Laboratory Evaluation of Color Video Cameras. The report briefly discusses imager chips, color cameras, and monitors, describes the camera selection, details traditional test parameters and procedures, and gives the results reached by evaluating 12 cameras. Here, in Phase Two of the report, we tested 6 additional cameras using traditional methods. In addition, all 18 cameras were tested by newly developed methods. This Phase 2 report details those newly developed test parameters and procedures, and evaluates the results.

Terry, P.L.

1993-07-01

103

An ultrahigh-speed color video camera operating at 1,000,000 fps with 288 frame memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed an ultrahigh-speed color video camera that operates at 1,000,000 fps (frames per second) and had capacity to store 288 frame memories. In 2005, we developed an ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity portable color camera with a 300,000-pixel single CCD (ISIS-V4: In-situ Storage Image Sensor, Version 4). Its ultrahigh-speed shooting capability of 1,000,000 fps was made possible by directly connecting CCD storages, which record video images, to the photodiodes of individual pixels. The number of consecutive frames was 144. However, longer capture times were demanded when the camera was used during imaging experiments and for some television programs. To increase ultrahigh-speed capture times, we used a beam splitter and two ultrahigh-speed 300,000-pixel CCDs. The beam splitter was placed behind the pick up lens. One CCD was located at each of the two outputs of the beam splitter. The CCD driving unit was developed to separately drive two CCDs, and the recording period of the two CCDs was sequentially switched. This increased the recording capacity to 288 images, an increase of a factor of two over that of conventional ultrahigh-speed camera. A problem with the camera was that the incident light on each CCD was reduced by a factor of two by using the beam splitter. To improve the light sensitivity, we developed a microlens array for use with the ultrahigh-speed CCDs. We simulated the operation of the microlens array in order to optimize its shape and then fabricated it using stamping technology. Using this microlens increased the light sensitivity of the CCDs by an approximate factor of two. By using a beam splitter in conjunction with the microlens array, it was possible to make an ultrahigh-speed color video camera that has 288 frame memories but without decreasing the camera's light sensitivity.

Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Yonai, J.; Hayashida, T.; Kurita, T.; Maruyama, H.; Namiki, J.; Yanagi, T.; Yoshida, T.; van Kuijk, H.; Bosiers, Jan T.; Saita, A.; Kanayama, S.; Hatade, K.; Kitagawa, S.; Etoh, T. Goji

2008-11-01

104

Camera Control and Geo-Registration for Video Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the use of large video networks, there is a need to coordinate and interpret the video imagery for decision support systems with the goal of reducing the cognitive and perceptual overload of human operators. We present computer vision strategies that enable efficient control and management of cameras to effectively monitor wide-coverage areas, and examine the framework within an actual multi-camera outdoor urban video surveillance network. First, we construct a robust and precise camera control model for commercial pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) video cameras. In addition to providing a complete functional control mapping for PTZ repositioning, the model can be used to generate wide-view spherical panoramic viewspaces for the cameras. Using the individual camera control models, we next individually map the spherical panoramic viewspace of each camera to a large aerial orthophotograph of the scene. The result provides a unified geo-referenced map representation to permit automatic (and manual) video control and exploitation of cameras in a coordinated manner. The combined framework provides new capabilities for video sensor networks that are of significance and benefit to the broad surveillance/security community.

Davis, James W.

105

Research on detecting heterogeneous fibre from cotton based on linear CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneous fibre in cotton make a great impact on production of cotton textile, it will have a bad effect on the quality of product, thereby affect economic benefits and market competitive ability of corporation. So the detecting and eliminating of heterogeneous fibre is particular important to improve machining technics of cotton, advance the quality of cotton textile and reduce production cost. There are favorable market value and future development for this technology. An optical detecting system obtains the widespread application. In this system, we use a linear CCD camera to scan the running cotton, then the video signals are put into computer and processed according to the difference of grayscale, if there is heterogeneous fibre in cotton, the computer will send an order to drive the gas nozzle to eliminate the heterogeneous fibre. In the paper, we adopt monochrome LED array as the new detecting light source, it's lamp flicker, stability of luminous intensity, lumens depreciation and useful life are all superior to fluorescence light. We analyse the reflection spectrum of cotton and various heterogeneous fibre first, then select appropriate frequency of the light source, we finally adopt violet LED array as the new detecting light source. The whole hardware structure and software design are introduced in this paper.

Zhang, Xian-Bin; Cao, Bing; Zhang, Xin-Peng; Shi, Wei

2009-07-01

106

Auto-measurement system of aerial camera lens' resolution based on orthogonal linear CCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The resolution of aerial camera lens is one of the most important camera's performance indexes. The measurement and calibration of resolution are important test items in in maintenance of camera. The traditional method that is observing resolution panel of collimator rely on human's eyes using microscope and doing some computing. The method is of low efficiency and susceptible to artificial factors. The measurement results are unstable, too. An auto-measurement system of aerial camera lens' resolution, which uses orthogonal linear CCD sensor as the detector to replace reading microscope, is introduced. The system can measure automatically and show result real-timely. In order to measure the smallest diameter of resolution panel which could be identified, two orthogonal linear CCD is laid on the imaging plane of measured lens and four intersection points are formed on the orthogonal linear CCD. A coordinate system is determined by origin point of the linear CCD. And a circle is determined by four intersection points. In order to obtain the circle's radius, firstly, the image of resolution panel is transformed to pulse width of electric signal which is send to computer through amplifying circuit and threshold comparator and counter. Secondly, the smallest circle would be extracted to do measurement. The circle extraction made using of wavelet transform which has character of localization in the domain of time and frequency and has capability of multi-scale analysis. Lastly, according to the solution formula of lens' resolution, we could obtain the resolution of measured lens. The measuring precision on practical measurement is analyzed, and the result indicated that the precision will be improved when using linear CCD instead of reading microscope. Moreover, the improvement of system error is determined by the pixel's size of CCD. With the technique of CCD developed, the pixel's size will smaller, the system error will be reduced greatly too. So the auto-measuring system has high practical value and wide application prospect.

Zhao, Yu-Liang; Zhang, Yu-Ye; Ding, Hong-Yi

2010-05-01

107

Rapid estimation of camera motion from compressed video with application to video annotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As digital video becomes more pervasive, efficient ways of searching and annotating video according to content will be increasingly important. Such tasks arise, for example, in the management of digital video libraries for content-based retrieval and browsing. In this paper, we develop tools based on camera motion for analyzing and annotating a class of structured video using the low-level information

Yap-peng Tan; Drew D. Saur; Sanjeev R. Kulkarni; Peter J. Ramadge

2000-01-01

108

Integration of a high-speed repetitively pulsed laser with a high-speed CCD camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated, high-speed photographic system combining a high-repetition rate, pulsed ruby laser and a high-framing rate CCD camera has been demonstrated. Individually, the laser and camera have been discussed previously and each was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research sponsorship through the Air Force Research Lab. This paper presents for the first time digital images captured at 333 kHz

Jeffrey M. Grace; Peter E. Nebolsine; Donald R. Snyder; Nathan E. Howard; J. R. Long

1999-01-01

109

The high resolution gamma imager (HRGI): a CCD based camera for medical imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the High Resolution Gamma Imager (HRGI): a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) based camera for imaging small volumes of radionuclide uptake in tissues. The HRGI is a collimated, scintillator-coated, low cost, high performance imager using low noise CCDs that will complement whole-body imaging Gamma Cameras in nuclear medicine. Using 59.5keV radiation from a 241Am source we have measured the

John. E. Lees; George. W. Fraser; Adam Keay; David Bassford; Robert Ott; William Ryder

2003-01-01

110

Distance measurements by accommodation and vergence of video cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stereo imitating human vision consists of two 1/3 inch charge coupled device (CCD) cameras with 50 mm focal length lenses, focussing/vergence controllers, AD converter, and MC68040. The algorithms are a contrast method and template matching. The measurement stabilities are 6 +/- 0.5 m by accommodation and 6 +/- 0.05 m by vergence with a camera separation of 0.125 m.

Gomi, Hiromi

1995-03-01

111

A CCD Camera with Electron Decelerator for Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Electron microscopists are increasingly turning to Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscopes (IVEMs) operating at 300 - 400 kV for a wide range of studies. They are also increasingly taking advantage of slow-scan charge coupled device (CCD) cameras, which have become widely used on electron microscopes. Under some conditions CCDs provide an improvement in data quality over photographic film, as well as the many advantages of direct digital readout. However, CCD performance is seriously degraded on IVEMs compared to the more conventional 100 kV microscopes. In order to increase the efficiency and quality of data recording on IVEMs, we have developed a CCD camera system in which the electrons are decelerated to below 100 kV before impacting the camera, resulting in greatly improved performance in both signal quality and resolution compared to other CCDs used in electron microscopy. These improvements will allow high-quality image and diffraction data to be collected directly with the CCD, enabling improvements in data collection for applications including high-resolution electron crystallography, single-particle reconstruction of protein structures, tomographic studies of cell ultrastructure and remote microscope operation. This approach will enable us to use even larger format CCD chips that are being developed with smaller pixels.

Downing, Kenneth H; Downing, Kenneth H.; Mooney, Paul E.

2008-03-17

112

A Design and Development of Multi-Purpose CCD Camera System with Thermoelectric Cooling: Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a software which we developed for the multi-purpose CCD camera. This software can be used on the all 3 types of CCD - KAF-0401E (768×512), KAF-1602E (15367times;1024), KAF-3200E (2184×1472) made in KODAK Co.. For the efficient CCD camera control, the software is operated with two independent processes of the CCD control program and the temperature/shutter operation program. This software is designed to fully automatic operation as well as manually operation under LINUX system, and is controled by LINUX user signal procedure. We plan to use this software for all sky survey system and also night sky monitoring and sky observation. As our results, the read-out time of each CCD are about 15sec, 64sec, 134sec for KAF-0401E, KAF-1602E, KAF-3200E., because these time are limited by the data transmission speed of parallel port. For larger format CCD, the data transmission is required more high speed. we are considering this control software to one using USB port for high speed data transmission.

Oh, S. H.; Kang, Y. W.; Byun, Y. I.

2007-12-01

113

CCD digital camera maps the East Pacific Rise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the pioneering work of Ewing et al. [1946] and Edgerton [1963] on the development of modern deep-sea camera systems, photographs of the deep seabed have been fundamental to marine geological investigations, portraying deep-sea fauna and permitting study of seafloor morphology at scales ranging from centimeters to meters [e.g., Heezen and Hollister, 1971; Spiess and Tyce, 1973; Grassle et al., 1979; Ballard and Moore, 1977; Lonsdale and Spiess, 1980; Fox et al., 1988]. Deep-sea photography has advanced from single-frame bounce cameras to sophisticated remotely operated vehicles (ROV) containing a complement of optical and acoustical data sensors and altitude-recording devices. Recent advances in camera technology, notably the development of digital camera systems [e.g., Harris et al., 1987], are rapidly increasing the information content of deep-sea photographs. Digital photographs are superior to their analog counterparts because they can be computer enhanced to extract features that are difficult to resolve due to poor lighting, for example. They also lend themselves to quantitative analysis, facilitating numerical comparisons between acoustic backscatter data and optical imagery of various seafloor terrains.

Edwards, Margo H.; Smith, Milton O.; Fornari, Daniel J.

114

ULTRASPEC: an electron multiplication CCD camera for very low light level high speed astronomical spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design, characteristics and astronomical results for ULTRASPEC, a high speed Electron Multiplication CCD (EMCCD) camera using an E2VCCD201 (1K frame transfer device), developed to prove the performance of this new optical detector technology in astronomical spectrometry, particularly in the high speed, low light level regime. We present both modelled and real data for these detectors with particular

Derek Ives; Nagaraja Bezawada; Vik Dhillon; Tom Marsh

2008-01-01

115

Beam profile monitor using alumina screen and CCD camera (October 1991).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pair of beam profile monitors using alumina ceramic screens (Al(sub 2)O(sub 3)) and CCD cameras has been developed for diagnosis of a linac beam at the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron of the Institute for Nuclear Study, the University of Tokyo (INS-ES). Si...

Y. Hashimoto M. Muto K. Norimura K. Watanabe

1991-01-01

116

Beam profile monitor using alumina screen and CCD camera (August 1992).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pair of beam profile monitors using alumina ceramic screens (Al(sub 2)O(sub 3)) and CCD cameras has been developed for diagnosis of a linac beam at the 1.3 GeV electron synchrotron of the Institute for Nuclear Study, the University of Tokyo (INS-ES). Si...

Y. Hashimoto M. Muto K. Norimura K. Watanabe

1992-01-01

117

0.25mm-Thick CCD Packaging for the Dark Energy Survey Camera Array.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Dark Energy Survey Camera focal plane array will consist of 62 2k x 4k CCDs with a pixel size of 15 microns and a silicon thickness of 250 microns for use at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm. Bare CCD die will be received from the Lawrence Berkeley...

G. Derylo H. T. Diehl

2006-01-01

118

Measurement of charge of heavy ions in emulsion using a CCD camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system has been developed for semi-automated determination of the charges of heavy ions recorded in nuclear emulsions. The profiles of various heavy ion tracks in emulsion, both accelerator beam ions and fragments of heavy projectiles, were obtained with a CCD camera mounted on a microscope. The dependence of track profiles on illumination, emulsion grain size and density, background in

D. Kudzia; M. L. Cherry; P. Deines-Jones; R. Holynski; A. Olszewski; B. S. Nilsen; K. Sengupta; M. Szarska; A. Trzupek; C. J. Waddington; J. P. Wefel; B. Wilczynska; H. Wilczynski; W. Wolter; B. Wosiek; K. Wozniak

1999-01-01

119

Accuracy potential of large-format still-video cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution digital stillvideo cameras have found wide interest in digital close range photogrammetry in the last five years. They can be considered fully autonomous digital image acquisition systems without the requirement of permanent connection to an external power supply and a host computer for camera control and data storage, thus allowing for convenient data acquisition in many applications of digital photogrammetry. The accuracy potential of stillvideo cameras has been extensively discussed. While large format CCD sensors themselves can be considered very accurate measurement devices, lenses, camera bodies and sensor mounts of stillvideo cameras are not compression techniques in image storage, which may also affect the accuracy potential. This presentation shows recent experiences from accuracy tests with a number of large format stillvideo cameras, including a modified Kodak DCS200, a Kodak DCS460, a Nikon E2 and a Polaroid PDC-2000. The tests of the cameras include absolute and relative measurements and were performed using strong photogrammetric networks and good external reference. The results of the tests indicate that very high accuracies can be achieved with large blocks of stillvideo imagery especially in deformation measurements. In absolute measurements, however, the accuracy potential of the large format CCD sensors is partly ruined by a lack of stability of the cameras.

Maas, Hans-Gerd; Niederoest, Markus

1997-07-01

120

Real-Time Single-Camera, Stereoscopic Video Device.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This patent application discloses a real-time, single-camera, stereoscopic video imaging device for use with a standard 60 Hz camera and monitor is being developed The device uses a single objective lens to focus disparate views of the object at the focal...

B. L. Converse

1994-01-01

121

A new paradigm for video cameras: optical sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new paradigm for the utilization of video surveillance cameras as optical sensors to augment and significantly improve the reliability and responsiveness of chemical monitoring systems. Incorporated into a hierarchical tiered sensing architecture, cameras serve as 'Tier 1' or 'trigger' sensors monitoring for visible indications after a release of warfare or industrial toxic chemical agents. No single

Kevin Grottle; Anoo Nathan; Catherine Smith

2007-01-01

122

Tracing Handwriting on Paper Document under Video Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system that traces handwriting on paper document under overlooking video camera. This work is motivated to capture annotations on paper documents written by ordinary pen as an input to computer. As the trajectory of the pen tip is extracted from the video, each part of the trajectory is classified as 'pen-down' or 'pen-up', according to whether

Jae-Hyun Seok; Simon Levasseur; Kee-Eung Kim; Hyung Kim

123

Model-Based Video Coding Using Colour and Depth Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a model-based video coding method that uses input from colour and depth cameras, such as the Microsoft Kinect. The model-based approach uses a 3D representation of the scene, enabling several other applications besides video playback. Some of these applications are stereoscopic viewing, object insertion for augmented reality and free viewpoint viewing. The video encoding step

David Sandberg; Per-Erik Forssen; Jens Ogniewski

2011-01-01

124

Design principles and applications of a cooled CCD camera for electron microscopy.  

PubMed

Cooled CCD cameras offer a number of advantages in recording electron microscope images with CCDs rather than film which include: immediate availability of the image in a digital format suitable for further computer processing, high dynamic range, excellent linearity and a high detective quantum efficiency for recording electrons. In one important respect however, film has superior properties: the spatial resolution of CCD detectors tested so far (in terms of point spread function or modulation transfer function) are inferior to film and a great deal of our effort has been spent in designing detectors with improved spatial resolution. Various instrumental contributions to spatial resolution have been analysed and in this paper we discuss the contribution of the phosphor-fibre optics system in this measurement. We have evaluated the performance of a number of detector components and parameters, e.g. different phosphors (and a scintillator), optical coupling with lens or fibre optics with various demagnification factors, to improve the detector performance. The camera described in this paper, which is based on this analysis, uses a tapered fibre optics coupling between the phosphor and the CCD and is installed on a Philips CM12 electron microscope equipped to perform cryo-microscopy. The main use of the camera so far has been in recording electron diffraction patterns from two dimensional crystals of bacteriorhodopsin--from wild type and from different trapped states during the photocycle. As one example of the type of data obtained with the CCD camera a two dimensional Fourier projection map from the trapped O-state is also included. With faster computers, it will soon be possible to undertake this type of work on an on-line basis. Also, with improvements in detector size and resolution, CCD detectors, already ideal for diffraction, will be able to compete with film in the recording of high resolution images. PMID:9889815

Faruqi, A R

1998-01-01

125

Source video camera identification for multiply compressed videos originating from YouTube  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Photo Response Non-Uniformity is a unique sensor noise pattern that is present in each image or video acquired with a digital camera. In this work a wavelet-based technique used to extract these patterns from digital images is applied to compressed low resolution videos originating mainly from webcams. After recording these videos with a variety of codec and resolution settings,

Wiger van Houten; Zeno Geradts

2009-01-01

126

A compact high-speed pnCCD camera for optical and x-ray applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a camera with a 264 × 264 pixel pnCCD of 48 ?m size (thickness 450 ?m) for X-ray and optical applications. It has a high quantum efficiency and can be operated up to 400 / 1000 Hz (noise? 2:5 ° ENC / ?4:0 ° ENC). High-speed astronomical observations can be performed with low light levels. Results of test measurements will be presented. The camera is well suitable for ground based preparation measurements for future X-ray missions. For X-ray single photons, the spatial position can be determined with significant sub-pixel resolution.

Ihle, Sebastian; Ordavo, Ivan; Bechteler, Alois; Hartmann, Robert; Holl, Peter; Liebel, Andreas; Meidinger, Norbert; Soltau, Heike; Strüder, Lothar; Weber, Udo

2012-07-01

127

New tubeless nanosecond streak camera based on optical deflection and direct CCD imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new optically deflected streaking camera with performance of nanosecond-range resolution, superior imaging quality, high signal detectability, and large format recording has been conceived and developed. Its construction is composed of an optomechanical deflector that deflects the line-shape image of spatial-distributed time-varying signals across the sensing surface of a cooled scientific two-dimensional CCD array with slow readout driving electronics, a

Ching C. Lai

1993-01-01

128

A new tubeless nanosecond streak camera based on optical deflection and direct CCD imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new optically deflected streaking camera with performance of nanosecond-range resolution, superior imaging quality, high signal detectability, and large format recording has been conceived and developed. Its construction is composed of an optomechanical deflector that deflects the line-shape image of spatial-distributed time-varying signals across the sensing surface of a cooled scientific two-dimensional CCD array with slow readout driving electronics, a

C. C. Lai

1992-01-01

129

Performance of Commercial CCD Cameras When Coupled to Small Telescopes (3-12 inch)  

Microsoft Academic Search

CCDs have had a revolutionary effect on large, mountain-top astronomy (40-to 160-inch telescopes), and, more recently, on smaller, urban and suburban university astronomy research (12- to 200-inch telescopes). This paper explores the theoretical capabilities of a range of CCD cameras and sites and compares them to actual results using 3- to 12-inch telescopes. The detection of stars to 16th and

Gary Walker

1993-01-01

130

OCam with CCD220, the Fastest and Most Sensitive Camera to Date for AO Wavefront Sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, subelectron readout noise has been achieved with a camera dedicated to astronomical wavefront-sensing applications. The OCam system demonstrated this performance at a 1300 Hz frame rate and with 240 × 240 pixel frame size. ESO and JRA2 OPTICON jointly funded e2v Technologies to develop a custom CCD for adaptive optics (AO) wavefront-sensing applications. The device, called

Philippe Feautrier; Jean-Luc Gach; Philippe Balard; Christian Guillaume; Mark Downing; Norbert Hubin; Eric Stadler; Yves Magnard; Michael Skegg; Mark Robbins; Sandy Denney; Wolfgang Suske; Paul Jorden; Patrick Wheeler; Peter Pool; Ray Bell; David Burt; Ian Davies; Javier Reyes; Manfred Meyer; Dietrich Baade; Markus Kasper; Robin Arsenault; Thierry Fusco; José Javier Diaz Garcia

2011-01-01

131

Development and operation of the IRMSS and CCD camera for CBERS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Infrared Multispectral Scanner (IRMSS) and the CCD Camera were two of the three remote sensing payloads for China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS). This paper introduces their development and operation. The IRMSS is a scanning imaging multispectral remote sensor. It has 4 bands, one panchromatic band (0.50-0.90micrometers ), two short- wave infrared bands (1.55-1.75micrometers , 2.08-2.35micrometers ) and one long-wave infrared band (10.4-12.5micrometers ). Its swath is 120km. The pixel resolution of the panchromatic band and short-wave bands is 78m while the long-wave infrared band is 156m. The CCD Camera is a pushbroom multispectral remote sensor. It has 5 bands, i.e. 0.45-0.52micrometers , 0.52-0.59micrometers , 0.63-0.69micrometers , 0.77-0.89micrometers and 0.51-0.73micrometers . Its swath is 113km and pixel resolution is 20m. The development of the IRMSS and the CCD Camera took about 11 years. On October 14, 1999 the two sensors were sent into orbit. The in-orbit test proved that they had met their specifications.

Wang, Huaiyi; Wang, Shitao; Ma, Wenpo; He, Tao

2000-12-01

132

High-resolution image digitizing through 12x3-bit RGB-filtered CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high resolution computer-controlled CCD image capturing system is developed by using a 12 bits 1024 by 1024 pixels CCD camera and motorized RGB filters to grasp an image with color depth up to 36 bits. The filters distinguish the major components of color and collect them separately while the CCD camera maintains the spatial resolution and detector filling factor. The color separation can be done optically rather than electronically. The operation is simply by placing the capturing objects like color photos, slides and even x-ray transparencies under the camera system, the necessary parameters such as integration time, mixing level and light intensity are automatically adjusted by an on-line expert system. This greatly reduces the restrictions of the capturing species. This unique approach can save considerable time for adjusting the quality of image, give much more flexibility of manipulating captured object even if it is a 3D object with minimal setup fixers. In addition, cross sectional dimension of a 3D capturing object can be analyzed by adapting a fiber optic ring light source. It is particularly useful in non-contact metrology of a 3D structure. The digitized information can be stored in an easily transferable format. Users can also perform a special LUT mapping automatically or manually. Applications of the system include medical images archiving, printing quality control, 3D machine vision, and etc.

Cheng, Andrew Y.; Pau, C. Y.

1996-09-01

133

Suitability of the Pulnix TM6CN CCD camera for photogrammetric measurement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pulnix TM6CN CCD camera appears to be a suitable choice for many close range photogrammetric applications where the cost of the final system is a factor. The reasons for this are: its small size, low power consumption, pixel clock output, variable electronic shutter, and relatively high resolution. However, to have any confidence in such a camera a thorough examination is required to assess its characteristics. In this paper an investigation of three of these cameras is described, and their suitability for close range photogrammetry evaluated. The main factors assessed are system component influences, warm-up effects, line jitter, principal point location and lens calibration. The influence of the frame-store on the use of the camera is also estimated and where possible excluded. Results of using these cameras for close range measurement are given and analyzed. While many users will have or prefer to buy other cameras, the evaluation of this particular camera should give an understanding of the important features of such image sensors, their use in photogrammetric measuring systems and the processes of evaluating their physical properties.

Robson, Stuart; Clarke, Timothy A.; Chen, Jin

1993-10-01

134

Benchmarking of Back Thinned 512x512 X-ray CCD Camera Measurements with DEF X-ray film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Trident Laser Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory 25-micron thick, 2mm diameter titanium disks were shot with a 527nm(green) laser light to measure x-ray yield. 1.0 mil and 0.5 mil Aluminum steps were used to test the linearity of the CCD Camera and DEF X-ray film was used to test the calibration of the CCD Camera response at

N. A. Shambo; J. Workman; G. Kyrala; T. Hurry; R. Gonzales; S. C. Evans

1999-01-01

135

Development of a cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter using a laser and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous flow streamwise thermal gradient cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) counter with an aerosol focusing and a laser-charge-coupled\\u000a device (CCD) camera detector system was developed here. The counting performance of the laser-CCD camera detector system was\\u000a evaluated by comparing its measured number concentrations with those measured with a condensation particle counter (CPC) using\\u000a polystyrene latex (PSL) and NaCl particles of

Jinkwan Oh

136

Data acquisition system based on the Nios II for a CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FPGA with Avalon Bus architecture and Nios soft-core processor developed by Altera Corporation is an advanced embedded solution for control and interface systems. A CCD data acquisition system with an Ethernet terminal port based on the TCP/IP protocol is implemented in NAOC, which is composed of a piece of interface board with an Altera's FPGA, 32MB SDRAM and some other accessory devices integrated on it, and two packages of control software used in the Nios II embedded processor and the remote host PC respectively. The system is used to replace a 7200 series image acquisition card which is inserted in a control and data acquisition PC, and to download commands to an existing CCD camera and collect image data from the camera to the PC. The embedded chip in the system is a Cyclone FPGA with a configurable Nios II soft-core processor. Hardware structure of the system, configuration for the embedded soft-core processor, and peripherals of the processor in the PFGA are described. The C program run in the Nios II embedded system is built in the Nios II IDE kits and the C++ program used in the PC is developed in the Microsoft's Visual C++ environment. Some key techniques in design and implementation of the C and VC++ programs are presented, including the downloading of the camera commands, initialization of the camera, DMA control, TCP/IP communication and UDP data uploading.

Li, Binhua; Hu, Keliang; Wang, Chunrong; Liu, Yangbing; He, Chun

2006-07-01

137

OCam with CCD220, the Fastest and Most Sensitive Camera to Date for AO Wavefront Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, subelectron readout noise has been achieved with a camera dedicated to astronomical wavefront-sensing applications. The OCam system demonstrated this performance at a 1300 Hz frame rate and with 240 × 240 pixel frame size. ESO and JRA2 OPTICON jointly funded e2v Technologies to develop a custom CCD for adaptive optics (AO) wavefront-sensing applications. The device, called CCD220, is a compact Peltier-cooled 240 × 240 pixel frame-transfer eight-output back-illuminated sensor using the EMCCD technology. This article demonstrates, for the first time, subelectron readout noise at frame rates from 25 Hz to 1300 Hz and dark current lower than 0.01 e- pixel-1 frame-1 . It reports on the quantitative performance characterization of OCam and the CCD220, including readout noise, dark current, multiplication gain, quantum efficiency, and charge transfer efficiency. OCam includes a low-noise preamplifier stage, a digital board to generate the clocks, and a microcontroller. The data acquisition system includes a user-friendly timer file editor to generate any type of clocking scheme. A second version of OCam, called OCam2 , has been designed to offer enhanced performance, a completely sealed camera package, and an additional Peltier stage to facilitate operation on a telescope or environmentally challenging applications. New features of OCam2 are presented in this article. This instrumental development will strongly impact the performance of the most advanced AO systems to come.

Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Balard, Philippe; Guillaume, Christian; Downing, Mark; Hubin, Norbert; Stadler, Eric; Magnard, Yves; Skegg, Michael; Robbins, Mark; Denney, Sandy; Suske, Wolfgang; Jorden, Paul; Wheeler, Patrick; Pool, Peter; Bell, Ray; Burt, David; Davies, Ian; Reyes, Javier; Meyer, Manfred; Baade, Dietrich; Kasper, Markus; Arsenault, Robin; Fusco, Thierry; Diaz Garcia, José Javier

2011-03-01

138

Using a Digital Video Camera to Study Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|To illustrate how a digital video camera can be used to analyze various types of motion, this simple activity analyzes the motion and measures the acceleration due to gravity of a basketball in free fall. Although many excellent commercially available data loggers and software can accomplish this task, this activity requires almost no financial…

Abisdris, Gil; Phaneuf, Alain

2007-01-01

139

Lights, Camera, Action! Using Video Recordings to Evaluate Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teachers and their unions do not want test scores to count for everything; classroom observations are key, too. But planning a couple of visits from the principal is hardly sufficient. These visits may "change the teacher's behavior"; furthermore, principals may not be the best judges of effective teaching. So why not put video cameras in…

Petrilli, Michael J.

2011-01-01

140

Zoom lens with aspherical plastic lenses for video camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to realize a compact and light-weight zoom lens for video camera, we have applied the aspherical plastic lens technology. In this design, we found the methods, elimination of the lens group, and replacement from a glass lens to a aspherical plastic lens.

Masahiko Yatsu; Masaharu Deguchi; Kenji Kobayashi; Takesuke Maruyama

1992-01-01

141

Video camera zoom lens design using lens modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the procedures for an initial design containing the first and third order aberrations of a four-group, rear focus video camera zoom lens using lens modules, and the real lens design from an initial design. Lens modules in the zoom system can explicitly describe the first and third order properties of each group without detailed design. The optimum

Sung Chan Park; Keun B. Kim

1995-01-01

142

67. DETAIL OF VIDEO CAMERA CONTROL PANEL LOCATED IMMEDIATELY WEST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

67. DETAIL OF VIDEO CAMERA CONTROL PANEL LOCATED IMMEDIATELY WEST OF ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONDUCTOR PANEL SHOWN IN CA-133-1-A-66 - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

143

Means for Focusing and Adjusting Video Camera Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laser is used to form fiducial marks on the imaging system of a video camera system. Fiducial marks permit adjustment of alignment controls to minimize distortion in non-linear areas by appropriate image corrections used with the fiducial marks. Placeme...

J. B. Frank P. N. Keller R. A. Swing

1982-01-01

144

A system for measuring jaw movements in 6 degrees of freedom using high-resolution linear CCD camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system for measuring jaw movements, using one of the current methods with light emitting diodes and photoelectronic cameras. The measurement accuracy thereof was considerably improved, by employing both a highresolution linear CCD camera and a new computation method.

Toyohiko Hayashi; Masahiko Kurokawa; Michio Miyakawa; Akira Saitoh; Kiyoshi Ishioka; Akira Kanaki; Tomonobu Aizawa

1992-01-01

145

CCD camera-based analysis of thin film growth in industrial PACVD processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a method for the characterization of (semi-transparent) thin film growth during PACVD processes (plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition), based on analysis of thermal radiation by means of nearinfrared imaging. Due to interference effects during thin film growth, characteristic emissivity signal variations can be observed which allow very detailed spatio-temporal analysis of growth characteristics (e.g. relative growth rates). We use a standard CCD camera with a near-infrared band-pass filter (center wavelength 1030 nm, FWHM 10nm) as a thermal imaging device. The spectral sensitivity of a Si-CCD sensor at 1?m is sufficient to allow the imaging of thermal radiation at temperatures above approx. 400°C, whereas light emissions from plasma discharges (which mainly occur in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum) barely affect the image formation.

Zauner, G.; Schulte, T.; Forsich, C.; Heim, Daniel

2013-04-01

146

CQUEAN: New CCD Camera System For The Otto Struve Telescope At The McDonald Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the overall characteristics and the performance of an optical CCD camera system, Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (CQUEAN), which is being used at the 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope of the McDonald Observatory since 2010 August. CQUEAN was developed for follow-up imaging observations of near infrared bright sources such as high redshift quasar candidates (z > 4.5), Gamma Ray Bursts, brown dwarfs, and young stellar objects. For efficient observations of the red objects, CQUEAN has a science camera with a deep depletion CCD chip. By employing an auto-guiding system and a focal reducer to enhance the field of view at the classic cassegrain focus, we achieved a stable guiding in 20 minute exposures, an imaging quality with FWHM > 0.6 arcsec over the whole field (4.8 × 4.8 arcmin), and a limiting magnitude of z = 23.4 AB mag at 5-sigma with one hour integration.

Pak, Soojong; Park, W.; Im, M.

2012-01-01

147

An intensified/shuttered cooled CCD camera for dynamic proton radiography  

SciTech Connect

An intensified/shuttered cooled PC-based CCD camera system was designed and successfully fielded on proton radiography experiments at the Los Alamos National Laboratory LANSCE facility using 800-MeV protons. The four camera detector system used front-illuminated full-frame CCD arrays (two 1,024 x 1,024 pixels and two 512 x 512 pixels) fiber optically coupled to either 25-mm diameter planar diode or microchannel plate image intensifiers which provided optical shuttering for time resolved imaging of shock propagation in high explosives. The intensifiers also provided wavelength shifting and optical gain. Typical sequences consisting of four images corresponding to consecutive exposures of about 500 ns duration for 40-ns proton burst images (from a fast scintillating fiber array) separated by approximately 1 microsecond were taken during the radiography experiments. Camera design goals and measured performance characteristics including resolution, dynamic range, responsivity, system detection quantum efficiency (DQE), and signal-to-noise will be discussed.

Yates, G.J.; Albright, K.L.; Alrick, K.R. [and others

1998-12-31

148

Development of the analog ASIC for multi-channel readout X-ray CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the performance of an analog application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) developed aiming for the front-end electronics of the X-ray CCD camera system onboard the next X-ray astronomical satellite, ASTRO-H. It has four identical channels that simultaneously process the CCD signals. Distinctive capability of analog-to-digital conversion enables us to construct a CCD camera body that outputs only digital signals. As the result of the front-end electronics test, it works properly with low input noise of ?30?V at the pixel rate below 100 kHz. The power consumption is sufficiently low of ˜150mW/chip. The input signal range of ±20 mV covers the effective energy range of the typical X-ray photon counting CCD (up to 20 keV). The integrated non-linearity is 0.2% that is similar as those of the conventional CCDs in orbit. We also performed a radiation tolerance test against the total ionizing dose (TID) effect and the single event effect. The irradiation test using 60Co and proton beam showed that the ASIC has the sufficient tolerance against TID up to 200 krad, which absolutely exceeds the expected amount of dose during the period of operating in a low-inclination low-earth orbit. The irradiation of Fe ions with the fluence of 5.2×108 Ion/cm2 resulted in no single event latchup (SEL), although there were some possible single event upsets. The threshold against SEL is higher than 1.68 MeV cm2/mg, which is sufficiently high enough that the SEL event should not be one of major causes of instrument downtime in orbit.

