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1

CCD Camera  

DOEpatents

A CCD camera capable of observing a moving object which has varying intensities of radiation emanating therefrom and which may move at varying speeds is shown wherein there is substantially no overlapping of successive images and wherein the exposure times and scan times may be varied independently of each other. 7 figs.

Roth, R.R.

1983-08-02

2

CCD Camera  

DOEpatents

A CCD camera capable of observing a moving object which has varying intensities of radiation eminating therefrom and which may move at varying speeds is shown wherein there is substantially no overlapping of successive images and wherein the exposure times and scan times may be varied independently of each other.

Roth, Roger R. (Minnetonka, MN)

1983-01-01

3

CCD Fingerprint Method-Identification of a Video Camera from Videotaped Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new “CCD Fingerprint” method to identify a camcorder from videotaped images. This method enables individual camera identification, which does not mean camera-model identification. The clue to the individual camera identification is obtained from nonuniformity of dark currents on CCD chips, which causes a fixed pattern noise. The pattern is quite unique and intrinsic to an individual camera.

Kenji Kurosawa; Kenro Kuroki; Naoki Saitoh

1999-01-01

4

Biofeedback control analysis using a synchronized system of two CCD video cameras and a force-plate sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biofeedback control analysis of human movement has become increasingly important in rehabilitation, sports medicine and physical fitness. In this study, a synchronized system was developed for acquiring sequential data of a person's movement. The setup employs a video recorder system linked with two CCD video cameras and fore-plate sensor system, which are configured to stop and start simultaneously. The feedback control movement of postural stability was selected as a subject for analysis. The person's center of body gravity (COG) was calculated by measured 3-D coordinates of major joints using videometry with bundle adjustment and self-calibration. The raw serial data of COG and foot pressure by measured force plate sensor are difficult to analyze directly because of their complex fluctuations. Utilizing auto regressive modeling, the power spectrum and the impulse response of movement factors, enable analysis of their dynamic relations. This new biomedical engineering approach provides efficient information for medical evaluation of a person's stability.

Tsuruoka, Masako; Shibasaki, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunji

1999-01-01

5

Transmission electron microscope CCD camera  

DOEpatents

In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

Downing, Kenneth H. (Lafayette, CA)

1999-01-01

6

Omnifocus video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The omnifocus video camera takes videos, in which objects at different distances are all in focus in a single video display. The omnifocus video camera consists of an array of color video cameras combined with a unique distance mapping camera called the Divcam. The color video cameras are all aimed at the same scene, but each is focused at a different distance. The Divcam provides real-time distance information for every pixel in the scene. A pixel selection utility uses the distance information to select individual pixels from the multiple video outputs focused at different distances, in order to generate the final single video display that is everywhere in focus. This paper presents principle of operation, design consideration, detailed construction, and over all performance of the omnifocus video camera. The major emphasis of the paper is the proof of concept, but the prototype has been developed enough to demonstrate the superiority of this video camera over a conventional video camera. The resolution of the prototype is high, capturing even fine details such as fingerprints in the image. Just as the movie camera was a significant advance over the still camera, the omnifocus video camera represents a significant advance over all-focus cameras for still images.

Iizuka, Keigo

2011-04-01

7

Omnifocus video camera.  

PubMed

The omnifocus video camera takes videos, in which objects at different distances are all in focus in a single video display. The omnifocus video camera consists of an array of color video cameras combined with a unique distance mapping camera called the Divcam. The color video cameras are all aimed at the same scene, but each is focused at a different distance. The Divcam provides real-time distance information for every pixel in the scene. A pixel selection utility uses the distance information to select individual pixels from the multiple video outputs focused at different distances, in order to generate the final single video display that is everywhere in focus. This paper presents principle of operation, design consideration, detailed construction, and over all performance of the omnifocus video camera. The major emphasis of the paper is the proof of concept, but the prototype has been developed enough to demonstrate the superiority of this video camera over a conventional video camera. The resolution of the prototype is high, capturing even fine details such as fingerprints in the image. Just as the movie camera was a significant advance over the still camera, the omnifocus video camera represents a significant advance over all-focus cameras for still images. PMID:21529037

Iizuka, Keigo

2011-04-01

8

A control system for LAMOST CCD cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

32 scientific CCD cameras within 16 low-dispersion spectrographs of LAMOST are used for object spectra. This paper introduced the CCD Master system designed for camera management and control based on UCAM controller. The layers of Master, UDP and CCD-end daemons are described in detail. The commands, statuses, user interface and spectra viewer are discussed.

Deng, Xiaochao; Wang, Jian; Dong, Jian; Luo, Yu; Liu, Guangcao; Yuan, Hailong; Jin, Ge

2010-07-01

9

3-D eye movement measurements on four Comex's divers using video CCD cameras, during high pressure diving.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown the vulnerability of the vestibular system regarding barotraumatism (1) and deep diving may induce immediate neurological changes (2). These extreme conditions (high pressure, limited examination time, restricted space, hydrogen-oxygen mixture, communication difficulties etc.) require adapted technology and associated fast experimental procedure. We were able to solve these problems by developing a new system of 3-D ocular movements on line analysis by means of a video camera. This analyser uses image processing and forms recognition software which allows non-invasive video frequency calculation of eye movements including torsional component. As this system is immediately ready for use, we were able to realize the subsequent examinations in a maximum time of 8 min for each diver: oculomotor tests including saccadic, slow and optokinetic traditional automatic measurements; vestibular tests regarding spontaneous and positional nystagmus, and reactional nystagmus to the pendular test. For pendular induced nystagmus we used appropriate head positions to stimulate separately the lateral and the posterior semicircular canal, and we measured the gain by operating successively in visible light and complete darkness. Recordings were done during a simulated onshore dive to an ambient pressure corresponding to a depth of 350 m. The above examinations were completed on the first and last days by caloric tests with the same video system analyser. The results of the investigations demonstrated perfect tolerance of the oculomotor and vestibular systems of these 4 divers thus fulfilling the preventive conditions defined by Comex Co. We were able to overcome the limitations due to low cost PC computer operation and cameras (necessity of adaptation to pressure, focus difficulties and direct light exposure eye reflexions). We still have on line accurate measurements even on the torsional component of the eye movement. Due to this technological efficiency we also present some mathematical aspects of the software. PMID:8749142

Guillemant, P; Ulmer, E; Freyss, G

1995-01-01

10

3D - Laser Scanning: Integration of Point Cloud and CCD Camera Video Data for the Production of High Resolution and Precision RGB Textured Models: Archaeological Monuments Surveying Application in Ancient Ilida  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY In this project, techniques of integration of 3D - Laser Scanning point cloud data and the video produced by the CCD camera are explored. This integration is employed to the produc- tion of high - accuracy and resolution RGB textured models and ortho - photo diagrams of archaeological monuments. The \\

Vaios BALIS; Spyros KARAMITSOS; Ioannis KOTSIS; Christos LIAPAKIS

11

Security camera video authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to authenticate images captured by a security camera, and localise any tampered areas, will increase the value of these images as evidence in a court of law. This paper outlines the challenges in security camera video authentication, and discusses the reasons why fingerprinting, a robust type of digital signature, provides a solution preferable to semi-fragile watermarking. A fingerprint

D. K. Roberts

2002-01-01

12

An auto-focusing CCD camera mount  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional methods of focusing a CCD camera are either time consuming, difficult or, more importantly, indecisive. This paper describes a device designed to allow the observer to be confident that the camera will always be properly focused by sensing a selected star image and automatically adjusting the camera's focal position.

Arbour, R. W.

1994-08-01

13

A CCD photometric camera for satellite observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A CCD camera for photometric measurement of satellites has been built, tested, and has been integrated into the Experimental Test System (ETS). This report describes the camera, the computer system and programs used to collect data, the camera's sensitivity parameters, the sensitivity of the camera on the ETS 31-inch Telescope, and its projected sensitivity on Ground-Based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance System (GEODSS) main telescope.

Mayer, G. J.; MacDonald, M. J.; Pong, N. G. S.

1983-11-01

14

Jack & the Video Camera  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article narrates how the use of video camera has transformed the life of Jack Williams, a 10-year-old boy from Colorado Springs, Colorado, who has autism. The way autism affected Jack was unique. For the first nine years of his life, Jack remained in his world, alone. Functionally non-verbal and with motor skill problems that affected his…

Charlan, Nathan

2010-01-01

15

Some applications for amateur CCD cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many amateurs now have access to CCD cameras. Attached to a typical amateur telescope such devices can potentially form a very powerful scientific instrument. This paper reviews a number of areas where the suitably equipped amateur can contribute to professional programmes. It also contains a number of warnings, particularly in the field of photometry, and some new results on the use of the Hubble Guide Star Catalog for CCD based astrometry.

James, N. D.

1994-08-01

16

C.C.D. Readout of a Picosecond Streak Camera with an Intensified C.C.D.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper deals with a digital streak camera readout device. The device consists in a low light level television camera made of a solid state C.C.D. array coupled to an image intensifier associated to a video-digitizer coupled to a micro-computer system....

M. Lemonier J. C. Richard C. Cavailler A. Mens G. Raze

1984-01-01

17

High-speed CCD camera at NAOC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high speed CCD camera has been completed at the National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC). A Kodak CCD was used in the camera. Two output ports are used to read out CCD data and total speed achieved 60M pixels per second. The Kodak KAI-4021 image sensor is a high-performance 2Kx2K-pixel interline transfer device. The 7.4? square pixels with micro lenses provide high sensitivity and the large full well capacity results in high dynamic range. The inter-line transfer structure provides high quality image and enables electronic shuttering for precise exposure control. The electronic shutter provides a method of precisely controlling the image exposure time without any mechanical components. The camera is controlled by a NIOS II family of embedded processors, which is Altera's second-generation soft-core embedded processor for FPGAs. The powerful embedded processors make the camera with splendid features to satisfy continuously appearing new observational requirements. This camera is very flexible and is easy to implement new special functions. Since FPGA and other peripheral logic signals are triggered by a single master clock, the whole system is perfectly synchronized. By using this technique the camera cuts off the noise dramatically.

Zhao, Zhaowang; Wang, Wei; Liu, Yangbin

2006-07-01

18

Two-channel, robotic CCD-camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design of a compact two-channel CCD-camera for the 0.8 m Cassegrain telescope operated at the Wendelstein Observatory. To achieve a high efficiency this camera is equipped with two channels, operating in the wavelength range of 400 - 540 nm and 570 - 900 nm, respectively. Each channel is provided with a filter slider for three positions, an independent photometric shutter, and a 2k x 2k CCD (80% peak efficiency). The camera can simultaneously record a red and a blue image of its 10.7' x 10.7' field of view. In addition it has an offset guider and supports robotic operation: Active cooling provides the operating temperature of 160 K avoiding the use of liquid nitrogen. Both CCDs share a single cryostat and can be aligned during operation. The complete vacuum control including pumping and cryopump cleaning can be operated remotely.

Goessl, Claus A.; Mitsch, Wolfgang; Altmann, Werner; Hopp, Ulrich; Barwig, Heinz

2003-03-01

19

The QUEST Large Area CCD Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have designed, constructed, and put into operation a very large area CCD camera that covers the field of view of the 1.2 m Samuel Oschin Schmidt Telescope at the Palomar Observatory. The camera consists of 112 CCDs arranged in a mosaic of four rows with 28 CCDs each. The CCDs are 600×2400 pixel Sarnoff thinned, back-illuminated devices with 13 ?m×13 ?m pixels. The camera covers an area of 4.6deg×3.6deg on the sky with an active area of 9.6 deg2. This camera has been installed at the prime focus of the telescope and commissioned, and scientific-quality observations on the Palomar-QUEST Variability Sky Survey were started in 2003 September. The design considerations, construction features, and performance parameters of this camera are described in this paper.

Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D.; Andrews, P.; Bauer, A.; Ellman, N.; Emmet, W.; Hudson, R.; Hurteau, T.; Jerke, J.; Lauer, R.; Silge, J.; Szymkowiak, A.; Adams, B.; Gebhard, M.; Musser, J.; Doyle, M.; Petrie, H.; Smith, R.; Thicksten, R.; Geary, J.

2007-11-01

20

Testing of a Commercial CCD Camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of the examination and testing of a commercial CCD camera designed for use by amateur astronomers and university astronomy laboratory courses. The characteristics of the CCD chip are presented in graphical and tabular form. Individual and averaged bias frames are discussed. Dark frames were taken and counts are presented as a function of time. Flat field and other images were used to identify and locate bad pixel columns as well as pixels which vary significantly from the mean pixel sensitivity.

Tulsee, Taran

2000-01-01

21

High-performance digital color video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical one-chip color cameras use analog video processing circuits. An improved digital camera architecture has been developed using a dual-slope A/D conversion technique, and two full custom CMOS digital video processing ICs, the 'CFA processor' and the 'RGB post- processor.' The system uses a 768 X 484 active element interline transfer CCD with a new 'field-staggered 3G' color filter pattern and a 'lenslet' overlay, which doubles the sensitivity of the camera. The digital camera design offers improved image quality, reliability, and manufacturability, while meeting aggressive size, power, and cost constraints. The CFA processor digital VLSI chip includes color filter interpolation processing, an optical black clamp, defect correction, white balance, and gain control. The RGB post-processor digital IC includes a color correction matrix, gamma correction, two-dimensional edge-enhancement, and circuits to control the black balance, lens aperture, and focus.

Parulski, Kenneth A.; Benamati, Brian L.; D'Luna, Lionel J.; Shelley, Paul R.

1991-06-01

22

High-performance digital color video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typical one-chip color cameras use analog video processing circuits. An improved digital camera architecture has been developed using a dual-slope A/D conversion technique and two full-custom CMOS digital video processing integrated circuits, the color filter array (CFA) processor and the RGB postprocessor. The system used a 768 X 484 active element interline transfer CCD with a new field-staggered 3G color filter pattern and a lenslet overlay, which doubles the sensitivity of the camera. The industrial-quality digital camera design offers improved image quality, reliability, manufacturability, while meeting aggressive size, power, and cost constraints. The CFA processor digital VLSI chip includes color filter interpolation processing, an optical black clamp, defect correction, white balance, and gain control. The RGB postprocessor digital integrated circuit includes a color correction matrix, gamma correction, 2D edge enhancement, and circuits to control the black balance, lens aperture, and focus.

Parulski, Kenneth A.; D'Luna, Lionel J.; Benamati, Brian L.; Shelley, Paul R.

1992-01-01

23

Lightweight Video-Camera Head  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compact, lightweight video camera head constructed by remounting lens and charge-coupled-device image detector from small commercial video camera in separate assembly. Useful in robotics, artificial vision, and vision guidance systems. Designed to be mounted on visor of helmet to monitor motions of eyes in experiments on vestibulo-ocular reflexes.

Proctor, David R.

1988-01-01

24

Event Pileup in AXAF's ACIS CCD Camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AXAF's high resolution mirrors will focus a point source near the optical axis to a spot that is contained within a radius of about two pixels on the ACIS Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) camera. Because of the small spot size, the accuracy to which fluxes and spectral energy distributions of bright point sources can be measured will be degrad3ed by event pileup. Event pileup occurs when two or more X-ray photons arrive simultaneously in a single detection cell on a CCD readout frame. When pileup occurs, ACIS's event detection algorithm registers the photons as a single X-ray event. The pulse height channel of the event will correspond to an energy E approximately E-1 + E-2...E-n, where n is the number of photons registered per detection cell per readout frame. As a result, pileup artificially hardens the observed spectral energy distribution. I will discuss the effort at the AXAF Science Center Lo calibrate pileup in ACIS using focused, nearly monochromatic X-ray source. I will discuss techniques for modeling and correcting pileup effects in polychromatic spectra.

McNamara, Brian R.

1998-01-01

25

The CCD Camera and Its Applications in Science Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates some of the possible uses of the CCD camera in science teaching. Starts with the introduction of Flexcam which is a type of CCD camera used primarily by biology teachers and uses Flexcam to demonstrate observations and scientific skills in connection with the TV monitor. (Author/YDS)

Chun, Cecilia K. W.; Lam, Chi-Chung; Mak, S. Y.

2002-01-01

26

Development of a high-speed 100 fps CCD camera.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes the development of a high-speed CCD digital camera system. The system has been designed to use CCDs from various manufacturers with minimal modifications. The first camera built on this design utilizes a Thomson 512x512 pixel CCD as i...

M. Hoffberg R. Laird F. Lenkzsus B. Rodricks A. Gelbart

1996-01-01

27

Timing generator of scientific grade CCD camera and its implementation based on FPGA technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Timing Generator's functions of Scientific Grade CCD Camera is briefly presented: it generates various kinds of impulse sequence for the TDI-CCD, video processor and imaging data output, acting as the synchronous coordinator for time in the CCD imaging unit. The IL-E2TDI-CCD sensor produced by DALSA Co.Ltd. use in the Scientific Grade CCD Camera. Driving schedules of IL-E2 TDI-CCD sensor has been examined in detail, the timing generator has been designed for Scientific Grade CCD Camera. FPGA is chosen as the hardware design platform, schedule generator is described with VHDL. The designed generator has been successfully fulfilled function simulation with EDA software and fitted into XC2VP20-FF1152 (a kind of FPGA products made by XILINX). The experiments indicate that the new method improves the integrated level of the system. The Scientific Grade CCD camera system's high reliability, stability and low power supply are achieved. At the same time, the period of design and experiment is sharply shorted.

Si, Guoliang; Li, Yunfei; Guo, Yongfei

2010-05-01

28

CCD cameras for the polarimetric channels of HERSCHEL  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new concept CCD camera is currently under development at the XUVLab of the Department of Astronomy and Space Science of the University of Florence. This CCD camera is the proposed detector for the broadband visible light polarimetric channels of the UVCI coronagraph of HERSCHEL and of Solar Orbiter space missions. The main features of this camera are a high level of versatility and a fast pixel that will satisfy the requirements of both the space missions. Within this project, a versatile CCD controller has been produced with interesting and innovative features: it allows the selection of all the parameters related to charge transfer and CCD readout and therefore it allows the use of virtually any CCD sensor. The software interface is LabVIEW 6i based and it will allow both local and remote control and display.

Gori, Luca; Pace, Emanuele; Gherardi, Alessandro; Sozzi, M.; Puri, S.

2003-02-01

29

Ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity color camera with 300,000-pixel single CCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity portable color camera with a new 300,000-pixel single CCD. The 300,000-pixel CCD, which has four times the number of pixels of our initial model, was developed by seamlessly joining two 150,000-pixel CCDs. A green-red-green-blue (GRGB) Bayer filter is used to realize a color camera with the single-chip CCD. The camera is capable of ultrahigh-speed video recording at up to 1,000,000 frames/sec, and small enough to be handheld. We also developed a technology for dividing the CCD output signal to enable parallel, highspeed readout and recording in external memory; this makes possible long, continuous shots up to 1,000 frames/second. As a result of an experiment, video footage was imaged at an athletics meet. Because of high-speed shooting, even detailed movements of athletes' muscles were captured. This camera can capture clear slow-motion videos, so it enables previously impossible live footage to be imaged for various TV broadcasting programs.

Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Yonai, J.; Hayashida, T.; Ohtake, H.; Kurita, T.; Tanioka, K.; Maruyama, H.; Namiki, J.; Yanagi, T.; Yoshida, T.; van Kuijk, H.; Bosiers, Jan T.; Etoh, T. G.

2007-01-01

30

Correct CCD camera lens distortion by using XY correction coefficient  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the two-dimension or three-dimension object recognition research, the shapes, the sizes, and the geometry of the objects are usually compared to recognize different objects. However, the quality of the lenses of the CCD cameras is different between manufacturing company. If the quality is poor, the mapping ranges in the camera lenses itself in the X and Y directions are

Ching-Liang Su

2000-01-01

31

Feasibility study of CCD-based gamma camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional gamma cameras which uses photomultiplier tubes(PMT) is very heavy, bulky, and expensive. In addition, its spatial resolution is low because of geometrical limitation of PMTs. This low resolution and large size is not efficient for the small animal imaging system which is useful in preclinical imaging application. We have developed a small size but high spatial resolution gamma ray detector, based on charge-coupled device(CCD) which is useful to develop a prototype model of small animal gamma camera. Recently the sensitivity of CCD was improved and the peltier cooling system helped to minimize the dark currents of CCD significantly. The enhanced sensitivity and high intrinsic resolution of CCD enabled researchers to develop the small size gamma camera with low cost. In this study we used peltier cooled CCD sensor which has about 70% of quantum efficiency at 650nm wave length. CsI(Tl) scintillator was also used to convert the gamma ray to visible lights. These light photons from the scintillator have been collected to the CCD surface by Nikorr macro lens to enhance the collection efficiency. The experimental results showed that the proposed CCD-based detection system is feasible for gamma ray detection.

Lee, Hakjae; Jeong, Young-Jun; Yoon, Joochul; Kang, Jungwon; Lee, Sangjoon; Shin, Hyungsup; Lee, Kisung

2010-08-01

32

A new CCD camera for the Echelec spectrograph.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Echelec spectrograph, installed at La Silla in 1973, was designed to be used with an electronographic camera. However, by adding a flatfield corrector, it can be operated with other detectors, such as CCD's. As part of the upgrading programme of the 1.52-m telescope, and in order to improve the spectroscopic capabilities of that instrument, the Echelec spectrograph has been modified and is now working with the same CCD detector as used on the Boiler and Chivens spectrograph.

Gilliotte, A.; Magain, P.

1987-12-01

33

Detection of the degradation of CBERS-02 CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) was developed by China in cooperation with Brazil. As one of the most important payload, CCD camera is expected to play an important role in the application of CBERS. Vicarious calibrations have been conducted every one year and cross-calibration is one of the methods to the calibration. Our effort is to probe the methodology of radiometric cross-calibration the CCD with MODIS and detect the degradation of the CCD camera since it was launched. The radiometric and reflectance coefficients and offsets for four CCD spectral bands were obtained based on the cross-calibration with four calibration targets. Results were validated by the synchro surface targets spectral measurement at Dunhuang site. The TOA radiances from calculation and simulation were consistent within 1%. Comparing our results with the coefficients based on vicarious calibration show that the average variation of the two independent methods was with 6%. Based on many times of radiometric-cross calibration of the CCD with the MODIS, the time series of radiometric coefficients for the CCD were obtained. Results illuminated that the response of the CCD have degraded, which could reach up to 3%- 7% per month

Li, Xiaoying; Gu, Xingfa; Yu, Tao; Min, Xiangjun; Zhang, Yong; Li, Xiaowen

2005-10-01

34

Initial laboratory evaluation of color video cameras.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video cameras used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than identify an intruder. Monochrome cam...

P. L. Terry

1992-01-01

35

Initial laboratory evaluation of color video cameras.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video cameras used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than identify an intruder. Monochrome cam...

P. L. Terry

1991-01-01

36

Video indirect ophthalmoscopy using a hand-held video camera  

PubMed Central

Fundus photography in adults and cooperative children is possible with a fundus camera or by using a slit lamp-mounted digital camera. Retcam™or a video indirect ophthalmoscope is necessary for fundus imaging in infants and young children under anesthesia. Herein, a technique of converting and using a digital video camera into a video indirect ophthalmoscope for fundus imaging is described. This device will allow anyone with a hand-held video camera to obtain fundus images. Limitations of this technique involve a learning curve and inability to perform scleral depression.

Shanmugam, Mahesh P

2011-01-01

37

Television camera video level control system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A video level control system is provided which generates a normalized video signal for a camera processing circuit. The video level control system includes a lens iris which provides a controlled light signal to a camera tube. The camera tube converts the light signal provided by the lens iris into electrical signals. A feedback circuit in response to the electrical signals generated by the camera tube, provides feedback signals to the lens iris and the camera tube. This assures that a normalized video signal is provided in a first illumination range. An automatic gain control loop, which is also responsive to the electrical signals generated by the camera tube 4, operates in tandem with the feedback circuit. This assures that the normalized video signal is maintained in a second illumination range.

Kravitz, M.; Freedman, L. A.; Fredd, E. H.; Denef, D. E. (inventors)

1985-01-01

38

Color measurements using a colorimeter and a CCD camera  

SciTech Connect

Two new techniques are introduced for measuring the color content of printed graphic images with applications to web inspection such as color flaws and measurement of color quality. The techniques involve the development of algorithms for combining the information obtained from commercially available CCD color cameras and colorimeters to produce a colorimeter system with pixel resolution. 9 refs.

Spratlin, T.L.; Simpson, M.L.

1992-02-01

39

Wind dynamic range video camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A television camera apparatus is disclosed in which bright objects are attenuated to fit within the dynamic range of the system, while dim objects are not. The apparatus receives linearly polarized light from an object scene, the light being passed by a beam splitter and focused on the output plane of a liquid crystal light valve. The light valve is oriented such that, with no excitation from the cathode ray tube, all light is rotated 90 deg and focused on the input plane of the video sensor. The light is then converted to an electrical signal, which is amplified and used to excite the CRT. The resulting image is collected and focused by a lens onto the light valve which rotates the polarization vector of the light to an extent proportional to the light intensity from the CRT. The overall effect is to selectively attenuate the image pattern focused on the sensor.

Craig, G. D. (inventor)

1985-01-01

40

Series of CCD cameras for low-light-level applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a series of five CCD cameras designed by Gordian for low light-level applications. The first device is a low-cost non-imaging astronomical autoguiding tracker based on the Texas Instruments TC255 CCD chip and an MC6811 microcontroller. Mounting off-axis, it provides standardized tracking-motor signals for any telescope with a dual-axis drive corrector, automatically compensating for the mechanical peculiarities of the drive, set- up factors, and pointing errors. The tracker can guide to +/- 1 arcsec on an 8th magnitude star when used with an 8' aperture, f/10 telescope. The basic autoguider design has been extended to produce self-contained 8-bit and 16-bit imaging cameras with autoguiding functionality. Images are buffered in PSRAM, then relayed to a host PC via an RS-232 serial connection. The addition of regulated thermoelectric cooling reduces CCD thermal noise and alleviates dark current saturation. Gordian has also designed two high-resolution cameras based on the Kodak KAF-0400 and KAF-1600 CCDs. The cameras produce 16-bit images with 768 X 512 pixels or 1536 X 1024 pixels, respectively. Pixel size is 9 micrometers square. The camera head contains the CCD, thermoelectric cooling mechanism, analog electronics, and a custom-designed electromechanical shutter based on FlexinolTM actuator wire. A separate base unit houses a Motorola 68306 microprocessor and associated electronics for telescope control and on-board image processing. A stepper-motor based filter wheel can be attached directly to the camera head. The camera communicates with a personal computer via SCSI or serial connection. Software for the host PC provides additional control options, data storage, and image processing capability.

Peri, Michal L.; Weaver, Daniel W.; Ambrose, Tom P.; Hirpara, Dan; Gallagher, Susan; Hall, Andrew M.; Bone, Gregg

1996-03-01

41

Unsupervised estimation of signal-dependent CCD camera noise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with an original method to estimate the noise introduced by optical imaging systems, such as CCD cameras. The power of the signal-dependent photon noise is decoupled from the power of the signal-independent electronic noise. The method relies on the multivariate regression of sample mean and variance. Statistically similar image pixels, not necessarily connected, produce scatterpoints that are clustered along a straight line, whose slope and intercept measure the signal-dependent and signal-independent components of the noise power, respectively. Experimental results carried out on a simulated noisy image and on true data from a commercial CCD camera highlight the accuracy of the proposed method and its applicability to separate R-G-B components that have been corrected for the nonlinear effects of the camera response function, but not yet interpolated to the the full size of the mosaiced R-G-B image.

Aiazzi, Bruno; Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Selva, Massimo; Stefani, Lorenzo

2012-12-01

42

Vision system using linear CCD cameras in fluorescent magnetic particle inspection of axles of railway wheelsets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic magnetic particle inspection based vision system using CCD camera is a new development of magnetic particle inspection. A vision system using linear CCD cameras in semiautomatic fluorescent magnetic particle inspection of axles of railway wheelsets is presented in this paper. The system includes four linear CCD cameras, a PCI data acquisition & logic control card, and an industrial computer.

Hongwei Hao; Luming Li; Yuanhui Deng

2005-01-01

43

Initial laboratory evaluation of color video cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video cameras used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than identify an intruder. Monochrome cameras are adequate for that application and were selected over color cameras because of their greater sensitivity and resolution. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Color information is useful for identification purposes, and color camera technology is rapidly changing. Thus, Sandia National Laboratories established an ongoing program to evaluate color solid-state cameras. Phase one resulted in the publishing of a report titled, 'Initial Laboratory Evaluation of Color Video Cameras (SAND--91-2579).' It gave a brief discussion of imager chips and color cameras and monitors, described the camera selection, detailed traditional test parameters and procedures, and gave the results of the evaluation of twelve cameras. In phase two, six additional cameras were tested by the traditional methods and all eighteen cameras were tested by newly developed methods. This report details both the traditional and newly developed test parameters and procedures, and gives the results of both evaluations.

Terry, P. L.

1991-12-01

44

Signal processing and automatic camera control for digital still cameras equipped with a new type CCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, digital still cameras are becoming as popular as conventional film cameras. As over 3 mega-pixel cameras become the main stream of digital still cameras, they are accepted from a point of view of pixel numbers. However, from a point of view of "scene toughness," digital still cameras need further improvement. Current digital cameras have difficulties reproducing high-contrast images containing both dark and bright areas, with shadows tending to lose details and whites washing out. In order to improve "scene toughness," we have developed a new concept camera system, which can capture wider dynamic range images. Applying miniaturization technology of CCD device, we developed the new structure CCD, the Super CCD SR. One photodiode of the new type CCD is divided into two parts, and each of the two photodiodes has a different size and a different sensitivity. When it outputs an image by optimally combining the images from a high sensitivity part and a low sensitivity part, it has wider dynamic range, that means the camera equipped with the new CCD has the advantage of getting wider dynamic range photographic images by one device and by one exposure. To make the best use of this CCD device, new technique in signal processing and new automatic camera control are important, then we have developed the automatic system that controls the camera corresponding to the scene variation. In this paper we discuss the concept of the signal processing and the automatic camera control for the camera equipped with the Super CCD SR. In the front-light condition the camera exposure and tone control are operated not to lose highlight details. In backlight containing both dark and bright areas, these are operated to reduce flat shadows of main subjects and washing out of highlights against strong sunlight in the background. The camera we developed is capable of obtaining wider dynamic range images and achieves richer and smoother tonality for better reproduction of fine detail, and gets over the above problem and improves "scene toughness."

Ashida, Tetsuro; Yamashita, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Masanori; Saito, Osamu; Nishimura, Toru; Iwabe, Kazuki

2004-06-01

45

CCD camera for dual-energy digital subtraction angiography.  

PubMed

A motion immune dual-energy subtraction technique in which X-ray tube voltage and beam filtration were switched at 30 Hz between 60 kVp (2.0 mm Al filter) and 120 kVp (2.00 mm Al+2.5 mm Cu filter) was previously reported. In this study the effects of camera lag on the dual-energy iodine signal is investigated. The temporal lag of the lead oxide vidicon tested reduced the dual-energy iodine signal by a factor of 2.3, as compared to a mode that included 4 scrub frames between low- and high-energy images, for an iodine phantom with thicknesses of 0-86.0 mg/cm(2), imaged over a 15 cm thick Lucite phantom. On the other hand, the Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera has inherently no temporal lag and its versatile scanning characteristics make it near ideal for dual-energy DSA. The CCD camera eliminates the reduction of dual-energy iodine signal, since it does not mix low- and high-energy image data. Another benefit of the CCD camera is that the separation time between low and high-energy images is not limited to the frame period, as is the lead oxide vidicon; and as small as a 5-msec time difference is possible. The short time interval between low and high-energy images minimizes motion misregistration artifacts. Due to these advantages, the CCD camera significantly improves the utility of dual-energy DSA. PMID:18215878

Molloi, S; Ersahin, A; Qian, Y J

1995-01-01

46

Close-range photogrammetry with video cameras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examples of photogrammetric measurements made with video cameras uncorrected for electronic and optical lens distortions are presented. The measurement and correction of electronic distortions of video cameras using both bilinear and polynomial interpolation are discussed. Examples showing the relative stability of electronic distortions over long periods of time are presented. Having corrected for electronic distortion, the data are further corrected for lens distortion using the plumb line method. Examples of close-range photogrammetric data taken with video cameras corrected for both electronic and optical lens distortion are presented.

Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.

1985-01-01

47

Close-Range Photogrammetry with Video Cameras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examples of photogrammetric measurements made with video cameras uncorrected for electronic and optical lens distortions are presented. The measurement and correction of electronic distortions of video cameras using both bilinear and polynomial interpolation are discussed. Examples showing the relative stability of electronic distortions over long periods of time are presented. Having corrected for electronic distortion, the data are further corrected for lens distortion using the plumb line method. Examples of close-range photogrammetric data taken with video cameras corrected for both electronic and optical lens distortion are presented.

Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.

1983-01-01

48

Initial laboratory evaluation of color video cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video cameras used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than identify an intruder. Monochrome cameras are adequate for that application and were selected over color cameras because of their greater sensitivity and resolution. The increased emphasis placed on the identification objective of video security systems leads to the need to improve system designs and upgrade existing systems. Color information is useful for identification purposes, and color camera technology is rapidly changing. Thus, Sandia National Laboratories established an ongoing program to evaluate color solid-state cameras. This report describes test parameters and procedures and provides the results of an initial evaluation.

Terry, P. L.

1992-03-01

49

Camera Motion Detection using Video Mosaicing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, camera motion detection methods using a background image generated by video mosaicing based on the correlation between feature points on a frame pair are described. In this method, a telop (video caption) removal method, iterative foreground and background image separation method and appropriate frame pair selection from consecutive frames are introduced to generate background images accurately. Parameters

Masaki Naito; Kazunori Matsumoto; Keiichiro Hoashi; Fumiaki Sugaya

2006-01-01

50

Neural network method for characterizing video cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a neural network method for characterizing color video camera. A multilayer feedforward network with the error back-propagation learning rule for training, is used as a nonlinear transformer to model a camera, which realizes a mapping from the CIELAB color space to RGB color space. With SONY video camera, D65 illuminant, Pritchard Spectroradiometer, 410 JIS color charts as training data and 36 charts as testing data, results show that the mean error of training data is 2.9 and that of testing data is 4.0 in a 2563 RGB space.

Zhou, Shuangquan; Zhao, Dazun

1998-08-01

51

The European Photon Imaging Camera on XMM-Newton: The pn-CCD camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) consortium has provided the focal plane instruments for the three X-ray mirror systems on XMM-Newton. Two cameras with a reflecting grating spectrometer in the optical path are equipped with MOS type CCDs as focal plane detectors (Turner \\\\cite{mturner}), the telescope with the full photon flux operates the novel pn-CCD as an imaging X-ray spectrometer.

L. Strüder; U. Briel; K. Dennerl; R. Hartmann; E. Kendziorra; N. Meidinger; E. Pfeffermann; C. Reppin; B. Aschenbach; W. Bornemann; H. Bräuninger; W. Burkert; M. Elender; M. Freyberg; F. Haberl; G. Hartner; F. Heuschmann; H. Hippmann; E. Kastelic; S. Kemmer; G. Kettenring; W. Kink; N. Krause; S. Müller; A. Oppitz; W. Pietsch; M. Popp; P. Predehl; A. Read; K. H. Stephan; D. Stötter; J. Trümper; P. Holl; J. Kemmer; H. Soltau; R. Stötter; U. Weber; U. Weichert; C. von Zanthier; D. Carathanassis; G. Lutz; R. H. Richter; P. Solc; H. Böttcher; M. Kuster; R. Staubert; A. Abbey; A. Holland; M. Turner; M. Balasini; G. F. Bignami; N. La Palombara; G. Villa; W. Buttler; F. Gianini; R. Lainé; D. Lumb; P. Dhez

2001-01-01

52

Photogrammetric Applications of Immersive Video Cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper investigates immersive videography and its application in close-range photogrammetry. Immersive video involves the capture of a live-action scene that presents a 360° field of view. It is recorded simultaneously by multiple cameras or microlenses, where the principal point of each camera is offset from the rotating axis of the device. This issue causes problems when stitching together individual frames of video separated from particular cameras, however there are ways to overcome it and applying immersive cameras in photogrammetry provides a new potential. The paper presents two applications of immersive video in photogrammetry. At first, the creation of a low-cost mobile mapping system based on Ladybug®3 and GPS device is discussed. The amount of panoramas is much too high for photogrammetric purposes as the base line between spherical panoramas is around 1 metre. More than 92 000 panoramas were recorded in one Polish region of Czarny Dunajec and the measurements from panoramas enable the user to measure the area of outdoors (adverting structures) and billboards. A new law is being created in order to limit the number of illegal advertising structures in the Polish landscape and immersive video recorded in a short period of time is a candidate for economical and flexible measurements off-site. The second approach is a generation of 3d video-based reconstructions of heritage sites based on immersive video (structure from immersive video). A mobile camera mounted on a tripod dolly was used to record the interior scene and immersive video, separated into thousands of still panoramas, was converted from video into 3d objects using Agisoft Photoscan Professional. The findings from these experiments demonstrated that immersive photogrammetry seems to be a flexible and prompt method of 3d modelling and provides promising features for mobile mapping systems.

Kwiatek, K.; Tokarczyk, R.

2014-05-01

53

A CCD Delay Line for Video Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A surface channel Charge-Coupled Device is used for delaying one television line. The chip uses 4 analog-multiplexed lines and has on-chip circuits for adapting to clock frequencies that can occur in various types of video equipment. The 4.8mm2 chip requires only 40 mW from a 5 volt supply.

M. Pelgrom; A. Jochijms; H. Heijns

1987-01-01

54

CCD Testing for DECam (Dark Energy Survey Camera)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dark Energy Survey Camera (DECam] will be comprised of a mosaic of 74 charge-coupled devices (CCDs]. The DES science goals set stringent technical requirements for the CCDs. The CCDs are provided by LBNL with valuable cold probe data at 233 K, providing an indication of which CCDs are more likely to pass. After comprehensive testing of 270 CCDs at 273 K, 124 qualify as science grade. Testing this large number of CCDs to determine which best meet the DES requirements is a very time-consuming task. We developed a multistage testing program to automatically collect and analyze CCD test data.

Kubik, Donna

55

Optical pulse-phased observations of faint pulsars with a phase-binning CCD camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have constructed a phase-binning CCD camera optimized for optical observations of faint pulsars. The phase- binning CCD camera combines the high quantum efficiency of a CCD with a pulse-phased time resolution capable of observing pulsars as fast as 10 ms, with no read noise penalty. The phase-binning CCD can also operate as a two- channel imaging polarimeter, obtaining pulse-phased

Brian Kern

2002-01-01

56

Synchronization of Multiple Camera Videos Using Audio-Visual Features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital video capturing is getting popular with the decreasing price of camcorders and the increasing availability of devices with embedded video cameras such as digital-still cameras, mobile phones and PDAs. While a raw home video is considered as visually non-appealing, having multiple recordings of the same event provides the opportunity to combine audio and video segments from different cameras for

Prarthana Shrestha; Mauro Barbieri; Hans Weda; Dragan Sekulovski

2010-01-01

57

Thomson scattering stray light reduction techniques using a CCD camera  

SciTech Connect

The DIII-D Thomson scattering system has been expanded to measure divertor plasma temperatures from 1-500 eV and densities from 0.05 to 8 X 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}. To complete this system, a difficult stray light problem was overcome to allow for an accurate Rayleigh scattering density calibration. The initial stray light levels were over 500 times higher than the expected Rayleigh scattered signal. Using a CCD camera, various portions of the vessel interior were examined while the laser was fired through the vessel in air at atmospheric pressure. Image relaying, exit window tilting, entrance and exit baffle modifications, and a beam polarizer were then used to reduce the stray light to acceptable levels. The CCD camera gave prompt feedback on the effectiveness of each modification, without the need to re-establish vacuum conditions required when using the normal avalanche Photodiode detectors (APD). Once the stray light was sufficiently reduced, the APD detectors provided the signal time history to more accurately identify the source location. We have also found that certain types of high reflectance dielectric coatings produce 10 to 15 times more scatter than other types of more conventional coatings. By using low-scatter mirror coatings and these new stray light reduction techniques, we now have more flexibility in the design of complex Thomson scattering configurations required to probe the central core and the new radiative divertor regions of the DIII-D vessel.

Nilson, D.G.; Hill, D.N.; Evans, J.C. [and others

1996-02-01

58

CCD Camera Lens Interface for Real-Time Theodolite Alignment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theodolites are a common instrument in the testing, alignment, and building of various systems ranging from a single optical component to an entire instrument. They provide a precise way to measure horizontal and vertical angles. They can be used to align multiple objects in a desired way at specific angles. They can also be used to reference a specific location or orientation of an object that has moved. Some systems may require a small margin of error in position of components. A theodolite can assist with accurately measuring and/or minimizing that error. The technology is an adapter for a CCD camera with lens to attach to a Leica Wild T3000 Theodolite eyepiece that enables viewing on a connected monitor, and thus can be utilized with multiple theodolites simultaneously. This technology removes a substantial part of human error by relying on the CCD camera and monitors. It also allows image recording of the alignment, and therefore provides a quantitative means to measure such error.

Wake, Shane; Scott, V. Stanley, III

2012-01-01

59

Optical system based on a CCD camera for ethanol detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports the optimization of an optical system used to detect and quantify volatile organic compounds (VOC). The sensor consisted of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sensing film deposited on a glass substrate by the spin-coating technique. The PDMS has the property of swelling and/or changing its refractive index when it interacts with molecules of VOC in vapor phase. In order to measure the PDMS swelling, a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was employed to evaluate the interference fringe shift in a Pohl interferometric arrangement. With this approach, it is possible to use each pixel of the CCD camera as a single photodetector in the arrangement. Similarly, different computer algorithms were developed in order to acquire and process the obtained data. The improvements in the system allowed the acquisition and plot of 1 datum per second. The steady-state responses of the PDMS sensors in the presence of ethanol vapor were analyzed. The obtained results showed that noise level was reduced approximately three times after performing data processing.

Martínez-Hipatl, C.; Muñoz-Aguirre, S.; Muñoz-Guerrero, R.; Castillo-Mixcóatl, J.; Beltrán-Pérez, G.; Gutiérrez-Salgado, J. M.

2013-10-01

60

Hidden grids in a CCD camera and the synthetic aperture radar (SAR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent paper the authors introduced more fringes generated by using hidden grids, like the geometric structure of the distribution of sensitive elements in a CCD camera. They demonstrated that it is possible to measure distances by using such moire patterns. As a direct consequence of this result the authors compare observations by CCD camera installed in a vehicle

Mario Garavaglia; Anibal P. Laquidara

2001-01-01

61

CID25: radiation hardened color video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge injection device, CID25, is presented. The CID25 is a color video imager. The imager is compliant with the NTSC interlaced TV standard. It has 484 by 710 displayable pixels and is capable of producing 30 frames-per-second color video. The CID25 is equipped with the preamplifier-per-pixel technology combined with parallel row processing to achieve high conversion gain and low noise bandwidth. The on-chip correlated double sampling circuitry serves to reduce the low frequency noise components. The CID25 is operated by a camera system consisting of two parts, the head assembly and the camera control unit (CCU). The head assembly and the CCU can be separated by up to 150 meter long cable. The CID25 imager and the head portion of the camera are radiation hardened. They can produce color video with insignificant SNR degradation out to at least 2.85 Mrad of total dose of Co 60 ?-radiation. This represents the first in industry radiation hardened color video system, based on a semiconductor photo-detector that has an adequate sensitivity for room light operation.

Baiko, D. A.; Bhaskaran, S. K.; Czebiniak, S. W.

2006-03-01

62

Focal plane CCD camera for the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) aboard SOLAR-B  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present scientific as well as engineering overview of the X-Ray Telescope (XRT) aboard the Japanese Solar-B mission to be launched in 2006, with emphasis on the focal plane CCD camera that employs a 2k x 2k back-thinned CCD. Characterization activities for the flight CCD camera made at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) are discussed in detail with

Taro Sakao; Ryouhei Kano; Hirohisa Hara; Keiichi Matsuzaki; Masumi Shimojo; Saku Tsuneta; Takeo Kosugi; Kiyoto Shibasaki; Kazuyoshi Kumagai; Masaki Sawa; Tomonori Tamura; Satoru Iwamura; Mitsuhiko Nakano; Zhangong Du; Kenji Hiyoshi; Michihiro Horii; Leon Golub; Jay A. Bookbinder; Peter C. Cheimets; Lawrence D. Hill; Jerry K. Owens

2004-01-01

63

CCD camera for ground- and space-based solar corona observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new concept CCD camera is currently under development at the XUVLab of the Department of Astronomy and Space Science of the University of Florence. This CCD camera is the proposed detector for the space- and ground-based solar corona observations. This camera will be the detector for the polarimetric channels of the UVC coronagraph of the HERSCHEL rocket mission to observe the solar corona in an optical broadband. The ground-based application consists in a UVC prototype for coronagraphic measurements from Earth in the visible range. Within this project, a CCD camera with innovative features has been produced: the camera controller allows the fine tuning of all the parameters related to charge transfer and CCD readout, i.e., the use of virtually any CCD sensor, and it implements the new concept of high level of versatility, easy management, TCP/IP remote control and display.

