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Sample records for viktor voitovich toomas

  1. Viktor Ambartsumian: Life and Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2014-09-01

    The booklet is dedicated to the outstanding Armenian astronomer and one of the great scientists of the XX century Viktor Ambartsumian. He has fundamentally contributed in various fields of astronomy and astrophysics, cosmogony, theoretical physics, mathematics, and philosophy. Ambartsumian was a great organizer of science, important political and public figure. He was the Director of BAO in 1946-1988, the President of the Armenian Academy of Sciences in 1947-1993, the President of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1961-1964 and the President of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) in 1968-1972.

  2. European Influences on the Theory and Philosophy of Viktor Lowenfeld.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, John A.; Morris, Jerry W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses how the work of art theorists, art educators, psychologists, and anthropologists who were predecessors or contemporaries of Viktor Lowenfeld influenced Lowenfeld's philosophy and theory of art education. Included are Friedrich Froebel, James Sully, Franz Cizek, Siegfried Levinstein, Max Verworn, Walter Krotzsch, George Luquet, and Karl…

  3. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    SciTech Connect

    Reams, C.A.

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  4. The Search for Meaning in the Shadow of Auschwitz: Tadeusz Borowski and Viktor Frankl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbleton, Susanne; Soleau, Jeffrey K.

    1995-01-01

    Recommends using the work of psychoanalyst and concentration camp survivor, Viktor Frankl, as a counterpoint and complement to the death camp stories of Tadeusz Borowski. Frankl's work on his own and others' experiences provides a context and approach to Borowski's cynical and nihilistic stories. (MJP)

  5. Viktor Lowenfeld: Portrait of a Young Art Teacher in Vienna in the 1930s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leshnoff, Susan K.

    2013-01-01

    Viktor Lowenfeld (1903-1960), one of the most influential art educators of the 20th century and author of "Creative and Mental Growth" (1947, 1952, 1957), barely talked or wrote about his early teaching experiences at the Chajes Realgymnasium, a secondary school for Jewish youth in Vienna, where he taught art and math for 14 years before…

  6. The astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor and the Vienna Urania Observatory (The history of the Vienna Urania Observatory from its foundation to its re-opening (1897-1957) / Friedrich Viktor Schembor - a life for astronomy). (German Title: Der Astronom Friedrich Viktor Schembor und die Wiener Urania-Sternwarte (Die Geschichte der Wiener Urania-Sternwarte von ihrer Gründung bis zu ihrer Wiedereröffnung (1897-1957) / Friedrich Viktor Schembor - ein Leben für die Astronomie))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembor, Friedrich Wilhelm

    The Urania Observatory in Vienna and the life and workings of the Viennese astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor are the topics of this volume. The first part deals with the history of the Urania Observatory and its significance as the oldest popular observatory in Vienna for the education of adults. After a short digression on the development of popular educational activities in the 19th century, the efforts are traced that led to the establishment of the Urania Observatory. The second part deals with the biography of the astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor (1898-1942). Already at an early age he committed himself as a volunteer for popular education in astronomy. In his time as director of the Urania Observatory, he was able to guide the “Astronomische Gemeinde” (Astronomical Congregation) to scientifically useful results. Because of a vicious disease, he was given only a short time of scientific work at the Vienna University Observatory.

  7. Moral distress and its interconnection with moral sensitivity and moral resilience: viewed from the philosophy of Viktor E. Frankl.

    PubMed

    Lützén, Kim; Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice

    2013-10-01

    The interconnection between moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral resilience was explored by constructing two hypothetical scenarios based on a recent Swedish newspaper report. In the first scenario, a 77-year-old man, rational and awake, was coded as "do not resuscitate" (DNR) against his daughter's wishes. The patient died in the presence of nurses who were not permitted to resuscitate him. The second scenario concerned a 41-year-old man, who had been in a coma for three weeks. He was also coded as "do not resuscitate" and, when he stopped breathing, was resuscitated by his father. The nurses persuaded the physician on call to resume life support treatment and the patient recovered. These scenarios were analyzed using Viktor Frankl's existential philosophy, resulting in a conceivable theoretical connection between moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral resilience. To substantiate our conclusion, we encourage further empirical research. PMID:23856882

  8. The failed attribution of the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology to Viktor Hamburger for the discovery of Nerve Growth Factor.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-06-01

    The announcement in October 1986 that the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine was to awarded to Rita Levi Montalcini and Stanley Cohen for the discovery of nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor, respectively, caused many to wonder why Viktor Hamburger in whose laboratory the initial work was done had not been included in the award. This article try to reconstruct the history of the discovery of NGF with the aim to re-establish a correct dynamic of the events. PMID:26930162

  9. [Theory of cognition and natural philosophy in neurology. The principle of localization in the debate between Viktor von Weizsäcker, Kurt Goldstein, and Otfrid Foerster in 1930].

    PubMed

    Rimpau, W

    2009-08-01

    Restitution after brain damage was the leading topic in 1930 at the 20th annual meeting of the Society of German Neurologists in Dresden, Germany. One of the "nonanatomic" presentations was held by Viktor von Weizsäcker about modifications in neurological function. Finally the presentation by Kurt Goldstein about restitution after damage of the brain cortex, strongly supported by Weizsäcker, was the starting point for controversies on the significance of natural scientific methods in the field of neurology. Goldstein and Weizsäcker favored the idea that function can be understood only if we consider it in light of the whole organism. However, the president of the Society of German Neurologists, Otfrid Foerster, was mainly influenced by the overall concept of the structure of the peripheral nervous system and - as Weizsäcker indirectly blamed - came to inadequate conclusions by transferring these concepts to the entire nervous system. In contrast Weizsäcker and Goldstein suggested analyzing pathological phenomena not only according to classical physiology, i.e. isolated data acquired by the dissecting method of natural science. Weizsäcker stressed hermeneutic views concerning the mind: body relationship in a phenomenologically oriented medical anthropology. Some years later Foerster linked up with Weizsäcker's position. Goldstein established the new method, the so-called holistic, organismic approach, which he carried on after emigrating to the U.S.A. in 1935. The Heidelberg School around Weizsäcker tried during the following years to liberate neurology from the ideology of materialistic reductionism without however reducing it to simple psychology. The doctrine of neurons and principles of saltatory conduction as basic and descriptive instruments in neurology were not to be questioned. In 1941 Weizsäcker succeeded Foerster as Professor of Neurology at the University of Breslau and Director of the Neurological Research Institute. His literary work "The

  10. [Viktor Borisovich von Gyubbenet--a military physician, a surgeon and a social activist].

    PubMed

    Ishutin, O S

    2015-02-01

    The current article is dedicated to a talented surgeon, an organizer of military health care, an extraordinary personality and a public figure--Doctor of Medicine, a privy councilor Victor Borisovich von Guebbenet. A talent of von Gyubbenea as a doctor-surgeon and an organizer of the surgical help on theater of war was especially brightly shown during two big military conflicts of the beginning of the XX century--the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and the First World War I (1914-1918). In the first case doctor von Gyubbenet, being a surgeon of the 3rd Siberian corps successfully manage the activity of military-medical divisions and establishments of Port Arthur garrison. In the second military conflict Victor Borisovich as a doctor and an organizer headed sanitary part of armies of the Western front and successfully directed a medical support of armies of the front since 1915 and until the end of war. PMID:25920178

  11. SmAll That Jazz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluemel, Dina

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how Viktor Schreckengost's work had been a learning experience for the students of Grant Elementary School. Viktor's most famous work, "Jazz Bowl," was the focus of the author's curriculum. Viktor created this punch bowl for Eleanor Roosevelt in the 1930s. The bowl was so popular that a series of them were produced. The…

  12. The Anxiety of Meaninglessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffin, Julian E.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the etiology and consequences of meaninglessness and focuses on the therapeutic approaches of Viktor E. Frankl and J. F. T. Bugental. Concludes that meaninglessness is a significant contemporary problem that needs to be addressed by counselors. (Author/LLL)

  13. [Consolation as medical intervention and its history of ideas].

    PubMed

    Weidmann, Werner; Bühler, Karl-Ernst

    2006-01-01

    A review of interpretations of "suffering" was presented after an etymological clarification of the term "consolation". The review begins with an examination of concepts of consolation in the early Greek and Roman antiquity continues with late Greek and Roman antiquity, the early and late Middle Ages, the epochs of Humanism and Reformation and the time after Reformation until to the present. Concerning concepts of consolation in the present the conception of the movement "Biblical Therapeutic Pastoral Care", Viktor Frankl's "Logotherapy" and Viktor Emil von Gebsattel's "Anthropologic Psychotherapy" are discussed. Finally, some essential features of general conceptions of consolation are presented. PMID:17333867

  14. Creative Intelligence, Creative Practice: Lowenfeld Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Volume 1, No. 2, of "Studies in Art Education," appearing in spring 1960, included an article by Viktor Lowenfeld titled "Creative Intelligence." Here, he highlighted his belief in the importance of creative intelligence to human functioning, linking it to creative practice as represented most purely in the artworks of children and untutored…

  15. In Search of Lowenfeld's Proof That Coloring Books Are Harmful to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Irvin L.

    1991-01-01

    Examines studies, especially those of Viktor Lowenfeld, which suggest that coloring books are harmful to the creative expression of children. Proposes an alternative hypothesis that views coloring books as useful teaching tools to help children understand and appreciate art. Calls for further research into the issue. (KM)

  16. Lowenfeld at Hampton (1939-1946): Empowerment, Resistance, Activism, and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Viktor Lowenfeld (1903-1960) has been abundantly documented as having influenced art teaching in the United States. Scarce attention, however, has been given to the significant and remarkable advancements he made to resist structures of institutionalized racism and promote inter-racial cooperation. Lowenfeld was a mentor to several notable African…

  17. Enhancing the Teaching and Learning Environment in the USSR. Annual Soviet-American Symposium on Teaching and Learning (2nd, Jacksonville, Florida, October 3-4, 1991). Special Publication Number 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Colleges for International Development, Inc.