Nakajima, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Daisuke; Idehara, Toshihiro; Anabuki, Naohisa; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Doty, John P.; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Uchihori, Yukio

2011-03-01

149

CameraCast: flexible access to remote video sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New applications like remote surveillance and online environmental or traffic monitoring are making it increasingly important to provide flexible and protected access to remote video sensor devices. Current systems use application-level codes like web-based solutions to provide such access. This requires adherence to user-level APIs provided by such services, access to remote video information through given application-specific service and server topologies, and that the data being captured and distributed is manipulated by third party service codes. CameraCast is a simple, easily used system-level solution to remote video access. It provides a logical device API so that an application can identically operate on local vs. remote video sensor devices, using its own service and server topologies. In addition, the application can take advantage of API enhancements to protect remote video information, using a capability-based model for differential data protection that offers fine grain control over the information made available to specific codes or machines, thereby limiting their ability to violate privacy or security constraints. Experimental evaluations of CameraCast show that the performance of accessing remote video information approximates that of accesses to local devices, given sufficient networking resources. High performance is also attained when protection restrictions are enforced, due to an efficient kernel-level realization of differential data protection.

Kong, Jiantao; Ganev, Ivan; Schwan, Karsten; Widener, Patrick

2007-01-01

150

The measurement of astronomical parallaxes with CCD imaging cameras on small telescopes  

SciTech Connect

Small telescopes equipped with charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging cameras are well suited to introductory laboratory exercises in positional astronomy (astrometry). An elegant example is the determination of the parallax of extraterrestrial objects, such as asteroids. For laboratory exercises suitable for introductory students, the astronomical hardware needs are relatively modest, and, under the best circumstances, the analysis requires little more than arithmetic and a microcomputer with image display capabilities. Results from the first such coordinated parallax observations of asteroids ever made are presented. In addition, procedures for several related experiments, involving single-site observations and/or parallaxes of earth-orbiting artificial satellites, are outlined.

Ratcliff, S.J. (Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States)); Balonek, T.J. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, 13 Oak Dr., Hamilton, New York 13346 (United States)); Marschall, L.A. (Department of Physics, Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania 17325 (United States)); DuPuy, D.L. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, Virginia 24450 (United States)); Pennypacker, C.R. (Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)); Verma, R. (Department of Physics, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States)); Alexov, A. (Department of Astronomy, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06457 (United States)); Bonney, V. (Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

1993-03-01

151

HERSCHEL/SCORE, imaging the solar corona in visible and EUV light: CCD camera characterization.  

PubMed

The HERSCHEL (helium resonant scattering in the corona and heliosphere) experiment is a rocket mission that was successfully launched last September from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, USA. HERSCHEL was conceived to investigate the solar corona in the extreme UV (EUV) and in the visible broadband polarized brightness and provided, for the first time, a global map of helium in the solar environment. The HERSCHEL payload consisted of a telescope, HERSCHEL EUV Imaging Telescope (HEIT), and two coronagraphs, HECOR (helium coronagraph) and SCORE (sounding coronagraph experiment). The SCORE instrument was designed and developed mainly by Italian research institutes and it is an imaging coronagraph to observe the solar corona from 1.4 to 4 solar radii. SCORE has two detectors for the EUV lines at 121.6 nm (HI) and 30.4 nm (HeII) and the visible broadband polarized brightness. The SCORE UV detector is an intensified CCD with a microchannel plate coupled to a CCD through a fiber-optic bundle. The SCORE visible light detector is a frame-transfer CCD coupled to a polarimeter based on a liquid crystal variable retarder plate. The SCORE coronagraph is described together with the performances of the cameras for imaging the solar corona. PMID:20428852

Pancrazzi, M; Focardi, M; Landini, F; Romoli, M; Fineschi, S; Gherardi, A; Pace, E; Massone, G; Antonucci, E; Moses, D; Newmark, J; Wang, D; Rossi, G

2010-04-29

152

LAIWO: a new wide-field CCD camera for Wise Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LAIWO is a new CCD wide-field camera for the 40-inch Ritchey-Chretien telescope at Wise Observatory in Mitzpe Ramon/Israel. The telescope is identical to the 40-in. telescope at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, which is described in [2]. LAIWO was designed and built at Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany. The scientific aim of the instrument is to detect Jupiter-sized extra-solar planets around I=14-15 magnitude stars with the transit method, which relies on the temporary drop in brightness of the parent star harboring the planet. LAIWO can observe a 1.4 x 1.4 degree field-of-view and has four CCDs with 4096*4096 pixels each The Fairchild Imaging CCDs have a pixel size of 15 microns. Since they are not 2-side buttable, they are arranged with spacings between the chips that is equal to the size of a single CCD minus a small overlap. The CCDs are cooled by liquid nitrogen to a temperature of about -100 °C. The four science CCDs and the guider CCD are mounted on a common cryogenic plate which can be adjusted in three degrees of freedom. Each of these detectors can also be adjusted independently by a similar mechanism. The instrument contains large shutter and filter mechanisms, both designed in a modular way for fast exchange and easy maintenance.

Baumeister, Harald; Afonso, Cristina; Marien, Karl-Heinz; Klein, Ralf

2006-07-01

153

CCD camera image analysis for mapping solute concentrations in saturated porous media.  

PubMed

This paper presents an optical approach, based on the use of a low-cost charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, for the quantitative determination of solute concentrations in saturated porous media. The method is applied to evaluate tracer experiments carried out in a laboratory model tank. The CCD photos deliver RGB values which are transferred into concentrations for the evaluation of vertical concentration profiles over the whole tank area. A specially developed evaluation procedure, including internal referencing for noise reduction, considers the colour of the adjacencies of the evaluated spots and scattering effects. The CCD data evaluation technique is accompanied by conventional sampling and absorption measurements and by numerical flow and transport simulations. This non-invasive technique allows a direct mapping of the concentration distribution without any disturbance of the solute plume. Therefore, it turns out to be an important tool for a detailed investigation of fundamental processes (e.g. transverse dispersion) determining the solute (e.g. contaminant) transport in porous media. PMID:19649770

Jaeger, Stefanie; Ehni, Markus; Eberhardt, Christina; Rolle, Massimo; Grathwohl, Peter; Gauglitz, Guenter

2009-08-04

154

Screening of tetracycline residues in fish muscles by CCD camera-based solid-surface fluorescence.  

PubMed

A methodology for the screening of tetracyclines (TCs), including tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC), and chlorotetracycline (CTC), in different fish muscle matrices has been proposed. This method was based on in situ fluorescent derivation of TCs, transferring weakly fluorescing TCs to highly fluorescent species, on alkaline-activated solid silica gel G plates (SGGPs). By coupling solid-surface fluorescence (SSF) with charge-coupled device (CCD) camera imaging, a CCD camera-based SSF (CCD-SSF) methodology has been developed. Calibration curve, repeatability, selectivity, limit of detection (LOD), and limit of quantification (LOQ) have been explored for evaluating the performance of the method itself. Linear calibration curves were obtained over a range of 0.20-1.0 ng/spot for all three TCs. The LODs, defined as 3sigma, for TC, OTC, and CTC were 0.14, 0.15, and 0.16 ng/spot, respectively. The trueness of method was validated by HPLC, and no significant difference between CCD-SSF and HPLC was found, on a basis of 95% confidence level. By spiked recovery studies, a linear calibration curve ranging from 20 to 300 microg/kg of TC in fish muscle samples with a correlation coefficient (R 2) equal to 0.994 was obtained. The total average recovery for TC in fish muscle samples from six different fish matrices, fortified with TC at 50, 100, and 200 microg/kg levels, was 75.7% with average relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 2.0 to 7.7%. RSDs ranged from 2.5 to 5.8% and from 5.2 to 7.6% for in-day and interday repeatability, respectively. The detection and quantification limits in fish muscle matrices were 16 and 53 microg/kg of TCs, respectively. The newly developed CCD-SSF method has been applied to the screening of the TC residues in fish muscle samples. The method has been demonstrated to bear some advantages, such as its simplicity, high throughput, low cost, use of fewer pollutants, and reasonable sensitivity. PMID:17177488

Sun, Xiao-Ying; Chen, Hao; Gao, Hong; Guo, Xiang-Qun

2006-12-27

155

A fast EM-CCD camera as performance monitor for the SOFIA Telescope with science capabilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most challenging requirements for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is the pointing stability of 0.2 arcseconds (rms) of its 2.7 m telescope onboard a Boeing 747SP. To support the analysis of pointing disturbances in flight, an EM-CCD camera has been prepared to measure star positions in the focal plane at speeds up to about 400 frames per second. Currently, the camera is planned to be mounted for special engineering flights, a procedure that requires overhead for mechanical work and optical alignment, including star tests on the night sky from the ground. This paper summarizes the status of the project and explores possibilities to mount the camera permanently to the SOFIA telescope. Permanent mounting would make it available for continuous performance monitoring and as a trouble shooting tool if needed. In addition, the camera could serve as a versatile high speed photometer in the visible and very near IR wavelength range for astronomical observations, e.g. for the photometry of stellar occultations and of transits of extra-solar planets.

Wolf, Jürgen; Röser, Hans-Peter; Krabbe, Alfred; Pfüller, Enrico

2010-07-01

156

CCD camera and automatic data reduction pipeline for the Mercator telescope on La Palma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the development of a CCD imager for the modern 1.2m MERCATOR telescope dedicated to long term monitoring of variable astrophysical phenomena. This instrument is a result of the collaboration of the Observatory of Geneva with the Institute of Astronomy in Leuven. After a technical description of the main components of the CCD camera system, the text will focus on the automatization of the observations and subsequent data reduction. The telescope itself is an altazimuth mounted 1.2 m Ritchey-Chretien telescope and is operated in a semi-automatic mode. The system executes a predefined sequence of observations, that only need occasional checking of data quality by the astronomer. The observation software is written in a FORTRAN based interpreter language (INTER) running on a UNIX system that communicates with the astronomer via GUIs implemented in Perl/Tk. The data reduction is integrated into one package and includes pre-reduction, photometric and astrometric calibration, extraction, catalogue preparation and archiving. This allows to have a GUI driven reduction that is both flexible and robust. The preliminary reduced data give the astronomers an indication of the quality of their observations, so that they can adjust their program or camera settings during the same night.

Davignon, Geert; Blecha, Andre; Burki, Gilbert; Carrier, Fabien; Groenewegen, Martin; Maire, Charles; Raskin, Gert; Van Winckel, Hans; Weber, Luc

2004-09-01

157

Comparison of mechanically egg-triggered cameras and time-lapse video cameras in identifying predators at Dusky Flycatcher nests  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the effectiveness and reliability of mechanically egg-triggered set-cameras and time- lapse video cameras in identifying nest predators at active Dusky Flycatcher (Empidonax oberholseri) nests in Siskiyou County, California. We monitored 72 active flycatcher nests using camera systems from 1998 to 2000. Nest abandonment, hatching success, and daily survival rate did not differ between camera systems. Set-cameras were less

Joseph R. Liebezeit; T. Luke George

2003-01-01

158

High-dynamic range video acquisition with a multiview camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a new methodology to acquire HDR video content for autostereoscopic displays by adapting and augmenting an eight view video camera with standard sensors. To augment the intensity capacity of the sensors, we combine images taken at dierent exposures. Since the exposure has to be the same for all objectives of our camera, we x the exposure variation by applying neutral density lters on each objective. Such an approach has two advantages: several exposures are known for each video frame and we do not need to worry about synchronization. For each pixel of each view, an HDR value is computed by a weighted average function applied to the values of matching pixels from all views. The building of the pixel match list is simplied by the property of our camera which has eight aligned, equally distributed objectives. At each frame, this results in an individual HDR image for each view while only one exposition per view was taken. The nal eight HDR images are tone-mapped and interleaved for autostereoscopic display.

Bonnard, Jennifer; Loscos, Céline; Valette, Gilles; Nourrit, Jean-Michel; Lucas, Laurent

2012-05-01

159

Soft x-ray response of the x-ray CCD camera directly coated with optical blocking layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed the back-illuminated X-ray CCD camera (BI-CCD) to observe Xray in space. The X-ray CCD has a sensitivity not only for in X-ray but also in both Optical and UV light, X-ray CCD has to equip a filter to cut off optical light as well as UV light. The X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) onboard Suzaku satellite equipped with a thin film (OBF: Optical Blocking Filter) to cut off optical light and UV light. OBF is always in danger tearing by the acousmato or vibration during the launch, and it is difficult to handle on the ground because of its thickness. Instead of OBF, we have newly developed and produced OBL (Optical Blocking Layer), which is directly coating on the X-ray CCD surface.

Ikeda, S.; Kohmura, T.; Kawai, K.; Kaneko, K.; watanabe, T.; Tsunemi, H.; Hayashida, K.; Anabuki, N.; Nakajima, H.; Ueda, S.; Tsuru, T. G.; Dotani, T.; Ozaki, M.; Matsuta, K.; Fujinaga, T.; Kitamoto, S.; Murakami, H.; Hiraga, J.; Mori, K.; ASTRO-H SXI Team

2012-03-01

160

MOA-cam3: a wide-field mosaic CCD camera for a gravitational microlensing survey in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a wide-field mosaic CCD camera, MOA-cam3, mounted at the prime focus of the Microlensing Observations in\\u000a Astrophysics (MOA) 1.8-m telescope. The camera consists of ten E2V CCD4482 chips, each having 2k×4k pixels, and covers a 2.2\\u000a deg2 field of view with a single exposure. The optical system is well optimized to realize uniform image quality over this

T. Sako; T. Sekiguchi; M. Sasaki; K. Okajima; F. Abe; I. A. Bond; J. B. Hearnshaw; Y. Itow; K. Kamiya; P. M. Kilmartin; K. Masuda; Y. Matsubara; Y. Muraki; N. J. Rattenbury; D. J. Sullivan; T. Sumi; P. Tristram; T. Yanagisawa; P. C. M. Yock

2008-01-01

161

Visualization and PIV measurements of high-speed flows and other phenomena with novel ultra-high-speed CCD camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultra-high-speed camera system operating at up to 1 MHz is presented using a diode-pumped solid state laser at 532 nm operating between 1 and 100 kHz. Images are taken with a high-resolution high-speed CCD-camera capable of recording 4 or 16 images up to 1280 x 1024 pixel at a frame-rate of up to 1 MHz. The system can be

Sebastian Eisenberg; Wolfgang Reckers; Bernhard Wieneke

2003-01-01

162

A new paradigm for video cameras: optical sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new paradigm for the utilization of video surveillance cameras as optical sensors to augment and significantly improve the reliability and responsiveness of chemical monitoring systems. Incorporated into a hierarchical tiered sensing architecture, cameras serve as 'Tier 1' or 'trigger' sensors monitoring for visible indications after a release of warfare or industrial toxic chemical agents. No single sensor today yet detects the full range of these agents, but the result of exposure is harmful and yields visible 'duress' behaviors. Duress behaviors range from simple to complex types of observable signatures. By incorporating optical sensors in a tiered sensing architecture, the resulting alarm signals based on these behavioral signatures increases the range of detectable toxic chemical agent releases and allows timely confirmation of an agent release. Given the rapid onset of duress type symptoms, an optical sensor can detect the presence of a release almost immediately. This provides cues for a monitoring system to send air samples to a higher-tiered chemical sensor, quickly launch protective mitigation steps, and notify an operator to inspect the area using the camera's video signal well before the chemical agent can disperse widely throughout a building.

Grottle, Kevin; Nathan, Anoo; Smith, Catherine

2007-05-01

163

Production of Video Images by Computer Controlled Cameras and Its Application to TV Conference System  

Microsoft Academic Search

TV conference systems have been widely used recently. A participant of each site proceeds with a TV conference using video image on a screen and voice of a partner site. In this case, a fixed video camera shoots a scene of a site in general. The video image taken by a fixed camera, how- ever, is lacking in changes. Also

Masaki Onishi; Takehiko Kagebayashi; Kunio Fukunaga

2001-01-01

164

Masking a CCD camera allows multichord charge exchange spectroscopy measurements at high speed on the DIII-D tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charge exchange spectroscopy is one of the standard plasma diagnostic techniques used in tokamak research to determine ion temperature, rotation speed, particle density, and radial electric field. Configuring a charge coupled device (CCD) camera to serve as a detector in such a system requires a trade-off between the competing desires to detect light from as many independent spatial views as possible while still obtaining the best possible time resolution. High time resolution is essential, for example, for studying transient phenomena such as edge localized modes. By installing a mask in front of a camera with a 1024 × 1024 pixel CCD chip, we are able to acquire spectra from eight separate views while still achieving a minimum time resolution of 0.2 ms. The mask separates the light from the eight spectra, preventing spatial and temporal cross talk. A key part of the design was devising a compact translation stage which attaches to the front of the camera and allows adjustment of the position of the mask openings relative to the CCD surface. The stage is thin enough to fit into the restricted space between the CCD camera and the spectrometer endplate.

Meyer, O.; Burrell, K. H.; Chavez, J. A.; Kaplan, D. H.; Chrystal, C.; Pablant, N. A.; Solomon, W. M.

2011-02-01

165

Using the Separation of Double Stars to Obtain the Plate Scale of a Telescope with a CCD Camera Attached  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new CCD Camera was coupled to the NURO telescope in March 2006. We used the separation of selected binary stars in the Washington Double Star Catalog to calculate the new plate scale. The value of the plate scale obtained was, within the error bar, in agreement with the design (theoretical) value. We also report the position angle and separation

R. J. Muller; J. C. Cersosimo; D. Centeno; V. Miranda; L. Rivera-Rivera; E. Franco; K. Morales

2008-01-01

166

Masking a CCD camera allows multichord charge exchange spectroscopy measurements at high speed on the DIII-D tokamak  

SciTech Connect

Charge exchange spectroscopy is one of the standard plasma diagnostic techniques used in tokamak research to determine ion temperature, rotation speed, particle density, and radial electric field. Configuring a charge coupled device (CCD) camera to serve as a detector in such a system requires a trade-off between the competing desires to detect light from as many independent spatial views as possible while still obtaining the best possible time resolution. High time resolution is essential, for example, for studying transient phenomena such as edge localized modes. By installing a mask in front of a camera with a 1024 x 1024 pixel CCD chip, we are able to acquire spectra from eight separate views while still achieving a minimum time resolution of 0.2 ms. The mask separates the light from the eight spectra, preventing spatial and temporal cross talk. A key part of the design was devising a compact translation stage which attaches to the front of the camera and allows adjustment of the position of the mask openings relative to the CCD surface. The stage is thin enough to fit into the restricted space between the CCD camera and the spectrometer endplate.

Meyer, O. [Euratom-CEA Association, DSM-IRFM, Cadarache, 13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Burrell, K. H.; Chavez, J. A.; Kaplan, D. H. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Chrystal, C.; Pablant, N. A. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Solomon, W. M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

2011-02-15

167

Miniature, vacuum compatible 1024 (times) 1024 CCD camera for x-ray, ultra-violet, or optical imaging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have developed a very compact (60 (times) 60 (times) 75 mm(sup 3)), vacuum compatible, large format (25 (times) 25 mm(sup 2), 1024 (times) 1024 pixels) CCD camera for digital imaging of visible and ultraviolet radiation, soft to penetrating x-rays ((= ...

A. D. Conder J. Dunn B. K. F. Young

1994-01-01

168

Measuring the flatness of focal plane for very large mosaic CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large mosaic multiCCD camera is the key instrument for modern digital sky survey. DECam is an extremely red sensitive 520 Megapixel camera designed for the incoming Dark Energy Survey (DES). It is consist of sixty two 4k2k and twelve 2k2k 250-micron thick fully-depleted CCDs, with a focal plane of 44 cm in diameter and a eld of view of 2.2 square degree. It will be attached to the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. The DES will cover 5000 square-degrees of the southern galactic cap in 5 color bands (g, r, i, z, Y) in 5 years starting from 2011. To achieve the science goal of constraining the Dark Energy evolution, stringent requirements are laid down for the design of DECam. Among them, the atness of the focal plane needs to be controlled within a 60-micron envelope in order to achieve the specied PSF variation limit. It is very challenging to measure the atness of the focal plane to such precision when it is placed in a high vacuum dewar at 173 K. We developed two image based techniques to measure the atness of the focal plane. By imaging a regular grid of dots on the focal plane, the CCD oset along the optical axis is converted to the variation the grid spacings at dierent positions on the focal plane. After extracting the patterns and comparing the change in spacings, we can measure the atness to high precision. In method 1, the regular dots are kept in high sub micron precision and cover the whole focal plane. In method 2, no high precision for the grid is required. Instead, we use a precise XY stage moves the pattern across the whole focal plane and comparing the variations of the spacing when it is imaged by dierent CCDs. Simulation and real measurements show that the two methods work very well for our purpose, and are in good agreement with the direct optical measurements.

Hao, Jiangang; Estrada, Juan; Cease, Herman; Diehl, H. Thomas; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Kubik, Donna; Kuk, Kevin; Kuropatkine, Nickolai; Lin, Huan; Montes, Jorge; Scarpine, Vic; Schultz, Ken; Wester, William

2010-07-01

169

Field-programmable gate array-based hardware architecture for high-speed camera with KAI-0340 CCD image sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based hardware architecture for high-speed camera which have fast auto-exposure control and colour filter array (CFA) demosaicing. The proposed hardware architecture includes the design of charge coupled devices (CCD) drive circuits, image processing circuits, and power supply circuits. CCD drive circuits transfer the TTL (Transistor-Transistor-Logic) level timing Sequences which is produced by image processing circuits to the timing Sequences under which CCD image sensor can output analog image signals. Image processing circuits convert the analog signals to digital signals which is processing subsequently, and the TTL timing, auto-exposure control, CFA demosaicing, and gamma correction is accomplished in this module. Power supply circuits provide the power for the whole system, which is very important for image quality. Power noises effect image quality directly, and we reduce power noises by hardware way, which is very effective. In this system, the CCD is KAI-0340 which is can output 210 full resolution frame-per-second, and our camera can work outstandingly in this mode. The speed of traditional auto-exposure control algorithms to reach a proper exposure level is so slow that it is necessary to develop a fast auto-exposure control method. We present a new auto-exposure algorithm which is fit high-speed camera. Color demosaicing is critical for digital cameras, because it converts a Bayer sensor mosaic output to a full color image, which determines the output image quality of the camera. Complexity algorithm can acquire high quality but cannot implement in hardware. An low-complexity demosaicing method is presented which can implement in hardware and satisfy the demand of quality. The experiment results are given in this paper in last.

Wang, Hao; Yan, Su; Zhou, Zuofeng; Cao, Jianzhong; Yan, Aqi; Tang, Linao; Lei, Yangjie

2013-08-01

170

Characterization and field use of a CCD camera system for retrieval of bidirectional reflectance distribution function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vicarious calibration and field validation is a critical aspect of NASA's Earth Observing System program. As part of calibration and validation research related to this project, the Remote Sensing Group (RSG) of the Optical Science Center at the University of Arizona has developed an imaging radiometer for ground-based measurements of directional reflectance. The system relies on a commercially available 1024×1024 pixel, silicon CCD array. Angular measurements are accomplished using a fish-eye lens that has a full 180° field of view with each pixel on the CCD array having a nominal 0.2° field of view. Spectral selection is through four interference filters centered at 470, 575, 660, and 835 nm. The system is designed such that the entire 180° field is collected at one time with a complete multispectral data set collected in under 2 min. The results of laboratory experiments have been used to determine the gain and offset of each detector element as well as the effects of the lens on the system response. Measurements of a stable source using multiple integration times and at multiple distances for a set integration time indicate the system is linear to better than 0.5% over the upper 88% of the dynamic range of the system. The point spread function (PSF) of the lens system was measured for several field angles, and the signal level was found to fall to less than 1% of the peak signal within 1.5° for the on-axis case. The effect of this PSF on the retrieval of modeled BRDFs is shown to be less than 0.2% out to view angles of 70°. The degree of polarization of the system is shown to be negligible for on-axis imaging but to have up to a 20% effect at a field angle of 70°. The effect of the system polarization on the retrieval of modeled BRDFs is shown to be up to 3% for field angles of 70° off nadir and with a solar zenith angle of 70°. Field measurements are made by mounting the camera to a boom mounted to a large tripod that is aligned toward south. This tripod obstructs sampling of the surface reflectance past 25° off nadir northward. The system is typically operated at a height of 1.5 m to view over a large sampling of surface features, such as cracks. To evaluate the surface BRDF, measurements are collected throughout the morning as a function of Sun angle. A single measurement consists of all four bands and a dark-current measurement. Data sets have been collected over several vicarious calibration sites and calibration tarpaulins. Comparisons with measurements made by a simple goniometer-based system indicate that the camera system is as accurate as the goniometer. Scattering phase function values derived from the camera system are fit to a modified Pinty-Verstraete equation. This function is shown to fit the data to better than 0.3% for data collected during an example RSG vicarious calibration experiment. Bidirectional reflectance data derived from the camera system also compare well to those predicted from the Walthall model. These BRDF models are critical for determining the applicability of measurements taken over small areas to represent the BRDF properties of an entire site, which in some cases is of the order of several kilometers in size.

Nandy, P.; Thome, K.; Biggar, S.

2001-06-01

171

Maximum-likelihood scintillation detection for EM-CCD based gamma cameras.  

PubMed

Gamma cameras based on charge-coupled devices (CCDs) coupled to continuous scintillation crystals can combine a good detection efficiency with high spatial resolutions with the aid of advanced scintillation detection algorithms. A previously developed analytical multi-scale algorithm (MSA) models the depth-dependent light distribution but does not take statistics into account. Here we present and validate a novel statistical maximum-likelihood algorithm (MLA) that combines a realistic light distribution model with an experimentally validated statistical model. The MLA was tested for an electron multiplying CCD optically coupled to CsI(Tl) scintillators of different thicknesses. For (99m)Tc imaging, the spatial resolution (for perpendicular and oblique incidence), energy resolution and signal-to-background counts ratio (SBR) obtained with the MLA were compared with those of the MSA. Compared to the MSA, the MLA improves the energy resolution by more than a factor of 1.6 and the SBR is enhanced by more than a factor of 1.3. For oblique incidence (approximately 45°), the depth-of-interaction corrected spatial resolution is improved by a factor of at least 1.1, while for perpendicular incidence the MLA resolution does not consistently differ significantly from the MSA result for all tested scintillator thicknesses. For the thickest scintillator (3 mm, interaction probability 66% at 141 keV) a spatial resolution (perpendicular incidence) of 147 µm full width at half maximum (FWHM) was obtained with an energy resolution of 35.2% FWHM. These results of the MLA were achieved without prior calibration of scintillations as is needed for many statistical scintillation detection algorithms. We conclude that the MLA significantly improves the gamma camera performance compared to the MSA. PMID:21753231

Korevaar, Marc A N; Goorden, Marlies C; Heemskerk, Jan W T; Beekman, Freek J

2011-07-13

172

Dynamic range compression preserving local image contrast for digital video camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel dynamic range compression method for digital video cameras. The proposed algorithm is designed to preserve a local image contrast based on a luminance ratio of a pixel to its local surround in attention. In general, digital video cameras are required to maintain the shadow to middle range luminance that includes a main object such as

Yusuke Monobe; Haruo Yamashita; Toshiharu Kurosawa; Hiroaki Kotera

2005-01-01

173

The 12K×8K CCD mosaic camera for the Palomar Transient Factory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Palomar Transient Factory is an automated wide-field survey facility dedicated to identifying a wide range of transient phenomena. Typically, a new 7.5 square degree field will be acquired every 90 seconds with 66% observing efficiency, in g' band when the sky is dark, or in R band when the moon is up. An imaging camera with a 12Kx8K mosaic of MIT/LL CCDs, acquired from CFHT, is being repackaged to fit in the prime focus mounting hub of the Palomar 48-inch Oschin Schmidt Telescope. We discuss how we have addressed the broad range of issues presented by this application: faster CCD readout to improve observing efficiency, a new cooling system to fit within the constrained space, a low impact shutter to maintain reliability at the fast observing cadence, a new filter exchange mechanism, and the field flattener needed to correct for focal plane curvature. The most critical issue was the tight focal plane alignment and co-planarity requirements created by the fast beam and coarse plate scale. We built an optical profilometer system to measure CCDs heights and tilts with 1 ?m RMS accuracy.

Rahmer, Gustavo; Smith, Roger; Velur, Viswa; Hale, David; Law, Nicholas; Bui, Khanh; Petrie, Hal; Dekany, Richard

2008-08-01

174

Low power consumption focusing actuator for a mini video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel low power consumption autofocusing actuator in a mini video camera is constructed in accordance with the result of a systematic design procedure of voice coil motors (VCM). This paper emphasizes the position control of such a VCM. The position feedback signals are provided by a magnetoresistive (MR) encoder. The position estimation algorithm (PEA) is developed to precisely decode the MR signals for the position of the moving part of the VCM. Different postures change the loading of the moving part of the VCM, so that an adaptive model-following control system based on the PEA is proposed to compensate for the loading variation. The experiments verify the fast dynamic performance and high power efficiency of the VCM.

Yu, Hsing-Cheng; Lee, Tzung-Yuan; Lin, Shir-Kuan; Kuo, Li-Te; Wang, Shyh-Jier; Ju, Jau-Jiu; Huang, Der-Ray

2006-04-01

175

Development of the Monitoring System of Plasma Behavior Using a CCD Camera in the GAMMA 10 Tandem Mirror  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the central-cell of the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror, a medium-speed camera (CCD camera, 400 frames per second, 216× 640 pixel) has been installed for the observation of plasma behavior. This camera system is designed for monitoring the plasma position and movement in the whole discharge duration. The captured two-dimensional (2-D) images are automatically displayed just after the plasma shot and stored sequentially shot by shot. This system has been established as a helpful tool for optimizing the plasma production and heating systems by measuring the plasma behavior in several experimental conditions. The camera system shows that the intensity of the visible light emission on the central-cell limiter accompanied by central electron cyclotron heating (C-ECH) correlate with the wall conditioning and immersion length of a movable limiter (iris limiter) in the central cell.

Kawano, Hirokazu; Nakashima, Yousuke; Higashizono, Yuta; Nishino, Nobuhiro; Kobayashi, Takayuki; Mishima, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Mirai; Mori, Keiji; Kubota, Yusuke; Yoshikawa, Masashi; Cho, Teruji

176

Preliminary Performance Measurements for a Streak Camera with a Large-Format Direct-Coupled CCD Readout  

SciTech Connect

Livermore's ICF Program has a large inventory of optical streak cameras built in the 1970s and 1980s. The cameras are still very functional, but difficult to maintain because many of their parts are obsolete including the original streak tube and image-intensifier tube. The University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics is leading an effort to develop a fully automated, large-format streak camera that incorporates modern technology. Preliminary characterization of a prototype camera shows spatial resolution better than 20 lp/mm, temporal resolution of 12 ps, line-spread function of 40 {micro}m (fwhm), contrast transfer ratio (CTR) of 60% at 10 lp/mm, and system sensitivity of 16 CCD electrons per photoelectron. A dynamic range of 60 for a 2 ns window is determined from system noise, linearity and sensitivity measurements.

Lerche, R A; McDonald, J W; Griffith, R L; de Dios, G V; Andrews, D S; Huey, A W; Bell, P M; Landen, O L; Jaanimagi, P A; Boni, R

2004-04-13

177

Miniature, vacuum compatible 1024 {times} 1024 CCD camera for x-ray, ultra-violet, or optical imaging  

SciTech Connect

We have developed a very compact (60 {times} 60 {times} 75 mm{sup 3}), vacuum compatible, large format (25 {times} 25 mm{sup 2}, 1024 {times} 1024 pixels) CCD camera for digital imaging of visible and ultraviolet radiation, soft to penetrating x-rays ({le}20 keV), and charged particles. This camera provides a suitable replacement for film with a linear response, dynamic range and intrinsic signal-to- noise response superior than current x-ray film, and provides real- time access to the data. The spatial resolution of the camera (< 25 {mu}m) is similar to typical digitization slit or step sizes used in processing film data. This new large format CCD camera has immediate applications as the recording device for steak cameras or gated microchannel plate diagnostic, or when used directly as the detector for x-ray, xuv, or optical signals. This is especially important in studying high-energy plasmas produced in pulse-power, ICF, and high powered laser-plasma experiments, as well as other medical and industrial applications.

Conder, A.D.; Dunn, J.; Young, B.K.F.

1994-05-01

178

Nighttime Near Infrared Observations of Augustine Volcano Jan-Apr, 2006 Recorded With a Small Astronomical CCD Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nighttime observations of Augustine Volcano were made during Jan-Apr, 2006 using a small, unfiltered, astronomical CCD camera operating from Homer, Alaska. Time-lapse images of the volcano were made looking across the open water of the Cook Inlet over a slant range of ~105 km. A variety of volcano activities were observed that originated in near-infrared (NIR) 0.9-1.1 micron emissions, which

D. Sentman; S. McNutt; C. Reyes; H. Stenbaek-Nielsen; N. Deroin

2006-01-01

179

Frequency identification of vibration signals using video camera image data.  

PubMed

This study showed that an image data acquisition system connecting a high-speed camera or webcam to a notebook or personal computer (PC) can precisely capture most dominant modes of vibration signal, but may involve the non-physical modes induced by the insufficient frame rates. Using a simple model, frequencies of these modes are properly predicted and excluded. Two experimental designs, which involve using an LED light source and a vibration exciter, are proposed to demonstrate the performance. First, the original gray-level resolution of a video camera from, for instance, 0 to 256 levels, was enhanced by summing gray-level data of all pixels in a small region around the point of interest. The image signal was further enhanced by attaching a white paper sheet marked with a black line on the surface of the vibration system in operation to increase the gray-level resolution. Experimental results showed that the Prosilica CV640C CMOS high-speed camera has the critical frequency of inducing the false mode at 60 Hz, whereas that of the webcam is 7.8 Hz. Several factors were proven to have the effect of partially suppressing the non-physical modes, but they cannot eliminate them completely. Two examples, the prominent vibration modes of which are less than the associated critical frequencies, are examined to demonstrate the performances of the proposed systems. In general, the experimental data show that the non-contact type image data acquisition systems are potential tools for collecting the low-frequency vibration signal of a system. PMID:23202026

Jeng, Yih-Nen; Wu, Chia-Hung

2012-10-16

180

Simultaneous monitoring of a collapsing landslide with video cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective countermeasures and risk management to reduce landslide hazards require a full understanding of the processes of collapsing landslides. While the processes are generally estimated from the features of debris deposits after collapse, simultaneous monitoring during collapse provides more insights into the processes. Such monitoring, however, is usually very difficult, because it is rarely possible to predict when a collapse will occur. This study introduces a rare case in which a collapsing landslide (150 m in width and 135 m in height) was filmed with three video cameras in Higashi-Yokoyama, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. The cameras were set up in the front and on the right and left sides of the slide in May 2006, one month after a series of small slope failures in the toe and the formation of cracks on the head indicated that a collapse was imminent. The filmed images showed that the landslide collapse started from rock falls and slope failures occurring mainly around the margin, that is, the head, sides and toe. These rock falls and slope failures, which were individually counted on the screen, increased with time. Analyzing the images, five of the failures were estimated to have each produced more than 1000 m3 of debris, and the landslide collapsed with several surface failures accompanied by a toppling movement. The manner of the collapse suggested that the slip surface initially remained on the upper slope, and then extended down the slope as the excessive internal stress shifted downwards. Image analysis, together with field measurements using a ground-based laser scanner after the collapse, indicated that the landslide produced a total of 50 000 m3 of debris. As described above, simultaneous monitoring provides valuable information about landslide processes. Further development of monitoring techniques will help clarify landslide processes qualitatively as well as quantitatively.