Gherardi, Alessandro; Gori, Luca; Focardi, Mauro; Pace, Emanuele; Romoli, Marco; Fineschi, Silvano; Zangrilli, Luca; Gardiol, Daniele; Antonucci, Ester

2004-02-01

64

Design and Development of Multi-Purpose CCD Camera System with Thermoelectric Cooling: Hardware  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We designed and developed a multi-purpose CCD camera system for three kinds of CCDs; KAF-0401E(768×512), KAF-1602E(1536×1024), KAF-3200E(2184×1472) made by KODAK Co.. The system supports fast USB port as well as parallel port for data I/O and control signal. The packing is based on two stage circuit boards for size reduction and contains built-in filter wheel. Basic hardware components include clock pattern circuit, A/D conversion circuit, CCD data flow control circuit, and CCD temperature control unit. The CCD temperature can be controlled with accuracy of approximately 0.4° C in the max. range of temperature, ? 33° C. This CCD camera system has with readout noise 6 e^{-}, and system gain 5 e^{-}/ADU. A total of 10 CCD camera systems were produced and our tests show that all of them show passable performance.

Kang, Y.-W.; Byun, Y. I.; Rhee, J. H.; Oh, S. H.; Kim, D. K.

2007-12-01

65

Design and implementation of timing generator of frame transfer area-array CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frame transfer area-array CCD camera is the perfect solution for high-end real-time medical, scientific and industrial applications because it has characteristics of high fill factor, low dark current, high resolving power, high sensitivity, high linear dynamic range and electronic shutter capability. Time sequences of frame transfer area-array CCD camera have two compact segments: CCD driving sequences and CCD signal processing sequences. Proper working of CCD sensor lies on good driving sequences while accurate CCD signal processing sequences ensures high quality of CCD image. The relationship among CCD camera time sequences is complex and precise. The conventional methods are uneasy to implement time sequences of Frame transfer area-array CCD. Embedded designing method is introduced in this paper and field programmable gate array device is chosen as the hardware design platform. Phase-locked loops are used for precise phase shifting and embedded logic analyzer for waveform verification. CCD driving clocks, electronic shutter signal, A/D and black pixels clamp clocks and double correlation sampling clocks have been attained on the hardware platform and this timing generator can control exposure time flexibly. High quality images have been acquired through using this timing generator on the CCD circuit system board which has been designed by our team.

Zhou, Jian-kang; Chen, Xin-hua; Zhou, Wang; Shen, Wei-min

2008-03-01

66

Astronomical Station Vidojevica: In Situ Test of the Alta Apogee U42 CCD Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, the CCD camera most used by observers of the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade is the ALTA Apogee U42. It is used for both photometric and astrometric observations. Therefore, it is very important to know different measurable parameters which describe the condition of the camera - linearity, gain, readout noise etc. In this paper, we present a thorough test of this camera.

Vince, O.

2012-12-01

67

The in-flight spectroscopic performance of the Swift XRT CCD camera during 2006-2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swift X-ray Telescope focal plane camera is a front-illuminated MOS CCD, providing a spectral response kernel of 135 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV as measured before launch. We describe the CCD calibration program based on celestial and on-board calibration sources, relevant in-flight experiences, and developments in the CCD response model. We illustrate how the revised response model describes the

O. Godet; A. P. Beardmore; A. F. Abbey; J. P. Osborne; K. L. Page; L. Tyler; D. N. Burrows; P. Evans; R. Starling; A. A. Wells; L. Angelini; S. Campana; G. Chincarini; O. Citterio; G. Cusamano; P. Giommi; J. E. Hill; J. Kennea; V. LaParola; V. Mangano; T. Mineo; A. Moretti; J. A. Nousek; C. Pagani; M. Perri; M. Capalbi; P. Romano; G. Tagliaferri; F. Tamburelli

2007-01-01

68

High-frame rate CCD cameras with fast optical shutters for mine detection and surveillance applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Los Alamos National Laboratory has designed and prototyped high-frame rate intensified/shuttered charged coupled device (CCD) cameras for potential use by the US military for land and sea mine detection and related surveillance applications. The complete ...

N. S. P. King K. A. Albright T. E. McDonald G. J. Yates B. T. Turko

1993-01-01

69

Vision system using linear CCD cameras in fluorescent magnetic particle inspection of axles of railway wheelsets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic magnetic particle inspection based vision system using CCD camera is a new development of magnetic particle inspection. A vision system using linear CCD cameras in semiautomatic fluorescent magnetic particle inspection of axles of railway wheelsets is presented in this paper. The system includes four linear CCD cameras, a PCI data acquisition & logic control card, and an industrial computer. The unique characteristic of striation induced by UV light flicker in scanning image acquired by linear CCD camera are investigated, and some digital image processing methods for images of magnetic particle indications are designed to identify the cracks, including image pre-processing using wavelet, edge detection based connected region using Candy operator and double thresholds. The experimental results show that the system can detect the article cracks effectively, and may improve inspection quality highly and increase productivity practically.

Hao, Hongwei; Li, Luming; Deng, Yuanhui

2005-05-01

70

Measuring neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes with CCD cameras  

SciTech Connect

The capability to measure bursts of neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes directly with charge coupled device (CCD) cameras while being able to distinguish between the video signals produced by these two types of radiation, even when they occur simultaneously, has been demonstrated. Volume and area measurements of transient radiation-induced pixel charge in English Electric Valve (EEV) Frame Transfer (FT) charge coupled devices (CCDs) from irradiation with pulsed neutrons (14 MeV) and Bremsstrahlung photons (4--12 MeV endpoint) are utilized to calibrate the devices as radiometric imaging sensors capable of distinguishing between the two types of ionizing radiation. Measurements indicate {approx}.05 V/rad responsivity with {ge}1 rad required for saturation from photon irradiation. Neutron-generated localized charge centers or peaks'' binned by area and amplitude as functions of fluence in the 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2} range indicate smearing over {approx}1 to 10% of CCD array with charge per pixel ranging between noise and saturation levels.

Yates, G.J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Smith, G.W. (Ministry of Defense, Aldermaston (United Kingdom). Atomic Weapons Establishment); Zagarino, P.; Thomas, M.C. (EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations)

1991-01-01

71

Measuring neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes with CCD cameras  

SciTech Connect

The capability to measure bursts of neutron fluences and gamma/x-ray fluxes directly with charge coupled device (CCD) cameras while being able to distinguish between the video signals produced by these two types of radiation, even when they occur simultaneously, has been demonstrated. Volume and area measurements of transient radiation-induced pixel charge in English Electric Valve (EEV) Frame Transfer (FT) charge coupled devices (CCDs) from irradiation with pulsed neutrons (14 MeV) and Bremsstrahlung photons (4--12 MeV endpoint) are utilized to calibrate the devices as radiometric imaging sensors capable of distinguishing between the two types of ionizing radiation. Measurements indicate {approx}.05 V/rad responsivity with {ge}1 rad required for saturation from photon irradiation. Neutron-generated localized charge centers or ``peaks`` binned by area and amplitude as functions of fluence in the 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2} range indicate smearing over {approx}1 to 10% of CCD array with charge per pixel ranging between noise and saturation levels.

Yates, G.J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Smith, G.W. [Ministry of Defense, Aldermaston (United Kingdom). Atomic Weapons Establishment; Zagarino, P.; Thomas, M.C. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (United States). Santa Barbara Operations

1991-12-01

72

Evaluation of intensified solid-state video cameras.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the laboratory and field testing of four intensified solid-state imager closed-circuit television cameras for suitability to perimeter video assessment systems. The first and second generation intensifier cameras were evaluated for s...

D. A. Greenwoll

1991-01-01

73

Initial laboratory evaluation of color video cameras: Phase 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video cameras used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. The monochrom...

P. L. Terry

1993-01-01

74

The image pretreatment based on the FPGA inside digital CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a space project, a digital CCD camera which can image more clearly in the 1 Lux light environment has been asked to design . The CCD sensor ICX285AL produced by SONY Co.Ltd has been used in the CCD camera. The FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) chip XQR2V1000 has been used as a timing generator and a signal processor inside the CCD camera. But in the low-light environment, two kinds of random noise become apparent because of the improving of CCD camera's variable gain, one is dark current noise in the image background, the other is vertical transfer noise. The real time method for eliminating noise based on FPGA inside the CCD camera would be introduced. The causes and characteristics of the random noise have been analyzed. First, several ideas for eliminating dark current noise had been motioned; then they were emulated by VC++ in order to compare their speed and effect; Gauss filter has been chosen because of the filtering effect. The vertical transfer vertical noise has the character that the vertical noise points have regular ordinate in the image two-dimensional coordinates; and the performance of the noise is fixed, the gray value of the noise points is 16-20 less than the surrounding pixels. According to these characters, local median filter has been used to clear up the vertical noise. Finally, these algorithms had been transplanted into the FPGA chip inside the CCD camera. A large number of experiments had proved that the pretreatment has better real-time features. The pretreatment makes the digital CCD camera improve the signal-to-noise ratio of 3-5dB in the low-light environment.

Tian, Rui; Liu, Yan-Ying

2009-07-01

75

Development of filter exchangeable 3CCD camera for multispectral imaging acquisition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are a lot of methods to acquire multispectral images. Dynamic band selective and area-scan multispectral camera has not developed yet. This research focused on development of a filter exchangeable 3CCD camera which is modified from the conventional 3CCD camera. The camera consists of F-mounted lens, image splitter without dichroic coating, three bandpass filters, three image sensors, filer exchangeable frame and electric circuit for parallel image signal processing. In addition firmware and application software have developed. Remarkable improvements compared to a conventional 3CCD camera are its redesigned image splitter and filter exchangeable frame. Computer simulation is required to visualize a pathway of ray inside of prism when redesigning image splitter. Then the dimensions of splitter are determined by computer simulation which has options of BK7 glass and non-dichroic coating. These properties have been considered to obtain full wavelength rays on all film planes. The image splitter is verified by two line lasers with narrow waveband. The filter exchangeable frame is designed to make swap bandpass filters without displacement change of image sensors on film plane. The developed 3CCD camera is evaluated to application of detection to scab and bruise on Fuji apple. As a result, filter exchangeable 3CCD camera could give meaningful functionality for various multispectral applications which need to exchange bandpass filter.

Lee, Hoyoung; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Moon S.; Noh, Sang Ha

2012-05-01

76

High-speed video recording system using multiple CCD imagers and digital storage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a fully solid state high speed video recording system. Its principle of operation is based on the use of several independent CCD imagers and an array of liquid crystal light valves that control which imager receives the light from the subject. The imagers are exposed in rapid succession and are then read out sequentially at standard video rate into digital memory, generating a time-resolved sequence with as many frames as there are imagers. This design allows the use of inexpensive, consumer-grade camera modules and electronics. A microprocessor-based controller, designed to accept up to ten imagers, handles all phases of the recording: exposure timing, image digitization and storage, and sequential playback onto a standard video monitor. The system is capable of recording full screen black and white images with spatial resolution similar to that of standard television, at rates of about 10,000 images per second in pulsed illumination mode. We have designed and built two optical configurations for the imager multiplexing system. The first one involves permanently splitting the subject light into multiple channels and placing a liquid crystal shutter in front of each imager. A prototype with three CCD imagers and shutters based on this configuration has allowed successful three-image video recordings of phenomena such as the action of an air rifle pellet shattering a piece of glass, using a high-intensity pulsed light emitting diode as the light source. The second configuration is more light-efficient in that it routes the entire subject light to each individual imager in sequence by using the liquid crystal cells as selectable binary switches. Despite some operational limitations, this method offers a solution when the available light, if subdivided among all the imagers, would not allow a sufficiently short exposure time.

Racca, Roberto G.; Clements, Reginald M.

1995-05-01

77

CALIBRATING A NETWORK OF CAMERAS FROM LIVE OR ARCHIVED VIDEO  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an automatic approach for calibrating a network of cameras using live video captured from them. Our method re- quires video sequences containing moving people or objects but does not require any special calibration data. The silhouettes of these moving objects visible in a pair of views, are used to compute the epipolar geometry of that camera pair. The

Sudipta N. Sinha; Marc Pollefeys

78

Security camera based on a single chip solution using a sharply outlined display algorithm and variable-clock video encoder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we have proposed a security camera system that displays high-definition images by using a sharply outlined display algorithm (SODA), which generates less hardware complexity because of a modified video encoder. While the proposed system uses a charge coupled device (CCD) with a complementary filter that may cause some problems in representing vivid color, we have been able

Joohyun Kim; Jooyoung Ha; Shinki Jeong; Hoongee Yang; Bongsoon Kang

2006-01-01

79

Automated CCD camera characterization. 1998 summer research program for high school juniors at the University of Rochester`s Laboratory for Laser Energetics: Student research reports  

SciTech Connect

The OMEGA system uses CCD cameras for a broad range of applications. Over 100 video rate CCD cameras are used for such purposes as targeting, aligning, and monitoring areas such as the target chamber, laser bay, and viewing gallery. There are approximately 14 scientific grade CCD cameras on the system which are used to obtain precise photometric results from the laser beam as well as target diagnostics. It is very important that these scientific grade CCDs are properly characterized so that the results received from them can be evaluated appropriately. Currently characterization is a tedious process done by hand. The operator must manually operate the camera and light source simultaneously. Because more exposures means more accurate information on the camera, the characterization tests can become very length affairs. Sometimes it takes an entire day to complete just a single plot. Characterization requires the testing of many aspects of the camera`s operation. Such aspects include the following: variance vs. mean signal level--this should be proportional due to Poisson statistics of the incident photon flux; linearity--the ability of the CCD to produce signals proportional to the light it received; signal-to-noise ratio--the relative magnitude of the signal vs. the uncertainty in that signal; dark current--the amount of noise due to thermal generation of electrons (cooling lowers this noise contribution significantly). These tests, as well as many others, must be conducted in order to properly understand a CCD camera. The goal of this project was to construct an apparatus that could characterize a camera automatically.

Silbermann, J. [Penfield High School, NY (United States)

1999-03-01

80

A distributed camera network architecture supporting video adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sparked by the desire to secure human presence in high risk areas, this paper proposes a distributed camera network architecture. This architecture is intended as a robust platform for video surveillance systems. In addition, the proposed system has the ability to collect\\/capture video streams from cameras at a point-of-interest and deliver a consolidated version of the video to a receiver.

Razib Iqbal; Saurabh Ratti; Shervin Shirmohammadi

2009-01-01

81

Demonstrations of Optical Spectra with a Video Camera  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of a video camera may markedly improve demonstrations of optical spectra. First, the output electrical signal from the camera, which provides full information about a picture to be transmitted, can be used for observing the radiant power spectrum on the screen of a common oscilloscope. Second, increasing the magnification by the camera

Kraftmakher, Yaakov

2012-01-01

82

Study of atmospheric discharges caracteristics using with a standard video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study is showed some preliminary statistics on lightning characteristics such as: flash multiplicity, number of ground contact points, formation of new and altered channels and presence of continuous current in the strokes that form the flash. The analysis is based on the images of a standard video camera (30 frames.s-1). The results obtained for some flashes will be compared to the images of a high-speed CCD camera (1000 frames.s-1). The camera observing site is located in São José dos Campos (23°S,46° W) at an altitude of 630m. This observational site has nearly 360° field of view at a height of 25m. It is possible to visualize distant thunderstorms occurring within a radius of 25km from the site. The room, situated over a metal structure, has water and power supplies, a telephone line and a small crane on the roof. KEY WORDS: Video images, Lightning, Multiplicity, Stroke.

Ferraz, E. C.; Saba, M. M. F.

83

Initial laboratory evaluation of color video cameras, phase 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video cameras used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. The monochrome cameras were selected over color cameras because they have greater sensitivity and resolution. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color camera technology is rapidly changing and because color information is useful for identification purposes, Sandia National Laboratories has established an on-going program to evaluate the newest color solid-state cameras. Phase 1 of the Sandia program resulted in the SAND91-2579/1 report titled: Initial Laboratory Evaluation of Color Video Cameras. The report briefly discusses imager chips, color cameras, and monitors, describes the camera selection, details traditional test parameters and procedures, and gives the results reached by evaluating 12 cameras. In Phase 2 of the report, six additional cameras using traditional methods were tested. In addition, all 18 cameras were tested by newly developed methods. This Phase 2 report details those newly developed test parameters and procedures, and evaluates the results.

Terry, P. L.

1993-07-01

84

Theodolite with CCD Camera for Safe Measurement of Laser-Beam Pointing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The simple addition of a charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera to a theodolite makes it safe to measure the pointing direction of a laser beam. The present state of the art requires this to be a custom addition because theodolites are manufactured without CCD cameras as standard or even optional equipment. A theodolite is an alignment telescope equipped with mechanisms to measure the azimuth and elevation angles to the sub-arcsecond level. When measuring the angular pointing direction of a Class ll laser with a theodolite, one could place a calculated amount of neutral density (ND) filters in front of the theodolite s telescope. One could then safely view and measure the laser s boresight looking through the theodolite s telescope without great risk to one s eyes. This method for a Class ll visible wavelength laser is not acceptable to even consider tempting for a Class IV laser and not applicable for an infrared (IR) laser. If one chooses insufficient attenuation or forgets to use the filters, then looking at the laser beam through the theodolite could cause instant blindness. The CCD camera is already commercially available. It is a small, inexpensive, blackand- white CCD circuit-board-level camera. An interface adaptor was designed and fabricated to mount the camera onto the eyepiece of the specific theodolite s viewing telescope. Other equipment needed for operation of the camera are power supplies, cables, and a black-and-white television monitor. The picture displayed on the monitor is equivalent to what one would see when looking directly through the theodolite. Again, the additional advantage afforded by a cheap black-and-white CCD camera is that it is sensitive to infrared as well as to visible light. Hence, one can use the camera coupled to a theodolite to measure the pointing of an infrared as well as a visible laser.

Crooke, Julie A.

2003-01-01

85

The In-flight Spectroscopic Performance of the Swift XRT CCD Camera During 2006-2007  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Swift X-ray Telescope focal plane camera is a front-illuminated MOS CCD, providing a spectral response kernel of 135 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV as measured before launch. We describe the CCD calibration program based on celestial and on-board calibration sources, relevant in-flight experiences, and developments in the CCD response model. We illustrate how the revised response model describes the calibration sources well. Comparison of observed spectra with models folded through the instrument response produces negative residuals around and below the Oxygen edge. We discuss several possible causes for such residuals. Traps created by proton damage on the CCD increase the charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) over time. We describe the evolution of the CTI since the launch and its effect on the CCD spectral resolution and the gain.

Godet, O.; Beardmore, A.P.; Abbey, A.F.; Osborne, J.P.; Page, K.L.; Evans, P.; Starling, R.; Wells, A.A.; Angelini, L.; Burrows, D.N.; Kennea, J.; Campana, S.; Chincarini, G.; Citterio, O.; Cusumano, G.; LaParola, V.; Mangano, V.; Mineo, T.; Giommi, P.; Perri, M.; Capalbi, M.; Tamburelli, F.

2007-01-01

86

The in-flight spectroscopic performance of the Swift XRT CCD camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) focal plane camera is a front-illuminated MOS\\u000aCCD, providing a spectral response kernel of 144 eV FWHM at 6.5 keV. We\\u000adescribe the CCD calibration program based on celestial and on-board\\u000acalibration sources, relevant in-flight experiences, and developments in the\\u000aCCD response model. We illustrate how the revised response model describes the\\u000acalibration sources well.

J. P. Osborne; A. P. Beardmore; O. Godet; A. F. Abbey; M. R. Goad; K. L. Page; A. A. Wells; L. Angelini; D. N. Burrows; S. Campana; G. Chincarini; O. Citterio; G. Cusumano; P. Giommi; J. E. Hill; J. Kennea; V. LaParola; V. Mangano; T. Mineo; A. Moretti; J. A. Nousek; C. Pagani; M. Perri; P. Romano; G. Tagliaferri; F. Tamburelli

2005-01-01

87

An ultrahigh-speed color video camera operating at 1,000,000 fps with 288 frame memories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed an ultrahigh-speed color video camera that operates at 1,000,000 fps (frames per second) and had capacity to store 288 frame memories. In 2005, we developed an ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity portable color camera with a 300,000-pixel single CCD (ISIS-V4: In-situ Storage Image Sensor, Version 4). Its ultrahigh-speed shooting capability of 1,000,000 fps was made possible by directly connecting CCD storages, which record video images, to the photodiodes of individual pixels. The number of consecutive frames was 144. However, longer capture times were demanded when the camera was used during imaging experiments and for some television programs. To increase ultrahigh-speed capture times, we used a beam splitter and two ultrahigh-speed 300,000-pixel CCDs. The beam splitter was placed behind the pick up lens. One CCD was located at each of the two outputs of the beam splitter. The CCD driving unit was developed to separately drive two CCDs, and the recording period of the two CCDs was sequentially switched. This increased the recording capacity to 288 images, an increase of a factor of two over that of conventional ultrahigh-speed camera. A problem with the camera was that the incident light on each CCD was reduced by a factor of two by using the beam splitter. To improve the light sensitivity, we developed a microlens array for use with the ultrahigh-speed CCDs. We simulated the operation of the microlens array in order to optimize its shape and then fabricated it using stamping technology. Using this microlens increased the light sensitivity of the CCDs by an approximate factor of two. By using a beam splitter in conjunction with the microlens array, it was possible to make an ultrahigh-speed color video camera that has 288 frame memories but without decreasing the camera's light sensitivity.

Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Yonai, J.; Hayashida, T.; Kurita, T.; Maruyama, H.; Namiki, J.; Yanagi, T.; Yoshida, T.; van Kuijk, H.; Bosiers, Jan T.; Saita, A.; Kanayama, S.; Hatade, K.; Kitagawa, S.; Etoh, T. Goji

2008-11-01

88

Quantum efficiency of the XMM pn-CCD camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantum efficiency of the pn-CCD detector on the XMM satellite mission was determined in the spectral range between 150 eV and 15 keV. The unstructured entrance window of the device, which is formed by an ultrathin reverse biased pn-junction, results in an excellent spatial homogeneity with a good spectroscopic performance and high detection efficiency for low energy photons. The

Robert Hartmann; Gisela D. Hartner; Ulrich G. Briel; Konrad Dennerl; Frank Haberl; Lothar Strueder; Joachim Truemper; Edgar Bihler; Eckhard Kendziorra; Jean-Francois E. Hochedez; Erick Jourdain; Pierre Dhez; Philippe Salvetat; Jutta M. Auerhammer; D. Schmitz; Frank Scholze; Gerhard Ulm

1999-01-01

89

Optical synthesizer for a large quadrant-array CCD camera: Center director's discretionary fund  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this program was to design and develop an optical device, an optical synthesizer, that focuses four contiguous quadrants of a solar image on four spatially separated CCD arrays that are part of a unique CCD camera system. This camera and the optical synthesizer will be part of the new NASA-Marshall Experimental Vector Magnetograph, and instrument developed to measure the Sun's magnetic field as accurately as present technology allows. The tasks undertaken in the program are outlined and the final detailed optical design is presented.

Hagyard, Mona J.

1992-01-01

90

Research on detecting heterogeneous fibre from cotton based on linear CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heterogeneous fibre in cotton make a great impact on production of cotton textile, it will have a bad effect on the quality of product, thereby affect economic benefits and market competitive ability of corporation. So the detecting and eliminating of heterogeneous fibre is particular important to improve machining technics of cotton, advance the quality of cotton textile and reduce production cost. There are favorable market value and future development for this technology. An optical detecting system obtains the widespread application. In this system, we use a linear CCD camera to scan the running cotton, then the video signals are put into computer and processed according to the difference of grayscale, if there is heterogeneous fibre in cotton, the computer will send an order to drive the gas nozzle to eliminate the heterogeneous fibre. In the paper, we adopt monochrome LED array as the new detecting light source, it's lamp flicker, stability of luminous intensity, lumens depreciation and useful life are all superior to fluorescence light. We analyse the reflection spectrum of cotton and various heterogeneous fibre first, then select appropriate frequency of the light source, we finally adopt violet LED array as the new detecting light source. The whole hardware structure and software design are introduced in this paper.

Zhang, Xian-Bin; Cao, Bing; Zhang, Xin-Peng; Shi, Wei

2009-07-01

91

Are Video Cameras the Key to School Safety?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes one high school's use of video cameras as a preventive tool in stemming theft and violent episodes within schools. The top 10 design tips for preventing crime on campus are highlighted. (GR)

Maranzano, Chuck

1998-01-01

92

A Design and Development of Multi-Purpose CCD Camera System with Thermoelectric Cooling: Software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a software which we developed for the multi-purpose CCD camera. This software can be used on the all 3 types of CCD - KAF-0401E (768×512), KAF-1602E (15367times;1024), KAF-3200E (2184×1472) made in KODAK Co.. For the efficient CCD camera control, the software is operated with two independent processes of the CCD control program and the temperature/shutter operation program. This software is designed to fully automatic operation as well as manually operation under LINUX system, and is controled by LINUX user signal procedure. We plan to use this software for all sky survey system and also night sky monitoring and sky observation. As our results, the read-out time of each CCD are about 15sec, 64sec, 134sec for KAF-0401E, KAF-1602E, KAF-3200E., because these time are limited by the data transmission speed of parallel port. For larger format CCD, the data transmission is required more high speed. we are considering this control software to one using USB port for high speed data transmission.

Oh, S. H.; Kang, Y. W.; Byun, Y. I.

2007-12-01

93

Research on radiometric calibration of interline transfer CCD camera based on TDI working mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interline transfer CCD camera can be designed to work in time delay and integration mode similar to TDI CCD to obtain higher responsivity and spatial resolution under poor illumination condition. However it was found that outputs of some pixels were much lower than others' as interline transfer CCD camera work in TDI mode in laboratory radiometric calibration experiments. As a result photo response non-uniformity(PRNU) and signal noise ratio(SNR) of the system turned for the worse. This phenomenon's mechanism was analyzed and improved PRNU and SNR algorithms of interline transfer CCD camera were advanced to solve this problem. In this way TDI stage was used as a variant in PRNU and SNR algorithms and system performance was improved observably with few influences on use. In validation experiments the improved algorithms was applied in radiometric calibration of a camera with KAI-0340s as detector. Results of validation experiments proved that the improved algorithms could effectively improve SNR and lower PRNU of the system. At the same time characteristic of the system could be reflected better. As working in 16 TDI stages, PRUN was reduced from 2.25% to 0.82% and SNR was improved about 2%.

Wu, Xing-Xing; Liu, Jin-Guo

2010-05-01

94

Online inspection of thermo-chemical heat treatment processes with CCD camera system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma nitriding belongs to the group of the thermo chemical surface heat treatments. During this process nitrogen is dissociated into the surface of the material increasing hardness, wear resistance, endurance strength and\\/or corrosion resistance. This paper presents a new inspection system based on a CCD camera system for monitoring such heat treatment processes (PACVD, plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition). Treatment

Gerald Zauner; Gerald Darilion; Ronald Pree; Daniel Heim; G. Hendorfer

2005-01-01

95

A USB 2.0 computer interface for the UCO\\/Lick CCD cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new UCO\\/Lick Observatory CCD camera uses a 200 MHz fiber optic cable to transmit image data and an RS232 serial line for low speed bidirectional command and control. Increasingly RS232 is a legacy interface supported on fewer computers. The fiber optic cable requires either a custom interface board that is plugged into the mainboard of the image acquisition computer

Mingzhi Wei; Richard J. Stover

2004-01-01

96

Plasma boundary observations using an asynchronous CCD camera with automatic exposure control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic exposure control of an asynchronous CCD camera has been demonstrated on TEXTOR, JET and COMPASS and in a single field, random event mode, on TVD and START. The system has been successful in correctly exposing and timing variable intensities requiring a range of exposures from 0.2 300 ms in a single discharge.

D. H. J. Goodall; M. N. Price

1992-01-01

97

Plasma boundary observations using an asynchronous CCD camera with automatic exposure control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automatic exposure control of an asynchronous CCD camera has been demonstrated on TEXTOR, JET and COMPASS and in a single field, random event mode, on TVD and START. The system has been successful in correctly exposing and timing variable intensities requiring a range of exposures from 0.2-300 ms in a single discharge.

Goodall, D. H. J.; Price, M. N.

1992-12-01

98

Video camera system for locating bullet holes in targets at a ballistics tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system consisting of a single charge coupled device (CCD) video camera, computer controlled video digitizer, and software to automate the measurement was developed to measure the location of bullet holes in targets at the International Shooters Development Fund (ISDF)/NASA Ballistics Tunnel. The camera/digitizer system is a crucial component of a highly instrumented indoor 50 meter rifle range which is being constructed to support development of wind resistant, ultra match ammunition. The system was designed to take data rapidly (10 sec between shoots) and automatically with little operator intervention. The system description, measurement concept, and procedure are presented along with laboratory tests of repeatability and bias error. The long term (1 hour) repeatability of the system was found to be 4 microns (one standard deviation) at the target and the bias error was found to be less than 50 microns. An analysis of potential errors and a technique for calibration of the system are presented.

Burner, A. W.; Rummler, D. R.; Goad, W. K.

1990-01-01

99

Camera Network Calibration and Synchronization from Silhouettes in Archived Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an automatic method for calibrating a network of cameras that works by analyzing only the motion\\u000a of silhouettes in the multiple video streams. This is particularly useful for automatic reconstruction of a dynamic event\\u000a using a camera network in a situation where pre-calibration of the cameras is impractical or even impossible. The key contribution\\u000a of

Sudipta N. Sinha; Marc Pollefeys

2010-01-01

100

Review of intelligent video surveillance with single camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intelligent video surveillance has found a wide range of applications in public security. This paper describes the state-of- the-art techniques in video surveillance system with single camera. This can serve as a starting point for building practical video surveillance systems in developing regions, leveraging existing ubiquitous infrastructure. In addition, this paper discusses the gap between existing technologies and the requirements in real-world scenario, and proposes potential solutions to reduce this gap.

Liu, Ying; Fan, Jiu-Lun; Wang, Dianwei

2011-12-01

101

Model-Based Video Coding Using Colour and Depth Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a model-based video coding method that uses input from colour and depth cameras, such as the Microsoft Kinect. The model-based approach uses a 3D representation of the scene, enabling several other applications besides video playback. Some of these applications are stereoscopic viewing, object insertion for augmented reality and free viewpoint viewing. The video encoding step

David Sandberg; Per-Erik Forssen; Jens Ogniewski

2011-01-01

102

Source video camera identification for multiply compressed videos originating from YouTube  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Photo Response Non-Uniformity is a unique sensor noise pattern that is present in each image or video acquired with a digital camera. In this work a wavelet-based technique used to extract these patterns from digital images is applied to compressed low resolution videos originating mainly from webcams. After recording these videos with a variety of codec and resolution settings,

Wiger van Houten; Zeno Geradts

2009-01-01

103

Time-resolved spectra of dense plasma focus using spectrometer, streak camera, and CCD combination  

SciTech Connect

A time-resolving spectrographic instrument has been assembled with the primary components of a spectrometer, image-converting streak camera, and CCD recording camera, for the primary purpose of diagnosing highly dynamic plasmas. A collection lens defines the sampled region and couples light from the plasma into a step index, multimode fiber which leads to the spectrometer. The output spectrum is focused onto the photocathode of the streak camera, the output of which is proximity-coupled to the CCD. The spectrometer configuration is essentially Czerny-Turner, but off-the-shelf Nikon refraction lenses, rather than mirrors, are used for practicality and flexibility. Only recently assembled, the instrument requires significant refinement, but has now taken data on both bridge wire and dense plasma focus experiments.

Goldin, F. J. [Livermore Operations, National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C. [North Las Vegas Facility, National Security Technologies, LLC, North Las Vegas, Nevada 89030 (United States); Wilkins, P. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

2010-10-15

104

A Simple Approach of CCD Camera Calibration for Optical Diagnostics Instrumentation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solid State array sensors are ubiquitous nowadays for obtaining gross field images in numerous scientific and engineering applications including optical diagnostics and instrumentation. Linear responses of these sensors are often required as in interferometry, light scattering and attenuation measurements, and photometry. In most applications, the linearity is usually taken to be granted without thorough quantitative assessment or correction through calibration. Upper-grade CCD cameras of high price may offer better linearity: however, they also require linearity checking and correction if necessary. Intermediate- or low-grade CCD cameras are more likely to need calibration for linearity . Here, we present two very simple approaches: one for quickly checking camera linearity without any additional setup and one for precisely correcting nonlinear sensor responses. It is believed that after calibration, those sensors of intermediate or low grade can function as effectively as their expensive counterpart.

Cha, Soyoung Stephen; Leslie, Fred W.; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

105

Time-resolved spectra of dense plasma focus using spectrometer, streak camera, and CCD combination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A time-resolving spectrographic instrument has been assembled with the primary components of a spectrometer, image-converting streak camera, and CCD recording camera, for the primary purpose of diagnosing highly dynamic plasmas. A collection lens defines the sampled region and couples light from the plasma into a step index, multimode fiber which leads to the spectrometer. The output spectrum is focused onto the photocathode of the streak camera, the output of which is proximity-coupled to the CCD. The spectrometer configuration is essentially Czerny-Turner, but off-the-shelf Nikon refraction lenses, rather than mirrors, are used for practicality and flexibility. Only recently assembled, the instrument requires significant refinement, but has now taken data on both bridge wire and dense plasma focus experiments.

Goldin, F. J.; Meehan, B. T.; Hagen, E. C.; Wilkins, P. R.

2010-10-01

106

Time-resolved spectra of dense plasma focus using spectrometer, streak camera, and CCD combination.  

PubMed

A time-resolving spectrographic instrument has been assembled with the primary components of a spectrometer, image-converting streak camera, and CCD recording camera, for the primary purpose of diagnosing highly dynamic plasmas. A collection lens defines the sampled region and couples light from the plasma into a step index, multimode fiber which leads to the spectrometer. The output spectrum is focused onto the photocathode of the streak camera, the output of which is proximity-coupled to the CCD. The spectrometer configuration is essentially Czerny-Turner, but off-the-shelf Nikon refraction lenses, rather than mirrors, are used for practicality and flexibility. Only recently assembled, the instrument requires significant refinement, but has now taken data on both bridge wire and dense plasma focus experiments. PMID:21034059

Goldin, F J; Meehan, B T; Hagen, E C; Wilkins, P R

2010-10-01

107

Applications of visible CCD cameras on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five 7 mm diameter remote-head visible charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras are being used on Alcator C-Mod for several different diagnostic purposes. All of the cameras' detectors and optics are placed inside a magnetic field of up to 4 T. Images of the cameras are recorded simultaneously using two three-channel color framegrabber cards. Two CCD cameras are used typically to generate two-dimensional emissivity profiles of deuterium line radiation from the divertor. Interference filters are used to select the spectral line to be measured. The local emissivity is obtained by inverting the measured brightnesses assuming toroidal symmetry of the emission. Another use of the cameras is the identification and localization of impurity sources generated by the ion cyclotron radio frequency (ICRF) antennas, which supply the auxiliary heating on Alcator C-Mod. The impurities generated by the antennas are identified by correlating in time the injections seen at the cameras with measurements made with core diagnostics. Fibers whose views aligned with the camera views and whose outputs are coupled to a visible spectrometer are also used to identify the species of the impurities injected.

Boswell, C. J.; Terry, J. L.; Lipschultz, B.; Stillerman, J.

2001-01-01

108

Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) tail camera video  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID) was a joint research project by NASA and the FAA to test a survivable aircraft impact using a remotely piloted Boeing 720 aircraft. The tail camera movie is one shot running 27 seconds. It shows the impact from the perspective of a camera mounted high on the vertical stabilizer, looking forward over the fuselage and wings.

1984-01-01

109

Networked video surveillance using multiple omnidirectional cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote surveillance is widely utilized in banks, shops, offices, at home and so on. In most conventional remote surveillance systems, fixed or active cameras with a narrow field of view are generally used in order to acquire an image of the remote site. This paper proposes a new networked surveillance system. The proposed surveillance system, which uses multiple omnidirectional cameras

Shinji Morita; Kazumasa Yamazawa; Naokazu Yokoya

2003-01-01

110

Low noise CCD cameras for wide field astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern research trends require observation of fainter and fainter astronomical objects on large areas of the sky. This implies usage of systems with high temporal and optical resolution with computer based data acquisition and processing. Therefore Charge Coupled Devices became so popular. They offer quick picture conversion with much better quality than film based technologies. There are two main trends in astronomical observations. First one is construction of large telescopes with sensitive picture sensors. They allow further exploration of the Universe. An example is the KECK telescope in Hawaii. The other trend is presented by systems that perform observation of large areas of the sky with high resolution in time. They are used to investigate objects, which rapidly change their position or intensity. They are often quite bright, thus the sensitivity of such measurement systems is not so critical. Because of huge amount of data from detector, the analysis must be performed on-line. This way, there is a large reduction of data that are archived and processed later. The example of project that realizes the concept of variable sky objects observation is "Pi of The Sky". The main field of interest is detection of optical flashes that accompany star's explosions. The conditions that are present during such an events are similar to ones that had place in the young Universe. That's why this research is interesting also for particle physics. This work is theoretical and practical study of the CCD based picture acquisition system. This system was optimized for "Pi of The Sky" project. But it can be adapted to another professional astronomical researches. The work includes issue of picture conversion, signal acquisition, data transfer and mechanical construction of the device.

Kasprowicz, Grzegorz

2005-09-01

111

The development of a high-speed 100 fps CCD camera  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development of a high-speed CCD digital camera system. The system has been designed to use CCDs from various manufacturers with minimal modifications. The first camera built on this design utilizes a Thomson 512x512 pixel CCD as its sensor which is read out from two parallel outputs at a speed of 15 MHz/pixel/output. The data undergoes correlated double sampling after which, they are digitized into 12 bits. The throughput of the system translates into 60 MB/second which is either stored directly in a PC or transferred to a custom designed VXI module. The PC data acquisition version of the camera can collect sustained data in real time that is limited to the memory installed in the PC. The VXI version of the camera, also controlled by a PC, stores 512 MB of real-time data before it must be read out to the PC disk storage. The uncooled CCD can be used either with lenses for visible light imaging or with a phosphor screen for x-ray imaging. This camera has been tested with a phosphor screen coupled to a fiber-optic face plate for high-resolution, high-speed x-ray imaging. The camera is controlled through a custom event-driven user-friendly Windows package. The pixel clock speed can be changed from I MHz to 15 MHz. The noise was measure to be 1.05 bits at a 13.3 MHz pixel clock. This paper will describe the electronics, software, and characterizations that have been performed using both visible and x-ray photons.

Hoffberg, M.; Laird, R.; Lenkzsus, F. Liu, Chuande; Rodricks, B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gelbart, A. [Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY (United States)

1996-09-01

112

Deflection Measurements of a Thermally Simulated Nuclear Core Using a High-Resolution CCD-Camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space fission systems under consideration for near-term missions all use compact. fast-spectrum reactor cores. Reactor dimensional change with increasing temperature, which affects neutron leakage. is the dominant source of reactivity feedback in these systems. Accurately measuring core dimensional changes during realistic non-nuclear testing is therefore necessary in predicting the system nuclear equivalent behavior. This paper discusses one key technique being evaluated for measuring such changes. The proposed technique is to use a Charged Couple Device (CCD) sensor to obtain deformation readings of electrically heated prototypic reactor core geometry. This paper introduces a technique by which a single high spatial resolution CCD camera is used to measure core deformation in Real-Time (RT). Initial system checkout results are presented along with a discussion on how additional cameras could be used to achieve a three- dimensional deformation profile of the core during test.

Stanojev, B. J.; Houts, M.

2004-01-01

113

Measuring high-resolution sky luminance distributions with a CCD camera.  

PubMed

We describe how sky luminance can be derived from a newly developed hemispherical sky imager (HSI) system. The system contains a commercial compact charge coupled device (CCD) camera equipped with a fish-eye lens. The projection of the camera system has been found to be nearly equidistant. The luminance from the high dynamic range images has been calculated and then validated with luminance data measured by a CCD array spectroradiometer. The deviation between both datasets is less than 10% for cloudless and completely overcast skies, and differs by no more than 20% for all sky conditions. The global illuminance derived from the HSI pictures deviates by less than 5% and 20% under cloudless and cloudy skies for solar zenith angles less than 80°, respectively. This system is therefore capable of measuring sky luminance with the high spatial and temporal resolution of more than a million pixels and every 20 s respectively. PMID:23478758

Tohsing, Korntip; Schrempf, Michael; Riechelmann, Stefan; Schilke, Holger; Seckmeyer, Gunther

2013-03-10

114

Overview of the calibration and the performance of the pn-CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the near future the European x-ray satellite XMM will be launched into orbit. The satellite is equipped with a PN-CCD camera with a sensitive area of 60 mm X 60 mm, integrated on a single silicon wafer. The same camera is on board of the German x-ray satellite ABRIXAS. The main feature of this camera type is the very good quantum efficiency of more than 90 percent in the energy range from 0.3 to 10 keV and the high time resolution, selectable between 7 microsecond(s) ec and 280 msec. All flight cameras are extensively calibrated, utilizing the long beam test facility Panter in Muenchen, the Synchrotron Radiation Facility beam lines at the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, and the PTB beam line at the Bessy Synchrotron in Berlin. We will give an overview of all the calibrations and calibration methods as well as some global results.

Briel, Ulrich G.; Bihler, Edgar; Braeuninger, Heinrich W.; Colli, Michael; Dennerl, Konrad; Haberl, Frank; Hartmann, Robert; Hartner, Gisela D.; Holl, Peter; Meidinger, Norbert; Kemmer, Josef; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Kirsch, Marcus; Krause, Norbert; Kuster, Markus

1999-10-01

115

Visualization of molten pools and invisible laser beam profiles using an ultraviolet CCD camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A visualization technique using an ultraviolet CCD camera has been successfully applied to the non-contact monitoring of molten\\u000a pools produced in material processing by high power CO2 lasers. This technique is based on the principle that the temperature sensitivity of UV radiation emitted from molten pools\\u000a is much higher than visible or infrared region. Additionally, the target area directly irradiated

N. Sakurada; Y. Ishii; K. Watanabe; Y. Kubota

2001-01-01

116

Outer planet investigations using a CCD camera system. [Saturn disk photommetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Problems related to analog noise, data transfer from the camera buffer to the storage computer, and loss of sensitivity of a two dimensional charge coupled device imaging system are reported. To calibrate the CCD system, calibrated UBV pinhole scans of the Saturn disk were obtained with a photoelectric area scanning photometer. Atmospheric point spread functions were also obtained. The UBV observations and models of the Saturn atmosphere are analyzed.

Price, M. J.

1980-01-01

117

PN-CCD detector for the European photon imaging camera on XMM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pn-charge coupled device (pn-CCD) detector system was developed as the focal plane instrument of an x-ray telescope for the European photon imaging camera (EPIC) on the x-ray multi mirror (XMM) mission. The second cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency's Horizon 2000 plan performs high throughput imaging and spectroscopy of the x- ray sky in the domain of 0.1

Norbert Meidinger; Heinrich W. Braeuninger; R. Hartmann; G. Hartner; N. Krause; G. Metzner; Elmar Pfeffermann; M. Popp; C. Reppin; J. Riedel; D. Stoetter; Lothar Strueder; Joachim Truemper; U. Weber; D. Hauff; Peter Holl; J. Kemmer; S. Krisch; Heike Soltau; Christoph van Zanthier; E. Bihler; H. Boettcher; E. Kendziorra; J. Kraemer; B. Pflueger; R. Staubert

1996-01-01

118

A USB 2.0 computer interface for the UCO/Lick CCD cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The new UCO/Lick Observatory CCD camera uses a 200 MHz fiber optic cable to transmit image data and an RS232 serial line for low speed bidirectional command and control. Increasingly RS232 is a legacy interface supported on fewer computers. The fiber optic cable requires either a custom interface board that is plugged into the mainboard of the image acquisition computer to accept the fiber directly or an interface converter that translates the fiber data onto a widely used standard interface. We present here a simple USB 2.0 interface for the UCO/Lick camera. A single USB cable connects to the image acquisition computer and the camera's RS232 serial and fiber optic cables plug into the USB interface. Since most computers now support USB 2.0 the Lick interface makes it possible to use the camera on essentially any modern computer that has the supporting software. No hardware modifications or additions to the computer are needed. The necessary device driver software has been written for the Linux operating system which is now widely used at Lick Observatory. The complete data acquisition software for the Lick CCD camera is running on a variety of PC style computers as well as an HP laptop.

Wei, Mingzhi; Stover, Richard J.

2004-09-01

119

Online inspection of thermo-chemical heat treatment processes with CCD camera system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plasma nitriding belongs to the group of the thermo chemical surface heat treatments. During this process nitrogen is dissociated into the surface of the material increasing hardness, wear resistance, endurance strength and/or corrosion resistance. This paper presents a new inspection system based on a CCD camera system for monitoring such heat treatment processes (PACVD, plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition). Treatment temperatures commonly used are within the range of 350oC to 600oC. A near infrared enhanced CCD camera system equipped with specifically chosen spectral filters is used to measure spectral emittances during the surface modification. In particular the spectral operating range of 950nm to 1150nm of the silicon CCD camera is utilized. The measurement system is based on the principles of ratio pyrometry (dual-band method) known from non-contact temperature measurements, in which two images of the same scene, each taken at slightly different spectral bands, are used to determine the spectral light characteristics. This results in an improved relative sensitivity for spectral changes (i.e. deviations from the gray-body hypothesis) during the surface modification.