    This publication contains papers contributed by Russian educators at a symposium on preparing Soviet youth and adults for the challenges and opportunities of an emerging market economy. The following presentations are included: "Conception of Kazan Community College" (Mirza I. Makhmoutov, Oleg E. Liseitchikov, and Viktor I. Lebedev); "Complex…

  18. A Personal Reflection on Educating for Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The major premise of this article is inspired by Viktor Frankl's words: "The truth is that as the struggle for survival has subsided, the question has emerged--survival for what? Ever more people today have the "means" to live, but no "meaning" to live for." Thousands of students who have come through the author's college courses during the last…

  19. Searching for Meaning: Visual Culture from an Anthropological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of Viktor Lowenfeld's influence on her research, describes visual anthropology, gives examples of her research, and examines the implications of this type of research for teachers. The author regards Lowenfeld's (1952/1939) early work with children in Austria as a form of participant observation…

  20. Lowenfeld Verbatim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Refutes commonly held assumptions forced on the art-education public that characterize Viktor Lowenfeld, a historically well-known art educator, as having a laissez-faire approach to art education and a visual-haptic fixation. Asserts Lowenfeld's beliefs were distorted in later publications of his book, "Creative and Mental Growth." (CMK)

  1. The Importance of Self-Identification in Art, Culture, and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The Lowenfeld Award was established in 1960 by friends and former students of Viktor Lowenfeld (widely acknowledged as the most influential art educator of the 20th century) to honor an NAEA member who has made significant contributions to the field of art education through the years. This article reports on the 2012 recipient, Bernard Young,…

  2. Cosmic Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Abed, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A team of French high-school students sent a weather balloon into the upper atmosphere to recreate Viktor Hess's historical experiment that demonstrated the existence of ionizing radiation from the sky--later called cosmic radiation. This discovery earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936.

  3. Predictors of Drug/Alcohol Abuse and Sexual Promiscuity of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Jeong Sook; And Others

    This study examined the relationship between the individual's purpose in life, existential anxiety, powerlessness and use of alcohol/drugs and the tendency to be sexually promiscuous. The study is rooted in the work of Viktor E. Frankl, which suggested that a lack of meaning and purpose can cause socially deviant behavior and psychological…

  4. The Meaning of Life among Secondary School Pupils. A Theoretical Framework and Some Initial Results. Research Bulletin 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele

    This monograph reports on an empirical survey of 394 secondary school students investigating their desire to seek the meaning of their own lives. The theoretical framework upon which the study was based is that of Viktor E. Frankl's hypotheses that a human being wants to seek the meaning in his own life. The questionnaire consisted of tests…

  5. Frankl's Theory and Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missinne, Leo E.; Wilcox, Victoria

    This paper discusses the life, theories, and therapeutic techniques of psychotherapist, Viktor E. Frankl. A brief biography of Frankl is included discussing the relationship of his early experiences as a physician to his theory of personality. Frankl's theory focusing on man's need for meaning and emphasizing the spiritual dimension in each human…

  6. The Typology and Dialectology of Romani.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matras, Yaron, Ed.; Bakker, Peter, Ed.; Kyuchukov, Hristo, Ed.

    Papers on typology and dialects of the Romani language include: "Athematic Morphology in Romani: The Borrowing of a Borrowing Pattern" (Peter Bakker); "Towards a Morphology-Based Typology of Romani" (Viktor Elsik); "The Typology of Case Relations and Case Layer Distribution in Romani" (Yaron Matras); "Object Doubling in Romani and the Balkan…

  7. Cosmic balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Abed, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    A team of French high-school students sent a weather balloon into the upper atmosphere to recreate Viktor Hess’s historical experiment that demonstrated the existence of ionizing radiation from the sky—later called cosmic radiation. This discovery earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936.

  8. Beniamin Markarian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2013-10-01

    The booklet is dedicated to the great Armenian astronomer Beniamin Markarian. Due to his efforts the famous Byurakan surveys have been accomplished and ultraviolet excess galaxies have been discovered, later named after him. The Armenian astronomy is well-known throughout the world as due to Viktor Ambartsumian's, so as to Markarian's works, and Markarian galaxies are being studied by numerous ground-based and space telescopes along the whole range of electromagnetic radiation.

  9. The Knorre astronomers' dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinigin, G.

    2009-06-01

    We attempt to throw light upon the poorly known astronomical dynasty of Knorre and describe its contribution to astronomy. The founder of the dynasty, Ernst Christoph Friedrich Knorre (1759-1810), was born in Germany in 1759, and since 1802 he was a Professor of Mathematics at the Tartu University, and observer at its temporary observatory. He determined the first coordinates of Tartu by stellar observations. Karl Friedrich Knorre (1801-1883) was the first director of the Naval Observatory in Nikolaev since the age of 20, provided the Black Sea navy with accurate time and charts, trained mariners in astronomical navigation, and certified navigation equipment. He compiled star maps and catalogues, and determined positions of comets and planets. He also participated in Bessel's project of the Academic Star Charts, and was responsible for Hora 4, published by the Berlin Academy of Sciences. This sheet permitted to discover two minor planets, Astraea and Flora. Viktor Knorre (1840-1919) was born in Nikolaev. In 1862 he left for Berlin to study astronomy. After defending his thesis for a doctor's degree, he went to Pulkovo as an astronomical calculator in 1867. Since 1873 Viktor worked as an observer of the Berlin Observatory Fraunhofer refractor. His main research focussed on minor planets, comets and binary stars. He discovered the minor planets Koronis, Oenone, Hypatia and Penthesilea. Viktor Knorre also worked on improving astronomical instrumentation, e.g. the Knorre / Heele equatorial telescope mounting.

  10. News and Views: A total solar eclipse over Rapa Nui; ESA's vision; International team wins first Ambartsumian Prize; Thinner thermosphere; ESA funds games; Team finds starspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Francisco Diego recorded spectacular images of the 11 July 2010 total solar eclipse from Rapa Nui (Easter Island), making the most of modern digital technology - much of which originated from astronomical research - in taking and processing the images. The European Space Agency has set out its priorities for the decade starting in 2015, in a report entitled Cosmic Vision. The first Viktor Ambartsumian International Prize, in memory of the distinguished Armenian theorist, goes to the team led by Prof. Michel Mayor of the Observatory of Geneva, for ``their important contribution in the study of relation between planetary systems and their host stars''.

  11. Logotherapy for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Schulenberg, Stefan E; Hutzell, Robert R; Nassif, Carrie; Rogina, Julius M

    2008-12-01

    Logotherapy is based on the meaning-focused existential philosophy of Viktor E. Frankl (1905-1997). Numerous mental health professionals have been inspired by his most popular book, Man's Search for Meaning; however, many are unfamiliar with the depth of Frankl's work. The purpose of this article is to discuss the tenets of logotherapy, including fundamental concepts, applicability and techniques, roles of the therapist, and assessment tools and new research findings. Logotherapy can readily be integrated with techniques that mental health professionals frequently use, and thus it has much to offer mental health professionals regardless of their theoretical orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122533

  12. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: a review of its role in the physiology and pathology of the integument and its relationship to the tryptophan metabolism.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Rowland

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a cytosolic receptor for low molecular weight molecules, of which the most widely recognized ligand is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and the most widely recognized effect, chloracne. Adverse effects of manipulation were most recently and graphically demonstrated by the poisoning of Viktor Yushchenko during the Ukrainian presidential elections of 2004. However, recent research has revealed a receptor with wide-ranging, and at times, paradoxical actions. It was arguably among the first biological receptors to be utilized by dermatologists, dating from the time of topical tar preparations as a therapeutic agent. I provide a review outlining the role AHR plays in the development, cellular oxidation/antioxidation, responses to ultraviolet light, melanogenesis, epidermal barrier function, and immune regulation and its relationship to tryptophan metabolism. Finally, I will review the role of AHR in diseases of the integument. PMID:25733915

  13. Armenian Astronomical Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    A review is given on the Armenian Astronomical Heritage from ancient times to nowadays. Armenian ancient astronomy includes the division of the skies into constellations, rock art, ancient Armenian calendar, ancient observatories (such as Metsamor and Karahunge), records of astronomical events (such as Halley's Comet recorded on Tigranes the Great's coin), ancient names of celestial bodies (planets, stars, constellations), etc. The Medieval Armenian astronomy includes two more calendars, Anania Shirakatsi's scientific heritage, the record of 1054 Supernova, sky maps by Luca Vanandetsi and Mkhitar Sebastatsi, etc. Modern Armenian astronomical heritage first of all consists of the famous Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory founded in 1946 by Viktor Ambartsumian, as well as Yerevan Astronomical Observatory, Armenian Astronomical Society, Armenian Virtual Observatory, Yerevan State University Department of Astrophysics, Astrofizika journal, and brilliant young students who systematically win high positions at International Astronomical Olympiads.

  14. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor: A Review of Its Role in the Physiology and Pathology of the Integument and Its Relationship to the Tryptophan Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Noakes, Rowland

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a cytosolic receptor for low molecular weight molecules, of which the most widely recognized ligand is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and the most widely recognized effect, chloracne. Adverse effects of manipulation were most recently and graphically demonstrated by the poisoning of Viktor Yushchenko during the Ukrainian presidential elections of 2004. However, recent research has revealed a receptor with wide-ranging, and at times, paradoxical actions. It was arguably among the first biological receptors to be utilized by dermatologists, dating from the time of topical tar preparations as a therapeutic agent. I provide a review outlining the role AHR plays in the development, cellular oxidation/antioxidation, responses to ultraviolet light, melanogenesis, epidermal barrier function, and immune regulation and its relationship to tryptophan metabolism. Finally, I will review the role of AHR in diseases of the integument. PMID:25733915

  15. [The human being from the point of view of animals or, "Who knows whether the breath of men goes upwards?" (Ecclesiastes 3:21)].

    PubMed

    Arendt, D

    1999-05-01

    The question of whether animals have souls has been asked since as early as the Old Testament. Where this is believed to be true, fiction has provided interesting models in literature: The human being as seen by animals has been a popular subject since Apuleius' 'Asinus aureus' and how man appears from the perspective of a donkey or a beetle, that is to say the perspective from below, becomes controversial. Examples may be found in all languages and centuries in Jonathan Swift, Miguel Cervantes, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Ludwig Tieck, Heinrich Heine, Viktor von Scheffel, Franz Kafka and others. Résumé at the end: How does man answer this question or his own self-questioning? PMID:10379104

  16. Early Radio Astronomy in the USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Kenneth I.

    2007-12-01

    As in many other countries, radio astronomy in the Soviet Union began as an outgrowth of wartime radar research. The early leaders of Soviet radio astronomy, including Simon Braude, Vladimir Kotelnikov, Vladimir Troitskii, and Viktor Vitkevitch, all began their careers during WWII. Although the theoretical contributions of people like Iosef Shklovsky and Vitaly Ginzburg were well known in the West, the early experimental and observational programs received much less attention, partially the result of cold war military secrecy. When they were noticed, the Soviet observations were largely ignored or declared wrong. We will discuss the controversial Soviet contributions to the detection of polarized cosmic radio emission, the development of very long baseline interferometry, the prediction and verification of radio recombination lines, and the first detection of variability in an extragalactic radio source.