Fujisawa, K.; Ohara, J.

2008-01-01

181

Obstacle detection in highway environment by colour CCD camera and image processing prototype installed in a vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with a demonstrator which has been developed at THOMSON-CSF\\/LER in cooperation with French car manufacturers (RENAULT and PSA Research Divisions) during the PROMETHEUS Programme. The vehicle is equipped with a video camera and image processing and visualization hardware. This system has been realized to demonstrate the important role that can be played by electronics, image and information

Stkphane Raboisson; Philippe Schmouker

1994-01-01

182

Investigation of TI TC104 linear CCD arrays with respect to applications in spaceborne camera systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of linear CCD arrays for earth observations and planetary missions is investigated. The TC 104 array consists of 3456 active pixels measuring 10.7 x 10.7 microns with four isolation and four black reference pixels at both ends of the active line; the readout procedures for the array are described. The characterization of the CCD for the Monocular Electrooptical

Peter Seige; Gisbert Ress

1986-01-01

183

Flat Field Anomalies in an X-ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-ray Source  

SciTech Connect

The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. The intensity distribution taken by the SXI camera during a NIF shot is used to determine how accurately NIF can aim laser beams. This is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 ?m square pixels, and 15 ?m thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 10W, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/?E?10. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation occurred at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was not observable below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris, damage, and surface defects on the CCD chip. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager.

M. J. Haugh and M. B. Schneider

2008-10-31

184

Testing the e2v CCD47-20 as the new sensor for the SOFIA target acquisition and tracking cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

The telescope of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has three target acquisition and tracking cameras, the Wide Field Imager (WFI), Fine Field Imager (FFI) and Focal Plane Imager (FPI). All three cameras use Thompson TH7888A CCD sensors (now offered by e2v) which are quite suitable in terms of their geometry and readout speed. However, their quantum efficiency and

Manuel Wiedemann; Jürgen Wolf; Hans-Peter Röser

2010-01-01

185

Feasibility Study of Transmission of OTV Camera Control Information in the Video Vertical Blanking Interval.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Operational Television system at Kennedy Space Center operates hundreds of video cameras, many remotely controllable, in support of the operations at the center. This study was undertaken to determine if commercial NABTS (North American Basic Teletext...

P. A. White

1994-01-01

186

Operational test procedure 241-AZ-101 waste tank color video camera system  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this procedure is to provide a documented means of verifying that all of the functional components of the 241-AZ- 101 Waste Tank Video Camera System operate properly before and after installation.

Robinson, R.S.

1996-10-30

187

The L3Vision CCD220 with its OCam test camera for AO applications in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

ESO and JRA2 OPTICON have jointly funded e2v technologies to develop a custom CCD for Adaptive Optic Wave Front Sensor (AO WFS) applications. The device, called CCD220, is a compact Peltier-cooled 240×240 pixel frametransfer 8-output back-illuminated sensor. Using the electron-multiplying technology of L3Vision detectors, the device is designed to achieve sub-electron read noise at frame rates from 25 Hz to

Philippe Feautrier; Jean-Luc Gach; Philippe Balard; Christian Guillaume; Mark Downing; Eric Stadler; Yves Magnard; Sandy Denney; Wolfgang Suske; Paul Jorden; Patrick Wheeler; Michael Skegg; Peter Pool; Ray Bell; David Burt; Javier Reyes; Manfred Meyer; Norbert Hubin; Dietrich Baade; Markus Kasper; Robin Arsenault; Thierry Fusco; Jose Javier Diaz Garcia

2008-01-01

188

Single-fluorophore imaging with an unmodified epifluorescence microscope and conventional video camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Single fluorophores in aqueous solution were imaged in real time with a conventional silicon-intensified target video camera connected to an unmodified commercial micro- scope (IX70, Olympus) with epifluorescence excitation with a high-pressure mercury lamp. Neither a powerful laser nor an extremely sensitive video camera was required. Three experimental systems were used to demonstrate quantita- tively that individual, moving or

Adachi; Kinosita JR; Ando

1999-01-01

189

Low-coherence reflectometry for stationary lateral and depth profiling with acousto-optic deflectors and a CCD camera.  

PubMed

We describe a new optical low-coherence reflectometer for depth and lateral scanning without moving parts. The reflectometer covers a range of 0.4 and 1 mm in the depth and lateral dimensions, respectively. This level was accomplished by an acousto-optic deflector for lateral scanning and temporal-coherence gating for depth resolution. The ac component of the reflected light was captured by a cooled 16-bit CCD camera with a special readout scheme. As a proof of principle, optical depths of a staggered stack of glass plates were measured. PMID:19829624

Knüttel, A; Schmitt, J M; Knutson, J R

1994-02-15

190

Dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging to simultaneously access blood flow, blood volume, and oxygenation using a color CCD camera.  

PubMed

We developed a dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging system using a single industrial-grade color CCD camera with Bayer filters to simultaneously image changes in blood flow, blood volume, and oxygenation. One frame of a color image recorded with dual-wavelength laser illumination provides not only the intensity fluctuation of the speckle pattern, but also the dual-wavelength optical reflectance signal. The method was validated using a tissue phantom and cuff ischemia experiments in the human arm. This system achieves complete time synchronization, unlike conventional time-sharing systems. Compared with a multicamera system, it also avoids the problem of image registration and can be less expensive. PMID:24104848

Wang, Jia; Wang, Yaru; Li, Bing; Feng, Danqi; Lu, Jinling; Luo, Qingming; Li, Pengcheng

2013-09-15

191

Experimental characterisation of CCD cameras for HREM at 300 kV  

PubMed

The modulation transfer function, noise transfer function and detection quantum efficiency of both 1k2 and 2k2 cameras attached to the same 300 kV FEGTEM have been measured. The results show that both the MTF and the DQE of the 2k2 camera are lower than for the 1k2 camera at frequencies above a third of the Nyquist limit. This lower per-pixel performance of the 2k2 camera is primarily a result of the use of a thicker phosphor scintillator. However, MTF and DQE of the 2k2 camera operated as an effective 1k2 camera by using 2 x 2 pixel binning are superior to the 1k2 camera in the medium spatial frequency range. PMID:10981735

Meyer; Kirkland; Dunin-Borkowski; Hutchison

2000-09-01

192

A CCD imaging device having a PLOSS structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A half inch size CCD area imaging device having the structure of the Photoconductive-Layer-On-Solid -Scanner(PLOSS) has been designed and fabricated for investigating the capability of applying the very small size image sensor to the compact-video-camera. A buried channel CCD is used as a scanner. A narrow and a short channel effects on the CCD potential well are also evaluated. As

Y. Terui; M. Yoshino; M. Ogura; M. Nakayama; M. Yoneda; K. Kugimiya; S. Akiyama; T. Chikamura; Y. Ota; Y. Miyata; H. Tanaka; M. Fujimoto; S. Horiuchi

1981-01-01

193

Eyes from Eyes: Analysis of Camera Design Using Plenoptic Video Geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the relationship between camera design and the problem of recovering the motion and structure of a scene from video data. The visual information that could possibly be obtained is described by the plenoptic function. A camera can be viewed as a device that captures a subset of this function, that is, it measures some of the light rays

Jan Neumann; Cornelia Ferm; Yiannis Aloimonos

2001-01-01

194

A high resolution Small Field Of View (SFOV) gamma camera: a columnar scintillator coated CCD imager for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a high resolution, small field of view (SFOV), Charge Coupled Device (CCD) based camera for imaging small volumes of radionuclide uptake in tissues. The Mini Gamma Ray Camera (MGRC) is a collimated, scintillator-coated, low cost, high performance imager using low noise CCDs. The prototype MGRC has a 600 ?m thick layer of columnar CsI(Tl) and operates in photon counting mode using a thermoelectric cooler to achieve an operating temperature of - 10°C. Collimation was performed using a pin hole collimator. We have measured the spatial resolution, energy resolution and efficiency using a number of radioisotope sources including 140 keV gamma-rays from 99mTc in a specially designed phantom. We also describe our first imaging of a volunteer patient.

Lees, J. E.; Bassford, D. J.; Blake, O. E.; Blackshaw, P. E.; Perkins, A. C.

2011-12-01

195

Stereoscopic cameras for the real-time acquisition of panoramic 3D images and videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are different panoramic techniques to produce outstanding stereoscopic panoramas of static scenes. However, a camera configuration capable to capture omnidirectional stereoscopic snapshots and videos of dynamic scenes is still a subject of research. In this paper, two multiple-camera configurations capable to produce high-quality stereoscopic panoramas in real-time are presented. Unlike existing methods, the proposed multiple-camera systems acquire all the

Luis E. Gurrieri; E. Dubois

2013-01-01

196

A video system capable of simulating Landsat TM 5, 4, 3 imagery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a multispectral digital video imaging system that produces imagery similar to Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) Bands 5, 4, 3. The system is comprised of two charge coupled device (CCD) analog video cameras, one tube analog video camera, and a computer equipped with an image digitizing board. The two CCD cameras are sensitive to visible\\/near-infrared wave-lengths and are

J. H. Everitt; D. E. Escobar; J. R. Noriega; I. Cavazos; M. R. Davis

1997-01-01

197

Identifying sports videos using replay, text, and camera motion features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated classification of digital video is emerging as an important piece of the puzzle in the design of content management systems for digital libraries. The ability to classify videos into various classes such as sports, news, movies, or documentaries, increases the efficiency of indexing, browsing, and retrieval of video in large databases. In this paper, we discuss the extraction of

Vikrant Kobla; Daniel DeMenthon; David S. Doermann

1999-01-01

198

Camera View-Based American Football Video Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a top-down statistical modeling approach to explore the semantic structure in American football video. First, a semantic space is defined where the video semantic structure is characterized by semantic units, a dynamic model over semantic units, and an observation model for mapping the semantic units with the visual features. Then, a new hidden Markov model (HMM)-based video generative

Yi Ding; Guoliang Fan

2006-01-01

199

Experimental characterisation of CCD cameras for HREM at 300 kV  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulation transfer function, noise transfer function and detection quantum efficiency of both 1k2 and 2k2 cameras attached to the same 300kV FEGTEM have been measured. The results show that both the MTF and the DQE of the 2k2 camera are lower than for the 1k2 camera at frequencies above a third of the Nyquist limit. This lower per-pixel performance

R. R. Meyer; A. I. Kirkland; R. E. Dunin-Borkowski; J. L. Hutchison

2000-01-01

200

Calibration of stereo cameras using a non-linear distortion model [CCD sensory  

Microsoft Academic Search

A camera model is presented which accounts for major sources of camera distortion: radial, decentering, and thin-prism distortions. The proposed calibration procedure consists of two steps. In the first step, calibration parameters are estimated using a closed-form solution based on a distortion-free camera model. In the second step, the parameters estimated in the first step are improved iteratively through nonlinear

Juyang Weng; P. Cohen; M. Herniou

1990-01-01

201

The optical matching between the housing and the camera of video security system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The housing and the camera of video security system are usually manufactured by different companies. During the combining use of camera and housing the main attention points are size, strength, power cord and video cable connecting method and their output channel; the optical matching is less considered and correspondingly poor image output occurs frequently. For improving the image output of video security system it is necessary to study the optical matching between the housing and the camera. VSS camera SCC-C6435 is one kind of indoor camera. SHG-222 is one kind of outdoor housing. The core of camera SCC-C6435 and the cover of SHG-222 are used to combine a new outdoor camera. But after this combination is finished the final image output is not good in some directions. Through measuring and analyzing we can know that the rotating center of SCC-C6435 lens does not coincide with the center of the cover of SHG-222, which is the basic reason of poor image output. After adjusting SHG-222 housing's inner structure accurately and combining them again, we can obtain perfect image output from the newly combined outdoor camera. After considering the optical matching between the housing and the camera we can improve the combined camera's image output greatly. It suggests that during combining one housing and one camera into one new camera with new function the optical matching is one important factor, and optical matching should be added as one important factor during housing design and camera design.

Liao, Bangquan

2011-11-01

202

Feasibility study of transmission of OTV camera control information in the video vertical blanking interval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Operational Television system at Kennedy Space Center operates hundreds of video cameras, many remotely controllable, in support of the operations at the center. This study was undertaken to determine if commercial NABTS (North American Basic Teletext System) teletext transmission in the vertical blanking interval of the genlock signals distributed to the cameras could be used to send remote control commands to the cameras and the associated pan and tilt platforms. Wavelength division multiplexed fiberoptic links are being installed in the OTV system to obtain RS-250 short-haul quality. It was demonstrated that the NABTS transmission could be sent over the fiberoptic cable plant without excessive video quality degradation and that video cameras could be controlled using NABTS transmissions over multimode fiberoptic paths as long as 1.2 km.

White, Preston A., III

1994-10-01

203

Testing the e2v CCD47-20 as the new sensor for the SOFIA target acquisition and tracking cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The telescope of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has three target acquisition and tracking cameras, the Wide Field Imager (WFI), Fine Field Imager (FFI) and Focal Plane Imager (FPI). All three cameras use Thompson TH7888A CCD sensors (now offered by e2v) which are quite suitable in terms of their geometry and readout speed. However, their quantum efficiency and dark current rate are not comparable to newer CCD sensors now widely used in astronomy. The Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI) under contract of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has therefore initiated an upgrade project of the cameras with high-sensitivity and low dark current CCD sensors, the e2v CCD47-20 BI AIMO. The back-illuminated architecture allows for high quantum efficiency, while the inverted mode operation lowers the dark current significantly. Both features enable the cameras to use fainter stars for tracking. The expected improvements in sensitivity range between 1.2 and 2.5 stellar magnitudes for the three cameras. In this paper we present results of laboratory and on-sky tests with the new sensor, obtained with a commercial camera platform.

Wiedemann, Manuel; Wolf, Jürgen; Röser, Hans-Peter

2010-07-01

204

Compact pnCCD-based X-ray camera with high spatial and energy resolution: a color X-ray camera.  

PubMed

For many applications there is a requirement for nondestructive analytical investigation of the elemental distribution in a sample. With the improvement of X-ray optics and spectroscopic X-ray imagers, full field X-ray fluorescence (FF-XRF) methods are feasible. A new device for high-resolution X-ray imaging, an energy and spatial resolving X-ray camera, is presented. The basic idea behind this so-called "color X-ray camera" (CXC) is to combine an energy dispersive array detector for X-rays, in this case a pnCCD, with polycapillary optics. Imaging is achieved using multiframe recording of the energy and the point of impact of single photons. The camera was tested using a laboratory 30 ?m microfocus X-ray tube and synchrotron radiation from BESSY II at the BAMline facility. These experiments demonstrate the suitability of the camera for X-ray fluorescence analytics. The camera simultaneously records 69,696 spectra with an energy resolution of 152 eV for manganese K(?) with a spatial resolution of 50 ?m over an imaging area of 12.7 × 12.7 mm(2). It is sensitive to photons in the energy region between 3 and 40 keV, limited by a 50 ?m beryllium window, and the sensitive thickness of 450 ?m of the chip. Online preview of the sample is possible as the software updates the sums of the counts for certain energy channel ranges during the measurement and displays 2-D false-color maps as well as spectra of selected regions. The complete data cube of 264 × 264 spectra is saved for further qualitative and quantitative processing. PMID:21355541

Scharf, O; Ihle, S; Ordavo, I; Arkadiev, V; Bjeoumikhov, A; Bjeoumikhova, S; Buzanich, G; Gubzhokov, R; Günther, A; Hartmann, R; Kühbacher, M; Lang, M; Langhoff, N; Liebel, A; Radtke, M; Reinholz, U; Riesemeier, H; Soltau, H; Strüder, L; Thünemann, A F; Wedell, R

2011-02-28

205

Measurement of Point-Like Image Coordinates Using a Linear CCD-Camera.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A TV-camera based on a linear 2000-elements charge-coupled light sensor K1200CL2 has been designed. The camera is designed for measuring charged particle track coordinates. It is used for digitizing images and transferring them to DVK-2 microcomputer. Det...

A. L. Men'shikov V. N. Polyakov V. I. Prikhod'ko

1987-01-01

206

Achievable resolution from images of biological specimens acquired from a 4k × 4k CCD camera in a 300kV electron cryomicroscope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteriorhodopsin and ? 15 bacteriophage were used as biological test specimens to evaluate the potential structural resolution with images captured from a 4k×4k charge-coupled device (CCD) camera in a 300-kV electron cryomicroscope. The phase residuals computed from the bacteriorhodopsin CCD images taken at 84,000× effective magnification averaged 15.7° out to 5.8-Å resolution relative to Henderson’s published values. Using a single-particle

Dong-Hua Chen; Joanita Jakana; Xiangan Liu; Michael F. Schmid; Wah Chiu

2008-01-01

207

Laser Doppler visualisation of the fields of three-dimensional velocity vectors with the help of a minimal number of CCD cameras  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the possibility of laser Doppler visualisation and measurement of the field of three-dimensional velocity vectors by suppressing the multiparticle scattering influence on the measurement results, when using one CCD camera. The coordinate measuring basis is formed due to switching of the directions and the frequency of spatially combined laser sheets, the frequency being synchronised with the CCD-camera operation. The field of the velocity vectors without the contribution from the multiparticle scattering is produced from the linear combinations of normalised laser sheet images detected with a CCD camera in a frequency-demodulated scattered light. The method can find applications not only in laser diagnostics of gas and condensed media but also in the Doppler spectroscopy of light fields scattered by multiparticle dynamic structures. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Dubnishchev, Yu N [S S Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2010-08-27

208

Robust camera calibration for sport videos using court models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an automatic camera calibration algorithm for court sports. The obtained camera calibration parametersarerequiredforapplicationsthatneedtoconvertpositionsinthevideoframetoreal-worldcoordinates or vice versa. Our algorithm uses a model of the arrangement of court lines for calibration. Since the court model can be specifled by the user,the algorithm can be applied to a variety of difierent sports. The algorithm starts with a model initialization step which

Dirk Farin; Susanne Krabbe; Wolfgang Effelsberg

2004-01-01

209

Arbitrary viewpoint video synthesis from multiple uncalibrated cameras.  

PubMed

We propose a method for arbitrary view synthesis from uncalibrated multiple camera system, targeting large spaces such as soccer stadiums. In Projective Grid Space (PGS), which is a three-dimensional space defined by epipolar geometry between two basis cameras in the camera system, we reconstruct three-dimensional shape models from silhouette images. Using the three-dimensional shape models reconstructed in the PGS, we obtain a dense map of the point correspondence between reference images. The obtained correspondence can synthesize the image of arbitrary view between the reference images. We also propose a method for merging the synthesized images with the virtual background scene in the PGS. We apply the proposed methods to image sequences taken by a multiple camera system, which installed in a large concert hall. The synthesized image sequences of virtual camera have enough quality to demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:15369084

Yaguchi, Satoshi; Saito, Hideo

2004-02-01

210

Range-Gated LADAR Coherent Imaging Using Parametric Up-Conversion of IR and NIR Light for Imaging with a Visible-Range Fast-Shuttered Intensified Digital CCD Camera  

SciTech Connect

Research is presented on infrared (IR) and near infrared (NIR) sensitive sensor technologies for use in a high speed shuttered/intensified digital video camera system for range-gated imaging at ''eye-safe'' wavelengths in the region of 1.5 microns. The study is based upon nonlinear crystals used for second harmonic generation (SHG) in optical parametric oscillators (OPOS) for conversion of NIR and IR laser light to visible range light for detection with generic S-20 photocathodes. The intensifiers are ''stripline'' geometry 18-mm diameter microchannel plate intensifiers (MCPIIS), designed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and manufactured by Philips Photonics. The MCPIIS are designed for fast optical shattering with exposures in the 100-200 ps range, and are coupled to a fast readout CCD camera. Conversion efficiency and resolution for the wavelength conversion process are reported. Experimental set-ups for the wavelength shifting and the optical configurations for producing and transporting laser reflectance images are discussed.

YATES,GEORGE J.; MCDONALD,THOMAS E. JR.; BLISS,DAVID E.; CAMERON,STEWART M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.

2000-12-20

211

Variable high-resolution color CCD camera system with online capability for professional photo studio application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Digital cameras are of increasing significance for professional applications in photo studios where fashion, portrait, product and catalog photographs or advertising photos of high quality have to be taken. The eyelike is a digital camera system which has been developed for such applications. It is capable of working online with high frame rates and images of full sensor size and it provides a resolution that can be varied between 2048 by 2048 and 6144 by 6144 pixel at a RGB color depth of 12 Bit per channel with an also variable exposure time of 1/60s to 1s. With an exposure time of 100 ms digitization takes approx. 2 seconds for an image of 2048 by 2048 pixels (12 Mbyte), 8 seconds for the image of 4096 by 4096 pixels (48 Mbyte) and 40 seconds for the image of 6144 by 6144 pixels (108 MByte). The eyelike can be used in various configurations. Used as a camera body most commercial lenses can be connected to the camera via existing lens adaptors. On the other hand the eyelike can be used as a back to most commercial 4' by 5' view cameras. This paper describes the eyelike camera concept with the essential system components. The article finishes with a description of the software, which is needed to bring the high quality of the camera to the user.

Breitfelder, Stefan; Reichel, Frank R.; Gaertner, Ernst; Hacker, Erich; Cappellaro, Markus; Rudolf, Peter; Voelk, Ute

1998-04-01

212

Lights, Cameras, Pencils! Using Descriptive Video to Enhance Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students of various ages and abilities can increase their comprehension and build vocabulary with the help of a new technology, Descriptive Video. Descriptive Video (also known as described programming) was developed to give individuals with visual impairments access to visual media such as television programs and films. Described programs,…

Hoffner, Helen; Baker, Eileen; Quinn, Kathleen Benson

2008-01-01

213

Development of the control circuits for the TID-CCD stereo camera of the Chang'E-2 satellite based on FPGAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TDI-CCD Stereo Camera is the optical sensor on the Chang'E-2 (CE-2) satellite created for the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program. The camera was designed to acquire three-dimensional stereoscopic images of the lunar surface based upon three-line array photogrammetric theory. The primary objective of the camera is, (1) to obtain about 1-m pixel spatial resolution images of the preparative landing location from an ellipse orbit at an altitude of ~15km, and (2) to obtain about 7-m pixel spatial resolution global images of the Moon from a circular orbit at an altitude of ~100km. The focal plane of the camera is comprised of two TDI-CCDs. The control circuits of the camera are designed based on two SRAM-type FPGAs, XQR2V3000-4CG717. In this paper, a variable frequency control and multi-tap data readout technology for the TDI-CCD is presented, which is able to change the data processing capabilities according to the different orbit mode for the TDI-CCD stereo camera. By this way, the data rate of the camera is extremely reduced from 100Mbps to 25Mbps at high orbit mode, which is benefit to raise the reliability of the image transfer. The results of onboard flight validate that the proposed methodology is reasonable and reliable.

Duan, Yong-Qiang; Gao, Wei; Qiao, Wei-Dong; Wen, De-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Chang

2013-09-01

214

Rotating slit image camera TOPCON SL 45. New developments for simultaneous image acquisition by photographic and CCD-assisted on-line documentation.  

PubMed

In a first approach the photographic camera part of the SL 45 B has been replaced by a CCD camera (2/3" black-and-white camera/Teli CS 3440 CCD B/W Tokyo Electronic Industry Co., Ltd.) unit thus enabling direct image acquisition and computer assisted analyses. Images have a full length of 8.8 mm. The images can be taken with only the observation light, no flash is necessary. Thus, the images can also be recorded on a VCR performing a complete rotation of the slit and all lens sections can be monitored obtaining almost three-dimensional information about the lens transparency/cataract formation. The further improvement is the on-line imaging for all SL-45 cameras in having CCD acquisition together with the usual 35-mm film photography. This is very important for the documentation of the lens coloration and for measuring lens fluorescence. For this TOPCON SL 45 (new generation) we are using the '2nd Scheimpflug condition' located within the eye piece of a SL 45 which is taken with a CS b/w No. 8310 C (Tokyo Electronic Industry Co., Ltd.). It is possible to integrate the CCD system in all TOPCON SL 45 Cameras (1st and 2nd production charge as well as SL 45 B). PMID:8883096

Dragomirescu, V; Hockwin, O

1996-01-01

215

Design of Pan-Camera Decoder in Digital Video Monitoring System Based on Embedded Microcontroller  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design method of pan-camera decoder applying in digital video monitoring system including software and hardware. This decoder was based on embedded microcontroller C8051F330 and was mainly composed of regulated power supply circuit, serial communication interface circuit, watching dog circuit, input\\/output alarm circuit and pan-camera control circuit. It is connected with the UP computer by RS-485 serial

Tan Kejun; Luan Xiuzhen; Meng Xianyao

2007-01-01

216

A Video Monitoring Model with a Distributed Camera System for the Smart Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The developed model of video monitoring based on distributed camera system is intended for automation of registration of meeting\\u000a participants. The problem of detecting position of participants simultaneously attended in the room and their faces is solved\\u000a by joint use of wide-angle, omni-directional and PTZ cameras located on walls and ceiling of the room, as well as implementation\\u000a of face

Alexander L. Ronzhin; Maria Prischepa; Alexey Karpov

2010-01-01

217

Superhigh-sensitive x-ray video camera and its applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two types of new detectors have been developed to pick up faint x-ray image with high resolution in the x-ray energy range of from 3 keV. One is an x-ray image intensifier type video camera. The other is an ultra high sensitive x-ray image intensifier type video camera and this enables us to pick up faint soft x-ray image even in the photon counting region. Features, specification, and applications of these detectors are described.

Sakamoto, Tomiyasu; Suzuki, Kenji

1993-04-01

218

Path plan acquisition system for AGV with dual CCD-cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper refers to a vision system based on the principle of stereoparallax range finding, which has been applied to an automatic guided vehicle system (AGVS) successfully at the Farm Machinery Lab. of Jilin University of Technology. Two images of a scene are taken by the left and right pick up cameras at same time and acquired by the computer

Yu Feng; Chen Hong; Zhang Lanjun

1996-01-01

219

A 5.5 megapixel high-performance low-light military video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. has combined the results of recent advances in CMOS imaging sensor, signal processing and embedded computing technologies to produce a new high performance military video camera. In this paper we present the design features and performance characteristics of this new, large format camera which was developed for use in military airborne intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), targeting and pilotage applications. This camera utilizes a high sensitivity CMOS detector array with low read noise, low dark current and large well capacity to provide high quality image data under low-light and high intra-scene dynamic range illumination conditions. The camera utilizes sensor control electronics and an advanced digital video processing chain to maximize the quality and utility of the digital images produced by the CMOS device. Key features of this camera include: rugged, small physical size, wide operating temperature range, low operating power, high frame rate and automatic gain control for all-light-level applications. This camera also features a novel pixel decimation filter to provide custom image sizes and video output formats.

Heim, Gerald B.; Biesterfeld, Brian; Burkepile, Jon; Frame, Wayne W.; Harding, Tyson; Harris, Joshua; Merschel, Steve; Mork, Ryan; Shimonek, Jordan; Smith, Phillips; Wu, Minming

2009-05-01

220

Cinematized Reality: Cinematographic 3D Video System for Daily Life Using Multiple Outer\\/Inner Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of Cinematized Reality is to record unexpected moments in people?s lives and create movies that look as if they were created from real, expertly captured film footage. The approach toward Cinematized Reality is to generate free-view video streams from multiple videos. The proposed system reconstructs 3D models of the capturing space using outer environmental cameras and an inner

Hansung Kim; Ryuuki Sakamoto; K. Kogure; I. Kitahara

2006-01-01

221

Multi-camera video surveillance for real-time analysis and reconstruction of soccer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soccer analysis and reconstruction is one of the most interesting challenges for wide-area video surveillance applications.\\u000a Techniques and system implementation for tracking the ball and players with multiple stationary cameras are discussed. With\\u000a video data captured from a football stadium, the real-world, real-time positions of the ball and players can be generated.\\u000a The whole system contains a two-stage workflow, i.e.,

Jinchang Ren; Ming Xu; James Orwell; Graeme A. Jones

2010-01-01

222

Measuring the EUV and optical transmission of optical blocking layer for x-ray CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new back-illuminated (BI) CCD which has an Optical Blocking Layer (OBL) directly coating its X-ray illumination surface with Aluminum-Polyimide-Aluminum instead of Optical Blocking Filter (OBF). OBL is composed of a thin polyimide layer sandwiched by two Al layers. Polyimide and Al has a capability to cut EUV and optical light, respectively. The X-ray CCD is affected by large doses of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation from Earth sun-lit atmosphere (airglow) in orbit as well as the optical light. In order to evaluate the performance of the EUV-attenuating polyimide of the OBL, we measured the EUV transmission of both the OBL and the OBF at energies between 15-72 eV by utilizing a beam line located at the Photon Factory in High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK-PF). We obtained the EUV transmission to be 3% at 41 eV which is the same as the expected transmission from the designed thickness of the polyimide layer. We also found no significant change of the EUV transmission of polyimide over the nine month interval spanned by out two experiments. We also measured the optical transmission of the OBL at wavelengths between 500-900Å to evaluate the performance of the Al that attenuates optical light, and found the optical transmission to be less than 4×10-5.

Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kawai, Kohei; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Ogawa, Taiki; Ikeda, Shoma; Ushiyama, Kaoru; Kaneko, Kenta; Kitamoto, Shunji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Takenaka, Eri; Nagasaki, Kenta; Higashi, Keiichi; Yoshida, Masaki; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Anabuki, Naohisa; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Rui; Shigeyama, Kazuo; Ueda, Shutaro; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ozaki, Masanobu; Bamba, Aya; Hiraga, Junko S.; Mori, Koji

2010-07-01

223

Fast CCD camera for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved x-ray scattering and imaging  

SciTech Connect

A new, fast x-ray detector system is presented for high-throughput, high-sensitivity, time-resolved, x-ray scattering and imaging experiments, most especially x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS). After a review of the architectures of different CCD chips and a critical examination of their suitability for use in a fast x-ray detector, the new detector hardware is described. In brief, its principal component is an inexpensive, commercial camera - the SMD1M60 - originally designed for optical applications, and modified for use as a direct-illumination x-ray detector. The remainder of the system consists of two Coreco Imaging PC-DIG frame grabber boards, located inside a Dell Power-edge 6400 server. Each frame grabber sits on its own PCI bus and handles data from 2 of the CCD's 4 taps. The SMD1M60 is based on a fast, frame-transfer, 4-tap CCD chip, read out at12-bit resolution at frame rates of up to 62 Hz for full frame readout and up to 500 Hz for one-sixteenth frame readout. Experiments to characterize the camera's suitability for XPCS and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) are presented. These experiments show that single photon events are readily identified, and localized to within a pixel index or so. This is a sufficiently fine spatial resolution to maintain the speckle contrast at an acceptable value for XPCS measurements. The detective quantum efficiency of the SMD1M60 is 49% for directly-detected 6.3 keV x rays. The effects of data acquisition strategies that permit near-real-time data compression are also determined and discussed. Overall, the SMD1M60 detector system represents a major improvement in the technology for time-resolved x-ray experiments, that require an area detector with time-resolutions in few-milliseconds-to-few-seconds range, and it should have wide applications, extending beyond XPCS.

Falus, P.; Borthwick, M.A.; Mochrie, S.G.J. [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Departments of Physics and Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

2004-11-01

224

Camera/Video Phones in Schools: Law and Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The emergence of mobile phones with built-in digital cameras is creating legal and ethical concerns for school systems throughout the world. Users of such phones can instantly email, print or post pictures to other MMS1 phones or websites. Local authorities and schools in Britain, Europe, USA, Canada, Australia and elsewhere have introduced…

Parry, Gareth

2005-01-01

225

Passive millimeter-wave video camera for aviation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) imaging technology offers significant safety benefits to world aviation. Made possible by recent technological breakthroughs, PMMW imaging sensors provide visual-like images of objects under low visibility conditions (e.g., fog, clouds, snow, sandstorms, and smoke) which blind visual and infrared sensors. TRW has developed an advanced, demonstrator version of a PMMW imaging camera that, when front-mounted on an aircraft, gives images of the forward scene at a rate and quality sufficient to enhance aircrew vision and situational awareness under low visibility conditions. Potential aviation uses for a PMMW camera are numerous and include: (1) Enhanced vision for autonomous take- off, landing, and surface operations in Category III weather on Category I and non-precision runways; (2) Enhanced situational awareness during initial and final approach, including Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) mitigation; (3) Ground traffic control in low visibility; (4) Enhanced airport security. TRW leads a consortium which began flight tests with the demonstration PMMW camera in September 1997. Flight testing will continue in 1998. We discuss the characteristics of PMMW images, the current state of the technology, the integration of the camera with other flight avionics to form an enhanced vision system, and other aviation applications.

Fornaca, Steven; Shoucri, Merit; Yujiri, Larry

1998-07-01

226

Achievable Resolution from Images of Biological Specimens Acquired from a 4k x 4k CCD Camera in a 300-kV Electron Cryomicroscope  

PubMed Central

Bacteriorhodopsin and ? 15 bacteriophage were used as biological test specimens to evaluate the potential structural resolution with images captured from a 4k × 4k charge-coupled device (CCD) camera in a 300-kV electron cryomicroscope. The phase residuals computed from the bacteriorhodopsin CCD images taken at 84,000 × effective magnification averaged 15.7° out to 5.8-Å resolution relative to Henderson’s published values. Using a single-particle reconstruction technique, we obtained an 8.2-Å icosahedral structure of ? 15 bacteriophage with the CCD images collected at an effective magnification of 56,000 ×. These results demonstrate that it is feasible to retrieve biological structures to a resolution close to 2/3 of the Nyquist frequency from the CCD images recorded in a 300-kV electron cryomicroscope at a moderately high but practically acceptable microscope magnification.