Zauner, Gerald; Darilion, Gerald; Pree, Ronald; Heim, Daniel; Hendorfer, G.

2005-12-01

120

A range-resolved bistatic lidar using a high-sensitive CCD-camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Until now monostatic type lidar systems have been mainly utilized in the field of lidar measurements of the atmosphere. We propose here a range-resolved bistatic lidar system using a high-sensitive cooled charge coupled device (CCD) camera. This system has the ability to measure the three dimensional distributions of aerosol, atmospheric density, and cloud by processing the image data of the laser beam trajectory obtained by a CCD camera. Also, this lidar system has a feature that allows dual utilization of continuous wave (CW) lasers and pulse lasers. The scheme of measurement with this bistatic lidar is shown. A laser beam is emitted vertically and the image of its trajectory is taken with a remote high-sensitive CCD detector using an interference filter and a camera lens. The specifications of the bistatic lidar system used in the experiments are shown. The preliminary experimental results of our range-resolved bistatic lidar system suggest potential applications in the field of lidar measurements of the atmosphere.

Yamaguchi, K.; Nomura, A.; Saito, Y.; Kano, T.

1992-01-01

121

Synchronizing Light Pulses With Video Camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interface circuit triggers laser or other external source of light to flash in proper frame and field (at proper time) for video recording and playback in "pause" mode. Also increases speed of electronic shutter (if any) during affected frame to reduce visibility of background illumination relative to that of laser illumination.

Kalshoven, James E., Jr.; Tierney, Michael; Dabney, Philip

1993-01-01

122

Design of an Event-Driven Random-Access-Windowing CCD-Based Camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Commercially available cameras are not design for the combination of single frame and high-speed streaming digital video with real-time control of size and location of multiple regions-of-interest (ROI). A new control paradigm is defined to eliminate the tight coupling between the camera logic and the host controller. This functionality is achieved by defining the indivisible pixel read out operation on a per ROI basis with in-camera time keeping capability. This methodology provides a Random Access, Real-Time, Event-driven (RARE) camera for adaptive camera control and is will suited for target tracking applications requiring autonomous control of multiple ROI's. This methodology additionally provides for reduced ROI read out time and higher frame rates compared to the original architecture by avoiding external control intervention during the ROI read out process.

Monacos, Steve P.; Lam, Raymond K.; Portillo, Angel A.; Ortiz, Gerardo G.

2003-01-01

123

Using a Digital Video Camera to Study Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To illustrate how a digital video camera can be used to analyze various types of motion, this simple activity analyzes the motion and measures the acceleration due to gravity of a basketball in free fall. Although many excellent commercially available data loggers and software can accomplish this task, this activity requires almost no financial…

Abisdris, Gil; Phaneuf, Alain

2007-01-01

124

Video camera zoom lens design using lens modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the procedures for an initial design containing the first and third order aberrations of a four-group, rear focus video camera zoom lens using lens modules, and the real lens design from an initial design. Lens modules in the zoom system can explicitly describe the first and third order properties of each group without detailed design. The optimum

Sung Chan Park; Keun B. Kim

1995-01-01

125

Video camera recorder using small-size DVD-RAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a video camera recording using small-size 80 mm DVD-RAM with the following features: quick search, no accidental overwrite, high-quality picture for a long time, playback on PCs with a 4.7 GB DVD-RAM drive and future DVD players

Ryoichi Oba; J. Shiokawa; Hiroshi Chiba; A. Nishizawa; H. Kobayashi

2000-01-01

126

Means for Focusing and Adjusting Video Camera Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laser is used to form fiducial marks on the imaging system of a video camera system. Fiducial marks permit adjustment of alignment controls to minimize distortion in non-linear areas by appropriate image corrections used with the fiducial marks. Placeme...

J. B. Frank P. N. Keller R. A. Swing

1982-01-01

127

Calibration of a CCD camera on a hybrid coordinate measuring machine for industrial metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology for the calibration of a CCD low-cost camera mounted on a CMM machine is described. Several kinds of geometric distortion are taken into account in the camera model. Five distortion parameters are introduced modeling both radial and non-radial effects. A two- phase methodology is developed for the parameter estimation. In the first phase, a closed-form solution is reached for the intrinsic and the extrinsic parameters neglecting distortion effects. In the second phase, an iterative procedure estimates separately the distortion and the non- distortion parameters, to avoid harmful interactions. The main novelty of the solution is the use of only linear systems, avoiding any non-linear optimization process. Low-level image processing used for calibration images is described. Experimental results and comparisons with more simplified camera models and estimation strategies are presented.

Bruzzone, Elisabetta; Mangili, Fulvia

1991-09-01

128

Thermal modeling of cooled instrument: from the WIRCam IR camera to CCD Peltier cooled compact packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade, new thermal modelling tools have been offered to system designers. These modelling tools have rarely been used for the cooled instruments in ground-based astronomy. In addition to an overwhelming increase of PC computer capabilities, these tools are now mature enough to drive the design of complex astronomical instruments that are cooled. This is the case for WIRCam, the new wide-field infrared camera installed on the CFHT in Hawaii on the Mauna Kea summit. This camera uses four 2K×2K Rockwell Hawaii-2RG infrared detectors and includes 2 optical barrels and 2 filter wheels. This camera is mounted at the prime focus of the 3.6m CFHT telescope. The mass to be cooled is close to 100 kg. The camera uses a Gifford Mac-Mahon closed-cycle cryo-cooler. The capabilities of the I-deas thermal module (TMG) is demonstrated for our particular application: predicted performances are presented and compared to real measurements after integration on the telescope in December 2004. In addition, we present thermal modelling of small Peltier cooled CCD packages, including the thermal model of the CCD220 Peltier package (fabricated by e2v technologies) and cold head. ESO and the OPTICON European network have funded e2v technologies to develop a compact packaged Peltier-cooled 8-output back illuminated L3Vision CCD. The device will achieve sub-electron read-noise at frame rates up to 1.5 kHz. The development, fully dedicated to the latest generation of adaptive optics wavefront sensors, has many unique features. Among them, the ultra-compactness offered by a Peltier package integrated in a small cold head including the detector drive electronics, is a way to achieve amazing performances for adaptive optics systems. All these models were carried out using a normal PC laptop.

Feautrier, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Downing, Mark; Hurrell, Steve; Wheeler, Patrick; Gach, Jean-Luc; Magnard, Yves; Balard, Philippe; Guillaume, Christian; Hubin, Norbert; Diaz, José Javier; Suske, Wolfgang; Jorden, Paul

2006-07-01

129

Thermal modeling of cooled instrument: from the WIRCam IR camera to CCD Peltier cooled compact packages  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the past decade, new thermal modelling tools have been offered to system designers. These modelling tools have rarely been used for the cooled instruments in ground-based astronomy. In addition to an overwhelming increase of PC computer capabilities, these tools are now mature enough to drive the design of complex astronomical instruments that are cooled. This is the case for WIRCam, the new wide-field infrared camera installed on the CFHT in Hawaii on the Mauna Kea summit. This camera uses four 2K×2K Rockwell Hawaii-2RG infrared detectors and includes 2 optical barrels and 2 filter wheels. This camera is mounted at the prime focus of the 3.6m CFHT telescope. The mass to be cooled is close to 100 kg. The camera uses a Gifford Mac-Mahon closed-cycle cryo-cooler. The capabilities of the I-deas thermal module (TMG) is demonstrated for our particular application: predicted performances are presented and compared to real measurements after integration on the telescope in December 2004. In addition, we present thermal modelling of small Peltier cooled CCD packages, including the thermal model of the CCD220 Peltier package (fabricated by e2v technologies) and cold head. ESO and the OPTICON European network have funded e2v technologies to develop a compact packaged Peltier-cooled 8-output back illuminated L3Vision CCD. The device will achieve sub-electron read-noise at frame rates up to 1.5 kHz. The development, fully dedicated to the latest generation of adaptive optics wavefront sensors, has many unique features. Among them, the ultra-compactness offered by a Peltier package integrated in a small cold head including the detector drive electronics, is a way to achieve amazing performances for adaptive optics systems. All these models were carried out using a normal PC laptop.

Feautrier, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Downing, Mark; Hurrell, Steve; Wheeler, Patrick; Gach, Jean-Luc; Magnard, Yves; Balard, Philippe; Guillaume, Christian; Hubin, Norbert; Diaz, José Javier; Suske, Wolfgang; Jorden, Paul

2006-06-01

130

OCam with CCD220, the Fastest and Most Sensitive Camera to Date for AO Wavefront Sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, subelectron readout noise has been achieved with a camera dedicated to astronomical wavefront-sensing applications. The OCam system demonstrated this performance at a 1300 Hz frame rate and with 240 × 240 pixel frame size. ESO and JRA2 OPTICON jointly funded e2v Technologies to develop a custom CCD for adaptive optics (AO) wavefront-sensing applications. The device, called CCD220, is a compact Peltier-cooled 240 × 240 pixel frame-transfer eight-output back-illuminated sensor using the EMCCD technology. This article demonstrates, for the first time, subelectron readout noise at frame rates from 25 Hz to 1300 Hz and dark current lower than 0.01 e- pixel-1 frame-1 . It reports on the quantitative performance characterization of OCam and the CCD220, including readout noise, dark current, multiplication gain, quantum efficiency, and charge transfer efficiency. OCam includes a low-noise preamplifier stage, a digital board to generate the clocks, and a microcontroller. The data acquisition system includes a user-friendly timer file editor to generate any type of clocking scheme. A second version of OCam, called OCam2 , has been designed to offer enhanced performance, a completely sealed camera package, and an additional Peltier stage to facilitate operation on a telescope or environmentally challenging applications. New features of OCam2 are presented in this article. This instrumental development will strongly impact the performance of the most advanced AO systems to come.

Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Balard, Philippe; Guillaume, Christian; Downing, Mark; Hubin, Norbert; Stadler, Eric; Magnard, Yves; Skegg, Michael; Robbins, Mark; Denney, Sandy; Suske, Wolfgang; Jorden, Paul; Wheeler, Patrick; Pool, Peter; Bell, Ray; Burt, David; Davies, Ian; Reyes, Javier; Meyer, Manfred; Baade, Dietrich; Kasper, Markus; Arsenault, Robin; Fusco, Thierry; Diaz Garcia, José Javier

2011-03-01

131

Optical readout of a two phase liquid argon TPC using CCD camera and THGEMs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a preliminary study into the use of CCDs to image secondary scintillation light generated by THick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEMs) in a two phase LAr TPC. A Sony ICX285AL CCD chip was mounted above a double THGEM in the gas phase of a 40 litre two-phase LAr TPC with the majority of the camera electronics positioned externally via a feedthrough. An Am-241 source was mounted on a rotatable motion feedthrough allowing the positioning of the alpha source either inside or outside of the field cage. Developed for and incorporated into the TPC design was a novel high voltage feedthrough featuring LAr insulation. Furthermore, a range of webcams were tested for operation in cryogenics as an internal detector monitoring tool. Of the range of webcams tested the Microsoft HD-3000 (model no:1456) webcam was found to be superior in terms of noise and lowest operating temperature. In ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure 1 ppm pure argon gas, the THGEM gain was ? 1000 and using a 1 msec exposure the CCD captured single alpha tracks. Successful operation of the CCD camera in two-phase cryogenic mode was also achieved. Using a 10 sec exposure a photograph of secondary scintillation light induced by the Am-241 source in LAr has been captured for the first time.

Mavrokoridis, K.; Ball, F.; Carroll, J.; Lazos, M.; McCormick, K. J.; Smith, N. A.; Touramanis, C.; Walker, J.

2014-02-01

132

CameraCast: flexible access to remote video sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New applications like remote surveillance and online environmental or traffic monitoring are making it increasingly important to provide flexible and protected access to remote video sensor devices. Current systems use application-level codes like web-based solutions to provide such access. This requires adherence to user-level APIs provided by such services, access to remote video information through given application-specific service and server topologies, and that the data being captured and distributed is manipulated by third party service codes. CameraCast is a simple, easily used system-level solution to remote video access. It provides a logical device API so that an application can identically operate on local vs. remote video sensor devices, using its own service and server topologies. In addition, the application can take advantage of API enhancements to protect remote video information, using a capability-based model for differential data protection that offers fine grain control over the information made available to specific codes or machines, thereby limiting their ability to violate privacy or security constraints. Experimental evaluations of CameraCast show that the performance of accessing remote video information approximates that of accesses to local devices, given sufficient networking resources. High performance is also attained when protection restrictions are enforced, due to an efficient kernel-level realization of differential data protection.

Kong, Jiantao; Ganev, Ivan; Schwan, Karsten; Widener, Patrick

2007-01-01

133

CQUEAN: New CCD Camera System For The Otto Struve Telescope At The McDonald Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the overall characteristics and the performance of an optical CCD camera system, Camera for QUasars in EArly uNiverse (CQUEAN), which is being used at the 2.1m Otto Struve Telescope of the McDonald Observatory since 2010 August. CQUEAN was developed for follow-up imaging observations of near infrared bright sources such as high redshift quasar candidates (z > 4.5), Gamma Ray Bursts, brown dwarfs, and young stellar objects. For efficient observations of the red objects, CQUEAN has a science camera with a deep depletion CCD chip. By employing an auto-guiding system and a focal reducer to enhance the field of view at the classic cassegrain focus, we achieved a stable guiding in 20 minute exposures, an imaging quality with FWHM > 0.6 arcsec over the whole field (4.8 × 4.8 arcmin), and a limiting magnitude of z = 23.4 AB mag at 5-sigma with one hour integration.

Pak, Soojong; Park, W.; Im, M.

2012-01-01

134

Experimental research on femto-second laser damaging array CCD cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Charged Coupled Devices (CCD) are widely used in military and security applications, such as airborne and ship based surveillance, satellite reconnaissance and so on. Homeland security requires effective means to negate these advanced overseeing systems. Researches show that CCD based EO systems can be significantly dazzled or even damaged by high-repetition rate pulsed lasers. Here, we report femto - second laser interaction with CCD camera, which is probable of great importance in future. Femto - second laser is quite fresh new lasers, which has unique characteristics, such as extremely short pulse width (1 fs = 10-15 s), extremely high peak power (1 TW = 1012W), and especially its unique features when interacting with matters. Researches in femto second laser interaction with materials (metals, dielectrics) clearly indicate non-thermal effect dominates the process, which is of vast difference from that of long pulses interaction with matters. Firstly, the damage threshold test are performed with femto second laser acting on the CCD camera. An 800nm, 500?J, 100fs laser pulse is used to irradiate interline CCD solid-state image sensor in the experiment. In order to focus laser energy onto tiny CCD active cells, an optical system of F/5.6 is used. A Sony production CCDs are chose as typical targets. The damage threshold is evaluated with multiple test data. Point damage, line damage and full array damage were observed when the irradiated pulse energy continuously increase during the experiment. The point damage threshold is found 151.2 mJ/cm2.The line damage threshold is found 508.2 mJ/cm2.The full-array damage threshold is found to be 5.91 J/cm2. Although the phenomenon is almost the same as that of nano laser interaction with CCD, these damage thresholds are substantially lower than that of data obtained from nano second laser interaction with CCD. Then at the same time, the electric features after different degrees of damage are tested with electronic multi meter. The resistance values between clock signal lines are measured. Contrasting the resistance values of the CCD before and after damage, it is found that the resistances decrease significantly between the vertical transfer clock signal lines values. The same results are found between the vertical transfer clock signal line and the earth electrode (ground).At last, the damage position and the damage mechanism were analyzed with above results and SEM morphological experiments. The point damage results in the laser destroying material, which shows no macro electro influence. The line damage is quite different from that of point damage, which shows deeper material corroding effect. More importantly, short circuits are found between vertical clock lines. The full array damage is even more severe than that of line damage starring with SEM, while no obvious different electrical features than that of line damage are found. Further researches are anticipated in femto second laser caused CCD damage mechanism with more advanced tools. This research is valuable in EO countermeasure and/or laser shielding applications.

Shao, Junfeng; Guo, Jin; Wang, Ting-feng; Wang, Ming

2013-05-01

135

Digital imaging microscopy: the marriage of spectroscopy and the solid state CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological samples have been imaged using microscopes equipped with slow-scan CCD cameras. Examples are presented of studies based on the detection of light emission signals in the form of fluorescence and phosphorescence. They include applications in the field of cell biology: (a) replication and topology of mammalian cell nuclei; (b) cytogenetic analysis of human metaphase chromosomes; and (c) time-resolved measurements of DNA-binding dyes in cells and on isolated chromosomes, as well as of mammalian cell surface antigens, using the phosphorescence of acridine orange and fluorescence resonance energy transfer of labeled lectins, respectively.

Jovin, Thomas M.; Arndt-Jovin, Donna J.

1991-12-01

136

Occlusion Robust and Environment Insensitive Algorithm for Vehicle Detection and Tracking Using Surveillance Video Cameras.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the decreasing price of video cameras and their increased deployment on roadway networks, traffic data collection through video imaging has grown in popularity. Numerous vehicle detection and tracking algorithms have been developed for video sensors....

Y. Malinovskiy Y. Wang Y. J. Wu

2008-01-01

137

ULTRASPEC: an electron multiplication CCD camera for very low light level high speed astronomical spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the design, characteristics and astronomical results for ULTRASPEC, a high speed Electron Multiplication CCD (EMCCD) camera using an E2VCCD201 (1K frame transfer device), developed to prove the performance of this new optical detector technology in astronomical spectrometry, particularly in the high speed, low light level regime. We present both modelled and real data for these detectors with particular regard to avalanche gain and clock induced charge (CIC). We present first light results from the camera as used on the EFOSC-2 instrument at the ESO 3.6 metre telescope in La Silla. We also present the design for a proposed new 4Kx2K frame transfer EMCCD.

Ives, Derek; Bezawada, Nagaraja; Dhillon, Vik; Marsh, Tom

2008-08-01

138

Accuracy of videometry with CCD sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of imaging with solid-state, discrete-array sensors (CCD) is discussed. The interface between camera and digitizer\\/computer is assumed to be the standard video signal. Geometrical, optical, and electrical properties of CCD cameras are investigated and a simplified camera model is proposed. A special radial lens distortion equation allows for a fast, fully linear calibration algorithm. Precalibration of the principal

Reimar Lenz; Dieter Fritsch

1990-01-01

139

HERSCHEL/SCORE, imaging the solar corona in visible and EUV light: CCD camera characterization.  

PubMed

The HERSCHEL (helium resonant scattering in the corona and heliosphere) experiment is a rocket mission that was successfully launched last September from White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, USA. HERSCHEL was conceived to investigate the solar corona in the extreme UV (EUV) and in the visible broadband polarized brightness and provided, for the first time, a global map of helium in the solar environment. The HERSCHEL payload consisted of a telescope, HERSCHEL EUV Imaging Telescope (HEIT), and two coronagraphs, HECOR (helium coronagraph) and SCORE (sounding coronagraph experiment). The SCORE instrument was designed and developed mainly by Italian research institutes and it is an imaging coronagraph to observe the solar corona from 1.4 to 4 solar radii. SCORE has two detectors for the EUV lines at 121.6 nm (HI) and 30.4 nm (HeII) and the visible broadband polarized brightness. The SCORE UV detector is an intensified CCD with a microchannel plate coupled to a CCD through a fiber-optic bundle. The SCORE visible light detector is a frame-transfer CCD coupled to a polarimeter based on a liquid crystal variable retarder plate. The SCORE coronagraph is described together with the performances of the cameras for imaging the solar corona. PMID:20428852

Pancrazzi, M; Focardi, M; Landini, F; Romoli, M; Fineschi, S; Gherardi, A; Pace, E; Massone, G; Antonucci, E; Moses, D; Newmark, J; Wang, D; Rossi, G

2010-07-01

140

Video camera recorder using small-size DVD-RAM  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a video camera recorder using small-size 80 mm DVD-RAM with the following features: direct playback by selecting a thumbnail, no accidental overwrite, high-quality picture for a long time, playback on PCs with a 4.7 GB DVD-RAM drive, DVD recorders, and future DVD players. We have achieved compatibility with other products meeting “DVD Specifications for Rewritable\\/Re-recordable Discs Part

R. Oba; J. Shiokawa; H. Chiba; A. Nishizawa; H. Kobayashi

2000-01-01

141

CCD-camera-based diffuse optical tomography to study ischemic stroke in preclinical rat models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stroke, due to ischemia or hemorrhage, is the neurological deficit of cerebrovasculature and is the third leading cause of death in the United States. More than 80 percent of stroke patients are ischemic stroke due to blockage of artery in the brain by thrombosis or arterial embolism. Hence, development of an imaging technique to image or monitor the cerebral ischemia and effect of anti-stoke therapy is more than necessary. Near infrared (NIR) optical tomographic technique has a great potential to be utilized as a non-invasive image tool (due to its low cost and portability) to image the embedded abnormal tissue, such as a dysfunctional area caused by ischemia. Moreover, NIR tomographic techniques have been successively demonstrated in the studies of cerebro-vascular hemodynamics and brain injury. As compared to a fiberbased diffuse optical tomographic system, a CCD-camera-based system is more suitable for pre-clinical animal studies due to its simpler setup and lower cost. In this study, we have utilized the CCD-camera-based technique to image the embedded inclusions based on tissue-phantom experimental data. Then, we are able to obtain good reconstructed images by two recently developed algorithms: (1) depth compensation algorithm (DCA) and (2) globally convergent method (GCM). In this study, we will demonstrate the volumetric tomographic reconstructed results taken from tissuephantom; the latter has a great potential to determine and monitor the effect of anti-stroke therapies.

Lin, Zi-Jing; Niu, Haijing; Liu, Yueming; Su, Jianzhong; Liu, Hanli

2011-02-01

142

CCD camera and automatic data reduction pipeline for the Mercator telescope on La Palma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the development of a CCD imager for the modern 1.2m MERCATOR telescope dedicated to long term monitoring of variable astrophysical phenomena. This instrument is a result of the collaboration of the Observatory of Geneva with the Institute of Astronomy in Leuven. After a technical description of the main components of the CCD camera system, the text will focus on the automatization of the observations and subsequent data reduction. The telescope itself is an altazimuth mounted 1.2 m Ritchey-Chretien telescope and is operated in a semi-automatic mode. The system executes a predefined sequence of observations, that only need occasional checking of data quality by the astronomer. The observation software is written in a FORTRAN based interpreter language (INTER) running on a UNIX system that communicates with the astronomer via GUIs implemented in Perl/Tk. The data reduction is integrated into one package and includes pre-reduction, photometric and astrometric calibration, extraction, catalogue preparation and archiving. This allows to have a GUI driven reduction that is both flexible and robust. The preliminary reduced data give the astronomers an indication of the quality of their observations, so that they can adjust their program or camera settings during the same night.

Davignon, Geert; Blecha, Andre; Burki, Gilbert; Carrier, Fabien; Groenewegen, Martin; Maire, Charles; Raskin, Gert; Van Winckel, Hans; Weber, Luc

2004-09-01

143

A method to synchronise video cameras using the audio band.  

PubMed

This paper proposes and evaluates a novel method for synchronisation of video cameras using the audio band. The method consists in generating and transmitting an audio signal through radio frequency for receivers connected to the microphone input of the cameras and inserting the signal in the audio band. In a software environment, the phase differences among the video signals are calculated and used to interpolate the synchronous 2D projections of the trajectories. The validation of the method was based on: (1) Analysis of the phase difference changes as a function of time of two video signals. (2) Comparison between the values measured with an oscilloscope and by the proposed method. (3) Estimation of the improvement in the accuracy in the measurements of the distance between two markers mounted on a rigid body during movement applying the method. The results showed that the phase difference changes in time slowly (0.150 ms/min) and linearly, even when the same model of cameras are used. The values measured by the proposed method and by oscilloscope showed equivalence (R2=0.998), the root mean square of the difference between the measurements was 0.10 ms and the maximum difference found was 0.31 ms. Applying the new method, the accuracy of the 3D reconstruction had a statistically significant improvement. The accuracy, simplicity and wide applicability of the proposed method constitute the main contributions of this work. PMID:16439248

Leite de Barros, Ricardo Machado; Guedes Russomanno, Tiago; Brenzikofer, René; Jovino Figueroa, Pascual

2006-01-01

144

Identifying sports videos using replay, text, and camera motion features  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automated classification of digital video is emerging as an important piece of the puzzle in the design of content management systems for digital libraries. The ability to classify videos into various classes such as sports, news, movies, or documentaries, increases the efficiency of indexing, browsing, and retrieval of video in large databases. In this paper, we discuss the extraction of features that enable identification of sports videos directly from the compressed domain of MPEG video. These features include detecting the presence of action replays, determining the amount of scene text in vide, and calculating various statistics on camera and/or object motion. The features are derived from the macroblock, motion,and bit-rate information that is readily accessible from MPEG video with very minimal decoding, leading to substantial gains in processing speeds. Full-decoding of selective frames is required only for text analysis. A decision tree classifier built using these features is able to identify sports clips with an accuracy of about 93 percent.

Kobla, Vikrant; DeMenthon, Daniel; Doermann, David S.

1999-12-01

145

Multi-scale algorithm for improved scintillation detection in a CCD-based gamma camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma cameras based on charge-coupled devices (CCDs) and micro-columnar CsI scintillators can reach high spatial resolutions. However, the gamma interaction probability of these scintillators is low (typically <30% at 141 keV) due to the limited thickness of presently available micro-columnar scintillators. Continuous scintillators can improve the interaction probability but suffer from increased light spread compared to columnar scintillators. In addition, for both types of scintillators, gamma photons incident at an oblique angle reduce the spatial resolution due to the variable depth of interaction (DOI). To improve the spatial resolution and spectral characteristics of these detectors, we have developed a fast analytic scintillation detection algorithm that makes use of a depth-dependent light spread model and as a result is able to estimate the DOI in the scintillator. This algorithm, performing multi-scale frame analysis, was tested for an electron multiplying CCD (EM-CCD) optically coupled to CsI(Tl) scintillators of different thicknesses. For the thickest scintillator (2.6 mm) a spatial resolution of 148 µm full width half maximum (FWHM) was obtained with an energy resolution of 46% FWHM for perpendicularly incident gamma photons (interaction probability 61% at 141 keV). The multi-scale algorithm improves the spatial resolution up to 11%, the energy resolution up to 36% and the signal-to-background counts ratio up to 46% compared to a previously implemented algorithm that did not model the depth-dependent light spread. In addition, the multi-scale algorithm can accurately estimate DOI. As a result, degradation of the spatial resolution due to the variable DOI for gamma photons incident at a 45° angle was improved from 2.0 sdot 103 to 448 µm FWHM. We conclude that the multi-scale algorithm significantly improves CCD-based gamma cameras as can be applied in future SPECT systems.

Korevaar, Marc A. N.; Heemskerk, Jan W. T.; Goorden, Marlies C.; Beekman, Freek J.

2009-02-01

146

Stereo Imaging Velocimetry Technique Using Standard Off-the-Shelf CCD Cameras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stereo imaging velocimetry is a fluid physics technique for measuring three-dimensional (3D) velocities at a plurality of points. This technique provides full-field 3D analysis of any optically clear fluid or gas experiment seeded with tracer particles. Unlike current 3D particle imaging velocimetry systems that rely primarily on laser-based systems, stereo imaging velocimetry uses standard off-the-shelf charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras to provide accurate and reproducible 3D velocity profiles for experiments that require 3D analysis. Using two cameras aligned orthogonally, we present a closed mathematical solution resulting in an accurate 3D approximation of the observation volume. The stereo imaging velocimetry technique is divided into four phases: 3D camera calibration, particle overlap decomposition, particle tracking, and stereo matching. Each phase is explained in detail. In addition to being utilized for space shuttle experiments, stereo imaging velocimetry has been applied to the fields of fluid physics, bioscience, and colloidal microscopy.

McDowell, Mark; Gray, Elizabeth

2004-01-01

147

Imaging of blood vessels with CCD-camera based three-dimensional photoacoustic tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An optical phase contrast full field detection setup in combination with a CCD-camera is presented to record acoustic fields for real-time projection and fast three-dimensional imaging. When recording projection images of the wave pattern around the imaging object, the three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging problem is reduced to a set of two-dimensional reconstructions and the measurement setup requires only a single axis of rotation. Using a 10 Hz pulse laser system for photoacoustic excitation a three dimensional image can be obtained in less than 1 min. The sensitivity and resolution of the detection system was estimated experimentally with 5 kPa mm and 75?m, respectively. Experiments on biological samples show the applicability of this technique for the imaging of blood vessel distributions.

Nuster, Robert; Slezak, Paul; Paltauf, Guenther

2014-03-01

148

High dispersion spectroscopy trials using an echelle spectrograph with CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of the Queen's University Belfast echelle spectrograph (McKeith et al., 1978) and a Royal Greenwich Observatory (RGO) CCD camera on the 90-cm Yapp telescope at RGO is evaluated experimentally in high-dispersion observations of the 589.0-nm and 589.6-nm D lines of Na in the bright stars Alpha Cyg and Alpha Boo during June-July 1984. The results are presented graphically, and the system is found to have dispersion about 1.0 A/mm, signal/noise about 80 for a 15-min exposure of Alpha Cyg and about 100 for a 5-min exposure of Alpha Boo, and resolving power about 100,000.

Bates, B.; McKeith, C. D.; Jorden, P. R.; van Breda, I. G.

1985-05-01

149

Radiometric calibration of frame transfer CCD camera with uniform source system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a radiometric calibration method based on visibility function and uniform source system. The uniform system is mainly comprised of an integrating sphere and a monitoring silicon detector. The current of the silicon detector with a visibility function filter corresponds to the luminance at the exit port of integrating sphere through standard luminance meter transfer. The radiance at the camera entrance pupil is calculated for different solar zenith angles and Earth surface albedos by the MODTRAN atmospheric code. To simplify the calibration process, the radiance at its entrance pupil is integrated by visibility function. The shift smear of the frame transfer CCD is removed by the radiometric calibration and the amending ratio factor is introduced in the retrieving methods. The imaging experiment verifies the reliability of the calibration method and retrieves good quality image.

Zhou, Jiankang; Shi, Rongbao; Chen, Yuheng; Zhou, Yuying; Shen, Weimin

2010-08-01

150

CCD cameras and Spacewire interfaces for HERSCHEL/SCORE suborbital mission.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The HERSCHEL/SCORE is a suborbital mission that will observe the solar corona in UV (H Lyalpha and HeII Lyalpha ) and in the visible light for measurements of coronal polarization. The coronagraph for such observation is an Italian instrument and, in particular, the CCD camera detectors are developed at the XUVLab of the Department of Astronomy and Space Science of the University of Florence. Such detectors communicate with the onboard computer by means of a IEEE1355 Spacewire standard interface board (developed in our laboratories) and implement a lot of smart and custom procedures for imaging. The main innovation of SCORE coronagraph is the first use in space of a variable retarder plate based on liquid crystals and the optical design capable of simultaneous observation in UV and Visible light.

Gherardi, A.; Romoli, M.; Pace, E.; Pancrazzi, M.; Rossi, G.; Focardi, M.; Paganini, D.

151

Non-mydriatic, wide field, fundus video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a method we call "stripe field imaging" that is capable of capturing wide field color fundus videos and images of the human eye at pupil sizes of 2mm. This means that it can be used with a non-dilated pupil even with bright ambient light. We realized a mobile demonstrator to prove the method and we could acquire color fundus videos of subjects successfully. We designed the demonstrator as a low-cost device consisting of mass market components to show that there is no major additional technical outlay to realize the improvements we propose. The technical core idea of our method is breaking the rotational symmetry in the optical design that is given in many conventional fundus cameras. By this measure we could extend the possible field of view (FOV) at a pupil size of 2mm from a circular field with 20° in diameter to a square field with 68° by 18° in size. We acquired a fundus video while the subject was slightly touching and releasing the lid. The resulting video showed changes at vessels in the region of the papilla and a change of the paleness of the papilla.

Hoeher, Bernhard; Voigtmann, Peter; Michelson, Georg; Schmauss, Bernhard

2014-02-01

152

Contrast reduction in digital images due to x-ray induced damage to a TV camera's CCD image receptor.  

PubMed

The CCD image receptor in a monochrome TV camera was irradiated in the dark with a single-phase 80 kVp narrow beam carrying an additional 0.5 mm Al filter. It was found that the CCD responded to the x-rays with a transient signal which would reach a maximum value at about 70 mR per image frame. The signal's contrast would reach a maximum of about 7%, but was detectable at much lower exposure rates. Continuous irradiation of the CCD image receptor created a 'lesion' at the point of incidence that remained after the x-ray beam was switched off. This signal seemed to be due to permanent damage to the CCD and could be detected after a cumulative exposure of less than 20 R. It was shown that such damage could be created much more effectively if the TV camera was switched off rather than on and the maximum contrast was achieved with about 75 R and 220 R respectively. The maximum contrast achieved was about 8%. Further increase in the cumulative exposure of a particular location on the CCD image receptor was not investigated but it seemed reasonable that much higher contrast values could be reached if irradiation was continued. The latter damage described here was found to persist for at least several weeks and hence it will probably prevent any normal use of the TV camera in the future. PMID:10232819

Okkalides, D

1999-04-01

153

Scientists Behind the Camera - Increasing Video Documentation in the Field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last two years, Skypunch Creative has designed and implemented a number of pilot projects to increase the amount of video captured by scientists in the field. The major barrier to success that we tackled with the pilot projects was the conflicting demands of the time, space, storage needs of scientists in the field and the demands of shooting high quality video. Our pilots involved providing scientists with equipment, varying levels of instruction on shooting in the field and post-production resources (editing and motion graphics). In each project, the scientific team was provided with cameras (or additional equipment if they owned their own), tripods, and sometimes sound equipment, as well as an external hard drive to return the footage to us. Upon receiving the footage we professionally filmed follow-up interviews and created animations and motion graphics to illustrate their points. We also helped with the distribution of the final product (http://climatescience.tv/2012/05/the-story-of-a-flying-hippo-the-hiaper-pole-to-pole-observation-project/ and http://climatescience.tv/2013/01/bogged-down-in-alaska/). The pilot projects were a success. Most of the scientists returned asking for additional gear and support for future field work. Moving out of the pilot phase, to continue the project, we have produced a 14 page guide for scientists shooting in the field based on lessons learned - it contains key tips and best practice techniques for shooting high quality footage in the field. We have also expanded the project and are now testing the use of video cameras that can be synced with sensors so that the footage is useful both scientifically and artistically. Extract from A Scientist's Guide to Shooting Video in the Field

Thomson, S.; Wolfe, J.

2013-12-01

154

Construction and Use of the CCD Camera on the Automated Patrol Telescope.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis describes the construction, commissioning and use of a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) detector system on the Automated Patrol Telescope--a converted Baker-Nunn satellite tracking camera donated to the School of Physics at the University of New South Wales. The work is divided into three distinct areas, entitled "Hardware", "Software" and "Observations". "Hardware" covers the construction, operation and measurement of the electronic performance of the CCD camera and the CCD/telescope combination thus formed. The evolution of the system to a working configuration producing images of scientific quality is presented. "Software" describes two distinct applications and software libraries that were developed for IBM-compatible PC computers running the MS-DOS operating system. One of these is IMLIB, a generic image processing package that implements the low-level details of accessing and viewing FITS-format two-dimensional images, which is the standard format for transferring astronomical images between institutions. The other is the APT CONSOLE, which provides the user-interface for operating and controlling the APT sub-systems, from source selection and tracking to image acquisition, and provides the foundations for operation of the APT in an unattended, automated mode. "Observations" covers the observation programme and research conducted with the ATP during testing. The optical and photometric performance of the telescope is measured using the Harvard E-region photometric standard star fields. Research into algorithms and methods for use in transient object detection, particularly in searches for supernovae, novae and/or asteroids is described using asteroids as "test novae". A supernova search atlas containing images of nearby galaxies for use as comparison standards was begun. Mosaic images of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) in B, V and Kron-Cousins R, I bands, covering twenty -five square degrees with eight arc-second resolution, demonstrate the power of the large field of view of the APT. A program and preliminary results for detection and mapping of short -period variable stars over the entire SMC is also described.

Brooks, Paul Westley

155

Real-time synchronous CCD camera observation and reflectance measurement of evaporation-induced polystyrene colloidal self-assembly.  

PubMed

A new monitoring technique, which combines real-time in-situ CCD camera observation and reflectance spectra measurement, has been developed to study the growing and drying processes of evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA). Evolutions of the reflectance spectrum and CCD camera images both reveal that the entire process of polystyrene (PS) EISA contains three stages: crack-initiation stage (T1), crack-propagation stage (T2), and crack-remained stage (T3). A new phenomenon, the red-shift of stop-band, is observed when the crack begins to propagate in the monitored window of CCD camera. Deformation of colloidal spheres, which mainly results in the increase of volume fraction of spheres, is applied to explain the phenomenon. Moreover, the modified scalar wave approximation (SWA) is utilized to analyze the reflectance spectra, and the fitting results are in good agreement with the evolution of CCD camera images. This new monitoring technique and the analysis method provide a good way to get insight into the growing and drying processes of PS colloidal self-assembly, especially the crack propagation. PMID:24650361

Lin, Dongfeng; Wang, Jinze; Yang, Lei; Luo, Yanhong; Li, Dongmei; Meng, Qingbo

2014-04-15

156

Study on the Line Scan CCD Camera Calibration of Vehicle-Borne 3d Data Acquisition System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the characters of the line scan CCD camera and the Vehicle-borne 3D data acquisition system, it presented a novel method to calibrate the line Scan Camera (LSC) based on the laser scanner. Using the angle information in the original laser scanner data, combing the principle of the line scan camera, it built a calibration model for LSC and designed some experiment methods to implement that. Using the new model and the special experiment methods it computed out high precision LSC calibration parameters, which provides basis for the fusion of image and point cloud data and gives references to the similar sensors calibration.

Han, Y.; Yang, B.; Zhang, F.

2012-07-01

157

Status of the CCD camera for the eROSITA space telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The approved German X-ray telescope eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array) is the core instrument on the Russian Spektrum-Roentgen-Gamma (SRG) mission. After satellite launch to Lagrangian point L2 in near future, eROSITA will perform a survey of the entire X-ray sky. In the soft band (0.5 keV - 2 keV), it will be about 30 times more sensitive than ROSAT, while in the hard band (2 keV - 8 keV) it will provide the first complete imaging survey of the sky. The design driving science is the detection of 100,000 clusters of galaxies up to redshift z ~ 1.3 in order to study the large scale structure in the Universe and test cosmological models including Dark Energy. Detection of single X-ray photons with information about their energy, arrival angle and time is accomplished by an array of seven identical and independent PNCCD cameras. Each camera is assigned to a dedicated mirror system of Wolter-I type. The key component of the camera is a 5 cm • 3 cm large, back-illuminated, 450 ?m thick and fully depleted frame store PNCCD chip. It is a further development of the sensor type which is in operation aboard the XMM-Newton satellite since 1999. Development and production of the CCDs for the eROSITA project were performed in the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institutes for Physics and Extraterrestrial Physics, the MPI Halbleiterlabor. By means of a unique so-called 'cold-chuck probe station', we have characterized the performance of each PNCCD sensor on chip-level. Various tests were carried out for a detailed characterization of the CCD and its custom-made analog readout ASIC. This includes in particular the evaluation of the optimum detector operating conditions in terms of operating sequence, supply voltages and operating temperature in order to achieve optimum performance. In the course of the eROSITA camera development, an engineering model of the eROSITA flight detector was assembled and is used for tests since 2010. Based on these results and on the extensive tests with lab model detectors, the design of the front-end electronics has meanwhile been finalized for the flight cameras. Furthermore, the specifications for the other supply and control electronics were precisely concluded on the basis of the experimental tests.

Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Elbs, Johannes; Granato, Stefanie; Hälker, Olaf; Hartner, Gisela; Herrmann, Sven; Miessner, Danilo; Pietschner, Daniel; Predehl, Peter; Reiffers, Jonas; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Schmaler, Gabriele; Strüder, Lothar; Tiedemann, Lars

2011-09-01

158

Multicolour Faint Galaxy Number Counts with the Hitchhiker Parallel CCD Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first deep observations with the new Hitchhiker parallel CCD camera. In parallel with scheduled observations, we have observed a field near the North Galactic Pole in four wavebands, with an equivalent total exposure time of 5 h, and obtained galaxy number counts to limiting magnitudes of m_B_ = 26.4, m_V_ = 24.9, m_R_ = 26.3 and m_I_ = 22.5. The data should be complete to about 0.5 mag above these faint limits. We also present B-V, B-R, B-I, V-R and R-I colour histograms for the faint galaxies as a function of B, V or R magnitude. The observations are in good agreement with previous deep CCD data, showing a steep number-count slope in the blue, which gradually decreases for longer wavelength observations, and a gradual blueing (in terms of B - R) of the mean galaxy population at fainter magnitudes. Although the V frame is less deep, so limiting our sensitivity, there is no significant sign of equivalent blueing in V-R, suggesting that the main effect is at the shorter (observed) wavelengths, and supporting the idea that most of the excess blue galaxies are dwarfs at moderately low redshifts. We then present a simple model, based on significant numbers of dwarf galaxies, which accounts successfully for all the number-count and colour data with no evolution. The model underestimates the observed redshift distribution, and appears to be inconsistent with measures of the local luminosity function. We conclude that some level of evolution is required, unless these surveys are biased against dwarf galaxies.

Driver, S. P.; Phillipps, S.; Davies, J. I.; Morgan, I.; Disney, M. J.

1994-01-01

159

TDICCD video data sampling technique in the space remote sensing camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper analyzes the generated mechanism of the reset noise when reading out the CCD video signal. It also states a sampling technique for CCD output video signal, the Correlative Double Sampling (CDS) technique, which is on the basis of noises canceled-each-other and the mathematics correlative theory. The paper introduces the operation principle of the CDS technique and its filtering effects on the output noise of CCD (which includes the reset noise of CCD, the coupled cross-talk noise between the horizontal clock drive and the ground-wire of power supply, the white noise of output amplifier and the reset noise of 1/f noise). The paper gives a electric circuit of CDS that is applied practically. At last, it verified the conclusion that the output S/N of CCD signal can attain to 50dB.

Huang, Qiaolin

2009-07-01

160

OP09O-OP404-9 Wide Field Camera 3 CCD Quantum Efficiency Hysteresis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The HST/Wide Field Camera (WFC) 3 UV/visible channel CCD detectors have exhibited an unanticipated quantum efficiency hysteresis (QEH) behavior. At the nominal operating temperature of -83C, the QEH feature contrast was typically 0.1-0.2% or less. The behavior was replicated using flight spare detectors. A visible light flat-field (540nm) with a several times full-well signal level can pin the detectors at both optical (600nm) and near-UV (230nm) wavelengths, suppressing the QEH behavior. We are characterizing the timescale for the detectors to become unpinned and developing a protocol for flashing the WFC3 CCDs with the instrument's internal calibration system in flight. The HST/Wide Field Camera 3 UV/visible channel CCD detectors have exhibited an unanticipated quantum efficiency hysteresis (QEH) behavior. The first observed manifestation of QEH was the presence in a small percentage of flat-field images of a bowtie-shaped contrast that spanned the width of each chip. At the nominal operating temperature of -83C, the contrast observed for this feature was typically 0.1-0.2% or less, though at warmer temperatures contrasts up to 5% (at -50C) have been observed. The bowtie morphology was replicated using flight spare detectors in tests at the GSFC Detector Characterization Laboratory by power cycling the detector while cold. Continued investigation revealed that a clearly-related global QE suppression at the approximately 5% level can be produced by cooling the detector in the dark; subsequent flat-field exposures at a constant illumination show asymptotically increasing response. This QE "pinning" can be achieved with a single high signal flat-field or a series of lower signal flats; a visible light (500-580nm) flat-field with a signal level of several hundred thousand electrons per pixel is sufficient for QE pinning at both optical (600nm) and near-UV (230nm) wavelengths. We are characterizing the timescale for the detectors to become unpinned and developing a protocol for flashing the WFC3 CCDs with the instrument's internal calibration system in flight. A preliminary estimate of the decay timescale for one detector is that a drop of 0.1-0.2% occurs over a ten day period, indicating that relatively infrequent cal lamp exposures can mitigate the behavior to extremely low levels.

Collins, Nick

2009-01-01

161

Field-programmable gate array-based hardware architecture for high-speed camera with KAI-0340 CCD image sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based hardware architecture for high-speed camera which have fast auto-exposure control and colour filter array (CFA) demosaicing. The proposed hardware architecture includes the design of charge coupled devices (CCD) drive circuits, image processing circuits, and power supply circuits. CCD drive circuits transfer the TTL (Transistor-Transistor-Logic) level timing Sequences which is produced by image processing circuits to the timing Sequences under which CCD image sensor can output analog image signals. Image processing circuits convert the analog signals to digital signals which is processing subsequently, and the TTL timing, auto-exposure control, CFA demosaicing, and gamma correction is accomplished in this module. Power supply circuits provide the power for the whole system, which is very important for image quality. Power noises effect image quality directly, and we reduce power noises by hardware way, which is very effective. In this system, the CCD is KAI-0340 which is can output 210 full resolution frame-per-second, and our camera can work outstandingly in this mode. The speed of traditional auto-exposure control algorithms to reach a proper exposure level is so slow that it is necessary to develop a fast auto-exposure control method. We present a new auto-exposure algorithm which is fit high-speed camera. Color demosaicing is critical for digital cameras, because it converts a Bayer sensor mosaic output to a full color image, which determines the output image quality of the camera. Complexity algorithm can acquire high quality but cannot implement in hardware. An low-complexity demosaicing method is presented which can implement in hardware and satisfy the demand of quality. The experiment results are given in this paper in last.