  17. Protopopov's ideas on habit formation and their relation to the Pavlovian theory of higher nervous activity.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1999-01-01

    In 1929 Viktor P. Protopopov began to replicate E. L. Thorndike's animal experiments on habit acquisition. To determine the conditions necessary for habit formation, Protopopov used the natural experiment method, in which dogs encountered environments that prevented them from reaching a stimulus-bait. Not all dogs acquired the behavior necessary for obtaining the bait. Explaining the results within the framework of the Pavlovian theory of higher nervous activity, Protopopov concluded that habits were acquired when an active animal provoked by a bait-stimulus encountered an environmental barrier. The dogs tried a series of phylogenetic behaviors until the stimulus-bait was reached. The latter movements were retained, forming an ontogenetic habit. The dogs also learned not to produce the unsuccessful movements. In accord with the Pavlovian theory, individual differences in habit formation were related to temperament types. A critique of the Thorndikian Law of Effect is provided in terms of the Pavlovian theory of higher nervous activity. PMID:10696273

  18. [On the clinical applications of logotherapy: a review of Victor Emil Frankl inheritance].

    PubMed

    Girmenia, E; Andrissi, L; Tambone, V

    2014-01-01

    The Viktor E. Frankl's thought has found wide application in many areas of the Clinic, not limited to the neuropsychiatric area. If the franklian work is known worldwide for being a theory and a practice within neurotic disorders, we must not forget how logotherapy has been put at the disposal of the sufferer in its broadest sense. Especially in the context of care and care of the chronically and evolutionary ill (cancer, heart disease, degenerative diseases, etc.), the thought and practice logotherapy have made and continue to make a valuable contribution. In this review we will cover in more detail the application of logotherapy in clinical-care, pausing to examine the international literature. PMID:25203351

  19. [Method of existence analytic psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Längle, A

    1990-01-01

    Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding. PMID:2251867

  20. Ambartsumyan's concept of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachikian, E. Ye.

    2010-01-01

    As Victor Ambartsumyan, himself, noted, the concept of active galactic nuclei occupies a special place among his scientific ideas. It was proposed more than half a century ago and was recognized by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences as revolutionary, on a copernican scale. However, by no means all of its propositions were accepted at once by large parts of the astronomy community. Nevertheless, as the American astrophysicist A. R. Sandage has written, “today, not one astronomer would deny the mystery surrounding the nuclei of galaxies or that the first to recognize the rich reward held in this treasury was Viktor Ambartsumian.” The purpose of this article is to acquaint the reader with the major stages in the formation and development of the concept of active galactic nuclei and with some of the work on this topic done at the Byurakan and other astrophysical observatories throughout the world.

  1. Theoretical Modeling for the X-ray Spectroscopy of Iron-bearing MgSiO3 under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2012-12-01

    The behaviors of iron (Fe) in MgSiO3 perovskite, including valence state, spin state, and chemical environments, at high pressures are of fundamental importance for more detailed understanding the properties of the Earth's lower mantle. The pressure induced spin transition of Fe-bearing MgO and MgSiO3 are detected often by using high-resolution K-edge X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) [1,2,3] and confirmed by theoretical simulations. [4,5] Since the Fe K-edge XES is associated to the 3p orbital, which is far from the valence orbitals (3d and 4s), it provides no information about its coordination environments. However, the Fe L-edge XES and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can directly present the distribution and intensity of Fe-3d character. To identify both the spin states and the coordination environments of iron-bearing MgSiO3, we systematically investigate the L-edge XAS, XES and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy of Fe2+- and Fe3+-bearing MgSiO3 under high pressure by using the first-principles density functional method combined with the slater-transition method. Our results show that Fe2+ and Fe3+ can be distinguished easily by taking the XPS spectra. The spin transition of Fe2+ and Fe3+ can also be clearly certified by XAS and XES. Interestingly, the broadness of L-edge XES of Fe changes depending on the iron position, meaning that its coordination environment might also be distinguishable by using high-resolution XES measurements. Research supported by the Ehime University G-COE program and KAKENHI. [1] James Badro, Guillaume Fiquet, FranÇois Guyot, Jean-Pascal Rueff, Viktor V. Struzhkin, György VankÓ, and Giulio Monaco. Science 300, 789 (2003), [2] James Badro, Jean-Pascal Rueff, György VankÓ, Giulio Monaco, Guillaume Fiquet, and FranÇois Guyot, Science 305, 383 (2004), [3] Jung-Fu Lin, Viktor V. Struzhkin, Steven D. Jacobsen, Michael Y. Hu, Paul Chow, Jennifer Kung, Haozhe Liu, Ho-kwang Mao, and Gussell J. Hemley, Nature 436, 377 (2005). [4

  2. A lumped model of venting during thermal runaway in a cylindrical Lithium Cobalt Oxide lithium-ion cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coman, Paul T.; Rayman, Sean; White, Ralph E.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model built for analyzing the intricate thermal behavior of a 18650 LCO (Lithium Cobalt Oxide) battery cell during thermal runaway when venting of the electrolyte and contents of the jelly roll (ejecta) is considered. The model consists of different ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations) describing reaction rates and electrochemical reactions, as well as the isentropic flow equations for describing electrolyte venting. The results are validated against experimental findings from Golubkov et al. [1] [Andrey W. Golubkov, David Fuchs, Julian Wagner, Helmar Wiltsche, Christoph Stangl, Gisela Fauler, Gernot Voitice Alexander Thaler and Viktor Hacker, RSC Advances, 4:3633-3642, 2014] for two cases - with flow and without flow. The results show that if the isentropic flow equations are not included in the model, the thermal runaway is triggered prematurely at the point where venting should occur. This shows that the heat dissipation due to ejection of electrolyte and jelly roll contents has a significant contribution. When the flow equations are included, the model shows good agreement with the experiment and therefore proving the importance of including venting.

  3. Mutual Lewis acid-base interactions of cations and anions in ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Holzweber, Markus; Lungwitz, Ralf; Doerfler, Denise; Spange, Stefan; Koel, Mihkel; Hutter, Herbert; Linert, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Solute properties are known to be strongly influenced by solvent molecules due to solvation. This is due to mutual interaction as both the properties of the solute and of the solvent strongly depend on each other. The present paper is based on the idea that ionic liquids are cations solvated by anions and anions solvated by cations. To show this (in this system strongly pronounced) interaction the long time established donor-acceptor concept for solvents and ions in solution by Viktor Gutmann is extended to ionic liquids. A number of solvent parameters, such as the Kamlet-Abboud-Taft and the Dimroth-Reichardt E(T) scale for ionic liquids neglect this mutual influence, which, however, seems to be in fact necessary to get a proper description of ionic liquid properties. It is shown how strong such parameters vary when the influence of the counter ion is taken into account. Furthermore, acceptor and donor numbers for ionic liquids are presented. PMID:23180598

  4. Freedom and mystery: an intellectual history of Jaspers' General Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Bormuth, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Kantian idea of freedom was introduced to psychiatry methodologically by Karl Jaspers. It influenced the genesis and design of his doctrine of understanding, General Psychopathology, even more decisively than Nietzsche's topos of resentment did. This article places Jaspers' work in the framework of a history of ideas. It begins by pursuing Nietzsche's perspective in the context of Darwinism, then focuses on the role concealed resentment played for Jaspers' genealogical concept of understanding in the first (1913) edition of General Psychopathology, which is primarily oriented towards Max Weber, before examining the idea of Kantian freedom, which was to become crucial for Jaspers' later work. The antinomy of freedom already shapes the suicidology contained in Jaspers' Philosophy of 1931. The idea gains prominence in the final, philosophically grounded revision of GeneralPsychopathology published in 1941/1942. Jaspers' reception of Kantian idealism leads him to develop a concept of critical understanding that clearly distinguishes itself from speculative understanding, whose hazards Jaspers illustrates on the basis of Viktor von Weizsäcker's theory of medicine. This goes far beyond Kant, embracing Schelling and Hegel philosophically. As it were, Jaspers and von Weizsäcker represent critical and postcritical thought in psychopathology and psychosomatics. The epilogue sums up by placing the inquiry in the context of Jaspers' life and work. PMID:23942461

  5. The forgotten spirit: integration of spirituality in health care.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Debra

    2006-02-01

    Health care technology has witnessed incredible advances and increasingly effective treatments for physical and psychological disorders, but the spiritual component of care is an intervention resource that often goes unseen, unaddressed, and underused for patients facing multiple challenges. State-of-the-art services must take a perspective that expands beyond a focus on the biological and psychological needs of patients to also integrate practice skills to address spiritual needs. Spirituality can provide valuable interventions to help maintain hope and stability in times of turbulence. If health care providers are to offer holistic care to patients, we must create an environment in which spirituality is competently explored and addressed. What do health care providers have to lose by integrating the spiritual, dimension into care delivery and accessing a powerful intervention that can make a positive difference to patients? How might patients benefit and what might we learn by asking a few simple, but profound, spiritual questions? What gives your life meaning? What is your greatest hope? What do you fear? What comforts or encourages you most? As you consider how spirituality fits into and benefits your practice you might find meaning in Viktor Frankl's words, "No cure that fails to engage our spirit can make us well". PMID:16499171

