Science.gov

Sample records for viktor voitovich toomas

  1. Viktor Ambartsumian: Life and Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2014-09-01

    The booklet is dedicated to the outstanding Armenian astronomer and one of the great scientists of the XX century Viktor Ambartsumian. He has fundamentally contributed in various fields of astronomy and astrophysics, cosmogony, theoretical physics, mathematics, and philosophy. Ambartsumian was a great organizer of science, important political and public figure. He was the Director of BAO in 1946-1988, the President of the Armenian Academy of Sciences in 1947-1993, the President of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1961-1964 and the President of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) in 1968-1972.

  2. Viktor Lowenfeld Speaks on Art and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittain, W. Lambert, Ed.

    This retrospective compilation of speeches and ideas by Viktor Lowenfeld is representative of his work between the years 1946 to 1960 and reveals his concern with the importance of creativity in education. Nine chapters present Lowenfeld's thoughts: (1) "On the Significance of Individual Creative Expression"; (2) "On the Discrepancy Between Our…

  3. European Influences on the Theory and Philosophy of Viktor Lowenfeld.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, John A.; Morris, Jerry W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses how the work of art theorists, art educators, psychologists, and anthropologists who were predecessors or contemporaries of Viktor Lowenfeld influenced Lowenfeld's philosophy and theory of art education. Included are Friedrich Froebel, James Sully, Franz Cizek, Siegfried Levinstein, Max Verworn, Walter Krotzsch, George Luquet, and Karl…

  4. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    SciTech Connect

    Reams, C.A.

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  5. The Search for Meaning in the Shadow of Auschwitz: Tadeusz Borowski and Viktor Frankl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbleton, Susanne; Soleau, Jeffrey K.

    1995-01-01

    Recommends using the work of psychoanalyst and concentration camp survivor, Viktor Frankl, as a counterpoint and complement to the death camp stories of Tadeusz Borowski. Frankl's work on his own and others' experiences provides a context and approach to Borowski's cynical and nihilistic stories. (MJP)

  6. [The call of Viktor von Weizsäckers to the chair for neurology in Breslau 1941].

    PubMed

    Benzenhöfer, U

    1994-11-01

    Only five chairs especially for neurology were existing in Germany in 1938. In this paper the history of the call of Viktor von Weizsäcker (1886-1957) to the famous Breslau chair (Otfrid Foerster) in 1941 is described in detail using unpublished material from the Reichsministerium für Wissenschaft, Erziehung und Volksbildung. PMID:7829032

  7. [1400 hours of analysis with Freud: Viktor von Dirsztay. A biographical sketch].

    PubMed

    May, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of mostly unpublished sources, the author reconstructs the life of the Hungarian writer Viktor von Dirsztay (1884?-1935) who was personally acquainted with many expressionist artists and writers, e. g. with Karl Kraus, Oskar Kokoschka, Herwarth Walden, Walter Hasenclever, Hermann Broch and Arthur Schnitzler. This association puts Freud into closer proximity with the cultural avantgarde of his times than previously realized. Between 1910 and 1920 Dirsztay underwent several phases of analysis with Freud; then he was treated by Theodor Reik. The overall length of his analysis with Freud is almost unparalleled. The article discusses whether and in which way Dirsztay's writings might have been influenced by his analyses and how Freud and Reik might have drawn upon their experiences with this patient. It is argued that likely references can be discovered in both authors' theories of masochism. There is an intriguing late remark of Dirsztay's that he was "ruined by analysis". PMID:20503772

  8. The astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor and the Vienna Urania Observatory (The history of the Vienna Urania Observatory from its foundation to its re-opening (1897-1957) / Friedrich Viktor Schembor - a life for astronomy). (German Title: Der Astronom Friedrich Viktor Schembor und die Wiener Urania-Sternwarte (Die Geschichte der Wiener Urania-Sternwarte von ihrer Gründung bis zu ihrer Wiedereröffnung (1897-1957) / Friedrich Viktor Schembor - ein Leben für die Astronomie))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembor, Friedrich Wilhelm

    The Urania Observatory in Vienna and the life and workings of the Viennese astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor are the topics of this volume. The first part deals with the history of the Urania Observatory and its significance as the oldest popular observatory in Vienna for the education of adults. After a short digression on the development of popular educational activities in the 19th century, the efforts are traced that led to the establishment of the Urania Observatory. The second part deals with the biography of the astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor (1898-1942). Already at an early age he committed himself as a volunteer for popular education in astronomy. In his time as director of the Urania Observatory, he was able to guide the “Astronomische Gemeinde” (Astronomical Congregation) to scientifically useful results. Because of a vicious disease, he was given only a short time of scientific work at the Vienna University Observatory.

  9. Moral distress and its interconnection with moral sensitivity and moral resilience: viewed from the philosophy of Viktor E. Frankl.

    PubMed

    Lützén, Kim; Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice

    2013-10-01

    The interconnection between moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral resilience was explored by constructing two hypothetical scenarios based on a recent Swedish newspaper report. In the first scenario, a 77-year-old man, rational and awake, was coded as "do not resuscitate" (DNR) against his daughter's wishes. The patient died in the presence of nurses who were not permitted to resuscitate him. The second scenario concerned a 41-year-old man, who had been in a coma for three weeks. He was also coded as "do not resuscitate" and, when he stopped breathing, was resuscitated by his father. The nurses persuaded the physician on call to resume life support treatment and the patient recovered. These scenarios were analyzed using Viktor Frankl's existential philosophy, resulting in a conceivable theoretical connection between moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral resilience. To substantiate our conclusion, we encourage further empirical research. PMID:23856882

  10. [Theory of cognition and natural philosophy in neurology. The principle of localization in the debate between Viktor von Weizsäcker, Kurt Goldstein, and Otfrid Foerster in 1930].

    PubMed

    Rimpau, W

    2009-08-01

    Restitution after brain damage was the leading topic in 1930 at the 20th annual meeting of the Society of German Neurologists in Dresden, Germany. One of the "nonanatomic" presentations was held by Viktor von Weizsäcker about modifications in neurological function. Finally the presentation by Kurt Goldstein about restitution after damage of the brain cortex, strongly supported by Weizsäcker, was the starting point for controversies on the significance of natural scientific methods in the field of neurology. Goldstein and Weizsäcker favored the idea that function can be understood only if we consider it in light of the whole organism. However, the president of the Society of German Neurologists, Otfrid Foerster, was mainly influenced by the overall concept of the structure of the peripheral nervous system and - as Weizsäcker indirectly blamed - came to inadequate conclusions by transferring these concepts to the entire nervous system. In contrast Weizsäcker and Goldstein suggested analyzing pathological phenomena not only according to classical physiology, i.e. isolated data acquired by the dissecting method of natural science. Weizsäcker stressed hermeneutic views concerning the mind: body relationship in a phenomenologically oriented medical anthropology. Some years later Foerster linked up with Weizsäcker's position. Goldstein established the new method, the so-called holistic, organismic approach, which he carried on after emigrating to the U.S.A. in 1935. The Heidelberg School around Weizsäcker tried during the following years to liberate neurology from the ideology of materialistic reductionism without however reducing it to simple psychology. The doctrine of neurons and principles of saltatory conduction as basic and descriptive instruments in neurology were not to be questioned. In 1941 Weizsäcker succeeded Foerster as Professor of Neurology at the University of Breslau and Director of the Neurological Research Institute. His literary work "The Circle of Form. Theory of the Unity of Movement and Perception" and Goldstein's "The Organism. A Holistic Approach to Biology derived from Pathological Data in Man" [new edn. by Oliver Sacks, Zone Books, New York, 1995] obtained paradigm values which had their beginnings in Dresden in 1930. "The crisis in biology in the matter of theory of cognition and natural philosophy" was already then obvious and still can be found in present discussion about the relationship between neurosciences and humanities. Weizsäcker increased his focus on medical anthropology by taking a full professorship of general clinical medicine in 1946 in Heidelberg. It is not without reason that Weizsäcker is recognized as a founder of psychosomatic medicine. PMID:19165460

  11. Viktor Lowenfeld Speaks on Art and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittain, W. Lambert, Ed.

    This pamphlet contains an edited collection of Lowenfeld's speeches on art education. Following are the titles of the nine speeches: "On the Significance of Individual Creative Expression,""On the Discrepancy Between Our Scientific and Social Values,""On the Importance of Early Art Expression,""On Fostering Creative Sensitivity,""On Integration in…

  12. [Viktor Borisovich von Gyubbenet--a military physician, a surgeon and a social activist].

    PubMed

    Ishutin, O S

    2015-02-01

    The current article is dedicated to a talented surgeon, an organizer of military health care, an extraordinary personality and a public figure--Doctor of Medicine, a privy councilor Victor Borisovich von Guebbenet. A talent of von Gyubbenea as a doctor-surgeon and an organizer of the surgical help on theater of war was especially brightly shown during two big military conflicts of the beginning of the XX century--the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and the First World War I (1914-1918). In the first case doctor von Gyubbenet, being a surgeon of the 3rd Siberian corps successfully manage the activity of military-medical divisions and establishments of Port Arthur garrison. In the second military conflict Victor Borisovich as a doctor and an organizer headed sanitary part of armies of the Western front and successfully directed a medical support of armies of the front since 1915 and until the end of war. PMID:25920178

  13. SmAll That Jazz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluemel, Dina

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how Viktor Schreckengost's work had been a learning experience for the students of Grant Elementary School. Viktor's most famous work, "Jazz Bowl," was the focus of the author's curriculum. Viktor created this punch bowl for Eleanor Roosevelt in the 1930s. The bowl was so popular that a series of them were produced. The…

  14. SmAll That Jazz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluemel, Dina

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how Viktor Schreckengost's work had been a learning experience for the students of Grant Elementary School. Viktor's most famous work, "Jazz Bowl," was the focus of the author's curriculum. Viktor created this punch bowl for Eleanor Roosevelt in the 1930s. The bowl was so popular that a series of them were produced. The

  15. The Anxiety of Meaninglessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffin, Julian E.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the etiology and consequences of meaninglessness and focuses on the therapeutic approaches of Viktor E. Frankl and J. F. T. Bugental. Concludes that meaninglessness is a significant contemporary problem that needs to be addressed by counselors. (Author/LLL)

  16. The Importance of Self-Identification in Art, Culture, and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The Lowenfeld Award was established in 1960 by friends and former students of Viktor Lowenfeld (widely acknowledged as the most influential art educator of the 20th century) to honor an NAEA member who has made significant contributions to the field of art education through the years. This article reports on the 2012 recipient, Bernard Young,

  17. Cosmic Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Abed, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A team of French high-school students sent a weather balloon into the upper atmosphere to recreate Viktor Hess's historical experiment that demonstrated the existence of ionizing radiation from the sky--later called cosmic radiation. This discovery earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936.

  18. A Personal Reflection on Educating for Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The major premise of this article is inspired by Viktor Frankl's words: "The truth is that as the struggle for survival has subsided, the question has emerged--survival for what? Ever more people today have the "means" to live, but no "meaning" to live for." Thousands of students who have come through the author's college courses during the last…

  19. Enhancing the Teaching and Learning Environment in the USSR. Annual Soviet-American Symposium on Teaching and Learning (2nd, Jacksonville, Florida, October 3-4, 1991). Special Publication Number 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Colleges for International Development, Inc.

    This publication contains papers contributed by Russian educators at a symposium on preparing Soviet youth and adults for the challenges and opportunities of an emerging market economy. The following presentations are included: "Conception of Kazan Community College" (Mirza I. Makhmoutov, Oleg E. Liseitchikov, and Viktor I. Lebedev); "Complex…

  20. The Hampton Years: Lowenfeld's Forgotten Legacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Examines Viktor Lowenfeld's activities as an instructor at the Hampton Institute, Virginia (1939-1946), an essentially Black school in a pre-civil rights movement southern setting. Discusses his theoretical statements and his behaviors in relation to teaching art to Black adults. (GEA)

  1. Predictors of Drug/Alcohol Abuse and Sexual Promiscuity of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Jeong Sook; And Others

    This study examined the relationship between the individual's purpose in life, existential anxiety, powerlessness and use of alcohol/drugs and the tendency to be sexually promiscuous. The study is rooted in the work of Viktor E. Frankl, which suggested that a lack of meaning and purpose can cause socially deviant behavior and psychological…

  2. The Meaning of Life among Secondary School Pupils. A Theoretical Framework and Some Initial Results. Research Bulletin 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele

    This monograph reports on an empirical survey of 394 secondary school students investigating their desire to seek the meaning of their own lives. The theoretical framework upon which the study was based is that of Viktor E. Frankl's hypotheses that a human being wants to seek the meaning in his own life. The questionnaire consisted of tests…

  3. Frankl's Theory and Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missinne, Leo E.; Wilcox, Victoria

    This paper discusses the life, theories, and therapeutic techniques of psychotherapist, Viktor E. Frankl. A brief biography of Frankl is included discussing the relationship of his early experiences as a physician to his theory of personality. Frankl's theory focusing on man's need for meaning and emphasizing the spiritual dimension in each human…

  4. Lowenfeld at Hampton (1939-1946): Empowerment, Resistance, Activism, and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Viktor Lowenfeld (1903-1960) has been abundantly documented as having influenced art teaching in the United States. Scarce attention, however, has been given to the significant and remarkable advancements he made to resist structures of institutionalized racism and promote inter-racial cooperation. Lowenfeld was a mentor to several notable African…

  5. Cosmic balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Abed, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    A team of French high-school students sent a weather balloon into the upper atmosphere to recreate Viktor Hess’s historical experiment that demonstrated the existence of ionizing radiation from the sky—later called cosmic radiation. This discovery earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936.