Wang, Hao; Yan, Su; Zhou, Zuofeng; Cao, Jianzhong; Yan, Aqi; Tang, Linao; Lei, Yangjie

2013-08-01

162

Maximum-likelihood scintillation detection for EM-CCD based gamma cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma cameras based on charge-coupled devices (CCDs) coupled to continuous scintillation crystals can combine a good detection efficiency with high spatial resolutions with the aid of advanced scintillation detection algorithms. A previously developed analytical multi-scale algorithm (MSA) models the depth-dependent light distribution but does not take statistics into account. Here we present and validate a novel statistical maximum-likelihood algorithm (MLA) that combines a realistic light distribution model with an experimentally validated statistical model. The MLA was tested for an electron multiplying CCD optically coupled to CsI(Tl) scintillators of different thicknesses. For 99mTc imaging, the spatial resolution (for perpendicular and oblique incidence), energy resolution and signal-to-background counts ratio (SBR) obtained with the MLA were compared with those of the MSA. Compared to the MSA, the MLA improves the energy resolution by more than a factor of 1.6 and the SBR is enhanced by more than a factor of 1.3. For oblique incidence (approximately 45°), the depth-of-interaction corrected spatial resolution is improved by a factor of at least 1.1, while for perpendicular incidence the MLA resolution does not consistently differ significantly from the MSA result for all tested scintillator thicknesses. For the thickest scintillator (3 mm, interaction probability 66% at 141 keV) a spatial resolution (perpendicular incidence) of 147 µm full width at half maximum (FWHM) was obtained with an energy resolution of 35.2% FWHM. These results of the MLA were achieved without prior calibration of scintillations as is needed for many statistical scintillation detection algorithms. We conclude that the MLA significantly improves the gamma camera performance compared to the MSA.

Korevaar, Marc A. N.; Goorden, Marlies C.; Heemskerk, Jan W. T.; Beekman, Freek J.

2011-08-01

163

Maximum-likelihood scintillation detection for EM-CCD based gamma cameras.  

PubMed

Gamma cameras based on charge-coupled devices (CCDs) coupled to continuous scintillation crystals can combine a good detection efficiency with high spatial resolutions with the aid of advanced scintillation detection algorithms. A previously developed analytical multi-scale algorithm (MSA) models the depth-dependent light distribution but does not take statistics into account. Here we present and validate a novel statistical maximum-likelihood algorithm (MLA) that combines a realistic light distribution model with an experimentally validated statistical model. The MLA was tested for an electron multiplying CCD optically coupled to CsI(Tl) scintillators of different thicknesses. For (99m)Tc imaging, the spatial resolution (for perpendicular and oblique incidence), energy resolution and signal-to-background counts ratio (SBR) obtained with the MLA were compared with those of the MSA. Compared to the MSA, the MLA improves the energy resolution by more than a factor of 1.6 and the SBR is enhanced by more than a factor of 1.3. For oblique incidence (approximately 45°), the depth-of-interaction corrected spatial resolution is improved by a factor of at least 1.1, while for perpendicular incidence the MLA resolution does not consistently differ significantly from the MSA result for all tested scintillator thicknesses. For the thickest scintillator (3 mm, interaction probability 66% at 141 keV) a spatial resolution (perpendicular incidence) of 147 µm full width at half maximum (FWHM) was obtained with an energy resolution of 35.2% FWHM. These results of the MLA were achieved without prior calibration of scintillations as is needed for many statistical scintillation detection algorithms. We conclude that the MLA significantly improves the gamma camera performance compared to the MSA. PMID:21753231

Korevaar, Marc A N; Goorden, Marlies C; Heemskerk, Jan W T; Beekman, Freek J

2011-08-01

164

Temperature mapping in heat treatment process with a standard color-video camera by means of image processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal imaging systems are usually based on IR-camera systems analyzing the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum to carry out temperature measurements. These systems are very accurate but also very expensive. A "low-cost" thermal-vision-system based on a standard CCD color video camera in combination with an image processing system is presented. The system was developed to visualize the temperature distribution inside a plasma-reactor. The temperature of the heat-treated work pieces lies in the range of 450°C to 650°C. By analyzing the thermal light emission of these objects a temperature map can be made to visualize and measure temperature differences of the reactor interior.

Zauner, Gerald; Heim, Daniel; Hendorfer, Gunther; Niel, Kurt

2003-05-01

165

A method to estimate correlated color temperature of illuminant using color video camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe a novel, indirect method for estimating the correlated color temperature of illuminants by using a color video camera and a set of several known color chips. The video camera can have arbitrary shooting chromaticity characteristics; however, it should be used in fixed white balance. The correlated color temperature of the light source illuminating the color chips is

Masato Abe; Hiroaki Ikeda; Yasuhiko Higaki; M. Amano; M. Nakamichi

1989-01-01

166

ATR/OTR-SY Tank Camera Purge System and in Tank Color Video Imaging System  

SciTech Connect

This procedure will document the satisfactory operation of the 101-SY tank Camera Purge System (CPS) and 101-SY in tank Color Camera Video Imaging System (CCVIS). Included in the CPRS is the nitrogen purging system safety interlock which shuts down all the color video imaging system electronics within the 101-SY tank vapor space during loss of nitrogen purge pressure.

Werry, S.M.

1995-06-06

167

3D model generation using unconstrained motion of a hand-held video camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a shape and structure capture system which constructs accurate, realistic 3D models from video imagery taken with a single freely moving handheld camera. Using an inexpensive off the shelf acquisition system such as a hand-held video camera, we demonstrate the feasibility of fast and accurate generation of these 3D models at a very low cost. In our

C. Baker; C. Debrunner; M. Whitehorn

2006-01-01

168

Automatic Production System of Soccer Sports Video by Digital Camera Work Based on Situation Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are studying about automatic production of soccer sports videos for easy understanding by using digital cam- era work on camera fixed videos. The digital camera work is a movie technique which uses virtual panning and zoom- ing by clipping frames from hi-resolution images and con- trolling the frame size and position. We have studied so far digital panning. In

Yasuo Ariki; Shintaro Kubota; Masahito Kumano

2006-01-01

169

Evaluation of Motion Blur Considering Temporal Frequency Characteristics of Video Camera and LCD Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we show that the motion blur is caused by exposure time of video camera as well as the characteristics of LCD system. Also, we suggest that evaluation method of motion picture quality according to the frequency response of video camera and LCD systems of hold and scanning backlight type.

Chae, Seok-Min; Song, In-Ho; Lee, Sung-Hak; Sohng, Kyu-Ik

170

New event analysis method with the x-ray CCD camera XIS for ASTRO-E  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new method of event analysis with the x-ray CCD camera (XIS) on board the next Japanese X-ray astronomical satellite, Astro-E. In the ordinary method, we used 'grade' classification; we distinguished the x-ray events from background events by referring the shape and the extent of the charge-split pixels, because non x-ray events spread to many pixels. However, at the same time, this method lowered the quantum efficiency of high energy x-ray photons which also extend for several pixels. We tried the method with 2D image-fitting of each event. We succeeded in rejecting non x-ray events by the extent of fitted function. We achieved higher detection efficiency by 10 percent than the grade method for hard x-rays above 8 keV, while the energy resolution becomes worse by 0-8 percent. The improvements and the problems of this new method are also presented.

Murakami, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi G.; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Sakano, Masaaki; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Koyama, Katsuji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

1999-10-01

171

Development of an internet-based water-level monitoring and measuring system using CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These days, most weather disasters like heavy snowfall and rainfall have been caused all over the world due to environmental pollutions reason. Casualties and property damage are caused by these weather disasters. Therefore it is important to detect the hazardous conditions and protect human life and property. These damages may be decreased by continually monitoring water level in the potential flood places with this system and warm the risk. An internet-based water level monitoring and measuring system (WLMMS) is developed, which analyzes the visual image of the surface of water and measures the height of it. The system aims to measure water-level in potential areas to overflow like rivers, bridges and dams. This is installed to indicate the target such as bridges of a river, reservoir water, a dam and coast. In this paper we introduce WLMMS and there is achieved template matching by correlation to detect water-level with images captured from CCD camera. Finally experiments demonstrate that water level is accurately measured with the proposed method by this system.

Shin, Iksang; Kim, Jaejun; Lee, Soon-Guel

2007-12-01

172

The 12K×8K CCD mosaic camera for the Palomar Transient Factory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Palomar Transient Factory is an automated wide-field survey facility dedicated to identifying a wide range of transient phenomena. Typically, a new 7.5 square degree field will be acquired every 90 seconds with 66% observing efficiency, in g' band when the sky is dark, or in R band when the moon is up. An imaging camera with a 12Kx8K mosaic of MIT/LL CCDs, acquired from CFHT, is being repackaged to fit in the prime focus mounting hub of the Palomar 48-inch Oschin Schmidt Telescope. We discuss how we have addressed the broad range of issues presented by this application: faster CCD readout to improve observing efficiency, a new cooling system to fit within the constrained space, a low impact shutter to maintain reliability at the fast observing cadence, a new filter exchange mechanism, and the field flattener needed to correct for focal plane curvature. The most critical issue was the tight focal plane alignment and co-planarity requirements created by the fast beam and coarse plate scale. We built an optical profilometer system to measure CCDs heights and tilts with 1 ?m RMS accuracy.

Rahmer, Gustavo; Smith, Roger; Velur, Viswa; Hale, David; Law, Nicholas; Bui, Khanh; Petrie, Hal; Dekany, Richard

2008-08-01

173

Analysis and simulation of the phenomenon of secondary spots of the TDI CCD camera irradiated by CW laser.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of secondary spots is observed in the experiment of TDI CCD camera irradiated by CW He-Ne laser. It is considered to be related to the scattering of the slit in front of the sensor and the reflection of the window of the TDI CCD chip. Additional experiments and ray tracing simulation are performed to study the mechanism of the secondary spots. The experimental and simulated results demonstrated that the scattering of the side walls of the slit is the main source of the secondary spots. Furthermore, the operation mode of rotary scanning provides the chance of scattering incident beam to the side wall of the slit. This paper will provide a preliminary hint to the optimum design of slit in camera to reduce the effects of the secondary spots to the image quality. PMID:22109414

Sun, Ke; Huang, Liangjin; Cheng, Xiang'ai; Jiang, Houman

2011-11-21

174

Astronomical CCD mosaics: first results with the University of Hawaii 4096 x 4096 pixel CCD camera system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first results from the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy project to develop largeformat optical CCD mosaics for the telescopes on Manna Kea. We have constructed two 4096 x 4096 mosaics: both are 2 x 2 arrays of 2-edge abuttable 2048 x 2048 15tm pixel imagers built by Loral Aeronutronics. The first mosaic is constructed using an abuttable package design yielding an array that can be assembled and disassembled using the bestavailable separatelytested quadrants. The second mosaic is formed by packaging a monolithic quad die consisting of four functioning 2048 x 2048 devices from a single wafer. In addition to the mechanical design of the focal plane and dewar we describe the system used to operate the CCDs including the programmable DSP-based CCD controller and our high-speed serial interface into the DSP port of a NeXT computer workstation. We present our initial x-ray and optical test results from the " monolithic mosaic" and our first data from the telescope. 1

Luppino, Gerard A.; Jim, Kevin T. C.; Hlivak, Robert J.; Yamada, Hubert

1992-08-01

175

Reliable camera motion estimation from compressed MPEG videos using machine learning approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an important feature in characterizing video content, camera motion has been widely applied in various multimedia and computer vision applications. A novel method for fast and reliable estimation of camera motion from MPEG videos is proposed, using support vector machine for estimation in a regression model trained on a synthesized sequence. Experiments conducted on real sequences show that the proposed method yields much improved results in estimating camera motions while the difficulty in selecting valid macroblocks and motion vectors is skipped.

Wang, Zheng; Ren, Jinchang; Wang, Yubin; Sun, Meijun; Jiang, Jianmin

2013-05-01

176

2 MHz modulated photothermal imaging using a CCD camera coupled to a multichannel lock-in detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a new photothermal microscope from which we can make a thermal image of an electronic component working at a ``high frequency'' (2 MHz) using a CCD camera and a multichannel lock-in scheme. To do this, we have created an electronic ``stroboscope'' which controls the device, the LED that illuminates the device and analyzes the signal reflected back to the camera whose amplitude is proportional to the variation of reflectivity, and hence to the variation of temperature at the surface of the device. A thermal image of resistors will be presented.

Grauby, S.; Forget, B. C.; Fournier, D.

1999-03-01

177

Automated morphometry of corneal endothelial cell: use of video camera and video tape recorder.  

PubMed Central

We developed an apparatus for automated morphometry of the corneal endothelium, which was photographed through a specular microscope connected to a video camera, and the images were stored on a video tape. The clearest stationary image was input into an image analyser to determine automatically the cell boundaries. Although human interaction is generally necessary, the mean time required to complete this procedure was about 13 minutes, based on the results of the 30 normal eyes, and the time needed for manual correction was about 4 minutes. The mean cell area obtained by this method correlated well (r = 0.9335) with that obtained by tracing the same images. This apparatus is clinically useful for immediately obtaining the mean cell area of corneal endothelium and will extend the application of specular microscopy to the routine clinical setting. Images

Nishi, O; Hanasaki, K

1988-01-01

178

Soft x-ray transmission of optical blocking filters for x-ray CCD camera onboard Astro-E2  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured optical and soft X-ray transmission of Optical Blocking Filters (OBFs) for Charge Coupled Device (CCD) cameras, which will be launched as focal plane detectors of X-ray telescopes onboard the Japanese 5th X-ray astronomical satellite, Astro-E 2. The filters were made from polyimide coated with Al. The X-ray absorption fine structures (XAFSs) at the K edges of C, N,

Shunji Kitamoto; Takayoshi Kohmura; Norimasa Yamamoto; Haruko Takano; Harue Saito; Kazuharu Suga; Hiroyuki Sekiguchi; S. Chiba; I. Okamoto; Kiyoshi Hayashida; Haruyoshi Katayama; Toyonaka Enoguchi; Yuusuke Nakashima; T. Shiroshouji; Yuzuru Tawara; Akihiro Furuzawa; Takeshi Tanaka

2004-01-01

179

Structural analysis of color video camera installation on Tank 241SY101 (2 volumes)  

SciTech Connect

This supporting document provides the structural analysis of record for the color video camera assembly that will be installed in tank 241SY101. This analysis includes both deadweight and seismic evaluations. The camera assembly is a purchased item, see CVI File 22580 for information on the camera.

Blume, J.A.; Strehlow, J.P.

1994-08-18

180

Real-time shot boundary detection for digital video camera using the MPEG-7 descriptor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased availability and usage of digital video lead to a need for automated video content analysis techniques. Most research on digital video content analysis includes automatic detection of the shot boundaries. However, those methods are not efficient in terms of computational time. In this paper, we propose the digital video camera system that can provide real-time shot boundary detection using the MPEG-7 descriptor. The video camera system is built so that MPEG-7 descriptors are extracted from frames of video. In this paper, the shot boundaries are achieved by measuring a distance of MPEG-7 descriptors for consecutive frames in real-time. Experimental results showed that the proposed video camera system provides fast and effective real-time shot boundary detection.

Shim, Sang H.; Yang, Seung J.; Yoon, Jeong H.; Kim, Ki H.; Ro, Yong M.

2002-03-01

181

Semantic annotation and retrieval of unedited video based on extraction of 3D camera motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an approach towards high-level semantic annotation of 3D camera motion information in videos. For video search and retrieval, query by example is a common technique, which proved its capability even for image features. However, complex properties of video clips even in the temporal domain can hardly be described via examples as they often fail to

Wolfgang Waizenegger; Ingo Feldmann; Oliver Schreer

2008-01-01

182

A new pnCCD-based color X-ray camera for fast spatial and energy-resolved measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new high resolution X-ray imager based on a pnCCD detector and a polycapillary optics. The properties of the pnCCD like high quantum efficiency, high energy resolution and radiation hardness are maintained, while color corrected polycapillary lenses are used to direct the fluorescence photons from every spot on a sample to a corresponding pixel on the detector. The camera is sensitive to photons from 3 to 40 keV with still 30% quantum efficiency at 20 keV. The pnCCD is operated in split frame mode allowing a high frame rate of 400 Hz with an energy resolution of 152 eV for Mn K? (5.9 keV) at 450 kcps. In single-photon counting mode (SPC), the time, energy and position of every fluorescence photon is recorded for every frame. A dedicated software enables the visualization of the elements distribution in real time without the need of post-processing the data. A description of the key components including detector, X-ray optics and camera is given. First experiments show the capability of the camera to perform fast full-field X-Ray Fluorescence (FF-XRF) for element analysis. The imaging performance with a magnifying optics (3×) has also been successfully tested.

Ordavo, I.; Ihle, S.; Arkadiev, V.; Scharf, O.; Soltau, H.; Bjeoumikhov, A.; Bjeoumikhova, S.; Buzanich, G.; Gubzhokov, R.; Günther, A.; Hartmann, R.; Holl, P.; Kimmel, N.; Kühbacher, M.; Lang, M.; Langhoff, N.; Liebel, A.; Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H.; Schaller, G.; Schopper, F.; Strüder, L.; Thamm, C.; Wedell, R.

2011-10-01

183

CCD Video Observation of Microgravity Crystallization of Lysozyme and Correlation with Accelerometer Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lysozyme has been crystallized using the ESA Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility onboard the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter during the IML-2 mission. CCD video monitoring was used to follow the crystallization process and evaluate the growth rate. During the mission some tetragonal crystals were observed moving over distances of up to 200 micrometers. This was correlated with microgravity disturbances caused by firings of vernier jets on the Orbiter. Growth-rate measurement of a stationary crystal (which had nucleated on the growth reactor wall) showed spurts and lulls correlated with an onboard activity; astronaut exercise. The stepped growth rates may be responsible for the residual mosaic block structure seen in crystal mosaicity and topography measurements.

Snell, E. H.; Boggon, T. J.; Helliwell, J. R.; Moskowitz, M. E.; Nadarajah, A.

1997-01-01

184

Classification of volcanic ash particles from Sakurajima volcano using CCD camera image and cluster analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative and speedy characterization of volcanic ash particle is needed to conduct a petrologic monitoring of ongoing eruption. We develop a new simple system using CCD camera images for quantitatively characterizing ash properties, and apply it to volcanic ash collected at Sakurajima. Our method characterizes volcanic ash particles by 1) apparent luminance through RGB filters and 2) a quasi-fractal dimension of the shape of particles. Using a monochromatic CCD camera (Starshoot by Orion Co. LTD.) attached to a stereoscopic microscope, we capture digital images of ash particles that are set on a glass plate under which white colored paper or polarizing plate is set. The images of 1390 x 1080 pixels are taken through three kinds of color filters (Red, Green and Blue) under incident-light and transmitted-light through polarizing plate. Brightness of the light sources is set to be constant, and luminance is calibrated by white and black colored papers. About fifteen ash particles are set on the plate at the same time, and their images are saved with a bit map format. We first extract the outlines of particles from the image taken under transmitted-light through polarizing plate. Then, luminances for each color are represented by 256 tones at each pixel in the particles, and the average and its standard deviation are calculated for each ash particle. We also measure the quasi-fractal dimension (qfd) of ash particles. We perform box counting that counts the number of boxes which consist of 1×1 and 128×128 pixels that catch the area of the ash particle. The qfd is estimated by taking the ratio of the former number to the latter one. These parameters are calculated by using software R. We characterize volcanic ash from Showa crater of Sakurajima collected in two days (Feb 09, 2009, and Jan 13, 2010), and apply cluster analyses. Dendrograms are formed from the qfd and following four parameters calculated from the luminance: Rf=R/(R+G+B), G=G/(R+G+B), B=B/(R+G+B), and total luminance=(R+G+B)/665. We classify the volcanic ash particles from the Dendrograms into three groups based on the euclid distance. The groups are named as Group A, B and C in order of increasing of the average value of total luminance. The classification shows that the numbers of particles belonging to Group A, B and C are 77, 25 and 6 in Feb, 09, 2009 sample, and 102, 19 and 6 in Jan, 13, 2010 sample, respectively. The examination under stereoscopic microscope suggests that Group A, B and C mainly correspond with juvenile, altered and free-crystal particles, respectively. So the result of classification by present method demonstrates a difference in the contribution of juvenile material between the two days. To evaluate reliability of our classification, we classify pseudo-samples in which errors of 10% are added in the measured parameters. We apply our method to one thousand psuedo-samples, and the result shows that the numbers of particles classified into the three groups vary less than 20 % of the total number of 235 particles. Our system can classify 120 particles within 6 minutes so that we easily increase the number of ash particles, which enable us to improve reliabilities and resolutions of the classification and to speedily capture temporal changes of the property of ash particles from active volcanoes.

Miwa, T.; Shimano, T.; Nishimura, T.

2012-12-01

185

Simultaneous monitoring of a collapsing landslide with video cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Effective countermeasures and risk management to reduce landslide hazards require a full understanding of the processes of collapsing landslides. While the processes are generally estimated from the features of debris deposits after collapse, simultaneous monitoring during collapse provides more insights into the processes. Such monitoring, however, is usually very difficult, because it is rarely possible to predict when a collapse will occur. This study introduces a rare case in which a collapsing landslide (150 m in width and 135 m in height) was filmed with three video cameras in Higashi-Yokoyama, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. The cameras were set up in the front and on the right and left sides of the slide in May 2006, one month after a series of small slope failures in the toe and the formation of cracks on the head indicated that a collapse was imminent. The filmed images showed that the landslide collapse started from rock falls and slope failures occurring mainly around the margin, that is, the head, sides and toe. These rock falls and slope failures, which were individually counted on the screen, increased with time. Analyzing the images, five of the failures were estimated to have each produced more than 1000 m3 of debris, and the landslide collapsed with several surface failures accompanied by a toppling movement. The manner of the collapse suggested that the slip surface initially remained on the upper slope, and then extended down the slope as the excessive internal stress shifted downwards. Image analysis, together with field measurements using a ground-based laser scanner after the collapse, indicated that the landslide produced a total of 50 000 m3 of debris. As described above, simultaneous monitoring provides valuable information about landslide processes. Further development of monitoring techniques will help clarify landslide processes qualitatively as well as quantitatively.

Fujisawa, K.; Ohara, J.

2008-01-01

186

[Research Award providing funds for a tracking video camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The award provided funds for a tracking video camera. The camera has been installed and the system calibrated. It has enabled us to follow in real time the tracks of individual wood ants (Formica rufa) within a 3m square arena as they navigate singly in-doors guided by visual cues. To date we have been using the system on two projects. The first is an analysis of the navigational strategies that ants use when guided by an extended landmark (a low wall) to a feeding site. After a brief training period, ants are able to keep a defined distance and angle from the wall, using their memory of the wall's height on the retina as a controlling parameter. By training with walls of one height and length and testing with walls of different heights and lengths, we can show that ants adjust their distance from the wall so as to keep the wall at the height that they learned during training. Thus, their distance from the base of a tall wall is further than it is from the training wall, and the distance is shorter when the wall is low. The stopping point of the trajectory is defined precisely by the angle that the far end of the wall makes with the trajectory. Thus, ants walk further if the wall is extended in length and not so far if the wall is shortened. These experiments represent the first case in which the controlling parameters of an extended trajectory can be defined with some certainty. It raises many questions for future research that we are now pursuing.

Collett, Thomas

2000-01-01

187

Inter-camera Coding of Multi-view Video Using Layered Depth Image Representation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multi-view video is a collection of multiple videos, capturing the same scene at different viewpoints. If we acquire multi-view\\u000a videos from multiple cameras, it is possible to generate scenes at arbitrary view positions. It means that users can change\\u000a their viewpoints freely and can feel visible depth with view interaction. Therefore, the multi-view video can be used in a

Seung-uk Yoon; Eun-kyung Lee; Sung-yeol Kim; Yo-sung Ho; Kugjin Yun; Sukhee Cho; Namho Hur

2006-01-01

188

Characterization of OCam and CCD220: the fastest and most sensitive camera to date for AO wavefront sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For the first time, sub-electron read noise has been achieved with a camera suitable for astronomical wavefront-sensing (WFS) applications. The OCam system has demonstrated this performance at 1300 Hz frame rate and with 240×240-pixel frame rate. ESO and JRA2 OPTICON2 have jointly funded e2v technologies to develop a custom CCD for Adaptive Optics (AO) wavefront sensing applications. The device, called CCD220, is a compact Peltier-cooled 240×240 pixel frame-transfer 8-output back-illuminated sensor using the EMCCD technology. This paper demonstrates sub-electron read noise at frame rates from 25 Hz to 1300 Hz and dark current lower than 0.01 e-/pixel/frame. It reports on the comprehensive, quantitative performance characterization of OCam and the CCD220 such as readout noise, dark current, multiplication gain, quantum efficiency, charge transfer efficiency... OCam includes a low noise preamplifier stage, a digital board to generate the clocks and a microcontroller. The data acquisition system includes a user friendly timer file editor to generate any type of clocking scheme. A second version of OCam, called OCam2, was designed offering enhanced performances, a completely sealed camera package and an additional Peltier stage to facilitate operation on a telescope or environmentally rugged applications. OCam2 offers two types of built-in data link to the Real Time Computer: the CameraLink industry standard interface and various fiber link options like the sFPDP interface. OCam2 includes also a modified mechanical design to ease the integration of microlens arrays for use of this camera in all types of wavefront sensing AO system. The front cover of OCam2 can be customized to include a microlens exchange mechanism.

Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Balard, Philippe; Guillaume, Christian; Downing, Mark; Hubin, Norbert; Stadler, Eric; Magnard, Yves; Skegg, Michael; Robbins, Mark; Denney, Sandy; Suske, Wolfgang; Jorden, Paul; Wheeler, Patrick; Pool, Peter; Bell, Ray; Burt, David; Davies, Ian; Reyes, Javier; Meyer, Manfred; Baade, Dietrich; Kasper, Markus; Arsenault, Robin; Fusco, Thierry; Diaz-Garcia, José Javier

2010-07-01

189

Operational test procedure 241-AZ-101 waste tank color video camera system  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this procedure is to provide a documented means of verifying that all of the functional components of the 241-AZ- 101 Waste Tank Video Camera System operate properly before and after installation.

Robinson, R.S.

1996-10-30

190

Operational test procedure 241-AZ-101 waste tank color video camera system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this procedure is to provide a documented means of verifying that all of the functional components of the 241-AZ- 101 Waste Tank Video Camera System operate properly before and after installation.

1996-01-01

191

Engineering task plan for flammable gas atmosphere mobile color video camera systems  

SciTech Connect

This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of the mobile video camera systems. The color video camera systems will be used to observe and record the activities within the vapor space of a tank on a limited exposure basis. The units will be fully mobile and designed for operation in the single-shell flammable gas producing tanks. The objective of this tank is to provide two mobile camera systems for use in flammable gas producing single-shell tanks (SSTs) for the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program. The camera systems will provide observation, video recording, and monitoring of the activities that occur in the vapor space of applied tanks. The camera systems will be designed to be totally mobile, capable of deployment up to 6.1 meters into a 4 inch (minimum) riser.

Kohlman, E.H.

1995-01-25

192

Camera View-Based American Football Video Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a top-down statistical modeling approach to explore the semantic structure in American football video. First, a semantic space is defined where the video semantic structure is characterized by semantic units, a dynamic model over semantic units, and an observation model for mapping the semantic units with the visual features. Then, a new hidden Markov model (HMM)-based video generative

Yi Ding; Guoliang Fan

2006-01-01

193

Photon-counting gamma camera based on columnar CsI(Tl) optically coupled to a back-illuminated CCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances have been made in a new class of CCD-based, single-photon-counting gamma-ray detectors which offer sub-100 ?m intrinsic resolutions. 1-7 These detectors show great promise in small-animal SPECT and molecular imaging and exist in a variety of cofigurations. Typically, a columnar CsI(Tl) scintillator or a radiography screen (Gd IIO IIS:Tb) is imaged onto the CCD. Gamma-ray interactions are seen as clusters of signal spread over multiple pixels. When the detector is operated in a charge-integration mode, signal spread across pixels results in spatial-resolution degradation. However, if the detector is operated in photon-counting mode, the gamma-ray interaction position can be estimated using either Anger (centroid) estimation or maximum-likelihood position estimation resulting in a substantial improvement in spatial resolution.2 Due to the low-light-level nature of the scintillation process, CCD-based gamma cameras implement an amplfication stage in the CCD via electron multiplying (EMCCDs) 8-10 or via an image intensfier prior to the optical path.1 We have applied ideas and techniques from previous systems to our high-resolution LumiSPECT detector. 11, 12 LumiSPECT is a dual-modality optical/SPECT small-animal imaging system which was originally designed to operate in charge-integration mode. It employs a cryogenically cooled, high-quantum-efficiency, back-illuminated large-format CCD and operates in single-photon-counting mode without any intermediate amplfication process. Operating in photon-counting mode, the detector has an intrinsic spatial resolution of 64 ?m compared to 134 ?m in integrating mode.

Miller, Brian W.; Barber, H. Bradford; Barrett, Harrison H.; Chen, Liying; Taylor, Sean J.

2007-03-01

194

Auto-measurement system of aerial camera lens' resolution based on orthogonal linear CCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resolution of aerial camera lens is one of the most important camera's performance indexes. The measurement and calibration of resolution are important test items in in maintenance of camera. The traditional method that is observing resolution panel of collimator rely on human's eyes using microscope and doing some computing. The method is of low efficiency and susceptible to artificial

Yu-Liang Zhao; Yu-Ye Zhang; Hong-Yi Ding

2010-01-01

195

Quantitative underwater 3D motion analysis using submerged video cameras: accuracy analysis and trajectory reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we aim at investigating the applicability of underwater 3D motion capture based on submerged video cameras in terms of 3D accuracy analysis and trajectory reconstruction. Static points with classical direct linear transform (DLT) solution, a moving wand with bundle adjustment and a moving 2D plate with Zhang's method were considered for camera calibration. As an example of

Amanda P. Silvatti; Pietro Cerveri; Thiago Telles; Fábio A. S. Dias; Guido Baroni; Ricardo M. L. Barros

2012-01-01

196

Eight solutions of the essential matrix for continuous camera motion tracking in video augmented reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers a self-calibration approach to the estimation of motion parameters for an unknown camera used for video-based augmented reality. Whilst existing systems derive four SVD solutions of the essential matrix, which encodes the epipolar geometry between two camera views, this paper presents eight possible solutions derived from mathematical computation and geometrical analysis. The eight solutions not only reflect

Li Ling; Eva Cheng; I. S. Burnett

2011-01-01

197

Automatic determination of the position of a video camera in a system of laser optical triangulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic method of calibration of a video camera (camcorder) for the purpose of laser calibration is described. The method\\u000a utilizes images taken by the camera. Different calibration templates are considered. The results of an experiment are presented\\u000a and techniques for increasing calibration precision are indicated.

E. V. Davydenko; A. L. Priorov

2009-01-01

198

3D model reconstruction from video recorded with a compact camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

3d model plays an important role in modern visualization applications. Image or video based 3d model reconstruction is being more and more widely used. In this paper, the way to reconstruct a 3d model from video collected with a compact camera is discussed, including both the main procedure and some technical implementation issues.

Pengqi Gao; Xiaozhong Guo; Datao Yang; Ming Shen; You Zhao; Zunyi Xu; Zhongwei Fan; Jin Yu; Yunfeng Ma

2012-01-01

199

Algorithms for the Automatic Identification of MARFEs and UFOs in JET Database of Visible Camera Videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

MARFE instabilities and UFOs leave clear signatures in JET fast visible camera videos. Given the potential harmful consequences of these events, particularly as triggers of disruptions, it would be important to have the means of detecting them automatically. In this paper, the results of various algorithms to identify automatically the MARFEs and UFOs in JET visible videos are reported. The

A. Murari; M. Camplani; B. Cannas; D. Mazon; F. Delaunay; P. Usai; J. F. Delmond

2010-01-01

200

Still-Video Photography: Tomorrow's Electronic Cameras in the Hands of Today's Photojournalists.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the still-video camera and its potential impact by looking at recent experiments and by gathering information from some of the few people knowledgeable about the new technology. The paper briefly traces the evolution of the tools and processes of still-video photography, examining how photographers and their work have been…

Foss, Kurt; Kahan, Robert S.

201

Visualization and PIV measurements of high-speed flows and other phenomena with novel ultrahigh-speed CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ultra-high-speed camera system operating at up to 1 MHz is presented using a diode-pumped solid state laser at 532 nm operating between 1 and 100 kHz. Images are taken with a high-resolution high-speed CCD-camera capable of recording 4 or 16 images up to 1280 x 1024 pixel at a frame-rate of up to 1 MHz. The system can be used for various high-speed visulalization purposes. A turbulent air flow at velocities of a few m/s was recorded and PIV vector fields computed. From consecutive vector fields the local acceleration field was derived. Gasoline direct injection sprays were recorded at up to 80 kHz frame rate.

Eisenberg, Sebastian; Reckers, Wolfgang; Wieneke, Bernhard

2003-07-01

202

A high resolution Small Field Of View (SFOV) gamma camera: a columnar scintillator coated CCD imager for medical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a high resolution, small field of view (SFOV), Charge Coupled Device (CCD) based camera for imaging small volumes of radionuclide uptake in tissues. The Mini Gamma Ray Camera (MGRC) is a collimated, scintillator-coated, low cost, high performance imager using low noise CCDs. The prototype MGRC has a 600 ?m thick layer of columnar CsI(Tl) and operates in photon counting mode using a thermoelectric cooler to achieve an operating temperature of - 10°C. Collimation was performed using a pin hole collimator. We have measured the spatial resolution, energy resolution and efficiency using a number of radioisotope sources including 140 keV gamma-rays from 99mTc in a specially designed phantom. We also describe our first imaging of a volunteer patient.

Lees, J. E.; Bassford, D. J.; Blake, O. E.; Blackshaw, P. E.; Perkins, A. C.

2011-12-01

203

Full-disk solar Dopplergrams observed with a one-megapixel CCD camera and a sodium magneto-optical filter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents here the first two full-disk solar Dopplergrams obtained with the new 1024 x 1024-pixel CCD camera which has recently been installed at the 60-Foot Tower Telescope of the Mt. Wilson Observatory. These Dopplergrams have a spatial resolution of 2.2 arcseconds and were obtained in a total of one minute of time. The Dopplergrams were obtained with a magnetooptical filter which was designed to obtain images in the two Na D lines. The filter and the camera were operated together as part of the development of a solar oscillations imager experiment which is currently being designed at JPL for the Joint NASA/ESA Solar and Heliospheric Observatory mission. Two different images obtained by subtracting two pairs of the Dopplergrams from the initial time series are also included.

Rhodes, Edward J., Jr.; Cacciani, Alessandro; Tomczyk, Steven

1987-01-01

204

Ultra Small HD Video Camera Using MPEG4 Codec with SD Memory Card as Storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed an ultra small HD video camera that can capture 720P\\/30 fps video movie and a 5.1 M pixel still image simultaneously. A new HD MPEG4 codec enables to record 23 minutes of HD video on a 2 GB SD memory card. A full-color organic EL is applied as a display with many better features than LCDs.

Hiroaki Yoshida; Shigeyuki Okada; Haruhiko Murata; Mitsuaki Kurokawa; Hidefumi Okada

2007-01-01

205

Engineering task plan for Tanks 241-AN-103, 104, 105 color video camera systems  

SciTech Connect

This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the design, fabrication, assembly, and installation of the video camera systems into the vapor space within tanks 241-AN-103, 104, and 105. The one camera remotely operated color video systems will be used to observe and record the activities within the vapor space. Activities may include but are not limited to core sampling, auger activities, crust layer examination, monitoring of equipment installation/removal, and any other activities. The objective of this task is to provide a single camera system in each of the tanks for the Flammable Gas Tank Safety Program.

Kohlman, E.H.

1994-11-17

206

Influence of optical light on the charge transfer efficiency of the XMM EPIC pn-CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The European X-ray satellite XMM will be launched in December 1999. One of the focal plane instruments of the European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) on board XMM is equipped with a monolithic pn-CCD consisting of 12 individual CCDs with 200 X 64 pixels each. In order to exploit the god intrinsic energy resolution of the pn-CCD, the charge transfer efficiency (CTE) must be well known. Impurities in the wafer material act as traps for electrons, thus removing a fraction of the signal charge at each transfer step towards the readout anode. Electronics generated by optical light from the observed source or other optical sources may well saturate those traps, which results in a different CTE for x-ray generated charge packets. Using single CCDs of flight type, we have analyzed in our test facility at the Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik der Universitaet Tuebingen, the influence of optical light on the CTE of the pn-CCD. In this paper we describe the result of our investigation of the CTE at different x-ray energies and varying optical light intensities.

Pal, Josef; Kuster, Markus; Kendziorra, Eckhard; Krause, Norbert

1999-10-01

207

Feasibility study of transmission of OTV camera control information in the video vertical blanking interval  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Operational Television system at Kennedy Space Center operates hundreds of video cameras, many remotely controllable, in support of the operations at the center. This study was undertaken to determine if commercial NABTS (North American Basic Teletext System) teletext transmission in the vertical blanking interval of the genlock signals distributed to the cameras could be used to send remote control commands to the cameras and the associated pan and tilt platforms. Wavelength division multiplexed fiberoptic links are being installed in the OTV system to obtain RS-250 short-haul quality. It was demonstrated that the NABTS transmission could be sent over the fiberoptic cable plant without excessive video quality degradation and that video cameras could be controlled using NABTS transmissions over multimode fiberoptic paths as long as 1.2 km.

White, Preston A., III

1994-01-01

208

Determination of optical properties in situ from radial backscattering profile using a CCD camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local tissue optical parameters are of principal importance in determining the ideal dosage of laser energy and choosing the most suitable therapeutic wavelength for a specific organ. We have developed a non-invasive method for the determination of optical parameters of whole tissue in-situ. Backscattered laser light from a pencil beam incident on the tissue surface was measured using a CCD

Robert Splinter; Robert H. Svenson; Laszlo Littmann; Jan R. Tuntelder; Michelle Thompson; George P. Tatsis; Chi H. Chuang

1992-01-01

209

Lights, Cameras, Pencils! Using Descriptive Video to Enhance Writing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students of various ages and abilities can increase their comprehension and build vocabulary with the help of a new technology, Descriptive Video. Descriptive Video (also known as described programming) was developed to give individuals with visual impairments access to visual media such as television programs and films. Described programs,…

Hoffner, Helen; Baker, Eileen; Quinn, Kathleen Benson

2008-01-01

210

Lights! Camera! Action! Handling Your First Video Assignment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author discusses points to consider when hiring and working with a video production company to develop a video for human resources purposes. Questions to ask the consultants are included, as is information on the role of the company liaison and on how to avoid expensive, time-wasting pitfalls. (CH)

Thomas, Marjorie Bekaert

1989-01-01

211

Testing the e2v CCD47-20 as the new sensor for the SOFIA target acquisition and tracking cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The telescope of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has three target acquisition and tracking cameras, the Wide Field Imager (WFI), Fine Field Imager (FFI) and Focal Plane Imager (FPI). All three cameras use Thompson TH7888A CCD sensors (now offered by e2v) which are quite suitable in terms of their geometry and readout speed. However, their quantum efficiency and dark current rate are not comparable to newer CCD sensors now widely used in astronomy. The Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI) under contract of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has therefore initiated an upgrade project of the cameras with high-sensitivity and low dark current CCD sensors, the e2v CCD47-20 BI AIMO. The back-illuminated architecture allows for high quantum efficiency, while the inverted mode operation lowers the dark current significantly. Both features enable the cameras to use fainter stars for tracking. The expected improvements in sensitivity range between 1.2 and 2.5 stellar magnitudes for the three cameras. In this paper we present results of laboratory and on-sky tests with the new sensor, obtained with a commercial camera platform.

Wiedemann, Manuel; Wolf, Jürgen; Röser, Hans-Peter

2010-07-01

212

Compact pnCCD-based X-ray camera with high spatial and energy resolution: a color X-ray camera.  

PubMed

For many applications there is a requirement for nondestructive analytical investigation of the elemental distribution in a sample. With the improvement of X-ray optics and spectroscopic X-ray imagers, full field X-ray fluorescence (FF-XRF) methods are feasible. A new device for high-resolution X-ray imaging, an energy and spatial resolving X-ray camera, is presented. The basic idea behind this so-called "color X-ray camera" (CXC) is to combine an energy dispersive array detector for X-rays, in this case a pnCCD, with polycapillary optics. Imaging is achieved using multiframe recording of the energy and the point of impact of single photons. The camera was tested using a laboratory 30 ?m microfocus X-ray tube and synchrotron radiation from BESSY II at the BAMline facility. These experiments demonstrate the suitability of the camera for X-ray fluorescence analytics. The camera simultaneously records 69,696 spectra with an energy resolution of 152 eV for manganese K(?) with a spatial resolution of 50 ?m over an imaging area of 12.7 × 12.7 mm(2). It is sensitive to photons in the energy region between 3 and 40 keV, limited by a 50 ?m beryllium window, and the sensitive thickness of 450 ?m of the chip. Online preview of the sample is possible as the software updates the sums of the counts for certain energy channel ranges during the measurement and displays 2-D false-color maps as well as spectra of selected regions. The complete data cube of 264 × 264 spectra is saved for further qualitative and quantitative processing. PMID:21355541

Scharf, O; Ihle, S; Ordavo, I; Arkadiev, V; Bjeoumikhov, A; Bjeoumikhova, S; Buzanich, G; Gubzhokov, R; Günther, A; Hartmann, R; Kühbacher, M; Lang, M; Langhoff, N; Liebel, A; Radtke, M; Reinholz, U; Riesemeier, H; Soltau, H; Strüder, L; Thünemann, A F; Wedell, R

2011-04-01

213

Dynamic imaging with a triggered and intensified CCD camera system in a high-intensity neutron beam  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When time-dependent processes within metallic structures should be inspected and visualized, neutrons are well suited due to their high penetration through Al, Ag, Ti or even steel. Then it becomes possible to inspect the propagation, distribution and evaporation of organic liquids as lubricants, fuel or water. The principle set-up of a suited real-time system was implemented and tested at the radiography facility NEUTRA of PSI. The highest beam intensity there is 2×107 cm s, which enables to observe sequences in a reasonable time and quality. The heart of the detection system is the MCP intensified CCD camera PI-Max with a Peltier cooled chip (1300×1340 pixels). The intensifier was used for both gating and image enhancement, where as the information was accumulated over many single frames on the chip before readout. Although, a 16-bit dynamic range is advertised by the camera manufacturers, it must be less due to the inherent noise level from the intensifier. The obtained result should be seen as the starting point to go ahead to fit the different requirements of car producers in respect to fuel injection, lubricant distribution, mechanical stability and operation control. Similar inspections will be possible for all devices with repetitive operation principle. Here, we report about two measurements dealing with the lubricant distribution in a running motorcycle motor turning at 1200 rpm. We were monitoring the periodic stationary movements of piston, valves and camshaft with a micro-channel plate intensified CCD camera system (PI-Max 1300RB, Princeton Instruments) triggered at exactly chosen time points.

Vontobel, P.; Frei, G.; Brunner, J.; Gildemeister, A. E.; Engelhardt, M.

2005-04-01

214

Range-Gated LADAR Coherent Imaging Using Parametric Up-Conversion of IR and NIR Light for Imaging with a Visible-Range Fast-Shuttered Intensified Digital CCD Camera  

SciTech Connect

Research is presented on infrared (IR) and near infrared (NIR) sensitive sensor technologies for use in a high speed shuttered/intensified digital video camera system for range-gated imaging at ''eye-safe'' wavelengths in the region of 1.5 microns. The study is based upon nonlinear crystals used for second harmonic generation (SHG) in optical parametric oscillators (OPOS) for conversion of NIR and IR laser light to visible range light for detection with generic S-20 photocathodes. The intensifiers are ''stripline'' geometry 18-mm diameter microchannel plate intensifiers (MCPIIS), designed by Los Alamos National Laboratory and manufactured by Philips Photonics. The MCPIIS are designed for fast optical shattering with exposures in the 100-200 ps range, and are coupled to a fast readout CCD camera. Conversion efficiency and resolution for the wavelength conversion process are reported. Experimental set-ups for the wavelength shifting and the optical configurations for producing and transporting laser reflectance images are discussed.

YATES,GEORGE J.; MCDONALD,THOMAS E. JR.; BLISS,DAVID E.; CAMERON,STEWART M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.