  6. Meaning in motivation: does your organization need an inner life?

    PubMed

    Morrison, Eileen E; Burke, George C; Greene, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Leaders of health care organizations are increasingly interested in ways to attract, retain, and gain commitment from their employees. This interest is created in part because high turnover rates and the lack of commitment negatively affect the provision of care and the bottom line in their organizations. In a quality and cost conscious health care environment, health care managers need to find solutions for these difficult issues; solutions that are effective, efficient and sustainable. What can be done? This article reviews, amplifies, and extends work that has been done in the area of "meaningfulness of work" in the context of employee retention and commitment. It begins with an exploration of the problems caused by lack of employee engagement and commitment including their impact on quality and costs. It then summarizes both the theoretical and applied research in the area of meaning and work. It also introduces the basic principles of Viktor Frankl's logotherapy (Frankl, 1998) as a foundation for encouraging the integration of meaning and work. The seminal work by Pattakos (2004) is used to demonstrate how Frankl's principles can be applied to healthcare work settings. Finally, the article provides suggestions for increasing employee commitment and engagement through identifying meaning and purpose in work. PMID:17557698

  7. "Making strange": a role for the humanities in medical education.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Arno K; Wear, Delese

    2014-07-01

    Stories, film, drama, and art have been used in medical education to enhance empathy, perspective-taking, and openness to "otherness," and to stimulate reflection on self, others, and the world. Yet another, equally important function of the humanities and arts in the education of physicians is that of "making strange"-that is, portraying daily events, habits, practices, and people through literature and the arts in a way that disturbs and disrupts one's assumptions, perspectives, and ways of acting so that one sees the self, others, and the world anew. Tracing the development of this concept from Viktor Shklovsky's "enstrangement" (ostranenie) through Bertolt Brecht's "alienation effect," this essay describes the use of this technique to disrupt the "automaticity of thinking" in order to discover new ways of perceiving and being in the world.Enstrangement may be used in medical education in order to stimulate critical reflection and dialogue on assumptions, biases, and taken-for-granted societal conditions that may hinder the realization of a truly humanistic clinical practice. In addition to its ability to enhance one's critical understanding of medicine, the technique of "making strange" does something else: By disrupting fixed beliefs, this approach may allow a reexamination of patient-physician relationships in terms of human interactions and provide health care professionals an opportunity-an "open space"-to bear witness and engage with other individuals during challenging times. PMID:24751976

  8. FOREWORD: International Scientific Seminars on "Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, Stanislav; Ryzhii, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    International Scientific Seminars ''Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics'' were held in Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU) in May - June 2014. The idea of the Seminars was to organize a series of meetings between young scientists and discuss actual problems and the latest results in Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics. There were eight Sessions: Modern Problems of Condensed Matter Physics; Laser Physics; Spectroscopy of Condensed Matter; Terahertz Optical Technology; Optical Signals Processing; Physics of Optical Strong Correlated Systems; Complex Dusty Plasma Physics; Biomediacal Applications of Photonics. Seminars were organized by the young group of scientists and students from Research and Educational Center ''Photonics and Infrared Technology'' at BMSTU. It brought a significant contribution to the development of youth science in the field of Physics and Photonics in Russia. More than 100 young scientists and students participated in the Seminars in spring - summer 2014. The International Scientific Seminars were supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant # 14-08-06030-g). This volume contains proceedings of the International Scientific Seminars ''Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics''. Stanislav Yurchenko and Viktor Ryzhii Bauman Moscow State Technical University

  9. [Not Available].

    PubMed

    Schott, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Viktor von Weizsäcker (1886-1957) founded his concept of medical anthropology as a clinician educated in internal medicine and neurology. He tried to broaden natural scientific medicine psychosomatically focussing on the "sick human". The natural scientific approach would exclude subjectivity, and therefore he propagated the "introduction of the subject' (Einführung des Subjekts) into the life sciences. His own sensory physiological experiments and Sigmund Freud's psychoanalysis inspired him essentially since the 1920s. In his main work Der Gestaltkreis (gestalt circle) published in 1940 he stressed the "entity of perceiving and moving" (Einheit von Wahrnehmen und Bewegen) in regard to relevant aspects of medicine. In 1932, Weizsäcker became a member of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences, whose president he was from 1947 till 1949; 1942 he became a member of the Leopoldina. Primarily his merits as a neurologist were highly appreciated. His medical anthropology was not relevant for his election by the two academies. Nevertheless, there was a certain repudiation against the objectivistic and materialistic Weltanschauung within the scientific community. So, Paracelsus and Goethe were highly estimated as natural philosophical guides for own conceptions. This was especially evident for the circle around Wilhelm Troll and Karl Lothar Wolf in Halle, both members of the Leopoldina, who were fascinated by Goethe's concept of "Gestalt". Weizsäcker's lecture on "Gestalt und Zeit" in Halle in 1942 fitted in the concept of those natural scientists. PMID:27514115

  10. [Political poisoning with dioxins--a weapon of chemical "disgracefulness"].

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Arseny; Rotman, Eran; Eisenkraft, Arik; Krivoy, Amir; Laish, Ido; Tashma, Zeev; Hoffman, Azik; Yehezkelli, Yoav

    2005-10-01

    The recent attempt to poison Ukrainian President, Viktor Yuschenko with dioxins, raised public concern regarding this toxic chemical. In industrial countries, there is a constitutive exposure of humans to dioxin compounds, which are formed as by-products in manufacturing processes of various chlorinated organic chemicals and in waste incinerators. Dioxins are extremely stable in the environment and have a low turnover rate in the body--sometimes they are detected years after the original exposure. Of the dioxins, the most notoriously famous is the TCDD (2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). Dioxins exhibit high acute toxicity in various animal species. Humans, however, are considered less susceptible and so far there were no reported deaths following acute dioxin poisoning. Nevertheless, numerous adverse health effects are attributed to dioxin exposure. The most prominent is the chloracne--an acute acneiform eruption, usually appearing on facial skin. There is a solid evidence base that some dioxins are carcinogens. Other long-term deleterious effects of dioxin include: immunosuppression, effects on reproduction, impairments in developmental, neurological and cognitive functions in infants, increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and various hormonal alterations. The action of dioxins resembles that of hormones, since their toxicity is mostly receptor-mediated. Dioxins manifest their toxicity in extremely low concentrations. Although there are compounds that exhibit their biological activity at even lower dose range (e.g. nerve gases), this potency of dioxins is considered extraordinary, since there is an every-day exposure to dioxins through environmental vectors mostly via the food chain. Until now, there is no antidotal cure for dioxins, but only symptomatic treatment combined with techniques that accelerate its excretion rate from the body. PMID:16281767

  11. A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897-1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel's design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d'Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel's complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages-reduced to a few journal pages-helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account. PMID:17183461

  12. The role of air quality in perception of health of the local population.

    PubMed

    Valentić, Damir; Micović, Vladimir; Kolarić, Branko; Brncić, Nada; Ljubotina, Aleksandar

    2010-04-01

    The research aim was to investigate and establish the perception of health among population groups with different number of industrial polluters in their living environment. Namely, the Kostrena living area (3250 inhabitants) is situated near big industrial pollutant producers: INA oil refinery Urinj, thermo power plant Rijeka, shipyard "Viktor Lenac", while in Crikvenica living area such pollutant producers do not exist. In this research 146 subjects from Kostrena participated (74 men and 72 women with age average 40.8, SD 9.2 years), and 157 subjects from Crikvenica area (79 men and 78 women with age average 39.4, SD 10.1 years). The perception of health was measured by the means of SF-36 questionnaire variables. Lung function (FEV1, FVC, FEV25/75, PEF), cardiovascular function (systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, heart rate were also measured, including body proportion measures by the means of waste and hip circumference and silhouette test, in order to establish the eventual objective physical health parameter difference among examined population groups. Subjects from Kostrena perceived their general health, mental health, and vitality worse than subjects from Crikvenica. Group from Kostrena felt themself more limited in their roles due to emotional problems, perceiving more pain than group from Crikvenica. On the opposite site, social functioning of subjects from Kostrena was better in comparison to Crikvenica group. No signifficant differences between groups were found in physical functioning and in role limitation due to physical problems. In addition, there were no significant differences between groups in objective physical health parameters, such as pulmonary function, arterial blood pressure, pulse, and waist to hip ratio. Subjects using sensoric systems and the mental cognition about harmful environmental factors, perceive their health worse if there are present industrial resources in their environment, even when concentration of the

  13. Gravothermal Star Clusters - Theory and Computer Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurzem, Rainer

    2010-11-01

    In the George Darwin lecture, delivered to the British Royal Astronomical Society in 1960 by Viktor A. Ambartsumian he wrote on the evolution of stellar systems that it can be described by the "dynamic evolution of a gravitating gas" complemented by "a statistical description of the changes in the physical states of stars". This talk will show how this physical concept has inspired theoretical modeling of star clusters in the following decades up to the present day. The application of principles of thermodynamics shows, as Ambartsumian argued in his 1960 lecture, that there is no stable state of equilibrium of a gravitating star cluster. The trend to local thermodynamic equilibrium is always disturbed by escaping stars (Ambartsumian), as well as by gravothermal and gravogyro instabilities, as it was detected later. Here the state-of-the-art of modeling the evolution of dense stellar systems based on principles of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics (Fokker-Planck approximation) will be reviewed. Recent progress including rotation and internal correlations (primordial binaries) is presented. The models have also very successfully been used to study dense star clusters around massive black holes in galactic nuclei and even (in a few cases) relativistic supermassive dense objects in centres of galaxies (here again briefly touching one of the many research fields of V.A. Ambartsumian). For the modern present time of high-speed supercomputing, where we are tackling direct N-body simulations of star clusters, we will show that such direct modeling supports and proves the concept of the statistical models based on the Fokker-Planck theory, and that both theoretical concepts and direct computer simulations are necessary to support each other and make scientific progress in the study of star cluster evolution.

  14. [The death of moulages - wax figures in dermatology].