Chen, Dong-Hua; Jakana, Joanita; Liu, Xiangan; Schmid, Michael F.; Chiu, Wah

2008-01-01

227

Progress of the x-ray CCD camera development for the eROSITA telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eROSITA space telescope is presently developed for the determination of cosmological parameters and the equation of state of dark energy via evolution of galaxy clusters. It will perform in addition a census of the obscured black hole growth in the Universe. The instrument development was also strongly motivated by the intention of a first imaging X-ray all-sky survey above an energy of 2 keV. eROSITA is scientific payload on the Russian research satellite SRG and the mission duration is scheduled for 7.5 years. The instrument comprises an array of seven identical and parallel-aligned telescopes. The mirror system is of Wolter-I type and the focal plane is equipped with a PNCCD camera for each of the telescopes. This instrumentation permits spectroscopy and imaging of X-rays in the energy band from 0.3 keV to 10 keV with a field of view of 1.0 degree. The camera development is done at the Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and in particular the key component, the PNCCD sensor, has been designed and fabricated at the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck Society. All produced devices have been tested and the best selected for the eROSITA project. Based on calculations, simulations, and experimental testing of prototype systems, the flight cameras have been configured. We describe the detector and its performance, the camera design and electronics, the thermal system, and report on the latest estimates of the expected radiation damage taking into account the generation of secondary neutrons. The most recent test results will be presented as well as the status of the instrument development.

Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Aschauer, Florian; Bornemann, Walter; Emberger, Valentin; Eraerds, Tanja; Fürmetz, Maria; Hälker, Olaf; Hartner, Gisela; Kink, Walter; Müller, Siegfried; Pietschner, Daniel; Predehl, Peter; Reiffers, Jonas; Walther, Sabine; Weidenspointner, Georg

2013-09-01

228

Measuring Night-Sky Brightness with a Wide-Field CCD Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a system for rapidly measuring the brightness of the night sky using a mosaic of CCD images obtained with a low-cost automated system. The portable system produces millions of independent photometric measurements covering the entire sky, enabling the detailed characterization of natural sky conditions and light domes produced by cities. The measurements are calibrated using images of standard stars contained within the raw data, producing results closely tracking the Johnson V astronomical standard. The National Park Service has collected hundreds of data sets at numerous parks since 2001 and is using these data for the protection and monitoring of the night-sky visual resource. This system also allows comprehensive characterization of sky conditions at astronomical observatories. We explore photometric issues raised by the broadband measurement of the complex and variable night-sky spectrum, and potential indices of night-sky quality.

Duriscoe, Dan M.; Luginbuhl, Christian B.; Moore, Chadwick A.

2007-02-01

229

RS-2D: CCD readout system for streak cameras and other scientific imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The RS-2D system is intended for various scientific applications, mainly for pulse image capturing. The intrinsic flexibility of CCDs is supported by fully programmable hardware and dedicated control software producing user-friendly, simple to use still powerful measurement device. The evolution of the system, inspired primarily by the need of various scientific experiments led us to a number of techniques and tricks which improve the reliability and precision of data. The RS-2D software is a combination of visualization and measurement tools, general readout control and some specific hardware-oriented procedures. As a result, the software can be used stand- alone just for image analyzing (and sometimes is), it can be adapted for various third-party readout systems (e.g. for Data Translation Frame grabber) but it gives more possibilities when used in RS-2D system. In this article we would also discuss parameters and measurement techniques for CCD readout systems.

Vyssogorets, Mikhail V.; Abrosimov, S. A.; Schelev, Mikhail Y.; Serov, R. V.

1997-05-01

230

Remote sensing applications with NH hyperspectral portable video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in image sensor and information technologies have enabled the development of small hyperspectral imaging systems. EBA JAPAN (Tokyo, Japan) has developed a novel grating-based, portable hyperspectral imaging camera NH-1 and NH-7 that can acquire a 2D spatial image (640 x 480 and 1280 x 1024 pixels, respectively) with a single exposure using an internal self-scanning system. The imagers cover a wavelength range of 350 - 1100 nm, with a spectral resolution of 5 nm. Because of their small weight of 750 g, the NH camera systems can easily be installed on a small UAV platform. We show the results from the analysis of data obtained by remote sensing applications including land vegetation and atmospheric monitoring from both ground- and airborne/UAV-based observations.

Takara, Yohei; Manago, Naohiro; Saito, Hayato; Mabuchi, Yusaku; Kondoh, Akihiko; Fujimori, Takahiro; Ando, Fuminori; Suzuki, Makoto; Kuze, Hiroaki

2012-11-01

231

Performance differences in laparoscopic surgical skills between true high-definition and three-chip CCD video systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Laparoscopic surgery requires surgeons to rely on visual clues for discrimination among differing tissues and for depth of\\u000a field on a two-dimensional screen. High definition (HD) provides a superior image. If there is a measurable advantage with\\u000a HD television (TV), the increase in the cost of the technology would be justified.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A digital three-chip CCD camera with a standard monitor

M. Hagiike; E. H. Phillips; G. Berci

2007-01-01

232

Composite Video and Graphics Display for Multiple Camera Viewing System in Robotics and Teleoperation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A system for real-time video image display for robotics or remote-vehicle teleoperation is described that has at least one robot arm or remotely operated vehicle controlled by an operator through hand-controllers, and one or more television cameras and op...

D. B. Diner S. C. Venema

1991-01-01

233

A research on controlling three-dimensional effect of the video frames obtained from stereo camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, 3D TVs and the 3D video contents such as movie, commercial film, or drama are widely exploited for many people. Due to these developments, many people will want to make the 3D contents with 3D cameras, and share these contents by uploading them to the UCC website. However, some people can experience the visual discomfort and fatigue

Jeehong Lee; Kyu-yeol Chae; Simon Ji

2011-01-01

234

The 3D video processing method in the stereoscopic camera for mobile devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, 3D TVs and the 3D video contents are widely exploited for many people. Due to these developments, many people will want to shoot the 3D contents with the stereoscopic camera, and share these contents by uploading them to the UCC website. However, some people can experience the visual discomfort and fatigue when they are watching the 3D

Jeehong Lee; Kyu-yeol Chae; Simon Ji

2012-01-01

235

Velocity measurement of compressible air flows utilizing a high-speed video camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

PIV-measurements of the flow above a pitching airfoil were conducted in a transonic wind tunnel. An ultra high-speed video camera was used for separate recording of two exposures. The data was analysed using the cross-correlation method. The results show the applicability of the technique in high speed flows.

M. Raffel; J. Kompenhans; B. Stasicki; B. Bretthauer; G. E. A. Meier

1995-01-01

236

Observation of hydrothermal flows with acoustic video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate hydrothermal discharging and its diffusion process along the ocean ridge is necessary for understanding balance of mass and flux in the ocean, ecosystem around hydrothermal fields and so on. However, it has been difficult for us to measure hydrothermal activities without disturbance caused by observation platform ( submersible, ROV, AUV ). We wanted to have some observational method to observe hydrothermal discharging behavior as it was. DIDSON (Dual-Frequency IDentification SONar) is acoustic lens-based sonar. It has sufficiently high resolution and rapid refresh rate that it can substitute for optical system in turbid or dark water where optical systems fail. DIDSON operates at two frequencies, 1.8MHz or 1.1MHz, and forms 96 beams spaced 0.3° apart or 48 beams spaced 0.6° apart respectively. It images out to 12m at 1.8MHz and 40m at 1.1MHz. The transmit and receive beams are formed with acoustic lenses with rectangular apertures and made of polymethylpentene plastic and FC-70 liquid. This physical beam forming allows DIDSON to consume only 30W of power. DIDSON updates its image between 20 to 1 frames/s depending on the operating frequency and the maximum range imaged. It communicates its host using Ethernet. Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo ( IIS ) has understood DIDSON’s superior performance and tried to find new method for utilization of it. The observation systems that IIS has ever developed based on DIDSON are waterside surveillance system, automatic measurement system for fish length, automatic system for fish counting, diagnosis system for deterioration of underwater structure and so on. A next challenge is to develop an observation method based on DIDSON for hydrothermal discharging from seafloor vent. We expected DIDSON to reveal whole image of hydrothermal plume as well as detail inside the plume. In October 2009, we conducted seafloor reconnaissance using a manned deep-sea submersible Shinkai6500 in Central Indian Ridge 18-20deg.S, where hydrothermal plume signatures were previously perceived. DIDSON was equipped on the top of Shinkai6500 in order to get acoustic video images of hydrothermal plumes. In this cruise, seven dives of Shinkai6500 were conducted. The acoustic video images of the hydrothermal plumes had been captured in three of seven dives. These are only a few acoustic video images of the hydrothermal plumes. Processing and analyzing the acoustic video image data are going on. We will report the overview of the acoustic video image of the hydrothermal plumes and discuss possibility of DIDSON as an observation tool for seafloor hydrothermal activity.

Mochizuki, M.; Asada, A.; Tamaki, K.; Scientific Team Of Yk09-13 Leg 1

2010-12-01

237

A very sensitive all-sky CCD camera for continuous recording of the night sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel design of an all-sky 4096×4096 pixels camera devoted to continuous observations of the sky. A prototype camera is running at the BOOTES-1 astronomical station in Huelva (Spain) since December 2002 and a second one is working at the BOOTES-2 station in Málaga (Spain) since July 2004. Scientific applications are the search for simultaneous optical emission associated to gamma-ray bursts, study of meteor showers, and determination of possible areas for meteorite recovery from the reconstruction of fireball trajectories. This last application requires that at least two such devices for simultaneously recording the sky at distance of the order of ~ 100 km. Fifteen GRB error boxes (13 for long/soft events and 2 for short/hard GRBs) have been imaged simultaneously to the gamma-ray emission, but no optical emission has been detected. Bright fireballs have been also recorded, allowing the determination of trajectories, as in the case of the fireball of 30 July 2005. This device is a very promising instrument for continuous recording of the night sky with moderate angular resolution and limiting magnitude (up to R ~ 10).

Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Jelínek, Martin; Vítek, Stanislav; Kubánek, Petr; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Mateo Sanguino, Tomas J.; Gomboš, Igor

2008-08-01

238

Evaluation of imaging performance of a taper optics CCD; FReLoN' camera designed for medical imaging.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to assess the imaging performance of an indirect conversion detector (taper optics CCD; FReLoN' camera) in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE). Measurements were made with a synchrotron radiation laminar beam at various monochromatic energies in the 20-51.5 keV range for a gadolinium-based fluorescent screen varying in thickness; data acquisition and analysis were made by adapting to this beam geometry protocols used for conventional cone beams. The pre-sampled MTFs of the systems were measured using an edge method. The NNPS of the systems were determined for a range of exposure levels by two-dimensional Fourier analysis of uniformly exposed radiographs. The DQEs were assessed from the measured MTF, NNPS, exposure and incoming number of photons. The MTF, for a given screen, was found to be almost energy independent and, for a given energy, higher for the thinnest screen. At 33 keV and for the 40 (100) microm screen, at 10% the MTF is 9.2 (8.6) line-pairs mm(-1). The NNPS was found to be different in the two analyzed directions in relation to frequency. Highest DQE values were found for the combination 100 microm and 25 keV (0.5); it was still equal to 0.4 at 51.5 keV (above the gadolinium K-edge). The DQE is limited by the phosphor screen conversion yield and by the CCD efficiency. At the end of the manuscript the results of the FReLoN characterization and those from a selected number of detectors presented in the literature are compared. PMID:16645252

Coan, Paola; Peterzol, Angela; Fiedler, Stefan; Ponchut, Cyril; Labiche, Jean Claude; Bravin, Alberto

2006-04-13

239

A new method of meteor trajectory determination applied to multiple unsynchronized video cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach has been formulated to solve for the straight line trajectory of a meteor through the atmosphere when given multiple camera views of the meteor's luminous track. Using a motion propagation model in three-dimensional space plus time, and iteratively solving for all free model parameters simultaneously, one can obtain a fully coupled solution to the apparent radiant direction, three-dimensional begin position, atmospheric entry speed, deceleration terms, and timing offsets when using data from unsynchronized video cameras. A Monte Carlo component adds empirical error estimation for each of the key model parameters computed. This multi-parameter fitting method extends the allowable collection geometries for meteor trajectory estimation to lower convergence angles between camera-meteor-camera lines of sight and smaller site separation distances.

Gural, P. S.

2012-01-01

240

A new method of meteor trajectory determination applied to multiple unsynchronized video cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach has been formulated to solve for the straight line trajectory of a meteor through the atmosphere when given multiple camera views of the meteor's luminous track. Using a motion propagation model in 3-D space plus time, and iteratively solving for all free model parameters simultaneously, one can obtain a fully coupled solution to the apparent radiant direction, 3-D begin position, atmospheric entry speed, deceleration terms, and timing offsets when using data from unsynchronized video cameras. A Monte Carlo component adds empirical error estimation for each of the key model parameters computed. This multiparameter fitting method extends the allowable collection geometries for meteor trajectory estimation to lower convergence angles between camera-meteor-camera lines of sight and smaller site separation distances.

Gural, Peter S.

2012-08-01

241

CCD and CMOS sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge-coupled device (CCD) has been developed primarily as a compact image sensor for consumer and industrial markets, but is now also the preeminent visible and ultraviolet wavelength image sensor in many fields of scientific research including space-science and both Earth and planetary remote sensing. Today"s scientific or science-grade CCD will strive to maximise pixel count, focal plane coverage, photon detection efficiency over the broadest spectral range and signal dynamic range whilst maintaining the lowest possible readout noise. The relatively recent emergence of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor technology is arguably the most important development in solid-state imaging since the invention of the CCD. CMOS technology enables the integration on a single silicon chip of a large array of photodiode pixels alongside all of the ancillary electronics needed to address the array and digitise the resulting analogue video signal. Compared to the CCD, CMOS promises a more compact, lower mass, lower power and potentially more radiation tolerant camera.

Waltham, Nick

242

A Refrigerated Web Camera for Photogrammetric Video Measurement inside Biomass Boilers and Combustion Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD) web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes.

Porteiro, Jacobo; Riveiro, Belen; Granada, Enrique; Armesto, Julia; Eguia, Pablo; Collazo, Joaquin

2011-01-01

243

Spatial resolution limit study of a CCD camera and scintillator based neutron imaging system according to MTF determination and analysis.  

PubMed

Spatial resolution limit is a very important parameter of an imaging system that should be taken into consideration before examination of any object. The objectives of this work are the determination of a neutron imaging system's response in terms of spatial resolution. The proposed procedure is based on establishment of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). The imaging system being studied is based on a high sensitivity CCD neutron camera (2×10(-5)lx at f1.4). The neutron beam used is from the horizontal beam port (H.6) of the Algerian Es-Salam research reactor. Our contribution is on the MTF determination by proposing an accurate edge identification method and a line spread function undersampling problem-resolving procedure. These methods and procedure are integrated into a MatLab code. The methods, procedures and approaches proposed in this work are available for any other neutron imaging system and allow for judging the ability of a neutron imaging system to produce spatial (internal details) properties of any object under examination. PMID:22014891

Kharfi, F; Denden, O; Bourenane, A; Bitam, T; Ali, A

2011-10-08

244

Large area x-ray sensitive video camera: overall feasibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large area x-ray sensitive vidicon is an alternative to the x-ray image intensifier and television camera combination. The proposed x-ray vidicon utilizes an amorphous selenium photoconductive layer which has a higher intrinsic resolution in comparison to the input phosphor of an XRII. This higher resolution could benefit diagnostic cardiac angiography as well as interventional cardiac procedures which now frequency utilize XRII/TV zoom modes to achieve higher resolution. Signal, noise, resolution and lag of an x-ray vidicon have been analyzed theoretically and indicate a medically practical device is possible. The use of a large potential to bias the a-Se photoconductor presents a problem with respect to instability of the a-Se surface potential and excessive dark current. The incorporation of a suppressor mesh into the vidicon has been shown to provide stable vidicon operation while experiments involving a-Se blocking contacts have lead to the development of an a-Se layer with low dark current.

Luhta, Randy; Rowlands, John A.

1997-05-01

245

4.6 ? Cryo-EM reconstruction of tobacco mosaic virus from images recorded at 300 keV on a 4k x 4k CCD camera  

PubMed Central

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a plant virus with a highly ordered organisation and has been described in three different structural states: As stacked disks without RNA (X-ray crystallography), as a helical form with RNA (X-ray fibre diffraction) and as a second distinct helical form with RNA (cryo-EM). Here we present a structural analysis of TMV as a test object to assess the quality of cryo-EM images recorded at 300 keV on a CCD camera. The 4.6 Å TMV structure obtained is consistent with the previous cryo-EM structure and confirms that there is a second helical form of TMV. The structure here also shows that with a similar number of TMV segments an equivalent resolution can be achieved with a 4k CCD camera at 300 keV.

Clare, Daniel K.; Orlova, Elena V.

2010-01-01

246

Temperature monitoring of Nd:YAG laser cladding (CW and PP) by advanced pyrometry and CCD-camera-based diagnostic tool  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The set of original pyrometers and the special diagnostic CCD-camera were applied for monitoring of Nd:YAG laser cladding (Pulsed-Periodic and Continuous Wave) with coaxial powder injection and on-line measurement of cladded layer temperature. The experiments were carried out in course of elaboration of wear resistant coatings using various powder blends (WC-Co, CuSn, Mo, Stellite grade 12, etc.) applying variation of different process parameters: laser power, cladding velocity, powder feeding rate, etc. Surface temperature distribution to the cladding seam and the overall temperature mapping were registered. The CCD-camera based diagnostic tool was applied for: (1) monitoring of flux of hot particles and its instability; (2) measurement of particle-in-flight size and velocity; (3) monitoring of particle collision with the clad in the interaction zone.

Doubenskaia, M.; Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, Igor Y.

2004-04-01

247

Design of 1M-pixels high-speed video camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a development method and its result based on 'platform architecture' to reduce development time and cost. For evaluating this method, a digital high-speed video camera, which can be operated at 2,000 frames per second (FPS) with 1M-pixels resolution and up to over 100,000 FPS with reduced resolution, has been developed using the platform architecture. First, we show technology

Kenji Tajima; Kouichi Tamura; Kenichi Awano

2003-01-01

248

Broadcast Court-Net Sports Video Analysis Using Fast 3-D Camera Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the automatic analysis of court-net sports video content. We extract information about the players, the playing-field in a bottom-up way until we reach scene-level semantic concepts. Each part of our framework is general, so that the system is applicable to several kinds of sports. A central point in our framework is a camera calibration module that relates

Jungong Han; Dirk Farin

2008-01-01

249

The VideoMouse: a camera-based multi-degree-of-freedom input device  

Microsoft Academic Search

The VideoMouse is a mouse that uses a camera as its input sensor. A real-time vision algorithm determines the six degree-of-freedom mouse posture, consisting of 2D motion, tilt in the forward\\/back and left\\/right axes, rotation of the mouse about its vertical axis, and some limited height sensing. Thus, a familiar 2D device can be extended for three-dimensional manipulation, while remaining

Ken Hinckley; Mike Sinclair; Erik Hanson; Richard Szeliski; Matthew Conway

1999-01-01

250

Adaptive compressive sensing algorithm for video acquisition using a single-pixel camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a method to acquire compressed measurements for efficient video reconstruction using a single-pixel camera. The method is suitable for implementation using a single-pixel detector, along with a digital micromirror device or other types of spatial light modulators. Conventional implementations of single-pixel cameras are able to spatially compress the signal, but the compressed measurements make it difficult to exploit temporal redundancies directly. Moreover, a single-pixel camera needs to make measurements in a sequential manner before the scene changes, making it inefficient for video imaging. We discuss a measurement scheme that exploits sparsity along the time axis for video imaging. After acquiring all measurements required for the first frame, measurements are acquired only from the areas that change in subsequent frames. We segment the first frame, detect the magnitude and direction of change for each segment, and acquire compressed measurements for the changing segments in the predicted direction. Next, we compare the reconstruction results for a few test sequences with existing techniques and demonstrate the practical utility of the scheme.

Noor, Imama; Jacobs, Eddie L.

2013-04-01

251

Low-complexity camera digital signal imaging for video document projection system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high-performance and low-complexity algorithms for real-time camera imaging applications. The main functions of the proposed camera digital signal processing (DSP) involve color interpolation, white balance, adaptive binary processing, auto gain control, and edge and color enhancement for video projection systems. A series of simulations demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve good image quality while keeping computation cost and memory requirements low. On the basis of the proposed algorithms, the cost-effective hardware core is developed using Verilog HDL. The prototype chip has been verified with one low-cost programmable device. The real-time camera system can achieve 1270 × 792 resolution with the combination of extra components and can demonstrate each DSP function.

Hsia, Shih-Chang; Tsai, Po-Shien

2011-04-01

252

Data Reduction and Control Software for Meteor Observing Stations Based on CCD Video Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN) is performing a continuous monitoring of meteor activity over Spain and neighbouring countries. The huge amount of data obtained by the 25 video observing stations that this network is currently operating made it necessar...

E. Lyytinen J. M. Madiedo J. M. Trigo-Rodriguez

2011-01-01

253

An explanation for camera perspective bias in voluntariness judgment for video-recorded confession: Suggestion of cognitive frame.  

PubMed

Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that difference in voluntariness judgment for a custodial confession filmed in different camera focuses ("camera perspective bias") could occur because a particular camera focus conveys a suggestion of a particular cognitive frame. In Experiment 1, 146 juror eligible adults in Korea showed a camera perspective bias in voluntariness judgment with a simulated confession filmed with two cameras of different focuses, one on the suspect and the other on the detective. In Experiment 2, the same bias in voluntariness judgment emerged without cameras when the participants were cognitively framed, prior to listening to the audio track of the videos used in Experiment 1, by instructions to make either a voluntariness judgment for a confession or a coerciveness judgment for an interrogation. In Experiment 3, the camera perspective bias in voluntariness judgment disappeared when the participants viewing the video focused on the suspect were initially framed to make coerciveness judgment for the interrogation and the participants viewing the video focused on the detective were initially framed to make voluntariness judgment for the confession. The results in combination indicated that a particular camera focus may convey a suggestion of a particular cognitive frame in which a video-recorded confession/interrogation is initially represented. Some forensic and policy implications were discussed. PMID:22667808

Park, Kwangbai; Pyo, Jimin

2012-06-01

254

Flat Field Anomalies in an X-ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-ray Source (HTPD 08 paper)  

SciTech Connect

The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. The intensity distribution taken by the SXI camera during a NIF shot is used to determine how accurately NIF can aim laser beams. This is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 {micro}m square pixels, and 15 {micro}m thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 10W, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/{Delta}E {approx} 10. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within {+-}1% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation occurred at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was not observable below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris, damage, and surface defects on the CCD chip. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager.

Haugh, M; Schneider, M B

2008-04-28

255

Algorithm design for automated transportation photo enforcement camera image and video quality diagnostic check modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photo enforcement devices for traffic rules such as red lights, toll, stops, and speed limits are increasingly being deployed in cities and counties around the world to ensure smooth traffic flow and public safety. These are typically unattended fielded systems, and so it is important to periodically check them for potential image/video quality problems that might interfere with their intended functionality. There is interest in automating such checks to reduce the operational overhead and human error involved in manually checking large camera device fleets. Examples of problems affecting such camera devices include exposure issues, focus drifts, obstructions, misalignment, download errors, and motion blur. Furthermore, in some cases, in addition to the sub-algorithms for individual problems, one also has to carefully design the overall algorithm and logic to check for and accurately classifying these individual problems. Some of these issues can occur in tandem or have the potential to be confused for each other by automated algorithms. Examples include camera misalignment that can cause some scene elements to go out of focus for wide-area scenes or download errors that can be misinterpreted as an obstruction. Therefore, the sequence in which the sub-algorithms are utilized is also important. This paper presents an overview of these problems along with no-reference and reduced reference image and video quality solutions to detect and classify such faults.

Raghavan, Ajay; Saha, Bhaskar

2013-03-01

256

Method for extracting camera operations in order to describe subscenes in video sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerous attempts have been made to detect scene changes in video sequences and to treat scenes as units, to allow handling of very large amounts of video data. But less attention has been given to the structure of scenes themselves. In this study, we define a `sub-scene' as a structural component of a scene in terms of camera operations. In other words, sub-scenes are subsets of scenes, and consist of successive frames in which the movements of the contents are almost identical. The advantage of sub-dividing scenes into sub-scenes is that it gives added power to description of objects and motion information. In order to describe sub-scenes, the estimation of camera operations need not be very accurate, but it must be resistant to noise. The technique proposed in this paper for extracting camera operations, which processes more than two frames at a time by using a 2D spatio-temporal image, meets the above requirement. It is also faster than conventional frame-by-frame analysis. The results of experiments indicate that the technique is both feasible and useful.

Maeda, Junji

1994-05-01

257

Real time speed estimation of moving vehicles from side view images from an uncalibrated video camera.  

PubMed

In order to estimate the speed of a moving vehicle with side view camera images, velocity vectors of a sufficient number of reference points identified on the vehicle must be found using frame images. This procedure involves two main steps. In the first step, a sufficient number of points from the vehicle is selected, and these points must be accurately tracked on at least two successive video frames. In the second step, by using the displacement vectors of the tracked points and passed time, the velocity vectors of those points are computed. Computed velocity vectors are defined in the video image coordinate system and displacement vectors are measured by the means of pixel units. Then the magnitudes of the computed vectors in image space should be transformed to the object space to find the absolute values of these magnitudes. This transformation requires an image to object space information in a mathematical sense that is achieved by means of the calibration and orientation parameters of the video frame images. This paper presents proposed solutions for the problems of using side view camera images mentioned here. PMID:22399909

Do?an, Sedat; Temiz, Mahir Serhan; Külür, Sitki

2010-05-11

258

Development of a compact fast CCD camera and resonant soft x-ray scattering endstation for time-resolved pump-probe experiments.  

PubMed

The designs of a compact, fast CCD (cFCCD) camera, together with a resonant soft x-ray scattering endstation, are presented. The cFCCD camera consists of a highly parallel, custom, thick, high-resistivity CCD, readout by a custom 16-channel application specific integrated circuit to reach the maximum readout rate of 200 frames per second. The camera is mounted on a virtual-axis flip stage inside the RSXS chamber. When this flip stage is coupled to a differentially pumped rotary seal, the detector assembly can rotate about 100°/360° in the vertical/horizontal scattering planes. With a six-degrees-of-freedom cryogenic sample goniometer, this endstation has the capability to detect the superlattice reflections from the electronic orderings showing up in the lower hemisphere. The complete system has been tested at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and has been used in multiple experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. PMID:21806178

Doering, D; Chuang, Y-D; Andresen, N; Chow, K; Contarato, D; Cummings, C; Domning, E; Joseph, J; Pepper, J S; Smith, B; Zizka, G; Ford, C; Lee, W S; Weaver, M; Patthey, L; Weizeorick, J; Hussain, Z; Denes, P

2011-07-01

259

Development of a compact fast CCD camera and resonant soft x-ray scattering endstation for time-resolved pump-probe experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The designs of a compact, fast CCD (cFCCD) camera, together with a resonant soft x-ray scattering endstation, are presented. The cFCCD camera consists of a highly parallel, custom, thick, high-resistivity CCD, readout by a custom 16-channel application specific integrated circuit to reach the maximum readout rate of 200 frames per second. The camera is mounted on a virtual-axis flip stage inside the RSXS chamber. When this flip stage is coupled to a differentially pumped rotary seal, the detector assembly can rotate about 100°/360° in the vertical/horizontal scattering planes. With a six-degrees-of-freedom cryogenic sample goniometer, this endstation has the capability to detect the superlattice reflections from the electronic orderings showing up in the lower hemisphere. The complete system has been tested at the Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and has been used in multiple experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.

Doering, D.; Chuang, Y.-D.; Andresen, N.; Chow, K.; Contarato, D.; Cummings, C.; Domning, E.; Joseph, J.; Pepper, J. S.; Smith, B.; Zizka, G.; Ford, C.; Lee, W. S.; Weaver, M.; Patthey, L.; Weizeorick, J.; Hussain, Z.; Denes, P.

2011-07-01

260

A Large-panel Two-CCD Camera Coordinate System with an Alternate-Eight-Matrix Look-Up-Table Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study proposed a novel positioning model, composing of a two-camera calibration system and an Alternate-Eight-Matrix (AEM) Look-Up-Table (LUT). Two video cameras were fixed on two sides of a large-size screen to solve the problem of field of view. The first to the fourth LUTs were used to compute the corresponding positions of specified regions on the screen captured by the camera on the right side. In these four LUTs, the coordinate mapping data of the target were stored in two matrixes, while the gray level threshold values of different positions were stored in other matrixes. Similarly, the fifth to the eighth LUTs were used to compute the corresponding positions of the specified regions on the screen captured by the camera on the left side. Experimental results showed that the proposed model can solve the problems of dead zones and non-uniform light fields, while achieving rapid and precise positioning results.

Lin, Chern-Sheng; Lu, An-Tsung; Hsu, Yuen-Chang; Tien, Chuen-Lin; Chen, Der-Chin; Chang, Nin-Chun

2012-03-01

261

Design and fabrication of a CCD camera for use with relay optics in solar X-ray astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Configured as a subsystem of a sounding rocket experiment, a camera system was designed to record and transmit an X-ray image focused on a charge coupled device. The camera consists of a X-ray sensitive detector and the electronics for processing and transmitting image data. The design and operation of the camera are described. Schematics are included.

1984-12-01

262

Improvement of Measurement Accuracy of Strain of Thin Film by CCD Camera with a Template Matching Method Using the 2ND-ORDER Polynomial Interpolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a system for non-contact in-situ measurement of strain during tensile test of thin films by using CCD camera with marking surface of specimen by black pen was implemented as a sensing device. To improve accuracy of measurement when CCD camera is used, this paper proposed a new method for measuring strain during tensile test of specimen with micrometer size. The size of pixel of CCD camera determines resolution of measurement, but the size of pixel can not satisfy the resolution required in tensile test of thin film because the extension of the specimen is very small during the tensile test. To increase resolution of measurement, the suggested method performs an accurate subpixel matching by applying 2nd order polynomial interpolation method to the conventional template matching. The algorithm was developed to calculate location of subpixel providing the best matching value by performing single dimensional polynomial interpolation from the results of pixel-based matching at a local region of image. The measurement resolution was less than 0.01 times of original pixel size. To verify the reliability of the system, the tensile test for the BeNi thin film was performed, which is widely used as a material in micro-probe tip. Tensile tests were performed and strains were measured using the proposed method and also the capacitance type displacement sensor for comparison. It is demonstrated that the new strain measurement system can effectively describe a behavior of materials after yield during the tensile test of the specimen at microscale with easy setup and better accuracy.

Park, Jun-Hyub; Shin, Myung-Soo; Kang, Dong-Joong; Lim, Sung-Jo; Ha, Jong-Eun

263

A Semantic Autonomous Video Surveillance System for Dense Camera Networks in Smart Cities  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a proposal of an intelligent video surveillance system able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The system is designed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a large number of cameras to be deployed on the system, and therefore making it suitable for its usage as an integrated safety and security solution in Smart Cities. Alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. This means that the system employs a high-level conceptual language easy to understand for human operators, capable of raising enriched alarms with descriptions of what is happening on the image, and to automate reactions to them such as alerting the appropriate emergency services using the Smart City safety network.

Calavia, Lorena; Baladron, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M.; Carro, Belen; Sanchez-Esguevillas, Antonio

2012-01-01

264

VideoWeb Dataset for Multi-camera Activities and Non-verbal Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human-activity recognition is one of the most challenging problems in computer vision. Researchers from around the world have tried to solve this problem and have come a long way in recognizing simple motions and atomic activities. As the computer vision community heads toward fully recognizing human activities, a challenging and labeled dataset is needed. To respond to that need, we collected a dataset of realistic scenarios in a multi-camera network environment (VideoWeb) involving multiple persons performing dozens of different repetitive and non-repetitive activities. This chapter describes the details of the dataset. We believe that this VideoWeb Activities dataset is unique and it is one of the most challenging datasets available today. The dataset is publicly available online at http://vwdata.ee.ucr.edu/ along with the data annotation.

Denina, Giovanni; Bhanu, Bir; Nguyen, Hoang Thanh; Ding, Chong; Kamal, Ahmed; Ravishankar, Chinya; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit; Ivers, Allen; Varda, Brenda

265

Fire Surveillance System Using an Omnidirectional Camera for Remote Monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes new video-based fire surveillance and remote monitoring system for real-life application. Most previous video-based fire detection systems using color information and temporal variations of pixels produce frequent false alarms due to the use of many heuristic features. Plus, they need several cameras to overcome the dead angle problem of a normal CCD camera. Thus, to overcome these

ByoungChul Ko; Hyun-Jae Hwang; In-Gyu Lee; Jae-Yeal Nam

2008-01-01

266

Calibration grooming and alignment for LDUA High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System (HRSVS)  

SciTech Connect

The High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System (HRSVS) was designed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to provide routine and troubleshooting views of tank interiors during characterization and remediation phases of underground storage tank (UST) processing. The HRSVS is a dual color camera system designed to provide stereo viewing of the interior of the tanks including the tank wall in a Class 1, Division 1, flammable atmosphere. The HRSVS was designed with a modular philosophy for easy maintenance and configuration modifications. During operation of the system with the LDUA, the control of the camera system will be performed by the LDUA supervisory data acquisition system (SDAS). Video and control status 1458 will be displayed on monitors within the LDUA control center. All control functions are accessible from the front panel of the control box located within the Operations Control Trailer (OCT). The LDUA will provide all positioning functions within the waste tank for the end effector. Various electronic measurement instruments will be used to perform CG and A activities. The instruments may include a digital volt meter, oscilloscope, signal generator, and other electronic repair equipment. None of these instruments will need to be calibrated beyond what comes from the manufacturer. During CG and A a temperature indicating device will be used to measure the temperature of the outside of the HRSVS from initial startup until the temperature has stabilized. This device will not need to be in calibration during CG and A but will have to have a current calibration sticker from the Standards Laboratory during any acceptance testing. This sensor will not need to be in calibration during CG and A but will have to have a current calibration sticker from the Standards Laboratory during any acceptance testing.

Pardini, A.F.