2000-12-20

215

Comparison of the influence factors on NDVI for CCD camera and WFI imager on CBERS-02  

Microsoft Academic Search

CCD and WFI are payloads in the visible light and near infrared bands on CBERS satellites and they have not been applied widely,\\u000a especially WFI. This article mainly probes into the potential of these two sensors’ application in the vegetation monitoring\\u000a and analyses the influences of radiometric calibration, atmosphere conditions and sun-observing geometry, etc. onNDVI obtained from these two sensors

Tao Yu; Xiaoying Li; Yong Zhang; Feng Zhao; Xingfa Gu; Li Zhu; Pengxin Wang; Xiangjun Min

2005-01-01

216

Quantitative and qualitative performance comparison of a biomimetic vision sensor with commercial CCD camera sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional imaging sensors for computer vision, such as CCD and CMOS arrays, have well-known limitations with regard to detecting objects that are very small in size (that is, a small object image compared to the pixel size), are viewed in a low contrast situation, are moving very fast (with respect to the sensor integration time), or are moving very small distances compared to the sensor pixel spacing. Any one or a combination of these situations can foil a traditional CCD or CMOS sensor array. Alternative sensor designs derived from biological vision systems promise better resolution and object detection in situations such as these. The patent-pending biomimetic vision sensor based on Musca domestica (the common house fly) is capable of reliable object rendition in spite of challenging movement and low contrast conditions. We discuss some interesting early results of comparing the biomimetic sensor to commercial CCD sensors in terms of contrast and motion sensitivity in situations such as those listed above.

Prabhakara, Roopa S.; Wright, Cameron H. G.; Barrett, Steven F.; Harman, William

2006-02-01

217

Digital still video camera using semiconductor memory card  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly developed compact camera which can take digital still pictures by using a semiconductor IC memory card is described. The developed prototype is suitable for consumer use because of its easy operation and fully automatic functions. High-quality frame images are obtained with degradation-free data compression LSIs. The camera makes it possible to store 13 high-quality still pictures in a

F. Izawa; S. Yamaguchi; M. Nakagawa; A. Yamauchi; M. Sasaki; M. Umeda; Y. Uetani; Y. Tagami

1990-01-01

218

CameraCast: flexible access to remote video sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

New applications like remote surveillance and online environmental or traffic monitoring are making it increasingly important to provide flexible and protected access to remote video sensor devices. Current systems use application-level codes like web-based solutions to provide such access. This requires adherence to user-level APIs provided by such services, access to remote video information through given application-specific service and server

Jiantao Kong; Ivan Ganev; Karsten Schwan; Patrick Widener

2007-01-01

219

Measuring small color differences in the nearly neutral region by 3CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to evaluate the discrimination capability of a camera to measure small color differences in the nearly neutral region is proposed. We focus on the camera's performance in the nearly neutral region of the color space because: it represents a challenge for the instrument (these colors entail a similar stimulation of the RGB channels) and, second, these colors concentrate industrial interest, particularly related to materials for clothing or decorating. The method proposed has two stages. Firstly, we determine the appropriate working conditions of the acquisition system (SONY DX-9100P camera). Secondly, we select two sets of matte Munsell samples, regularly distributed in the Hue circle with low Chroma and Values. These two sets of samples are the very pale color and the dark grayish color sets. Each selected chip is compared with all its nearest neighbors of the Munsell color system under D65 illumination. CIELAB and CIEDE2000 formulae is used to estimate color differences. All the color differences are separately evaluated in pairs by the camera and by a reference instrument (spectroradiometer Photo-Research PR-715). We test the reliability of the camera's performance by comparing the results obtained by both the camera and the spectroradiometer.

Valencia, Edison; Millan Garcia-Verela, Maria S.

2004-10-01

220

Development of the control circuits for the TID-CCD stereo camera of the Chang'E-2 satellite based on FPGAs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The TDI-CCD Stereo Camera is the optical sensor on the Chang'E-2 (CE-2) satellite created for the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program. The camera was designed to acquire three-dimensional stereoscopic images of the lunar surface based upon three-line array photogrammetric theory. The primary objective of the camera is, (1) to obtain about 1-m pixel spatial resolution images of the preparative landing location from an ellipse orbit at an altitude of ~15km, and (2) to obtain about 7-m pixel spatial resolution global images of the Moon from a circular orbit at an altitude of ~100km. The focal plane of the camera is comprised of two TDI-CCDs. The control circuits of the camera are designed based on two SRAM-type FPGAs, XQR2V3000-4CG717. In this paper, a variable frequency control and multi-tap data readout technology for the TDI-CCD is presented, which is able to change the data processing capabilities according to the different orbit mode for the TDI-CCD stereo camera. By this way, the data rate of the camera is extremely reduced from 100Mbps to 25Mbps at high orbit mode, which is benefit to raise the reliability of the image transfer. The results of onboard flight validate that the proposed methodology is reasonable and reliable.

Duan, Yong-Qiang; Gao, Wei; Qiao, Wei-Dong; Wen, De-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Chang

2013-09-01

221

A Comparison of Techniques for Camera Selection and Hand-Off in a Video Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Video networks are becoming increasingly important for solving many real-world problems. Multiple video sensors require collaboration when performing various tasks. One of the most basic tasks is the tracking of objects, which requires mechanisms to select a camera for a certain object and hand-off this object from one camera to another so as to accomplish seamless tracking. In this chapter, we provide a comprehensive comparison of current and emerging camera selection and hand-off techniques. We consider geometry-, statistics-, and game theory-based approaches and provide both theoretical and experimental comparison using centralized and distributed computational models. We provide simulation and experimental results using real data for various scenarios of a large number of cameras and objects for in-depth understanding of strengths and weaknesses of these techniques.

Li, Yiming; Bhanu, Bir

222

An algorithm of calculating the scanning start angle and the scanning angle of linear array CCD panoramic aerial camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The scanning start angle (SSA), the scanning angle (SA) and the target slope angle (SA) are important parameters of Linear Array CCD Panoramic Aerial Camera. This paper analyzes the relationship of them and suggests that the current method of calculating SA is very difficult to be realized in engineering. It proposes an algorithm of calculating SSA and SA according to TSA. Its main characteristics are, with achieving the overlap rate as a premise, to calculate SSA and SA reasonably and to try to put the target into the middle of swath coverage, making the coverage as wide as possible. The algorithm is very simple and is easy to be realized in engineering. The paper gives us the relationship graph between TSA and SA.

Zhou, Gang; Zhai, Lin-Pei

2006-11-01

223

Influence of diquat on growth and death of HepG2 cells using quartz crystal and micro CCD camera.  

PubMed

Diquat is widely used agent which produces toxicity in human and implicated as an environmental toxicity. HepG2 cell was cultured onto an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface of quartz crystal modified a collagen film. In this paper, we investigated the physical properties and the morphological change of the HepG2 cells cultured onto the ITO electrode of the quartz crystal sensor with micro CCD camera. The resonance responses of the quartz crystal and the morphological change were directly monitored. After seeding the cells and diquat injection into the chamber, the resonance frequency and the resonance resistance were obtained with real time morphologies. From the resonance characteristics and the series of morphologies, we could know the diquat to be death and weakening of the cells. PMID:21780434

Kang, Hyen-Wook; Lee, Dong-Yun; Muramatsu, Hiroshi; Lee, Burm-Jong; Kwon, Young-Soo

2011-05-01

224

Single-step calibration, prediction and real samples data acquisition for artificial neural network using a CCD camera.  

PubMed

An artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed for simultaneous determination of Al(III) and Fe(III) in alloys by using chrome azurol S (CAS) as the chromogenic reagent and CCD camera as the detection system. All calibration, prediction and real samples data were obtained by taking a single image. Experimental conditions were established to reduce interferences and increase sensitivity and selectivity in the analysis of Al(III) and Fe(III). In this way, an artificial neural network consisting of three layers of nodes was trained by applying a back-propagation learning rule. Sigmoid transfer functions were used in the hidden and output layers to facilitate nonlinear calibration. Both Al(III) and Fe(III) can be determined in the concentration range of 0.25-4mugml(-1) with satisfactory accuracy and precision. The proposed method was also applied satisfactorily to the determination of considered metal ions in two synthetic alloys. PMID:18969677

Maleki, N; Safavi, A; Sedaghatpour, F

2004-11-15

225

BOREAS RSS-3 Imagery and Snapshots from a Helicopter-Mounted Video Camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The BOREAS RSS-3 team collected helicopter-based video coverage of forested sites acquired during BOREAS as well as single-frame "snapshots" processed to still images. Helicopter data used in this analysis were collected during all three 1994 IFCs (24-May to 16-Jun, 19-Jul to 10-Aug, and 30-Aug to 19-Sep), at numerous tower and auxiliary sites in both the NSA and the SSA. The VHS-camera observations correspond to other coincident helicopter measurements. The field of view of the camera is unknown. The video tapes are in both VHS and Beta format. The still images are stored in JPEG format.

Walthall, Charles L.; Loechel, Sara; Nickeson, Jaime (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

2000-01-01

226

Simulation of a Video Surveillance Network Using Remote Intelligent Security Cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high continuous bit-rates carried by digital fiber-based video surveillance networks have prompted demands for intelligent\\u000a sensor devices to reduce bandwidth requirements. These devices detect and report only significant events, thus optimizing\\u000a the use of recording and transmission hardware. The Remote Intelligent Security Camera (R.I.S.C.) concept devolves local autonomy\\u000a to geographically distant cameras, enabling them to switch between tasks in

J. R. Renno; M. J. Tunnicliffe; Graeme A. Jones; David J. Parish

2001-01-01

227

Combination of video-based camera trackers using a dynamically adapted particle filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a video-based camera tracker that combines marker-based and feature point-based cues in a particle filter framework. The framework relies on their complementary performance. Marker-based trackers can robustly recover camera position and orientation when a reference (marker) is available, but fail once the reference becomes unavailable. On the other hand, feature point tracking can still provide estimates given

David H. Marimont; Touradj Ebrahimi

2007-01-01

228

Multi-camera video surveillance for real-time analysis and reconstruction of soccer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soccer analysis and reconstruction is one of the most interesting challenges for wide-area video surveillance applications.\\u000a Techniques and system implementation for tracking the ball and players with multiple stationary cameras are discussed. With\\u000a video data captured from a football stadium, the real-world, real-time positions of the ball and players can be generated.\\u000a The whole system contains a two-stage workflow, i.e.,

Jinchang Ren; Ming Xu; James Orwell; Graeme A. Jones

2010-01-01

229

CMOS image sensor with APS structure for high-speed video cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the required specifications, APS (Active Pixel Sensor) technology, and possible problems to be overcome with next-generation CMOS image sensors for digital high-speed video photography. A custom-designed image sensor with parallel-readout, high-speed-operation and other functions, is needed to develop an advanced high-speed video camera, realizing higher frame rates and producing pictures of proper resolution. The CMOS

Kenji Tajima; Takashi Komuro; Masatoshi Ishikawa

2001-01-01

230

Passive millimeter-wave video camera for aviation applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive Millimeter Wave (PMMW) imaging technology offers significant safety benefits to world aviation. Made possible by recent technological breakthroughs, PMMW imaging sensors provide visual-like images of objects under low visibility conditions (e.g., fog, clouds, snow, sandstorms, and smoke) which blind visual and infrared sensors. TRW has developed an advanced, demonstrator version of a PMMW imaging camera that, when front-mounted on an aircraft, gives images of the forward scene at a rate and quality sufficient to enhance aircrew vision and situational awareness under low visibility conditions. Potential aviation uses for a PMMW camera are numerous and include: (1) Enhanced vision for autonomous take- off, landing, and surface operations in Category III weather on Category I and non-precision runways; (2) Enhanced situational awareness during initial and final approach, including Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT) mitigation; (3) Ground traffic control in low visibility; (4) Enhanced airport security. TRW leads a consortium which began flight tests with the demonstration PMMW camera in September 1997. Flight testing will continue in 1998. We discuss the characteristics of PMMW images, the current state of the technology, the integration of the camera with other flight avionics to form an enhanced vision system, and other aviation applications.

Fornaca, Steven; Shoucri, Merit; Yujiri, Larry

1998-07-01

231

78 FR 39619 - Closed Captioning of Internet Protocol-Delivered Video Programming: Implementation of the Twenty...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...example, digital still cameras, digital video cameras, baby monitors, security cameras, digital video camera microscopes, digital...digital video cameras, baby monitors, security cameras, digital video camera microscopes,...

2013-07-02

232

Fast CCD camera for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved x-ray scattering and imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new, fast x-ray detector system is presented for high-throughput, high-sensitivity, time-resolved, x-ray scattering and imaging experiments, most especially x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS). After a review of the architectures of different CCD chips and a critical examination of their suitability for use in a fast x-ray detector, the new detector hardware is described. In brief, its principal component is an inexpensive, commercial camera-the SMD1M60-originally designed for optical applications, and modified for use as a direct-illumination x-ray detector. The remainder of the system consists of two Coreco Imaging PC-DIG frame grabber boards, located inside a Dell Power-edge 6400 server. Each frame grabber sits on its own PCI bus and handles data from 2 of the CCD's 4 taps. The SMD1M60 is based on a fast, frame-transfer, 4-tap CCD chip, read out at12-bit resolution at frame rates of up to 62 Hz for full frame readout and up to 500 Hz for one-sixteenth frame readout. Experiments to characterize the camera's suitability for XPCS and small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) are presented. These experiments show that single photon events are readily identified, and localized to within a pixel index or so. This is a sufficiently fine spatial resolution to maintain the speckle contrast at an acceptable value for XPCS measurements. The detective quantum efficiency of the SMD1M60 is 49% for directly-detected 6.3 keV x rays. The effects of data acquisition strategies that permit near-real-time data compression are also determined and discussed. Overall, the SMD1M60 detector system represents a major improvement in the technology for time-resolved x-ray experiments, that require an area detector with time-resolutions in few-milliseconds-to-few-seconds range, and it should have wide applications, extending beyond XPCS.

Falus, P.; Borthwick, M. A.; Mochrie, S. G. J.

2004-11-01

233

Lights! Camera! Action!: video projects in the classroom.  

PubMed

We report on two classroom video projects intended to promote active student involvement in their classroom experience during a year-long medical-surgical nursing course. We implemented two types of projects, Nursing Grand Rounds and FPBTV. The projects are templates that can be applied to any nursing specialty and can be implemented without the use of video technology. During the course of several years, both projects have proven effective in encouraging students to promote pattern recognition of characteristic features of common illnesses, to develop teamwork strategies, and to practice their presentation skills in a safe environment among their peers. The projects appealed to students because they increased retention of information and immersed students in the experience of becoming experts about an illness or a family of medications. These projects have enabled students to become engaged and invested in their own learning in the classroom. PMID:14694997

Epstein, Carol Diane; Hovancsek, Marcella T; Dolan, Pamela L; Durner, Erin; La Rocco, Nicole; Preiszig, Patricia; Winnen, Caitlin

2003-12-01

234

Procurement documentation for the beam characterization subsystem: pyrheliometer, digitizer, MODACS III, video camera. RADL item No. 3-4  

SciTech Connect

Procurement documentation is given describing the basic features of the parts of a Beam Characterization System of a solar central receiver facility. Parts include pyrheliometers, a digitizer, components of the data acquisition and control system, and video cameras. The specification establishing the performance and acceptance requirements for the video cameras are given. (LEW)

Not Available

1980-02-01

235

Progress of the x-ray CCD camera development for the eROSITA telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The eROSITA space telescope is presently developed for the determination of cosmological parameters and the equation of state of dark energy via evolution of galaxy clusters. It will perform in addition a census of the obscured black hole growth in the Universe. The instrument development was also strongly motivated by the intention of a first imaging X-ray all-sky survey above an energy of 2 keV. eROSITA is scientific payload on the Russian research satellite SRG and the mission duration is scheduled for 7.5 years. The instrument comprises an array of seven identical and parallel-aligned telescopes. The mirror system is of Wolter-I type and the focal plane is equipped with a PNCCD camera for each of the telescopes. This instrumentation permits spectroscopy and imaging of X-rays in the energy band from 0.3 keV to 10 keV with a field of view of 1.0 degree. The camera development is done at the Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and in particular the key component, the PNCCD sensor, has been designed and fabricated at the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck Society. All produced devices have been tested and the best selected for the eROSITA project. Based on calculations, simulations, and experimental testing of prototype systems, the flight cameras have been configured. We describe the detector and its performance, the camera design and electronics, the thermal system, and report on the latest estimates of the expected radiation damage taking into account the generation of secondary neutrons. The most recent test results will be presented as well as the status of the instrument development.

Meidinger, Norbert; Andritschke, Robert; Aschauer, Florian; Bornemann, Walter; Emberger, Valentin; Eraerds, Tanja; Fürmetz, Maria; Hälker, Olaf; Hartner, Gisela; Kink, Walter; Müller, Siegfried; Pietschner, Daniel; Predehl, Peter; Reiffers, Jonas; Walther, Sabine; Weidenspointner, Georg

2013-09-01

236

Observation of hydrothermal flows with acoustic video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To evaluate hydrothermal discharging and its diffusion process along the ocean ridge is necessary for understanding balance of mass and flux in the ocean, ecosystem around hydrothermal fields and so on. However, it has been difficult for us to measure hydrothermal activities without disturbance caused by observation platform ( submersible, ROV, AUV ). We wanted to have some observational method to observe hydrothermal discharging behavior as it was. DIDSON (Dual-Frequency IDentification SONar) is acoustic lens-based sonar. It has sufficiently high resolution and rapid refresh rate that it can substitute for optical system in turbid or dark water where optical systems fail. DIDSON operates at two frequencies, 1.8MHz or 1.1MHz, and forms 96 beams spaced 0.3° apart or 48 beams spaced 0.6° apart respectively. It images out to 12m at 1.8MHz and 40m at 1.1MHz. The transmit and receive beams are formed with acoustic lenses with rectangular apertures and made of polymethylpentene plastic and FC-70 liquid. This physical beam forming allows DIDSON to consume only 30W of power. DIDSON updates its image between 20 to 1 frames/s depending on the operating frequency and the maximum range imaged. It communicates its host using Ethernet. Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo ( IIS ) has understood DIDSON’s superior performance and tried to find new method for utilization of it. The observation systems that IIS has ever developed based on DIDSON are waterside surveillance system, automatic measurement system for fish length, automatic system for fish counting, diagnosis system for deterioration of underwater structure and so on. A next challenge is to develop an observation method based on DIDSON for hydrothermal discharging from seafloor vent. We expected DIDSON to reveal whole image of hydrothermal plume as well as detail inside the plume. In October 2009, we conducted seafloor reconnaissance using a manned deep-sea submersible Shinkai6500 in Central Indian Ridge 18-20deg.S, where hydrothermal plume signatures were previously perceived. DIDSON was equipped on the top of Shinkai6500 in order to get acoustic video images of hydrothermal plumes. In this cruise, seven dives of Shinkai6500 were conducted. The acoustic video images of the hydrothermal plumes had been captured in three of seven dives. These are only a few acoustic video images of the hydrothermal plumes. Processing and analyzing the acoustic video image data are going on. We will report the overview of the acoustic video image of the hydrothermal plumes and discuss possibility of DIDSON as an observation tool for seafloor hydrothermal activity.

Mochizuki, M.; Asada, A.; Tamaki, K.; Scientific Team Of Yk09-13 Leg 1

2010-12-01

237

New Measurement Method for Aerodynamic Force by a Single Video Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of motion reconstruction from a image streak taken by a single video camera, and a procedure to calculate aerodynamic force and moment from the motion are proposed. In this method the motion of an object is separately measured with translational and rotational motion. For the translational motion, the size and its location of a moving object is used

Tatsuya Nakanishi; Takashi Matsuno; Hiroshi Iwata; Hiromitsu Kawazoe

2009-01-01

238

A method to estimate correlated color temperatures of illuminants using a color video camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

An indirect method of estimating light source color or the correlated color temperature of illuminants is proposed. It incorporates a color video camera with fixed white balance, a set of known color chips, and a desktop microcomputer. The correlated color temperature of the light source illuminating the color chips is estimated. The mathematical method used is the estimation of functions

Masato Abe; Hiroaki Ikeda; Yasuhiko Higaki; Matsuroh Nakamichi

1991-01-01

239

Improvement of olfactory video camera: gas\\/odor flow visualization system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “olfactory video camera” is a sensing system that helps locate a source of gas or odor. It consists of a portable homogeneous array of QCM gas sensors, and presents the visualized images of gas\\/odor flow reaching the array from the source location. In this paper, an improved version of the system is reported. A multichannel reciprocal frequency counter is

Hiroshi Ishida; Takafumi Tokuhiro; Takamichi Nakamoto; Toyosaka Moriizumi

2002-01-01

240

STS-29 Discovery, OV-103, MS Bagian uses video camera on forward flight deck  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission Specialist James P. Bagian points video camera out forward flight deck window W2 while freefloating above commanders station seat and controls. An unsecured seat belt drifts below Bagian's elbows. Bagian films Earth's surface while onboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, during Mission STS-29.

1989-01-01

241

Video-rate THz imaging using a microbolometer-based camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A THz 160×120 pixel array camera has been developed at INO. Real-time transmission and reflectance imaging at video rates of 30 frames\\/s were performed with a low-power 3 THz quantum cascade laser. Various hidden objects were imaged, proving feasibility of real-time THz imaging for security screening applications.

M. Bolduc; L. Marchese; B. Tremblay; M. Doucet; M. Terroux; H. Oulachgar; L. Le Noc; C. Alain; H. Jerominek; A. Bergeron

2010-01-01

242

Digital Video Cameras for Brainstorming and Outlining: The Process and Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This "Voices from the Field" paper presents methods and participant-exemplar data for integrating digital video cameras into the writing process across postsecondary literacy contexts. The methods and participant data are part of an ongoing action-based research project systematically designed to bring research and theory into practice…

Unger, John A.; Scullion, Vicki A.

2013-01-01

243

Audiovisual quality estimation of mobile phone video cameras with interpretation-based quality approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an effective method for comparing subjective audiovisual quality and the features related to the quality changes of different video cameras. Both quantitative estimation of overall quality and qualitative description of critical quality features are achieved by the method. The aim was to combine two image quality evaluation methods, the quantitative Absolute Category Rating (ACR) method with hidden reference

Jenni E. Radun; Toni Virtanen; Jean-Luc Olives; Mikko Vaahteranoksa; Tero Vuori; Göte Nyman

2007-01-01

244

Optical design of long focal length and wide field on an aerial CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconnaissance range and image resolution are increasingly paid more attention to with the development of airborne reconnaissance, the optical system should be in characteristics of long focal length and wide field. At the same flight altitude, the wider field can enlarge ground covering width and increase the reconnaissance range Longer focal length can improve ground sample distance (GSD). Merits and advantages of reflecting system, catadioptric system and refractive system were represented, with the help of code V software, a refractive system was designed to meet the requirements, Optical material with special dispersion was adopted to remove second order spectrum. It has a focal length of 903mm, with the field angle of 4.5°×4.5°, the size of CCD pixels is 10um×10um, spectral scope is from 0.43um to 0.74um, modulation transfer function(MTF) is all above 0.5 in whole field when spatial frequency is at 50lp/mm, distortion is less than 1%, image quality reaches the diffraction limit. The system with long focal length and wide field can satisfy the demand of the wide ground overlay area and high resolution, and can apply in high altitude photograph.

Cheng, Xiaowei; Che, Ying; Xue, Changxi

2009-05-01

245

A very sensitive all-sky CCD camera for continuous recording of the night sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel design of an all-sky 4096×4096 pixels camera devoted to continuous observations of the sky. A prototype camera is running at the BOOTES-1 astronomical station in Huelva (Spain) since December 2002 and a second one is working at the BOOTES-2 station in Málaga (Spain) since July 2004. Scientific applications are the search for simultaneous optical emission associated to gamma-ray bursts, study of meteor showers, and determination of possible areas for meteorite recovery from the reconstruction of fireball trajectories. This last application requires that at least two such devices for simultaneously recording the sky at distance of the order of ~ 100 km. Fifteen GRB error boxes (13 for long/soft events and 2 for short/hard GRBs) have been imaged simultaneously to the gamma-ray emission, but no optical emission has been detected. Bright fireballs have been also recorded, allowing the determination of trajectories, as in the case of the fireball of 30 July 2005. This device is a very promising instrument for continuous recording of the night sky with moderate angular resolution and limiting magnitude (up to R ~ 10).

Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Jelínek, Martin; Vítek, Stanislav; Kubánek, Petr; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.; de Ugarte Postigo, Antonio; Mateo Sanguino, Tomas J.; Gomboš, Igor

2008-08-01

246

Use of video laryngoscopy and camera phones to communicate progression of laryngeal edema in assessing for extubation: a case series.  

PubMed

Video laryngoscopy has demonstrated utility in airway management. For the present case series, we report the use of video laryngoscopy to evaluate the airway of critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients, as a means to reduce the risk of immediate postextubation stridor by assessing the degree of laryngeal edema. We also describe the use of cellular phone cameras to document and communicate airway edema in using video laryngoscopy for the patients' medical records. We found video laryngoscopy to be an effective method of assessing airway edema, and cellular phone cameras were useful for recording and documenting video laryngoscopy images for patients' medical records. PMID:22337710

Newmark, Jordan L; Ahn, Young K; Adams, Mark C; Bittner, Edward A; Wilcox, Susan R

2013-01-01

247

Composite video and graphics display for multiple camera viewing system in robotics and teleoperation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for real-time video image display for robotics or remote-vehicle teleoperation is described that has at least one robot arm or remotely operated vehicle controlled by an operator through hand-controllers, and one or more television cameras and optional lighting element. The system has at least one television monitor for display of a television image from a selected camera and the ability to select one of the cameras for image display. Graphics are generated with icons of cameras and lighting elements for display surrounding the television image to provide the operator information on: the location and orientation of each camera and lighting element; the region of illumination of each lighting element; the viewed region and range of focus of each camera; which camera is currently selected for image display for each monitor; and when the controller coordinate for said robot arms or remotely operated vehicles have been transformed to correspond to coordinates of a selected or nonselected camera.

Diner, Daniel B. (inventor); Venema, Steven C. (inventor)

1991-01-01

248

Composite video and graphics display for camera viewing systems in robotics and teleoperation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A system for real-time video image display for robotics or remote-vehicle teleoperation is described that has at least one robot arm or remotely operated vehicle controlled by an operator through hand-controllers, and one or more television cameras and optional lighting element. The system has at least one television monitor for display of a television image from a selected camera and the ability to select one of the cameras for image display. Graphics are generated with icons of cameras and lighting elements for display surrounding the television image to provide the operator information on: the location and orientation of each camera and lighting element; the region of illumination of each lighting element; the viewed region and range of focus of each camera; which camera is currently selected for image display for each monitor; and when the controller coordinate for said robot arms or remotely operated vehicles have been transformed to correspond to coordinates of a selected or nonselected camera.

Diner, Daniel B. (inventor); Venema, Steven C. (inventor)

1993-01-01

249

Collaborative real-time scheduling of multiple PTZ cameras for multiple object tracking in video surveillance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a multi-PTZ-camera control mechanism to acquire close-up imagery of human objects in a surveillance system. The control algorithm is based on the output of multi-camera, multi-target tracking. Three main concerns of the algorithm are (1) the imagery of human object's face for biometric purposes, (2) the optimal video quality of the human objects, and (3) minimum hand-off time. Here, we define an objective function based on the expected capture conditions such as the camera-subject distance, pan tile angles of capture, face visibility and others. Such objective function serves to effectively balance the number of captures per subject and quality of captures. In the experiments, we demonstrate the performance of the system which operates in real-time under real world conditions on three PTZ cameras.

Liu, Yu-Che; Huang, Chung-Lin

2013-03-01

250

Swimming rates of scavenging deep-sea amphipods recorded with a free-vehicle video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A free-vehicle video camera system has been developed to record swimming rates of deep-sea scavengers. This system consists of a portable video camera, video cassette recorder, floodlight, hydrophone, auxiliary audio recorder, and a 12-V 76 amp-hour battery which are housed in pressure-protective enclosures. These components are mounted on a fiberglas frame with the camera and floodlight facing downward. The free-vehicle deployment system consists of mast assembly, flotation, a precision timed release and disposable ballast. For measuring the swimming rates of scavenging amphipods, two circular polycarbonate plates mounted in parallel and spaced 5 cm apart were suspended below the camera. Scavenging amphipods were lured between the plates by bait in a central canister. Swimming rates were estimated by timing each animal as it moved between the black calibration lines etched on the bottom plate. Mean swimming rates were measured for 31 amphipods, tentatively identified as Eurythenes gryllus, at two abyssal stations in the eastern and central North Pacific (Stas G and CNP, 4900 and 5900 m depth, respectively). Combined mean swimming rate for amphipods at the two stations was 7.3 ± 3.7 cm s -1. There was no significant difference ( P > 0.05) in body length or swimming rate between stations. A significant correlation existed between length-specific swimming rate and body length ( P < 0.01) for the combined swimming rates of E. gryllus at both stations.

Laver, M. B.; Olsson, M. S.; Edelman, J. L.; Smith, K. L.

1985-09-01

251

A Refrigerated Web Camera for Photogrammetric Video Measurement inside Biomass Boilers and Combustion Analysis  

PubMed Central

This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD) web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes.

Porteiro, Jacobo; Riveiro, Belen; Granada, Enrique; Armesto, Julia; Eguia, Pablo; Collazo, Joaquin

2011-01-01

252

A refrigerated web camera for photogrammetric video measurement inside biomass boilers and combustion analysis.  

PubMed

This paper describes a prototype instrumentation system for photogrammetric measuring of bed and ash layers, as well as for flying particle detection and pursuit using a single device (CCD) web camera. The system was designed to obtain images of the combustion process in the interior of a domestic boiler. It includes a cooling system, needed because of the high temperatures in the combustion chamber of the boiler. The cooling system was designed using CFD simulations to ensure effectiveness. This method allows more complete and real-time monitoring of the combustion process taking place inside a boiler. The information gained from this system may facilitate the optimisation of boiler processes. PMID:22319349

Porteiro, Jacobo; Riveiro, Belén; Granada, Enrique; Armesto, Julia; Eguía, Pablo; Collazo, Joaquín

2011-01-01

253

Transient noise characterization and filtration in CCD cameras exposed to stray radiation from a medical linear accelerator  

PubMed Central

Charge coupled devices (CCDs) are being increasingly used in radiation therapy for dosimetric purposes. However, CCDs are sensitive to stray radiation. This effect induces transient noise. Radiation-induced noise strongly alters the image and therefore limits its quantitative analysis. The purpose of this work is to characterize the radiation-induced noise and to develop filtration algorithms to restore image quality. Two models of CCD were used for measurements close to a medical linac. The structure of the transient noise was first characterized. Then, four methods of noise filtration were compared: median filtering of a time series of identical images, uniform median filtering of single images, an adaptive filter with switching mechanism, and a modified version of the adaptive switch filter. The intensity distribution of noisy pixels was similar in both cameras. However, the spatial distribution of the noise was different: The average noise cluster size was 1.2±0.6 and 3.2±2.7 pixels for the U2000 and the Luca, respectively. The median of a time series of images resulted in the best filtration and minimal image distortion. For applications where time series is impractical, the adaptive switch filter must be used to reduce image distortion. Our modified version of the switch filter can be used in order to handle nonisolated groups of noisy pixels.

Archambault, Louis; Briere, Tina Marie; Beddar, Sam

2008-01-01

254

Spatial resolution limit study of a CCD camera and scintillator based neutron imaging system according to MTF determination and analysis.  

PubMed

Spatial resolution limit is a very important parameter of an imaging system that should be taken into consideration before examination of any object. The objectives of this work are the determination of a neutron imaging system's response in terms of spatial resolution. The proposed procedure is based on establishment of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). The imaging system being studied is based on a high sensitivity CCD neutron camera (2×10(-5)lx at f1.4). The neutron beam used is from the horizontal beam port (H.6) of the Algerian Es-Salam research reactor. Our contribution is on the MTF determination by proposing an accurate edge identification method and a line spread function undersampling problem-resolving procedure. These methods and procedure are integrated into a MatLab code. The methods, procedures and approaches proposed in this work are available for any other neutron imaging system and allow for judging the ability of a neutron imaging system to produce spatial (internal details) properties of any object under examination. PMID:22014891

Kharfi, F; Denden, O; Bourenane, A; Bitam, T; Ali, A

2012-01-01

255

Band selection from a hyperspectral data-cube for a real-time multispectral 3CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Given a specific task, like detection of hidden objects (i.e. vehicles and landmines) in a natural background, hyperspectral data gives a significant advantage over RGB- color or gray-value images. It introduces however, a trade- off between cost, speed, signal-to-noise ratio, spectral resolution, and spatial resolution. Our research concentrates on making an optimal choice for spectral bands in an imaging system with a high frame rate and spatial resolution. This can be done using a real-time multispectral 3CCD camera, which records a scene with three detectors, each accurately set to a wavelength by selected optical filters. This leads to the subject of this paper: how to select three optimal bands from hyperspectral data to perform a certain task. The choice of these bands includes two aspects, the center wavelength, and the spectral width. A band-selection and band-broadening procedure has been developed, based on statistical pattern recognition techniques. We will demonstrate our proposed band selection algorithm, and present its classification results compared to red- green-blue and red-green-near-infrared data for a military vehicle in a natural background and for surface laid landmines in vegetation.

Withagen, Paul J.; den Breejen, Eric; Franken, Eric M.; de Jong, Arie N.; Winkel, Hans

2001-08-01

256

Risk mitigation process for utilization of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts in CCD camera for military applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the lessons learned during the design and development of a high performance cooled CCD camera for military applications utilizing common commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts. Our experience showed that concurrent evaluation and testing of high risk COTS must be performed to assess their performance over the required temperature range and other special product requirements such as fuel vapor compatibility, EMI and shock susceptibility, etc. Technical, cost and schedule risks for COTS parts must also be carefully evaluated. The customer must be involved in the selection and evaluation of such parts so that the performance limitations of the selected parts are clearly understood. It is equally important to check with vendors on the availability and obsolescence of the COTS parts being considered since the electronic components are often replaced by newer, better and cheaper models in a couple of years. In summary, this paper addresses the major benefits and risks associated with using commercial and industrial parts in military products, and suggests a risk mitigation approach to ensure a smooth development phase, and predictable performance from the end product.

Ahmad, Anees; Batcheldor, Scott; Cannon, Steven C.; Roberts, Thomas E.

2002-09-01

257

Novel method for in-flight particle temperature and velocity measurements in plasma spraying using a single CCD camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel, technically simple imaging system for individual, in-flight particle temperature and velocity measurements for plasma and other thermal spray processes is described. A custom double dichroic mirror is used to add spectral resolving capability to a single, black-and-white, fast-shutter digital charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The spectral double images produced by the individual in-flight particles are processed using specialized image processing algorithms. Particle temperature determination is based on two-color pyrometry, and particle velocities are measured from the length of the particle traces during known exposure times. In this paper, experimental results using the first prototype system are presented. Laboratory tests were performed using rotating pinholes to simulate in-flight particles, and plasma spraying experiments were performed with commercial, standard spraying equipment operated with Al2O3 and NiCrAlY powders. The prototype instrument can be readily used to determine velocity and temperature distributions of individual in-flight particles from the imaged region of interest of the plume. Dividing the imaged area into smaller sections, spatial distributions of particle temperature, velocity, and number of detected particles can be studied. The study aims to develop a technically simple, single imaging instrument, which can provide a visual overview of the spray plume in combination with quantitative evaluation of the most important spray particle parameters.

Vattulainen, J.; Hämäläinen, E.; Hernberg, R.; Vuoristo, P.; Mäntylä, T.

2001-03-01

258

Video observations of the 2011 Draconids by the all-sky camera AMOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our contribution to the 2011 Draconids campaign by using the all-sky camera AMOS of the Slovak Video Meteor Network (SVMN) is presented. The ground-based observations were performed in cooperation with the Central European Meteor Network (CEMeNt), the Polish Fireball Network (PFN) and the Italian Meteor and TLE Network (IMTN). The airborne observations were performed in cooperation with the Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences and the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt, Germany, within the EUFAR program. The processing of the data obtained by the AMOS camera during the Airborne DLR expedition is described.

Toth, Juraj; Gajdos, Stefan; Vilagi, Jozef; Zigo, Pavol; Kalmancok, Dusan; Duris, Frantisek; Kornos, Leonard

2013-01-01

259

A Novel Method to Reduce Time Investment When Processing Videos from Camera Trap Studies  

PubMed Central

Camera traps have proven very useful in ecological, conservation and behavioral research. Camera traps non-invasively record presence and behavior of animals in their natural environment. Since the introduction of digital cameras, large amounts of data can be stored. Unfortunately, processing protocols did not evolve as fast as the technical capabilities of the cameras. We used camera traps to record videos of Eurasian beavers (Castor fiber). However, a large number of recordings did not contain the target species, but instead empty recordings or other species (together non-target recordings), making the removal of these recordings unacceptably time consuming. In this paper we propose a method to partially eliminate non-target recordings without having to watch the recordings, in order to reduce workload. Discrimination between recordings of target species and non-target recordings was based on detecting variation (changes in pixel values from frame to frame) in the recordings. Because of the size of the target species, we supposed that recordings with the target species contain on average much more movements than non-target recordings. Two different filter methods were tested and compared. We show that a partial discrimination can be made between target and non-target recordings based on variation in pixel values and that environmental conditions and filter methods influence the amount of non-target recordings that can be identified and discarded. By allowing a loss of 5% to 20% of recordings containing the target species, in ideal circumstances, 53% to 76% of non-target recordings can be identified and discarded. We conclude that adding an extra processing step in the camera trap protocol can result in large time savings. Since we are convinced that the use of camera traps will become increasingly important in the future, this filter method can benefit many researchers, using it in different contexts across the globe, on both videos and photographs.

Swinnen, Kristijn R. R.; Reijniers, Jonas; Breno, Matteo; Leirs, Herwig

2014-01-01

260

A digital underwater video camera system for aquatic research in regulated rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We designed a digital underwater video camera system to monitor nesting centrarchid behavior in the Tallapoosa River, Alabama, 20 km below a peaking hydropower dam with a highly variable flow regime. Major components of the system included a digital video recorder, multiple underwater cameras, and specially fabricated substrate stakes. The innovative design of the substrate stakes allowed us to effectively observe nesting redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus in a highly regulated river. Substrate stakes, which were constructed for the specific substratum complex (i.e., sand, gravel, and cobble) identified at our study site, were able to withstand a discharge level of approximately 300 m3/s and allowed us to simultaneously record 10 active nests before and during water releases from the dam. We believe our technique will be valuable for other researchers that work in regulated rivers to quantify behavior of aquatic fauna in response to a discharge disturbance.

Martin, Benjamin M.; Irwin, Elise R.

2010-01-01

261

Measurement of laser-beam profile by using a video camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser-beam profile is an important laser parameter that is frequently ignored because conventional measurement techniques\\u000a are cumbersome. A technique for accurately and rapidly measuring laser-beam profile with a commercial video camera and oscilloscope\\u000a is described. Both two-dimensional pictures of the beam and quantitative, one-dimensional beam profiles can be obtained. The\\u000a technique is particularly well suited for biomedical applications because it

Norman S. Nishioka; Domenic P. Bua; Thomas F. Deutsch

1987-01-01

262

Video and acoustic camera techniques for studying fish under ice: a review and comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers attempting to study the presence, abundance, size, and behavior of fish species in northern and arctic climates\\u000a during winter face many challenges, including the presence of thick ice cover, snow cover, and, sometimes, extremely low temperatures.\\u000a This paper describes and compares the use of video and acoustic cameras for determining fish presence and behavior in lakes,\\u000a rivers, and streams

Robert P. Mueller; Richard S. Brown; Haakon H. Hop; Larry Moulton

2006-01-01

263

Energy-Aware Video Encoding for Image Quality Improvement in Battery-Operated Surveillance Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing needs for surveillance in locations without power lines necessitates the development of a surveillance camera with extremely low-power consumption and an assured stable operation until the time of expected run-out of available energy. This paper proposes an algorithm for scheduling of video encoding configurations in a battery-operated surveillance system to reduce the image distortion while assuring the sustained operation

Younghoon Lee; Jungsoo Kim; Chong-Min Kyung

2012-01-01

264

Temperature monitoring of Nd:YAG laser cladding (CW and PP) by advanced pyrometry and CCD-camera-based diagnostic tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

The set of original pyrometers and the special diagnostic CCD-camera were applied for monitoring of Nd:YAG laser cladding (Pulsed-Periodic and Continuous Wave) with coaxial powder injection and on-line measurement of cladded layer temperature. The experiments were carried out in course of elaboration of wear resistant coatings using various powder blends (WC-Co, CuSn, Mo, Stellite grade 12, etc.) applying variation of

M. Doubenskaia; Ph. Bertrand; Igor Y. Smurov

2004-01-01

265

High-resolution application of YAG:Ce and LuAG:Ce imaging detectors with a CCD X-ray camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution CCD X-ray camera based on YAG:Ce or LuAG:Ce thin scintillators is presented. High-resolution in low-energy X-ray radiation is proved with several objects. The spatial resolution achieved in the images is about 1 ?m. The high-resolution imaging system is a combination of a high-sensitivity digital CCD camera and an optical system with a thin scintillator-imaging screen. The screen can consist of YAG:Ce or LuAG:Ce inorganic scintillator [J.A. Mares, Radiat. Meas. 38 (2004) 353]. These materials have the advantages of mechanical and chemical stability and non-hygroscopicity. The high-resolution imaging system can be used with different types of radiation (X-ray, electrons, UV, and VUV [M. Nikl, Meas. Sci. Technol. 17 (2006) R37]). The objects used for the imaging tests are grids and small animals with features of several microns in size. The resolution capabilities were tested using different types of CCD cameras and scintillation imaging screens.

Touš, Jan; Horváth, Martin; Pína, Ladislav; Blažek, Karel; Sopko, Bruno

2008-06-01

266

Structural analysis of color video camera installation on tank 241AW101 (2 Volumes)  

SciTech Connect

A video camera is planned to be installed on the radioactive storage tank 241AW101 at the DOE` s Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The camera will occupy the 20 inch port of the Multiport Flange riser which is to be installed on riser 5B of the 241AW101 (3,5,10). The objective of the project reported herein was to perform a seismic analysis and evaluation of the structural components of the camera for a postulated Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) per the reference Structural Design Specification (SDS) document (6). The detail of supporting engineering calculations is documented in URS/Blume Calculation No. 66481-01-CA-03 (1).

Strehlow, J.P.

1994-08-24

267

Design and evaluation of controls for drift, video gain, and color balance in spaceborne facsimile cameras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The facsimile camera is an optical-mechanical scanning device which has become an attractive candidate as an imaging system for planetary landers and rovers. This paper presents electronic techniques which permit the acquisition and reconstruction of high quality images with this device, even under varying lighting conditions. These techniques include a control for low frequency noise and drift, an automatic gain control, a pulse-duration light modulation scheme, and a relative spectral gain control. Taken together, these techniques allow the reconstruction of radiometrically accurate and properly balanced color images from facsimile camera video data. These techniques have been incorporated into a facsimile camera and reproduction system, and experimental results are presented for each technique and for the complete system.

Katzberg, S. J.; Kelly, W. L., IV; Rowland, C. W.; Burcher, E. E.

1973-01-01

268

Precise color images a high-speed color video camera system with three intensified sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High speed imaging systems have been used in a large field of science and engineering. Although the high speed camera systems have been improved to high performance, most of their applications are only to get high speed motion pictures. However, in some fields of science and technology, it is useful to get some other information, such as temperature of combustion flame, thermal plasma and molten materials. Recent digital high speed video imaging technology should be able to get such information from those objects. For this purpose, we have already developed a high speed video camera system with three-intensified-sensors and cubic prism image splitter. The maximum frame rate is 40,500 pps (picture per second) at 64 X 64 pixels and 4,500 pps at 256 X 256 pixels with 256 (8 bit) intensity resolution for each pixel. The camera system can store more than 1,000 pictures continuously in solid state memory. In order to get the precise color images from this camera system, we need to develop a digital technique, which consists of a computer program and ancillary instruments, to adjust displacement of images taken from two or three image sensors and to calibrate relationship between incident light intensity and corresponding digital output signals. In this paper, the digital technique for pixel-based displacement adjustment are proposed. Although the displacement of the corresponding circle was more than 8 pixels in original image, the displacement was adjusted within 0.2 pixels at most by this method.

Oki, Sachio; Yamakawa, Masafumi; Gohda, Susumu; Etoh, Takeharu

1999-06-01

269

Geometry compensation using depth and camera parameters for three-dimensional video coding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the important issues for a next generation broadcasting system is how to compress a massive amount of threedimensional (3D) video efficiently. In this paper, we propose a geometry compensation method for 3D video coding exploiting color videos, depth videos and camera parameters. In the proposed method, we first generate a compensated view, which is located at the geometrically same position with the current view, using depth and camera parameters of neighboring views. Then, the compensated view is used as a reference picture to reduce the inter-view redundancies such as disparity and motion vectors. Furthermore, considering the direction of hole-regions, we propose a hole-filling method for picture of P-view to fill up the holes based on the neighboring background pixels. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm increases BD-PSNRs up to 0.22dB and 0.63dB for P- and B-views, respectively. Meanwhile, we achieved up to 6.28% and 18.32% BD bit-rates gain for P- and B- views, respectively.