    PubMed

    Sticherling, M; Euler, U

    1999-09-01

    Wax has been used for illustration purposes back to antiquity. Since the renaissance period human anatomy and different diseases have often been depicted in wax. During the last century the art of moulage preparation evolved to three-dimensional, realistic representations of diseased parts of the human body. Its heyday and wide spread distribution paralleled the growing independence of dermatology. Apart from few exceptions, most mouleurs did not permit access to their technique either to successors or the public. Just like other European hospitals, the Department of Dermatology at Kiel University houses a comprehensive collection of moulages dating back to a century. The 455 objects left today were collected by Professor Viktor Felix Karl Klingmüller (1870-1942) who was head of the department from 1906 to 1937. The mouleur Alfons Kröner from Breslau who died 1937 supplied most (354) of the wax models. Highly esteemed at his time, Kröner was quite secretive about his art of moulagig. 35 of his moulages bear the abbreviation "DRP" standing for Deutsches Reichspatent (German patent); Kröner was granted a patent in 1902. In his patent application both wax mixtures and technical procedure of moulaging are described in great detail. Kröner, similarly to Jules Baretta (Paris), coloured his moulages at the back of the wax layers. Applying for a patent demonstrates his effort to meet increasing commercial pressure among suppliers of teaching aids at that time. Knowledge of individual technical procedures is essential for medical history as well as proper restauration of moulages as they continually deteriorate with time. Because of their three-dimensional and realistic disease representations, moulages still compare well to modern media used today. Consequently, the "dying of moulages" concerning the wax objects themselves as well as public or medical interest has to be stopped to preserve moulages for future generations. PMID:10501686

  15. Historical Contribution of Otorhinolaryngology in Split Region till 1923.

    PubMed

    Ivanisević, Petar; Ivanisević, Milan; Kontić, Mirko; Klancnik, Marisa

    2016-04-01

    The beginnings of the modern otorhinolaryngology in Croatia started in the second half of the 19th century. Before that, there were only rare attempts of some doctors who published medical papers touching the frame of otorhinolaryngology. Mainly those were the PhD's disertations at Vienna, Budapest and Padua University. Among them there was dr Ivo Manola from Split, who in Padua in 1834 took a doctor's degree dealing with otologic diseases. Dr Nikola Fertilio (Nerezisća the island of Brac, 1861--Trieste, 1928) was the first otorhinolaryngologist out of a hospital in Split and Dalmatia. He studied medicine partly in Graz and Vienna, where he graduated in 1890. During 1903 he finished severeal otorhinolaryngological courses which were held by professors Viktor Urbantschitsch and Alfred Bing and by private doctor assistant professor Markus Hajek. During the winter 1903/04 he attended the "Semestralkurs über praktische Orhenheilkunde" at professor Adam Politzer, founder and managing director of the first Otology Clinic in Vienna and the world in 1873. He worked in Trieste, where he practiced otorhinolaryngology. Dr. Fertilio a specialist for diseases of nose, ear and throat, occasionally, usually during his holidays, came from Trieste to Dalmatia (Split, Zadar, Sibenik, Dubrovnik and Kotor) to treat and operate patients. He was comming to Split from 1904 till 1914. He published and announced his commings in the local newpapers. He used to come in summer, most often in August and stayed from several days till two weeks. He stayed and had a practice in Hotel Bellevue. As there wasn't an otorhinolaryngologist in the regional hospital of Split till 1923, otorhinolaryngological operations were occasionally performed by doctors of other surgical branches. Otorhinolaryngologist dr Aleksandar Dorsner came to Split hospital in 1923 and organized otorhinolaryngological service that he led till 1934. PMID:27301241

  16. Coverage of Russian psychological contributions in American psychology textbooks.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and

  17. PREFACE: Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolin, A.; Abramov, V.; Fuchs, J.; Paal, E.; Shestopalov, Y.; Silvestrov, S.

    2012-02-01

    This proceedings volume presents results obtained by the participants of the 6th Baltic-Nordic workshop 'Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics (AGMP-6)' held at the Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Sciences in Tjärnö, Sweden on October 25-30, 2010. The Baltic-Nordic Network AGMP 'Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics' http://www.agmp.eu was created in 2005 on the initiative of two Estonian universities and two Swedish universities: Tallinn University of Technology represented by Eugen Paal (coordinator of the network), Tartu University represented by Viktor Abramov, Lund University represented by Sergei Silvestrov, and Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg represented by Alexander Stolin. The goal was to promote international and interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and research groups in the countries of the Baltic-Nordic region in mathematics and mathematical physics, with special emphasis on the important role played by algebra and geometry in modern physics, engineering and technologies. The main activities of the AGMP network consist of a series of regular annual international workshops, conferences and research schools. The AGMP network also constitutes an important educational forum for scientific exchange and dissimilation of research results for PhD students and Postdocs. The network has expanded since its creation, and nowadays its activities extend beyond countries in the Baltic-Nordic region to universities in other European countries and participants from elsewhere in the world. As one of the important research-dissimilation outcomes of its activities, the network has a tradition of producing high-quality research proceedings volumes after network events, publishing them with various international publishers. The PDF also contains the following: List of AGMP workshops and other AGMP activities Main topics discussed at AGMP-6 Review of AGMP-6 proceedings Acknowledgments List of Conference Participants

  18. A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology

    PubMed Central

    HOPWOOD, NICK

    2006-01-01

    Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897–1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel’s design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d’Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel’s complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages—reduced to a few journal pages—helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account. PMID:17183461

  19. Up The Down Staircase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurshtein, A. A.

    1993-12-01

    The title of this presentation is taken from a well-known novel to emphasize that a renaissance in Soviet astronomy and space research took place after World War II under conditions of national tragedy. After a decade of political repression and war, the Soviet government had resolved that fundamental science should serve as a foundation for Communism, and this policy stimulated titanic new efforts that were intended to benefit Soviet science. Having been destroyed totally during the war, Pulkovo Observatory was rebuilt on its old foundation according to its original plan. The decision to rebuild Pulkovo can not be justified on scientific grounds, however, because of the proximity of a large city (Leningrad) and generally cloudy weather. Thus the rebuild- ing of Pulkovo in spite of the most difficult living conditions must be seen primarily as a great symbol. The Academy of Sciences of the Armenian Republic also was founded in the aftermath of World War II, and its president, Viktor Ambartsumian, introduced astronomy to Armenia with the construc- tion of Byurakan Observatory. (It is noteworthy that con- currently two leaders of republican academies were astronomers: Evgenii Kharadze, director of the Abastumani Observatory, in Georgia and Ambartsumian in Armenia.) In addition to Byurakan, several other large and well-equipped astronomical institutions were founded after the war--among them the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and the Principal Astronomical Observatory of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences near Kiev. As a natural consequence of this institution-building, the General Assembly of the IAU held its 1958 meeting in Moscow. Indeed, this meeting was the first large international scientific event in the Soviet Union following Stalin's death. At the time of the Assembly the Soviet government declared, as a counterpart to the launch of the first sputnik, its ambitious program to build the largest optical telescope in the world.

  20. Scientific perspectives on music therapy.

    PubMed

    Hillecke, Thomas; Nickel, Anne; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2005-12-01

    What needs to be done on the long road to evidence-based music therapy? First of all, an adequate research strategy is required. For this purpose the general methodology for therapy research should be adopted. Additionally, music therapy needs a variety of methods of allied fields to contribute scientific findings, including mathematics, natural sciences, behavioral and social sciences, as well as the arts. Pluralism seems necessary as well as inevitable. At least two major research problems can be identified, however, that make the path stony: the problem of specificity and the problem of eclecticism. Neuroscientific research in music is giving rise to new ideas, perspectives, and methods; they seem to be promising prospects for a possible contribution to a theoretical and empirical scientific foundation for music therapy. Despite the huge heterogeneity of theoretical approaches in music therapy, an integrative model of working ingredients in music therapy is useful as a starting point for empirical studies in order to question what specifically works in music therapy. For this purpose, a heuristic model, consisting of five music therapy working factors (attention modulation, emotion modulation, cognition modulation, behavior modulation, and communication modulation) has been developed by the Center for Music Therapy Research (Viktor Dulger Institute) in Heidelberg. Evidence shows the effectiveness of music therapy for treating certain diseases, but the question of what it is in music therapy that works remains largely unanswered. The authors conclude with some questions to neuroscientists, which we hope may help elucidate relevant aspects of a possible link between the two disciplines. PMID:16597776

  1. The origin of galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasi, Pasquale

    2013-11-01

    One century ago Viktor Hess carried out several balloon flights that led him to conclude that the penetrating radiation responsible for the discharge of electroscopes was of extraterrestrial origin. One century from the discovery of this phenomenon seems to be a good time to stop and think about what we have understood about Cosmic Rays. The aim of this review is to illustrate the ideas that have been and are being explored in order to account for the observable quantities related to cosmic rays and to summarize the numerous new pieces of observation that are becoming available. In fact, despite the possible impression that development in this field is somewhat slow, the rate of new discoveries in the last decade or so has been impressive, and mainly driven by beautiful pieces of observation. At the same time scientists in this field have been able to propose new, fascinating ways to investigate particle acceleration inside the sources, making use of multifrequency observations that range from the radio, to the optical, to X-rays and gamma rays. These ideas can now be confronted with data. I will mostly focus on supernova remnants as the most plausible sources of Galactic cosmic rays, and I will review the main aspects of the modern theory of diffusive particle acceleration at supernova remnant shocks, with special attention for the dynamical reaction of accelerated particles on the shock and the phenomenon of magnetic field amplification at the shock. Cosmic-ray escape from the sources is discussed as a necessary step to determine the spectrum of cosmic rays at the Earth. The discussion of these theoretical ideas will always proceed parallel to an account of the data being collected especially in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. In the end of this review I will also discuss the phenomenon of cosmic-ray acceleration at shocks propagating in partially ionized media and the implications of this phenomenon in terms of width of the Balmer line emission. This field of

  2. Novel itinerant transverse spin waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldmann, John Delaney

    In 1956, Lev Davidovich Landau put forth his theory on systems of interacting fermions, or fermi liquids. A year later, Viktor Pavlovich Silin described spin waves that such a system of fermions would support. The treatment of the contribution of the molecular field to the spin wave dispersion was a novel aspect of these spin waves. Silin predicted that there would exist a hierarchy of spin waves in a fermi liquid, one for each component of the spherical harmonic expansion of the fermi surface. In 1968, Anthony J. Leggett and Michael J. Rice derived from fermi liquid theory how the behavior of the spin diffusion coefficient of a fermi liquid could be directly experimentally observable via the spin echo effect [24]. Their prediction, that the diffusion coefficient of a fermi liquid would not decay exponentially with temperature, but rather would have a maximum at some non-zero temperature, was a direct consequence of the fermi liquid molecular field and spin wave phenomena, and this was corroborated by experiment in 1971 by Corruccini, et al. [13]. A parallel advancement in the theory of fermi liquid spin waves came with the extension of the theory to describe weak ferromagnetic metals. In 1959, Alexei Abrikosov and I. E. Dzyaloshiski put forth a theoretical description of a ferromagnetic fermi liquid [1]. In 2001, Kevin Bedell and Krastan Blagoev showed that a non-trivial contribution to the dispersion of the ferromagnetic current spin wave arises from the necessary consideration of higher harmonic moments in the distortion of the fermi surface from its ground state [8]. In the chapters to follow, the author presents new results for transverse spin waves in a fermi liquid, which arise from a novel ground state of a fermi liquid-one in which an l = 1 harmonic distortion exists in the ground state polarization. It is shown that such an instability can lead to spin waves with dispersions that are characterized by a linear dependence on the wave number at long

  3. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashonkina, Lyudmila I.