1998-01-27

267

High Resolution Measurements of Beach Face Morphology Using Stereo Video Cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution measurements of beach elevation are computed using images from a pair of video cameras viewing the same scene from different angles. Given the camera positions and camera calibration data, the beach face can be accurately reconstructed from 3-D coordinates computed at positions corresponding to every image pixel. Measurements of subaerial beach morphology at Duck Beach, North Carolina and wave flumes at Oregon State University and the Netherlands are compared with ground truth surveys. An automated algorithm determines a one-to-one correspondence between pixels in one image and its matching pixel in the other image forming the basis for calculating 3-D coordinates within the field of view. Factors influencing accuracy and confidence are discussed. Although Fresnel reflection of light at the water surface hinders direct application of this stereo technique to measurement of offshore wave height, the presence of surface foam from breaking waves permits reconstruction of the water surface elevation within the surf zone. Preliminary results show the technique is able to resolve wave roller angle and setup.

Clarke, L.; Holman, R.

2006-12-01

268

Real-time people counting system using a single video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is growing interest in video-based solutions for people monitoring and counting in business and security applications. Compared to classic sensor-based solutions the video-based ones allow for more versatile functionalities, improved performance with lower costs. In this paper, we propose a real-time system for people counting based on single low-end non-calibrated video camera. The two main challenges addressed in this paper are: robust estimation of the scene background and the number of real persons in merge-split scenarios. The latter is likely to occur whenever multiple persons move closely, e.g. in shopping centers. Several persons may be considered to be a single person by automatic segmentation algorithms, due to occlusions or shadows, leading to under-counting. Therefore, to account for noises, illumination and static objects changes, a background substraction is performed using an adaptive background model (updated over time based on motion information) and automatic thresholding. Furthermore, post-processing of the segmentation results is performed, in the HSV color space, to remove shadows. Moving objects are tracked using an adaptive Kalman filter, allowing a robust estimation of the objects future positions even under heavy occlusion. The system is implemented in Matlab, and gives encouraging results even at high frame rates. Experimental results obtained based on the PETS2006 datasets are presented at the end of the paper.

Lefloch, Damien; Cheikh, Faouzi A.; Hardeberg, Jon Y.; Gouton, Pierre; Picot-Clemente, Romain

2008-03-01

269

A single video camera postural assessment system to measure rotation of the shoulder during computer use.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of a single video camera system for measuring shoulder rotation during computer work, and to quantify the work and postural space within which the system performs optimally. Shoulder rotation angles calculated using the video system were compared with angles calculated using an active infrared LED three-dimensional motion analysis system while 10 adult volunteers simulated postures for two different trials: typical of normal computer work (freestyle) and with forced shoulder abduction (constrained). Average and absolute errors were calculated to determine the accuracy and precision of the system, respectively, for each trial, for each position, and for both the right and left hands. For the right hand, mean values for the average and absolute errors were -1 and 0 degrees, respectively. Only the absolute error increased significantly to 12 degrees for the constrained posture compared with freestyle. During normal computer work, the video system provided shoulder rotation angle values similar to those of a three-dimensional system, thus making it a viable and simple instrument to use in field studies. PMID:21908899

Bruno, Jennifer L; Li, Zhizhong; Trudeau, Matthieu; Raina, Sachin M; Dennerlein, Jack T

2011-08-26

270

Video camera count of burrow?dwelling fairy prions, sooty shearwaters, and tuatara on Takapourewa (Stephens Island), New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video camera technology is an increasingly common tool in the study of burrow?dwelling animals. A camera used to observe the inhabitants of narrow burrows on Takapourewa (Cook Strait, New Zealand) is described. Population densities (animals per m) of up to 1.1 for fairy prions {Pachyptila turtur), 0.06 for sooty shearwaters (Puffinus griseus), and 0.15 for tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus) were estimated

T. J. Markwell

1997-01-01

271

High-speed cameras using a CCD image sensor and a new high-speed image sensor for biological applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes two complete fast imaging systems using a commercial Charge Coupled Device (CCD). It includes two different storage systems (analogical and digital) and describes a new high speed sensor built as an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) in Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) 1.2 micrometers technology. The first system has been applied to a biological research.

F. Bouffault; C. Milan; M. Paindavoine; J. Febvre

1995-01-01

272

Usefulness in NOTES of an intra-abdominal antifogging wireless charge-coupled device (CCD) camera with pantograph-type needle unit for placement to the intra-abdominal wall  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), the endoscope has the disadvantages of an unstable visual field\\u000a and wide blind space. We developed a compact charge-coupled device (CCD) camera unit that can be transgastrointestinally placed\\u000a in the abdominal cavity.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The requisites for a wireless CCD camera unit for use in NOTES have been cited as: monitoring performance, fixation to the

Takeshi Ohdaira; Kazuhiro Endo; Nozomi Abe; Yoshikazu Yasuda

2010-01-01

273

Flat Field Anomalies in an X-Ray CCD Camera Measured Using a Manson X-Ray Source  

SciTech Connect

The Static X-ray Imager (SXI) is a diagnostic used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the position of the X-rays produced by lasers hitting a gold foil target. It determines how accurately NIF can point the laser beams and is critical to proper NIF operation. Imagers are located at the top and the bottom of the NIF target chamber. The CCD chip is an X-ray sensitive silicon sensor, with a large format array (2k x 2k), 24 ?m square pixels, and 15 ?m thick. A multi-anode Manson X-ray source, operating up to 10kV and 2mA, was used to characterize and calibrate the imagers. The output beam is heavily filtered to narrow the spectral beam width, giving a typical resolution E/?E?12. The X-ray beam intensity was measured using an absolute photodiode that has accuracy better than 1% up to the Si K edge and better than 5% at higher energies. The X-ray beam provides full CCD illumination and is flat, within ±1.5% maximum to minimum. The spectral efficiency was measured at 10 energy bands ranging from 930 eV to 8470 eV. The efficiency pattern follows the properties of Si. The maximum quantum efficiency is 0.71. We observed an energy dependent pixel sensitivity variation that showed continuous change over a large portion of the CCD. The maximum sensitivity variation was >8% at 8470 eV. The geometric pattern did not change at lower energies, but the maximum contrast decreased and was less than the measurement uncertainty below 4 keV. We were also able to observe debris on the CCD chip. The debris showed maximum contrast at the lowest energy used, 930 eV, and disappeared by 4 keV. The Manson source is a powerful tool for characterizing the imaging errors of an X-ray CCD imager. These errors are quite different from those found in a visible CCD imager.

Michael Haugh

2008-03-01

274

VLSI architecture for motion estimation on a single-chip video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a flexible architecture for motion estimation and compensation using a 1D pipelined systolic array. It has been specifically designed to implement the four-step search algorithm but can easily be adapted to a wide range of other reduced-complexity search algorithms. The intention is for the architecture to be incorporated into the digital compression unit of a single-chip video camera, the target application of which is as a device enabling people to communicate using sign-language over a standard phone line. The complete architecture has been implemented as register transfer level VHDL code and its functionality has been verified by simulation. The final VLSI layout will be a combination of synthesized and custom- designed cells.

Roach, Alexander; Moini, Alireza

2000-05-01

275

A two camera video imaging system with application to parafoil angle of attack measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development of a two-camera, video imaging system for the determination of three-dimensional spatial coordinates from stereo images. This system successfully measured angle of attack at several span-wise locations for large-scale parafoils tested in the NASA Ames 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel. Measurement uncertainty for angle of attack was less than 0.6 deg. The stereo ranging system was the primary source for angle of attack measurements since inclinometers sewn into the fabric ribs of the parafoils had unknown angle offsets acquired during installation. This paper includes discussions of the basic theory and operation of the stereo ranging system, system measurement uncertainty, experimental set-up, calibration results, and test results. Planned improvements and enhancements to the system are also discussed.

Meyn, Larry A.; Bennett, Mark S.

1991-01-01

276

Quantitative underwater 3D motion analysis using submerged video cameras: accuracy analysis and trajectory reconstruction.  

PubMed

In this study we aim at investigating the applicability of underwater 3D motion capture based on submerged video cameras in terms of 3D accuracy analysis and trajectory reconstruction. Static points with classical direct linear transform (DLT) solution, a moving wand with bundle adjustment and a moving 2D plate with Zhang's method were considered for camera calibration. As an example of the final application, we reconstructed the hand motion trajectories in different swimming styles and qualitatively compared this with Maglischo's model. Four highly trained male swimmers performed butterfly, breaststroke and freestyle tasks. The middle fingertip trajectories of both hands in the underwater phase were considered. The accuracy (mean absolute error) of the two calibration approaches (wand: 0.96 mm - 2D plate: 0.73 mm) was comparable to out of water results and highly superior to the classical DLT results (9.74 mm). Among all the swimmers, the hands' trajectories of the expert swimmer in the style were almost symmetric and in good agreement with Maglischo's model. The kinematic results highlight symmetry or asymmetry between the two hand sides, intra- and inter-subject variability in terms of the motion patterns and agreement or disagreement with the model. The two outcomes, calibration results and trajectory reconstruction, both move towards the quantitative 3D underwater motion analysis. PMID:22435960

Silvatti, Amanda P; Cerveri, Pietro; Telles, Thiago; Dias, Fábio A S; Baroni, Guido; Barros, Ricardo M L

2012-03-21

277

A stroboscopic technique for using CCD cameras in flow visualization systems for continuous viewing and stop action photography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique for synchronizing a pulse light source to charge coupled device cameras is presented. The technique permits the use of pulse light sources for continuous as well as stop action flow visualization. The technique has eliminated the need to provide separate lighting systems at facilities requiring continuous and stop action viewing or photography.

Franke, John M.; Rhodes, David B.; Jones, Stephen B.; Dismond, Harriet R.

1992-06-01

278

The Automatically Triggered Video or Imaging Station (ATVIS): An Inexpensive Way to Catch Geomorphic Events on Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand how single events can affect landscape change, we must catch the landscape in the act. Direct observations are rare and often dangerous. While video is a good alternative, commercially-available video systems for field installation cost 11,000, weigh ~100 pounds (45 kg), and shoot 640x480 pixel video at 4 frames per second. This is the same resolution as a cheap point-and-shoot camera, with a frame rate that is nearly an order of magnitude worse. To overcome these limitations of resolution, cost, and portability, I designed and built a new observation station. This system, called ATVIS (Automatically Triggered Video or Imaging Station), costs 450--500 and weighs about 15 pounds. It can take roughly 3 hours of 1280x720 pixel video, 6.5 hours of 640x480 video, or 98,000 1600x1200 pixel photos (one photo every 7 seconds for 8 days). The design calls for a simple Canon point-and-shoot camera fitted with custom firmware that allows 5V pulses through its USB cable to trigger it to take a picture or to initiate or stop video recording. These pulses are provided by a programmable microcontroller that can take input from either sensors or a data logger. The design is easily modifiable to a variety of camera and sensor types, and can also be used for continuous time-lapse imagery. We currently have prototypes set up at a gully near West Bijou Creek on the Colorado high plains and at tributaries to Marble Canyon in northern Arizona. Hopefully, a relatively inexpensive and portable system such as this will allow geomorphologists to supplement sensor networks with photo or video monitoring and allow them to see—and better quantify—the fantastic array of processes that modify landscapes as they unfold. Camera station set up at Badger Canyon, Arizona.Inset: view into box. Clockwise from bottom right: camera, microcontroller (blue), DC converter (red), solar charge controller, 12V battery. Materials and installation assistance courtesy of Ron Griffiths and the USGS Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center.

Wickert, A. D.

2010-12-01

279

Spatial correlations of spontaneously down-converted photon pairs detected with a single-photon-sensitive CCD camera.  

PubMed

A single-photon-sensitive intensified charge-coupled-device (ICCD) camera has been used to simultaneously detect, over a broad area, degenerate and nondegenerate photon pairs generated by the quantum-optical process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion. We have developed a new method for determining the quantum fourth- order correlations in spatially extended detection systems such as this one. Our technique reveals the expected phase-matching-induced spa- tial correlations in a 2-f Fourier-transform system. PMID:19381242

Jost, B; Sergienko, A; Abouraddy, A; Saleh, B; Teich, M

1998-07-20

280

Mapping of the benthic communities in the Taranto seas using side-scan sonar and an underwater video camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Side-scan sonar and underwater video camera records as well as dredging samples were used to map the bottom morphology and biocoenoses in the Taranto seas. A 1:20,000 scale chart has been produced with all the data recorded. Most of the study area consists of biocoenoses affected by the anthropogenic activities of the town of Taranto. Some native broadly tolerant species

A. Matarrese; F. Mastrototaro; P. Maiorano; A. Tursi

2004-01-01

281

Measurement of RBC Velocities in the Rat Pial Arteries with an Image-Intensified High-Speed Video Camera System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mean centerline red blood cell (RBC) velocity of the rat pial artery was measured using an image-intensified high-speed (1000 frames\\/s) video camera system and RBCs labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). Some investigations measuring RBC velocity have been made in most organs, but the RBC velocity of the pial artery has not yet been measured with this system using FITC

Mami Ishikawa; Eiichi Sekizuka; Katsuyoshi Shimizu; Noriyuki Yamaguchi; Takeshi Kawase

1998-01-01

282

Design of a space-qualified zoom lens for the space station mobile servicing system video camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

OCA, under contract to Spar Aerospace, has developed a space-qualified zoom color video camera. The optics are a 9.3:1 f\\/2 zoom lens under digital servo control, using only two moving groups to accomplish zoom, compensation, and focus over an object distance range from 355 mm to infinity. Accomplishing three functions with two moving groups both improves reliability and allows better

Anthony B. Hull; Roger H. Arsenault; Dave G. Hulan; William F. Morgan

1995-01-01

283

Robotic versus human camera holding in video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy: a single blind randomized trial of efficacy and safety.  

PubMed

Our objective is to compare surgical safety and efficacy between robotic and human camera control in video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy. A randomized-controlled-trial was performed. Surgical operation was VATS sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis. The trial compared a voice-controlled robot for holding the endoscopic camera robotic group (Ro) to human assisted group (Hu). Each group included 19 patients. Sympathectomy was achieved by electrodessication of the third ganglion. Operations were filmed and images stored. Two observers quantified the number of involuntary and inappropriate movements and how many times the camera was cleaned. Safety criteria were surgical accidents, pain and aesthetical results; efficacy criteria were: surgical and camera use duration, anhydrosis, length of hospitalization, compensatory hyperhidrosis and patient satisfaction. There was no difference between groups regarding surgical accidents, number of involuntary movements, pain, aesthetical results, general satisfaction, number of lens cleaning, anhydrosis, length of hospitalization, and compensatory hyperhidrosis. The number of contacts of the laparoscopic lens with mediastinal structures was lower in the Ro group (P<0.001), but the total and surgical length was longer in this group (P<0.001). Camera holding by a robotic arm in VATS sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis is as safe but less efficient when compared to a human camera-holding assistant. PMID:19042929

Martins Rua, Joaquim Fernando; Jatene, Fabio Biscegli; de Campos, José Ribas Milanez; Monteiro, Rosangela; Tedde, Miguel Lia; Samano, Marcos Naoyuki; Bernardo, Wanderley M; Das-Neves-Pereira, João Carlos

2008-11-28

284

Technical assessment of low light color camera technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In nighttime overcast conditions with a new moon (near-total darkness), typical light levels may only reach 10-2-10-4 lux. As such, standard CCD\\/CMOS video cameras have insufficient sensitivity to capture useful images. Third generation night vision cameras (Gen III NV) are the state-of-the-art in terms of imaging clarity and resolution at this light level, but rely on green or green\\/yellow phosphors

Scott A. Ramsey; Joseph Peak; Brian Setlik

2010-01-01

285

Plant iodine-131 uptake in relation to root concentration as measured in minirhizotron by video camera:. Status report for FY 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Glass viewing tubes (minirhizotrons) were placed in the soil beneath native perennial bunchgrass (Agropyron spicatum). The tubes provided access for observing and quantifying plant roots with a miniature video camera and soil moisture estimates by neutron...

K. J. Moss

1990-01-01

286

A Numerical Analysis of a Frame Calibration Method for Video-based All-Sky Camera Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of meteor monitoring has grown considerably over the past 20 years with the development of affordable, automated video camera systems. We describe a method for calibrating video all-sky cameras in terms of local zenith and azimuth angles. The method involves the observation of known training points (stars) and is based on an approach developed by Ceplecha & Borovi?ka. We use a simplified equation set, incorporate a quadratic expression for modeling the lens response, and utilize a nonlinear solver to obtain the calibration parameters. Simulation results with synthetic star data are presented to examine the effect of a limited number of training points, training point location, and initial parameter values on the calibration. Assumed simulation parameters are consistent with expectations for cameras in the NMSU SkySentinel network. Our modified calibration approach is shown to be stable over a broad range of calibration parameters with typical azimuth and zenith residual errors of less than 1°. Example calibration results for three camera nodes in the SkySentinel network are presented.

Bannister, Steven M.; Boucheron, Laura E.; Voelz, David G.

2013-09-01

287

Search for Trans-Neptunian Objects: a new MIDAS context confronted with some results obtained with the UH 8k CCD Mosaic Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results obtained with a new program dedicated to the automatic detection of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with standard sets of images obtained in the same field of view. This program has the key advantage, when compared to other similar softwares, of being designed to be used with one of the main astronomical data processing package; the Munich Image Data Analysis System (MIDAS) developped by The European Southern Observatory (ESO). It is available freely from the World Wide Web server of the Observatory of Besan\\c con (http://www.obs-besancon/www/ publi/philippe/tno.html). This program has been tested with observational data collected with the UH 8k CCD mosaic Camera, used during two nights, on October 25 and 26, 1997, at the prime focus of the CFH telescope (Mauna Kea, Hawaii). The purpose of these observational data was to detect new TNOs and a previous analysis conducted by the classical method of blinking, had lead to a first detection of a new TNO. This object appears close to the detection limit of the images (i.e. to the 24(th) magnitude) and presents an unsual orbital inclination (i =~ 33(deg) ). It has allowed the efficient and successful testing of the program to detect faint moving objects, demonstrating its ability to detect the objects close to the sky background noise with a very limited number of false detections.

Rousselot, P.; Lombard, F.; Moreels, G.

1998-09-01

288

The WEBERSAT camera - An inexpensive earth imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WEBERSAT is a 27 pound LEO satellite launched in 1990 into a 500 mile polar orbit. One of its payloads is a low cost CCD color camera system developed by engineering students at Weber State University. The camera is a modified Canon CI-10 with a 25 mm lens, automatic iris, and 780 x 490 pixel resolution. The iris range control potentiometer was made programmable; a 10.7 MHz digitization clock, fixed focus support, and solid tantalum capacitors were added. Camera output signals, composite video, red, green, blue, and the digitization clock are fed to a flash digitizer, where they are processed for storage in RAM. Camera control commands are stored and executed via the onboard computer. The CCD camera has successfully imaged meteorological features of the earth, land masses, and a number of astronomical objects.

Jackson, Stephen; Raetzke, Jeffrey

289

Application of time-gated CCD camera with image intensifier in contactless detection of absorbing inclusions buried in optically turbid medium which mimics local changes in oxygenation of the brain tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The near infrared spectroscopy may be implemented using various optoelectronic techniques, however, most of them do not allow to carry out measurements at short source-detector separation. We propose a method, based on time-gated intensified CCD camera, which allows for contactless measurements and can be carried out at short source-detector separation. This technique was tested on a phantom with absorbing inclusions buried in an optically turbid medium which mimics local changes in oxygenation of the brain tissue.

Sawosz, P.; Zolek, N.; Kacprzak, M.; Maniewski, R.; Liebert, A.

2012-12-01

290

The design and realization of a three-dimensional video system by means of a CCD array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design features and principles and initial tests of a prototype three-dimensional robot vision system based on a laser source and a CCD detector array is described. The use of a laser as a coherent illumination source permits the determination of the relief using one emitter since the location of the source is a known quantity with low distortion. The CCD signal detector array furnishes an acceptable signal/noise ratio and, when wired to an appropriate signal processing system, furnishes real-time data on the return signals, i.e., the characteristic points of an object being scanned. Signal processing involves integration of 29 kB of data per 100 samples, with sampling occurring at a rate of 5 MHz (the CCDs) and yielding an image every 12 msec. Algorithms for filtering errors from the data stream are discussed.

Boizard, J. L.

1985-12-01

291

A 1\\/3-inch 630 k-pixel IT-CCD image sensor with multi-function capability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent agreement on specifications for DV-C (digital video for consumer) is going to accelerate enhancing of picture resolution and special features of consumer video cameras. Added to a vibration stabilizer and an electronic zoom now considered indispensable functions, high-quality 16:9 wide picture that follows wide-aspect TV sets increasing in consumer markets is anticipated. This high-resolution multi-function CCD meets these demands.

K. Fujikawa; I. Hirota; H. Mori; T. Matsuda; M. Sato; Y. Takamura; S. Kitayama; J. Suzuki

1995-01-01

292

Development of a 300,000-pixel ultrahigh-speed high-sensitivity CCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing an ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity broadcast camera that is capable of capturing clear, smooth slow-motion videos even where lighting is limited, such as at professional baseball games played at night. In earlier work, we developed an ultrahigh-speed broadcast color camera1) using three 80,000-pixel ultrahigh-speed, highsensitivity CCDs2). This camera had about ten times the sensitivity of standard high-speed cameras, and enabled an entirely new style of presentation for sports broadcasts and science programs. Most notably, increasing the pixel count is crucially important for applying ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity CCDs to HDTV broadcasting. This paper provides a summary of our experimental development aimed at improving the resolution of CCD even further: a new ultrahigh-speed high-sensitivity CCD that increases the pixel count four-fold to 300,000 pixels.

Ohtake, H.; Hayashida, T.; Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Yonai, J.; Tanioka, K.; Maruyama, H.; Etoh, T. Goji; Poggemann, D.; Ruckelshausen, A.; van Kuijk, H.; Bosiers, Jan T.

2006-03-01

293

“The Camera Rolls”: Using Third-Party Video in Field Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article draws on one citizen’s efforts to document daily life in his neighborhood. The authors describe the potential benefits of third-party video—videos that people who are not social scientists have recorded and preserved—to social science research. Excerpts from a collection of police-citizen interactions illustrate key points likely to confront researchers who use third-party video. The authors address two important

Nikki Jones; Geoffrey Raymond

2012-01-01

294

241-AZ-101 Waste Tank Color Video Camera System Shop Acceptance Test Report  

SciTech Connect

This report includes shop acceptance test results. The test was performed prior to installation at tank AZ-101. Both the camera system and camera purge system were originally sought and procured as a part of initial waste retrieval project W-151.

WERRY, S.M.

2000-03-23

295

Interactive 3-D Modeling System Using a Hand-Held Video Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a number of methods for 3-D modeling from images have been developed. However, the accuracy of a reconstructed model depends on camera positions and postures with which the images are obtained. In most of conventional methods, some skills for adequately controlling the camera movement are needed for users to obtain a good 3-D model. In this study, we propose

Kenji Fudono; Tomokazu Sato; Naokazu Yokoya

2005-01-01

296

Determining Camera Gain in Room Temperature Cameras  

SciTech Connect

James R. Janesick provides a method for determining the amplification of a CCD or CMOS camera when only access to the raw images is provided. However, the equation that is provided ignores the contribution of dark current. For CCD or CMOS cameras that are cooled well below room temperature, this is not a problem, however, the technique needs adjustment for use with room temperature cameras. This article describes the adjustment made to the equation, and a test of this method.

Joshua Cogliati

2010-12-01

297

Unsupervised soccer video abstraction based on pitch, dominant color and camera motion analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a soccer video abstraction method based on the analysis of the audio and video streams. This method could be applied to other sports as rugby or american football. The main contribution of this paper is the design of an unsupervised summarization method, and more specifically, the introduction of an efficient detector of excited speech segments. An excited commentary

F. Coldefy; Patrick Bouthemy

2004-01-01

298

Performance of compact ICU (intensified camera unit) with autogating based on video signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

High quality night vision digital video is nowadays required for many observation, surveillance and targeting applications, including several of the current soldier modernization programs. We present the performance increase that is obtained when combining a state-of-the-art image intensifier with a low power consumption CMOS image sensor. Based on the content of the video signal, the gating and gain of the

Arjan de Groot; Peter Linotte; Django van Veen; Martijn de Witte; Nicolas Laurent; Arend Hiddema; Fred Lalkens; Jan van Spijker

2007-01-01

299

Detection of moving foreground objects in videos with strong camera motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel method for moving foreground object extraction in sequences taken by a wearable camera,\\u000a with strong motion. We use camera motion compensated frame differencing, enhanced with a novel kernel-based estimation of\\u000a the probability density function of background pixels. The probability density functions are used for filtering false foreground\\u000a pixels on the motion compensated difference

D. Szolgay; J. Benois-Pineau; R. Megret; Y. Gaestel; J.-F. Dartigues

2011-01-01

300

Temporal color video demosaicking via motion estimation and data fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Color demosaicking of charge-coupled device (CCD) data has been thoroughly studied for single-sensor still digital cameras. However, there has seemingly been little research on color demosaicking techniques for single-sensor video digital cameras. The temporal dimension of a color mosaic image sequence can reveal new information on the missing color components due to the mosaic subsampling, which is otherwise unavailable in

Xiaolin Wu; Lei Zhang

2006-01-01

301

Method and Apparatus for Stereo, Multi-Camera Tracking and RF and Video Track Fusion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A unified approach, a fusion technique, a space-time constraint, a methodology, and system architecture are provided. The unified approach is to fuse the outputs of monocular and stereo video trackers, RFID and localization systems and biometric identific...

H. Sawhney K. Hannan M. Aggarwal R. Kumar T. Zhao

2005-01-01

302

Lights, camera, action…critique? Submit videos to AGU communications workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What does it take to create a science video that engages the audience and draws thousands of views on YouTube? Those interested in finding out should submit their research-related videos to AGU's Fall Meeting science film analysis workshop, led by oceanographer turned documentary director Randy Olson. Olson, writer-director of two films (Flock of Dodos: The Evolution-Intelligent Design Circus and Sizzle: A Global Warming Comedy) and author of the book Don't Be Such a Scientist: Talking Substance in an Age of Style, will provide constructive criticism on 10 selected video submissions, followed by moderated discussion with the audience. To submit your science video (5 minutes or shorter), post it on YouTube and send the link to the workshop coordinator, Maria-José Viñas (mjvinas@agu.org), with the following subject line: Video submission for Olson workshop. AGU will be accepting submissions from researchers and media officers of scientific institutions until 6:00 P.M. eastern time on Friday, 4 November. Those whose videos are selected to be screened will be notified by Friday, 18 November. All are welcome to attend the workshop at the Fall Meeting.

Viñas, Maria-José

2011-08-01

303

CCD Offset Guider for the KAO.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We describe a focal plane guider for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory which consists of a CCD camera interfaced to an AMIGA personal computer. The camera is made by Photometrics Ltd. and utilizes a Thomson 576 x 384 pixel CCD chip operated in Frame Transfe...

S. W. J. Colgan E. F. Erickson F. B. Haynes D. M. Rank

1995-01-01

304

Institutional report - Thoracic non-oncologic Robotic versus human camera holding in video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy: a single blind randomized trial of efficacy and safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objective is to compare surgical safety and efficacy between robotic and human camera control in video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy. A randomized-controlled-trial was performed. Surgical operation was VATS sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis. The trial compared a voice-controlled robot for holding the endoscopic camera robotic group (Ro) to human assisted group (Hu). Each group included 19 patients. Sympathectomy was achieved by electrodessication of

Joaquim Fernando; Martins Rua; Fabio Biscegli Jatene; JoseRibas Milanez de Campos; Rosangela Monteiro; Marcos Naoyuki Samano; Wanderley M. Bernardo; Joao Carlos Das-Neves-Pereira

2010-01-01

305

Evaluation of a 0.9- to 2.2-microns sensitive video camera with a mid-infrared filter (1.45- to 2.0-microns)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of 0.9- to 2.2-microns sensitive black and white IR video cameras to remote sensing is examined. Field and laboratory recordings of the upper and lower surface of peperomia leaves, succulent prickly pear, and buffelgrass are evaluated; the reflectance, phytomass, green weight, and water content for the samples were measured. The data reveal that 0.9- to 2.2-microns video cameras are effective tools for laboratory and field research; however, the resolution and image quality of the data is poor compared to visible and near-IR images.

Everitt, J. H.; Escobar, D. E.; Nixon, P. R.; Blazquez, C. H.; Hussey, M. A.

306

Development of observation method for hydrothermal flows with acoustic video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DIDSON (Dual-Frequency IDentification SONar) is acoustic lens-based sonar. It has sufficiently high resolution and rapid refresh rate that it can substitute for optical system in turbid or dark water where optical systems fail. Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo (IIS) has understood DIDSON's superior performance and tried to develop a new observation method based on DIDSON for hydrothermal discharging from seafloor vent. We expected DIDSON to reveal whole image of hydrothermal plume as well as detail inside the plume. In October 2009, we conducted seafloor reconnaissance using a manned deep-sea submersible Shinkai6500 in Central Indian Ridge 18-20deg.S, where hydrothermal plume signatures were previously perceived. DIDSON was equipped on the top of Shinkai6500 in order to get acoustic video images of hydrothermal plumes. The acoustic video images of the hydrothermal plumes had been captured in three of seven dives. These are only a few acoustic video images of the hydrothermal plumes. We could identify shadings inside the acoustic video images of the hydrothermal plumes. Silhouettes of the hydrothermal plumes varied from second to second, and the shadings inside them varied their shapes, too. These variations corresponded to internal structures and flows of the plumes. We are analyzing the acoustic video images in order to deduce information of their internal structures and flows in plumes. On the other hand, we are preparing a tank experiment so that we will have acoustic video images of water flow under the control of flow rate. The purpose of the experiment is to understand relation between flow rate and acoustic video image quantitatively. Results from this experiment will support the aforementioned image analysis of the hydrothermal plume data from Central Indian Ridge. We will report the overview of the image analysis and the tank experiments, and discuss possibility of DIDSON as an observation tool for seafloor hydrothermal activity.

Mochizuki, M.; Asada, A.; Kinoshita, M.; Tamura, H.; Tamaki, K.

2011-12-01

307

Adaptive compressive sensing camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have embedded Adaptive Compressive Sensing (ACS) algorithm on Charge-Coupled-Device (CCD) camera based on the simplest concept that each pixel is a charge bucket, and the charges comes from Einstein photoelectric conversion effect. Applying the manufactory design principle, we only allow altering each working component at a minimum one step. We then simulated what would be such a camera can do for real world persistent surveillance taking into account of diurnal, all weather, and seasonal variations. The data storage has saved immensely, and the order of magnitude of saving is inversely proportional to target angular speed. We did design two new components of CCD camera. Due to the matured CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) technology, the on-chip Sample and Hold (SAH) circuitry can be designed for a dual Photon Detector (PD) analog circuitry for changedetection that predicts skipping or going forward at a sufficient sampling frame rate. For an admitted frame, there is a purely random sparse matrix [?] which is implemented at each bucket pixel level the charge transport bias voltage toward its neighborhood buckets or not, and if not, it goes to the ground drainage. Since the snapshot image is not a video, we could not apply the usual MPEG video compression and Hoffman entropy codec as well as powerful WaveNet Wrapper on sensor level. We shall compare (i) Pre-Processing FFT and a threshold of significant Fourier mode components and inverse FFT to check PSNR; (ii) Post-Processing image recovery will be selectively done by CDT&D adaptive version of linear programming at L1 minimization and L2 similarity. For (ii) we need to determine in new frames selection by SAH circuitry (i) the degree of information (d.o.i) K(t) dictates the purely random linear sparse combination of measurement data a la [?]M,N M(t) = K(t) Log N(t).

Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming K.; Cha, Jae; Iwamura, Tomo; Landa, Joseph; Nguyen, Charles; Szu, Harold

2013-05-01

308

Method for eliminating artifacts in CCD imagers  

DOEpatents

An electronic method for eliminating artifacts in a video camera (10) employing a charge coupled device (CCD) (12) as an image sensor. The method comprises the step of initializing the camera (10) prior to normal read out and includes a first dump cycle period (76) for transferring radiation generated charge into the horizontal register (28) while the decaying image on the phosphor (39) being imaged is being integrated in the photosites, and a second dump cycle period (78), occurring after the phosphor (39) image has decayed, for rapidly dumping unwanted smear charge which has been generated in the vertical registers (32). Image charge is then transferred from the photosites (36) and (38) to the vertical registers (32) and read out in conventional fashion. The inventive method allows the video camera (10) to be used in environments having high ionizing radiation content, and to capture images of events of very short duration and occurring either within or outside the normal visual wavelength spectrum. Resultant images are free from ghost, smear and smear phenomena caused by insufficient opacity of the registers (28) and (32), and are also free from random damage caused by ionization charges which exceed the charge limit capacity of the photosites (36) and (37).

Turko, B.T.; Yates, G.J.

1990-01-01

309

Method for eliminating artifacts in CCD imagers  

DOEpatents

An electronic method for eliminating artifacts in a video camera employing a charge coupled device (CCD) as an image sensor is disclosed. The method comprises the step of initializing the camera prior to normal read out and includes a first dump cycle period for transferring radiation generated charge into the horizontal register while the decaying image on the phosphor being imaged is being integrated in the photosites, and a second dump cycle period, occurring after the phosphor image has decayed, for rapidly dumping unwanted smear charge which has been generated in the vertical registers. Image charge is then transferred from the photosites and to the vertical registers and read out in conventional fashion. The inventive method allows the video camera to be used in environments having high ionizing radiation content, and to capture images of events of very short duration and occurring either within or outside the normal visual wavelength spectrum. Resultant images are free from ghost, smear and smear phenomena caused by insufficient opacity of the registers and, and are also free from random damage caused by ionization charges which exceed the charge limit capacity of the photosites. 3 figs.

Turko, B.T.; Yates, G.J.

1992-06-09

310

Method for eliminating artifacts in CCD imagers  

DOEpatents

An electronic method for eliminating artifacts in a video camera (10) employing a charge coupled device (CCD) (12) as an image sensor. The method comprises the step of initializing the camera (10) prior to normal read out and includes a first dump cycle period (76) for transferring radiation generated charge into the horizontal register (28) while the decaying image on the phosphor (39) being imaged is being integrated in the photosites, and a second dump cycle period (78), occurring after the phosphor (39) image has decayed, for rapidly dumping unwanted smear charge which has been generated in the vertical registers (32). Image charge is then transferred from the photosites (36) and (38) to the vertical registers (32) and read out in conventional fashion. The inventive method allows the video camera (10) to be used in environments having high ionizing radiation content, and to capture images of events of very short duration and occurring either within or outside the normal visual wavelength spectrum. Resultant images are free from ghost, smear and smear phenomena caused by insufficient opacity of the registers (28) and (32), and are also free from random damage caused by ionization charges which exceed the charge limit capacity of the photosites (36) and (37).

Turko, B.T.; Yates, G.J.