  6. Child-Centered and Discipline-Based Art Education: Metaphors and Meanings (Abridged).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Carol S.

    1990-01-01

    Compares and contrasts discipline-based art education with Viktor Lowenfeld's creative self-expression approach, using growth, medical, and molding metaphors. Maintains that these two approaches are similar because the views of the child, the teacher's role, and the relationship between them has not changed. (KM)

  7. Lowenfeld Verbatim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Refutes commonly held assumptions forced on the art-education public that characterize Viktor Lowenfeld, a historically well-known art educator, as having a laissez-faire approach to art education and a visual-haptic fixation. Asserts Lowenfeld's beliefs were distorted in later publications of his book, "Creative and Mental Growth." (CMK)

  8. The Philosophy of Dissonant Children: Stanley Cavell's Wittgensteinian Philosophical Therapies as an Educational Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansson, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    Education is often understood as a process whereby children come to conform to the norms teachers believe should govern our practices. This picture problematically presumes that educators know in advance what it means for children to go on the way that is expected of them. In this essay Viktor Johansson suggests a revision of education, through…

  9. Creative Intelligence, Creative Practice: Lowenfeld Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Volume 1, No. 2, of "Studies in Art Education," appearing in spring 1960, included an article by Viktor Lowenfeld titled "Creative Intelligence." Here, he highlighted his belief in the importance of creative intelligence to human functioning, linking it to creative practice as represented most purely in the artworks of children and untutored…

  10. The Importance of Self-Identification in Art, Culture, and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The Lowenfeld Award was established in 1960 by friends and former students of Viktor Lowenfeld (widely acknowledged as the most influential art educator of the 20th century) to honor an NAEA member who has made significant contributions to the field of art education through the years. This article reports on the 2012 recipient, Bernard Young,…

  11. Re-Thinking Lowenfeld.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Jean Morman

    1992-01-01

    Reexamines basic aspects of creativity enumerated by Viktor Lowenfeld and shows how goals of art education have varied with time and social needs. Argues that interdisciplinary approach to learning, which involves seeing connections and realizing that all knowledge is one and whole, is what education is all about. Concludes that such approach was…

  12. Lowenfeld at Hampton (1939-1946): Empowerment, Resistance, Activism, and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Viktor Lowenfeld (1903-1960) has been abundantly documented as having influenced art teaching in the United States. Scarce attention, however, has been given to the significant and remarkable advancements he made to resist structures of institutionalized racism and promote inter-racial cooperation. Lowenfeld was a mentor to several notable African

  13. Searching for Meaning: Visual Culture from an Anthropological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of Viktor Lowenfeld's influence on her research, describes visual anthropology, gives examples of her research, and examines the implications of this type of research for teachers. The author regards Lowenfeld's (1952/1939) early work with children in Austria as a form of participant observation…

  14. Beniamin Markarian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2013-10-01

    The booklet is dedicated to the great Armenian astronomer Beniamin Markarian. Due to his efforts the famous Byurakan surveys have been accomplished and ultraviolet excess galaxies have been discovered, later named after him. The Armenian astronomy is well-known throughout the world as due to Viktor Ambartsumian's, so as to Markarian's works, and Markarian galaxies are being studied by numerous ground-based and space telescopes along the whole range of electromagnetic radiation.

  15. The Knorre astronomers' dynasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinigin, G.

    2009-06-01

    We attempt to throw light upon the poorly known astronomical dynasty of Knorre and describe its contribution to astronomy. The founder of the dynasty, Ernst Christoph Friedrich Knorre (1759-1810), was born in Germany in 1759, and since 1802 he was a Professor of Mathematics at the Tartu University, and observer at its temporary observatory. He determined the first coordinates of Tartu by stellar observations. Karl Friedrich Knorre (1801-1883) was the first director of the Naval Observatory in Nikolaev since the age of 20, provided the Black Sea navy with accurate time and charts, trained mariners in astronomical navigation, and certified navigation equipment. He compiled star maps and catalogues, and determined positions of comets and planets. He also participated in Bessel's project of the Academic Star Charts, and was responsible for Hora 4, published by the Berlin Academy of Sciences. This sheet permitted to discover two minor planets, Astraea and Flora. Viktor Knorre (1840-1919) was born in Nikolaev. In 1862 he left for Berlin to study astronomy. After defending his thesis for a doctor's degree, he went to Pulkovo as an astronomical calculator in 1867. Since 1873 Viktor worked as an observer of the Berlin Observatory Fraunhofer refractor. His main research focussed on minor planets, comets and binary stars. He discovered the minor planets Koronis, Oenone, Hypatia and Penthesilea. Viktor Knorre also worked on improving astronomical instrumentation, e.g. the Knorre / Heele equatorial telescope mounting.

  16. Logotherapy for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Schulenberg, Stefan E; Hutzell, Robert R; Nassif, Carrie; Rogina, Julius M

    2008-12-01

    Logotherapy is based on the meaning-focused existential philosophy of Viktor E. Frankl (1905-1997). Numerous mental health professionals have been inspired by his most popular book, Man's Search for Meaning; however, many are unfamiliar with the depth of Frankl's work. The purpose of this article is to discuss the tenets of logotherapy, including fundamental concepts, applicability and techniques, roles of the therapist, and assessment tools and new research findings. Logotherapy can readily be integrated with techniques that mental health professionals frequently use, and thus it has much to offer mental health professionals regardless of their theoretical orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122533

  17. News and Views: A total solar eclipse over Rapa Nui; ESA's vision; International team wins first Ambartsumian Prize; Thinner thermosphere; ESA funds games; Team finds starspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Francisco Diego recorded spectacular images of the 11 July 2010 total solar eclipse from Rapa Nui (Easter Island), making the most of modern digital technology - much of which originated from astronomical research - in taking and processing the images. The European Space Agency has set out its priorities for the decade starting in 2015, in a report entitled Cosmic Vision. The first Viktor Ambartsumian International Prize, in memory of the distinguished Armenian theorist, goes to the team led by Prof. Michel Mayor of the Observatory of Geneva, for ``their important contribution in the study of relation between planetary systems and their host stars''.

  18. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: a review of its role in the physiology and pathology of the integument and its relationship to the tryptophan metabolism.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Rowland

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a cytosolic receptor for low molecular weight molecules, of which the most widely recognized ligand is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and the most widely recognized effect, chloracne. Adverse effects of manipulation were most recently and graphically demonstrated by the poisoning of Viktor Yushchenko during the Ukrainian presidential elections of 2004. However, recent research has revealed a receptor with wide-ranging, and at times, paradoxical actions. It was arguably among the first biological receptors to be utilized by dermatologists, dating from the time of topical tar preparations as a therapeutic agent. I provide a review outlining the role AHR plays in the development, cellular oxidation/antioxidation, responses to ultraviolet light, melanogenesis, epidermal barrier function, and immune regulation and its relationship to tryptophan metabolism. Finally, I will review the role of AHR in diseases of the integument. PMID:25733915

  19. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III: victims of the Third Reich.

    PubMed

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on “non-Aryan” doctors. Some of these unfortunate neuroscientists survived Nazi concentration camps, but most were murdered. We discuss the circumstances and environment which stripped these neuroscientists of their profession, then of their personal rights and freedom, and then of their lives. We include a background analysis of anti-Semitism and Nazism in their various countries, then discuss in depth seven exemplary neuroscientist Holocaust victims; including Germans Ludwig Pick, Arthur Simons, and Raphael Weichbrodt, Austrians Alexander Spitzer and Viktor Frankl, and Poles Lucja Frey and Wladyslaw Sterling. by recognizing and remembering these victims of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself. PMID:23230611

  20. [Method of existence analytic psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Längle, A

    1990-01-01

    Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding. PMID:2251867

  1. [On the clinical applications of logotherapy: a review of Victor Emil Frankl inheritance].

    PubMed

    Girmenia, E; Andrissi, L; Tambone, V

    2014-01-01

    The Viktor E. Frankl's thought has found wide application in many areas of the Clinic, not limited to the neuropsychiatric area. If the franklian work is known worldwide for being a theory and a practice within neurotic disorders, we must not forget how logotherapy has been put at the disposal of the sufferer in its broadest sense. Especially in the context of care and care of the chronically and evolutionary ill (cancer, heart disease, degenerative diseases, etc.), the thought and practice logotherapy have made and continue to make a valuable contribution. In this review we will cover in more detail the application of logotherapy in clinical-care, pausing to examine the international literature. PMID:25203351

  2. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor: A Review of Its Role in the Physiology and Pathology of the Integument and Its Relationship to the Tryptophan Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Noakes, Rowland

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a cytosolic receptor for low molecular weight molecules, of which the most widely recognized ligand is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and the most widely recognized effect, chloracne. Adverse effects of manipulation were most recently and graphically demonstrated by the poisoning of Viktor Yushchenko during the Ukrainian presidential elections of 2004. However, recent research has revealed a receptor with wide-ranging, and at times, paradoxical actions. It was arguably among the first biological receptors to be utilized by dermatologists, dating from the time of topical tar preparations as a therapeutic agent. I provide a review outlining the role AHR plays in the development, cellular oxidation/antioxidation, responses to ultraviolet light, melanogenesis, epidermal barrier function, and immune regulation and its relationship to tryptophan metabolism. Finally, I will review the role of AHR in diseases of the integument. PMID:25733915

  3. Ambartsumyan's concept of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachikian, E. Ye.

    2010-01-01

    As Victor Ambartsumyan, himself, noted, the concept of active galactic nuclei occupies a special place among his scientific ideas. It was proposed more than half a century ago and was recognized by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences as revolutionary, on a copernican scale. However, by no means all of its propositions were accepted at once by large parts of the astronomy community. Nevertheless, as the American astrophysicist A. R. Sandage has written, today, not one astronomer would deny the mystery surrounding the nuclei of galaxies or that the first to recognize the rich reward held in this treasury was Viktor Ambartsumian. The purpose of this article is to acquaint the reader with the major stages in the formation and development of the concept of active galactic nuclei and with some of the work on this topic done at the Byurakan and other astrophysical observatories throughout the world.

  4. The physician leader as logotherapist.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Washburn ER

    1998-07-01

    Today's physicians feel helpless and angry about changing conditions in the medical landscape. This is due, in large part, to our postmodernist world view and the influence of corporations on medical practice. The life and work of existentialist psychiatrist Viktor Frankl is proposed as a role model for physicians to take back control of their profession. Physician leaders are in the best position to bring the teachings and insight of Frankl's logotherapy to rank-and-file physicians in all practice settings, as well as into the board rooms of large medical corporations. This article considers the spiritual and moral troubles of American medicine, Frankl's answer to that affliction, and the implications of logotherapy for physician organizations and leadership. Physician executives are challenged to take up this task.

  5. Armenian Astronomical Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    A review is given on the Armenian Astronomical Heritage from ancient times to nowadays. Armenian ancient astronomy includes the division of the skies into constellations, rock art, ancient Armenian calendar, ancient observatories (such as Metsamor and Karahunge), records of astronomical events (such as Halley's Comet recorded on Tigranes the Great's coin), ancient names of celestial bodies (planets, stars, constellations), etc. The Medieval Armenian astronomy includes two more calendars, Anania Shirakatsi's scientific heritage, the record of 1054 Supernova, sky maps by Luca Vanandetsi and Mkhitar Sebastatsi, etc. Modern Armenian astronomical heritage first of all consists of the famous Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory founded in 1946 by Viktor Ambartsumian, as well as Yerevan Astronomical Observatory, Armenian Astronomical Society, Armenian Virtual Observatory, Yerevan State University Department of Astrophysics, Astrofizika journal, and brilliant young students who systematically win high positions at International Astronomical Olympiads.