    2013-05-01

    The JENAM symposium "Physics of Stars" took place on the 5th and 6th July of 2011 in Saint-Petersburg. This symposium had a wide-ranging look at observational and theoretical studies of stars and stellar systems. Several talks were devoted to accurate determination of fundamental stellar parameters, such as star's mass, radius, effective temperature, surface gravity, chemical composition. This is particularly crucial to fully exploit the data from the new generation of large ground-based telescopes and future space missions like the GAIA one. Viktor Orlov reported the measurements of stellar mass for a few multiple systems and also the investigation of their dynamical stability. To improve the determination of parameters of the components in an eclipsing binary system including a Wolf-Rayet star, Eleonora Antokhina and her co-workers updated their synthesis model by accounting for the absorption in the expanding stellar wind. The variable stars are excellent laboratories to study the physical processes either occurring at certain stages of stellar evolution or caused by the interaction of a star with its companion or circumstellar medium. Nikolay Samus reported the discovery of hundreds of new variable stars in their work on digitalization of the Moscow stacks of sky photographs. The exotic star VSX J052807.9+725606, with a very strong asymmetry of maxima, wavelength dependence of amplitude, and the shift of the secondary minimum from the phase 0.5, was discovered by Natalia Virnina. Michael E. Contadakis and his co-workers presented the additional observational evidences for weak transient optical oscillations of the red dwarf AD Leo. Spectral variability of the two massive luminous stars in the M33 galaxy was studied by Olga Maryeva. Alex Dudorov and Sergei Zamozdra and Alexander Grigoriev et al. discussed the theoretical and observational problems of star formation. Galina Dremova presented the numerical algorithm for computing the tidal torque constants for a

  4. PREFACE: 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium on the Fundamental and Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices and Technologies (RJUS TeraTech - 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Valeriy; Ryzhii, Viktor; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) Bauman Moscow State Technical University Moscow, Russia, 3-6 June, 2013 The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) was held in Bauman Moscow State Technical University on 3-6 June 2013 and was devoted to modern problems of terahertz optical technologies. RJUS TeraTech 2013 was organized by Bauman Moscow State Technical University in cooperation with Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) and University of Buffalo (The State University of New York, USA). The Symposium was supported by Bauman Moscow State Technical University (Moscow, Russia) and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant number 13-08-06100-g). RJUS TeraTech - 2013 became a foundation for sharing and discussing modern and promising achievements in fundamental and applied problems of terahertz optical technologies, devices based on grapheme and grapheme strictures, condensed matter of different nature. Among participants of RJUS TeraTech - 2013, there were more than 100 researchers and students from different countries. This volume contains proceedings of the 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies'. Valeriy Karasik, Viktor Ryzhii and Stanislav Yurchenko Bauman Moscow State Technical University Symposium chair Anatoliy A Aleksandrov, Rector of BMSTU Symposium co-chair Valeriy E Karasik, Head of the Research and Educational Center 'PHOTONICS AND INFRARED TECHNOLOGY' (Russia) Invited Speakers Taiichi Otsuji, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Akira Satou, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Michael Shur, Electrical, Computer and System Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NY, USA Natasha

  5. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    SciTech Connect

    CM Johnson

    2000-07-24

    This paper reviews select programs driving the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation's (Minatom) efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the US over the next three to five years. The paper's findings are: (1) Despite numerous cabinet displacements throughout the Yeltsin administration, Yevgeny Adamov was reappointed Minister on four occasions. With Boris Yeltsin's January 1, 2000 resignation, Adamov's long-term position as the head of the Ministry is more tenuous, but he will likely retain his position until at least the March 2000 elections. Acting President Vladimir Putin is unlikely to reorganize his cabinet prior to that date and there are no signs that Putin is dissatisfied with Adamov's leadership of Minatom. (2) Adamov's chief priorities are downsizing Minatom's defense sector, increasing the oversight of subsidiary bodies by the central bureaucracy and consolidating commercial elements of the Ministry within an umbrella organization called Atomprom. (3) Viktor Mikhaylov, Adamov's predecessor and critic of his reform efforts, has been relieved of his duties as First Deputy Minister. While he retains his positions as Chief of the Science Councils and Chief Scientist at Arzamas-16, his influence on Minatom's direction is greatly diminished. Adamov will likely continue his efforts to further marginalize Mikhaylov in the coming year. (4) Securing extra-budgetary sources of income continues to be the major factor guiding Minatom's international business dealings. The Ministry will continue to aggressively promote the sale of nuclear technology abroad, often to countries with questionable nonproliferation commitments. (5) Given the financial difficulties in Russia and Minatom's client states, however, few nuclear development programs will come to fruition for a number of years, if ever. Nevertheless, certain peaceful nuclear cooperation agreements should be carefully

  6. EDITORIAL HPJ SPECIAL ISSUE INTRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.

    2011-10-01

    international scientific community to support ICC and join its activities (Chernobyl Center 2006). In December 1995, a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on the ChNPP closure was signed by the government of Ukraine, all of the G7 governments, and the European Commission. The ICC foundation was considered critical to ensure the safe decommissioning of the ChNPP reactor units and improvement of the safety of the Chernobyl Containment Shelter. On the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident (26 April 1996), Mr. Viktor Yushchenko, the President of Ukraine, issued a decree to establish the Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology (Chernobyl Center). On the same day, a MOU involving the US participation in Chernobyl Center activities was signed by the US and Ukraine (Chernobyl Center 2006). In July 1998, the US and Ukraine signed an agreement to establish the International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL) as part of the Chernobyl Center. The creation of IRL was a logical continuation of previous programs to conduct scientific research in radioecology and provide Ukraine and the rest of the world with the necessary infrastructure and scientific basis to conduct research in radioecology, radiobiology, dosimetry, and environmental protection in the ChEZ (Chernobyl Center 2006). A recent collaborative effort with IRL has been implemented through a project titled 'Long-term impacts from radiation/contamination within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone' (Farfan et al. 2008; Gerdes et al. 2009; Marra et al. 2010). This collaboration had the following objectives: (1) Assess the long-term impacts to the environment from radiation exposure within the ChEZ; (2) Provide information on remediation guidelines and ecological risk assessment within radioactively contaminated territories based on the results of long-term field monitoring, analytical measurements, and numerical modeling of soils and groundwater radioactive contamination; and (3) Recommend the development and

  7. Vigrishinite, Zn2Ti4 - x Si4O14(OH,H2O,□)8, a new mineral from the Lovozero alkaline complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekov, I. V.; Britvin, S. N.; Zubkova, N. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Bryzgalov, I. A.; Lykova, I. S.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    strongly differ from each other in part of large cations and H-bearing groups. Vigrishinite is named in honor of Viktor G. Grishin (b. 1953), a Russian amateur mineralogist and mineral collector, to pay tribute to his contribution to the mineralogy of the Lovozero Complex. The type specimen is deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

  8. Effect "negative viscosity" as possible mechanism of ozone hole are formed above Antarctica at last quarter of XX century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrey, Nagurny

    2010-05-01

    One of the possible mechanisms of the ozone hole formation over Antarctica can be a meridional transport of ozone deficit by the mesoscale vortexes generated by perturbations in the stratospheric circumpolar vortex. This transport can occur against the global ozone gradient in the polar stratosphere. An assessment of the value and sign of the macro-turbulent exchange coefficient provides understanding of the intensity and direction of large-scale vortex diffusion in the framework of the equations of heat, moisture and momentum transfer. The local viscosity can be negative at this since the turbulent viscosity, heat conductivity and diffusion coefficients characterize already not the physical properties of fluids and gases but the statistical properties of their turbulent motions. According to the definition of Viktor Starr (1968), "negative viscosity" leads to the impulse transfer against a zonal gradient. So, the small-scale energy passes to zonal energy and in the equations of transfer of the conservative properties of the atmosphere (temperature, humidity, ozone, etc.), the transfer can be against the average zonal gradient. To estimate macro-turbulent exchange coefficients, we shall use a procedure, which is similar by structure to the procedure, which is used for reduction of the non-linear Burger's equation to the linear equation of heat conductivity. Whereas in 1980, one mainly observes the positive values of meridional turbulent exchange coefficient, but to 1988 and especially in 2003, these values within the stratospheric vortex are predominantly negative. The growth of the negative value of the meridional transfer coefficient simultaneously with the increased area and the "depth" of the ozone hole allow us to interpret the development of the ozone hole in terms of the mechanism of "negative" viscosity, responsible for transfer of kinetic energy by smaller-scale vortexes towards large-scale perturbations enhancing thus the intensity of the stratospheric

  9. Time- and Space-Domain Measurements of the Thermal Conductivity in Diamond Anvil Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. F.

    2011-12-01

    that different techniques can be successfully used to determine the thermal conductivity of materials loaded in the DAC. The choice of the technique depends on material properties, sample preparation method, and P-T range needed. I thank D. Allen Dalton, David Cahill, Viktor Struzhkin, Wen-Pin Hsieh, Zuzana Konopkova, Peter Lazor, Javier A. Montoya for critically contributing to this work. I acknowledge support from NSF EAR 0711358 and EAR-1015239, Carnegie Institution of Washington, DOE/ NNSA (CDAC), and EFree, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DESC0001057. 1. P. Beck, A. F. Goncharov, V. V. Struzhkin, B. Militzer, H. K. Mao, R. J. Hemley (2007). Measurement of thermal diffusivity at high pressure using a transient heating technique, Appl Phys. Lett. 91, 181914. 2. K. V. Tretiakov and S. Scandolo (2004). Thermal conductivity of solid argon at high pressure and high temperature: A molecular dynamics study. Journal of Chemical Physics 121, 11177-11182. 3. Z. Konopkova, P. Lazor, A. F. Goncharov, V. V. Struzhkin (2011). Thermal conductivity of hcp iron at high pressure and temperature, High Pressure Research, 31, 228-236.