1990-12-31

311

New developments in CCD imaging devices for low-level confocal light imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charge coupled devices (CCD) have several advantages over tube camera imaging devices. These advantages include: geometric stability, high dynamic range (12, 14, or 16 bits) and photometric linearity. In order to achieve low-readout noise the readout is usually limited to 50 kpixels per second. The readout time is several times longer than video rates; the slow readout at less than video rates is the major disadvantage. A new CCD imager has been coupled to a Nipkow disk, confocal light microscope and its performance is evaluated using both reflected light and low-light-level fluorescence imaging. The CCD imager is a TK515, silicon CCD which is sensitiveequalsve from the UV to the near-IR. The sensor is a full frame area imager, with CCDs fabricated using a buried channel, three-level polysilicon gate process with very high charge-transfer efficiency (>0.9999) and low dark current. Low noise on-chip amplifiers provide and interface to external preamplifiers with readout noise typically <10 electrons at -90 degree(s) C, and 50 kpixels/second data rate. The chip is a thinned, back-illuminated device with anti-reflection coatings. The quantum efficiency is >80% at 400 nm and >90% at 600 nm. To determine its performance the Tektronix CCD was mounted in a Photometrics liquid cooled camera, attached to a Technical Instruments K2Bio confocal microscope.

Masters, Barry R.

1991-05-01

312

Video-rate or high-precision: a flexible range imaging camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range imaging camera produces an output similar to a digital photograph, but every pixel in the image contains distance information as well as intensity. This is useful for measuring the shape, size and location of objects in a scene, hence is well suited to certain machine vision applications. Previously we demonstrated a heterodyne range imaging system operating in a

Adrian A. Dorrington; Michael J. Cree; Dale A. Carnegie; Andrew D. Payne; Richard M. Conroy; John P. Godbaz; Adrian P. P. Jongenelen

2008-01-01

313

Real-time video surveillance system using omni-directional image sensor and controllable camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper describes a new indoor surveillance system for detection of an accident, such as fall or fit, happened to an aged single person. This system uses two types of cameras. One of them is the omni-directional image sensor for the tracking of the person"s position and detection of fall, and another is the controllable camera for capturing the detail of the person"s condition. The system detects points of the person"s head in images captured by some omni-directional image sensors, firstly. Then, a position of the person"s head in a room is computed from the points of person"s head in the images. When the person stops, the system classifies the person's pose into standing, sitting or lying according to the person's height. Then, the system judges that the accident has happened or not from the person"s pose, position and action. We made a prototype system with three omni-directional image sensors and a controllable camera. Then, we set the system in our laboratory"s room and experimented with the system. The implemented system detected the person"s position with the frame rate of 6 fps. In experiments, the error of position detection was 18 cm on the average. The error didn"t give serious influence to the control of the controllable camera. The error of height estimation was 6.9 cm. The conditions played by subjects were distinguished correctly.

Doi, Motonori; Aoki, Yutaro

2003-04-01

314

System-on-a-chip for digital still cameras with VGA-size video clip shooting  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced, compact and low-power system-on-a-chip has been developed that permits a single chip to perform all of the necessary functions for a DSC (digital still camera). Quality VGA-size motion pictures can be recorded at a rate of 30 fps

S. Okada; N. Takada; H. Miura; T. Asaeda

2000-01-01

315

"Lights, Camera, Reflection": Using Peer Video to Promote Reflective Dialogue among Student Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the use of peer-videoing in the classroom as a means of promoting reflection among student teachers. Ten pre-service teachers participating in a teacher education programme in a university in the Republic of Ireland and ten pre-service teachers participating in a teacher education programme in a university in the North of…

Harford, Judith; MacRuairc, Gerry; McCartan, Dermot

2010-01-01

316

First demonstration of neutron resonance absorption imaging using a high-speed video camera in J-PARC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The neutron resonance absorption imaging technique with a high-speed video camera was successfully demonstrated at the beam line NOBORU, J-PARC. Pulsed neutrons were observed through several kinds of metal foils as a function of neutron time-of-flight by utilizing a high-speed neutron radiography system. A set of time-dependent images was obtained for each neutron pulse, and more than a thousand sets of images were recorded in total. The images with the same time frame were summed after the measurement. Then the authors obtained a set of images having enhanced contrast of sample foils around the resonance absorption energies of cobalt (132 eV), cadmium (28 eV), tantalum (4.3 and 10 eV), gold (4.9 eV) and indium (1.5 eV).

Kai, T.; Segawa, M.; Ooi, M.; Hashimoto, E.; Shinohara, T.; Harada, M.; Maekawa, F.; Oikawa, K.; Sakai, T.; Matsubayashi, M.; Kureta, M.

2011-09-01

317

High-speed flow visualization with a new digital video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scientific photography opened new vistas upon high-speed physics in the previous century. Now, high-speed digital cameras are becoming available to replace the older photographic technology with similar speed, resolution, and light sensitivity but vastly better utility and user-friendliness. Here we apply a Photron Fastcam APX-RS digital camera that is capable of megapixel image resolution at 3000 frames/sec up to 250,000 frames/sec at lower resolution. Frame exposure is separately adjustable down to 1 microsecond. Several of the ``icons'' of high-speed flow visualization are repeated here, including firecracker and gram-range explosions, popping a champagne cork, vortex rings, shock emergence from a shock tube, the splash of a milk drop, and the burst of a toy balloon. Many of these visualizations utilize traditional schlieren or shadowgraph optics to show shock wave propagation. Still frames and brief movies will be shown.

Volpe, Jason

2005-11-01

318

Video Analysis for Detecting Eye Blinking using a High-Speed Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Without introducing pre-processing of eye region detection, the eye blinking motion was detected from specific characteristic moving features on a face using a high-speed camera with a frame rate of 250 Hz\\/sec. In the process of closure and opening during eye blinking, a series of moving points has characteristic features. Both patterns of matching methods and many starting points on

Kazuo Ohzeki; Bunhin Ryo

2006-01-01

319

Computer image-analysis techniques and video-sediment-profile camera enhancements provide a unique and quantitative view of life at or beneath the sediment-water interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

A video-sediment-profile camera system for in situ imaging of bottom sediments has been used in Lake Superior and to probe burbot biogenic structures and on the upper continental slope off southern New England to dissect red crab burrows. The equipment and technique are described. Two image sequences have been analyzed for contrast and dynamic range, and then contrast enhancement and

L. F. Boyer; R. J. Diaz; J. D. Hedrick

1988-01-01

320

Point Counts Underestimate the Importance of Arctic Foxes as Avian Nest Predators: Evidence from Remote Video Cameras in Arctic Alaskan Oil Fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used video cameras to identify nest predators at active shorebird and passerine nests and conducted point count surveys separately to determine species richness and detection frequency of potential nest predators in the Prudhoe Bay region of Alaska. From the surveys, we identified 16 potential nest predators, with glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) and parasitic jaegers (Stercorarius parasiticus) making up more

JOSEPH R. LIEBEZEIT; STEVE ZACK

2008-01-01

321

Distribution of bioluminescence and plankton in a deep Norwegian fjord measured using an ISIT camera and the Digital Underwater Video Profiler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioluminescence and plankton profiles were obtained using a downward-looking ISIT low-light camera and the Underwater Video Profiler system in Sognefjord, Norway. The profiling systems were lowered by CTD wire and recorded continuously from the surface to a depth of 1000 m. The former system delivered the vertical distribution of mechanically stimulated bioluminescent signals while the second provided the vertical distribution

David M. Bailey; Marc Picheral; Alan J. Jamieson; Olav Rune Godø; Philip M. Bagley; Gabriel Gorsky

2007-01-01

322

The automatic image analysis of red blood cell deformability and blood flow in microchannels with an image-intensified high-speed video camera system  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is crucial in microcirculatory investigation to evaluate red blood cell (RBC) deformability. However, there are almost limited information and indirect method of analyses. The authors tried to measure RBC deformability automatically by a combination of a newly developed algorithm and recording of individual RBC images clearly with an image-intensified high-speed video camera system. The length and the diameter of

T. Shimizu; E. Sekizuka; C. Oshio; K. Tsukada; T. Nagai; R. Hokari; H. Minamitani

1998-01-01

323

Virtual video camera: image-based viewpoint navigation through space and time  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an image-based rendering system to viewpoint-navigate through space and time of complex real-world, dynamic scenes. Our approach accepts unsynchronized, uncalibrated multi-video footage as input. Inexpensive, consumer-grade camcorders suffice to acquire arbitrary scenes, e.g., in the outdoors, without elaborate recording setup procedures. Instead of scene depth estimation, layer segmentation, or 3D reconstruction, our approach is based on dense image

Christian Lipski; Christian Linz; Kai Berger; Marcus A. Magnor

2009-01-01

324

Video profile monitor diagnostic system for GTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a video diagnostic system used to measure the beam profile and position of the Ground Test Accelerator 2.5-MeV H(-) ion beam as it exits the intermediate matching section. Inelastic collisions between H-ions and residual nitrogen in the vacuum chamber cause the nitrogen to fluoresce. The resulting light is captured through transport optics by an intensified CCD camera

D. P. Sandoval; R. C. Garcia; J. D. Gilpatrick; K. F. Johnson; M. A. Shinas; R. Wright; V. Yuan; M. E. Zander

1992-01-01

325

Video Method of Measuring Field-of-View of Electro-Optical Devices Versus Eye Clearances.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A miniature charged couple device (CCD) video camera was used to determine the fields-of-view (FOV) with changes in viewing distances (vertex distance) for the standard 18-mm eyepiece ANVIS, a 25-mm eyepiece ANVIS, and two different diameter nonoptical ap...

W. E. McLean

1995-01-01

326

Social Interactions of Juvenile Brown Boobies at Sea as Observed with Animal-Borne Video Cameras  

PubMed Central

While social interactions play a crucial role on the development of young individuals, those of highly mobile juvenile birds in inaccessible environments are difficult to observe. In this study, we deployed miniaturised video recorders on juvenile brown boobies Sula leucogaster, which had been hand-fed beginning a few days after hatching, to examine how social interactions between tagged juveniles and other birds affected their flight and foraging behaviour. Juveniles flew longer with congeners, especially with adult birds, than solitarily. In addition, approximately 40% of foraging occurred close to aggregations of congeners and other species. Young seabirds voluntarily followed other birds, which may directly enhance their foraging success and improve foraging and flying skills during their developmental stage, or both.

Yoda, Ken; Murakoshi, Miku; Tsutsui, Kota; Kohno, Hiroyoshi

2011-01-01

327

Immersive video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To realize this, we introduce the concept of immersive video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide viewers of live events a sense of total immersion by providing the viewer with a “virtual camera”. Immersive video uses multiple videos of an event, captured

Saied Moezzi; Arun Katkere; D. Y. Kuramura; Ramesh Jain

1996-01-01

328

Technical Note: Determining regions of interest for CCD camera-based fiber optic luminescence dosimetry by examining signal-to-noise ratio  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The goal of this work was to develop a method for determining regions of interest (ROIs) based on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the analysis of charge-coupled device (CCD) images used in luminescence-based radiation dosimetry. Methods: The ROI determination method was developed using images containing high-and low-intensity signals taken with a CCD-based, fiber optic plastic scintillation detector system. A series of threshold intensity values was defined for each signal, and ROIs were fitted around the pixels that exceeded each threshold. The SNR for each ROI was calculated and the relationship between SNR and ROI area was examined. Results: The SNR was found to increase rapidly over small ROIs for both signal levels. After reaching a maximum, the SNR of the low-intensity signal decreased steadily over larger ROIs, but the high-intensity SNR did not decrease appreciably over the ROI sizes studied. The spatial extent of the normalized images showed intensity independence, suggesting that a fixed ROI is useful for varying signal levels. Conclusions: The method described here constitutes a simple yet effective method for defining ROIs based on SNR that could enhance the low-level detection capabilities of CCD-based luminescence dosimetry systems.

Klein, David M.; Therriault-Proulx, Francois; Archambault, Louis; Briere, Tina M.; Beaulieu, Luc; Beddar, A. Sam

2011-01-01

329

Observation of the dynamic movement of fragmentations by high-speed camera and high-speed video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiments of blastings using mortal concrete blocks and model concrete columns were carried out in order to obtain technical information on fragmentation caused by the blasting demolition. The dimensions of mortal concrete blocks were 1,000 X 1,000 X 1,000 mm. Six kinds of experimental blastings were carried out using mortal concrete blocks. In these experiments precision detonators and No. 6 electric detonators with 10 cm detonating fuse were used and discussed the control of fragmentation. As the results of experiment it was clear that the flying distance of fragmentation can be controlled using a precise blasting system. The reinforced concrete model columns for typical apartment houses in Japan were applied to the experiments. The dimension of concrete test column was 800 X 800 X 2400 mm and buried 400 mm in the ground. The specified design strength of the concrete was 210 kgf/cm2. These columns were exploded by the blasting with internal loading of dynamite. The fragmentation were observed by two kinds of high speed camera with 500 and 2000 FPS and a high speed video with 400 FPS. As one of the results in the experiments, the velocity of fragmentation, blasted 330 g of explosive with the minimum resisting length of 0.32 m, was measured as much as about 40 m/s.

Suk, Chul-Gi; Ogata, Yuji; Wada, Yuji; Katsuyama, Kunihisa

1995-05-01

330

Laboratory Test of CCD #1 in BOAO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An introduction to the first CCD camera system in Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (CCD#1) is presented. The CCD camera adopts modular dewar design of IfA(Institute for Astronomy at Hawaii University) and SDSU(San Diego State University) general purpose CCD controller. The user interface is based on IfA design of easy-to-use GUI program running on the NeXT workstation. The characteristics of the CCD#1 including Gain, Charge Transfer Efficiency, rms Read-Out Noise, Linearity and Dynamic range is tested and discussed. The CCD#1 shows 6.4 electrons RON and gain of 3.49 electrons per ADU, and the optimization resulted in about 27 seconds readout time guaranteeing charge transfer efficiency of 0.99999 for both directions. Linearity test shows that non-linear coefficient is 6e-7 in the range of 0 to 30,000 ADU.

Park, Byeong-Gon; Chun, Moo Young; Kim, Seung-Lee

1995-12-01

331

Smart optical and image sensors fabricated with industrial CMOS/CCD semiconductor processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photosensitive elements with well-chosen geometry, combined with suitable analog and digital circuitry on the same CMOS/CCD chip, lead to 'smart image sensors' with interesting capabilities and properties. All our smart sensors were fabricated with commercially available multi-process wafer services of CMOS process, one of them with a buried-channel CCD option. Measurement of the optoelectronic properties of standard CMOS/CCD processes (wavelength-dependent quantum efficiency, lateral homogeneity of quantum efficiency/photo- conductivity, CCD charge transport efficiency, etc.) show excellent performance. The smartness that lies in the geometry is illustrated with a single-chip motion detector, a 3-D depth video camera, a single-chip planar distance sensor, and a sine/cosine (Fourier) transform sensor for fast optical phase measurements. The concept of problem-adapted geometry is also shown with a dynamic frame-transfer CCD whose pixel size and shape can be changed electrically in real-time through charge-binning. Based on the wavelength-dependent absorption of silicon, all-solid-state color pixels are demonstrated by properly arranging the available pn-junctions in the third (bulk) dimension. Moderate color measurement performance is achieved using an unmodified CMOS/CCD process, with a CIE general color-rendering index of Ra equals 69.5.

Seitz, Peter; Leipold, Dirk; Kramer, Joerg; Raynor, Jeffrey M.

1993-07-01

332

CCD and IR array controllers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A family of controllers has bene developed that is powerful and flexible enough to operate a wide range of CCD and IR focal plane arrays in a variety of ground-based applications. These include fast readout of small CCD and IR arrays for adaptive optics applications, slow readout of large CCD and IR mosaics, and single CCD and IR array operation at low background/low noise regimes as well as high background/high speed regimes. The CCD and IR controllers have a common digital core based on user- programmable digital signal processors that are used to generate the array clocking and signal processing signals customized for each application. A fiber optic link passes image data and commands to VME or PCI interface boards resident in a host computer to the controller. CCD signal processing is done with a dual slope integrator operating at speeds of up to one Megapixel per second per channel. Signal processing of IR arrays is done either with a dual channel video processor or a four channel video processor that has built-in image memory and a coadder to 32-bit precision for operating high background arrays. Recent developments underway include the implementation of a fast fiber optic data link operating at a speed of 12.5 Megapixels per second for fast image transfer from the controller to the host computer, and supporting image acquisition software and device drivers for the PCI interface board for the Sun Solaris, Linux and Windows 2000 operating systems.

Leach, Robert W.; Low, Frank J.

2000-08-01

333

Advanced camera image data acquisition system for Pi-of-the-Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a new generation of high performance, remote control, CCD cameras designed for astronomical applications. A completely new camera PCB was designed, manufactured, tested and commissioned. The CCD chip was positioned in a different way than previously resulting in better performance of the astronomical video data acquisition system. The camera was built using a low-noise, 4Mpixel CCD circuit by STA. The electronic circuit of the camera is highly parameterized and reconfigurable, as well as modular in comparison with the solution of first generation, due to application of open software solutions and FPGA circuit, Altera Cyclone EP1C6. New algorithms were implemented into the FPGA chip. There were used the following advanced electronic circuit in the camera system: microcontroller CY7C68013a (core 8051) by Cypress, image processor AD9826 by Analog Devices, GigEth interface RTL8169s by Realtec, memory SDRAM AT45DB642 by Atmel, CPU typr microprocessor ARM926EJ-S AT91SAM9260 by ARM and Atmel. Software solutions for the camera and its remote control, as well as image data acquisition are based only on the open source platform. There were used the following image interfaces ISI and API V4L2, data bus AMBA, AHB, INDI protocol. The camera will be replicated in 20 pieces and is designed for continuous on-line, wide angle observations of the sky in the research program Pi-of-the-Sky.

Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Pozniak, Krzysztof; Romaniuk, Ryszard; Wrochna, Grzegorz

2008-11-01

334

Artillery-launched Charge-Coupled Device (CCD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report discusses the test, evaluation, and analysis of a charged coupled device (CCD) imagery system as might be deployed in artillery launched, parachute dropped, aerial reconnaissance system. An existing 100 x 100 element CCD camera was evaluated for image usefulness when deployed from a parachute. A system analysis was performed on how future 488 x 390 element CCD sensors

E. Willett; H. Forst

1974-01-01

335

A New CCD Controller at UCO\\/Lich Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new CCD controller for Lick Observatory. Although the controller was developed for the new generation of guide cameras at Lick, it is still a versatile, high-performance, general purpose CCD controller for single-CCD applications.

Mingzhi Wei; Richard Stover

2004-01-01

336

Development of CCD controller for scientific application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoelectric equipment has wide applications such as spectroscopy, temperature measurement in infrared region and in astronomical research etc. A photoelectric transducer converts radiant energy into electrical energy. There are two types of photoelectric transducers namely photo-multiplier tube (PMT) and charged couple device (CCD) are used to convert radiant energy into electrical signal. Now the entire modern instruments use CCD technology. We have designed and developed a CCD camera controller using camera chip CD47-10 of Marconi which has 1K × 1K pixel for space application only.

Khan, M. S.; Pathan, F. M.; Shah, U. V., Prof; Makwana, D. H., Prof; Anandarao, B. G., Prof

2010-02-01

337

Ground-based CCD astrometry with wide field imagers. IV. An improved geometric-distortion correction for the blue prime-focus camera at the LBT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High precision astrometry requires an accurate geometric-distortion solution. In this work, we present an average correction for the blue camera of the Large Binocular Telescope which enables a relative astrometric precision of ~15 mas for the BBessel and VBessel broad-band filters. The result of this effort is used in two companion papers: the first to measure the absolute proper motion of the open cluster M 67 with respect to the background galaxies; the second to decontaminate the color-magnitude of M 67 from field objects, enabling the study of the end of its white dwarf cooling sequence. Many other applications might find this distortion correction useful. Based on data acquired using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) at Mt. Graham, Arizona, under the Commissioning of the Large Binocular Blue Camera. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are: The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota and University of Virginia.Visiting Ph.D. Student at STScI under the “2008 graduate research assistantship” program.

Bellini, A.; Bedin, L. R.

2010-07-01

338

Transformation Equations Between the Standard and CCD Vilnius Systems. II. The Flagstaff CCD System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation equations between the magnitudes and color indices of the CCD and the standard Vilnius systems are calculated for the CCD camera of the 1 m Ritchey Telescope of the U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station. For this, the synthetic color indices are obtained by numerical convolution of energy distribution functions with the response functions of corresponding passbands. The effect of

V. Straizys; A. Kazlauskas; R. P. Boyle; F. J. Vrba; F. Smriglio

1996-01-01

339

Camera Operator and Videographer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators produce images that tell a story, inform or entertain an audience, or record an event. They use various cameras to shoot a wide range of material, including television series, news and sporting events, music videos, motion pictures, documentaries, and training sessions. Those who film or…

Moore, Pam

2007-01-01

340

CCD guidance system for the William Herschel Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CCD autoguider detector system for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) comprises a Peltier cooled, slow-scan CCD camera supported by an MC68020-based VME computer for image processing. The detector is a fluorescent dye coated EEV P8603 CCD chip operated in frame transfer mode. The CCD controller enables a full image to be read out during acquisition, but with windowed readout

D. J. Thorne; N. R. Waltham; G. M. Newton; I. G. van Breda; M. Fisher

1990-01-01

341

Performance of scientific cameras with different sensor types in measuring dynamic processes in fluorescence microscopy.  

PubMed

The plethora of available scientific cameras of different types challenges the biologically oriented experimenter when picking the appropriate camera for his experiment. In this study, we chose to investigate camera performances in a typical nonsingle molecule situation in life sciences, that is, quantitative measurements of fluorescence intensity changes from video data with typically skewed intensity distributions. Here, intensity profile dynamics of pH-sensors upon triggered changes of pH-environments in living cells served as a model system. The following camera types were tested: sCMOS, CCD (scientific and nonscientific) and EM-CCD (back- and front-illuminated). We found that although the EM-CCD cameras achieved the best absolute spatial SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) values, the sCMOS was at least of equal performance when the spatial SNR was related to the effective dynamic range, and it was superior in terms of temporal SNR. In the measurements of triggered intensity changes, the sCMOS camera had the advantage that it used the smallest fraction of its dynamic range when depicting intensity changes, and thus featured the best SNR at full usage of its dynamic range. PMID:23733589

Jung, Jasmin; Weisenburger, Siegfried; Albert, Sahradha; Gilbert, Daniel F; Friedrich, Oliver; Eulenburg, Volker; Kornhuber, Johannes; Groemer, Teja W

2013-06-03

342

Improvement in the light sensitivity of the ultrahigh-speed high-sensitivity CCD with a microlens array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are advancing the development of ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity CCDs for broadcast use that are capable of capturing smooth slow-motion videos in vivid colors even where lighting is limited, such as at professional baseball games played at night. We have already developed a 300,000 pixel, ultrahigh-speed CCD, and a single CCD color camera that has been used for sports broadcasts and science programs using this CCD. However, there are cases where even higher sensitivity is required, such as when using a telephoto lens during a baseball broadcast or a high-magnification microscope during science programs. This paper provides a summary of our experimental development aimed at further increasing the sensitivity of CCDs using the light-collecting effects of a microlens array.

Hayashida, T.,; Yonai, J.; Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Kurita, T.; Tanioka, K.; Maruyama, H.; Etoh, T. Goji; Kitagawa, S.; Hatade, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takeuchi, H.; Iida, K.

2008-02-01

343

Technical assessment of low light color camera technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nighttime overcast conditions with a new moon (near-total darkness), typical light levels may only reach 10-2-10-4 lux. As such, standard CCD/CMOS video cameras have insufficient sensitivity to capture useful images. Third generation night vision cameras (Gen III NV) are the state-of-the-art in terms of imaging clarity and resolution at this light level, but rely on green or green/yellow phosphors to produce monochromatic images while true color information is lost. More recently, low-light color video cameras have become commercially available which are purportedly able to produce truecolor images at rates of 15-30 frames per second (fps) in near-total darkness without loss in clarity. This study determined if the sensitivities of two low-light color video cameras, Toshiba's IK-1000 EMCCD and Opto-Knowledge System's (OKSI) True Color Night Vision (TCNV) cameras are comparable to current Gen II/III NV technology. NRL, in a joint effort with NSWC Carderock Division, quantified the effectiveness of these cameras in terms of objective laboratory characterization and subjective field testing. Laboratory tests included signal-to-noise (S/N), spectral response, and imaging quality at 2, 15, and 30 frames per second (fps). Field tests were performed at 8, 15, and 30 fps to determine clarity and color composition of camouflaged human subjects and stationary objects from a set number of standoff distances under near-total darkness (measured at 10-8-10-10 W/cm2 sr @ 650nm). Low-light camera video was qualitatively compared to imagery taken by Stanford Photonics Mega-10 Gen III Night Vision Scientific and Tactical Imagers under identical conditions.

Ramsey, Scott A.; Peak, Joseph; Setlik, Brian

2010-04-01

344

Video Visuals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A good training video has a focused objective, well-written script, clear sound track, and visuals that enhance the communication of the message. Good visuals depend on lighting, camera angles, continuity, and motivation for the scene. (SK)|

Schleger, Peter R.

1991-01-01

345

Compact laser radar and three-dimensional camera.  

PubMed

A novel three-dimensional (3D) camera is capable of providing high-precision 3D images in real time. The camera uses a diode laser to illuminate the scene, a shuttered solid-state charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor, and a simple phase detection technique based on the sensor shutter. The amplitude of the reflected signal carries the luminance information, while the phase of the signal carries range information. The system output is coded as a video signal. This camera offers significant advantages over existing technology. The precision in range is dependent only on phase shift and laser power and theoretically is far superior to existing time-of-flight laser radar systems. Other advantages are reduced size and simplicity and compact and inexpensive construction. We built a prototype that produced high-resolution images in range the (z) and x-y. PMID:16604759

Medina, Antonio; Gayá, Francisco; del Pozo, Francisco

2006-04-01

346

Compact laser radar and three-dimensional camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel three-dimensional (3D) camera is capable of providing high-precision 3D images in real time. The camera uses a diode laser to illuminate the scene, a shuttered solid-state charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor, and a simple phase detection technique based on the sensor shutter. The amplitude of the reflected signal carries the luminance information, while the phase of the signal carries range information. The system output is coded as a video signal. This camera offers significant advantages over existing technology. The precision in range is dependent only on phase shift and laser power and theoretically is far superior to existing time-of-flight laser radar systems. Other advantages are reduced size and simplicity and compact and inexpensive construction. We built a prototype that produced high-resolution images in range the (z) and x-y.

Medina, Antonio; Gayá, Francisco; Del Pozo, Francisco

2006-04-01

347

Video profile monitor diagnostic system for GTA  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a video diagnostic system used to measure the beam profile and position of the Ground Test Accelerator 2.5-MeV H{sup {minus}} ion beam as it exits the intermediate matching section. Inelastic collisions between H-ions and residual nitrogen to fluoresce. The resulting light is captured through transport optics by an intensified CCD camera and is digitized. Real-time beam-profile images are displayed and stored for detailed analysis. Analyzed data showing resolutions for both position and profile measurements will also be presented.

Sandoval, D.P.; Garcia, R.C.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Johnson, K.F.; Shinas, M.A.; Wright, R.; Yuan, V.; Zander, M.E.

1992-09-01

348

Video profile monitor diagnostic system for GTA  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a video diagnostic system used to measure the beam profile and position of the Ground Test Accelerator 2.5-MeV H{sup {minus}} ion beam as it exits the intermediate matching section. Inelastic collisions between H-ions and residual nitrogen to fluoresce. The resulting light is captured through transport optics by an intensified CCD camera and is digitized. Real-time beam-profile images are displayed and stored for detailed analysis. Analyzed data showing resolutions for both position and profile measurements will also be presented.

Sandoval, D.P.; Garcia, R.C.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Johnson, K.F.; Shinas, M.A.; Wright, R.; Yuan, V.; Zander, M.E.

1992-01-01

349

CCD Observations in the Vilnius Photometric System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Setting up the Vilnius photometric system with CCD detectors is extremely important for investigation of galactic structure since the system makes it possible to determine completely by photometric means spectral classes, absolute magnitudes, metallicities and peculiarity types of stars, even when affected by interstellar reddening. The paper describes the first observations made in the Vilnius system with CCD detectors at the Kitt Peak National Observatory and the US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station. The paper also describes available software for the photometric classification of stars and investigations planned with the VATT telescope on Mt. Graham in Arizona. Some recommendations for users of CCD cameras for stellar photometry are given.

Boyle, R. P.; Vrba, F. J.; Smriglio, F.; Dasgupta, A. K.; Straizys, V.

350

StartleCam: A Cybernetic Wearable Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

StartleCam is a wearable video camera, computer, and sensing system, which enables the camera to be controlled via both conscious and preconscious events involving the wearer. Traditionally, a wearer consciously hits record on the video camera, or runs a computer script to trigger the camera according to some pre-specified frequency. The sys- tem described here offers an additional option: images

Jennifer Healey; Rosalind W. Picard

1998-01-01

351

The Dark Energy Survey CCD imager design  

SciTech Connect

The Dark Energy Survey is planning to use a 3 sq. deg. camera that houses a {approx} 0.5m diameter focal plane of 62 2kx4k CCDs. The camera vessel including the optical window cell, focal plate, focal plate mounts, cooling system and thermal controls is described. As part of the development of the mechanical and cooling design, a full scale prototype camera vessel has been constructed and is now being used for multi-CCD readout tests. Results from this prototype camera are described.

Cease, H.; DePoy, D.; Diehl, H.T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Guarino, V.; Kuk, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schultz, K.; Schmitt, R.L.; Stefanik, A.; /Fermilab /Ohio State U. /Argonne

2008-06-01

352

Inexpensive video cameras used by parents to record social communication in epidemiological investigations in early childhood-A feasibility study.  

PubMed

We tested the feasibility of parents recording social interactions with their infants using inexpensive camcorders, as a potential method of effective, convenient, and economical large scale data gathering on social communication. Participants were asked to record two short video clips during either play or a mealtime, and return the data. Sixty-five video clips (32 pairs) were returned by 33 families, comprising 8.5% of families contacted, 44.6% of respondents and 51.6% of those sent a camcorder, and the general visual and sound quality of the data was assessed. Audio and video quality were adequate for analysis in 85% of clips and several social behaviours, including social engagement and contingent responsiveness, could be assessed in 97% of clips. We examined two quantifiable social behaviours quantitatively in both adults and infants: gaze direction and duration, and vocalization occurrence and duration. It proved difficult for most observers to obtain a simultaneous clear view of the parents and infant's face. Video clips obtained by parents are informative and usable for analysis. Further work is required to establish the acceptability of this technique in longitudinal studies of child development and to maximize the return of usable data. PMID:21036401

Wilson, Philip; Puckering, Christine; McConnachie, Alex; Marwick, Helen; Reissland, Nadja; Gillberg, Christopher

2010-10-30

353

Evolution of Ultra-High-Speed CCD Imagers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the high-speed video cameras developed by the authors. A video camera operating at 4,500 frames per second (fps) was developed in 1991. The partial and parallel readout scheme combined with fully digital memory with overwriting function enabled the world fastest imaging at the time. The basic configuration of the camera later became a de facto standard of

T. Goji Etoh; Cuong Vo Le; Yuichi Hashishin; Nao Otsuka; Kohsei Takehara; Hiroshi Ohtake; Tetsuya Hayashida; Hirotaka Maruyama

2008-01-01

354

Establishing imaging sensor specifications for digital still cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital Still Cameras, DSCs, have now displaced conventional still cameras in most markets. The heart of a DSC is thought to be the imaging sensor, be it Full Frame CCD, and Interline CCD, a CMOS sensor or the newer Foveon buried photodiode sensors. There is a strong tendency by consumers to consider only the number of mega-pixels in a camera

Michael A. Kriss

2007-01-01

355

Video Surveillance Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Video Surveillance Unit (VSU) has been designed to provide a flexible, easy to operate video surveillance and recording capability for permanent rack-mounted installations. The system consists of a single rack-mountable chassis and a camera enclosure....

R. L. Martinez C. S. Johnson

1990-01-01

356

The Crimean CCD telescope for the asteroid observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The old 64-cm Richter-Slefogt telescope (F=90 cm) of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory was reconstructed and equipped with the St-8 CCD camera supplied by the Planetary Society as the Eugene Shoemaker Near Earth Object Grant. The first observations of minor planets and comets were made with the telescope in 2000. The CCD matrix of St-8 camera in the focus of our

Nikolaj Chernykh; Vasilij Rumyantsev

2002-01-01

357

Video Surveillance Unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Video Surveillance Unit (VSU) has been designed to provide a flexible, easy to operate video surveillance and recording capability for permanent rack-mounted installations. The system consists of a single rack-mountable chassis and a camera enclosure. The chassis contains two 8 mm video recorders, a color monitor, system controller board, a video authentication verifier module (VAVM) and a universal power

R. L. Martinez; C. S. Johnson

1990-01-01

358

The Video Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book provides a comprehensive step-by-step learning guide to video production. It begins with camera equipment, both still and video. It then describes how to reassemble the video and build a final product out of "video blocks," and discusses multiple-source configurations, which are required for professional level productions of live shows.…

Clendenin, Bruce

359

High Precision CCD Imaging Polarimetry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a recent modification to the direct CCD Cameras at CTIO and LNA (Brazil) observatories in order to allow for high precision optical polarimetry. We make use of a rotating achromatic half-wave plate as a retarder and a Savart plate as analyser. Cancellation of sky polarization and independence of the CCD flat field correction are among the advantages of the arrangement. We show preliminary data that indicate the high polarimetric precision achievable with the method for non-extended sources. We give a brief description of the on-going observational programs employing the technique. Polarimetry of extended objects can be performed by using a Polaroid sheet in place of the Savart plate. Use of the Savart plate with such fields can also be valuable in the reduction, and analysis, of the extended source images as it provides polarization data on the non-extended objects in the field.

Magalhaes, A. M.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Margoniner, V. E.; Pereyra, A.; Heathcote, S.; Coyne, G. V.

1994-12-01

360

USNO CCD Astrograph Catalog: Southern Hemisphere complete  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a high precision, astrometric, all-sky survey program. The US Naval Observatory Astrograph (2 meter focal length, 4k CCD camera) stationed at Cerro Tololo since 1998, has completed sky coverage between -90 and +5 degree declination. Reductions are now based on Tycho-2 reference stars which give a positional precision of 20 mas per coordinate for stars in the 10

N. Zacharias; T. J. Rafferty; M. I. Zacharias

2000-01-01

361

High speed 512 [times] 512 camera system  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been involved in the design of high speed solid state camera systems for over a decade. The latest camera system designed by the laboratory utilizes the CCD-13 multiport 512 [times] 5l2 CCD array, manufactured by English Electric Valve. Simultaneous readout from each port at a 20 MHz pixel rate allows this camera system to achieve up to 500 frames per second. A first goneration camera system was designed by LLNL to provide data on the CCD-13, and as proof of principle for the camera system electronics. The results of the tests involving this camera will be presented in this report. A second generation camera system has been designed which incorporates the knowledge gained from these tests, and is currently being manufactured. This system should be available for testing in September '92.