Kim, Dong Hyun; Seo, Jungdong; Ryu, Seungchul; Lee, Jin Young; Wey, Ho-Cheon; Sohn, Kwanghoon

2012-02-01

270

A small CCD zenith camera (ZC-G1) - developed for rapid geoid monitoring in difficult projects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern Geodesy by terrestrial or space methods is accurate to millimetres or even better. This requires very exact system definitions, together with Astronomy & Physics - and a geoid of cm level. To reach this precision, astrogeodetic vertical deflections are more effective than gravimetry or other methods - as shown by the 1st author 1996 at many projects in different European countries and landscapes. While classical Astrogeodesy is rather complicated (time consuming, heavy instruments and observer's experience) new electro-optical methods are semi-automatic and fill our "geoid gap" between satellite resolution (150 km) and local requirements (2-10 km): With CCD we can speed up and achieve high accuracy almost without observer's experience. In Vienna we construct a mobile zenith camera guided by notebook and GPS: made of Dur-Al, f=20 cm with a Starlite MX-sensor (752×580 pixels à 11?m). Accuracy ±1" within 10 min, mounted at a usual survey tripod. Weight only 4 kg for a special vertical axis, controlled by springs (4×90°) and 2 levels (2002) or sensor (2003). Applications 2003: Improving parts of Austrian geoid (±4 cm?2 cm); automatic astro-points in alpine surveys (vertical deflection effects 3-15 cm per km). Transform of GPS heights to ±1 cm. Tunneling study: heighting up to ±0.1 mm without external control; combining astro-topographic and geological data. Plans 2004: Astro control of polygons and networks - to raise accuracy and economy by ~40% (Sun azimuths of ±3"; additional effort only 10-20%). Planned with servo theodolites and open co-operation groups.

Gerstbach, G.; Pichler, H.

2003-10-01

271

Biomechanical and mathematical analysis of human movement in medical rehabilitation science using time-series data from two video cameras and force-plate sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In medical rehabilitation science, quantitative understanding of patient movement in 3-D space is very important. The patient with any joint disorder will experience its influence on other body parts in daily movement. The alignment of joints in movement is able to improve under medical therapy process. In this study, the newly developed system is composed of two non- metri CCD video cameras and a force plate sensor, which are controlled simultaneously by a personal computer. By this system time-series digital data from 3-D image photogrammetry, each foot pressure and its center position, is able to provide efficient information for biomechanical and mathematical analysis of human movement. Each specific and common points are indicated in any patient movement. This study suggests more various, quantitative understanding in medical rehabilitation science.

Tsuruoka, Masako; Shibasaki, Ryosuke; Box, Elgene O.; Murai, Shunji; Mori, Eiji; Wada, Takao; Kurita, Masahiro; Iritani, Makoto; Kuroki, Yoshikatsu

1994-08-01

272

Current Geoid Studies in Turkey and the need for Local High-Precision Astrogeodetic Geoid Determination Using CCD/Zenith Cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last few years, the development of CCD image sensors at a reasonable price made the instruments of astrogeodetic observation possible to use for local high-precision astrogeodetic geoid and gravity field determination. Generally, the geoids of most European countries are in centimeter level accuracy except in mountainous regions. Turkish geoid also has accuracy problems in mountainous regions especially in the eastern parts of Anatolia and around boundaries of Marmara Sea. Studies performed in Europe in last decade indicate that, to reach the centimeter level accuracy in mountainous areas, astrogeodetic vertical deflections are more effective than gravimetric and other geoid determination methods. Turkey had started the geoid determination studies in 1976 with 13 absolute gravity points. Turkish National Fundamental Gravity Network (TNFGRN), densificated with 1st and 2nd order 66245 gravity points in Potsdam Gravity datum. TG03 has a final internal precision of 1 cm at the observation points and the external accuracy is within decimeter level. High precision in astrogeodetic geoid determination techniques are scarcely published by some universities around Europe using CCD/Zenith cameras. There are various zenith camera systems developed as state-of- art instrumentations using both CCD sensors for imaging stellar objects and GPS receivers for ellipsoidal coordinates, in order to determine the direction of the plumb line. These systems are designed and tested where conventional techniques are not sufficient. In this study, increasing accuracy of Turkish geoid is subjected to using CCD/Zenith cameras in the province of Istanbul. The planning test area is going to use the data available on the GPS/Leveling geoid of Istanbul and produce astrogeodetic data on a profile starting from the north shore of Marmara region, passing through the Marmara Sea to the south. The astrogeodetic instruments will be designed for engineering studies that are needed to determine vertical deflections to use ellipsoidal heights derived from GPS.

Halicioglu, K.; Ozener, H.; Deniz, R.

2008-12-01

273

Spectral-based calorimetric calibration of a 3CCD color camera for fast and accurate characterization and calibration of LCD displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LCD displays exhibit significant amount of variability in their tone-responses, color responses and backlight-modulation responses. LCD display characterization and calibration using a spectrometer or a color meter, however, leads to two basic deficiencies: (a) It can only generate calibration data based on a single spot on the display (usually at panel center); and (b) It generally takes a significant amount of time to do the required measurement. As a result, a fast and efficient system for a full LCD display characterization and calibration is required. Herein, a system based on a 3CCD calorimetrically-calibrated camera is presented which can be used for full characterization and calibration of LCD displays. The camera can provide full tri-stimulus measurements in real time. To achieve high-degree of accuracy, colorimetric calibration of camera is carried out based on spectral method.

Safaee-Rad, Reza; Aleksic, Milivoje

2011-02-01

274

Real time speed estimation of moving vehicles from side view images from an uncalibrated video camera.  

PubMed

In order to estimate the speed of a moving vehicle with side view camera images, velocity vectors of a sufficient number of reference points identified on the vehicle must be found using frame images. This procedure involves two main steps. In the first step, a sufficient number of points from the vehicle is selected, and these points must be accurately tracked on at least two successive video frames. In the second step, by using the displacement vectors of the tracked points and passed time, the velocity vectors of those points are computed. Computed velocity vectors are defined in the video image coordinate system and displacement vectors are measured by the means of pixel units. Then the magnitudes of the computed vectors in image space should be transformed to the object space to find the absolute values of these magnitudes. This transformation requires an image to object space information in a mathematical sense that is achieved by means of the calibration and orientation parameters of the video frame images. This paper presents proposed solutions for the problems of using side view camera images mentioned here. PMID:22399909

Do?an, Sedat; Temiz, Mahir Serhan; Külür, Sitki

2010-01-01

275

Highly flexible and Internet-programmable CCD camera with a frequency-selectable read-out for imaging and spectroscopy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new concept CCD camera is currently being realized at the XUV Lab of the Department of Astronomy and Space Science of the University of Florence. The main features we aim to get are a high level of versatility and a fast pixel rate. Within this project, a versatile CCD sequencer has been realized with interesting and innovative features. Based on a microcontroller and complex programmable logic devices (CPLD), it allows the selection of all the parameters related to charge transfer and CCD readout (number, duration and overlapping of serial and parallel transfer clocks, number of output nodes, pixel transfer rate) and therefore it allows the use of virtually any CCD sensor. Comparing to a common DSP-based sequencer, it is immune to jitter noise and it can also reach pixel rates greater than 40 MHz. The software interface is LabVIEW 6i based and it will allow both local or remote control and display. Furthermore, it will be possible to remote debug the system and to upgrade the LabVIEW interface itself and also the microcontroller resident program and the CPLD implemented schemes.

Gori, Luca; Pace, Emanuele; Tommasi, Leonardo; Sarocchi, D.; Bagnoli, V.; Sozzi, M.; Puri, S.

2001-12-01

276

Electronic cameras for low-light microscopy.  

PubMed

This chapter introduces to electronic cameras, discusses the various parameters considered for evaluating their performance, and describes some of the key features of different camera formats. The chapter also presents the basic understanding of functioning of the electronic cameras and how these properties can be exploited to optimize image quality under low-light conditions. Although there are many types of cameras available for microscopy, the most reliable type is the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, which remains preferred for high-performance systems. If time resolution and frame rate are of no concern, slow-scan CCDs certainly offer the best available performance, both in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio and their spatial resolution. Slow-scan cameras are thus the first choice for experiments using fixed specimens such as measurements using immune fluorescence and fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, if video rate imaging is required, one need not evaluate slow-scan CCD cameras. A very basic video CCD may suffice if samples are heavily labeled or are not perturbed by high intensity illumination. When video rate imaging is required for very dim specimens, the electron multiplying CCD camera is probably the most appropriate at this technological stage. Intensified CCDs provide a unique tool for applications in which high-speed gating is required. The variable integration time video cameras are very attractive options if one needs to acquire images at video rate acquisition, as well as with longer integration times for less bright samples. This flexibility can facilitate many diverse applications with highly varied light levels. PMID:23931509

Rasnik, Ivan; French, Todd; Jacobson, Ken; Berland, Keith

2013-01-01

277

Acute gastroenteritis and video camera surveillance: a cruise ship case report.  

PubMed

A 'faecal accident' was discovered in front of a passenger cabin of a cruise ship. After proper cleaning of the area the passenger was approached, but denied having any gastrointestinal symptoms. However, when confronted with surveillance camera evidence, she admitted having the accident and even bringing the towel stained with diarrhoea back to the pool towels bin. She was isolated until the next port where she was disembarked. Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by Norovirus is very contagious and easily transmitted from person to person on cruise ships. The main purpose of isolation is to avoid public vomiting and faecal accidents. To quickly identify and isolate contagious passengers and crew and ensure their compliance are key elements in outbreak prevention and control, but this is difficult if ill persons deny symptoms. All passenger ships visiting US ports now have surveillance video cameras, which under certain circumstances can assist in finding potential index cases for AGE outbreaks. PMID:24677123

Diskin, Arthur L; Caro, Gina M; Dahl, Eilif

2014-01-01

278

A semantic autonomous video surveillance system for dense camera networks in Smart Cities.  

PubMed

This paper presents a proposal of an intelligent video surveillance system able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The system is designed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a large number of cameras to be deployed on the system, and therefore making it suitable for its usage as an integrated safety and security solution in Smart Cities. Alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. This means that the system employs a high-level conceptual language easy to understand for human operators, capable of raising enriched alarms with descriptions of what is happening on the image, and to automate reactions to them such as alerting the appropriate emergency services using the Smart City safety network. PMID:23112607

Calavia, Lorena; Baladrón, Carlos; Aguiar, Javier M; Carro, Belén; Sánchez-Esguevillas, Antonio

2012-01-01

279

VideoWeb Dataset for Multi-camera Activities and Non-verbal Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human-activity recognition is one of the most challenging problems in computer vision. Researchers from around the world have tried to solve this problem and have come a long way in recognizing simple motions and atomic activities. As the computer vision community heads toward fully recognizing human activities, a challenging and labeled dataset is needed. To respond to that need, we collected a dataset of realistic scenarios in a multi-camera network environment (VideoWeb) involving multiple persons performing dozens of different repetitive and non-repetitive activities. This chapter describes the details of the dataset. We believe that this VideoWeb Activities dataset is unique and it is one of the most challenging datasets available today. The dataset is publicly available online at http://vwdata.ee.ucr.edu/ along with the data annotation.

Denina, Giovanni; Bhanu, Bir; Nguyen, Hoang Thanh; Ding, Chong; Kamal, Ahmed; Ravishankar, Chinya; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit; Ivers, Allen; Varda, Brenda

280

System design description for the LDUA high resolution stereoscopic video camera system (HRSVS)  

SciTech Connect

The High Resolution Stereoscopic Video Camera System (HRSVS), system 6230, was designed to be used as an end effector on the LDUA to perform surveillance and inspection activities within a waste tank. It is attached to the LDUA by means of a Tool Interface Plate (TIP) which provides a feed through for all electrical and pneumatic utilities needed by the end effector to operate. Designed to perform up close weld and corrosion inspection roles in US T operations, the HRSVS will support and supplement the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) and provide the crucial inspection tasks needed to ascertain waste tank condition.

Pardini, A.F.

1998-01-27

281

Fresnel hologram generation using an HD resolution depth range video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Holography is considered as an ideal 3D display method. We generated a hologram under white light. The infrared depth camera, which we used, captures the depth information as well as color video of the scene in 20mm of accuracy at 2m of object distance. In this research, we developed a software converter to convert the HD resolution depth map to the hologram. In this conversion method, each elemental diffraction pattern on a hologram plane was calculated beforehand according to the object distance and the maximum diffraction angle determined by the reconstruction SLM device (high resolution LCOS). The reconstructed 3D image was observed.

Oi, Ryutaro; Mishina, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Kenji; Senoh, Takanori; Kurita, Taiichiro

2010-02-01

282

Mounted Video Camera Captures Launch of STS-112, Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A color video camera mounted to the top of the External Tank (ET) provided this spectacular never-before-seen view of the STS-112 mission as the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis lifted off in the afternoon of October 7, 2002. The camera provided views as the orbiter began its ascent until it reached near-orbital speed, about 56 miles above the Earth, including a view of the front and belly of the orbiter, a portion of the Solid Rocket Booster, and ET. The video was downlinked during flight to several NASA data-receiving sites, offering the STS-112 team an opportunity to monitor the shuttle's performance from a new angle. Atlantis carried the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. Landing on October 18, 2002, the Orbiter Atlantis ended its 11-day mission.

2002-01-01

283

Mounted Video Camera Captures Launch of STS-112, Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A color video camera mounted to the top of the External Tank (ET) provided this spectacular never-before-seen view of the STS-112 mission as the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis lifted off in the afternoon of October 7, 2002, The camera provided views as the the orbiter began its ascent until it reached near-orbital speed, about 56 miles above the Earth, including a view of the front and belly of the orbiter, a portion of the Solid Rocket Booster, and ET. The video was downlinked during flight to several NASA data-receiving sites, offering the STS-112 team an opportunity to monitor the shuttle's performance from a new angle. Atlantis carried the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. Landing on October 18, 2002, the Orbiter Atlantis ended its 11-day mission.

2002-01-01

284

A New Remote Sensing Filter Radiometer Employing a Fabry-Perot Etalon and a CCD Camera for Column Measurements of Methane in the Earth Atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A portable remote sensing system for precision column measurements of methane has been developed, built and tested at NASA GSFC. The sensor covers the spectral range from 1.636 micrometers to 1.646 micrometers, employs an air-gapped Fabry-Perot filter and a CCD camera and has a potential to operate from a variety of platforms. The detector is an XS-1.7-320 camera unit from Xenics Infrared solutions which combines an uncooled InGaAs detector array working up to 1.7 micrometers. Custom software was developed in addition to the graphical user basic interface X-Control provided by the company to help save and process the data. The technique and setup can be used to measure other trace gases in the atmosphere with minimal changes of the etalon and the prefilter. In this paper we describe the calibration of the system using several different approaches.

Georgieva, E. M.; Huang, W.; Heaps, W. S.

2012-01-01

285

Complex effusive events at Kilauea as documented by the GOES satellite and remote video cameras  

USGS Publications Warehouse

GOES provides thermal data for all of the Hawaiian volcanoes once every 15 min. We show how volcanic radiance time series produced from this data stream can be used as a simple measure of effusive activity. Two types of radiance trends in these time series can be used to monitor effusive activity: (a) Gradual variations in radiance reveal steady flow-field extension and tube development. (b) Discrete spikes correlate with short bursts of activity, such as lava fountaining or lava-lake overflows. We are confident that any effusive event covering more than 10,000 m2 of ground in less than 60 min will be unambiguously detectable using this approach. We demonstrate this capability using GOES, video camera and ground-based observational data for the current eruption of Kilauea volcano (Hawai'i). A GOES radiance time series was constructed from 3987 images between 19 June and 12 August 1997. This time series displayed 24 radiance spikes elevated more than two standard deviations above the mean; 19 of these are correlated with video-recorded short-burst effusive events. Less ambiguous events are interpreted, assessed and related to specific volcanic events by simultaneous use of permanently recording video camera data and ground-observer reports. The GOES radiance time series are automatically processed on data reception and made available in near-real-time, so such time series can contribute to three main monitoring functions: (a) automatically alerting major effusive events; (b) event confirmation and assessment; and (c) establishing effusive event chronology.

Harris, A. J. L.; Thornber, C. R.

1999-01-01

286

New Measurement Method for Aerodynamic Force by a Single Video Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method of motion reconstruction from a image streak taken by a single video camera, and a procedure to calculate aerodynamic force and moment from the motion are proposed. In this method the motion of an object is separately measured with translational and rotational motion. For the translational motion, the size and its location of a moving object is used to get the instantaneous position of the object. For the rotational motion, the attitude of the object is calculated by tracking featured points on the object. In addition to accomplish the aerodynamic measurement by this method, an evaluation was done for the measurement errors in the aerodynamic force, which are caused from image distortion by aberration of a lens. A series of the experiments for the flying ball showed the validity of the proposed method and the aerodynamic characteristics of the flying ball were analyzed using this method.

Nakanishi, Tatsuya; Matsuno, Takashi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Hiromitsu

287

A Method of Digital Camera Work Focused on Players and a Ball: - Toward Automatic Contents Production System of Commentary Soccer Video by Digital Shooting  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aim at the realization of automatic contents production system of commentary soccer video based on digital shooting technique which is composed of digital camera work and digital switching technique. The digital camera work is defined as virtual panning and virtual zooming. the virtual panning is a video production technique of clipping a size fixed frame by controlling frame location

Masahito Kumano; Yasuo Ariki; Kiyoshi Tsukada

2004-01-01

288

Fast CCD camera for x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved x-ray scattering and imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new, fast x-ray detector system is presented for high-throughput, high-sensitivity, time-resolved, x-ray scattering and imaging experiments, most especially x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS). After a review of the architectures of different CCD chips and a critical examination of their suitability for use in a fast x-ray detector, the new detector hardware is described. In brief, its principal component is

P. Falus; M. A. Borthwick; S. G. J. Mochrie

2004-01-01

289

Developments of engineering model of the X-ray CCD camera of the MAXI experiment onboard the International Space Station  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAXI, Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image, is an X-ray observatory on the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) Exposed Facility (EF) on the International Space Station (ISS). MAXI is a slit scanning camera which consists of two kinds of X-ray detectors: one is a one-dimensional position-sensitive proportional counter with a total area of ?5000cm2, the Gas Slit Camera (GSC), and the other

Emi Miyata; Chikara Natsukari; Tomoyuki Kamazuka; Daisuke Akutsu; Hirohiko Kouno; Hiroshi Tsunemi; Masaru Matsuoka; Hiroshi Tomida; Shiro Ueno; Kenji Hamaguchi; Isao Tanaka

2002-01-01

290

Quantitative underwater 3D motion analysis using submerged video cameras: accuracy analysis and trajectory reconstruction.  

PubMed

In this study we aim at investigating the applicability of underwater 3D motion capture based on submerged video cameras in terms of 3D accuracy analysis and trajectory reconstruction. Static points with classical direct linear transform (DLT) solution, a moving wand with bundle adjustment and a moving 2D plate with Zhang's method were considered for camera calibration. As an example of the final application, we reconstructed the hand motion trajectories in different swimming styles and qualitatively compared this with Maglischo's model. Four highly trained male swimmers performed butterfly, breaststroke and freestyle tasks. The middle fingertip trajectories of both hands in the underwater phase were considered. The accuracy (mean absolute error) of the two calibration approaches (wand: 0.96 mm - 2D plate: 0.73 mm) was comparable to out of water results and highly superior to the classical DLT results (9.74 mm). Among all the swimmers, the hands' trajectories of the expert swimmer in the style were almost symmetric and in good agreement with Maglischo's model. The kinematic results highlight symmetry or asymmetry between the two hand sides, intra- and inter-subject variability in terms of the motion patterns and agreement or disagreement with the model. The two outcomes, calibration results and trajectory reconstruction, both move towards the quantitative 3D underwater motion analysis. PMID:22435960

Silvatti, Amanda P; Cerveri, Pietro; Telles, Thiago; Dias, Fábio A S; Baroni, Guido; Barros, Ricardo M L

2013-01-01

291

Modelling the spectral response of the Swift-XRT CCD camera: experience learnt from in-flight calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: Since its launch in November 2004, Swift has revolutionised our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. The X-ray telescope (XRT), one of the three instruments on board Swift, has played a key role in providing essential positions, timing, and spectroscopy of more than 300 GRB afterglows to date. Although Swift was designed to observe GRB afterglows with power-law spectra, Swift is spending an increasing fraction of its time observing more traditional X-ray sources, which have more complex spectra. Aims: The aim of this paper is a detailed description of the CCD response model used to compute the XRT RMFs (redistribution matrix files), the changes implemented to it based on measurements of celestial and on-board calibration sources, and current caveats in the RMFs for the spectral analysis of XRT data. Methods: The RMFs are computed via Monte-Carlo simulations based on a physical model describing the interaction of photons within the silicon bulk of the CCD detector. Results: We show that the XRT spectral response calibration was complicated by various energy offsets in photon counting (PC) and windowed timing (WT) modes related to the way the CCD is operated in orbit (variation in temperature during observations, contamination by optical light from the sunlit Earth and increase in charge transfer inefficiency). We describe how these effects can be corrected for in the ground processing software. We show that the low-energy response, the redistribution in spectra of absorbed sources, and the modelling of the line profile have been significantly improved since launch by introducing empirical corrections in our code when it was not possible to use a physical description. We note that the increase in CTI became noticeable in June 2006 (i.e. 14 months after launch), but the evidence of a more serious degradation in spectroscopic performance (line broadening and change in the low-energy response) due to large charge traps (i.e. faults in the Si crystal) became more significant after March 2007. We describe efforts to handle such changes in the spectral response. Finally, we show that the commanded increase in the substrate voltage from 0 to 6 V on 2007 August 30 reduced the dark current, enabling the collection of useful science data at higher CCD temperature (up to -50 °C). We also briefly describe the plan to recalibrate the XRT response files at this new voltage. Conclusions: We show that the XRT spectral response is described well by the public response files for line and continuum spectra in the 0.3-10 keV band in both PC and WT modes.

Godet, O.; Beardmore, A. P.; Abbey, A. F.; Osborne, J. P.; Cusumano, G.; Pagani, C.; Capalbi, M.; Perri, M.; Page, K. L.; Burrows, D. N.; Campana, S.; Hill, J. E.; Kennea, J. A.; Moretti, A.

2009-02-01

292

A unified and efficient framework for court-net sports video analysis using 3D camera modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extensive amount of video data stored on available media (hard and optical disks) necessitates video content analysis, which is a cornerstone for different user-friendly applications, such as, smart video retrieval and intelligent video summarization. This paper aims at finding a unified and efficient framework for court-net sports video analysis. We concentrate on techniques that are generally applicable for more than one sports type to come to a unified approach. To this end, our framework employs the concept of multi-level analysis, where a novel 3-D camera modeling is utilized to bridge the gap between the object-level and the scene-level analysis. The new 3-D camera modeling is based on collecting features points from two planes, which are perpendicular to each other, so that a true 3-D reference is obtained. Another important contribution is a new tracking algorithm for the objects (i.e. players). The algorithm can track up to four players simultaneously. The complete system contributes to summarization by various forms of information, of which the most important are the moving trajectory and real-speed of each player, as well as 3-D height information of objects and the semantic event segments in a game. We illustrate the performance of the proposed system by evaluating it for a variety of court-net sports videos containing badminton, tennis and volleyball, and we show that the feature detection performance is above 92% and events detection about 90%.

Han, Jungong; de With, Peter H. N.

2007-01-01

293

The Automatically Triggered Video or Imaging Station (ATVIS): An Inexpensive Way to Catch Geomorphic Events on Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand how single events can affect landscape change, we must catch the landscape in the act. Direct observations are rare and often dangerous. While video is a good alternative, commercially-available video systems for field installation cost 11,000, weigh ~100 pounds (45 kg), and shoot 640x480 pixel video at 4 frames per second. This is the same resolution as a cheap point-and-shoot camera, with a frame rate that is nearly an order of magnitude worse. To overcome these limitations of resolution, cost, and portability, I designed and built a new observation station. This system, called ATVIS (Automatically Triggered Video or Imaging Station), costs 450--500 and weighs about 15 pounds. It can take roughly 3 hours of 1280x720 pixel video, 6.5 hours of 640x480 video, or 98,000 1600x1200 pixel photos (one photo every 7 seconds for 8 days). The design calls for a simple Canon point-and-shoot camera fitted with custom firmware that allows 5V pulses through its USB cable to trigger it to take a picture or to initiate or stop video recording. These pulses are provided by a programmable microcontroller that can take input from either sensors or a data logger. The design is easily modifiable to a variety of camera and sensor types, and can also be used for continuous time-lapse imagery. We currently have prototypes set up at a gully near West Bijou Creek on the Colorado high plains and at tributaries to Marble Canyon in northern Arizona. Hopefully, a relatively inexpensive and portable system such as this will allow geomorphologists to supplement sensor networks with photo or video monitoring and allow them to see—and better quantify—the fantastic array of processes that modify landscapes as they unfold. Camera station set up at Badger Canyon, Arizona.Inset: view into box. Clockwise from bottom right: camera, microcontroller (blue), DC converter (red), solar charge controller, 12V battery. Materials and installation assistance courtesy of Ron Griffiths and the USGS Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center.

Wickert, A. D.

2010-12-01

294

A stroboscopic technique for using CCD cameras in flow visualization systems for continuous viewing and stop action photography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique for synchronizing a pulse light source to charge coupled device cameras is presented. The technique permits the use of pulse light sources for continuous as well as stop action flow visualization. The technique has eliminated the need to provide separate lighting systems at facilities requiring continuous and stop action viewing or photography.

Franke, John M.; Rhodes, David B.; Jones, Stephen B.; Dismond, Harriet R.

1992-01-01

295

Beam characterization with video imaging systems at the ANL 50 MeV H- beamline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video imaging systems consisting of scintillators, charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, and in-beam CCD detectors are being used to characterize beams at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) 50 MeV H- beamline. The characterization technique consists of placing pinholes, slits, or wires in the beam and viewing the resulting images or shadows on a downstream scintillator or CCD. The images are digitally

T. J. Yule; F. O. Bellinger; T. A. Coleman; M. M. Faber; C. L. Fink; C. T. Roche

1989-01-01

296

Spectral function of an optical filter for the pn-CCD camera on board the German astronomy satellite ABRIXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have provided optical filters developed at the Max-Planck Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik to the German x-ray astronomy observatory ABRIXAS. Specific Si-PN CCDs will be serving as focal plane camera. Since this detector is sensitive to radiation from the x-ray to the near IR spectral range, for observation in x-ray astronomy it must be protected from visible and UV radiation.

Karl-Heinz Stephan; Frank Haberl; Jan Friedrich

1999-01-01

297

Peering Into Virtual Space--Camera Shot Selection in the Video Conference Class.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on three essential information stations integral to the electronic classroom: the instructor camera (information station #1), the student camera (information station #2), and the copy-stand camera (information station #3). For each, the basic issues, such as camera location, instructional function, learning mode, information quality, and…

Dolhon, James P.

1998-01-01

298

Application of video-cameras for quality control and sampling optimisation of hydrological and erosion measurements in a catchment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long term soil erosion studies imply substantial efforts, particularly when there is the need to maintain continuous measurements. There are high costs associated to maintenance of field equipment keeping and quality control of data collection. Energy supply and/or electronic failures, vandalism and burglary are common causes of gaps in datasets, reducing their reach in many cases. In this work, a system of three video-cameras, a recorder and a transmission modem (3G technology) has been set up in a gauging station where rainfall, runoff flow and sediment concentration are monitored. The gauging station is located in the outlet of an olive orchard catchment of 6.4 ha. Rainfall is measured with one automatic raingauge that records intensity at one minute intervals. The discharge is measured by a flume of critical flow depth, where the water is recorded by an ultrasonic sensor. When the water level rises to a predetermined level, the automatic sampler turns on and fills a bottle at different intervals according to a program depending on the antecedent precipitation. A data logger controls the instruments' functions and records the data. The purpose of the video-camera system is to improve the quality of the dataset by i) the visual analysis of the measurement conditions of flow into the flume; ii) the optimisation of the sampling programs. The cameras are positioned to record the flow at the approximation and the gorge of the flume. In order to contrast the values of ultrasonic sensor, there is a third camera recording the flow level close to a measure tape. This system is activated when the ultrasonic sensor detects a height threshold, equivalent to an electric intensity level. Thus, only when there is enough flow, video-cameras record the event. This simplifies post-processing and reduces the cost of download of recordings. The preliminary contrast analysis will be presented as well as the main improvements in the sample program.

Lora-Millán, Julio S.; Taguas, Encarnacion V.; Gomez, Jose A.; Perez, Rafael

2014-05-01

299

Comparing on site human and video counts at Igarapava fish ladder, south eastern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

On site human observations and video images were collected and compared at the window of the Igarapava Dam fish ladder (IDFL), rio Grande , Southeastern Brazil, between March 1st and June 30th, 2004. We conducted four experiments with two humans (Observer 1 and Observer 2) observing fish passage in the IDFL window while a Sony 3CCD video camera (Observer 3)

Mark D. Bowen; Simone Marques; Luiz G. M. Silva; Volney Vono; Hugo P. Godinho

2006-01-01

300

The design and realization of a three-dimensional video system by means of a CCD array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Design features and principles and initial tests of a prototype three-dimensional robot vision system based on a laser source and a CCD detector array is described. The use of a laser as a coherent illumination source permits the determination of the relief using one emitter since the location of the source is a known quantity with low distortion. The CCD signal detector array furnishes an acceptable signal/noise ratio and, when wired to an appropriate signal processing system, furnishes real-time data on the return signals, i.e., the characteristic points of an object being scanned. Signal processing involves integration of 29 kB of data per 100 samples, with sampling occurring at a rate of 5 MHz (the CCDs) and yielding an image every 12 msec. Algorithms for filtering errors from the data stream are discussed.

Boizard, J. L.

1985-12-01

301

Camera Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A general discussion of the use of cameras in computer animation. This section includes principles of traditional film techniques and suggestions for the use of a camera during an architectural walkthrough. This section includes html pages, images and one video.

2011-01-30

302

Single event effect characterization of the mixed-signal ASIC developed for CCD camera in space use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the single event effect (SEE) tolerance of a mixed-signal application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) developed for a charge-coupled device camera onboard a future X-ray astronomical mission. We adopted proton and heavy ion beams at HIMAC/NIRS in Japan. The particles with high linear energy transfer (LET) of 57.9MeVcm2/mg is used to measure the single event latch-up (SEL) tolerance, which results in a sufficiently low cross-section of ?SEL<4.2×10?11cm2/(Ion×ASIC). The single event upset (SEU) tolerance is estimated with various kinds of species with wide range of energy. Taking into account that a part of the protons creates recoiled heavy ions that have higher LET than that of the incident protons, we derived the probability of SEU event as a function of LET. Then the SEE event rate in a low-earth orbit is estimated considering a simulation result of LET spectrum. SEL rate is below once per 49 years, which satisfies the required latch-up tolerance. The upper limit of the SEU rate is derived to be 1.3×10?3 events/s. Although the SEU events cannot be distinguished from the signals of X-ray photons from astronomical objects, the derived SEU rate is below 1.3% of expected non-X-ray background rate of the detector and hence these events should not be a major component of the instrumental background.

Nakajima, Hiroshi; Fujikawa, Mari; Mori, Hideki; Kan, Hiroaki; Ueda, Shutaro; Kosugi, Hiroko; Anabuki, Naohisa; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Doty, John P.; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Kitamura, Hisashi; Uchihori, Yukio

2013-12-01

303

On the use of Video Camera Systems in the Detection of Kuiper Belt Objects by Stellar Occultations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the distance between us and the Kuiper Belt, direct detection of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) is not currently possible for objects less than 10 km in diameter. Indirect methods such as stellar occultations must be employed to remotely probe these bodies. The size, shape, as well as atmospheric properties and ring system information of a body (if any), can be collected through observations of stellar occultations. This method has been previously used with some success - Roques et al. (2006) detected 3 Trans-Neptunian objects; Schlichting et al. (2009) detected a single object in archival data. However, previous assessments of KBO occultation detection rates have been calculated only for telescopes - we extend this method to video camera systems. Building on Roques & Moncuquet (2000), we present a derivation that can be applied to any video camera system, taking into account camera specifications and diffraction effects. This allows for a determination of the number of observable KBO occultations per night. Example calculations are presented for some of the automated meteor camera systems currently in use at the University of Western Ontario. The results of this project will allow us to refine and improve our own camera system, as well as allow others to enhance their systems for KBO detection. Roques, F., Doressoundiram, A., Dhillon, V., Marsh, T., Bickerton, S., Kavelaars, J. J., Moncuquet, M., Auvergne, M., Belskaya, I., Chevreton, M., Colas, F., Fernandez, A., Fitzsimmons, A., Lecacheux, J., Mousis, O., Pau, S., Peixinho, N., & Tozzi, G. P. (2006). The Astronomical Journal, 132(2), 819-822. Roques, F., & Moncuquet, M. (2000). Icarus, 147(2), 530-544. Schlichting, H. E., Ofek, E. O., Wenz, M., Sari, R., Gal-Yam, A., Livio, M., Nelan, E., & Zucker, S. (2009). Nature, 462(7275), 895-897.

Subasinghe, Dilini

2012-10-01

304

Advanced Video Data-Acquisition System For Flight Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Advanced video data-acquisition system (AVDAS) developed to satisfy variety of requirements for in-flight video documentation. Requirements range from providing images for visualization of airflows around fighter airplanes at high angles of attack to obtaining safety-of-flight documentation. F/A-18 AVDAS takes advantage of very capable systems like NITE Hawk forward-looking infrared (FLIR) pod and recent video developments like miniature charge-couple-device (CCD) color video cameras and other flight-qualified video hardware.

Miller, Geoffrey; Richwine, David M.; Hass, Neal E.

1996-01-01

305

The WEBERSAT camera - An inexpensive earth imaging system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WEBERSAT is a 27 pound LEO satellite launched in 1990 into a 500 mile polar orbit. One of its payloads is a low cost CCD color camera system developed by engineering students at Weber State University. The camera is a modified Canon CI-10 with a 25 mm lens, automatic iris, and 780 x 490 pixel resolution. The iris range control potentiometer was made programmable; a 10.7 MHz digitization clock, fixed focus support, and solid tantalum capacitors were added. Camera output signals, composite video, red, green, blue, and the digitization clock are fed to a flash digitizer, where they are processed for storage in RAM. Camera control commands are stored and executed via the onboard computer. The CCD camera has successfully imaged meteorological features of the earth, land masses, and a number of astronomical objects.

Jackson, Stephen; Raetzke, Jeffrey

306

Investigation of Electrode Erosion Mechanism of Multi-Phase AC Arc by High-Speed Video Camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multi-phase AC arc has been applied to the glass melting technology. However, the electrode erosion is one of the most considerable issues to be solved. In order to investigate the erosion mechanism of the multi-phase AC arc, the combination of the high-speed video camera and the band-pass filters was introduced to measure the electrode temperature. Results indicated the tip temperature of the electrode surface in the 12-phase arc was lower than that in the 2-phase arc, while erosion rate in 12-phase arc was higher than that in the 2-phase arc. Furthermore, the dynamic behaviour of the vapours in the arc was investigated by using the same high-speed camera system. The tungsten electrode mainly evaporates at the anodic period during AC cycle. The oxygen concentration in the arc increases with larger number of the phases, resulting in the higher erosion rate in the 12-phase arc.

Tanaka, M.; Ikeba, T.; Liu, Y.; Choi, S.; Watanabe, T.

2013-06-01

307

In-situ measurements of alloy oxidation/corrosion/erosion using a video camera and proximity sensor with microcomputer control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two noncontacting and nondestructive, remotely controlled methods of measuring the progress of oxidation/corrosion/erosion of metal alloys, exposed to flame test conditions, are described. The external diameter of a sample under test in a flame was measured by a video camera width measurement system. An eddy current proximity probe system, for measurements outside of the flame, was also developed and tested. The two techniques were applied to the measurement of the oxidation of 304 stainless steel at 910 C using a Mach 0.3 flame. The eddy current probe system yielded a recession rate of 0.41 mils diameter loss per hour and the video system gave 0.27.

Deadmore, D. L.

1984-01-01

308

Interactive 3-D Modeling System Using a Hand-Held Video Camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a number of methods for 3-D modeling from images have been developed. However, the accuracy of a reconstructed model depends on camera positions and postures with which the images are obtained. In most of conventional methods, some skills for adequately controlling the camera movement are needed for users to obtain a good 3-D model. In this study, we propose

Kenji Fudono; Tomokazu Sato; Naokazu Yokoya

2005-01-01

309

241-AZ-101 Waste Tank Color Video Camera System Shop Acceptance Test Report  

SciTech Connect

This report includes shop acceptance test results. The test was performed prior to installation at tank AZ-101. Both the camera system and camera purge system were originally sought and procured as a part of initial waste retrieval project W-151.

WERRY, S.M.

2000-03-23

310

Lights, Camera, Action! Learning about Management with Student-Produced Video Assignments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, we present a proposal for fostering learning in the management classroom through the use of student-produced video assignments. We describe the potential for video technology to create active learning environments focused on problem solving, authentic and direct experiences, and interaction and collaboration to promote student…

Schultz, Patrick L.; Quinn, Andrew S.

2014-01-01

311

Performance of compact ICU (intensified camera unit) with autogating based on video signal  

Microsoft Academic Search

High quality night vision digital video is nowadays required for many observation, surveillance and targeting applications, including several of the current soldier modernization programs. We present the performance increase that is obtained when combining a state-of-the-art image intensifier with a low power consumption CMOS image sensor. Based on the content of the video signal, the gating and gain of the

Arjan de Groot; Peter Linotte; Django van Veen; Martijn de Witte; Nicolas Laurent; Arend Hiddema; Fred Lalkens; Jan van Spijker

2007-01-01

312

Real Time Eye Tracking and Hand Tracking Using Regular Video Cameras for Human Computer Interaction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Final Technical Report discusses the accomplishments of a research effort to develop a system for real time eye tracking and hand pointing tracking using regular cameras for human computer interaction. Several novel algorithms for eye detection and e...

L. Yin

2011-01-01

313

Lights, Camera: Learning! Findings from studies of video in formal and informal science education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the panel, media researcher, Jennifer Borland, will highlight findings from a variety of studies of videos across the spectrum of formal to informal learning, including schools, museums, and in viewers homes. In her presentation, Borland will assert that the viewing context matters a great deal, but there are some general take-aways that can be extrapolated to the use of educational video in a variety of settings. Borland has served as an evaluator on several video-related projects funded by NASA and the the National Science Foundation including: Data Visualization videos and Space Shows developed by the American Museum of Natural History, DragonflyTV, Earth the Operators Manual, The Music Instinct and Time Team America.

Borland, J.

2013-12-01

314

Lights, camera, action...critique? Submit videos to AGU communications workshop  

Microsoft Academic Search

What does it take to create a science video that engages the audience and draws thousands of views on YouTube? Those interested in finding out should submit their research-related videos to AGU's Fall Meeting science film analysis workshop, led by oceanographer turned documentary director Randy Olson. Olson, writer-director of two films (Flock of Dodos: The Evolution-Intelligent Design Circus and Sizzle:

Maria-José Viñas

2011-01-01

315

High speed cooled CCD experiments  

SciTech Connect

Experiments were conducted using cooled and intensified CCD cameras. Two different cameras were identically tested using different Optical test stimulus variables. Camera gain and dynamic range were measured by varying microchannel plate (MCP) voltages and controlling light flux using neutral density (ND) filters to yield analog digitized units (ADU) which are digitized values of the CCD pixel`s analog charge. A Xenon strobe (5 {micro}s FWHM, blue light, 430 nm) and a doubled Nd.yag laser (10 ns FWHM, green light, 532 nm) were both used as pulsed illumination sources for the cameras. Images were captured on PC desktop computer system using commercial software. Camera gain and integration time values were adjusted using camera software. Mean values of camera volts versus input flux were also obtained by performing line scans through regions of interest. Experiments and results will be discussed.

Pena, C.R.; Albright, K.L.; Yates, G.J.

1998-12-31

316

A new method to calculate the camera focusing area and player position on playfield in soccer video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sports video enrichment is attracting many researchers. People want to appreciate some highlight segments with cartoon. In order to automatically generate these cartoon video, we have to estimate the players" and ball"s 3D position. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to cope with the former problem, i.e. to compute players" position on court. For the image with sufficient corresponding points, the algorithm uses these points to calibrate the map relationship between image and playfield plane (called as homography). For the images without enough corresponding points, we use global motion estimation (GME) and the already calibrated image to compute the images" homographies. Thus, the problem boils down to estimating global motion. To enhance the performance of global motion estimation, two strategies are exploited. The first one is removing the moving objects based on adaptive GMM playfield detection, which can eliminate the influence of non-still object; The second one is using LKT tracking feature points to determine horizontal and vertical translation, which makes the optimization process for GME avoid being trapped into local minimum. Thus, if some images of a sequence can be calibrated directly from the intersection points of court line, all images of the sequence can by calibrated through GME. When we know the homographies between image and playfield, we can compute the camera focusing area and players" position in real world. We have tested our algorithm on real video and the result is encouraging.

Liu, Yang; Huang, Qingming; Ye, Qixiang; Gao, Wen

2005-07-01

317

Determining Camera Gain in Room Temperature Cameras  

SciTech Connect

James R. Janesick provides a method for determining the amplification of a CCD or CMOS camera when only access to the raw images is provided. However, the equation that is provided ignores the contribution of dark current. For CCD or CMOS cameras that are cooled well below room temperature, this is not a problem, however, the technique needs adjustment for use with room temperature cameras. This article describes the adjustment made to the equation, and a test of this method.

Joshua Cogliati

2010-12-01

318

CCD noise removal in digital images  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we propose a denoising scheme to restore images degraded by CCD noise. The CCD noise model, measured in the space of incident light values (light space), is a combination of signal-independent and signal-dependent noise terms. This model becomes more complex in image brightness space (normal camera output) due to the nonlinearity of the camera response function that

Hilda Faraji; W. James Maclean

2006-01-01

319

A video pre\\/post-processing LSI for video capture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A video processing LSI which converts video signals to digital YUV signals in various image formats was successfully developed for a video capture system. This LSI is suitable for PC cameras, camera\\/recorders and PC video capture boards

T. Kinugasa; A. Nishizawa; K. Koshio; T. Iguchi; J. Kamimura; H. Marumori

1996-01-01

320

Evaluation of a 0.9- to 2.2-microns sensitive video camera with a mid-infrared filter (1.45- to 2.0-microns)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application of 0.9- to 2.2-microns sensitive black and white IR video cameras to remote sensing is examined. Field and laboratory recordings of the upper and lower surface of peperomia leaves, succulent prickly pear, and buffelgrass are evaluated; the reflectance, phytomass, green weight, and water content for the samples were measured. The data reveal that 0.9- to 2.2-microns video cameras are effective tools for laboratory and field research; however, the resolution and image quality of the data is poor compared to visible and near-IR images.

Everitt, J. H.; Escobar, D. E.; Nixon, P. R.; Blazquez, C. H.; Hussey, M. A.

321

Real-Time Security Monitoring Around a Video Surveillance Vehicle With a Pair of Two-Camera Omni-Imaging Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pair of two-camera omni-imaging devices is de- signed for use on the roof of a video surveillance vehicle, and corresponding 3-D vision-based techniques for real-time security surveillance around the vehicle are proposed, which may be used to monitor passing-by persons around the vehicle. First, the design of the pair of two-camera omni-imaging devices, each device consisting of two omnicameras,

Pei-Hsuan Yuan; Kuo-Feng Yang; Wen-Hsiang Tsai

2011-01-01

322

The tendency to have psychogenic non-epileptic attacks out of camera view during long-term video-EEG monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to compare out of camera view seizure occurrence rates between psychogenic non-epileptic and epileptic seizures during long-term video-EEG monitoring. From 1996 to 2001, 208 adult patients were monitored in 212 sessions, and 196 patients were included in the study. Depending on video-EEG recordings and witnessed accounts, 18 of the patients had no seizures recorded,

Kayihan Uluc; Meryem Albakir; Serap Saygi

2002-01-01

323

Method for eliminating artifacts in CCD imagers  

DOEpatents

An electronic method for eliminating artifacts in a video camera employing a charge coupled device (CCD) as an image sensor is disclosed. The method comprises the step of initializing the camera prior to normal read out and includes a first dump cycle period for transferring radiation generated charge into the horizontal register while the decaying image on the phosphor being imaged is being integrated in the photosites, and a second dump cycle period, occurring after the phosphor image has decayed, for rapidly dumping unwanted smear charge which has been generated in the vertical registers. Image charge is then transferred from the photosites and to the vertical registers and read out in conventional fashion. The inventive method allows the video camera to be used in environments having high ionizing radiation content, and to capture images of events of very short duration and occurring either within or outside the normal visual wavelength spectrum. Resultant images are free from ghost, smear and smear phenomena caused by insufficient opacity of the registers and, and are also free from random damage caused by ionization charges which exceed the charge limit capacity of the photosites. 3 figs.

Turko, B.T.; Yates, G.J.