  10. PREFACE: International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies 2013 (FM&NT2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas

    2013-12-01

    oral, and 5 commercial talks were delivered and more than 200 posters were presented. In the framework of conference more than 20 papers were submitted to a topical issue of Physica Scripta. Based on the work presented at the conference, 62 articles are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Additional information about FM&NT-2013 is available at its homepage http://fmnt.ut.ee/. The Organizing Committee would like to thank all the speakers, contributors, session chairs, referees and other involved staff for their efforts in making FM&NT-2013 successful. Special thanks for their hard work dealing with the conference papers goes to the Guest Editors: Professor Mikhail Brik, Dr Svetlana Zazubovits, Dr Arvo Kikas, Dr Rainer Pärna. The Organizing Committee hopes that Conference gave participants good insight into recent developments in nanotechnology, sustainable energetics, processing and modelling of multifunctional materials and research done using synchrotron radiation or other novel light sources. We sincerely hope that conference has provided support for the sharing of information and has brought together many young and experienced scientists from different fields, leading to fruitful discussions. We hope that all participants had good and memorable time in Tartu. On the behalf of organising committee Professor Ergo Nõmmiste Dr Marco Kirm Dr Toomas Plank The PDF also contains lists of the committees, the conference photograph and the sponsor's logos.

  11. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Popovic, L. C.

    The present issue of SERBIAN ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL is the last one edited by the two of us. We resigned not because we were tired of our service to the astronomical community but due to the old tradition of the Belgrade Astronomical Observatory that its Director is automatically the Editor-in-Chief of its publications. We therefore gladly give the opportunity to the new Director, in charge since July 1st. 2002, to organize the publishing activity according to his conceptions. One of us (M.S.D.) was appointed Editor on January 1st. 1984 (from No. 135), becoming the Editor-in-Chief in 1987 (from No. 137). The other one (L.C.P.) is the Editor since 1994 (from No. 150). During this period the Bulletin de l'Observatoire Astronomique de Belgrade merged with the Publications of the Department of Astronomy, changing its name into Bulletin Astronomique de Belgrade from No. 145 in 1992, to finally become Serbian Astronomical Journal in 1998, from No. 157. Accordingly, of a "Bulletin" we made a "Journal". For example, in the period 1971-1984 (Nos. 125-134) in Bull. Obs. Astron. Belgrade, practically only the associates of the Belgade Observatory published their papers, save for a few individuals from the Belgrade University. We found within this period the name of one sole foreign astronomer - from the USSR - namely V. A. Fomin, among the authors. In the period 1985-2002 in the Serbian Astronomical Journal published their communications not only astronomers from Yugoslavia but also from Belgium, China, France, Italy, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Spain, Ukraine, USA. Our authors from outside of Yugoslavia are: J. P. Anosova C. Beuyninx Cristina Blaga Paul A. Blaga Veronique Bommier N. M. Bronnikov Alberto Celino Pierre Cugnon D. R. Davis Henry Debehogne Veronique Dehant P. Farinella Alex Gaina R. I. Gumerov R. S. Izmailov V. B. Kapkov F. F. Khalikhevich S. A. Kilioner Tatiana R. Kirian N. G. Litkevich Evencio G. Mediavilla O. Mihai Andrea Milani Vasile Mioc Jose A. Munoz Viktor V

  12. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Popovic, L. C.

    The present issue of SERBIAN ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL is the last one edited by the two of us. We resigned not because we were tired of our service to the astronomical community but due to the old tradition of the Belgrade Astronomical Observatory that its Director is automatically the Editor-in-Chief of its publications. We therefore gladly give the opportunity to the new Director, in charge since July 1st. 2002, to organize the publishing activity according to his conceptions. One of us (M.S.D.) was appointed Editor on January 1st. 1984 (from No. 135), becoming the Editor-in-Chief in 1987 (from No. 137). The other one (L.C.P.) is the Editor since 1994 (from No. 150). During this period the Bulletin de l'Observatoire Astronomique de Belgrade merged with the Publications of the Department of Astronomy, changing its name into Bulletin Astronomique de Belgrade from No. 145 in 1992, to finally become Serbian Astronomical Journal in 1998, from No. 157. Accordingly, of a "Bulletin" we made a "Journal". For example, in the period 1971-1984 (Nos. 125-134) in Bull. Obs. Astron. Belgrade, practically only the associates of the Belgade Observatory published their papers, save for a few individuals from the Belgrade University. We found within this period the name of one sole foreign astronomer - from the USSR - namely V. A. Fomin, among the authors. In the period 1985-2002 in the Serbian Astronomical Journal published their communications not only astronomers from Yugoslavia but also from Belgium, China, France, Italy, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Spain, Ukraine, USA. Our authors from outside of Yugoslavia are: J. P. Anosova C. Beuyninx Cristina Blaga Paul A. Blaga Veronique Bommier N. M. Bronnikov Alberto Celino Pierre Cugnon D. R. Davis Henry Debehogne Veronique Dehant P. Farinella Alex Gaina R. I. Gumerov R. S. Izmailov V. B. Kapkov F. F. Khalikhevich S. A. Kilioner Tatiana R. Kirian N. G. Litkevich Evencio G. Mediavilla O. Mihai Andrea Milani Vasile Mioc Jose A. Munoz Viktor V

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    planes to stable loops caused by annealing M Endo, B J Lee, Y A Kim, Y J Kim, H Muramatsu, T Yanagisawa, T Hayashi, M Terrones and M S Dresselhaus Energetics and electronic structure of C70-peapods and one-dimensional chains of C70 Susumu Okada, Minoru Otani and Atsushi Oshiyama Theoretical characterization of several models of nanoporous carbon F Valencia, A H Romero, E Hernández, M Terrones and H Terrones First-principles molecular dynamics study of the stretching frequencies of hydrogen molecules in carbon nanotubes Gabriel Canto, Pablo Ordejón, Cheng Hansong, Alan C Cooper and Guido P Pez The geometry and the radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes: beyond the ideal behaviour Jeno Kürti, Viktor Zólyomi, Miklos Kertesz and Sun Guangyu Curved nanostructured materials Humberto Terrones and Mauricio Terrones A one-dimensional Ising model for C70 molecular ordering in C70-peapods Yutaka Maniwa, Hiromichi Kataura, Kazuyuki Matsuda and Yutaka Okabe Nanoengineering of carbon nanotubes for nanotools Yoshikazu Nakayama and Seiji Akita Narrow diameter double-wall carbon nanotubes: synthesis, electron microscopy and inelastic light scattering R R Bacsa, E Flahaut, Ch Laurent, A Peigney, S Aloni, P Puech and W S Bacsa Sensitivity of single multiwalled carbon nanotubes to the environment M Krüger, I Widmer, T Nussbaumer, M Buitelaar and C Schönenberger Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonance Raman scattering A Jorio, M A Pimenta, A G Souza Filho, R Saito, G Dresselhaus and M S Dresselhaus FTIR-luminescence mapping of dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes Sergei Lebedkin, Katharina Arnold, Frank Hennrich, Ralph Krupke, Burkhard Renker and Manfred M Kappes Structural properties of Haeckelite nanotubes Ph Lambin and L P Biró Structural changes in single-walled carbon nanotubes under non-hydrostatic pressures: x-ray and Raman studies Sukanta Karmakar, Surinder M Sharma, P V Teredesai, D V S Muthu, A Govindaraj, S K Sikka and A K Sood Novel properties of 0

  14. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    , P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end planes to stable loops caused by annealing M Endo, B J Lee, Y A Kim, Y J Kim, H Muramatsu, T Yanagisawa, T Hayashi, M Terrones and M S Dresselhaus Energetics and electronic structure of C70-peapods and one-dimensional chains of C70 Susumu Okada, Minoru Otani and Atsushi Oshiyama Theoretical characterization of several models of nanoporous carbon F Valencia, A H Romero, E Hernández, M Terrones and H Terrones First-principles molecular dynamics study of the stretching frequencies of hydrogen molecules in carbon nanotubes Gabriel Canto, Pablo Ordejón, Cheng Hansong, Alan C Cooper and Guido P Pez The geometry and the radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes: beyond the ideal behaviour Jeno Kürti, Viktor Zólyomi, Miklos Kertesz and Sun Guangyu Curved nanostructured materials Humberto Terrones and Mauricio Terrones A one-dimensional Ising model for C70 molecular ordering in C70-peapods Yutaka Maniwa, Hiromichi Kataura, Kazuyuki Matsuda and Yutaka Okabe Nanoengineering of carbon nanotubes for nanotools Yoshikazu Nakayama and Seiji Akita Narrow diameter double-wall carbon nanotubes: synthesis, electron microscopy and inelastic light scattering R R Bacsa, E Flahaut, Ch Laurent, A Peigney, S Aloni, P Puech and W S Bacsa Sensitivity of sin

  15. Collaborative Research: Simulation of Beam-Electron Cloud Interactions in Circular Accelerators Using Plasma Models

    SciTech Connect

    Katsouleas, Thomas; Decyk, Viktor

    2009-10-14

    Final Report for grant DE-FG02-06ER54888, "Simulation of Beam-Electron Cloud Interactions in Circular Accelerators Using Plasma Models" Viktor K. Decyk, University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 The primary goal of this collaborative proposal was to modify the code QuickPIC and apply it to study the long-time stability of beam propagation in low density electron clouds present in circular accelerators. The UCLA contribution to this collaborative proposal was in supporting the development of the pipelining scheme for the QuickPIC code, which extended the parallel scaling of this code by two orders of magnitude. The USC work was as described here the PhD research for Ms. Bing Feng, lead author in reference 2 below, who performed the research at USC under the guidance of the PI Tom Katsouleas and the collaboration of Dr. Decyk The QuickPIC code [1] is a multi-scale Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code. The outer 3D code contains a beam which propagates through a long region of plasma and evolves slowly. The plasma response to this beam is modeled by slices of a 2D plasma code. This plasma response then is fed back to the beam code, and the process repeats. The pipelining is based on the observation that once the beam has passed a 2D slice, its response can be fed back to the beam immediately without waiting for the beam to pass all the other slices. Thus independent blocks of 2D slices from different time steps can be running simultaneously. The major difficulty was when particles at the edges needed to communicate with other blocks. Two versions of the pipelining scheme were developed, for the the full quasi-static code and the other for the basic quasi-static code used by this e-cloud proposal. Details of the pipelining scheme were published in [2]. The new version of QuickPIC was able to run with more than 1,000 processors, and was successfully applied in modeling e-clouds by our collaborators in this proposal [3-8]. Jean-Luc Vay at Lawrence Berkeley