Conder, A.

1992-07-01

362

High speed 512 {times} 512 camera system  

SciTech Connect

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has been involved in the design of high speed solid state camera systems for over a decade. The latest camera system designed by the laboratory utilizes the CCD-13 multiport 512 {times} 5l2 CCD array, manufactured by English Electric Valve. Simultaneous readout from each port at a 20 MHz pixel rate allows this camera system to achieve up to 500 frames per second. A first goneration camera system was designed by LLNL to provide data on the CCD-13, and as proof of principle for the camera system electronics. The results of the tests involving this camera will be presented in this report. A second generation camera system has been designed which incorporates the knowledge gained from these tests, and is currently being manufactured. This system should be available for testing in September `92.

Conder, A.

1992-07-01

363

Transformation Equations Between the Standard and CCD Vilnius Systems. II. The Flagstaff CCD System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transformation equations between the magnitudes and color indices of the CCD and the standard Vilnius systems are calculated for the CCD camera of the 1 m Ritchey Telescope of the U.S. Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station. For this, the synthetic color indices are obtained by numerical convolution of energy distribution functions with the response functions of corresponding passbands. The effect of the Earth's atmosphere for the ultraviolet passbands is taken into account. The suggested transformation method makes it possible to reach the final accuracy of CCD photometry of the order of 0.01 mag.

Straizys, V.; Kazlauskas, A.; Boyle, R. P.; Vrba, F. J.; Smriglio, F.

364

Geometric superresolution using CCD-mask  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resolution of any image taken by CCD camera is generally lower in resolution in comparison with original object. Assuming the imaging system as diffraction limited - the major component responsible for this resolution limitation is the pixel geometry in CCD. The area, shape of pixel and distance between them (inter-pixel spacing) together contributes in reduction of the resolution of the final electronic image. A number of techniques have been reported in the literature to overcome this geometric resolution limitation. We have proposed a novel geometric superresolution technique in which a CCD-mask is displaced over CCD-plane by one pixel in subpixel steps - both in x and y directions. The resultant processed superresolved image is improved in resolution by the subpixel steps factor. Simulation results in 2D have been presented which shows improvement in resolution. This superresolution technique can be applied to microscopy, medical imaging, satellite imaging and astronomy.

Haq, Ihtsham U.; Mudassar, Asloob A.

2010-08-01

365

Progress in video immersion using Panospheric imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having demonstrated significant technical and marketplace advantages over other modalities for video immersion, PanosphericTM Imaging (PI) continues to evolve rapidly. This paper reports on progress achieved since AeroSense 97. The first practical field deployment of the technology occurred in June-August 1997 during the NASA-CMU 'Atacama Desert Trek' activity, where the Nomad mobile robot was teleoperated via immersive PanosphericTM imagery from a distance of several thousand kilometers. Research using teleoperated vehicles at DRES has also verified the exceptional utility of the PI technology for achieving high levels of situational awareness, operator confidence, and mission effectiveness. Important performance enhancements have been achieved with the completion of the 4th Generation PI DSP-based array processor system. The system is now able to provide dynamic full video-rate generation of spatial and computational transformations, resulting in a programmable and fully interactive immersive video telepresence. A new multi- CCD camera architecture has been created to exploit the bandwidth of this processor, yielding a well-matched PI system with greatly improved resolution. While the initial commercial application for this technology is expected to be video tele- conferencing, it also appears to have excellent potential for application in the 'Immersive Cockpit' concept. Additional progress is reported in the areas of Long Wave Infrared PI Imaging, Stereo PI concepts, PI based Video-Servoing concepts, PI based Video Navigation concepts, and Foveation concepts (to merge localized high-resolution views with immersive views).

Bogner, Stephen L.; Southwell, David T.; Penzes, Steven; Brosinsky, Chris A.; Anderson, Ron; Hanna, Doug M.

1998-09-01

366

Surveillance camera scheduling: a virtual vision approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We present a surveillance system, comprising wide field-of-view (FOV) passive cameras and pan\\/tilt\\/zoom (PTZ) active cameras, which automatically captures and labels high-resolution videos of pedestrians as they move,through a designated area. A wide-FOV stationary camera can track multiple pedestrians, while any PTZ active camera can capture high-quality videos of a single pedestrian at a time. We propose a multi-camera

Faisal Z. Qureshi; Demetri Terzopoulos

2006-01-01

367

Evaluation of the performance of the 576 384 Thomson CCD for astronomical use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A slow scan CCD camera system was built at the Toulouse Observatory and used to evaluate the performance of the 576384 CCD from Thomson-CSF (new THX 31133) at low temperatures (150K). The authors have emphasized the optimization of the most important parameters for astronomical applications and have compared the Thomson CCD with other CCDs, now currently used in astronomy.

Mellier, Y.; Cailloux, M.; Dupin, J. P.; Fort, B.; Lours, C.

1986-03-01

368

Optical processors using scanning CCD photodetectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical processors with scanning CCD photodetectors are examined with emphasis on the use of such processors in various kinds of systems for the processing of radio signals. In particular, results are presented for an optical processor with a reference mask designed for producing mutually correlating functions of a video signal and a library of reference signals recorded on the mask.

S. Iu. Bondartsev; N. A. Esepkina; A. P. Lavrov

1988-01-01

369

Evaluation of a novel low light level (L3 vision) CCD technology for application to diffraction enhanced breast imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work evaluates the potential of low-light level CCD (L3CCD, E2V Technologies Ltd) technology in mammographic X-ray diffraction imaging. The L3CCD camera applies gain before readout, thereby amplifying the signal without increasing read noise. This allows very small signals to be seen. A 1cm2 Gd2O2S:Eu coated L3CCD camera operated at ?5°C was used.The diffraction profiles of healthy and diseased breast

E. J. Harris; G. J. Royle; R. D. Speller; J. A. Griffiths; G. Kidane; A. M. Hanby

2003-01-01

370

What is the difference between image intensifier and CCD meteor observations? I. CCD and image intensifier observations in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Video meteor orbits have been obtained since the 1990s in Japan and the authors (Ueda, Shigeno) obtained valuable results. Video observations using an image intensifier or a CCD have distinct characteristics and it is necessary to treat their results very carefully. Image-intensifiers can record fainter meteors than CCDs, but a CCD can record meteors on a more regular basis. Image-intensifiers and CCDs register meteors in different ways so that recorded meteors are not identical.

Koseki, Masahiro; Ueda, Masayoshi; Shigeno, Yoshihiko

2010-06-01

371

CCD characterization and measurements automation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern mosaic cameras have grown both in size and in number of sensors. The required volume of sensor testing and characterization has grown accordingly. For camera projects as large as the LSST, test automation becomes a necessity. A CCD testing and characterization laboratory was built and is in operation for the LSST project. Characterization of LSST study contract sensors has been performed. The characterization process and its automation are discussed, and results are presented. Our system automatically acquires images, populates a database with metadata information, and runs express analysis. This approach is illustrated on 55Fe data analysis. 55Fe data are used to measure gain, charge transfer efficiency and charge diffusion. Examples of express analysis results are presented and discussed.

Kotov, I. V.; Frank, J.; Kotov, A. I.; Kubanek, P.; O'Connor, P.; Prouza, M.; Radeka, V.; Takacs, P.

2012-12-01

372

Characterizing the response of charge-couple device digital color cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advance and rapid development of electronic imaging technology has lead the way to production of imaging sensors capable of acquiring good quality digital images with a high resolution. At the same time the cost and size of imaging devices have reduced. This has incited an increasing research interest for techniques that use images obtained by multiple camera arrays. The use of multi-camera arrays is attractive because it allows capturing multi-view images of dynamic scenes, enabling the creation of novel computer vision and computer graphics applications, as well as next generation video and television systems. There are additional challenges when using a multi-camera array, however. Due to inconsistencies in the fabrication process of imaging sensors and filters, multi-camera arrays exhibit inter-camera color response variations. In this work we characterize and compare the response of two digital color cameras, which have a light sensor based on the charge-coupled device (CCD) array architecture. The results of the response characterization process can be used to model the cameras' responses, which is an important step when constructing a multi-camera array system.

Slavkovikj, Viktor; Hardeberg, Jon Yngve; Eichhorn, Alexander

2012-02-01

373

Galaxy number counts - III. Deep CCD observations to B=27.5 mag  

Microsoft Academic Search

By combining a 26-h exposure taken with the prime-focus RCA CCD camera on the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope and a 13-h exposure taken with the Tektronix CCD camera at the Cassegrain auxiliary focus of the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope we have extended our determination of the form of the galaxy number-magnitude count relation on one CCD field to a blue

N. Metcalfe; T. Shanks; R. Fong; N. Roche

1995-01-01

374

VNIR hypersensor camera system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hypersensor camera operates with a unique multispectral imaging modality developed recently at Surface Optics Corporation. The Hypersensor camera is small, low cost, rugged, and solid state, using micro-optics and an array of spectral filters, which captures a complete multispectral cube of spatial and spectral data with every focal plane exposure. The prototype VNIR Hypersensor camera captures full cubes of 588x438 (spatial pixels) x 16 (spectral bands) at frame rates up to 60 Hz. This paper discusses the optical design of the Hypersensor camera, the measured performance, and the design and operation of a custom video-rate hyperspectral processor developed for this system.

Cavanaugh, David B.; Lorenz, James M.; Unwin, Nora; Dombrowski, Mark; Willson, Paul

2009-08-01

375

Gated video signal baseline restoration with a voltage comparator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Video baseline drift in CCD cameras with variable frame formats is often difficult to correct. Conventional baseline restorers generally do not work well at very high frame rates, since frequently only a short, few nanosecond wide point in each video line is available for reference. A.C. coupled video level drifts as the signal average changes with illumination. Also, low frequency noise (mainly from power supplies) modulates the video signal, especially when high video amplifier gains are required. On the other hand, although D.C. coupled video amplifier output does not drift due to the change in CCD illumination, it does drift as a function of temperature. Also, externally generated noise is directly superimposed on the video signal, reducing the image quality. Either case requires some kind of baseline restoration in order to keep the signal aligned to the desired reference level. This requirement is imperative during the process of testing and evaluating state of the art multiport CCD sensors. We describe a simple method for baseline restoration of A.C. coupled video signals, using a fast voltage comparator and a gated latch. An external strobe pulse must be provided and timed precisely at the point in video line selected as a reference. This reference is compared with a preset external D.C. level. The comparator output would therefore go to its high state when the reference signal is below that level. The comparator output status is latched into a D-type flip-flop by strobe pulses, provided externally, and timed to be coincident with the video line reference points. The inverted output of the latch is used to either charge or discharge the video signal coupling capacitor with a constant current. It tries to shift the video signal reference point, after each strobing pulse, closer to the comparator D.C. bias voltage, in a characteristic zigzag pattern. Best results are achieved when the rate of coupling capacitor voltage change, done by the restorer, matches the baseline drift rate.

Turko, Bojan T.; Yates, George J.; Albright, Kevin L.

1994-10-01

376

Vision Sensors and Cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imagers have been and are a specialty market ruled by a few companies for decades. Based on CMOS technologies, active-pixel sensors (APS) began to appear in 1990 at the 1 ?m technology node. These pixels allow random access, global shutters, and they are compatible with focal-plane imaging systems combining sensing and first-level image processing. The progress towards smaller features and towards ultra-low leakage currents has provided reduced dark currents and ?m-size pixels. All chips offer Mega-pixel resolution, and many have very high sensitivities equivalent to ASA 12.800. As a result, HDTV video cameras will become a commodity. Because charge-integration sensors suffer from a limited dynamic range, significant processing effort is spent on multiple exposure and piece-wise analog-digital conversion to reach ranges >10,000:1. The fundamental alternative is log-converting pixels with an eye-like response. This offers a range of almost a million to 1, constant contrast sensitivity and constant colors, important features in professional, technical and medical applications. 3D retino-morphic stacking of sensing and processing on top of each other is being revisited with sub-100 nm CMOS circuits and with TSV technology. With sensor outputs directly on top of neurons, neural focal-plane processing will regain momentum, and new levels of intelligent vision will be achieved. The industry push towards thinned wafers and TSV enables backside-illuminated and other pixels with a 100% fill-factor. 3D vision, which relies on stereo or on time-of-flight, high-speed circuitry, will also benefit from scaled-down CMOS technologies both because of their size as well as their higher speed.

Hoefflinger, Bernd

377

GEOMETRIC ACCURACY POTENTIAL OF THE DIGITAL MODULAR CAMERA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Digital Modular Camera (DMC) is the new digital aerial camera system of Z\\/I Imaging. It is based on CCD areal array sensor technology and provides a very high interior geometric stability. According to its modular design, more than one individual camera module can be tied together, resulting in a large field of view of the camera. The DMC high

Liang Tang; Christoph Dörstel; Karsten Jacobsen; Christian Heipke; Alexander Hinz

2000-01-01

378

Design of high speed camera based on CMOS technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of a high speed camera in taking high speed images has been evaluated using CMOS image sensors. There are 2 types of image sensors, namely, CCD and CMOS sensors. CMOS sensor consumes less power than CCD sensor and can take images more rapidly. High speed camera with built-in CMOS sensor is widely used in vehicle crash tests and

Sei-Hun Park; Jun-Sick An; Tae-Seok Oh; Il-Hwan Kim

2007-01-01

379

The Advanced Camera for Surveys: Calibration Plan for Cycle 17  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is scheduled for repair in August 2008 during HST's Servicing Mission 4. The repair will replace the CCD Electronics Box and Low Voltage Power Supply, restoring the two CCD cameras to full operation. Along with the Solar Blind Channel, which is currently still active, the ACS will have three fully functional detectors available for

Jennifer Mack; L. J. Smith; R. L. Gilliland; M. Sirianni

2008-01-01

380

Development of a driving method suitable for ultrahigh-speed shooting in a 2M-fps 300k-pixel single-chip color camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an ultrahigh-speed CCD camera that can capture instantaneous phenomena not visible to the human eye and impossible to capture with a regular video camera. The ultrahigh-speed CCD was specially constructed so that the CCD memory between the photodiode and the vertical transfer path of each pixel can store 144 frames each. For every one-frame shot, the electric charges generated from the photodiodes are transferred in one step to the memory of all the parallel pixels, making ultrahigh-speed shooting possible. Earlier, we experimentally manufactured a 1M-fps ultrahigh-speed camera and tested it for broadcasting applications. Through those tests, we learned that there are cases that require shooting speeds (frame rate) of more than 1M fps; hence we aimed to develop a new ultrahigh-speed camera that will enable much faster shooting speeds than what is currently possible. Since shooting at speeds of more than 200,000 fps results in decreased image quality and abrupt heating of the image sensor and drive circuit board, faster speeds cannot be achieved merely by increasing the drive frequency. We therefore had to improve the image sensor wiring layout and the driving method to develop a new 2M-fps, 300k-pixel ultrahigh-speed single-chip color camera for broadcasting purposes.

Yonai, J.; Arai, T.; Hayashida, T.; Ohtake, H.; Namiki, J.; Yoshida, T.; Etoh, T. Goji

2012-02-01

381

Megapixel imaging camera for expanded H{sup {minus}} beam measurements  

SciTech Connect

A charge coupled device (CCD) imaging camera system has been developed as part of the Ground Test Accelerator project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory to measure the properties of a large diameter, neutral particle beam. The camera is designed to operate in the accelerator vacuum system for extended periods of time. It would normally be cooled to reduce dark current. The CCD contains 1024 {times} 1024 pixels with pixel size of 19 {times} 19 {mu}m{sup 2} and with four phase parallel clocking and two phase serial clocking. The serial clock rate is 2.5{times}10{sup 5} pixels per second. Clock sequence and timing are controlled by an external logic-word generator. The DC bias voltages are likewise located externally. The camera contains circuitry to generate the analog clocks for the CCD and also contains the output video signal amplifier. Reset switching noise is removed by an external signal processor that employs delay elements to provide noise suppression by the method of double-correlated sampling. The video signal is digitized to 12 bits in an analog to digital converter (ADC) module controlled by a central processor module. Both modules are located in a VME-type computer crate that communicates via ethernet with a separate workstation where overall control is exercised and image processing occurs. Under cooled conditions the camera shows good linearity with dynamic range of 2000 and with dark noise fluctuations of about {plus_minus}1/2 ADC count. Full well capacity is about 5{times}10{sup 5} electron charges.

Simmons, J.E.; Lillberg, J.W.; McKee, R.J.; Slice, R.W.; Torrez, J.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); McCurnin, T.W.; Sanchez, P.G. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States). Los Alamos Operations

1994-02-01

382

Application of PLZT electro-optical shutter to diaphragm of visible and mid-infrared cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pb0.9La0.09(Zr0.65,Ti0.35)0.9775O3 9/65/35) commonly used as an electro-optical shutter exhibits large phase retardation with low applied voltage. This shutter features as follows; (1) high shutter speed, (2) wide optical transmittance, and (3) high optical density in 'OFF'-state. If the shutter is applied to a diaphragm of video-camera, it could protect its sensor from intense lights. We have tested the basic characteristics of the PLZT electro-optical shutter and resolved power of imaging. The ratio of optical transmittance at 'ON' and 'OFF'-states was 1.1 X 103. The response time of the PLZT shutter from 'ON'-state to 'OFF'-state was 10 micro second. MTF reduction when putting the PLZT shutter in from of the visible video- camera lens has been observed only with 12 percent at a spatial frequency of 38 cycles/mm which are sensor resolution of the video-camera. Moreover, we took the visible image of the Si-CCD video-camera. The He-Ne laser ghost image was observed at 'ON'-state. On the contrary, the ghost image was totally shut out at 'OFF'-state. From these teste, it has been found that the PLZT shutter is useful for the diaphragm of the visible video-camera. The measured optical transmittance of PLZT wafer with no antireflection coating was 78 percent over the range from 2 to 6 microns.

Fukuyama, Yoshiyuki; Nishioka, Shunji; Chonan, Takao; Sugii, Masakatsu; Shirahata, Hiromichi

1997-03-01

383

The DSLR Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cameras have developed significantly in the past decade; in particular, digital Single-Lens Reflex Cameras (DSLR) have appeared. As a consequence we can buy cameras of higher and higher pixel number, and mass production has resulted in the great reduction of prices. CMOS sensors used for imaging are increasingly sensitive, and the electronics in the cameras allows images to be taken with much less noise. The software background is developing in a similar way—intelligent programs are created for after-processing and other supplementary works. Nowadays we can find a digital camera in almost every household, most of these cameras are DSLR ones. These can be used very well for astronomical imaging, which is nicely demonstrated by the amount and quality of the spectacular astrophotos appearing in different publications. These examples also show how much post-processing software contributes to the rise in the standard of the pictures. To sum up, the DSLR camera serves as a cheap alternative for the CCD camera, with somewhat weaker technical characteristics. In the following, I will introduce how we can measure the main parameters (position angle and separation) of double stars, based on the methods, software and equipment I use. Others can easily apply these for their own circumstances.

Berkó, Ern?; Argyle, R. W.

384

CCD observations of saturnian satellites (Grosheva+, 2011)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All observations were carried out with 26-inch Zeiss refractor(D=650mm, F=10413mm, scale is 19.80"/mm) at Pulkovo (code is 084). CCD camera FLI Pro Line 09000 (3056x3056pix) was used. Scale per pixel is 0.24" and field observed with this camera is 12'x12'. Time of exposures is 1.5s. All presented positions are topocentric. Ephemerides for comparison are given by web-server "Natural Satellites Ephemeride Server MULTI-SAT" developed by N.V. Emelyanov (http://lnfm1.sai.msu.ru/neb/nss/nssephmr.htm). (3 data files).

Grosheva, E. A.; Izmailov, I. S.; Kiseleva, T. P.

2011-10-01

385

Wise Observatory System of Fast CCD Photometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a data acquisition and an online reduction system for fast (a few seconds integration time) photometry with the Wise Observatory CCD camera. The method is based on successively collecting frames, each one is a mere small fraction of the entire CCD array. If necessary, the observer is able to place the object star and the comparison star on one and the same row or column of the CCD chip by rotating the image plane, an option available with the Wise telescope. In so doing, the rectangular frame that has to be read out may have a small area of only some 30 columns or rows, even when the two stars are far away from each other. The readout time of the small frame is thus reduced to merely one or two seconds. Thus photometry with an integration time of 5 s and up becomes possible. The system is a network of 3 computers. One controls the telescope, second controls the camera whilst the third computer is used, during the exposure of each frame, for data reduction of the previous one in the observing sequence. The online photometry is performed using standard procedures of the IRAF CCD photometry package. It yields an instrumental magnitude of the object star relative to one or more reference stars that are present in the frame. The light curve of the object star is displayed with a delay of a single frame relative to the one currently under acquisition.

Leibowitz, E. M.; Ibbetson, P.; Ofek, E. O.

386

CCD Signal Processor Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a study of the application of charge coupled devices (CCD's) to radar signal processing systems. The particular radar problem considered was the detection of satellites at ranges of up to 25,000 NM. A CCD baseline desig...

L. W. Martinson B. P. Gaffney G. J. Mayer

1977-01-01

387

3D Video Recorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the 3D Video Recorder, a system capable of recording, processing, and playing three-dimensional video from multiple points of view. We first record 2D video streams from several synchronized digital video cameras and store pre-processed images to disk. An off-line process- ing stage converts these images into a time-varying three- dimensional hierarchical point-based data structure and stores this 3D

Stephan Würmlin; Edouard Lamboray; Oliver G. Staadt; Markus H. Gross

2002-01-01

388

Development of the X-ray CCD in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the progress of X-ray charge-coupled device (CCD) development and related issues in Japan. They are summarized into the following topics: (1) We demonstrated, for the first time, that a CCD could detect X-ray polarization, by studying the event profiles generated from individual X-ray photons. This is based on the fact that a photoelectron is preferentially injected in the direction of X-ray polarization. (2) Before developing a CCD with a thick depletion layer, we modified a CCD for optical use by removing the absorption layer. This made it possible to detect emission lines from Ge-L (53 eV) in detail. (3) A mesh experiment was introduced to measure the quantum efficiency (QE) in detail within a pixel. We could directly measure the thickness of the gates and their overlaps with each other. This experimentally revealed how the X-ray event grades were produced within a pixel. (4) As an application of the mesh experiment, we could also measure the shape of the charge cloud generated by an X-ray photon. Once we know the charge-cloud shape, we can precisely determine the point of interaction of the X-ray photon within a pixel. This makes the position resolution of the CCD much better than the pixel size. (5) So far, we have developed X-ray astronomy satellites, ASCA, ASTRO-E2 and MAXI, equipped with CCD cameras. CCD cameras on ASCA and ASTRO-E2 were developed through collaborative work with MIT. A future Japanese satellite, NeXT, will also be equipped with a CCD camera. We will design the CCD such that it can function simultaneously with a high-energy detector in order to cover a wide energy range.

Tsunemi, Hiroshi

2005-04-01

389

Camera for landing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the Enhanced Video System (EVS) camera, built by OPGAL as subcontractor of Kollsman Inc. The EVS contains a Head up Display built by Honeywell, a special design camera for landing applications, and the external window installed on the plane together with the electronic control box built by Kollsman. The special design camera for lending applications is the subject of this paper. The entire system was installed on a Gulfstream V plane and passed the FAA proof of concept during August and September 2000.

Grimberg, Ernest

2001-08-01

390

Structured light camera calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structured light camera which is being designed with the joined effort of Institute of Radioelectronics and Institute of Optoelectronics (both being large units of the Warsaw University of Technology within the Faculty of Electronics and Information Technology) combines various hardware and software contemporary technologies. In hardware it is integration of a high speed stripe projector and a stripe camera together with a standard high definition video camera. In software it is supported by sophisticated calibration techniques which enable development of advanced application such as real time 3D viewer of moving objects with the free viewpoint or 3D modeller for still objects.

Garbat, P.; Skarbek, W.; Tomaszewski, M.

2013-03-01

391

Video flowmeter  

DOEpatents

A video flowmeter is described that is capable of specifying flow nature and pattern and, at the same time, the quantitative value of the rate of volumetric flow. An image of a determinable volumetric region within a fluid containing entrained particles is formed and positioned by a rod optic lens assembly on the raster area of a low-light level television camera. The particles are illuminated by light transmitted through a bundle of glass fibers surrounding the rod optic lens assembly. Only particle images having speeds on the raster area below the raster line scanning speed may be used to form a video picture which is displayed on a video screen. The flowmeter is calibrated so that the locus of positions of origin of the video picture gives a determination of the volumetric flow rate of the fluid.

Lord, D.E.; Carter, G.W.; Petrini, R.R.

1981-06-10

392

Video flowmeter  

DOEpatents

A video flowmeter is described that is capable of specifying flow nature and pattern and, at the same time, the quantitative value of the rate of volumetric flow. An image of a determinable volumetric region within a fluid containing entrained particles is formed and positioned by a rod optic lens assembly on the raster area of a low-light level television camera. The particles are illuminated by light transmitted through a bundle of glass fibers surrounding the rod optic lens assembly. Only particle images having speeds on the raster area below the raster line scanning speed may be used to form a video picture which is displayed on a video screen. The flowmeter is calibrated so that the locus of positions of origin of the video picture gives a determination of the volumetric flow rate of the fluid. 4 figs.

Lord, D.E.; Carter, G.W.; Petrini, R.R.

1983-08-02

393

Video flowmeter  

DOEpatents

A video flowmeter is described that is capable of specifying flow nature and pattern and, at the same time, the quantitative value of the rate of volumetric flow. An image of a determinable volumetric region within a fluid (10) containing entrained particles (12) is formed and positioned by a rod optic lens assembly (31) on the raster area of a low-light level television camera (20). The particles (12) are illuminated by light transmitted through a bundle of glass fibers (32) surrounding the rod optic lens assembly (31). Only particle images having speeds on the raster area below the raster line scanning speed may be used to form a video picture which is displayed on a video screen (40). The flowmeter is calibrated so that the locus of positions of origin of the video picture gives a determination of the volumetric flow rate of the fluid (10).

Lord, David E. (Livermore, CA); Carter, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); Petrini, Richard R. (Livermore, CA)

1983-01-01

394

Video-based beam position monitoring at CHESS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CHESS has pioneered the development of X-ray Video Beam Position Monitors (VBPMs). Unlike traditional photoelectron beam position monitors that rely on photoelectrons generated by the fringe edges of the X-ray beam, with VBPMs we collect information from the whole cross-section of the X-ray beam. VBPMs can also give real-time shape/size information. We have developed three types of VBPMs: (1) VBPMs based on helium luminescence from the intense white X-ray beam. In this case the CCD camera is viewing the luminescence from the side. (2) VBPMs based on luminescence of a thin (~50 micron) CVD diamond sheet as the white beam passes through it. The CCD camera is placed outside the beam line vacuum and views the diamond fluorescence through a viewport. (3) Scatter-based VBPMs. In this case the white X-ray beam passes through a thin graphite filter or Be window. The scattered X-rays create an image of the beam's footprint on an X-ray sensitive fluorescent screen using a slit placed outside the beam line vacuum. For all VBPMs we use relatively inexpensive 1.3 Mega-pixel CCD cameras connected via USB to a Windows host for image acquisition and analysis. The VBPM host computers are networked and provide live images of the beam and streams of data about the beam position, profile and intensity to CHESS's signal logging system and to the CHESS operator. The operational use of VBPMs showed great advantage over the traditional BPMs by providing direct visual input for the CHESS operator. The VBPM precision in most cases is on the order of ~0.1 micron. On the down side, the data acquisition frequency (50-1000ms) is inferior to the photoelectron based BPMs. In the future with the use of more expensive fast cameras we will be able create VBPMs working in the few hundreds Hz scale.

Revesz, Peter; Pauling, Alan; Krawczyk, Thomas; Kelly, Kevin J.

2012-10-01

395

Evaluation of stereoscopic video cameras synchronized with the movement of an operator's head on the teleoperation of the actual backhoe shovel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operator performance while using a remote controlled backhoe shovel is described for three different stereoscopic viewing conditions: direct view, fixed stereoscopic cameras connected to a helmet mounted display (HMD), and rotating stereo camera connected and slaved to the head orientation of a free moving stereo HMD. Results showed that the head- slaved system provided the best performance.

Minamoto, Masahiko; Matsunaga, Katsuya

1999-05-01

396

Make a Pinhole Camera  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|On Earth, using ordinary visible light, one can create a single image of light recorded over time. Of course a movie or video is light recorded over time, but it is a series of instantaneous snapshots, rather than light and time both recorded on the same medium. A pinhole camera, which is simple to make out of ordinary materials and using…

Fisher, Diane K.; Novati, Alexander

2009-01-01

397

BLAST autonomous daytime star cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed two redundant daytime star cameras to provide the fine pointing solution for the balloon-borne submillimeter telescope, BLAST. The cameras are capable of providing a reconstructed pointing solution with an absolute accuracy < 5". They are sensitive to stars down to magnitudes ~ 9 in daytime float conditions. Each camera combines a 1 megapixel CCD with a 200mm f/2 lens to image a 2° × 2.5° field of the sky. The instruments are autonomous. An internal computer controls the temperature, adjusts the focus, and determines a real-time pointing solution at 1 Hz. The mechanical details and flight performance of these instruments are presented.

Rex, Marie; Chapin, Edward; Devlin, Mark J.; Gundersen, Joshua; Klein, Jeff; Pascale, Enzo; Wiebe, Donald

2006-07-01

398

Electronic still camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A handheld, programmable, digital camera is disclosed that supports a variety of sensors and has program control over the system components to provide versatility. The camera uses a high performance design which produces near film quality images from an electronic system. The optical system of the camera incorporates a conventional camera body that was slightly modified, thus permitting the use of conventional camera accessories, such as telephoto lenses, wide-angle lenses, auto-focusing circuitry, auto-exposure circuitry, flash units, and the like. An image sensor, such as a charge coupled device ('CCD') collects the photons that pass through the camera aperture when the shutter is opened, and produces an analog electrical signal indicative of the image. The analog image signal is read out of the CCD and is processed by preamplifier circuitry, a correlated double sampler, and a sample and hold circuit before it is converted to a digital signal. The analog-to-digital converter has an accuracy of eight bits to insure accuracy during the conversion. Two types of data ports are included for two different data transfer needs. One data port comprises a general purpose industrial standard port and the other a high speed/high performance application specific port. The system uses removable hard disks as its permanent storage media. The hard disk receives the digital image signal from the memory buffer and correlates the image signal with other sensed parameters, such as longitudinal or other information. When the storage capacity of the hard disk has been filled, the disk can be replaced with a new disk.

Holland, S. Douglas

1992-09-01

399

Using a digital camera to study motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital camera can easily be used to make a video record of a range of motions and interactions of objects - shm, free-fall and collisions, both elastic and inelastic. The video record allows measurements of displacement and time, and hence calculation of velocities, and practice with the standard formulas for motions and collisions. The camera extends the range of

Andrew J. McNeil; Steven Daniel

400

The future scientific CCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the first introduction of charge-coupled devices (CCDs) in 1970, CCDs have been considered for applications related to memories, logic circuits, and the detection of visible radiation. It is pointed out, however, that the mass market orientation of CCD development has left largely untapped the enormous potential of these devices for advanced scientific instrumentation. The present paper has, therefore, the objective to introduce the CCD characteristics to the scientific community, taking into account prospects for further improvement. Attention is given to evaluation criteria, a summary of current CCDs, CCD performance characteristics, absolute calibration tools, quantum efficiency, aspects of charge collection, charge transfer efficiency, read noise, and predictions regarding the characteristics of the next generation of silicon scientific CCD imagers.

Janesick, J. R.; Elliott, T.; Collins, S.; Marsh, H.; Blouke, M. M.

1984-01-01

401

Fluorescence endoscopic video system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a fluorescence endoscopic video system intended for the diagnosis of diseases of the internal organs. The system operates on the basis of two-channel recording of the video fluxes from a fluorescence channel and a reflected-light channel by means of a high-sensitivity monochrome television camera and a color camera, respectively. Examples are given of the application of the device in gastroenterology.

Papayan, G. V.; Kang, Uk

2006-10-01

402

World's fastest and most sensitive astronomical camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of instruments for ground-based telescopes took a leap forward with the development of a new ultra-fast camera that can take 1500 finely exposed images per second even when observing extremely faint objects. The first 240x240 pixel images with the world's fastest high precision faint light camera were obtained through a collaborative effort between ESO and three French laboratories from the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (CNRS/INSU). Cameras such as this are key components of the next generation of adaptive optics instruments of Europe's ground-based astronomy flagship facility, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). ESO PR Photo 22a/09 The CCD220 detector ESO PR Photo 22b/09 The OCam camera ESO PR Video 22a/09 OCam images "The performance of this breakthrough camera is without an equivalent anywhere in the world. The camera will enable great leaps forward in many areas of the study of the Universe," says Norbert Hubin, head of the Adaptive Optics department at ESO. OCam will be part of the second-generation VLT instrument SPHERE. To be installed in 2011, SPHERE will take images of giant exoplanets orbiting nearby stars. A fast camera such as this is needed as an essential component for the modern adaptive optics instruments used on the largest ground-based telescopes. Telescopes on the ground suffer from the blurring effect induced by atmospheric turbulence. This turbulence causes the stars to twinkle in a way that delights poets, but frustrates astronomers, since it blurs the finest details of the images. Adaptive optics techniques overcome this major drawback, so that ground-based telescopes can produce images that are as sharp as if taken from space. Adaptive optics is based on real-time corrections computed from images obtained by a special camera working at very high speeds. Nowadays, this means many hundreds of times each second. The new generation instruments require these corrections to be done at an even higher rate, more than one thousand times a second, and this is where OCam is essential. "The quality of the adaptive optics correction strongly depends on the speed of the camera and on its sensitivity," says Philippe Feautrier from the LAOG, France, who coordinated the whole project. "But these are a priori contradictory requirements, as in general the faster a camera is, the less sensitive it is." This is why cameras normally used for very high frame-rate movies require extremely powerful illumination, which is of course not an option for astronomical cameras. OCam and its CCD220 detector, developed by the British manufacturer e2v technologies, solve this dilemma, by being not only the fastest available, but also very sensitive, making a significant jump in performance for such cameras. Because of imperfect operation of any physical electronic devices, a CCD camera suffers from so-called readout noise. OCam has a readout noise ten times smaller than the detectors currently used on the VLT, making it much more sensitive and able to take pictures of the faintest of sources. "Thanks to this technology, all the new generation instruments of ESO's Very Large Telescope will be able to produce the best possible images, with an unequalled sharpness," declares Jean-Luc Gach, from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, who led the team that built the camera. "Plans are now underway to develop the adaptive optics detectors required for ESO's planned 42-metre European Extremely Large Telescope, together with our research partners and the industry," says Hubin. Using sensitive detectors developed in the UK, with a control system developed in France, with German and Spanish participation, OCam is truly an outcome of a European collaboration that will be widely used and commercially produced. More information The three French laboratories involved are the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM/INSU/CNRS, Université de Provence; Observatoire Astronomique de Marseille Prov

2009-06-01

403

Design of a CCD controller optimized for mosaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A controller for operating Thomson-CSF CCDs in a 2 x N mosaic is described. It is designed around a monolithic Digital Signal Processor, a bank of digital-to-analog converters for clock generation, a simple video processor, and a fiber-optic serial data link communicating with an instrument control computer. The controller is compact, low power, low cost, fast, and easily programmable to generate waveforms of arbitrary timing whose voltages are also software controlled. Up to 16 CCDs can be efficiently controlled, and each CCD has its own set of clock drivers and a video processor, allowing customization of the readout of each CCD device.