1992-06-09

324

Method for eliminating artifacts in CCD imagers  

DOEpatents

An electronic method for eliminating artifacts in a video camera (10) employing a charge coupled device (CCD) (12) as an image sensor. The method comprises the step of initializing the camera (10) prior to normal read out and includes a first dump cycle period (76) for transferring radiation generated charge into the horizontal register (28) while the decaying image on the phosphor (39) being imaged is being integrated in the photosites, and a second dump cycle period (78), occurring after the phosphor (39) image has decayed, for rapidly dumping unwanted smear charge which has been generated in the vertical registers (32). Image charge is then transferred from the photosites (36) and (38) to the vertical registers (32) and read out in conventional fashion. The inventive method allows the video camera (10) to be used in environments having high ionizing radiation content, and to capture images of events of very short duration and occurring either within or outside the normal visual wavelength spectrum. Resultant images are free from ghost, smear and smear phenomena caused by insufficient opacity of the registers (28) and (32), and are also free from random damage caused by ionization charges which exceed the charge limit capacity of the photosites (36) and (37).

Turko, Bojan T. (Moraga, CA); Yates, George J. (Santa Fe, NM)

1992-01-01

325

Making the Most of Your Video Camera. Technology in Language Learning Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A practical guide for language teachers illustrates the different ways in which cameras can be employed in language work, with suggestions and advice taken from current experience. Teachers can be involved by making their own language training videotapes and focusing on an area of language, literature, or thematic interest directly applicable to…

Lonergan, Jack

326

Foveated Imaging System to Reduce Transmission Bandwidth of Video Images from Remote Camera Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final progress report for a joint project between Geisler's laboratory at the University of Texas at Austin and OWL Displays Inc., to develop a real time variable resolution (foveated) imaging system for video communications tasks such as remo...

W. S. Geisler, H. L. Webb

1998-01-01

327

Foveated Imaging System to Reduce Transmission Bandwidth of Video Images from Remote Camera Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final progress report for a joint project between Geisler's laboratory at the University of Texas at Austin and OWL Displays. Inc. , to develop a real time variable resolution (foveated) imaging system for video communications tasks such as re...

W. S. Geisler, H. L. Webb

1998-01-01

328

"Lights, Camera, Reflection": Using Peer Video to Promote Reflective Dialogue among Student Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the use of peer-videoing in the classroom as a means of promoting reflection among student teachers. Ten pre-service teachers participating in a teacher education programme in a university in the Republic of Ireland and ten pre-service teachers participating in a teacher education programme in a university in the North of…

Harford, Judith; MacRuairc, Gerry; McCartan, Dermot

2010-01-01

329

Action, Interaction, and Reaction: The Video Camera and the FL Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses of pre-recorded and student-generated videotape recordings in the foreign language (FL) classroom are described and discussed from the perspective of their utility in helping students achieve target language communicative competence. It is suggested that viewing authentic video materials provides an opportunity to observe extralinguistic…

Armstrong, Kimberly M.; Yetter-Vassot, Cindy

330

A time-delay integration charge-coupled device camera for slot-scanned digital radiography.  

PubMed

We have developed a low-noise digital camera based on a 512 x 96 element CCD operating in the time-delay integration mode. This camera has been combined with an x-ray image intensifier to record radiographic images produced by a scanning slot beam of radiation. This results in the rejection of a large fraction of scattered radiation, without a significant increase in x-ray tube heat loading or image acquisition time. Here we describe the design of our CCD camera and the results of our investigations of camera resolution, linearity, noise, and quantum efficiency. We have found that both the resolution limit (50 mm-1) and the dynamic range (2100) of this novel camera are greater than reported values for conventional video cameras. Applications of this system in digital angiography and mammography are discussed. PMID:2233575

Holdsworth, D W; Gerson, R K; Fenster, A

1990-01-01

331

Measurement and processing of signatures in the visible range using a calibrated video camera and the CAMDET software package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A procedure for calibration of a color video camera has been developed at EORD. The RGB values of standard samples, together with the spectral radiance values of the samples, are used to calculate a transformation matrix between the RGB and CIEXYZ color spaces. The transformation matrix is then used to calculate the XYZ color coordinates of distant objects imaged in the field. These, in turn, are used in order to calculate the CIELAB color coordinates of the objects. Good agreement between the calculated coordinates and those obtained from spectroradiometric data is achieved. Processing of the RGB values of pixels in the digital image of a scene using the CAMDET software package which was developed at EORD, results in `Painting Maps' in which the true apparent CIELAB color coordinates are used. The paper discusses the calibration procedure, its advantages and shortcomings and suggests a definition for the visible signature of objects. The Camdet software package is described and some examples are given.

Sheffer, Dan

1997-06-01

332

Design of a space-qualified zoom lens for the space station mobile servicing system video camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

OCA, under contract to Spar Aerospace, has developed a space-qualified zoom color video camera. The optics are a 9.3:1 f/2 zoom lens under digital servo control, using only two moving groups to accomplish zoom, compensation, and focus over an object distance range from 355 mm to infinity. Accomplishing three functions with two moving groups both improves reliability and allows better aberration correction than conventional zoom lenses using front-element motion to focus for range. The detector is a single chip array with integral color filter array. Important lens features include excellent image quality; performance in a near-earth orbit for 10 years without maintenance; and the development of an algorithm allowing accurate photogrammetric ranging from 355 mm to 10 meters.

Hull, Anthony B.; Arsenault, Roger H.; Hulan, Dave G.; Morgan, William F.

1995-10-01

333

High resolution RGB color line scan camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A color line scan camera family which is available with either 6000, 8000 or 10000 pixels/color channel, utilizes off-the-shelf lenses, interfaces with currently available frame grabbers, includes on-board pixel by pixel offset correction, and is configurable and controllable via RS232 serial port for computer controlled or stand alone operation is described in this paper. This line scan camera is based on an available 8000 element monochrome line scan camera designed by AOA for OEM use. The new color version includes improvements such as better packaging and additional user features which make the camera easier to use. The heart of the camera is a tri-linear CCD sensor with on-chip color balancing for maximum accuracy and pinned photodiodes for low lag response. Each color channel is digitized to 12 bits and all three channels are multiplexed together so that the resulting camera output video is either a 12 or 8 bit data stream at a rate of up to 24Megpixels/sec. Conversion from 12 to 8 bit, or user-defined gamma, is accomplished by on board user-defined video look up tables. The camera has two user-selectable operating modes; lows speed, high sensitivity mode or high speed, reduced sensitivity mode. The intended uses of the camera include industrial inspection, digital archiving, document scanning, and graphic arts applications.

Lynch, Theodore E.; Huettig, Fred

1998-04-01

334

24\\/7 security system: 60FPS color EMCCD camera with integral human recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced surveillance\\/security system is being developed for unattended 24\\/7 image acquisition and automated detection, discrimination, and tracking of humans and vehicles. The low-light video camera incorporates an electron multiplying CCD sensor with a programmable on-chip gain of up to 1000:1, providing effective noise levels of less than 1 electron. The EMCCD camera operates in full color mode under sunlit

T. L. Vogelsong; T. E. Boult; D. W. Gardner; R. Woodworth; R. C. Johnson; B. Heflin

2007-01-01

335

Video digitizer (real time-frame grabber) with region of interest suitable for quantitative data analysis used on the infrared and H alpha cameras installed on the DIII-D experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a CAMAC based video digitizer with region of interest (ROI) capability that was designed for use with the infrared and H alpha cameras installed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory on the DIII-D experiment at G.A. Technologies in San Diego, California. The video digitizer uses a custom built CAMAC video synchronizer module to clock data into a CAMAC transient

S. W. Ferguson; D. K. Kevan; D. N. Hill; S. L. Allen

1987-01-01

336

Social Interactions of Juvenile Brown Boobies at Sea as Observed with Animal-Borne Video Cameras  

PubMed Central

While social interactions play a crucial role on the development of young individuals, those of highly mobile juvenile birds in inaccessible environments are difficult to observe. In this study, we deployed miniaturised video recorders on juvenile brown boobies Sula leucogaster, which had been hand-fed beginning a few days after hatching, to examine how social interactions between tagged juveniles and other birds affected their flight and foraging behaviour. Juveniles flew longer with congeners, especially with adult birds, than solitarily. In addition, approximately 40% of foraging occurred close to aggregations of congeners and other species. Young seabirds voluntarily followed other birds, which may directly enhance their foraging success and improve foraging and flying skills during their developmental stage, or both.

Yoda, Ken; Murakoshi, Miku; Tsutsui, Kota; Kohno, Hiroyoshi

2011-01-01

337

Analysis of Small-Scale Convective Dynamics in a Crown Fire Using Infrared Video Camera Imagery.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A good physical understanding of the initiation, propagation, and spread of crown fires remains an elusive goal for fire researchers. Although some data exist that describe the fire spread rate and some qualitative aspects of wildfire behavior, none have revealed the very small timescales and spatial scales in the convective processes that may play a key role in determining both the details and the rate of fire spread. Here such a dataset is derived using data from a prescribed burn during the International Crown Fire Modelling Experiment. A gradient-based image flow analysis scheme is presented and applied to a sequence of high-frequency (0.03 s), high-resolution (0.05-0.16 m) radiant temperature images obtained by an Inframetrics ThermaCAM instrument during an intense crown fire to derive wind fields and sensible heat flux. It was found that the motions during the crown fire had energy-containing scales on the order of meters with timescales of fractions of a second. Estimates of maximum vertical heat fluxes ranged between 0.6 and 3 MW m2 over the 4.5-min burn, with early time periods showing surprisingly large fluxes of 3 MW m2. Statistically determined velocity extremes, using five standard deviations from the mean, suggest that updrafts between 10 and 30 m s1, downdrafts between 10 and 20 m s1, and horizontal motions between 5 and 15 m s1 frequently occurred throughout the fire.The image flow analyses indicated a number of physical mechanisms that contribute to the fire spread rate, such as the enhanced tilting of horizontal vortices leading to counterrotating convective towers with estimated vertical vorticities of 4 to 10 s1 rotating such that air between the towers blew in the direction of fire spread at canopy height and below. The IR imagery and flow analysis also repeatedly showed regions of thermal saturation (infrared temperature > 750°C), rising through the convection. These regions represent turbulent bursts or hairpin vortices resulting again from vortex tilting but in the sense that the tilted vortices come together to form the hairpin shape. As the vortices rise and come closer together their combined motion results in the vortex tilting forward at a relatively sharp angle, giving a hairpin shape. The development of these hairpin vortices over a range of scales may represent an important mechanism through which convection contributes to the fire spread.A major problem with the IR data analysis is understanding fully what it is that the camera is sampling, in order physically to interpret the data. The results indicate that because of the large amount of after-burning incandescent soot associated with the crown fire, the camera was viewing only a shallow depth into the flame front, and variabilities in the distribution of hot soot particles provide the structures necessary to derive image flow fields. The coherency of the derived horizontal velocities support this view because if the IR camera were seeing deep into or through the flame front, then the effect of the ubiquitous vertical rotations almost certainly would result in random and incoherent estimates for the horizontal flow fields. Animations of the analyzed imagery showed a remarkable level of consistency in both horizontal and vertical velocity flow structures from frame to frame in support of this interpretation. The fact that the 2D image represents a distorted surface also must be taken into account when interpreting the data.Suggestions for further field experimentation, software development, and testing are discussed in the conclusions. These suggestions may further understanding on this topic and increase the utility of this type of analysis to wildfire research.

Clark, Terry L.; Radke, Larry; Coen, Janice; Middleton, Don

1999-10-01

338

CCD imaging systems for DEIMOS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph (DEIMOS) images with an 8K x 8K science mosaic composed of eight 2K x 4K MIT/Lincoln Lab (MIT/LL) CCDs. It also incorporates two 1200 x 600 Orbit Semiconductor CCDs for active, close-loop flexure compensation. The science mosaic CCD controller system reads out all eight science CCDs in 40 seconds while maintaining the low noise floor of the MIT/Lincoln Lab CCDs. The flexure compensation (FC) CCD controller reads out the FC CCDs several times per minute during science mosaic exposures. The science mosaic CCD controller and the FC CCD controller are located on the electronics ring of DEIMOS. Both the MIT/Lincoln Lab CCDs and the Orbit flexure compensation CCDs and their associated cabling and printed circuit boards are housed together in the same detector vessel that is approximately 10 feet away from the electronics ring. Each CCD controller has a modular hardware design and is based on the San Diego State University (SDSU) Generation 2 (SDSU-2) CCD controller. Provisions have been made to the SDSU-2 video board to accommodate external CCD preamplifiers that are located at the detector vessel. Additional circuitry has been incorporated in the CCD controllers to allow the readback of all clocks and bias voltages for up to eight CCDs, to allow up to 10 temperature monitor and control points of the mosaic, and to allow full-time monitoring of power supplies and proper power supply sequencing. Software control features of the CCD controllers are: software selection between multiple mosaic readout modes, readout speeds, selectable gains, ramped parallel clocks to eliminate spurious charge on the CCDs, constant temperature monitoring and control of each CCD within the mosaic, proper sequencing of the bias voltages of the CCD output MOSFETs, and anti-blooming operation of the science mosaic. We cover both the hardware and software highlights of both of these CCD controller systems as well as their respective performance.

Wright, Christopher A.; Kibrick, Robert I.; Alcott, Barry; Gilmore, David K.; Pfister, Terry; Cowley, David J.

2003-03-01

339

Characterization of color texture: CIEL*a*b* calibration of CCD device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A lot of materials used in construction industry are materials showing strong color texture, which may give the product its commercial value. We plan to perform automated appearance sorting using a tri-CCD color video camera as a measurement tool. The aim of the present work is the refinement of a calibration process allowing this tool to deliver for each pixel the same information as a spectroradiometer (CIEL*a*b* coordinates). Analysis of the acquisition tool allows characterization of the card and camera behavior (linearity of RGB gains, spatially varying and fixed pattern noises). Color calibration is performed using measurements with a spectroradiometer.

Laflaquiere, Philippe; Lafon, D.; Eterradossi, O.; Slangen, Pierre R.

1998-09-01

340

Jellyfish support high energy intake of leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea): video evidence from animal-borne cameras.  

PubMed

The endangered leatherback turtle is a large, highly migratory marine predator that inexplicably relies upon a diet of low-energy gelatinous zooplankton. The location of these prey may be predictable at large oceanographic scales, given that leatherback turtles perform long distance migrations (1000s of km) from nesting beaches to high latitude foraging grounds. However, little is known about the profitability of this migration and foraging strategy. We used GPS location data and video from animal-borne cameras to examine how prey characteristics (i.e., prey size, prey type, prey encounter rate) correlate with the daytime foraging behavior of leatherbacks (n = 19) in shelf waters off Cape Breton Island, NS, Canada, during August and September. Video was recorded continuously, averaged 1:53 h per turtle (range 0:08-3:38 h), and documented a total of 601 prey captures. Lion's mane jellyfish (Cyanea capillata) was the dominant prey (83-100%), but moon jellyfish (Aurelia aurita) were also consumed. Turtles approached and attacked most jellyfish within the camera's field of view and appeared to consume prey completely. There was no significant relationship between encounter rate and dive duration (p = 0.74, linear mixed-effects models). Handling time increased with prey size regardless of prey species (p = 0.0001). Estimates of energy intake averaged 66,018 kJ • d(-1) but were as high as 167,797 kJ • d(-1) corresponding to turtles consuming an average of 330 kg wet mass • d(-1) (up to 840 kg • d(-1)) or approximately 261 (up to 664) jellyfish • d(-1). Assuming our turtles averaged 455 kg body mass, they consumed an average of 73% of their body mass • d(-1) equating to an average energy intake of 3-7 times their daily metabolic requirements, depending on estimates used. This study provides evidence that feeding tactics used by leatherbacks in Atlantic Canadian waters are highly profitable and our results are consistent with estimates of mass gain prior to southward migration. PMID:22438906

Heaslip, Susan G; Iverson, Sara J; Bowen, W Don; James, Michael C

2012-01-01

341

The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Camera for the Hubble Space Telescope has three cameras. The first, the Wide Field Camera, will be a high- throughput, wide field, 4096 X 4096 pixel CCD optical and I-band camera that is half-critically sampled at 500 nm. The second, the High Resolution Camera (HRC), is a 1024 X 1024 pixel CCD camera that is critically sampled at

G. D. Illingworth; Paul D. Feldman; David A. Golimowski; Zlatan Tsvetanov; Christopher J. Burrows; James H. Crocker; Pierre Y. Bely; George F. Hartig; Randy A. Kimble; Michael P. Lesser; Richard L. White; Tom Broadhurst; William B. Sparks; Robert A. Woodruff; Pamela Sullivan; Carolyn A. Krebs; Douglas B. Leviton; William Burmester; Sherri Fike; Rich Johnson; Robert B. Slusher; Paul Volmer

1997-01-01

342

A Motionless Camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Omniview, a motionless, noiseless, exceptionally versatile camera was developed for NASA as a receiving device for guiding space robots. The system can see in one direction and provide as many as four views simultaneously. Developed by Omniview, Inc. (formerly TRI) under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, the system's image transformation electronics produce a real-time image from anywhere within a hemispherical field. Lens distortion is removed, and a corrected "flat" view appears on a monitor. Key elements are a high resolution charge coupled device (CCD), image correction circuitry and a microcomputer for image processing. The system can be adapted to existing installations. Applications include security and surveillance, teleconferencing, imaging, virtual reality, broadcast video and military operations. Omniview technology is now called IPIX. The company was founded in 1986 as TeleRobotics International, became Omniview in 1995, and changed its name to Interactive Pictures Corporation in 1997.

1994-01-01

343

Technical Note: Determining regions of interest for CCD camera-based fiber optic luminescence dosimetry by examining signal-to-noise ratio  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The goal of this work was to develop a method for determining regions of interest (ROIs) based on signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the analysis of charge-coupled device (CCD) images used in luminescence-based radiation dosimetry. Methods: The ROI determination method was developed using images containing high-and low-intensity signals taken with a CCD-based, fiber optic plastic scintillation detector system. A series of threshold intensity values was defined for each signal, and ROIs were fitted around the pixels that exceeded each threshold. The SNR for each ROI was calculated and the relationship between SNR and ROI area was examined. Results: The SNR was found to increase rapidly over small ROIs for both signal levels. After reaching a maximum, the SNR of the low-intensity signal decreased steadily over larger ROIs, but the high-intensity SNR did not decrease appreciably over the ROI sizes studied. The spatial extent of the normalized images showed intensity independence, suggesting that a fixed ROI is useful for varying signal levels. Conclusions: The method described here constitutes a simple yet effective method for defining ROIs based on SNR that could enhance the low-level detection capabilities of CCD-based luminescence dosimetry systems.

Klein, David M.; Therriault-Proulx, Francois; Archambault, Louis; Briere, Tina M.; Beaulieu, Luc; Beddar, A. Sam

2011-01-01

344

Aerial video surveillance and exploitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in performing aerial surveillance using video cameras. Compared to traditional framing cameras, video cameras provide the capability to observe ongoing activity within a scene and to automatically control the camera to track the activity. However, the high data rates and relatively small field of view of video cameras present new technical challenges that must be overcome

RAKESH KUMAR; HARPREET SAWHNEY; SUPUN SAMARASEKERA; STEVE HSU; Hai Tao; Yanlin Guo; KEITH HANNA; ARTHUR POPE; RICHARD WILDES; DAVID HIRVONEN; MICHAEL HANSEN; PETER BURT

2001-01-01

345

Observation of the dynamic movement of fragmentations by high-speed camera and high-speed video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experiments of blastings using mortal concrete blocks and model concrete columns were carried out in order to obtain technical information on fragmentation caused by the blasting demolition. The dimensions of mortal concrete blocks were 1,000 X 1,000 X 1,000 mm. Six kinds of experimental blastings were carried out using mortal concrete blocks. In these experiments precision detonators and No. 6 electric detonators with 10 cm detonating fuse were used and discussed the control of fragmentation. As the results of experiment it was clear that the flying distance of fragmentation can be controlled using a precise blasting system. The reinforced concrete model columns for typical apartment houses in Japan were applied to the experiments. The dimension of concrete test column was 800 X 800 X 2400 mm and buried 400 mm in the ground. The specified design strength of the concrete was 210 kgf/cm2. These columns were exploded by the blasting with internal loading of dynamite. The fragmentation were observed by two kinds of high speed camera with 500 and 2000 FPS and a high speed video with 400 FPS. As one of the results in the experiments, the velocity of fragmentation, blasted 330 g of explosive with the minimum resisting length of 0.32 m, was measured as much as about 40 m/s.

Suk, Chul-Gi; Ogata, Yuji; Wada, Yuji; Katsuyama, Kunihisa

1995-05-01

346

Initial clinical experience with a video-based patient positioning system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To report initial clinical experience with an interactive, video-based patient positioning system that is inexpensive, quick, accurate, and easy to use.Methods and Materials: System hardware includes two black-and-white CCD cameras, zoom lenses, and a PC equipped with a frame grabber. Custom software is used to acquire and archive video images, as well as to display real-time subtraction images revealing

L. S. Johnson; B. D. Milliken; S. W. Hadley; C. A. Pelizzari; D. J. Haraf; G. T. Y. Chen

1999-01-01

347

Laboratory Test of CCD #1 in BOAO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An introduction to the first CCD camera system in Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory (CCD#1) is presented. The CCD camera adopts modular dewar design of IfA(Institute for Astronomy at Hawaii University) and SDSU(San Diego State University) general purpose CCD controller. The user interface is based on IfA design of easy-to-use GUI program running on the NeXT workstation. The characteristics of the CCD#1 including Gain, Charge Transfer Efficiency, rms Read-Out Noise, Linearity and Dynamic range is tested and discussed. The CCD#1 shows 6.4 electrons RON and gain of 3.49 electrons per ADU, and the optimization resulted in about 27 seconds readout time guaranteeing charge transfer efficiency of 0.99999 for both directions. Linearity test shows that non-linear coefficient is 6e-7 in the range of 0 to 30,000 ADU.

Park, Byeong-Gon; Chun, Moo Young; Kim, Seung-Lee

1995-12-01

348

Comparison of handheld video camera and GAITRite® measurement of gait impairment in people with early stage Parkinson's disease: a pilot study.  

PubMed

In this pilot study, we investigated the validity and reliability of low-cost handheld video camera recordings for measuring gait in people with early stage Parkinson's disease (PD). Five participants with PD, Hoehn & Yahr stage I-II, mean age 66.2 years and five healthy age-matched controls were recruited. Participants walked across a GAITRite® electronic walkway at self-selected pace while video was simultaneously recorded. Data from both systems were analyzed and compared. Step time variability, measured from handheld video recordings, revealed significant (p ? 0.05) differences between the gait of early stage PD and controls. Concurrent validity between video analyses and GAITRite were good (ICC(2,1) ? 0.86) for mean step time and mean dual support duration. However, the inter-assessor reliability for the video analysis was poor for step time variability (ICC(2,1) = 0.18). More reliable measurement of step time variability may require a system to measure extended periods of walking. Further research involving longer walks and more participants with higher stages of PD is required to investigate if step time variability can be measured with acceptable reliability using video recordings. If this could be demonstrated, this simple technology could be adapted to run on a tablet or smart phone, providing low cost gait assessments without the need for specialized equipment and expensive infrastructure. PMID:23938349

Beijer, Tim R; Lord, Stephen R; Brodie, Matthew A D

2013-01-01

349

CCD and IR array controllers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A family of controllers has bene developed that is powerful and flexible enough to operate a wide range of CCD and IR focal plane arrays in a variety of ground-based applications. These include fast readout of small CCD and IR arrays for adaptive optics applications, slow readout of large CCD and IR mosaics, and single CCD and IR array operation at low background/low noise regimes as well as high background/high speed regimes. The CCD and IR controllers have a common digital core based on user- programmable digital signal processors that are used to generate the array clocking and signal processing signals customized for each application. A fiber optic link passes image data and commands to VME or PCI interface boards resident in a host computer to the controller. CCD signal processing is done with a dual slope integrator operating at speeds of up to one Megapixel per second per channel. Signal processing of IR arrays is done either with a dual channel video processor or a four channel video processor that has built-in image memory and a coadder to 32-bit precision for operating high background arrays. Recent developments underway include the implementation of a fast fiber optic data link operating at a speed of 12.5 Megapixels per second for fast image transfer from the controller to the host computer, and supporting image acquisition software and device drivers for the PCI interface board for the Sun Solaris, Linux and Windows 2000 operating systems.

Leach, Robert W.; Low, Frank J.

2000-08-01

350

A pulsed THz imaging system with a line focus and a balanced 1-D detection scheme with two industrial CCD line-scan cameras.  

PubMed

We present a pulsed THz Imaging System with a line focus intended to speed up measurements. A balanced 1-D detection scheme working with two industrial line-scan cameras is used. The instrument is implemented without the need for an amplified laser system, increasing the industrial applicability. The instrumental characteristics are determined. PMID:20389575

Wiegand, Christian; Herrmann, Michael; Bachtler, Sebastian; Klier, Jens; Molter, Daniel; Jonuscheit, Joachim; Beigang, René

2010-03-15

351

CCD photometry of SA 57.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors present a sequence of photoelectric V-magnitudes of 28 stars, covering the range of 15 < V < 23, in the north Galactic pole region (SA 57) obtained with the new CCD camera system mounted at the Newtonian focus of the 188 cm telescope of the Okayama Astrophysical Observatory.

Iye, M.; Ichikawa, S.-I.; Sasaki, T.; Okamura, S.; Kawakami, H.

352

Cameras in the Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the following uses for a video camera in the science classroom: video presentations, microscope work, taping and/or monitoring experiments, analyzing everyday phenomena, lesson enhancement, field trip alternative, and classroom management. (PR)

Steinman, Richard C.

1993-01-01

353

Compressive Underwater Video Camera.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary long-term goal of our research team is the development of image compression transforms with high compression ratios (consistently exceeding 200:1) that can facilitate the transmission of moderate resolution imagery (e.g., S-VHS format) across ...

F. M. Caimi G. X. Ritter M. S. Schmalz

1998-01-01

354

Low-light-level EMCCD color camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Video cameras have increased in usefulness in military applications over the past four decades. This is a result of many advances in technology and because no one portion of the spectrum reigns supreme under all environmental and operating conditions. The visible portion of the spectrum has the clear advantage of ease of information interpretation, requiring little or no training. This advantage extends into the Near IR (NIR) spectral region to silicon cutoff with little difficulty. Inclusion of the NIR region is of particular importance due to the rich photon content of natural night illumination. The addition of color capability offers another dimension to target/situation discrimination and hence is highly desirable. A military camera must be small, lightweight and low power. Limiting resolution and sensitivity cannot be sacrificed to achieve color capability. Newly developed electron-multiplication CCD sensors (EMCCDs) open the door to a practical low-light/all-light color camera without an image intensifier. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp (BATC) has developed a unique color camera that allows the addition of color with a very small impact on low light level performance and negligible impact on limiting resolution. The approach, which includes the NIR portion of the spectrum along with the visible, requires no moving parts and is based on the addition of a sparse sampling color filter to the surface of an EMCCD. It renders the correct hue in a real time, video rate image with negligible latency. Furthermore, camera size and power impact is slight.

Heim, Gerald B.; Burkepile, Jon; Frame, Wayne W.

2006-05-01

355

Camera Multifentes a Ccd pour l'Imagerie X Tri-Dimensionnelle de Plasmas Laser: Implantation dans l'Enceinte 6 Faisceaux et Resultats (Multislot CCD Camera for Three Dimensional X Imaging of Laser Plasmas: Insertion in a 6 Beam Chamber and Results).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A three dimensional microimaging system using x-ray emission of laser induced plasmas is described. The basis of multislot coding and development of a direct electronic detection code by a CCD (Charge Coupled Device) is discussed. A six beam test chamber ...

N. Debeaucoudrey A. Bellemain D. Phalippou J. Boudenne M. Koenig

1991-01-01

356

Single-camera system for optically tracking freehand motion in 3D: experimental implementation and evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A single camera optical tracking system has been implemented to track the freehand motion of an object in 3D. The system consists of a single standard NTSC video camera and a frame grabber that is utilized to digitize the image of a target plate with four non-collinear fiducial marks. The tracking algorithm is based on texture mapping to determine the rotation and translation of the plate (and hence object) from the images of four fiducial marks. Utilizing a SGI VW320 workstation (with integrated frame grabber) and a CCD video camera, tracking accuracy of better than 0.1 mm for object velocity of 4.0 cm/s was achievable at full video frame rate for all directions.

Lee, Mark K.; Cardinal, H. Neale; Fenster, Aaron

2001-05-01

357

Are traditional methods of determining nest predators and nest fates reliable? An experiment with Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) using miniature video cameras  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used miniature infrared video cameras to monitor Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) nests during 1998-2000. We documented nest predators and examined whether evidence at nests can be used to predict predator identities and nest fates. Fifty-six nests were monitored; 26 failed, with 3 abandoned and 23 depredated. We predicted predator class (avian, mammalian, snake) prior to review of video footage and were incorrect 57% of the time. Birds and mammals were underrepresented whereas snakes were over-represented in our predictions. We documented ???9 nest-predator species, with the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) taking the most nests (n = 8). During 2000, we predicted fate (fledge or fail) of 27 nests; 23 were classified correctly. Traditional methods of monitoring nests appear to be effective for classifying success or failure of nests, but ineffective at classifying nest predators.

Williams, G. E.; Wood, P. B.

2002-01-01

358

Inexpensive video cameras used by parents to record social communication in epidemiological investigations in early childhood—A feasibility study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the feasibility of parents recording social interactions with their infants using inexpensive camcorders, as a potential method of effective, convenient, and economical large scale data gathering on social communication. Participants were asked to record two short video clips during either play or a mealtime, and return the data. Sixty-five video clips (32 pairs) were returned by 33 families,

Christine Puckering; Alex McConnachie; Helen Marwick; Nadja Reissland; Christopher Gillberg

2011-01-01

359

Improvement in the light sensitivity of the ultrahigh-speed high-sensitivity CCD with a microlens array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are advancing the development of ultrahigh-speed, high-sensitivity CCDs for broadcast use that are capable of capturing smooth slow-motion videos in vivid colors even where lighting is limited, such as at professional baseball games played at night. We have already developed a 300,000 pixel, ultrahigh-speed CCD, and a single CCD color camera that has been used for sports broadcasts and science programs using this CCD. However, there are cases where even higher sensitivity is required, such as when using a telephoto lens during a baseball broadcast or a high-magnification microscope during science programs. This paper provides a summary of our experimental development aimed at further increasing the sensitivity of CCDs using the light-collecting effects of a microlens array.

Hayashida, T.,; Yonai, J.; Kitamura, K.; Arai, T.; Kurita, T.; Tanioka, K.; Maruyama, H.; Etoh, T. Goji; Kitagawa, S.; Hatade, K.; Yamaguchi, T.; Takeuchi, H.; Iida, K.

2008-02-01

360

Vacuum Camera Cooler  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

Laugen, Geoffrey A.

2011-01-01

361

Camera Operator and Videographer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Television, video, and motion picture camera operators produce images that tell a story, inform or entertain an audience, or record an event. They use various cameras to shoot a wide range of material, including television series, news and sporting events, music videos, motion pictures, documentaries, and training sessions. Those who film or…

Moore, Pam

2007-01-01

362

Electronic Video System: Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The system concept (portable color camera with semiconductor image converters, integrated magnetic tape recording equipment and corresponding playback unit) can be implemented. A model of a CID hybrid camera was constructed, and a CCD image sensor in Supe...

G. Bock W. Horstmann H. E. Krueger B. Mueller H. G. Mueller

1983-01-01

363

PSM alignment for Sigma7300: signal quality and resist effects from using the writing DUV laser light spatial light modulator and a CCD camera as measurement tool for 2:nd layer alignment metrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the sub-functions in the Micronic Sigma 7300 mask writer is the 2:nd layer alignment system for writing of phase shift masks. The strategy chosen for performing PSM alignment is to use the DUV writing laser together with the spatial light modulator (SLM) to create a light stamp image, which is reflected on the first layer alignment marks. The reflected image is captured and measured with a DUV-sensitive CCD camera. Using the writing laser has many benefits since there is no position offsets coming from misalignment of multiple laser sources. The anti-reflection (AR) function in chemically amplified resists (CAR), bottom anti-reflex coatings (BARC) and top anti-reflex coatings (TARC) reduces reflectance for 248 nm incoming light. This could reduce the signal strength and accuracy of the alignment system as the 248 nm laser is used for the alignment. The paper focuses mainly on two issues, image contrast at different resist thicknesses and image contrast when AR coatings are used. The algorithm measuring the fist layer alignment mark positions is also described. The studies of this and results of the final PSM alignment system show that Micronic has found an efficient way of dealing with these issues.

Ostrom, Thomas; Lindau, Sten; Ekberg, Mats; Fosshaug, Hans A.; Zerne, Raoul

2004-05-01

364

Real-time continuous recording technique using FBTC in digital still cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Higher performance and more sophisticated functions have been required in the digital still camera market growing at the rapid rate. On the other hand, the hardware cost has been increasing to meet these requirements. In light of this situation, a new image processing technique is presented to achieve the digital still cameras with the higher performance at lower cost. The present technique focuses on the real time continuous recording of single CCD images using the fixed block truncation coding (FBTC). FBTC is an embedded compression scheme we proposed to handle the image data with high quality in the hardcopy peripherals. In the digital still camera using the present technique, the continuous recording rate is up to 30 frames per second for video graphic array size full color image. Moreover, FBTC coding scheme can reduce the memory size to capture the raw image from CCD by less than a half, and enable to store over twice continuous recording frames than the conventional technique.

Matoba, Narihiro; Terada, Kazuto; Saito, Masayuki; Tanioka, Masaaki

1998-04-01

365

Technical assessment of low light color camera technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In nighttime overcast conditions with a new moon (near-total darkness), typical light levels may only reach 10-2-10-4 lux. As such, standard CCD/CMOS video cameras have insufficient sensitivity to capture useful images. Third generation night vision cameras (Gen III NV) are the state-of-the-art in terms of imaging clarity and resolution at this light level, but rely on green or green/yellow phosphors to produce monochromatic images while true color information is lost. More recently, low-light color video cameras have become commercially available which are purportedly able to produce truecolor images at rates of 15-30 frames per second (fps) in near-total darkness without loss in clarity. This study determined if the sensitivities of two low-light color video cameras, Toshiba's IK-1000 EMCCD and Opto-Knowledge System's (OKSI) True Color Night Vision (TCNV) cameras are comparable to current Gen II/III NV technology. NRL, in a joint effort with NSWC Carderock Division, quantified the effectiveness of these cameras in terms of objective laboratory characterization and subjective field testing. Laboratory tests included signal-to-noise (S/N), spectral response, and imaging quality at 2, 15, and 30 frames per second (fps). Field tests were performed at 8, 15, and 30 fps to determine clarity and color composition of camouflaged human subjects and stationary objects from a set number of standoff distances under near-total darkness (measured at 10-8-10-10 W/cm2 sr @ 650nm). Low-light camera video was qualitatively compared to imagery taken by Stanford Photonics Mega-10 Gen III Night Vision Scientific and Tactical Imagers under identical conditions.

Ramsey, Scott A.; Peak, Joseph; Setlik, Brian

2010-04-01

366

Camera calibration for color research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we introduce a new method for determining the relationship between signal spectra and camera RGB which is required for many applications in color. We work with the standard camera model, which assumes that the response is linear. We also provide an example of how the fitting procedure can be augmented to include fitting for a previously estimated non-linearity. The basic idea of our method is to minimize squared error subject to linear constraints, which enforce positivity and range of the result. It is also possible to constrain the smoothness, but we have found that it is better to add a regularization expression to the objective function to promote smoothness. With this method, smoothness and error can be traded against each other without being restricted by arbitrary bounds. The method is easily implemented as it is an example of a quadratic programming problem, for which there are many software solutions available. In this paper we provide the results using this method and others to calibrate a Sony DXC-930 CCD color video camera. We find that the method gives low error, while delivering sensors which are smooth and physically realizable. Thus we find the method superior to methods which ignore any of these considerations.

Barnard, Kobus; Funt, Brian V.

1999-05-01

367

Visualization of explosion phenomena using a high-speed video camera with an uncoupled objective lens by fiber-optic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization of explosion phenomena is very important and essential to evaluate the performance of explosive effects. The phenomena, however, generate blast waves and fragments from cases. We must protect our visualizing equipment from any form of impact. In the tests described here, the front lens was separated from the camera head by means of a fiber-optic cable in order to

Nobuyuki Tokuoka; Hitoshi Miyoshi; Hideaki Kusano; Hidehiro Hata; Tetsuyuki Hiroe; Kazuhito Fujiwara; Kondo Yasushi

2008-01-01

368

Inexpensive video cameras used by parents to record social communication in epidemiological investigations in early childhood-A feasibility study.  

PubMed

We tested the feasibility of parents recording social interactions with their infants using inexpensive camcorders, as a potential method of effective, convenient, and economical large scale data gathering on social communication. Participants were asked to record two short video clips during either play or a mealtime, and return the data. Sixty-five video clips (32 pairs) were returned by 33 families, comprising 8.5% of families contacted, 44.6% of respondents and 51.6% of those sent a camcorder, and the general visual and sound quality of the data was assessed. Audio and video quality were adequate for analysis in 85% of clips and several social behaviours, including social engagement and contingent responsiveness, could be assessed in 97% of clips. We examined two quantifiable social behaviours quantitatively in both adults and infants: gaze direction and duration, and vocalization occurrence and duration. It proved difficult for most observers to obtain a simultaneous clear view of the parents and infant's face. Video clips obtained by parents are informative and usable for analysis. Further work is required to establish the acceptability of this technique in longitudinal studies of child development and to maximize the return of usable data. PMID:21036401

Wilson, Philip; Puckering, Christine; McConnachie, Alex; Marwick, Helen; Reissland, Nadja; Gillberg, Christopher

2011-02-01

369

Development of a Performance Specification for Camera/Video Imaging Systems on Heavy Vehicles Final Report: Supporting Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Video technology has advanced rapidly and is available today at relatively low cost, with relatively high performance and small size. An important potential application for this technology is in heavy vehicles. It can be used to provide views to the drive...

D. M. Wiegand G. M. Fitch J. M. Spaulding S. K. Santosh W. A. Schaudt W. W. Wierwille

2008-01-01

370

Cryostat and CCD for MEGARA at GTC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is the new integral field unit (IFU) and multi-object spectrograph (MOS) instrument for the GTC. The spectrograph subsystems include the pseudo-slit, the shutter, the collimator with a focusing mechanism, pupil elements on a volume phase holographic grating (VPH) wheel and the camera joined to the cryostat through the last lens, with a CCD detector inside. In this paper we describe the full preliminary design of the cryostat which will harbor the CCD detector for the spectrograph. The selected cryogenic device is an LN2 open-cycle cryostat which has been designed by the "Astronomical Instrumentation Lab for Millimeter Wavelengths" at INAOE. A complete description of the cryostat main body and CCD head is presented as well as all the vacuum and temperature sub-systems to operate it. The CCD is surrounded by a radiation shield to improve its performance and is placed in a custom made mechanical mounting which will allow physical adjustments for alignment with the spectrograph camera. The 4k x 4k pixel CCD231 is our selection for the cryogenically cooled detector of MEGARA. The characteristics of this CCD, the internal cryostat cabling and CCD controller hardware are discussed. Finally, static structural finite element modeling and thermal analysis results are shown to validate the cryostat model.

Castillo-Domínguez, E.; Ferrusca, D.; Tulloch, S.; Velázquez, M.; Carrasco, E.; Gallego, J.; Gil de Paz, A.; Sánchez, F. M.; Vílchez Medina, J. M.

2012-09-01

371

The use of CCD pixel binning in PIV measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we study the effects of a CCD camera binning option, which increases camera frame rate throughput at the expense of loosing spatial resolution, on the particle image velocimetry measurements. The camera frame rate defines upper bound on a speed of a flow a PIV system can measure. We have carried our experiments on the real images of

B. Akselli; A. Kholmatov; H. Nasibov

2009-01-01

372

An electronic pan/tilt/zoom camera system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small camera system is described for remote viewing applications that employs fisheye optics and electronics processing for providing pan, tilt, zoom, and rotational movements. The fisheye lens is designed to give a complete hemispherical FOV with significant peripheral distortion that is corrected with high-speed electronic circuitry. Flexible control of the viewing requirements is provided by a programmable transformation processor so that pan/tilt/rotation/zoom functions can be accomplished without mechanical movements. Images are presented that were taken with a prototype system using a CCD camera, and 5 frames/sec can be acquired from a 180-deg FOV. The image-tranformation device can provide multiple images with different magnifications and pan/tilt/rotation sequences at frame rates compatible with conventional video devices. The system is of interest to the object tracking, surveillance, and viewing in constrained environments that would require the use of several cameras.

Zimmermann, Steve; Martin, H. L.

1992-08-01

373

Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, and range performance with compressed motion video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video of visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS) test charts in a complex background was recorded using a CCD color camera mounted on a computer-controlled tripod and was fed into real-time MPEG-2 compression\\/decompression equipment. The test charts were based on the triangle orientation discrimination (TOD) test method and contained triangle test patterns of different sizes and contrasts in four

Piet Bijl; Sjoerd C. de Vries

2010-01-01

374

CCD wafer scale integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wafer scale CCD photodetector arrays of 26 million pixels or more are being fabricated on a limited production basis today. This paper provides an introduction to CCD wafer scale integration with an emphasis on common wafer scale CCD design architectures, applications and fabrication processes. Examples of wafer scale CCD products are reviewed, and a triple poly, double metal wafer scale

Paul P. Suni

1995-01-01

375

The Dark Energy Survey CCD imager design  

SciTech Connect

The Dark Energy Survey is planning to use a 3 sq. deg. camera that houses a {approx} 0.5m diameter focal plane of 62 2kx4k CCDs. The camera vessel including the optical window cell, focal plate, focal plate mounts, cooling system and thermal controls is described. As part of the development of the mechanical and cooling design, a full scale prototype camera vessel has been constructed and is now being used for multi-CCD readout tests. Results from this prototype camera are described.

Cease, H.; DePoy, D.; Diehl, H.T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Guarino, V.; Kuk, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Schultz, K.; Schmitt, R.L.; Stefanik, A.; /Fermilab /Ohio State U. /Argonne

2008-06-01

376

Video-rate nanoscopy enabled by sCMOS camera-specific single-molecule localization algorithms  

PubMed Central

Newly developed scientific complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (sCMOS) cameras have the potential to dramatically accelerate data acquisition in single-molecule switching nanoscopy (SMSN) while simultaneously increasing the effective quantum efficiency. However, sCMOS-intrinsic pixel-dependent readout noise substantially reduces the localization precision and introduces localization artifacts. Here we present algorithms that overcome these limitations and provide unbiased, precise localization of single molecules at the theoretical limit. In combination with a multi-emitter fitting algorithm, we demonstrate single-molecule localization super-resolution imaging at up to 32 reconstructed images/second (recorded at 1,600–3,200 camera frames/second) in both fixed and living cells.

Huang, Fang; Hartwich, Tobias M. P.; Rivera-Molina, Felix E.; Lin, Yu; Duim, Whitney C.; Long, Jane J.; Uchil, Pradeep D.; Myers, Jordan R.; Baird, Michelle A.; Mothes, Walther; Davidson, Michael W.; Toomre, Derek; Bewersdorf, Joerg

2013-01-01

377

Use of charge-coupled device /CCD/ detectors for imaging in the vacuum ultraviolet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two systems based on charge-coupled device (CCD) arrays have been designed and tested for image detection at vacuum ultraviolet wavelengths. A camera using a CCD in conjunction with a microchannel plate image intensifier was developed and qualified for space flight. A second camera system uses a thinned, back-illuminated CCD for direct detection of extreme ultraviolet radiation. A space qualified version of this camera is currently under development. Both systems produce images of excellent quality, with very high photometric sensitivity.

Michels, D.; Burstein, P.

1981-01-01

378

Versatile Controller For CCD's  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General-purpose controller for charge-coupled device (CCD) programmed to accommodate variety of CCD designs. In operation of controller, software used to specify CCD-clock waveforms, available in great diversity. Includes timing-signal generator controlled by microcomputer. Flexibility and speed makes it versatile tool for laboratory testing and for variety of applications. Controller operates existing CCD's and able to operate CCD's expected to be developed in foreseeable future.

Novello, J.; Chen, P. C.

1994-01-01

379

A new digital signal processor for progressive scan CCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital signal processor, which is dedicated to the PS-CCD (progressive scan type CCD), is developed. The DSCP1 (Digital Still Camera Processor 1) adopts a new pixel interpolation algorithm which takes an average of two mean pixel values from the 4 neighboring pixels and an individual color matrix before gamma control in order to provide the higher image quality. The

H. Zen; T. Koizumi; H. Yamamoto; I. Kimura

1998-01-01

380

Progress in video immersion using Panospheric imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Having demonstrated significant technical and marketplace advantages over other modalities for video immersion, PanosphericTM Imaging (PI) continues to evolve rapidly. This paper reports on progress achieved since AeroSense 97. The first practical field deployment of the technology occurred in June-August 1997 during the NASA-CMU 'Atacama Desert Trek' activity, where the Nomad mobile robot was teleoperated via immersive PanosphericTM imagery from a distance of several thousand kilometers. Research using teleoperated vehicles at DRES has also verified the exceptional utility of the PI technology for achieving high levels of situational awareness, operator confidence, and mission effectiveness. Important performance enhancements have been achieved with the completion of the 4th Generation PI DSP-based array processor system. The system is now able to provide dynamic full video-rate generation of spatial and computational transformations, resulting in a programmable and fully interactive immersive video telepresence. A new multi- CCD camera architecture has been created to exploit the bandwidth of this processor, yielding a well-matched PI system with greatly improved resolution. While the initial commercial application for this technology is expected to be video tele- conferencing, it also appears to have excellent potential for application in the 'Immersive Cockpit' concept. Additional progress is reported in the areas of Long Wave Infrared PI Imaging, Stereo PI concepts, PI based Video-Servoing concepts, PI based Video Navigation concepts, and Foveation concepts (to merge localized high-resolution views with immersive views).