  6. Research on cholinesterases in the Soviet Union and Russia: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Rozengart, Eugene V; Basova, Natalia E; Moralev, Serge N; Lushchekina, Sofya V; Masson, Patrick; Varfolomeev, Sergei D

    2013-03-25

    Research on cholinesterases and effects of their inhibition in the USSR and Russia since 1930-1940s till present is exposed in historical aspects. The first physiological and toxicological effects of cholinesterase inhibition were reported by Alexander Ginetsinsky during World War II, when academic institutions were evacuated from Leningrad to Kazan. The main scientific schools that initiated research on chemistry, enzymology and physiology of cholinesterases and their inhibitors were leaded by Alexandr and Boris Arbuzovs, Victor Rozengart, Viktor Yakovlev, Michael Michelson, Martin Kabachnik, Mikhail Voronkov, Ivan Knunyants, Alexandr Bretskin and others. They investigated the main physiological effects of cholinesterase inhibitors, and analyzed the catalytic mechanisms of cholinesterases and related enzymes. Their contributions are landmarks in the history of cholinesterase research. At the present time revival of research on cholinesterases in different universities and institutes is vivid, in particular at the Moscow State University, research institutes of Russian Academy of Sciences and Kazan Scientific Center. PMID:23485591

  7. [The human being from the point of view of animals or, "Who knows whether the breath of men goes upwards?" (Ecclesiastes 3:21)].

    PubMed

    Arendt, D

    1999-05-01

    The question of whether animals have souls has been asked since as early as the Old Testament. Where this is believed to be true, fiction has provided interesting models in literature: The human being as seen by animals has been a popular subject since Apuleius' 'Asinus aureus' and how man appears from the perspective of a donkey or a beetle, that is to say the perspective from below, becomes controversial. Examples may be found in all languages and centuries in Jonathan Swift, Miguel Cervantes, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Ludwig Tieck, Heinrich Heine, Viktor von Scheffel, Franz Kafka and others. Résumé at the end: How does man answer this question or his own self-questioning? PMID:10379104

  8. Theoretical Modeling for the X-ray Spectroscopy of Iron-bearing MgSiO3 under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2012-12-01

    The behaviors of iron (Fe) in MgSiO3 perovskite, including valence state, spin state, and chemical environments, at high pressures are of fundamental importance for more detailed understanding the properties of the Earth's lower mantle. The pressure induced spin transition of Fe-bearing MgO and MgSiO3 are detected often by using high-resolution K-edge X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) [1,2,3] and confirmed by theoretical simulations. [4,5] Since the Fe K-edge XES is associated to the 3p orbital, which is far from the valence orbitals (3d and 4s), it provides no information about its coordination environments. However, the Fe L-edge XES and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can directly present the distribution and intensity of Fe-3d character. To identify both the spin states and the coordination environments of iron-bearing MgSiO3, we systematically investigate the L-edge XAS, XES and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy of Fe2+- and Fe3+-bearing MgSiO3 under high pressure by using the first-principles density functional method combined with the slater-transition method. Our results show that Fe2+ and Fe3+ can be distinguished easily by taking the XPS spectra. The spin transition of Fe2+ and Fe3+ can also be clearly certified by XAS and XES. Interestingly, the broadness of L-edge XES of Fe changes depending on the iron position, meaning that its coordination environment might also be distinguishable by using high-resolution XES measurements. Research supported by the Ehime University G-COE program and KAKENHI. [1] James Badro, Guillaume Fiquet, FranÇois Guyot, Jean-Pascal Rueff, Viktor V. Struzhkin, György VankÓ, and Giulio Monaco. Science 300, 789 (2003), [2] James Badro, Jean-Pascal Rueff, György VankÓ, Giulio Monaco, Guillaume Fiquet, and FranÇois Guyot, Science 305, 383 (2004), [3] Jung-Fu Lin, Viktor V. Struzhkin, Steven D. Jacobsen, Michael Y. Hu, Paul Chow, Jennifer Kung, Haozhe Liu, Ho-kwang Mao, and Gussell J. Hemley, Nature 436, 377 (2005). [4] Taku Tsuchiya, Renata M. Wentzcovitch, Cesar R.S. da Silva, and Stefano de Gironcoli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 198501 (2006). [4] Han Hsu, Peter Blaha, Matteo Cococcioni, and Renata M. Wentzcovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 118501 (2011).

  9. A scramble for data on Arctic radioactive dumping

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.

    1992-07-31

    On 15 August, a Russian research vessel, the Viktor Buynitskiy, will leave the Norwegian port of Kirkenes packed with surveying equipment and scientists. Its mission will be to check out one of the more alarming environmental stories that have drifted out of the former Soviet Union since its collapse last fall: a claim that the Arctic is being polluted by tons of radioactive waste spilled or dumped by the Soviet military. Since May, US officials have been searching for information to confirm or disprove the reports about Russian radiation. The basic concern, is as follows: Arctic waters - and, potentially, fisheries near Norway and Alaska - are in danger of being contaminated by radioactive isotopes leaking from two major sources. One is the area around Novaya Zemlya, an archipelago where the Soviets conducted bomb tests, scuttled submarines, and disposed of waste canisters. The other is freshwater runoff into the Arctic Ocean - including the Ob and Yenisey Rivers - carrying isotopes from weapons plants, waste ponds, and accident sites in Siberia.

  10. Psychology and the Notion of the Spirit: Implications of Max Scheler's Anthropological Philosophy in Theory of Psychology.

    PubMed

    Lehmann O, Olga V; Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2015-09-01

    After many decades with neglect Max Scheler and his anthropological contributions to the understanding of human existence, have gotten  more attention in psychology and other humanities. One factor is the actuality of his main project of revaluating the roles of values in philosophy and science. Yet another is the way individual scholars have applied Scheler's philosophy and terms on different fields and arenas. Viktor Frankl was one of these, and he brought Scheler's philosophical anthropology into psychotherapeutic practice, offering theoretical and empirical arguments for considering the notion of the spirit as an interdependent -yet separate- entity in regards to the psyche and the soma. During this commentary on Allyushin (Integrative Psychology Behaviour, 48, 503-523, 2014), we will discuss some general aspects of Scheler's contribution to phenomenology, but focus specifically on the implication of his notion of the spirit for psychological theory, acknowledging the work that has been done in the field for at least 60 years in logotherapy and existential analysis. With this purpose, we will highlight four other notions interrelated with the motivational quality of the notion of the spirit: resentment, axiology of values; self-detachment and self-transcendence. PMID:25630299

  11. FOREWORD: International Scientific Seminars on "Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, Stanislav; Ryzhii, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    International Scientific Seminars ''Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics'' were held in Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU) in May - June 2014. The idea of the Seminars was to organize a series of meetings between young scientists and discuss actual problems and the latest results in Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics. There were eight Sessions: Modern Problems of Condensed Matter Physics; Laser Physics; Spectroscopy of Condensed Matter; Terahertz Optical Technology; Optical Signals Processing; Physics of Optical Strong Correlated Systems; Complex Dusty Plasma Physics; Biomediacal Applications of Photonics. Seminars were organized by the young group of scientists and students from Research and Educational Center ''Photonics and Infrared Technology'' at BMSTU. It brought a significant contribution to the development of youth science in the field of Physics and Photonics in Russia. More than 100 young scientists and students participated in the Seminars in spring - summer 2014. The International Scientific Seminars were supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant # 14-08-06030-g). This volume contains proceedings of the International Scientific Seminars ''Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics''. Stanislav Yurchenko and Viktor Ryzhii Bauman Moscow State Technical University

  12. "Making strange": a role for the humanities in medical education.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Arno K; Wear, Delese

    2014-07-01

    Stories, film, drama, and art have been used in medical education to enhance empathy, perspective-taking, and openness to "otherness," and to stimulate reflection on self, others, and the world. Yet another, equally important function of the humanities and arts in the education of physicians is that of "making strange"-that is, portraying daily events, habits, practices, and people through literature and the arts in a way that disturbs and disrupts one's assumptions, perspectives, and ways of acting so that one sees the self, others, and the world anew. Tracing the development of this concept from Viktor Shklovsky's "enstrangement" (ostranenie) through Bertolt Brecht's "alienation effect," this essay describes the use of this technique to disrupt the "automaticity of thinking" in order to discover new ways of perceiving and being in the world.Enstrangement may be used in medical education in order to stimulate critical reflection and dialogue on assumptions, biases, and taken-for-granted societal conditions that may hinder the realization of a truly humanistic clinical practice. In addition to its ability to enhance one's critical understanding of medicine, the technique of "making strange" does something else: By disrupting fixed beliefs, this approach may allow a reexamination of patient-physician relationships in terms of human interactions and provide health care professionals an opportunity-an "open space"-to bear witness and engage with other individuals during challenging times. PMID:24751976

  13. Freedom and mystery: an intellectual history of Jaspers' General Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Bormuth, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Kantian idea of freedom was introduced to psychiatry methodologically by Karl Jaspers. It influenced the genesis and design of his doctrine of understanding, General Psychopathology, even more decisively than Nietzsche's topos of resentment did. This article places Jaspers' work in the framework of a history of ideas. It begins by pursuing Nietzsche's perspective in the context of Darwinism, then focuses on the role concealed resentment played for Jaspers' genealogical concept of understanding in the first (1913) edition of General Psychopathology, which is primarily oriented towards Max Weber, before examining the idea of Kantian freedom, which was to become crucial for Jaspers' later work. The antinomy of freedom already shapes the suicidology contained in Jaspers' Philosophy of 1931. The idea gains prominence in the final, philosophically grounded revision of GeneralPsychopathology published in 1941/1942. Jaspers' reception of Kantian idealism leads him to develop a concept of critical understanding that clearly distinguishes itself from speculative understanding, whose hazards Jaspers illustrates on the basis of Viktor von Weizsäcker's theory of medicine. This goes far beyond Kant, embracing Schelling and Hegel philosophically. As it were, Jaspers and von Weizsäcker represent critical and postcritical thought in psychopathology and psychosomatics. The epilogue sums up by placing the inquiry in the context of Jaspers' life and work. PMID:23942461

  14. A lumped model of venting during thermal runaway in a cylindrical Lithium Cobalt Oxide lithium-ion cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coman, Paul T.; Rayman, Sean; White, Ralph E.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model built for analyzing the intricate thermal behavior of a 18650 LCO (Lithium Cobalt Oxide) battery cell during thermal runaway when venting of the electrolyte and contents of the jelly roll (ejecta) is considered. The model consists of different ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations) describing reaction rates and electrochemical reactions, as well as the isentropic flow equations for describing electrolyte venting. The results are validated against experimental findings from Golubkov et al. [1] [Andrey W. Golubkov, David Fuchs, Julian Wagner, Helmar Wiltsche, Christoph Stangl, Gisela Fauler, Gernot Voitice Alexander Thaler and Viktor Hacker, RSC Advances, 4:3633-3642, 2014] for two cases - with flow and without flow. The results show that if the isentropic flow equations are not included in the model, the thermal runaway is triggered prematurely at the point where venting should occur. This shows that the heat dissipation due to ejection of electrolyte and jelly roll contents has a significant contribution. When the flow equations are included, the model shows good agreement with the experiment and therefore proving the importance of including venting.

  15. A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology

    PubMed Central

    HOPWOOD, NICK

    2006-01-01

    Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897–1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel’s design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d’Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel’s complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages—reduced to a few journal pages—helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account. PMID:17183461

  16. PREFACE: Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolin, A.; Abramov, V.; Fuchs, J.; Paal, E.; Shestopalov, Y.; Silvestrov, S.