  16. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Index. The journal depends entirely on its authors and referees and so I would like to thank them all for their work in 2010 and look forward to a continuing, successful collaboration in 2011. Refereeing The Nuclear Fusion editorial office understands how much effort is required of our referees. The Editorial Board decided that an expression of thanks to our most loyal referees is appropriate and so, since January 2005, we have been offering the top ten most active referees over the past year a personal subscription to Nuclear Fusion with electronic access for one year, free of charge. This year, two of the top referees have reviewed four or more manuscripts in the period November 2009 to November 2010 and provided particularly detailed advice to the authors. We have excluded our Board Members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in the last four years. Guest Editors' work on papers submitted to their special issues is also excluded from consideration. The following people have been selected: Osamu Naito, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Japan Masahiro Kobayashi, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan Duccio Testa, Lausanne Federal Polytechnic University, Switzerland Vladimir Pustovitov, Russian Research Centre, Kurchatov Insitute, Russia Christopher Holland, University of California at San Diego, USA Yuri Gribov, ITER International Organisation, Cadarache, France Eriko Jotaki, Kyushu University, Japan Sven Wiesen, Jülich Research Centre, Germany Viktor S. Marchenko, Ukraine National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine Richard Stephens, General Atomics, USA In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2010. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2010 Nuclear Fusion Award was J.E. Rice et al for the paper entitled 'Inter-machine comparison of

  17. REPORT FROM THE ORGANIZERS: The 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kes, Peter

    2009-03-01

    recipients of the most important prize in low temperature physics, the Fritz London Memorial Prize 2008, were Yuriy M Bunkov (Institute Neël, Grenoble), Vladimir V Dmitriev, and Igor A Fomin (both Kapitza Institute, Moscow). They got the prize for their discovery and understanding of the 'Phase Coherent Spin Precession and Spin Superfluidity of 3He-B'. The Simon Prize 2008 of The Physical Society went to Yasunobu Nakamura and Jaw-Shen Tsai (NEC Laboratories, Tsukuba) for their 'Pioneering demonstration of quantum coherent behaviour in a macroscopic object and for their subsequent explorations of quantum coherent physics in a series of novel superconducting devices'. The Nicholas Kurti European Science Prize (sponsored by Oxford Instruments) was awarded to Lieven Vandersypen (Delft University of Technology) for his 'Ground-breaking work on the coherent control of nuclear and electron spins, with possible application to quantum information processing'. Finally, the first IUPAP Young Scientist Prizes in Low Temperature Physics went to Kostya Novoselov (University of Manchester) for his 'Contribution in the discovery of graphene and for pioneering studies of its extraordinary properties', to Dai Aoki (Tohuko University, Sendai) for his 'Discovery of novel heavy fermion superconductivity in actinide compounds', and to Viktor Tsepelin (Lancaster University) for 'The development of new experimental techniques and key discoveries in the fields of 3He crystals and quantum turbulence'. All prize recipients got the opportunity to present their work in an invited oral contribution. As is common practice nowadays all announcements, registrations, paper submissions and communications regarding program and practical matters were done electronically, either by email or via internet. Nevertheless, the program book was still printed and handed out to all participants at registration and they received an electronic version on a USB stick as well. The stick also contained all the submitted

  18. Report from the organizers Report from the organizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kes, Peter

    2009-04-01

    conferences time is reserved for prize ceremonies. The recipients of the most important prize in low temperature physics, the Fritz London Memorial Prize 2008, were Yuriy M Bunkov (Institute Néel, Grenoble), Vladimir V Dmitriev, and Igor A Fomin (both Kapitza Institute, Moscow). They got the prize for their discovery and understanding of the 'phase coherent spin precession and spin superfluidity of 3He-B'. The Simon Prize 2008 of The Physical Society went to Yasunobu Nakamura and Jaw-Shen Tsai (NEC Laboratories, Tsukuba) for their 'pioneering demonstration of quantum coherent behaviour in a macroscopic object and for their subsequent explorations of quantum coherent physics in a series of novel superconducting devices'. The Nicholas Kurti European Science Prize (sponsored by Oxford Instruments) was awarded to Lieven Vandersypen (Delft University of Technology) for his 'ground-breaking work on the coherent control of nuclear and electron spins, with possible application to quantum information processing'. Finally, the first IUPAP Young Scientist Prizes in Low Temperature Physics went to Kostya Novoselov (University of Manchester) for his 'contribution in the discovery of graphene and for pioneering studies of its extraordinary properties', to Dai Aoki (Tohuko University, Sendai) for his 'discovery of novel heavy fermion superconductivity in actinide compounds', and to Viktor Tsepelin (Lancaster University) for 'the development of new experimental techniques and key discoveries in the fields of 3He crystals and quantum turbulence'. All prize recipients got the opportunity to present their work in an invited oral contribution. As is common practice nowadays all announcements, registrations, paper submissions and communications regarding program and practical matters were done electronically, either by email or via the internet. Nevertheless, the program book was still printed and handed out to all participants at registration and they received an electronic version on a USB

  19. Bewehrte Betonbauteile unter Betriebsbedingungen: Forschungsbericht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eligehausen, Rolf; Kordina, Karl; Schießl, Peter

    2000-09-01

    Vorwort. Teil I: Rißbreiten (Gert König) 1 Ein mechanisches Modell zur Erhöhung der Vorhersagegenauigkeit über die Rißbreiten unter Betriebsbedingungen (Gert König und Michael Fischer). 1.1 Einleitung und Zielsetzung. 1.2 Versuchsprogramm. 1.3 Meßtechnik. 1.4 Belastung und Versuchsdurchführung. 1.5 Literatur. 2 Rißbreiten und Verformungszunahme vorgespannter Bauteile unter wiederholter Last - und Zwangbeanspruchung (Gert König und Michael Fischer). 2.1 Einleitung und Zielsetzung. 2.2 Versuchsprogramm. 2.3 Auswertung. 2.4 Ausblick. 2.5 Literatur. 3 Rißverhalten von Beton bei plötzlicher Abkühlung (Viktor Mechtcherine und Harald S. Müller). 3.1 Einleitung. 3.2 Experimentelle Untersuchungen. 3.3 Formulierung eines Stoffgesetzes für thermisch beanspruchten Beton. 3.4 Riß entwicklung in einer Betonplatte unter Temperaturschock. 3.5 Zusammenfassung. 3.6 Literatur. 4 Stahlfaserbeton unter Betriebsbedingungen bei Dauerbeanspruchung (Bo Soon Kang, Bernd Schnütgen und Friedhelm Stangenberg). 4.1 Einleitung. 4.2 Wirkung von Stahlfasern im Beton. 4.3 Versuchsprogramm. 4.4 Untersuchungen zum Verbundverhalten. 4.5 Untersuchungen zum Verhalten unter Biegebeanspruchung. 4.6 Theoretische Untersuchungen. 4.7 Literatur. 5 Experimentelle Untersuchungen an Stahlbeton-Zugkörpern unter wiederholter Belastung zur Ermittlung des versteifenden Einflusses der Mitwirkung des Betons zwischen den Rissen (Petra Seibel und Gerhard Mehlhorn). 5.1 Einleitung. 5.2 Ansatz zur Bestimmung der Mitwirkung des Betons zwischen den Rissen nach Eurocode 2, Model Code 90 und Günther. 5.3 Experimentelle Untersuchungen. 5.4 Ergebnisse. 5.5 Zusammenfassung. 5.6 Literatur. 6 Riß- und Verformungsverhalten von vorgefertigten Spannbetonträgern unter Betriebsbedingungen bei besonderer Berücksichtigung des Betonalters (Monika Maske, Heinz Meichsner und Lothar Schubert). 6.1 Einleitung. 6.2 Beschreibung der Fertigteilträger. 6.3 Belastungsversuche. 6.4 Ergebnisse. 6.5 Zusammenfassung. 6

  20. Sharper and Deeper Views with MACAO-VLTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    this, indicating that guide stars of this magnitude are feasible during future observations. ESO PR Photo 12g/03 ESO PR Photo 12g/03 [Preview - JPEG: 528 x 400 pix - 48k [Normal - JPEG: 1055 x 800 pix - 542k] Captions : PR Photo 12g/03 shows some of the MACAO-VLTI commissioning team members in the VLT Control Room at the moment of "First Light" during the night between April 18-19, 2003. Sitting: Markus Kasper, Enrico Fedrigo - Standing: Robin Arsenault, Sebastien Tordo, Christophe Dupuy, Toomas Erm, Jason Spyromilio, Rob Donaldson (all from ESO). PR Photos 12b-c/03 show the first image in the infrared K-band (wavelength 2.2 µm) of a star (visual magnitude 10) obtained without and with image corrections by means of adaptive optics. PR Photo 12d/03 displays one of the best images obtained with MACAO-VLTI during the early tests. It shows a Strehl ratio (measure of light concentration) that fulfills the specifications according to which MACAO-VLTI was built. This enormous improvement when using AO techniques is clearly demonstrated in PR Photo 12e/03 , with the uncorrected image profile (left) hardly visible when compared to the corrected profile (right). PR Photo 11f/03 demonstrates the correction capabilities of MACAO-VLTI when using a faint guide star. Tests using different spectral types showed that the limiting visual magnitude varies between 16 for early-type B-stars and about 18 for late-type M-stars. Astronomical Objects seen at the Diffraction Limit The following examples of MACAO-VLTI observations of two well-known astronomical objects were obtained in order to provisionally evaluate the research opportunities now opening with MACAO-VLTI. They may well be compared with space-based images. The Galactic Center ESO PR Photo 12h/03 ESO PR Photo 12h/03 [Preview - JPEG: 693 x 400 pix - 46k [Normal - JPEG: 1386 x 800 pix - 403k] Caption : PR Photo 12h/03 shows a 90-second K-band exposure of the central 6 x 13 arcsec 2 around the Galactic Center obtained by MACAO