Bogner, Stephen L.; Southwell, David T.; Penzes, Steven; Brosinsky, Chris A.; Anderson, Ron; Hanna, Doug M.

1998-09-01

381

Statistical Calibration of the CCD Imaging Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras are widely used imaging sensors in computer vision systems. Many pho- tometric algorithms, such as shape from shading, color constancy, and photometric stereo, implicitly assume that the image intensity is proportional to scene radiance. The actual image measurements deviate significantly from this assumption since the transformation from scene radiance to image intensity is non-linear and is

Yanghai Tsin; Visvanathan Ramesh; Takeo Kanade

2001-01-01

382

Linearity measurement for image-intensified CCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the characteristic of the ultraviolet CCD (UV ICCD), technique of the linearity measurement of the UV ICCD camera is studied based on the theory of radiometry. Approach of linearity measurement is discussed, and a kind of measurement system of the UV ICCD has been developed based on the method of neutral density filter. It is very important that the

Yuhuan Zhao; Liwei Zhang; Feng Yan; Yongqiang Gu; Liying Wan

2010-01-01

383

Camera Obscura Sun Viewer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, make a simple "camera obscura" so you can stare at the Sun in a safe way. Discover how a very long camera obscura allows you to see something very bright but far away (like the Sun) in a safe way. This activity guide includes a step-by-step instructional video.

Center, Saint L.

2013-01-17

384

Video Observation of Draconids 2011 from Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The join observation of the Draconids 2011 by one all-sky video camera of the Slovak Video Meteor Network, cameras of the Central European Meteor Network, the Polish Fireball Network and local Italian Meteor and TLE Network is presented.

Toth, J.; Piffl, R.; Koukal, J.; Zoladek, P.; Wisniewski, M.; Gajdos, S.; Zanotti, F.; Valeri, D.; De Maria, P.; Popek, M.; Gorkova, S.; Vilagi, J.; Kornos, L.; Kalmancok, D.; Zigo, P.

2012-05-01

385

High-speed multicolour photometry with CMOS cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of testing the commercial digital camera Nikon D90 with a CMOS sensor for high-speed photometry with a small telescope Celestron 11'' at the Peak Terskol Observatory. CMOS sensor allows to perform photometry in 3 filters simultaneously that gives a great advantage compared with monochrome CCD detectors. The Bayer BGR colour system of CMOS sensors is close to the Johnson BVR system. The results of testing show that one can carry out photometric measurements with CMOS cameras for stars with the V-magnitude up to ?14^{m} with the precision of 0.01^{m}. Stars with the V-magnitude up to ˜10 can be shot at 24 frames per second in the video mode.

Pokhvala, S. M.; Zhilyaev, B. E.; Reshetnyk, V. M.

2012-11-01

386

Video photomicroscopy.  

PubMed

A doctor attending a teaching course on tropical medicine in Ethiopia reported severe itching at night. He noted skin lesions that appeared to be flea bites and was able to trap a flea. A video of the flea was recorded by a student with an inexpensive digital camera through the eyepiece of a microscope. PMID:25014709

Górgolas, Miguel; Cuadros, Juan

2014-07-17

387

Video Stabilization and Enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a simple and computationally efficient approach for video stabilization and enhancement. By combining multiple low-quality video frames, it is possible to extract a high-quality still image. This technique is particularly helpful in identifying people, license plates, etc. from low-quality video surveillance cameras.

Hany Farid; Jeffrey B. Woodward

2007-01-01

388

Smart Cameras as Embedded Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent technological advances are enabling a new generation of smart cameras that represent a quantum leap in sophistication. While today's digital cameras capture images, smart cameras capture high-level descriptions of the scene and analyze what they see. These devices could support a wide variety of applications including human and animal detection, surveillance, motion analysis, and facial identification. Video processing has

Wayne Wolf; Burak Ozer; Lv Tiehan

2002-01-01

389

CCD BVI c observations of Cepheids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2008-2013, we obtained 11333 CCD BVI c frames for 57 Cepheids from the General Catalogue of Variable Stars. We performed our observations with the 76-cm telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO, South Africa) and the 40-cm telescope of the Cerro Armazones Astronomical Observatory of the Universidad Católica del Norte (OCA, Chile) using the SBIG ST-10XME CCD camera. The tables of observations, the plots of light curves, and the current light elements are presented. Comparison of our light curves with those constructed from photoelectric observations shows that the differences between their mean magnitudes exceed 0?05 in 20% of the cases. This suggests the necessity of performing CCD observations for all Cepheids.

Berdnikov, L. N.; Kniazev, A. Yu.; Sefako, R.; Kravtsov, V. V.; Zhujko, S. V.

2014-02-01

390

Upgrades to NDSF Vehicle Camera Systems and Development of a Prototype System for Migrating and Archiving Video Data in the National Deep Submergence Facility Archives at WHOI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, considerable effort has been made to improve the visual recording capabilities of Alvin and ROV Jason. This has culminated in the routine use of digital cameras, both internal and external on these vehicles, which has greatly expanded the scientific recording capabilities of the NDSF. The UNOLS National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) archives maintained at Woods Hole Oceanograpic Institution (WHOI) are the repository for the diverse suite of photographic still images (both 35mm and recently digital), video imagery, vehicle data and navigation, and near-bottom side-looking sonar data obtained by the facility vehicles. These data comprise a unique set of information from a wide range of seafloor environments over the more than 25 years of NDSF operations in support of science. Included in the holdings are Alvin data plus data from the tethered vehicles- ROV Jason, Argo II, and the DSL-120 side scan sonar. This information conservatively represents an outlay in facilities and science costs well in excess of \\$100 million. Several archive related improvement issues have become evident over the past few years. The most critical are: 1. migration and better access to the 35mm Alvin and Jason still images through digitization and proper cataloging with relevant meta-data, 2. assessing Alvin data logger data, migrating data on older media no longer in common use, and properly labeling and evaluating vehicle attitude and navigation data, 3. migrating older Alvin and Jason video data, especially data recorded on Hi-8 tape that is very susceptible to degradation on each replay, to newer digital format media such as DVD, 4. improving the capabilities of the NDSF archives to better serve the increasingly complex needs of the oceanographic community, including researchers involved in focused programs like Ridge2000 and MARGINS, where viable distributed databases in various disciplinary topics will form an important component of the data management structure. We report on an archiving effort to transfer video footage currently on Hi-8 and VHS tape to digital media (DVD). At the same time as this is being done, frame grab imagery at reasonable resolution (640x480) at 30 sec. intervals will be compiled and the images will be integrated, as much as possible with vehicle attitude/navigation data and provided to the user community in a web-browser format, such as has already been done for the recent Jason and Alvin frame grabbed imagery. The frame-grabbed images will be tagged with time, thereby permitting integration of vehicle attitude and navigation data once that is available. In order to prototype this system, we plan to utilize data from the East Pacific Rise and Juan de Fuca Ridge which are field areas selected by the community as Ridge2000 Integrated Study Sites. There are over 500 Alvin dives in both these areas and having frame-grabbed, synoptic views of the terrains covered during those dives will be invaluable for scientific and outreach use as part of Ridge2000. We plan to coordinate this activity with the Ridge2000 Data Management Office at LDEO.

Fornari, D.; Howland, J.; Lerner, S.; Gegg, S.; Walden, B.; Bowen, A.; Lamont, M.; Kelley, D.

2003-12-01

391

Evaluation of Smart Video for Transit Event Detection. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transit agencies are increasingly using video cameras to fight crime and terrorism. As the volume of video data increases, the existing digital video surveillance systems provide the infrastructure only to capture, store and distribute video, while leavin...

D. Sapper D. B. Goldgof J. Candamo M. Shreve

2009-01-01

392

Video flowmeter  

DOEpatents

A video flowmeter is described that is capable of specifying flow nature and pattern and, at the same time, the quantitative value of the rate of volumetric flow. An image of a determinable volumetric region within a fluid containing entrained particles is formed and positioned by a rod optic lens assembly on the raster area of a low-light level television camera. The particles are illuminated by light transmitted through a bundle of glass fibers surrounding the rod optic lens assembly. Only particle images having speeds on the raster area below the raster line scanning speed may be used to form a video picture which is displayed on a video screen. The flowmeter is calibrated so that the locus of positions of origin of the video picture gives a determination of the volumetric flow rate of the fluid. 4 figs.

Lord, D.E.; Carter, G.W.; Petrini, R.R.

1983-08-02

393

Video flowmeter  

DOEpatents

A video flowmeter is described that is capable of specifying flow nature and pattern and, at the same time, the quantitative value of the rate of volumetric flow. An image of a determinable volumetric region within a fluid (10) containing entrained particles (12) is formed and positioned by a rod optic lens assembly (31) on the raster area of a low-light level television camera (20). The particles (12) are illuminated by light transmitted through a bundle of glass fibers (32) surrounding the rod optic lens assembly (31). Only particle images having speeds on the raster area below the raster line scanning speed may be used to form a video picture which is displayed on a video screen (40). The flowmeter is calibrated so that the locus of positions of origin of the video picture gives a determination of the volumetric flow rate of the fluid (10).

Lord, David E. (Livermore, CA); Carter, Gary W. (Livermore, CA); Petrini, Richard R. (Livermore, CA)

1983-01-01

394

Video flowmeter  

DOEpatents

A video flowmeter is described that is capable of specifying flow nature and pattern and, at the same time, the quantitative value of the rate of volumetric flow. An image of a determinable volumetric region within a fluid containing entrained particles is formed and positioned by a rod optic lens assembly on the raster area of a low-light level television camera. The particles are illuminated by light transmitted through a bundle of glass fibers surrounding the rod optic lens assembly. Only particle images having speeds on the raster area below the raster line scanning speed may be used to form a video picture which is displayed on a video screen. The flowmeter is calibrated so that the locus of positions of origin of the video picture gives a determination of the volumetric flow rate of the fluid.

Lord, D.E.; Carter, G.W.; Petrini, R.R.

1981-06-10

395

CCD Signal Processor Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a study of the application of charge coupled devices (CCD's) to radar signal processing systems. The particular radar problem considered was the detection of satellites at ranges of up to 25,000 NM. A CCD baseline desig...

L. W. Martinson B. P. Gaffney G. J. Mayer

1977-01-01

396

Wise Observatory System of Fast CCD Photometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a data acquisition and an online reduction system for fast (a few seconds integration time) photometry with the Wise Observatory CCD camera. The method is based on successively collecting frames, each one is a mere small fraction of the entire CCD array. If necessary, the observer is able to place the object star and the comparison star on one and the same row or column of the CCD chip by rotating the image plane, an option available with the Wise telescope. In so doing, the rectangular frame that has to be read out may have a small area of only some 30 columns or rows, even when the two stars are far away from each other. The readout time of the small frame is thus reduced to merely one or two seconds. Thus photometry with an integration time of 5 s and up becomes possible. The system is a network of 3 computers. One controls the telescope, second controls the camera whilst the third computer is used, during the exposure of each frame, for data reduction of the previous one in the observing sequence. The online photometry is performed using standard procedures of the IRAF CCD photometry package. It yields an instrumental magnitude of the object star relative to one or more reference stars that are present in the frame. The light curve of the object star is displayed with a delay of a single frame relative to the one currently under acquisition.

Leibowitz, E. M.; Ibbetson, P.; Ofek, E. O.

397

Application of PLZT electro-optical shutter to diaphragm of visible and mid-infrared cameras  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pb0.9La0.09(Zr0.65,Ti0.35)0.9775O3 9/65/35) commonly used as an electro-optical shutter exhibits large phase retardation with low applied voltage. This shutter features as follows; (1) high shutter speed, (2) wide optical transmittance, and (3) high optical density in 'OFF'-state. If the shutter is applied to a diaphragm of video-camera, it could protect its sensor from intense lights. We have tested the basic characteristics of the PLZT electro-optical shutter and resolved power of imaging. The ratio of optical transmittance at 'ON' and 'OFF'-states was 1.1 X 103. The response time of the PLZT shutter from 'ON'-state to 'OFF'-state was 10 micro second. MTF reduction when putting the PLZT shutter in from of the visible video- camera lens has been observed only with 12 percent at a spatial frequency of 38 cycles/mm which are sensor resolution of the video-camera. Moreover, we took the visible image of the Si-CCD video-camera. The He-Ne laser ghost image was observed at 'ON'-state. On the contrary, the ghost image was totally shut out at 'OFF'-state. From these teste, it has been found that the PLZT shutter is useful for the diaphragm of the visible video-camera. The measured optical transmittance of PLZT wafer with no antireflection coating was 78 percent over the range from 2 to 6 microns.

Fukuyama, Yoshiyuki; Nishioka, Shunji; Chonan, Takao; Sugii, Masakatsu; Shirahata, Hiromichi

1997-04-01

398

Towards fish-eye camera based in-home activity assessment.  

PubMed

Indoors localization, activity classification, and behavioral modeling are increasingly important for surveillance applications including independent living and remote health monitoring. In this paper, we study the suitability of fish-eye cameras (high-resolution CCD sensors with very-wide-angle lenses) for the purpose of monitoring people in indoors environments. The results indicate that these sensors are very useful for automatic activity monitoring and people tracking. We identify practical and mathematical problems related to information extraction from these video sequences and identify future directions to solve these issues. PMID:19163225

Bas, Erhan; Erdogmus, Deniz; Ozertem, Umut; Pavel, Misha

2008-01-01

399

Nonchronological video synopsis and indexing.  

PubMed

The amount of captured video is growing with the increased numbers of video cameras, especially the increase of millions of surveillance cameras that operate 24 hours a day. Since video browsing and retrieval is time consuming, most captured video is never watched or examined. Video synopsis is an effective tool for browsing and indexing of such a video. It provides a short video representation, while preserving the essential activities of the original video. The activity in the video is condensed into a shorter period by simultaneously showing multiple activities, even when they originally occurred at different times. The synopsis video is also an index into the original video by pointing to the original time of each activity. Video Synopsis can be applied to create a synopsis of an endless video streams, as generated by webcams and by surveillance cameras. It can address queries like "Show in one minute the synopsis of this camera broadcast during the past day''. This process includes two major phases: (i) An online conversion of the endless video stream into a database of objects and activities (rather than frames). (ii) A response phase, generating the video synopsis as a response to the user's query. PMID:18787245

Pritch, Yael; Rav-Acha, Alex; Peleg, Shmuel

2008-11-01

400

CCD-aided steering system for Cherenkov telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cherenkov Telescopes (dubbed CT) usually suffer from small steering errors due to tiny misalignments in both CT axis. Sometimes pointing errors can also appear due to tiny bending over the years on the masts supporting the CT camera. In this note, we present the results of a new method to correct these errors by use of a CCD camera. The method has been developed on the 1st Cherencov Telescope of the HEGRA experiment. The CCD camera, installed on the CT dish, sharply detects the CT camera (identified by red LEDs in its edge), upon the dim stars in its Field Of View. We use this information to online correct all possible sources of steering errors in one single step. The CCD camera, running under Linux OS, has also been used to precisely measure the misalignment errors, needed to implement the online correction. Other uses of the CCD camera, interfaced with the CT1 DAQ system, involve operator feedback, by showing a sharp view of the night sky in the CT1 direction.

Sevilla, I.; Barrio, J. A.; Fonseca, V.

2001-08-01

401

A semi-automatic approach to home video editing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hitchcock is a system that allows users to easily create cus- tom videos from raw video shot with a standard video cam- era. In contrast to other video editing systems, Hitchcock uses automatic analysis to determine the suitability of por- tions of the raw video. Unsuitable video typically has fast or erratic camera motion. Hitchcock first analyzes video to identify

Andreas Girgensohn; John S. Boreczky; Patrick Chiu; John Doherty; Jonathan Foote; Gene Golovchinsky; Shingo Uchihashi; Lynn Wilcox

2000-01-01

402

Video-based beam position monitoring at CHESS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CHESS has pioneered the development of X-ray Video Beam Position Monitors (VBPMs). Unlike traditional photoelectron beam position monitors that rely on photoelectrons generated by the fringe edges of the X-ray beam, with VBPMs we collect information from the whole cross-section of the X-ray beam. VBPMs can also give real-time shape/size information. We have developed three types of VBPMs: (1) VBPMs based on helium luminescence from the intense white X-ray beam. In this case the CCD camera is viewing the luminescence from the side. (2) VBPMs based on luminescence of a thin (~50 micron) CVD diamond sheet as the white beam passes through it. The CCD camera is placed outside the beam line vacuum and views the diamond fluorescence through a viewport. (3) Scatter-based VBPMs. In this case the white X-ray beam passes through a thin graphite filter or Be window. The scattered X-rays create an image of the beam's footprint on an X-ray sensitive fluorescent screen using a slit placed outside the beam line vacuum. For all VBPMs we use relatively inexpensive 1.3 Mega-pixel CCD cameras connected via USB to a Windows host for image acquisition and analysis. The VBPM host computers are networked and provide live images of the beam and streams of data about the beam position, profile and intensity to CHESS's signal logging system and to the CHESS operator. The operational use of VBPMs showed great advantage over the traditional BPMs by providing direct visual input for the CHESS operator. The VBPM precision in most cases is on the order of ~0.1 micron. On the down side, the data acquisition frequency (50-1000ms) is inferior to the photoelectron based BPMs. In the future with the use of more expensive fast cameras we will be able create VBPMs working in the few hundreds Hz scale.

Revesz, Peter; Pauling, Alan; Krawczyk, Thomas; Kelly, Kevin J.

2012-10-01

403

Tests of commercial colour CMOS cameras for astronomical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present some results of testing commercial colour CMOS cameras for astronomical applications. Colour CMOS sensors allow to perform photometry in three filters simultaneously that gives a great advantage compared with monochrome CCD detectors. The Bayer BGR colour system realized in colour CMOS sensors is close to the astronomical Johnson BVR system. The basic camera characteristics: read noise (e^{-}/pix), thermal noise (e^{-}/pix/sec) and electronic gain (e^{-}/ADU) for the commercial digital camera Canon 5D MarkIII are presented. We give the same characteristics for the scientific high performance cooled CCD camera system ALTA E47. Comparing results for tests of Canon 5D MarkIII and CCD ALTA E47 show that present-day commercial colour CMOS cameras can seriously compete with the scientific CCD cameras in deep astronomical imaging.

Pokhvala, S. M.; Reshetnyk, V. M.; Zhilyaev, B. E.

2013-12-01

404

A full digital video EEG system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents a Digital Video Electroencephalogram (EEG) system which synchronizes the video and EEG signals and displays two data on the different monitor. Also this system stores all data on the extra capacity digital media simultaneously. In this system, video images from video camera are encoded to the MPEG-I structure data. The synchronization of two signals is accomplished by calculating video

Sae B. Kim; Yong H. Lee; Ju H. Kim; Sun I. Kim

1999-01-01

405

Fluorescence endoscopic video system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a fluorescence endoscopic video system intended for the diagnosis of diseases of the internal organs. The system operates on the basis of two-channel recording of the video fluxes from a fluorescence channel and a reflected-light channel by means of a high-sensitivity monochrome television camera and a color camera, respectively. Examples are given of the application of the device in gastroenterology.

Papayan, G. V.; Kang, Uk

2006-10-01

406

Upgrade of ESO's FIERA CCD Controller and PULPO Subsystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of FIERA is presented with emphasis on its recent upgrade to PCI. The PCI board hosts two DSPs, one for real time control of the camera and another for on-the-fly processing of the incoming video data. In addition, the board is able to make DMA transfers, to synchronize to other boards alike, to be synchronized by a TIM bus and to control PULPO via RS232. The design is based on the IOP480 chip from PLX, for which we have developed a device driver for both Solaris and Linux. One computer is able to host more than one board and therefore can control an array of FIERA detector electronics. PULPO is a multifunctional subsystem widely used at ESO for the housekeeping of CCD cryostat heads and for shutter control. The upgrade of PULPO is based on an embedded PC running Linux. The upgraded PULPO is able to handle 29 temperature sensors, control 8 heaters and one shutter, read out one vacuum sensor and log any combination of parameters.

Reyes-Moreno, J.; Geimer, C.; Balestra, A.; Haddad, N.

407

Video Golf  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

George Nauck of ENCORE!!! invented and markets the Advanced Range Performance (ARPM) Video Golf System for measuring the result of a golf swing. After Nauck requested their assistance, Marshall Space Flight Center scientists suggested video and image processing/computing technology, and provided leads on commercial companies that dealt with the pertinent technologies. Nauck contracted with Applied Research Inc. to develop a prototype. The system employs an elevated camera, which sits behind the tee and follows the flight of the ball down range, catching the point of impact and subsequent roll. Instant replay of the video on a PC monitor at the tee allows measurement of the carry and roll. The unit measures distance and deviation from the target line, as well as distance from the target when one is selected. The information serves as an immediate basis for making adjustments or as a record of skill level progress for golfers.

1995-01-01

408

Camera for landing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the Enhanced Video System (EVS) camera, built by OPGAL as subcontractor of Kollsman Inc. The EVS contains a Head up Display built by Honeywell, a special design camera for landing applications, and the external window installed on the plane together with the electronic control box built by Kollsman. The special design camera for lending applications is the subject of this paper. The entire system was installed on a Gulfstream V plane and passed the FAA proof of concept during August and September 2000.

Grimberg, Ernest

2001-08-01

409

Solid state television camera (CID)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design, development and test are described of a charge injection device (CID) camera using a 244x248 element array. A number of video signal processing functions are included which maximize the output video dynamic range while retaining the inherently good resolution response of the CID. Some of the unique features of the camera are: low light level performance, high S/N ratio, antiblooming, geometric distortion, sequential scanning and AGC.

Steele, D. W.; Green, W. T.

1976-01-01

410

Three-dimensional motion of an object determined by an image sequence of a video theodolite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To get the position and orientation of a moving object, single images of the object supplied with fixed markings are taken by a CCD camera. The camera is included in a video-theodolite to obtain a nearly unlimited field of view and to obtain the exterior orientation each time. The trajectory of the object can be determined with an image sequence. This paper describes the mathematical formulation for the determination of orientation and position of the object. The problem is based on an inverse formulation of the resection in space, as the orientation and position of the camera is known. Furthermore an image processing algorithm is described to extract and match the control points within the image. The results of a test measurement of a moving object on rails are shown together with the accuracies and measuring frequencies achieved.

Heck, U.

1994-03-01

411

Spas color camera  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedures to be followed in assessing the performance of the MOS color camera are defined. Aspects considered include: horizontal and vertical resolution; value of the video signal; gray scale rendition; environmental (vibration and temperature) tests; signal to noise ratios; and white balance correction.

Toffales, C.

1983-01-01

412

Make a Pinhole Camera  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

On Earth, using ordinary visible light, one can create a single image of light recorded over time. Of course a movie or video is light recorded over time, but it is a series of instantaneous snapshots, rather than light and time both recorded on the same medium. A pinhole camera, which is simple to make out of ordinary materials and using ordinary…

Fisher, Diane K.; Novati, Alexander

2009-01-01

413

Interactive free viewpoint video from multiple stereo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a system for rendering free viewpoint video from data acquired by one or more stereo camera pairs in advance. The free viewpoint video can be observed standalone or shown embedded in a synthetic computer graphics scene. Compared to state-of-the art free viewpoint video applications less cameras are required. The system is scalable in terms of adding more stereo

Christian Weigel; Sebastian Schwarz; Torsten Korn; Martin Wallebohr

2009-01-01

414

Automated video tracking of contact lens motion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successful extended contact lens wear requires lens motion that provides adequate tear mixing to remove ocular debris. Proper lens motion of rigid contact lenses is also important for proper fitting. Moreover, a factor in final lens comfort and optical quality for contact lens fitting is lens centration. Calculation of the post lens volume of rigid contact lenses at different corneal surface locations can be used to produce a volume map. Such maps often reveal channels of minimum volume in which lenses may be expected to move, or local minima, where lenses may be expected to settle. To evaluate the utility of our volume map technology and evaluate other models of contact lens performance we have developed an automated video-based lens tracking system that provides detailed information about lens translation and rotation. The system uses standard video capture technology with a CCD camera attached to an ophthalmic slit lamp biomicroscope. The subject wears a specially marked contact lens for tracking purposes. Several seconds of video data are collected in real-time as the patient blinks naturally. The data are processed off-line, with the experimenter providing initial location estimates of the pupil and lens marks. The technique provides a fast and accurate method of quantifying lens motion. With better contact lens motion information we will gain a better understanding of the relationships between corneal shapes, lens design parameters, tear mixing, and patient comfort.

Carney, Thom; Dastmalchi, Shahram

2000-05-01

415

Video imaging of cardiac transmembrane activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High resolution movies of transmembrane electrical activity in thin (0.5 mm) slices of sheep epicardial muscle were recorded by optical imaging with voltage-sensitive dyes and a CCD video camera. Activity was monitored at approximately 65,000 picture elements per 2 cm2 tissue for several seconds at a 16 msec sampling rate. Simple image processing operations permitted visualization and analysis of the optical signal, while isochrome maps depicted complex patterns of propagation. Maps of action potential duration and regional intermittent conduction block showed that even these small preparations may exhibit considerable spatial heterogeneity. Self-sustaining reentrant activity in the form of spiral waves was consistently initiated and observed either drifting across the tissue or anchored to small heterogeneities. The current limitations of video optical mappings are a low signal-to- noise ratio and low temporal resolution. The advantages include high spatial resolution and direct correlation of electrical activity with anatomy. Video optical mapping permits the analysis of the electrophysiological properties of any region of the preparation during both regular stimulation and reentrant activation, providing a useful tool for studying cardiac arrhythmias.

Baxter, William T.; Davidenko, Jorge; Cabo, Candido; Jalife, Jose

1994-05-01

416

Eye typing with common cameras  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low cost eye tracking has received an increased attention due to the rapid developments in tracking hardware (video boards, digital camera and CPU's) [Hansen and Pece 2005; OpenEyes 2005]. We present a gaze typing system based on components that can be bought in most consumer hardware stores around the world. These components are for example cameras and graphics cards that

Dan Witzner Hansen; John Paulin Hansen

2006-01-01

417

Water level detection using a numerical camera  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hydrometric measurement system using a numerical video camera is presented. This system can feed the manager with images of the flood in real-time, which is an efficient way to assess the flood hazard. In the same time, detection algorithm are performed on the images of the video camera to get two additional informations: the water level and the water

G. Fourquet; G. M. Saulnier

2003-01-01

418

USB Security Camera Software for Linux  

Microsoft Academic Search

USB Security Camera has been developed in the society security field, however, current video surveillance is too expensive to limit use widely. The paper proposes a new method that Linux system is software development, with USB camera as video gather. Using TCP\\/IP Protocol agreement realize network communication. The system inside embeds web server so users can visit resources by browser

J. Weerachai; P. Siam; K. Narawith

2011-01-01

419

Camera Obscura  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Before photography was invented there was the camera obscura, useful for studying the sun, as an aid to artists, and for general entertainment. What is a camera obscura and how does it work ??? Camera = Latin for room Obscura = Latin for dark But what is a Camera Obscura? The Magic Mirror of Life What is a camera obscura? A French drawing camera with supplies A French drawing camera with supplies Drawing Camera Obscuras with Lens at the top Drawing Camera Obscuras with Lens at the top Read the first three paragraphs of this article. Under the portion Early Observations and Use in Astronomy you will find the answers to the ...

Engelman, Mr.

2008-10-28

420

CCD Build a Table  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center for Education Statistics has launched a new and innovative tool that allows users to create customized tables using data from the Common Core of Data (CCD). As the Department of Education's primary database on elementary and secondary US public schools, the CCD provides national statistical data in three main categories: general descriptive information on schools and school districts; data on students and staff; and fiscal data, which covers revenues and current expenditures. With the Build a Table application, users can now design their own tables of CCD public school data for states, counties, and districts, using data from multiple years. There is a comprehensive tutorial available for first time users needing step-by-step instructions on the "build a table" process.

421

CCD microscopy and image analysis of cells and chromosomes stained by fluorescence in situ hybridization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This paper reviews methods and applications of CCD microscopy for analysing cells and chromosomes subjected to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The current status of indirect and direct FISH staining methods with respect to probe labelling, detection sensitivity, multiplicity and DNA resolution is summarized. Microscope hardware, including special multi-band pass filters and CCD cameras required for FISH analysis, is described.

H. J. Tanke; R. J. Florijn; J. Wiegant; A. K. Raap; J. Vrolijk

1995-01-01

422

Representing videos in tangible products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Videos can be taken with nearly every camera, digital point and shoot cameras, DSLRs as well as smartphones and more and more with so-called action cameras mounted on sports devices. The implementation of videos while generating QR codes and relevant pictures out of the video stream via a software implementation was contents in last years' paper. This year we present first data about what contents is displayed and how the users represent their videos in printed products, e.g. CEWE PHOTOBOOKS and greeting cards. We report the share of the different video formats used, the number of images extracted out of the video in order to represent the video, the positions in the book and different design strategies compared to regular books.

Fageth, Reiner; Weiting, Ralf

2014-03-01

423

Experiments with a novel CCD stellar polarimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments and observations have been undertaken with ``bread-board'' equipment to explore the potential of a ``ring'' stellar polarimeter with a CCD camera, rather than photographic plates used in Treanor's (\\cite{treanor}) original instrument. By spreading the polarimetric signal over a large number of pixels on the detector, design prediction suggests that the polarimetric accuracy could be { ~ }Delta p+/-0.00001 or +/- 0.001% per frame or even better. Although the photon accumulations suggest that this was achieved, instabilities in the employed crude modulator system provided frame to frame measurements with a greater than expected scatter. Software was developed to reduce the data in a simple way. With a design using more professional components and perhaps with more sophisticated reduction procedures, the full potential of the method should be achievable with the prospect of high precision polarimetry of the brighter stars. As an experimental bonus, the employed CCD chip was found to be free from any measurable polarizational sensitivity.

Clarke, D.; Neumayer, D.

2002-01-01

424

Synthesizing Multi-View Video Frames for Coding Patient Monitoring Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method to synthesize multi-view video frames to facilitate coding and transmission of patient monitoring video. The synthesis is carried out in the DCT domain by means of interlacing. The synthesized video provides a higher video coding efficiency, better synchronization of the video streams from multiple cameras, as well as the improved data loss resilience and protection

Renbin Peng; Robert J. Sclabassi; Qiang Liu; Gusphyl Justin; Mingui Sun

2006-01-01

425

Extreme ultraviolet response of a Tektronix 1024 x 1024 CCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the detector development program for the Solar and Heliospheric Spacecraft (SOHO) EUV Imaging Telescope (EIT) is an Extreme UltraViolet (EUV) CCD (Charge Coupled Device) camera. The Naval Research Lab (NRL) SOHO COD Group has developed a design for the EIT camera and is screening CCDs for flight application. Tektronix Inc. have fabricated 1024x1024 CCDs for the EIT program. As a part of the CCD screening effort the quantum efficiency (QE) of a prototype CCD has been measured in the NRL EUV laboratory over the wavelength range of 256 to 735 Angstroms. A simplified model has been applied to these QE measurements to illustrate the relevant physical processes that determine the performance of the detector.

Moses, Daniel J.; Hochedez, Jean-Francois E.; Howard, Russell A.; Au, Benjamin D.; Wang, Dennis; Blouke, Morley

1992-08-01

426

Competetive and Mature CCD Imaging Systems for Planetary Raman Spectrometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Progress on the design of a CCD-based imaging system is presented. The camera system, provided by the UK, uses space-qualified and mature technology and is included in the ExoMars RLS instrument due for launch 2018.

Ingley, R.; Hutchinson, I.; Harris, L. V.; McHugh, M.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Waltham, N. R.; Brown, P.; Pool, P.

2014-06-01

427

World's fastest and most sensitive astronomical camera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The next generation of instruments for ground-based telescopes took a leap forward with the development of a new ultra-fast camera that can take 1500 finely exposed images per second even when observing extremely faint objects. The first 240x240 pixel images with the world's fastest high precision faint light camera were obtained through a collaborative effort between ESO and three French laboratories from the French Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique/Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers (CNRS/INSU). Cameras such as this are key components of the next generation of adaptive optics instruments of Europe's ground-based astronomy flagship facility, the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). ESO PR Photo 22a/09 The CCD220 detector ESO PR Photo 22b/09 The OCam camera ESO PR Video 22a/09 OCam images "The performance of this breakthrough camera is without an equivalent anywhere in the world. The camera will enable great leaps forward in many areas of the study of the Universe," says Norbert Hubin, head of the Adaptive Optics department at ESO. OCam will be part of the second-generation VLT instrument SPHERE. To be installed in 2011, SPHERE will take images of giant exoplanets orbiting nearby stars. A fast camera such as this is needed as an essential component for the modern adaptive optics instruments used on the largest ground-based telescopes. Telescopes on the ground suffer from the blurring effect induced by atmospheric turbulence. This turbulence causes the stars to twinkle in a way that delights poets, but frustrates astronomers, since it blurs the finest details of the images. Adaptive optics techniques overcome this major drawback, so that ground-based telescopes can produce images that are as sharp as if taken from space. Adaptive optics is based on real-time corrections computed from images obtained by a special camera working at very high speeds. Nowadays, this means many hundreds of times each second. The new generation instruments require these corrections to be done at an even higher rate, more than one thousand times a second, and this is where OCam is essential. "The quality of the adaptive optics correction strongly depends on the speed of the camera and on its sensitivity," says Philippe Feautrier from the LAOG, France, who coordinated the whole project. "But these are a priori contradictory requirements, as in general the faster a camera is, the less sensitive it is." This is why cameras normally used for very high frame-rate movies require extremely powerful illumination, which is of course not an option for astronomical cameras. OCam and its CCD220 detector, developed by the British manufacturer e2v technologies, solve this dilemma, by being not only the fastest available, but also very sensitive, making a significant jump in performance for such cameras. Because of imperfect operation of any physical electronic devices, a CCD camera suffers from so-called readout noise. OCam has a readout noise ten times smaller than the detectors currently used on the VLT, making it much more sensitive and able to take pictures of the faintest of sources. "Thanks to this technology, all the new generation instruments of ESO's Very Large Telescope will be able to produce the best possible images, with an unequalled sharpness," declares Jean-Luc Gach, from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, France, who led the team that built the camera. "Plans are now underway to develop the adaptive optics detectors required for ESO's planned 42-metre European Extremely Large Telescope, together with our research partners and the industry," says Hubin. Using sensitive detectors developed in the UK, with a control system developed in France, with German and Spanish participation, OCam is truly an outcome of a European collaboration that will be widely used and commercially produced. More information The three French laboratories involved are the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM/INSU/CNRS, Université de Provence; Observatoire Astronomique de Marseille Prov

2009-06-01

428

Color imaging system using a single CCD area array  

Microsoft Academic Search

A color imaging system employing a single CCD sensor with a color filter array has been implemented. The system incorporates color channel enhancement and interpolation and provides display on a conventional color video monitor. Color correction matrix coefficients are computed. The response of the system is compared to that of a photographic film.

PETER L. P. DILLON; DAVID M. LEWIS; FRANK G. KASPAR

1978-01-01

429

Color CCD Temperature Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper present the calibration method of color CCD temperature measurement system based on image processing according to bicolorimetric method. According to the experimental results, the relation between red, green and blue brightness is established. This method is employed to calculate temperature. The calculated result shows that the relative errors are small by this method. It is a fundamental work

Rongbao Chen; Kun Wang; Minrui Fei

2009-01-01

430

CCD image sensor induced error in PIV applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The readout procedure of charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras is known to generate some image degradation in different scientific imaging fields, especially in astrophysics. In the particular field of particle image velocimetry (PIV), widely extended in the scientific community, the readout procedure of the interline CCD sensor induces a bias in the registered position of particle images. This work proposes simple procedures to predict the magnitude of the associated measurement error. Generally, there are differences in the position bias for the different images of a certain particle at each PIV frame. This leads to a substantial bias error in the PIV velocity measurement (?0.1 pixels). This is the order of magnitude that other typical PIV errors such as peak-locking may reach. Based on modern CCD technology and architecture, this work offers a description of the readout phenomenon and proposes a modeling for the CCD readout bias error magnitude. This bias, in turn, generates a velocity measurement bias error when there is an illumination difference between two successive PIV exposures. The model predictions match the experiments performed with two 12-bit-depth interline CCD cameras (MegaPlus ES 4.0/E incorporating the Kodak KAI-4000M CCD sensor with 4 megapixels). For different cameras, only two constant values are needed to fit the proposed calibration model and predict the error from the readout procedure. Tests by different researchers using different cameras would allow verification of the model, that can be used to optimize acquisition setups. Simple procedures to obtain these two calibration values are also described.

Legrand, M.; Nogueira, J.; Vargas, A. A.; Ventas, R.; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, M. C.

2014-06-01

431

Upgrades to NDSF Vehicle Camera Systems and Development of a Prototype System for Migrating and Archiving Video Data in the National Deep Submergence Facility Archives at WHOI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, considerable effort has been made to improve the visual recording capabilities of Alvin and ROV Jason. This has culminated in the routine use of digital cameras, both internal and external on these vehicles, which has greatly expanded the scientific recording capabilities of the NDSF. The UNOLS National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) archives maintained at Woods Hole Oceanograpic

D. Fornari; J. Howland; S. Lerner; S. Gegg; B. Walden; A. Bowen; M. Lamont; D. Kelley

2003-01-01

432

Mars Science Laboratory Engineering Cameras  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover, which launched to Mars in 2011, is equipped with a set of 12 engineering cameras. These cameras are build-to-print copies of the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) cameras, which were sent to Mars in 2003. The engineering cameras weigh less than 300 grams each and use less than 3 W of power. Images returned from the engineering cameras are used to navigate the rover on the Martian surface, deploy the rover robotic arm, and ingest samples into the rover sample processing system. The navigation cameras (Navcams) are mounted to a pan/tilt mast and have a 45-degree square field of view (FOV) with a pixel scale of 0.82 mrad/pixel. The hazard avoidance cameras (Haz - cams) are body-mounted to the rover chassis in the front and rear of the vehicle and have a 124-degree square FOV with a pixel scale of 2.1 mrad/pixel. All of the cameras utilize a frame-transfer CCD (charge-coupled device) with a 1024x1024 imaging region and red/near IR bandpass filters centered at 650 nm. The MSL engineering cameras are grouped into two sets of six: one set of cameras is connected to rover computer A and the other set is connected to rover computer B. The MSL rover carries 8 Hazcams and 4 Navcams.

Maki, Justin N.; Thiessen, David L.; Pourangi, Ali M.; Kobzeff, Peter A.; Lee, Steven W.; Dingizian, Arsham; Schwochert, Mark A.

2012-01-01

433

Photoelectric and CCD observations of 10 asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A program of physical studies of asteroids has been carried out using two types of detectors: photoelectric photometer and CCD camera. In this paper we report the results of photometric observations of 10 asteroids. We have obtained a total of 35 single night lightcurves and we have determined rotational periods for the asteroids 1520 Imatra (P = 5.23 h), 1534 Nasi (P = 9.75 h), 2078 Nanking (P = 6.473 h), 2241 Alcathous (P = 9.41 h), 3103 1982 BB (P = 5.709 h), 3139 Shantou (P = 8.33 h), 3259 Brownlee (P = 9.24 h), 4455 Ruriko (P = 4.23 h).

de Sanctis, M. C.; Barucci, M. A.; Angeli, C. A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Burchi, R.; Angelini, P.

1994-10-01

434

Scheduling an active camera to observe people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote identification of people is an important capability for security systems. Automatically controlling a pan-tilt-zoom camera is an effective way to collect high resolution video or images of people in an unconstrained environment. Often there will be more people in an area than cameras available. The cameras must then divide their time among the people in order to view everyone.

Cash J. Costello; Christopher P. Diehl; Amit Banerjee; Hesky Fisher

2004-01-01

435

Adaptive sensitivity CCD image sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design of an adaptive sensitivity CCD image sensor is described. The sensitivity of each pixel is individually controlled (by changing its exposure time) to assure that it is operating in the linear range of the CCD response, and not in the cut-off or saturation regions. Thus, even though an individual CCD sensor is limited in its dynamic range, the

Sarit Chen; Ran Ginosar

1995-01-01

436

CCD Correlated Quadruple Sampling Processor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A correlated quadruple sampling processor for improved signal-to-noise ratio in the output of a charge-coupled device (CCD) is comprised of: (1) switching means for momentarily clamping a CCD signal line at a first reference level A before a CCD data puls...

S. D. Gaalema

1979-01-01

437

Rail head wear measurements using the CCD photonic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present there are exist comprehensive studies in the field of railway track condition monitoring systems and development of non-contact photonic systems based on digital CCD-cameras, high-speed board computers and powerful software. Creation of such systems allows to conduct preventive track maintenance work beforehand and to avoid the effects of vibration from wavy rail defects on a wheel set. As a result, the safety of running, durability of permanent way and rolling-stock are increased and the maintenance costs are reduced. The system developed consists of four special digital matrix CCD-cameras and four laser stripe illuminators. An electronic interface for linking the computer with the cameras, contour extraction models of the rail profile have been developed and the analysis of input- output ports has been carried out. According to the algorithms make a cut-off method and a tangent method have been compared.

Popov, Dmitry V.; Titov, Evgeny V.; Mikhailov, Sergey S.

1999-10-01

438

BRORFELDE SCHMIDT CCD CATALOG  

SciTech Connect

The Brorfelde Schmidt CCD Catalog (BSCC) contains about 13.7 million stars, north of +49{sup 0} decl. with precise positions and V, R photometry. The catalog has been constructed from the reductions of 18,667 CCD frames observed with the Brorfelde Schmidt Telescope between 2000 and 2007. The Tycho-2 catalog was used for astrometric and photometric reference stars. Errors of individual positions are about 20-200 mas for stars in the R = 10-18 mag range. External comparisons with the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey reveal possible small systematic errors in the BSCC of up to about 30 mas. The catalog is supplemented with J, H, and K{sub s} magnitudes from the 2MASS catalog.

Zacharias, N.; Finch, C.; Wycoff, G. L. [U.S. Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20392 (United States); Einicke, O. H.; Augustesen, K.; Clausen, J. V.; Hoeg, E., E-mail: nz@usno.navy.mi [Niels Bohr Institute, Coepenhagen University, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Coepenhagen Oe (Denmark)

2010-08-15

439

LSST camera readout chip ASPIC: test tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LSST camera will have more than 3000 video-processing channels. The readout of this large focal plane requires a very compact readout chain. The correlated ''Double Sampling technique'', which is generally used for the signal readout of CCDs, is also adopted for this application and implemented with the so called ''Dual Slope integrator'' method. We have designed and implemented an ASIC for LSST: the Analog Signal Processing asIC (ASPIC). The goal is to amplify the signal close to the output, in order to maximize signal to noise ratio, and to send differential outputs to the digitization. Others requirements are that each chip should process the output of half a CCD, that is 8 channels and should operate at 173 K. A specific Back End board has been designed especially for lab test purposes. It manages the clock signals, digitizes the analog differentials outputs of ASPIC and stores data into a memory. It contains 8 ADCs (18 bits), 512 kwords memory and an USB interface. An FPGA manages all signals from/to all components on board and generates the timing sequence for ASPIC. Its firmware is written in Verilog and VHDL languages. Internals registers permit to define various tests parameters of the ASPIC. A Labview GUI allows to load or update these registers and to check a proper operation. Several series of tests, including linearity, noise and crosstalk, have been performed over the past year to characterize the ASPIC at room and cold temperature. At present, the ASPIC, Back-End board and CCD detectors are being integrated to perform a characterization of the whole readout chain.

Antilogus, P.; Bailly, Ph; Jeglot, J.; Juramy, C.; Lebbolo, H.; Martin, D.; Moniez, M.; Tocut, V.; Wicek, F.

2012-02-01

440

Development and use of an L3CCD high-cadence imaging system for Optical Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high cadence imaging system, based on a Low Light Level CCD (L3CCD) camera, has been developed for photometric and polarimetric applications. The camera system is an iXon DV-887 from Andor Technology, which uses a CCD97 L3CCD detector from E2V technologies. This is a back illuminated device, giving it an extended blue response, and has an active area of 512×512 pixels. The camera system allows frame-rates ranging from 30 fps (full frame) to 425 fps (windowed & binned frame). We outline the system design, concentrating on the calibration and control of the L3CCD camera. The L3CCD detector can be either triggered directly by a GPS timeserver/frequency generator or be internally triggered. A central PC remotely controls the camera computer system and timeserver. The data is saved as standard `FITS' files. The large data loads associated with high frame rates, leads to issues with gathering and storing the data effectively. To overcome such problems, a specific data management approach is used, and a Python/PYRAF data reduction pipeline was written for the Linux environment. This uses calibration data collected either on-site, or from lab based measurements, and enables a fast and reliable method for reducing images. To date, the system has been used twice on the 1.5 m Cassini Telescope in Loiano (Italy) we present the reduction methods and observations made.

Sheehan, Brendan J.; Butler, Raymond F.

2008-02-01