    2012-02-01

    This proceedings volume presents results obtained by the participants of the 6th Baltic-Nordic workshop 'Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics (AGMP-6)' held at the Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Sciences in Tjärnö, Sweden on October 25-30, 2010. The Baltic-Nordic Network AGMP 'Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics' http://www.agmp.eu was created in 2005 on the initiative of two Estonian universities and two Swedish universities: Tallinn University of Technology represented by Eugen Paal (coordinator of the network), Tartu University represented by Viktor Abramov, Lund University represented by Sergei Silvestrov, and Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg represented by Alexander Stolin. The goal was to promote international and interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and research groups in the countries of the Baltic-Nordic region in mathematics and mathematical physics, with special emphasis on the important role played by algebra and geometry in modern physics, engineering and technologies. The main activities of the AGMP network consist of a series of regular annual international workshops, conferences and research schools. The AGMP network also constitutes an important educational forum for scientific exchange and dissimilation of research results for PhD students and Postdocs. The network has expanded since its creation, and nowadays its activities extend beyond countries in the Baltic-Nordic region to universities in other European countries and participants from elsewhere in the world. As one of the important research-dissimilation outcomes of its activities, the network has a tradition of producing high-quality research proceedings volumes after network events, publishing them with various international publishers. The PDF also contains the following: List of AGMP workshops and other AGMP activities Main topics discussed at AGMP-6 Review of AGMP-6 proceedings Acknowledgments List of Conference Participants

  17. The role of air quality in perception of health of the local population.

    PubMed

    Valentić, Damir; Micović, Vladimir; Kolarić, Branko; Brncić, Nada; Ljubotina, Aleksandar

    2010-04-01

    The research aim was to investigate and establish the perception of health among population groups with different number of industrial polluters in their living environment. Namely, the Kostrena living area (3250 inhabitants) is situated near big industrial pollutant producers: INA oil refinery Urinj, thermo power plant Rijeka, shipyard "Viktor Lenac", while in Crikvenica living area such pollutant producers do not exist. In this research 146 subjects from Kostrena participated (74 men and 72 women with age average 40.8, SD 9.2 years), and 157 subjects from Crikvenica area (79 men and 78 women with age average 39.4, SD 10.1 years). The perception of health was measured by the means of SF-36 questionnaire variables. Lung function (FEV1, FVC, FEV25/75, PEF), cardiovascular function (systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, heart rate were also measured, including body proportion measures by the means of waste and hip circumference and silhouette test, in order to establish the eventual objective physical health parameter difference among examined population groups. Subjects from Kostrena perceived their general health, mental health, and vitality worse than subjects from Crikvenica. Group from Kostrena felt themself more limited in their roles due to emotional problems, perceiving more pain than group from Crikvenica. On the opposite site, social functioning of subjects from Kostrena was better in comparison to Crikvenica group. No signifficant differences between groups were found in physical functioning and in role limitation due to physical problems. In addition, there were no significant differences between groups in objective physical health parameters, such as pulmonary function, arterial blood pressure, pulse, and waist to hip ratio. Subjects using sensoric systems and the mental cognition about harmful environmental factors, perceive their health worse if there are present industrial resources in their environment, even when concentration of the pollutants are within legal ranges. PMID:21305731

  18. PREFACE: 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium on the Fundamental and Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices and Technologies (RJUS TeraTech - 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Valeriy; Ryzhii, Viktor; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) Bauman Moscow State Technical University Moscow, Russia, 3-6 June, 2013 The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) was held in Bauman Moscow State Technical University on 3-6 June 2013 and was devoted to modern problems of terahertz optical technologies. RJUS TeraTech 2013 was organized by Bauman Moscow State Technical University in cooperation with Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) and University of Buffalo (The State University of New York, USA). The Symposium was supported by Bauman Moscow State Technical University (Moscow, Russia) and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant number 13-08-06100-g). RJUS TeraTech - 2013 became a foundation for sharing and discussing modern and promising achievements in fundamental and applied problems of terahertz optical technologies, devices based on grapheme and grapheme strictures, condensed matter of different nature. Among participants of RJUS TeraTech - 2013, there were more than 100 researchers and students from different countries. This volume contains proceedings of the 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies'. Valeriy Karasik, Viktor Ryzhii and Stanislav Yurchenko Bauman Moscow State Technical University Symposium chair Anatoliy A Aleksandrov, Rector of BMSTU Symposium co-chair Valeriy E Karasik, Head of the Research and Educational Center 'PHOTONICS AND INFRARED TECHNOLOGY' (Russia) Invited Speakers Taiichi Otsuji, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Akira Satou, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Michael Shur, Electrical, Computer and System Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NY, USA Natasha Kirova, University Paris-Sud, France Andrei Sergeev, Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Buffalo, The State University of New Your, Buffalo, NY, USA Magnus Willander, Linkoping University (LIU), Department of Science and Technology, Linkopings, Sweden Dmitry R Khohlov, Physical Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia Vladimir L Vaks, Institute for Physics of Microstructures of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

  19. The origin of galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasi, Pasquale

    2013-11-01

    One century ago Viktor Hess carried out several balloon flights that led him to conclude that the penetrating radiation responsible for the discharge of electroscopes was of extraterrestrial origin. One century from the discovery of this phenomenon seems to be a good time to stop and think about what we have understood about Cosmic Rays. The aim of this review is to illustrate the ideas that have been and are being explored in order to account for the observable quantities related to cosmic rays and to summarize the numerous new pieces of observation that are becoming available. In fact, despite the possible impression that development in this field is somewhat slow, the rate of new discoveries in the last decade or so has been impressive, and mainly driven by beautiful pieces of observation. At the same time scientists in this field have been able to propose new, fascinating ways to investigate particle acceleration inside the sources, making use of multifrequency observations that range from the radio, to the optical, to X-rays and gamma rays. These ideas can now be confronted with data. I will mostly focus on supernova remnants as the most plausible sources of Galactic cosmic rays, and I will review the main aspects of the modern theory of diffusive particle acceleration at supernova remnant shocks, with special attention for the dynamical reaction of accelerated particles on the shock and the phenomenon of magnetic field amplification at the shock. Cosmic-ray escape from the sources is discussed as a necessary step to determine the spectrum of cosmic rays at the Earth. The discussion of these theoretical ideas will always proceed parallel to an account of the data being collected especially in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. In the end of this review I will also discuss the phenomenon of cosmic-ray acceleration at shocks propagating in partially ionized media and the implications of this phenomenon in terms of width of the Balmer line emission. This field of research has recently experienced a remarkable growth, in that Hα lines have been found to bear information on the cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency of supernova shocks.

  20. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    SciTech Connect

    CM Johnson

    2000-07-24

    This paper reviews select programs driving the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation's (Minatom) efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the US over the next three to five years. The paper's findings are: (1) Despite numerous cabinet displacements throughout the Yeltsin administration, Yevgeny Adamov was reappointed Minister on four occasions. With Boris Yeltsin's January 1, 2000 resignation, Adamov's long-term position as the head of the Ministry is more tenuous, but he will likely retain his position until at least the March 2000 elections. Acting President Vladimir Putin is unlikely to reorganize his cabinet prior to that date and there are no signs that Putin is dissatisfied with Adamov's leadership of Minatom. (2) Adamov's chief priorities are downsizing Minatom's defense sector, increasing the oversight of subsidiary bodies by the central bureaucracy and consolidating commercial elements of the Ministry within an umbrella organization called Atomprom. (3) Viktor Mikhaylov, Adamov's predecessor and critic of his reform efforts, has been relieved of his duties as First Deputy Minister. While he retains his positions as Chief of the Science Councils and Chief Scientist at Arzamas-16, his influence on Minatom's direction is greatly diminished. Adamov will likely continue his efforts to further marginalize Mikhaylov in the coming year. (4) Securing extra-budgetary sources of income continues to be the major factor guiding Minatom's international business dealings. The Ministry will continue to aggressively promote the sale of nuclear technology abroad, often to countries with questionable nonproliferation commitments. (5) Given the financial difficulties in Russia and Minatom's client states, however, few nuclear development programs will come to fruition for a number of years, if ever. Nevertheless, certain peaceful nuclear cooperation agreements should be carefully monitored--particularly those negotiated with Cuba, Iran, Libya and Syria. (6) Waste management has also risen in importance for Minatom. Opportunities for raising funds by reprocessing, storing and permanently disposing of spent fuel from foreign states are being explored. Although currently prohibited by federal law, the Russian Parliament will likely pass legislation in support of this program.

  1. Vigrishinite, Zn2Ti4 - x Si4O14(OH,H2O,□)8, a new mineral from the Lovozero alkaline complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekov, I. V.; Britvin, S. N.; Zubkova, N. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Bryzgalov, I. A.; Lykova, I. S.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    A new mineral vigrishinite, epistolite-group member and first layer titanosilicate with species-defining Zn, was found at Mt. Malyi Punkaruaiv, in the Lovozero alkaline complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It occurs in a hydrothermally altered peralkaline pegmatite and is associated with microcline, ussingite, aegirine, analcime, gmelinite-Na, and chabazite-Ca. Vigrishinite forms rectangular or irregularly shaped lamellae up to 0.05 × 2 × 3 cm flattened on [001]. They are typically slightly split and show blocky character. The mineral is translucent to transparent and pale pink, yellowish-pinkish or colorless. The luster is vitreous. The Mohs' hardness is 2.5-3. Vigrishinite is brittle. Cleavage is {001} perfect. D meas = 3.03(2), D calc = 2.97 g/cm3. The mineral is optically biaxial (-), α = 1.755(5), β = 1.82(1), γ = 1.835(8), 2 V meas = 45(10)°, 2 V calc = 50°. IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition (wt %; average of 9 point analyses, H2O is determined by modified Penfield method) is as follows: 0.98 Na2O, 0.30 K2O, 0.56 CaO, 0.05 SrO, 0.44 BaO, 0.36 MgO, 2.09 MnO, 14.39 ZnO, 2.00 Fe2O3, 0.36 Al2O3, 32.29 SiO2, 29.14 TiO2, 2.08 ZrO2, 7.34 Nb2O5, 0.46 F, 9.1 H2O, -0.19 O=F2, total is 101.75. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of Si + Al = 4 is: H7.42(Zn1.30Na0.23Mn0.22Ca0.07Mg0.07K0.05Ba0.02)Σ1.96(Ti2.68Nb0.41Fe{0.18/3+}Zr0.12)Σ3.39(Si3.95Al0.05)Σ4 20.31F0.18. The simplified formula is: Zn2Ti4- x Si4O14(OH,H2O,□)8 ( x < 1). Vigrishinite is triclinic, space group P , a = 8.743(9), b = 8.698(9), c = 11.581(11)Å, α = 91.54(8)°, β = 98.29(8)°, γ = 105.65(8)°, V = 837.2(1.5) Å3, Z = 2. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder pattern ( d, Å, - I[ hkl]) are: 11.7-67[001], 8.27-50[100], 6.94-43[01, 10], 5.73-54[11, 002], 4.17-65[020, 2, 200], and 2.861-100[30, 22, 004, 11]. The crystal structure model was obtained on a single crystal, R = 0.171. Vigrishinite and murmanite are close in the structure of the TiSiO motif, but strongly differ from each other in part of large cations and H-bearing groups. Vigrishinite is named in honor of Viktor G. Grishin (b. 1953), a Russian amateur mineralogist and mineral collector, to pay tribute to his contribution to the mineralogy of the Lovozero Complex. The type specimen is deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

  2. Effect "negative viscosity" as possible mechanism of ozone hole are formed above Antarctica at last quarter of XX century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrey, Nagurny

    2010-05-01

    One of the possible mechanisms of the ozone hole formation over Antarctica can be a meridional transport of ozone deficit by the mesoscale vortexes generated by perturbations in the stratospheric circumpolar vortex. This transport can occur against the global ozone gradient in the polar stratosphere. An assessment of the value and sign of the macro-turbulent exchange coefficient provides understanding of the intensity and direction of large-scale vortex diffusion in the framework of the equations of heat, moisture and momentum transfer. The local viscosity can be negative at this since the turbulent viscosity, heat conductivity and diffusion coefficients characterize already not the physical properties of fluids and gases but the statistical properties of their turbulent motions. According to the definition of Viktor Starr (1968), "negative viscosity" leads to the impulse transfer against a zonal gradient. So, the small-scale energy passes to zonal energy and in the equations of transfer of the conservative properties of the atmosphere (temperature, humidity, ozone, etc.), the transfer can be against the average zonal gradient. To estimate macro-turbulent exchange coefficients, we shall use a procedure, which is similar by structure to the procedure, which is used for reduction of the non-linear Burger's equation to the linear equation of heat conductivity. Whereas in 1980, one mainly observes the positive values of meridional turbulent exchange coefficient, but to 1988 and especially in 2003, these values within the stratospheric vortex are predominantly negative. The growth of the negative value of the meridional transfer coefficient simultaneously with the increased area and the "depth" of the ozone hole allow us to interpret the development of the ozone hole in terms of the mechanism of "negative" viscosity, responsible for transfer of kinetic energy by smaller-scale vortexes towards large-scale perturbations enhancing thus the intensity of the stratospheric circumpolar vortex. Correspondingly, ozone in this process is transferred against the latitudinal gradient of its distribution, creating the ozone deficit within the stratospheric vortex and its maximum at the periphery. One of the peculiarities of the ozone hole in Antarctica is presence of the maximum ozone value at the periphery of the ozone hole. There is an impression that the ozone maximum and minimum over Antarctica are formed by one mechanism within the circumpolar stratospheric vortex over the South Pole. The mechanism of the "negative viscosity" quite fits in principle this role. Calculations showed that exactly in spring (in September in the South Polar Area) values of meridional turbulent exchange coefficient achieve their maximum negative values. In the process of occurrence of the ozone hole and its development beginning from 1982, the scale of the stratospheric circumpolar vortex in the South Polar Area decreases with a simultaneous increase of the vortex intensity ("depth"). The latter seems to contribute to appearance of the negative viscosity" effect, when ozone is transported from the stratospheric vortex to its external boundary, creating the ozone deficit inside the vortex and its excess at the periphery of the circumpolar vortex. A decrease of the vortex scale can be caused by a combined impact of natural multiyear fluctuations of the general circulation (for example, a 40-year period) and a continuously increasing anthropogenic impact.