Leach, Robert W.

1988-10-01

404

Astronomical complex Rozhen - A multifunctional video system for the second Bulgarian-Soviet space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The astrophysical complex Rozhen installed on board the Mir station is described, and the results of observations carried out during the second Soviet-Bulgarian flight in June 1988 and in June 1989 are briefly reviewed. The Rozhen complex comprises an intelligent CCD camera for astronomical observations and a data handling and storage computer for image processing. In less than one year, 464 observations were made and more than 18 telemetric seances were taken with the astrophysical complex, yielding more than 94 MB of video information.

Filipov, L.; Petrov, P.; Lukarski, Kh.; Gr'ncharov, P.; Arshinkova, I.

1989-10-01

405

Panorama video server system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A panorama video server system has been developed. This system produces a continuous panoramic view of the entire surrounding area in real time and allows multiple users to select and view visual fields independently. A significant feature of the system is that each user can select the visual field he or she wants to see at the same time. This new system is composed of video cameras, video signal conversion units, video busses, and visual field selection units. It can be equipped with up to 24 video cameras. The most appropriate camera arrangement can be decided by considering both the objects to be taken and the viewing angle of the cameras. The visual field selection unit picks up the required image data from video busses, on which all of the video data is provided. The number of users who can access simultaneously depends only on the number of visual field selection units. To smoothly connect two images captured by different cameras, a luminance-compensating function and a geometry-compensating function are included. This system has many interesting applications, such as in the distribution of beautiful scenery, sports, and monitoring.

Okimura, Takayuki; Kimura, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Kenji; Nakajima, Hideki

1998-04-01

406

Design and realization of traffic information collection and detection system based on linear CCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new traffic information collection and detection system based on linear CCD is designed and realized. The system extracts traffic parameters such as license plates, vehicle existing, vehicle speed, vehicle type, traffic occupancy, flow rate and so on, using linear images of vehicles passing the detection section collected by linear scan CCD camera. And it can transmit required data to

Na Lia; Min Shib; Wujun Yangc

2011-01-01

407

A satellite-use aimed CCD Panchromatic and Multispectral Remote Sensing System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of the CCD Panchromatic and Multispectral Remote Sensing System (CPMRS) was a part of the preliminary research work for the program of the Operational Earth Resource Satellite of China (COERS). This paper presents the performance, the basic configuration and design of CPMRS, which includes a CCD panchromatic and multispectral camera, a 36Mb\\/s data transmission subsystem as well as

Shiping Chen; Kexiang Lin; Mingyuan Wang; Zongwei Zhu

1990-01-01

408

Automatic processing method for astronomical CCD images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since several hundreds of CCD images are obtained with the CCD camera in the Lower Latitude Meridian Circle (LLMC) every observational night, it is essential to adopt an automatic processing method to find the initial position of each object in these images, to center the object detected and to calculate its magnitude. In this paper several existing automatic search algorithms searching for objects in astronomical CCD images are reviewed. Our automatic searching algorithm is described, which include 5 steps: background calculating, filtering, object detecting and identifying, and defect eliminating. Then several existing two-dimensional centering algorithms are also reviewed, and our modified two-dimensional moment algorithm and an empirical formula for the centering threshold are presented. An algorithm for determining the magnitudes of objects is also presented in the paper. All these algorithms are programmed with VC++ programming language. In the last our method is tested with CCD images from the 1m RCC telescope in Yunnan Observatory, and some primary results are also given.

Li, Binhua; Yang, Lei; Mao, Wei

2002-12-01

409

Comparison of modern CCD and CMOS image sensor technologies and systems for low resolution imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

CMOS image sensors were introduced to the market in 1995 and in the past three years have taken significant market share from CCD sensors in the low-end digital camera markets (e.g., web cams). CMOS sensors boast low power dissipation, single supply operation and camera-on-a-chip integration, and CCD sensors boast high sensitivity and low noise. The sensors are based on inherently

Bradley S. Carlson

2002-01-01

410

Evaluation method and result of 4K×4K CCD sensor for LAMOST project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) is a 4 meter Schmidt system developing in China, with the aim of probing into the structure of the universe. It needs 32 high performance CCD cameras working in the spectral range of 370-900 nm. 4 K times 4 K CCD203_82 chip made by e2v technology is selected for the camera in

Yuanyuan Shang; Yong Guan; Weigong Zhang; Qingping Ge

2008-01-01

411

Graph modeling based video event detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video processing and analysis have been an interesting field in research and industry. Information detection or retrieval were a challenged task especially with the spread of multimedia applications and the increased number of the video acquisition devices such as the surveillance cameras, phones cameras. These have produced a large amount of video data which are also diversified and complex. This

Najib Ben Aoun; Haytham Elghazel; Chokri Ben Amar

2011-01-01

412

Challenges in multiview video — The 3 D'S  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the purpose of this paper we group, under the generic term multiview video, different systems for which multiple standard video cameras and, possibly, additional depth-capturing cameras, are used. Video is then presented to the user using special glasses or displays. Research work in this area has focused on topics ranging from designing compression techniques to developing new 3D displays.

A. Ortega

2010-01-01

413

Spatial Browsing for Video Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-series description data concerning a camera are expected to be automatically generated by various sensors in the near\\u000a future, such as a camera’s time-series positions, directions and zoom ratios so as to provide a rich environment for retrieving\\u000a and browsing video data spatially. We also have used real-time 3D CG (three dimensional computer graphics) for interfaces\\u000a to browse videos in

Masatoshi Arikawa; Tetsu Kamiyama

1998-01-01

414

VIDEO ENHANCEMENT AND RESTORATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Even with the advancing camera and digital recording technology, there are many situations in which recorded image sequences - or video for short -may suffer from severe degradations. The poor quality of recorded image sequences may be due to, for instance, the imperfect or uncontrollable recording conditions such as one encounters in astronomy, forensic sciences, and medical imaging. Video enhancement

Reginald L. Lagendijk; Jan Biemond; Andrei Rares; Marcel J. T. Reinders

1999-01-01

415

Depth Adaptive Video Stitching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel approach to stitch videos fast and with high quality. In general, scene depth is frequently varying for dynamic video content. For example, moving foreground objects will move closely or far from a camera. The scene depth will be changing according to changed scene content. Therefore, accurate projection transform estimation corresponding to current scene depth is

Wei Zeng; Hongming Zhang

2009-01-01

416

The Video Differential Planimeter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The video differential planimeter is an instrument which measures variations in the projected area of any remote object with the aid of a flying spot scanner or television camera system. The composite video signal, caused by the scanning of the object and its contrasting background, is shaped to yield a sequence of constant amplitude rectangular pulses that are negative going

Michael Tobin

1959-01-01

417

Experiments with a novel CCD stellar polarimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments and observations have been undertaken with ``bread-board'' equipment to explore the potential of a ``ring'' stellar polarimeter with a CCD camera, rather than photographic plates used in Treanor's (\\cite{treanor}) original instrument. By spreading the polarimetric signal over a large number of pixels on the detector, design prediction suggests that the polarimetric accuracy could be { ~ }Delta p+/-0.00001 or +/- 0.001% per frame or even better. Although the photon accumulations suggest that this was achieved, instabilities in the employed crude modulator system provided frame to frame measurements with a greater than expected scatter. Software was developed to reduce the data in a simple way. With a design using more professional components and perhaps with more sophisticated reduction procedures, the full potential of the method should be achievable with the prospect of high precision polarimetry of the brighter stars. As an experimental bonus, the employed CCD chip was found to be free from any measurable polarizational sensitivity.

Clarke, D.; Neumayer, D.

2002-01-01

418

Study of CCD eyepiece on T-4 theodolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document describes the effort of the University of Maryland to develop a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) Camera System, with the necessary support hardware and analysis software, to act as an impersonal electronic eyepiece on the T-4 theodolite for astronomical longitude and latitude determinations. This report will describe the concept, the implementation, and the current status of this project. Analysis

D. G. Currie

1982-01-01

419

What is the difference between image intensifier and CCD meteor observations? II. Comparison of the results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image intensifiers can register dim light and therefore also the higher part of meteor paths compared to a CCD. Minor but long term meteor activity that produces occasionally bright meteors can be monitored with CCD equipment. Image intensifier observations are affected by the sporadic background of mainly faint meteors that cannot be detected by CCD devices. It is very natural that meteor showers detected by two different video techniques will dependent on the properties of the observing devices.

Koseki, Masahiro; Ueda, Masayoshi; Shigeno, Yoshihiko

2010-08-01

420

Design of Rail Surface Crack-detecting System Based on Linear CCD Sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rail surface crack-detecting system was designed for reducing railway accident due to rail crack. The system adopts linear charge coupled device (CCD) TCD1208AP as image sensor, uses high-speed flash A\\/D converter AD7821 to collect CCD output video signals, and uses CPLD perform CCD timing generator, A\\/D converter timing generator, data storage and other control logic. Then DSP executes the

Qiao Jian-hua; Li Lin-sheng; Zhang Jing-gang

2008-01-01

421

A CCD processing system design implemented by an embedded DSP in the OPM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A CCD signal acquisition system featuring a flexible and compact (Charged-Coupled Device) CCD driving mode based on a DSP device is designed for a new developed optical performance monitor (OPM) module. The design has prominent advantages, such as less power consumption, fewer and cheaper attached components and flexibility. The DSP-based system aims to implement the high accuracy conversion from successive video output signals of a CCD device to DSP Processor with least additional circuit components.

Peng, Dingmin; Yu, Jiekui; Cheng, Xiaohu; Hu, Qianggao

2004-05-01

422

CCD high-speed videography system with new concepts and techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel CCD high speed videography system with brand-new concepts and techniques is developed by Zhejiang University recently. The system can send a series of short flash pulses to the moving object. All of the parameters, such as flash numbers, flash durations, flash intervals, flash intensities and flash colors, can be controlled according to needs by the computer. A series of moving object images frozen by flash pulses, carried information of moving object, are recorded by a CCD video camera, and result images are sent to a computer to be frozen, recognized and processed with special hardware and software. Obtained parameters can be displayed, output as remote controlling signals or written into CD. The highest videography frequency is 30,000 images per second. The shortest image freezing time is several microseconds. The system has been applied to wide fields of energy, chemistry, medicine, biological engineering, aero- dynamics, explosion, multi-phase flow, mechanics, vibration, athletic training, weapon development and national defense engineering. It can also be used in production streamline to carry out the online, real-time monitoring and controlling.

Zheng, Zengrong; Zhao, Wenyi; Wu, Zhiqiang

1997-05-01

423

Nonparametric motion characterization for robust classification of camera motion patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motion characterization plays a critical role in video indexing. An effective way of characterizing camera motion facilitates the video representation, indexing and retrieval tasks. This paper describes a novel nonparametric motion representation to achieve an effective and robust recognition of parts of the video in which camera is static, or panning, or tilting, or zooming, etc. This representation employs the

Ling-yu Duan; Jesse S. Jin; Qi Tian; Chang-Sheng Xu

2006-01-01

424

Guerrilla Video: A New Protocol for Producing Classroom Video  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary changes in pedagogy point to the need for a higher level of video production value in most classroom video, replacing the default video protocol of an unattended camera in the back of the classroom. The rich and complex environment of today's classroom can be captured more fully using the higher level, but still easily manageable,…

Fadde, Peter; Rich, Peter

2010-01-01

425

High-performance CCD on high-resistivity silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present new results from the characterization of a fully depleted CCD on high resistivity silicon. The CCD was fabricated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory on a 10-12 K(Omega) -cm n-type silicon substrate. The CCD is a 200 by 200 15-micrometers square pixel array. The high resistivity of the starting material makes it possible to deplete the entire 300 micrometers thick substrate. This results in improved red and near IR response compared to a standard CCD. Because the substrate is fully depleted, thinning of the CCD is not required for backside illumination, and the result presented here were obtained with a backside illuminated device. In this paper we present measured quantum efficiency as a function of temperature, and we describe a novel clocking scheme to measure serial charge transfer efficiency. We demonstrate an industrial application in which the CCD is more than an order of magnitude more sensitive than a commercial camera using a standard CCD.

Stover, Richard J.; Wei, Mingzhi; Lee, Y.; Gilmore, David K.; Holland, S. E.; Groom, D. E.; Moses, William W.; Perlmutter, Saul; Goldhaber, G.; Pennypacker, C.; Wang, N. W.; Palaio, N.

1998-08-01

426

NSTX Tangential Divertor Camera  

SciTech Connect

Strong magnetic field shear around the divertor x-point is numerically predicted to lead to strong spatial asymmetries in turbulence driven particle fluxes. To visualize the turbulence and associated impurity line emission near the lower x-point region, a new tangential observation port has been recently installed on NSTX. A reentrant sapphire window with a moveable in-vessel mirror images the divertor region from the center stack out to R 80 cm and views the x-point for most plasma configurations. A coherent fiber optic bundle transmits the image through a remotely selected filter to a fast camera, for example a 40500 frames/sec Photron CCD camera. A gas puffer located in the lower inboard divertor will localize the turbulence in the region near the x-point. Edge fluid and turbulent codes UEDGE and BOUT will be used to interpret impurity and deuterium emission fluctuation measurements in the divertor.

A.L. Roquemore; Ted Biewer; D. Johnson; S.J. Zweben; Nobuhiro Nishino; V.A. Soukhanovskii

2004-07-16

427

Photoelectric and CCD observations of 10 asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A program of physical studies of asteroids has been carried out using two types of detectors: photoelectric photometer and CCD camera. In this paper we report the results of photometric observations of 10 asteroids. We have obtained a total of 35 single night lightcurves and we have determined rotational periods for the asteroids 1520 Imatra (P = 5.23 h), 1534 Nasi (P = 9.75 h), 2078 Nanking (P = 6.473 h), 2241 Alcathous (P = 9.41 h), 3103 1982 BB (P = 5.709 h), 3139 Shantou (P = 8.33 h), 3259 Brownlee (P = 9.24 h), 4455 Ruriko (P = 4.23 h).

de Sanctis, M. C.; Barucci, M. A.; Angeli, C. A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Burchi, R.; Angelini, P.

1994-10-01

428

Event detection based on non-broadcast sports video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most recent research work on sports video analysis focuses on broadcast video. The broadcast video is a post-produced video and has much additional editing information inserted. In this paper, we propose a novel event detection framework in sports game only based on the video taken by single (main) camera. Compared with event detection from broadcast video, the proposed framework is

Jinjun Wang; Changslieng Xu; Chng Eng Siong; Xinguo Yu; Qi Tian

2004-01-01

429

Optical scanning system for a CCD telecine for HDTV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motion picture film, as a major source of program material for television, is transferred to the video domain using a telecine. A high performance CCD telecine, operating at real time frame rates, has been developed for high definition television. The optical system for this telecine utilizes a feedback stabilized xenon arc lamp, pre-gate optical and spectral signal balancing, a diffuse

Andrew F. Kurtz; David Kessler

1991-01-01

430

LSST camera readout chip ASPIC: test tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LSST camera will have more than 3000 video-processing channels. The readout of this large focal plane requires a very compact readout chain. The correlated ''Double Sampling technique'', which is generally used for the signal readout of CCDs, is also adopted for this application and implemented with the so called ''Dual Slope integrator'' method. We have designed and implemented an ASIC for LSST: the Analog Signal Processing asIC (ASPIC). The goal is to amplify the signal close to the output, in order to maximize signal to noise ratio, and to send differential outputs to the digitization. Others requirements are that each chip should process the output of half a CCD, that is 8 channels and should operate at 173 K. A specific Back End board has been designed especially for lab test purposes. It manages the clock signals, digitizes the analog differentials outputs of ASPIC and stores data into a memory. It contains 8 ADCs (18 bits), 512 kwords memory and an USB interface. An FPGA manages all signals from/to all components on board and generates the timing sequence for ASPIC. Its firmware is written in Verilog and VHDL languages. Internals registers permit to define various tests parameters of the ASPIC. A Labview GUI allows to load or update these registers and to check a proper operation. Several series of tests, including linearity, noise and crosstalk, have been performed over the past year to characterize the ASPIC at room and cold temperature. At present, the ASPIC, Back-End board and CCD detectors are being integrated to perform a characterization of the whole readout chain.

Antilogus, P.; Bailly, Ph; Jeglot, J.; Juramy, C.; Lebbolo, H.; Martin, D.; Moniez, M.; Tocut, V.; Wicek, F.

2012-02-01

431

Optimization of precision localization microscopy using CMOS camera technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light microscopy imaging is being transformed by the application of computational methods that permit the detection of spatial features below the optical diffraction limit. Successful localization microscopy (STORM, dSTORM, PALM, PhILM, etc.) relies on the precise position detection of fluorescence emitted by single molecules using highly sensitive cameras with rapid acquisition speeds. Electron multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) cameras are the current standard detector for these applications. Here, we challenge the notion that EM-CCD cameras are the best choice for precision localization microscopy and demonstrate, through simulated and experimental data, that certain CMOS detector technology achieves better localization precision of single molecule fluorophores. It is well-established that localization precision is limited by system noise. Our findings show that the two overlooked noise sources relevant for precision localization microscopy are the shot noise of the background light in the sample and the excess noise from electron multiplication in EM-CCD cameras. At low light conditions (< 200 photons/fluorophore) with no optical background, EM-CCD cameras are the preferred detector. However, in practical applications, optical background noise is significant, creating conditions where CMOS performs better than EM-CCD. Furthermore, the excess noise of EM-CCD is equivalent to reducing the information content of each photon detected which, in localization microscopy, reduces the precision of the localization. Thus, new CMOS technology with 100fps, <1.3 e- read noise and high QE is the best detector choice for super resolution precision localization microscopy.

Fullerton, Stephanie; Bennett, Keith; Toda, Eiji; Takahashi, Teruo

2012-02-01

432

CCD and CMOS sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The charge-coupled device (CCD) has been developed primarily as a compact image sensor for consumer and industrial markets, but is now also the preeminent visible and ultraviolet wavelength image sensor in many fields of scientific research including space-science and both Earth and planetary remote sensing. Today\\

Nick Waltham

2010-01-01

433

Self Loading Ccd Based Filter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A self loading filter (SLF) which incorporates CCD analog and digital circuitry on a single chip was developed to provide microprocessors with analog signal processing using CCDs together with flexible digital control. The CCD is designed to operate at up...

W. Donaldson R. Thomson

1982-01-01

434

A CCD on the 30-inch Keeler Telescope at Allegheny Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1989 the 30-inch Keeler Telescope at Allegheny Observatory (AO) was upgraded with new optics. We are now integrating a CCD camera on the telescope with the aim of developing a system that can be used for undergraduate and graduate student education as well as certain types of research programs. However, the location of AO near downtown Pittsburgh presents a challenge in terms of dealing with city lights and local interference. The camera uses an 800x800 TI CCD chip with associated electronics as described by Gunn et al. (1987, PASP, 99, 518). FHH Harris Engineering integrated the various components into the CCD camera system. In this contribution the progress made to date on the system will be discussed along with modifications that have been made. Preliminary results on the CCD noise characteristics and flat fields, photometric calibration, and seeing with the Keeler Telescope will also be presented.

Lauzier, E. R.; Briggs, F. H.; Espey, B. R.; Persinger, W. T.; Turnshek, D. A.

1993-12-01

435

CCD Correlated Quadruple Sampling Processor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A correlated quadruple sampling processor for improved signal-to-noise ratio in the output of a charge-coupled device (CCD) is comprised of: (1) switching means for momentarily clamping a CCD signal line at a first reference level A before a CCD data puls...

S. D. Gaalema

1979-01-01

436

INT prime focus mosaic camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The INT Prime Focus Mosaic Camera (INT PFC) is designed to provide a large field survey and supernovae search capability for the prime focus of the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT). It is a joint collaboration between the Royal Greenwich Observatory (UK), Kapteyn Sterrenwacht Werkgroep (Netherlands), and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (USA). The INT PFC consists of a 4 chip mosaic utilizing thinned and anti-reflection coated CCDs. These are LORAL devices of the LICK3 design. They will be operated cryogenically in a purpose built camera assembly. A fifth CCD, of the same type, is co-mounted with the science array in the cryostat to provide autoguider functions. This cryostat then mounts to the main camera assembly at the prime focus. This assembly will include standard filters and a novel shutter wheel which has been specifically designed for this application. The camera will have an unvignetted field of 40 arcminutes and a focal ratio of f/3.3. This results in a very tight mechanical specification for co-planarity and flatness of the array of CCDs and also quite stringent flexure tolerance of the camera assembly. A method of characterizing the co- planarity and flatness of the array will be described. The overall system architecture will also be described. One of the main requirements is to read the whole array out within 100s, with less than 10e rms. noise and very low CCD cross talk.

Ives, Derek J.; Tulloch, Simon; Churchill, John

1996-03-01

437

PAU camera: detectors characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The PAU Camera (PAUCam) [1,2] is a wide field camera that will be mounted at the corrected prime focus of the William Herschel Telescope (Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain) in the next months. The focal plane of PAUCam is composed by a mosaic of 18 CCD detectors of 2,048 x 4,176 pixels each one with a pixel size of 15 microns, manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. This mosaic covers a field of view (FoV) of 60 arcmin (minutes of arc), 40 of them are unvignetted. The behaviour of these 18 devices, plus four spares, and their electronic response should be characterized and optimized for the use in PAUCam. This job is being carried out in the laboratories of the ICE/IFAE and the CIEMAT. The electronic optimization of the CCD detectors is being carried out by means of an OG (Output Gate) scan and maximizing it CTE (Charge Transfer Efficiency) while the read-out noise is minimized. The device characterization itself is obtained with different tests. The photon transfer curve (PTC) that allows to obtain the electronic gain, the linearity vs. light stimulus, the full-well capacity and the cosmetic defects. The read-out noise, the dark current, the stability vs. temperature and the light remanence.

Casas, Ricard; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; Jiménez, Jorge; Maiorino, Marino; Pío, Cristóbal; Sevilla, Ignacio; de Vicente, Juan

2012-07-01

438

Linear CCD (Charge-Coupled Device) with Enhanced X-Ray Quantum Efficiency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have built a linear CCD with enhanced quantum efficiency to x-rays. The primary objective is to replace an existing scanning pinhole camera used to evaluate x-rays optics that we are developing. The scanning pinhole camera can take up to 3 hours to acq...

E. Ables R. Bionta

1988-01-01

439

CCD-based POSTNET bar-code reader  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A CCD based barcode reader has been developed to read the POSTNET barcode with a bar/space width as small as 13 mils. This barcode is currently being used by the united States Post Office. The system can decode barcodes up to a conveyor speed of 250 ft/min for bars travelling parallel to the CCD sensor array. The system consisting of a camera and a logic unit was designed to incorporate various lengths of linear CCD sensor arrays manufactured by EG&G Corporation. The length of the sensor is dependent upon the required field of view. The camera unit processes the analog signal from the CCD sensor and converts it into a binary signal, which is then transmitted to the logic unit. The logic unit uses a Texas Instrument TMS320C30 processor and does the actual signal processing and decoding of the POSTNET code. This paper describes the hardware and the software developed for this system using a 512 element CCD sensor.

Patel, Mehul; Shreesha, Vasanth; Hecht, Kurt; Cox, Jim; Schultz, John

1995-12-01

440

Practical performance evaluation of a 10k x 10k CCD for electron cryo-microscopy  

PubMed Central

Electron cryo-microscopy (cryo-EM) images are commonly collected using either charge-coupled devices (CCD) or photographic film. Both film and the current generation of 16 megapixel (4k × 4k) CCD cameras have yielded high-resolution structures. Yet, despite the many advantages of CCD cameras, more than two times as many structures of biological macromolecules have been published in recent years using photographic film. The continued preference to film, especially for subnanometer-resolution structures, may be partially influenced by the finer sampling and larger effective specimen imaging area offered by film. Large format digital cameras may finally allow them to overtake film as the preferred detector for cryo-EM. We have evaluated a 111-megapixel (10k × 10k) CCD camera with a 9 ?m pixel size. The spectral signal-to-noise ratios of low dose images of carbon film indicate that this detector is capable of providing signal up to at least 2/5 Nyquist frequency potentially retrievable for 3-D reconstructions of biological specimens, resulting in more than double the effective specimen imaging area of existing 4k × 4k CCD cameras. We verified our estimates using frozen-hydrated ?15 bacteriophage as a biological test specimen with previously determined structure, yielding a ~7 Å resolution single particle reconstruction from only 80 CCD frames. Finally, we explored the limits of current CCD technology by comparing the performance of this detector to various CCD cameras used for recording data yielding subnanometer resolution cryo-EM structures submitted to the Electron Microscopy Data Bank (http://www.emdatabank.org/).

Bammes, Benjamin E.; Rochat, Ryan H.; Jakana, Joanita; Chiu, Wah

2011-01-01

441

The high resolution video capture system on the alcator C-Mod tokamak  

SciTech Connect

A new system for routine digitization of video images is presently operating on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The PC-based system features high resolution video capture, storage, and retrieval. The captured images are stored temporarily on the PC, but are eventually written to CD. Video is captured from one of five filtered RS-170 CCD cameras at 30 frames per second (fps) with 640{times}480 pixel resolution. In addition, the system can digitize the output from a filtered Kodak Ektapro EM Digital Camera which captures images at 1000 fps with 239{times}192 resolution. Present views of this set of cameras include a wide angle and a tangential view of the plasma, two high resolution views of gas puff capillaries embedded in the plasma facing components, and a view of ablating, high speed Li pellets. The system is being used to study (1) the structure and location of visible emissions (including MARFEs) from the main plasma and divertor, (2) asymmetries in gas puff plumes due to flows in the scrape-off layer (SOL), and (3) the tilt and cigar-shaped spatial structure of the Li pellet ablation cloud. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

Allen, A.J.; Terry, J.L.; Garnier, D.; Stillerman, J.A. [Plasma Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States); Wurden, G.A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

1997-01-01

442

Image responses to x-ray radiation in ICCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When used in digital radiography, ICCD camera will be inevitably irradiated by x-ray and the output image will degrade. In this research, we separated ICCD camera into two optical-electric parts, CCD camera and MCP image intensifier, and irradiated them respectively on Co-60 gamma ray source and pulsed x-ray source. By changing time association between radiation and the shutter of CCD camera, the state of power supply of MCP image intensifier, significant differences have been observed in output images. A further analysis has revealed the influence of the CCD chip, readout circuit in CCD camera, and the photocathode, microchannel plate and fluorescent screen in MCP image intensifier on image quality of an irradiated ICCD camera. The study demonstrated that compared with other parts, irradiation response of readout circuit is very slight and in most cases negligible. The interaction of x-ray with CCD chip usually behaves as bright spots or rough background in output images, which depends on x-ray doses. As to the MCP image intensifier, photocathode and microchannel plate are the two main steps that degrade output images. When being irradiated by x-ray, microchannel plate in MCP image intensifier tends to contribute a bright background in output images. Background caused by the photocathode looks more bright and fluctuant. Image responses of fluorescent screen in MCP image intensifier in ICCD camera and that of a coupling fiber bundle are also evaluated in this presentation.

Ma, Jiming; Duan, Baojun; Song, Yan; Song, Guzhou; Han, Changcai; Zhou, Ming; Du, Jiye; Wang, Qunshu; Zhang, Jianqi

2013-08-01

443

Enhanced capacity CCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a method for enhancing the charge capacity and lowering the leakage current in CCD's. The two-phase coplanar electrode structure is chosen as a vehicle for demonstrating the concept. The charge capacity enhancement is achieved by a combination of p-type and n-type implantations. This method of charge capacity enhancement relies on the increase of depletion capacitance in the

P. K. Chatterjee; A. F. Tasch; Horng-Sen Fu; T. C. Holloway

1978-01-01

444

L3 CCD Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low Light Level (L3) CCD technology is a recent development from E2V that opens up interesting new observational regimes. The technology allows production of scientific CCDs in which the read noise of the on-chip amplifier becomes negligibly low. Additionally, this effective zero-noise performance is decoupled from readout speeds and the almost zero noise performance holds up to frame rates of

S. Tulloch

2003-01-01

445

An advanced CCD emulator with 32MB image memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the LSST sensor development program we have developed an advanced CCD emulator for testing new multichannel readout electronics. The emulator, based on an Altera Stratix II FPGA for timing and control, produces 4 channels of simulated video waveforms in response to an appropriate sequence of horizontal and vertical clocks. It features 40MHz, 16-bit DACs for reset and video generation, 32MB of image memory for storage of arbitrary grayscale bitmaps, and provision to simulate reset and clock feedthrough ("glitches") on the video channels. Clock inputs are qualified for proper sequences and levels before video output is generated. Binning, region of interest, and reverse clock sequences are correctly recognized and appropriate video output will be produced. Clock transitions are timestamped and can be played back to a control PC. A simplified user interface is provided via a daughter card having an ARM M3 Cortex microprocessor and miniature color LCD display and joystick. The user can select video modes from stored bitmap images, or flat, gradient, bar, chirp, or checkerboard test patterns; set clock thresholds and video output levels; and set row/column formats for image outputs. Multiple emulators can be operated in parallel to simulate complex CCDs or CCD arrays.

O'Connor, P.; Fried, J.; Kotov, I.

2012-07-01

446

The test of the 10k x 10k CCD for Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 10k x 10k single-chip CCD camera was installed on the first Antarctic Survey Telescope (AST3-1) at Dome A, Antarctica in January 2012. The pixel size is 9 ?m, corresponding to 1 arcsec on the focal plane. The CCD runs without shutter but in frame transfer mode, and is cooled by thermoelectric cooler (TEC) to take advantage of the low air temperature at Dome A. We tested the performance of the camera in detail, including the gain, linearity, readout noise, dark current, charge transfer efficiency, etc. As this camera is designed to work at Dome A, where the lowest air temperature could go down to -80°C in winter, we tested to cool not only the CCD chip but also the controller which usually is operated at normal temperatures for ground-based telescopes. We found that the performance of the camera changes a little when the controller is cooled.

Ma, Bin; Shang, Zhaohui; Wang, Lifan; Boggs, Kasey; Hu, Yi; Liu, Qiang; Song, Qian; Xue, Suijian

2012-09-01

447

Colorimetric phosphorescence measurements with a color camera for oxygen determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a simple oxygen imaging platform with phosphorescent oxygen sensor films to demonstrate a quantitative oxygen determination method utilizing a color CCD camera. Phosphorescence quenching of a luminophore Pt(II) meso-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin complex (PtTFPP) immobilized in poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) matrix, is the principal detection mechanism. This sensor material was cast to form a film on the bottom surface of a transparent Petri dish. As levels of dissolved oxygen increased, phosphorescence of the complex decreased, allowing for measurement of oxygen levels which developed in the sensor film. A camera with a charge-coupled device (CCD) was used in conjunction with processing software to quantify oxygen levels colorimetrically. Microscopic images were collected using a CCD camera and stored as a set of red/green/blue (RGB) images. Phosphorescence excitation (390 nm peak) is limited to the blue (B) pixels of the CCD chip, and these values were discarded; while retaining the oxygen-responsive phosphorescence emission (645 nm peak) almost identical with the response range of the red (R) pixels. Red pixel intensity analysis effectively extracts color intensity information, which can be in turn directly related to oxygen contents. Color CCD cameras allow simultaneous acquisition of many types of chemical information by combining the merits of digital imaging with the attributes of spectroscopic measurement. Therefore, use of color CCD cameras is considered as an inexpensive alternative to time-resolved imaging for relatively short-term monitoring.

Bhagwat, Prajakta; Achanta, Gowthami Satya; Henthorn, David; Kim, Chang-Soo

2011-05-01

448

CCD (Charged Coupled Device) TV Focal Plane Guider Development and Comparison to SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility) Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is expected that the SIRTF payload will use a CCD TV focal plane fine guidance sensor to provide acquisition of sources and tracking stability of the telescope. Work has been done to develop CCD TV cameras and guiders at Lick Observatory for several ye...

D. M. Rank

1989-01-01

449

Status of the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam) Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which will be mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to perform the 5000 sq. deg. D...

2012-01-01

450

First Carlsberg Meridian Telescope (CMT) CCD Catalogue.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Carlsberg Meridian Telescope (CMT) is a telescope owned by Copenhagen University Observatory (CUO). It was installed in the Spanish observatory of El Roque de los Muchachos on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands) in 1984. It is operated jointly by the CUO, the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge (IoA) and the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada of Spain (ROA) in the framework of an international agreement. From 1984 to 1998 the instrument was provided with a moving slit micrometer and with its observations a series of 11 catalogues were published, `Carlsberg Meridian Catalogue La Palma (CMC No 1-11)'. Since 1997, the telescope has been controlled remotely via Internet. The three institutions share this remote control in periods of approximately three months. In 1998, the CMT was upgraded by installing as sensor, a commercial Spectrasource CCD camera as a test of the possibility of performing meridian transits observed in drift-scan mode. Once this was shown possible, in 1999, a second model of CCD camera, built in the CUO workshop with a better performance, was installed. The Spectrasource camera was loaned to ROA by CUO and is now installed in the San Fernando Automatic Meridian Circle in San Juan (CMASF). In 1999, the observations were started of a sky survey from -3deg to +30deg in declination. In July 2002, a first release of the survey was published, with the positions of the observed stars in the band between -3deg and +3deg in declination. This oral communication will present this first release of the survey.

Bélizon, F.; Muiños, J. L.; Vallejo, M.; Evans, D. W.; Irwin, M.; Helmer, L.

2003-11-01

451

Spectral characterization of an ophthalmic fundus camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundus camera is an optical system designed to illuminate and image the retina while minimizing stray light and backreflections. Modifying such a device requires characterization of the optical path in order to meet the new design goals and avoid introducing problems. This work describes the characterization of one system, the Topcon TRC-50F, necessary for converting this camera from film photography to spectral imaging with a CCD. This conversion consists of replacing the c