  3. Time- and Space-Domain Measurements of the Thermal Conductivity in Diamond Anvil Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. F.

    2011-12-01

    I will give an overview of recent developments of experimental techniques to measure the thermal conductivity in diamond anvil cell (DAC) under conditions of high pressure and high temperature (P-T) which are relevant for the planetary interiors. To measure the lattice contributions to the thermal conductivity, we developed a transient heating technique (THT) in the diamond anvil cell (DAC) [1]. This technique utilizes a periodic front surface temperature variation (measured by the spectroradiometry) of a metallic absorber surrounded by the material of interest and exposed to a pulsed laser radiation (10 nanoseconds pulses). We extract the thermal diffusivity of minerals by fitting the experimental results to the model finite element (FE) calculations. We have recently modified this technique for microseconds laser pulses as this allows avoiding nonequilibrium heat transfer processes. We have measured the thermal conductivity of Ar up to 50 GPa and 2500 K; the results are in agreement with the theoretical calculations [2] in the limit of high temperatures. In collaboration with a group from the University of Illinois we have utilized a time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR)- ultrafast (femtosecond) laser pump-probe technique for measurement of the lattice thermal conductivity at high P-T conditions. We have measured the thermal conductivity of MgO up to 60 GPa and 300 K and up to 45 GPa at 600 K. The detailed results of this study will be presented in a separate paper at this Meeting. Finally, we have combined static and pulsed laser techniques to determine the thermal conductivity of Fe and its temperature dependence at high pressures up to 70 GPa and 2000 K [3]. A thin plate of Fe was positioned in an Ar medium, laser heated from one side and the temperature is being measured from both sides of the sample radiometrically. The thermal conductivity has been determined by fitting the results of FE calculations to the experimental results. These examples demonstrate that different techniques can be successfully used to determine the thermal conductivity of materials loaded in the DAC. The choice of the technique depends on material properties, sample preparation method, and P-T range needed. I thank D. Allen Dalton, David Cahill, Viktor Struzhkin, Wen-Pin Hsieh, Zuzana Konopkova, Peter Lazor, Javier A. Montoya for critically contributing to this work. I acknowledge support from NSF EAR 0711358 and EAR-1015239, Carnegie Institution of Washington, DOE/ NNSA (CDAC), and EFree, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DESC0001057. 1. P. Beck, A. F. Goncharov, V. V. Struzhkin, B. Militzer, H. K. Mao, R. J. Hemley (2007). Measurement of thermal diffusivity at high pressure using a transient heating technique, Appl Phys. Lett. 91, 181914. 2. K. V. Tretiakov and S. Scandolo (2004). Thermal conductivity of solid argon at high pressure and high temperature: A molecular dynamics study. Journal of Chemical Physics 121, 11177-11182. 3. Z. Konopkova, P. Lazor, A. F. Goncharov, V. V. Struzhkin (2011). Thermal conductivity of hcp iron at high pressure and temperature, High Pressure Research, 31, 228-236.

  4. EDITORIAL HPJ SPECIAL ISSUE INTRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.

    2011-10-01

    Radioecology is the study of the fate and transport and potential effects of radionuclides and associated contaminants in the environment. In short, it is the science that describes the fundamental connection between environmental health and human health risks. As such, radioecology can and has provided the credible, consistent and defensible basis for the successful and cost-effective environmental cleanup and closure of nuclear production and waste sites. In addition, radioecology also provides the technical basis for making timely and reliable decisions on cleanup in the aftermath of nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. The 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident resulted in catastrophic health, social, and economic consequences in many countries, predominantly, Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The extent of radioactive contamination, levels and forms of contamination, and diversity of the ecosystems affected by the accident did not have any precedent and provided unique opportunities for environmental scientists around the world. Following the natural course of their development, populations of species and their communities found themselves in conditions of chronic radiation exposure that exceeded the natural background by factors of hundreds and thousands. Anything similar would have been extremely difficult if not impossible to recreate in a scientific laboratory. Consequently, since the first few years after the accident, many teams of scientists have visited the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ). The knowledge gained by studying the consequences of this accident has tremendous importance. The concept of an international research and technical center to address the problems involving nuclear and radiological accidents became a reality with the establishment of the International Chernobyl Center (ICC). In May 1995, the US and Ukraine signed a Protocol of Intent on establishment of the ICC, and the government of Ukraine appealed to the international scientific community to support ICC and join its activities (Chernobyl Center 2006). In December 1995, a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on the ChNPP closure was signed by the government of Ukraine, all of the G7 governments, and the European Commission. The ICC foundation was considered critical to ensure the safe decommissioning of the ChNPP reactor units and improvement of the safety of the Chernobyl Containment Shelter. On the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident (26 April 1996), Mr. Viktor Yushchenko, the President of Ukraine, issued a decree to establish the Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology (Chernobyl Center). On the same day, a MOU involving the US participation in Chernobyl Center activities was signed by the US and Ukraine (Chernobyl Center 2006). In July 1998, the US and Ukraine signed an agreement to establish the International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL) as part of the Chernobyl Center. The creation of IRL was a logical continuation of previous programs to conduct scientific research in radioecology and provide Ukraine and the rest of the world with the necessary infrastructure and scientific basis to conduct research in radioecology, radiobiology, dosimetry, and environmental protection in the ChEZ (Chernobyl Center 2006). A recent collaborative effort with IRL has been implemented through a project titled 'Long-term impacts from radiation/contamination within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone' (Farfan et al. 2008; Gerdes et al. 2009; Marra et al. 2010). This collaboration had the following objectives: (1) Assess the long-term impacts to the environment from radiation exposure within the ChEZ; (2) Provide information on remediation guidelines and ecological risk assessment within radioactively contaminated territories based on the results of long-term field monitoring, analytical measurements, and numerical modeling of soils and groundwater radioactive contamination; and (3) Recommend the development and testing of effective cleanup technologies to reduce environmental and health risks. Based on this work, a large amount of data are now available for publication, some of which are presented in this Special Issue of the Health Physics Journal.

  5. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Popovic, L. C.

    The present issue of SERBIAN ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL is the last one edited by the two of us. We resigned not because we were tired of our service to the astronomical community but due to the old tradition of the Belgrade Astronomical Observatory that its Director is automatically the Editor-in-Chief of its publications. We therefore gladly give the opportunity to the new Director, in charge since July 1st. 2002, to organize the publishing activity according to his conceptions. One of us (M.S.D.) was appointed Editor on January 1st. 1984 (from No. 135), becoming the Editor-in-Chief in 1987 (from No. 137). The other one (L.C.P.) is the Editor since 1994 (from No. 150). During this period the Bulletin de l'Observatoire Astronomique de Belgrade merged with the Publications of the Department of Astronomy, changing its name into Bulletin Astronomique de Belgrade from No. 145 in 1992, to finally become Serbian Astronomical Journal in 1998, from No. 157. Accordingly, of a "Bulletin" we made a "Journal". For example, in the period 1971-1984 (Nos. 125-134) in Bull. Obs. Astron. Belgrade, practically only the associates of the Belgade Observatory published their papers, save for a few individuals from the Belgrade University. We found within this period the name of one sole foreign astronomer - from the USSR - namely V. A. Fomin, among the authors. In the period 1985-2002 in the Serbian Astronomical Journal published their communications not only astronomers from Yugoslavia but also from Belgium, China, France, Italy, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Spain, Ukraine, USA. Our authors from outside of Yugoslavia are: J. P. Anosova C. Beuyninx Cristina Blaga Paul A. Blaga Veronique Bommier N. M. Bronnikov Alberto Celino Pierre Cugnon D. R. Davis Henry Debehogne Veronique Dehant P. Farinella Alex Gaina R. I. Gumerov R. S. Izmailov V. B. Kapkov F. F. Khalikhevich S. A. Kilioner Tatiana R. Kirian N. G. Litkevich Evencio G. Mediavilla O. Mihai Andrea Milani Vasile Mioc Jose A. Munoz Viktor V. Orlov Paolo Paolicchi Paul Paquet Genadij I. Pinigin Sylvie Sahal-Brechot Dan Selaru N. D. Simonenko Eduardo Simonneau A. Shul'ga Magdalena Stavinschi Cristina Stoica T. I. Suchkova Emil Tatomir Svetlana A. Tolchelnikova-Muri V. I. Turenkov Margarita Yu. Volyanskaya A. Yu. Yacenko Vincento Zappala G. Zhen-Nian We are grateful to these authors for having chosen our journal, thereby conferring on the Serbian Astronomical Journal an international standing. This is also a suitable opportunity to thank the numerous referees who contributed to our Journal being better. During this period the referees officially registered (a number of them, mainly belonging to the editorial boards, remain unregistered) have been (in Brackets is the number of papers they reviewed): Trajko Angelov (11) Jelisaveta Arsenijevic (4) Olga Atanackovic-Vukmanovic (4) Milutin Blagojevic (1) Markyan S. Chubey (1) B. Ciric (2) Miodrag Dacic (2) Milan S. Dimitrijevic (43) Gojko Djurasevic (1) B. Djuric (1) Dragutin Djurovic (5) Stevica Djurovic (3) Petar Grujic (5) Slobodan Jankov (1) Zoran Knezevic (7) Nikola Konjevic (6) Vladimir Krsljanin (2) Aleksandar Kubicela (12) Mike Kuzmanoski (10) Jaroslav Labat (1) Jovan Lazovic (1) Ilija Lukacevic (5) Jovan Malisic (1) Milan Mijatov (1) Jelena Milogradov-Turin (2) Vladeta Milovanovic (6) Ljubisa Mitic (22) Radovan Mrkic (1) Ranko Muzijevic (4) Slobodan Ninkovic (30) Dragomir Olevic (3) Nada Pejovic (1) Georgije Popovic (18) Luka C. Popovic (12) Sofija Sadzakov (28) Jovan Simovljevic (7) Nicholas Spyrou (1) Bozidar Stanic (1) Miroljub Starcevic (1) S. Starcevic (1) Magdalena Stavinschi (1) Dragoljub Stefanovic (1) Dusan Saletic (9) Stevo Segan (1) Branislav Sevarlic (16) Djordje Teleki (10) Istvan Vince (42) Mirjana Vukicevic-Karabin (1) Vincento Zappala (1) Danilo Zulevic (2) In our register, in which M.S.D. began entering the submitted articles from January 1st, 1984, up to now, 455 of them are inscribed. A part of them has been published in Publications of the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade, only 24 of them having been turned down. Namely, we always strived to help our collegues, in cases their articles did nor meet the required standards, to improve them or to extract from them those parts which were still of interest. In this we had a valuable assistance from our reviser of English - Ljubisa A. Mitic - who invested a great deal of labour not only to improve English versions of articles, but to make their contents more clear and receptive. On comparing the period 1971-1984 (Nos. 125-134), i.e. ten Numbers published on 560 pages during 14 years preceding our assuming the charge (No. 134 published in 1984 was edited in 1983) we see that Nos. 135-144 have been published in seven years (1985-1991) on 1150 pages. Nos. 145-154 in five years (1992-1996) on 1327 pages and Nos. 155-164, also in five years (1997-2001) on 1317 pages. From 1991 on, we increased the number of issues per year to two. It is also worth noting that from 1993 on, the Serbian Astronomical Journal appears in the ADS data system, and is available on www. The www addresses are: http://www.aob.bg.ac.yu and http://adsww.harvard.edu./BOBeo. One should thereby take into account that all this has been achieved in circumstances of grave general instability, shortage of money, hyperinflation, war and bombardment of our country. We would like to once again express our gratitude to all who helped us and hope that now, in peace and greatly improved economic situation, the Journal will continue developing and that it will continue being useful to the astronomical community both within and without our country.

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents <;A article="1367-2630/5/1/117">Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau, P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end planes to stable loops caused by annealing M Endo, B J Lee, Y A Kim, Y J Kim, H Muramatsu, T Yanagisawa, T Hayashi, M Terrones and M S Dresselhaus Energetics and electronic structure of C70-peapods and one-dimensional chains of C70 Susumu Okada, Minoru Otani and Atsushi Oshiyama Theoretical characterization of several models of nanoporous carbon F Valencia, A H Romero, E Hernández, M Terrones and H Terrones First-principles molecular dynamics study of the stretching frequencies of hydrogen molecules in carbon nanotubes Gabriel Canto, Pablo Ordejón, Cheng Hansong, Alan C Cooper and Guido P Pez The geometry and the radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes: beyond the ideal behaviour Jeno Kürti, Viktor Zólyomi, Miklos Kertesz and Sun Guangyu Curved nanostructured materials Humberto Terrones and Mauricio Terrones A one-dimensional Ising model for C70 molecular ordering in C70-peapods Yutaka Maniwa, Hiromichi Kataura, Kazuyuki Matsuda and Yutaka Okabe Nanoengineering of carbon nanotubes for nanotools Yoshikazu Nakayama and Seiji Akita Narrow diameter double-wall carbon nanotubes: synthesis, electron microscopy and inelastic light scattering R R Bacsa, E Flahaut, Ch Laurent, A Peigney, S Aloni, P Puech and W S Bacsa Sensitivity of single multiwalled carbon nanotubes to the environment M Krüger, I Widmer, T Nussbaumer, M Buitelaar and C Schönenberger Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonance Raman scattering A Jorio, M A Pimenta, A G Souza Filho, R Saito, G Dresselhaus and M S Dresselhaus FTIR-luminescence mapping of dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes Sergei Lebedkin, Katharina Arnold, Frank Hennrich, Ralph Krupke, Burkhard Renker and Manfred M Kappes Structural properties of Haeckelite nanotubes Ph Lambin and L P Biró Structural changes in single-walled carbon nanotubes under non-hydrostatic pressures: x-ray and Raman studies Sukanta Karmakar, Surinder M Sharma, P V Teredesai, D V S Muthu, A Govindaraj, S K Sikka and A K Sood Novel properties of 0.4 nm single-walled carbon nanotubes templated in the channels of AlPO4-5 single crystals Z K Tang, N Wang, X X Zhang, J N Wang, C T Chan and Ping Sheng Lattice dynamics and symmetry of double wall carbon nanotubes M Damnjanovic, E Dobardzic, I Milosevic, T Vukovic and B Nikolic Optical characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by catalytic decomposition of alcohol Shigeo Maruyama, Yuhei Miyauchi, Yoichi Murakami and Shohei Chiashi Christian Thomsen, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany Hiromichi Kataura, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan

  7. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2011-01-01

    As usual, being an even year, the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference took place at Daejeon, Korea. The event was notable not just for the quality of the presentations but also for the spectacular opening ceremony, in the presence of the Prime Minister, Kim Hwang-sik. The Prime Minister affirmed the importance of research into fusion energy research and pledged support for ITER. Such political visibility is good news, of course, but it brings with it the obligation to perform. Fortunately, good performance was much in evidence in the papers presented at the conference, of which a significant proportion contain 'ITER' in the title. Given this importance of ITER and the undertaking by the Nuclear Fusion journal to publish papers associated with Fusion Energy Conference presentations, the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board has decided to adopt a simplified journal scope that encompasses technology papers more naturally. The scope is available from http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/page/Journal%20information but is reproduced here for clarity: Nuclear Fusion publishes articles making significant advances to the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion. The journal scope includes: the production, heating and confinement of high temperature plasmas; the physical properties of such plasmas; the experimental or theoretical methods of exploring or explaining them; fusion reactor physics; reactor concepts; fusion technologies. The key to scope acceptability is now '....significant advances....' rather than any particular area of controlled thermonuclear fusion research. It is hoped that this will make scope decisions easier for the Nuclear Fusion office, the referees and the Editor.The Nuclear Fusion journal has continued to make an important contribution to the research programme and has maintained its position as the leading journal in the field. This is underlined by the fact that Nuclear Fusion has received an impact factor of 4.270, as listed in ISI's 2009 Science Citation Index. The journal depends entirely on its authors and referees and so I would like to thank them all for their work in 2010 and look forward to a continuing, successful collaboration in 2011. Refereeing The Nuclear Fusion editorial office understands how much effort is required of our referees. The Editorial Board decided that an expression of thanks to our most loyal referees is appropriate and so, since January 2005, we have been offering the top ten most active referees over the past year a personal subscription to Nuclear Fusion with electronic access for one year, free of charge. This year, two of the top referees have reviewed four or more manuscripts in the period November 2009 to November 2010 and provided particularly detailed advice to the authors. We have excluded our Board Members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in the last four years. Guest Editors' work on papers submitted to their special issues is also excluded from consideration. The following people have been selected: Osamu Naito, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Japan Masahiro Kobayashi, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan Duccio Testa, Lausanne Federal Polytechnic University, Switzerland Vladimir Pustovitov, Russian Research Centre, Kurchatov Insitute, Russia Christopher Holland, University of California at San Diego, USA Yuri Gribov, ITER International Organisation, Cadarache, France Eriko Jotaki, Kyushu University, Japan Sven Wiesen, Jülich Research Centre, Germany Viktor S. Marchenko, Ukraine National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine Richard Stephens, General Atomics, USA In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2010. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2010 Nuclear Fusion Award was J.E. Rice et al for the paper entitled 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' (2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 1618-24). The prize was awarded at the Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, together with the 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award to Steve Sabbagh. The Board of Editors Roger Weynants retired as a member of the Board of Editors in 2010. On behalf of the Nuclear Fusion office and the Chairman of the Board, Mitsuru Kikuchi, I would like to thank him for his effort in support of the journal; Roger was one of the most active members of the Board and his balanced and competent advice was extremely valuable on many difficult decisions. At the same time we welcome Tony Donne whom I am sure does not need any introduction to the readers of Nuclear Fusion; I am confident he can only further the success of the journal. The Nuclear Fusion office and IOP Publishing Just as the journal depends on the authors and referees, so its success is also due to the tireless and largely unsung efforts of the Nuclear Fusion office in Vienna and IOP Publishing in Bristol. I would like to express my personal thanks to Maria Bergamini-Roedler, Katja Haslinger, Sophy Le Masurier, Yasmin McGlashan, Caroline Wilkinson, Sarah Ryder, Katie Gerrard and Stephanie Kent for the support that they have given to me, the authors and the referees. Season's greetings I would like to wish our readers, authors, referees and Board of Editors season's greetings and thank them for their contributions to Nuclear Fusion in 2010.

  8. PREFACE: International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies 2013 (FM&NT2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas

    2013-12-01

    The International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT - 2013) was held in Tartu, 21-24 April 2013 at the Dorpat Conference Centre. The conference was organised by Institute of Physics, University of Tartu. The FM&NT conference series was started in 2006 by scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. It is an annual conference bringing together researchers from the whole world. The warm and open atmosphere of this scientific conference has turned it into event where people from different fields meet under the common name of functional materials and nanotechnology. It is particularly important for early stage scientists who are looking for new knowledge and contact with people from various fields. Our Latvian colleagues with their success in internationalization made us neighbouring Estonians so envious that we could not withstand proposing that we host the conference in every second year in Estonia. Actually this is in a way the continuation of the idea of the famous Baltic seminars which took place over several decades during the last century. Due to political constraints these seminars were only opened to scientist of the former Eastern European countries, but which were extremely popular and attracted attendees from over the whole Soviet Union. Much fruitful cooperation started from the initial personal contacts of scientists at these seminars held twice per year, once in Latvia and the second time in Estonia. At the last FM&NT 2012 conference, the decision was made that Institute of Physics, University of Tartu would organise the event in Tartu in 2013. Along with traditional topics such as multifunctional materials, nanomaterials, materials for sustainable energy applications and theory, this conference focused on studies using synchrotron radiation and other novel light sources. The number of registered participants from 21 countries was nearly 300. During the three days of the conference 14 invited, 45 oral, and 5 commercial talks were delivered and more than 200 posters were presented. In the framework of conference more than 20 papers were submitted to a topical issue of Physica Scripta. Based on the work presented at the conference, 62 articles are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Additional information about FM&NT-2013 is available at its homepage http://fmnt.ut.ee/. The Organizing Committee would like to thank all the speakers, contributors, session chairs, referees and other involved staff for their efforts in making FM&NT-2013 successful. Special thanks for their hard work dealing with the conference papers goes to the Guest Editors: Professor Mikhail Brik, Dr Svetlana Zazubovits, Dr Arvo Kikas, Dr Rainer Pärna. The Organizing Committee hopes that Conference gave participants good insight into recent developments in nanotechnology, sustainable energetics, processing and modelling of multifunctional materials and research done using synchrotron radiation or other novel light sources. We sincerely hope that conference has provided support for the sharing of information and has brought together many young and experienced scientists from different fields, leading to fruitful discussions. We hope that all participants had good and memorable time in Tartu. On the behalf of organising committee Professor Ergo Nõmmiste Dr Marco Kirm Dr Toomas Plank The PDF also contains lists of the committees, the conference photograph and the sponsor's logos.

  9. Report from the organizers Report from the organizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kes, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) was hosted by the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium of the Leiden Institute of Physics and held in the RAI Convention Center in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-13 August 2008. It was the second time that the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory had the privilege of organizing an LT conference. In 1958, at LT6, 50 years of liquid helium temperatures were commemorated; in 2008 we celebrated the 100th anniversary of the remarkable achievements of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and his collaborators in Leiden. In 1958 there were 323 participants and 145 papers appeared in the proceedings; in 2008 these numbers increased to 1390 participants and 900 submitted papers, of which eventually 849 were accepted. This large participation required adequate conference and housing facilities. These could not be found in Leiden, but were conveniently available in Amsterdam. The triennial international low temperature conferences are organized under the auspices of the international union of pure and applied physics (IUPAP) through commission C5 on low temperature physics. It is the most important global meeting that brings together the international scientific community in the broad field of low temperature physics. Because the meeting is held only every third year the 11 plenary and 22 half-plenary talks (of 45 or 30 min) generally provide an overview of important new discoveries over the last few years, whereas the 161 short oral presentations (20 min) are mainly focused on very recent and ongoing developments. Since the field is broad, embracing a large section of condensed matter physics, the program is divided into five parallel program lines: A. Quantum gases, fluids and solids. B. Superconductivity. C. Quantum phase transitions and magnetism. D. Electronic quantum transport in condensed matter. E. Cryogenic techniques and applications. This distinction was used both to group the 1625 accepted abstracts, and the short-oral and poster presentations; the number of oral sessions per program line was made in proportion to the number of accepted abstracts per category (A: 323, B: 526, C: 404, D: 276, and E: 96, about the same distribution as at previous LT conferences, e.g. LT22 in Helsinki). Also the papers appearing in the on-line part of the proceedings are grouped according to the same classification. From the 877 submitted papers 826 were accepted, 41 rejected, and 10 were withdrawn. In the five poster sessions altogether 1479 posters were presented (A: 311, B: 463, C: 370, D: 249 and E: 86). Two special evening sessions were organized to address (very) recent developments. In the first place there was a romp session about the surprising discovery of high temperature superconductivity in iron-based compounds with seven rounds of about five short presentations concluded with ten min discussion each. In a parallel session the concern about the demand for and price of liquid helium was discussed in relation to future trends in cryocoolers which may considerably reduce the need for liquid helium. In an outreach evening session, open to the general public, we had two distinguished speakers: Dr Philppe Lebrun (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland), who talked about the cryotechnology of the Large Hadron collider at CERN and Professor Allan Griffin (University of Toronto, Canada) about the intriguing history of superfluidity. The centenary of liquid helium and the birth of low temperature physics were celebrated at the conference excursion to Leiden on 10 August 2008. Lack of space forced us to limit the number of participants to 643, but many others went on their own initiative. They could attend three historical lectures in the former Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, and visit several museums where special expositions related to '100 years of liquid helium' were arranged. The conference dinner in the center of Amsterdam on Monday evening was attended by 555 people. Traditionally, at the opening session of the LT conferences time is reserved for prize ceremonies. The recipients of the most important prize in low temperature physics, the Fritz London Memorial Prize 2008, were Yuriy M Bunkov (Institute Néel, Grenoble), Vladimir V Dmitriev, and Igor A Fomin (both Kapitza Institute, Moscow). They got the prize for their discovery and understanding of the 'phase coherent spin precession and spin superfluidity of 3He-B'. The Simon Prize 2008 of The Physical Society went to Yasunobu Nakamura and Jaw-Shen Tsai (NEC Laboratories, Tsukuba) for their 'pioneering demonstration of quantum coherent behaviour in a macroscopic object and for their subsequent explorations of quantum coherent physics in a series of novel superconducting devices'. The Nicholas Kurti European Science Prize (sponsored by Oxford Instruments) was awarded to Lieven Vandersypen (Delft University of Technology) for his 'ground-breaking work on the coherent control of nuclear and electron spins, with possible application to quantum information processing'. Finally, the first IUPAP Young Scientist Prizes in Low Temperature Physics went to Kostya Novoselov (University of Manchester) for his 'contribution in the discovery of graphene and for pioneering studies of its extraordinary properties', to Dai Aoki (Tohuko University, Sendai) for his 'discovery of novel heavy fermion superconductivity in actinide compounds', and to Viktor Tsepelin (Lancaster University) for 'the development of new experimental techniques and key discoveries in the fields of 3He crystals and quantum turbulence'. All prize recipients got the opportunity to present their work in an invited oral contribution. As is common practice nowadays all announcements, registrations, paper submissions and communications regarding program and practical matters were done electronically, either by email or via the internet. Nevertheless, the program book was still printed and handed out to all participants at registration and they received an electronic version on a USB stick as well. The stick also contained all of the submitted (but not yet refereed) papers received before 15 July 2008. The final decisions about the scientific program were made in Leiden at a meeting of the program committee members in April 2008. This turned out to be a very efficient and pleasant procedure. The decision to split up the proceedings into two parts had been taken much earlier in consultation with the Chair of C5 and the IUPAP. In order to optimize impact factors it has become common policy of publishing companies to publish proceedings of big conferences like the LT conference in special on-line journals (open access), such as Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We were pleased with the possibility to publish the most important contributions to the program of LT25 in a special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. The latter will not only appear in print, but will also be available on-line for a period of one year from publication. Organizing a conference like LT25 could not have been accomplished without the help of many enthusiastic and dedicated colleagues. I like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them, but above all, to my colleagues of the organizing committee.

  10. REPORT FROM THE ORGANIZERS: The 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kes, Peter

    2009-03-01

    The 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) was hosted by the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium of the Leiden Institute of Physics and held in the RAI Convention Center in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-13 August 2008. It was the second time that the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory had the privilege of organizing an LT conference. In 1958, at LT6, 50 years of liquid helium temperatures were commemorated; in 2008 we celebrated the 100th anniversary of the remarkable achievements of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and his collaborators in Leiden. In 1958 there were 323 participants and 145 papers appeared in the proceedings; in 2008 these numbers had increased to 1390 participants and 900 papers, of which eventually 849 were accepted. This large participation required adequate conference and housing facilities. These could not be found in Leiden, but were conveniently available in Amsterdam. The triennial International Low Temperature Conferences are organized under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) through Commission C5 on Low Temperature Physics. It is the most important global meeting that brings together the international scientific community in the broad field of Low Temperature Physics. Because the meeting is held only every third year the 11 plenary and 22 half plenary talks (of 45 or 30 min.) generally provide an overview of important new discoveries over the last few years, whereas the 161 short oral presentations (20 min.) are mainly focused on very recent developments. Since the field is broad, embracing a large section of condensed matter physics, the program is divided into five parallel program lines: A. Quantum Gases, Fluids and Solids B. Superconductivity C. Quantum Phase Transitions and Magnetism D. Electronic Quantum Transport in Condensed Matter E. Cryogenic Techniques and Applications This distinction was used both to group the 1625 accepted abstracts, and the short-oral and poster presentations; the number of oral sessions per program line was made in proportion to the number of accepted abstracts per category (A: 323, B: 526, C: 404, D: 276, and E: 96, about the same distribution as at previous LT conferences, e.g. LT22 in Helsinki). Also the papers appearing in the on-line part of the proceedings are grouped according to this classification. From the 877 submitted papers 826 were accepted, 41 rejected, and 10 were withdrawn. In the 5 poster sessions altogether 1479 posters were presented (A: 311, B: 463, C: 370, D: 249 and E: 86). Two special evening sessions were organized to address (very) recent developments. In the first place there was a romp session about the surprising discovery of high temperature superconductivity in iron-based compounds with 7 rounds of about 5 short presentations concluded with 10 min. discussion each. In a parallel session the concern about the demand for and price of liquid helium was discussed in relation to future trends in cryocoolers which may considerably reduce the need for liquid helium. In an outreach evening session, open to the general public, we had two distinguished speakers: Dr Philppe Lebrun (CERN, Geneva), who talked about the cryotechnology of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and Professor Allan Griffin (University of Toronto) about the intriguing history of superfluidity. The centenary of liquid helium and the birth of low temperature physics were celebrated at the conference excursion to Leiden on Sunday 10 August 2008. Lack of space forced us to limit the number of participants to 643, but many others went on their own initiative. They could attend 3 historical lectures in the former Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, and visit several museums where special expositions related to '100 years of liquid helium' were arranged. The conference dinner in the center of Amsterdam on Monday evening was attended the by 555 people. Traditionally, at the opening session of the LT conferences time is reserved for prize ceremonies. The recipients of the most important prize in low temperature physics, the Fritz London Memorial Prize 2008, were Yuriy M Bunkov (Institute Neël, Grenoble), Vladimir V Dmitriev, and Igor A Fomin (both Kapitza Institute, Moscow). They got the prize for their discovery and understanding of the 'Phase Coherent Spin Precession and Spin Superfluidity of 3He-B'. The Simon Prize 2008 of The Physical Society went to Yasunobu Nakamura and Jaw-Shen Tsai (NEC Laboratories, Tsukuba) for their 'Pioneering demonstration of quantum coherent behaviour in a macroscopic object and for their subsequent explorations of quantum coherent physics in a series of novel superconducting devices'. The Nicholas Kurti European Science Prize (sponsored by Oxford Instruments) was awarded to Lieven Vandersypen (Delft University of Technology) for his 'Ground-breaking work on the coherent control of nuclear and electron spins, with possible application to quantum information processing'. Finally, the first IUPAP Young Scientist Prizes in Low Temperature Physics went to Kostya Novoselov (University of Manchester) for his 'Contribution in the discovery of graphene and for pioneering studies of its extraordinary properties', to Dai Aoki (Tohuko University, Sendai) for his 'Discovery of novel heavy fermion superconductivity in actinide compounds', and to Viktor Tsepelin (Lancaster University) for 'The development of new experimental techniques and key discoveries in the fields of 3He crystals and quantum turbulence'. All prize recipients got the opportunity to present their work in an invited oral contribution. As is common practice nowadays all announcements, registrations, paper submissions and communications regarding program and practical matters were done electronically, either by email or via internet. Nevertheless, the program book was still printed and handed out to all participants at registration and they received an electronic version on a USB stick as well. The stick also contained all the submitted (but not yet refereed) papers received before 15 July 2008. The final decisions about the scientific program were made in Leiden at a meeting of the program committee members in April 2008. This turned out to be a very efficient and pleasant procedure. The decision to split up the Proceedings in two parts had been taken much earlier in consultation with the Chair of C5 and the IUPAP. In order to optimize impact factors it has become common policy of publishing companies to publish proceedings of big conferences like the LT conference in special on-line journals (open access), such as Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We were pleased with the possibility to publish the most important contributions to the program of LT25 in a special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. The latter will not only appear in print, but will also be available on-line for a period of 1 year from publication. Organizing a conference like LT25 could not have been accomplished without the help of many enthusiastic and dedicated colleagues. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them, but above all, to my colleagues of the organizing committee. Peter Kes Chairman LT25

  11. Bewehrte Betonbauteile unter Betriebsbedingungen: Forschungsbericht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eligehausen, Rolf; Kordina, Karl; Schießl, Peter

    2000-09-01

    Vorwort. Teil I: Rißbreiten (Gert König) 1 Ein mechanisches Modell zur Erhöhung der Vorhersagegenauigkeit über die Rißbreiten unter Betriebsbedingungen (Gert König und Michael Fischer). 1.1 Einleitung und Zielsetzung. 1.2 Versuchsprogramm. 1.3 Meßtechnik. 1.4 Belastung und Versuchsdurchführung. 1.5 Literatur. 2 Rißbreiten und Verformungszunahme vorgespannter Bauteile unter wiederholter Last - und Zwangbeanspruchung (Gert König und Michael Fischer). 2.1 Einleitung und Zielsetzung. 2.2 Versuchsprogramm. 2.3 Auswertung. 2.4 Ausblick. 2.5 Literatur. 3 Rißverhalten von Beton bei plötzlicher Abkühlung (Viktor Mechtcherine und Harald S. Müller). 3.1 Einleitung. 3.2 Experimentelle Untersuchungen. 3.3 Formulierung eines Stoffgesetzes für thermisch beanspruchten Beton. 3.4 Riß entwicklung in einer Betonplatte unter Temperaturschock. 3.5 Zusammenfassung. 3.6 Literatur. 4 Stahlfaserbeton unter Betriebsbedingungen bei Dauerbeanspruchung (Bo Soon Kang, Bernd Schnütgen und Friedhelm Stangenberg). 4.1 Einleitung. 4.2 Wirkung von Stahlfasern im Beton. 4.3 Versuchsprogramm. 4.4 Untersuchungen zum Verbundverhalten. 4.5 Untersuchungen zum Verhalten unter Biegebeanspruchung. 4.6 Theoretische Untersuchungen. 4.7 Literatur. 5 Experimentelle Untersuchungen an Stahlbeton-Zugkörpern unter wiederholter Belastung zur Ermittlung des versteifenden Einflusses der Mitwirkung des Betons zwischen den Rissen (Petra Seibel und Gerhard Mehlhorn). 5.1 Einleitung. 5.2 Ansatz zur Bestimmung der Mitwirkung des Betons zwischen den Rissen nach Eurocode 2, Model Code 90 und Günther. 5.3 Experimentelle Untersuchungen. 5.4 Ergebnisse. 5.5 Zusammenfassung. 5.6 Literatur. 6 Riß- und Verformungsverhalten von vorgefertigten Spannbetonträgern unter Betriebsbedingungen bei besonderer Berücksichtigung des Betonalters (Monika Maske, Heinz Meichsner und Lothar Schubert). 6.1 Einleitung. 6.2 Beschreibung der Fertigteilträger. 6.3 Belastungsversuche. 6.4 Ergebnisse. 6.5 Zusammenfassung. 6.6 Literatur. Teil II: Verbundfragen (Rolf Eligehausen). 1 Ein mechanisches Modell zur Beschreibung des Verbundverhaltens zwischen Stahl und Beton (Gert König, Nguyen V. Tue und Wolfgang Kurz). 1.1 Einleitung. 1.2 Beschreibung der Kraftübertragung zwischen Stahl und Beton. 1.3 Vorstellung des Modells. 1.4 Materialgesetze für die Berechnung der Verformung des Fachwerks. 1.5 Vergleich zwischen Versuch und Modell. 1.6 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick. 1.7 Literatur. 2 Verbund unter nicht ruhender Beanspruchung (Rainer Koch und György L. Balázs). 2.1 Übersicht über die durchgeführten Versuche. 2.2 Versuchkörper und Materialien. 2.3 Versuchseinrichtungen. 2.4 Versuche und Ergebnisse. 2.5 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick. 2.6 Literatur. 3 Trag- und Verformungsverhalten von Stahlbetontragwerken unter Betriebsbelastung (Thomas M. Sippel und Rolf Eligehausen). 3.1 Einleitung. 3.2 Allgemeines. 3.3 Rechenmodell und Materialmodelle. 3.4 Vergleich zwischen Versuchen und Rechnung. 3.5 Parameterstudien. 3.6 Vereinfachtes Rechenmodell. 3.7 Zusammenfassung. 3.8 Literatur. 4 Verbundverhalten von Spanngliedern mit nachträglichem Verbund unter Betriebsbedingungen (Josef Hegger, Norbert Will und Heiner Cordes). 4.1 Einführung. 4.2 Verbundverhalten von Spanngliedern. 4.3 Zeitabhängige Effekte des Verbunds. 4.4 Versuche unter statischer Langzeitbeanspruchung. 4.5 Versuche unter dynamischer Langzeitbeanspruchung. 4.6 Bemessungsvorschlag für Verbundkennwerte. 4.7 Zusammenfassung. 4.8 Literatur. 5 Spannungsumlagerungen in gemischt bewehrten Querschnitten (Josef Hegger, Heiner Cordes und Matthias Rudlof). 5.1 Problemstellung und Zielsetzung. 5.2 Spannungsumlagerungen bei gemischter Bewehrung. 5.3 Versuche an zentrischen Zugkörpern. 5.4 Versuchsergebnisse. 5.5 Ermittlung und Vergleich von Verbundkennwerten. 5.6 Zusammenfassung. 5.7 Literatur. Teil III: Bauteile (Karl Kordina). 1 Einfluß von Längsbeanspruchungen auf den Neigungswinkel der Schubrisse (Marek Los und Ulrich Quast). 1.1 Einleitung. 1.2 Ungerissener Zustand. 1.3 Gerissener Zustand. 1.4 FEM-Berechnungen. 1.5 Zusammenfassung. 1.6 Literatur. 2 Auswirkungen des unterschiedlichen Verformungsverhaltens bei Beund Entlastung auf die Beanspruchungen im Gebrauchszustand (Jochen Keysberg). 2.1 Einleitung und Zielsetzung. 2.2 Modelle für die Momenten-Verkrümmungs-Beziehung. 2.3 Programm zur nichtlinearen Berechnung. 2.4 Einfluß von Lastwechseln auf nichtlineare Berechnungen. 2.5 Zusammenfassung. 2.6 Literatur. 3 3D-Analyse von Balken-Stützen-Verbindungen aus normal- und hochfestem Beton unter zyklischer Beanspruchung (Josko Ozbolt, Yijun Li und Rolf Eligehausen). 3.1 Einleitung. 3.2 Materialmodell und FE-Diskretisierung. 3.3 Numerische Analyse. 3.4 Schlußfolgerungen. 3.5 Zusammenfassung. 3.6 Literatur. 4 Der Einfluß von freien Schwingungen infolge dynamischer Belastung auf die Deterioration eines Bauwerks (Manfred Specht und Michael Kramp). 4.1 Veranlassung des Forschungsvorhabens. 4.2 Forschungsziele. 4.3 Versuchsträger, Versuchsdurchführung und Versuchsergebnisse. 4.4 Auswertung. 4.5 Ergebnisse für die Systemidentifikation von Stahlbetonkonstruktionen. 4.6 Literatur. 5 Lokale Schwind- und Temperaturgradienten in bewehrten, oberflächennahen Zonen von Betonkonstruktionen (Josef Eibl und Stephan Kranz). 5.1 Problemstellung. 5.2 Temperatur- und Feuchtefeldberechnung. 5.3 Numerisches Berechnungsmodell zur Spannungsanalyse im Beton. 5.4 Durchgeführte Versuche. 5.5 Rechnerische Untersuchungen. 5.6 Zusammenfassung. 5.7 Literatur. 6 Wassereindringverhalten von Flüssigkeiten beim Biegeriß (Gert König und Christian Brunsch). 6.1 Problemstellung. 6.2 Experimentelle Untersuchungen. 6.3 Entwicklung eines Modells zur rechnerischen Abschätzung des zeitlichen Eindringens einer Wassermenge in Biegerisse von Stahlbetonbauteilen. 6.4 Zusammenfassung und Diskussion der Versuchsreihe. 6.5 Literatur. 7 Dauerhaftigkeitsprobleme von offenen Becken (György Iványi, Wilhelm Buschmeyer und Udo Paas). 7.1 Einleitung. 7.2 Bestandsaufnahme. 7.3 Felduntersuchungen. 7.4 Laboruntersuchungen. 7.5 Berechnungen. 7.6 Entwurfs- und Ausführungskriterien. 7.7 Literatur. Teil IV: Korrosion und Ermüdung (Peter Schießl). 1 Ermüdungskorrosion von Spannstahl (Herbert Kupfer und Hans H. Müller). 1.1 Forschungsziel. 1.2 Korrosionsversuche an Spannstählen. 1.3 Methoden zur Erkennung von Anrissen. 2 Korrosionsermüdung von Stahl in Betonbauteilen (J. W. Weber, Peter Schießl und Jörg Moersch). 2.1 Allgemeines. 2.2 Wesentliche Einflüsse bei der Schwingungsrißkorrosion. 2.3 Ziel der Untersuchungen. 2.4 Prüfkörper und Betone. 2.5 Chloridbeaufschlagung. 2.6 Ergebnisse. 2.7 Zusammenfassung. 2.8 Literatur. 3 Untersuchungen zum Rißkorrosionsverhalten von Spannstählen unter Betriebsbedingungen (Jörg Moersch und Peter Schießl). 3.1 Einführung und Ziel. 3.2 Untersuchungsprogramm. 3.3 Ergebnisse. 3.4 Zusammenfassung der Ergebnisse. 3.5 Literatur. 4 Schwingfestigkeit von Stahlbeton bei Beanspruchung mit Meerwasser (Ulf Nürnberger und Willibald Beul). 4.1 Einführung. 4.2 Mechanismus. 4.3 Schwingfestigkeitsuntersuchungen. 4.4 Folgerungen. 4.5 Literatur. 5 Wasserstoffinduzierte Spannungsrißkorrosion von zugschwellbeanspruchten Spannstählen (Ulf Nürnberger und Willibald Beul). 5.1 Einführung. 5.2 Untersuchungen. 5.3 Folgerung. 5.4 Literatur. 6 Selbstheilung und Bewehrungskorrosion bei von schwach sauren Wässern durchströmten Trennrissen in bewehrtem Beton (Wieland Ramm und Michaela Biscoping). 6.1 Übersicht. 6.2 Einleitung. 6.3 Versuchsprogramm. 6.4 Versuchsergebnisse. 6.5 Zusammenfassung. 6.6 Literatur. 7 Untersuchungen zur Reibermüdung bei teilweise vorgespannten Bauteilen (Heiner Cordes, Josef Hegger und Jens U. Neuser). 7.1 Einleitung. 7.2 Stand der Forschung. 7.3 Versuchsaufbau und Versuchsdurchführung. 7.4 Versuchsergebnisse. 7.5 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick. 7.6 Literatur. Teil V: Junger Beton (Ferdinand S. Rostásy). 1 Ermittlung und Berechnung des Nullspannungstemperaturgradienten im jungen Beton (Rupert Springenschmid und Jean-Louis Bostvironnois). 1.1 Einleitung. 1.2 Der Nullspannungstemperaturgradient. 1.3 Ergebnisse und Schußfolgerungen. 1.4 Literatur. 2 Experimentelle Ermittlung der Verformungskennwerte von jungem Beton und der Zwangspannungen in situ (Markus Plannerer und Rupert Springenschmid). 2.1 Einleitung. 2.2 Versuche zur Ermittlung der Verformungskennwerte und der Zwangspannungen. 2.3 Laborergebnisse. 2.4 In-situ-Ergebnisse. 2.5 Zusammenfassung. 2.6 Literatur. 3 Werkstoffeigenschaften jungen Betons--Experimente und Modellierung (Ferdinand S. Rostásy und Alex-W. Gutsch). 3.1 Einleitung. 3.2 Versuche und Modellbildung. 3.3 Zusammenfassung. 3.4 Literatur.

  12. Sharper and Deeper Views with MACAO-VLTI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    "First Light" with Powerful Adaptive Optics System for the VLT Interferometer Summary On April 18, 2003, a team of engineers from ESO celebrated the successful accomplishment of "First Light" for the MACAO-VLTI Adaptive Optics facility on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). This is the second Adaptive Optics (AO) system put into operation at this observatory, following the NACO facility ( ESO PR 25/01 ). The achievable image sharpness of a ground-based telescope is normally limited by the effect of atmospheric turbulence. However, with Adaptive Optics (AO) techniques, this major drawback can be overcome so that the telescope produces images that are as sharp as theoretically possible, i.e., as if they were taken from space. The acronym "MACAO" stands for "Multi Application Curvature Adaptive Optics" which refers to the particular way optical corrections are made which "eliminate" the blurring effect of atmospheric turbulence. The MACAO-VLTI facility was developed at ESO. It is a highly complex system of which four, one for each 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope, will be installed below the telescopes (in the Coudé rooms). These systems correct the distortions of the light beams from the large telescopes (induced by the atmospheric turbulence) before they are directed towards the common focus at the VLT Interferometer (VLTI). The installation of the four MACAO-VLTI units of which the first one is now in place, will amount to nothing less than a revolution in VLT interferometry . An enormous gain in efficiency will result, because of the associated 100-fold gain in sensitivity of the VLTI. Put in simple words, with MACAO-VLTI it will become possible to observe celestial objects 100 times fainter than now . Soon the astronomers will be thus able to obtain interference fringes with the VLTI ( ESO PR 23/01 ) of a large number of objects hitherto out of reach with this powerful observing technique, e.g. external galaxies. The ensuing high-resolution images and spectra will open entirely new perspectives in extragalactic research and also in the studies of many faint objects in our own galaxy, the Milky Way. During the present period, the first of the four MACAO-VLTI facilties was installed, integrated and tested by means of a series of observations. For these tests, an infrared camera was specially developed which allowed a detailed evaluation of the performance. It also provided some first, spectacular views of various celestial objects, some of which are shown here. PR Photo 12a/03 : View of the first MACAO-VLTI facility at Paranal PR Photo 12b/03 : The star HIC 59206 (uncorrected image). PR Photo 12c/03 : HIC 59206 (AO corrected image) PR Photo 12e/03 : HIC 69495 (AO corrected image) PR Photo 12f/03 : 3-D plot of HIC 69495 images (without and with AO correction) PR Photo 12g/03 : 3-D plot of the artificially dimmed star HIC 74324 (without and with AO correction) PR Photo 12d/03 : The MACAO-VLTI commissioning team at "First Light" PR Photo 12h/03 : K-band image of the Galactic Center PR Photo 12i/03 : K-band image of the unstable star Eta Carinae PR Photo 12j/03 : K-band image of the peculiar star Frosty Leo MACAO - the Multi Application Curvature Adaptive Optics facility ESO PR Photo 12a/03 ESO PR Photo 12a/03 [Preview - JPEG: 408 x 400 pix - 56k [Normal - JPEG: 815 x 800 pix - 720k] Captions : PR Photo 12a/03 is a front view of the first MACAO-VLTI unit, now installed at the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope. Adaptive Optics (AO) systems work by means of a computer-controlled deformable mirror (DM) that counteracts the image distortion induced by atmospheric turbulence. It is based on real-time optical corrections computed from image data obtained by a "wavefront sensor" (a special camera) at very high speed, many hundreds of times each second. The ESO Multi Application Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) system uses a 60-element bimorph deformable mirror (DM) and a 60-element curvature wavefront sensor, with a "heartbeat" of 350 Hz (times per second). With this high spatial and temporal correcting power, MACAO is able to nearly restore the theoretically possible ("diffraction-limited") image quality of an 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescope in the near-infrared region of the spectrum, at a wavelength of about 2 µm. The resulting image resolution (sharpness) of the order of 60 milli-arcsec is an improvement by more than a factor of 10 as compared to standard seeing-limited observations. Without the benefit of the AO technique, such image sharpness could only be obtained if the telescope were placed above the Earth's atmosphere. The technical development of MACAO-VLTI in its present form was begun in 1999 and with project reviews at 6 months' intervals, the project quickly reached cruising speed. The effective design is the result of a very fruitful collaboration between the AO department at ESO and European industry which contributed with the diligent fabrication of numerous high-tech components, including the bimorph DM with 60 actuators, a fast-reaction tip-tilt mount and many others. The assembly, tests and performance-tuning of this complex real-time system was assumed by ESO-Garching staff. Installation at Paranal The first crates of the 60+ cubic-meter shipment with MACAO components arrived at the Paranal Observatory on March 12, 2003. Shortly thereafter, ESO engineers and technicians began the painstaking assembly of this complex instrument, below the VLT 8.2-m KUEYEN telescope (formerly UT2). They followed a carefully planned scheme, involving installation of the electronics, water cooling systems, mechanical and optical components. At the end, they performed the demanding optical alignment, delivering a fully assembled instrument one week before the planned first test observations. This extra week provided a very welcome and useful opportunity to perform a multitude of tests and calibrations in preparation of the actual observations. AO to the service of Interferometry The VLT Interferometer (VLTI) combines starlight captured by two or more 8.2- VLT Unit Telescopes (later also from four moveable1.8-m Auxiliary Telescopes) and allows to vastly increase the image resolution. The light beams from the telescopes are brought together "in phase" (coherently). Starting out at the primary mirrors, they undergo numerous reflections along their different paths over total distances of several hundred meters before they reach the interferometric Laboratory where they are combined to within a fraction of a wavelength, i.e., within nanometers! The gain by the interferometric technique is enormous - combining the light beams from two telescopes separated by 100 metres allows observation of details which could otherwise only be resolved by a single telescope with a diameter of 100 metres. Sophisticated data reduction is necessary to interpret interferometric measurements and to deduce important physical parameters of the observed objects like the diameters of stars, etc., cf. ESO PR 22/02 . The VLTI measures the degree of coherence of the combined beams as expressed by the contrast of the observed interferometric fringe pattern. The higher the degree of coherence between the individual beams, the stronger is the measured signal. By removing wavefront aberrations introduced by atmospheric turbulence, the MACAO-VLTI systems enormously increase the efficiency of combining the individual telescope beams. In the interferometric measurement process, the starlight must be injected into optical fibers which are extremely small in order to accomplish their function; only 6 µm (0.006 mm) in diameter. Without the "refocussing" action of MACAO, only a tiny fraction of the starlight captured by the telescopes can be injected into the fibers and the VLTI would not be working at the peak of efficiency for which it has been designed. MACAO-VLTI will now allow a gain of a factor 100 in the injected light flux - this will be tested in detail when two VLT Unit Telescopes, both equipped with MACAO-VLTI's, work together. However, the very good performance actually achieved with the first system makes the engineers very confident that a gain of this order will indeed be reached. This ultimate test will be performed as soon as the second MACAO-VLTI system has been installed later this year. MACAO-VLTI First Light After one month of installation work and following tests by means of an artificial light source installed in the Nasmyth focus of KUEYEN, MACAO-VLTI had "First Light" on April 18 when it received "real" light from several astronomical obejcts. During the preceding performance tests to measure the image improvement (sharpness, light energy concentration) in near-infrared spectral bands at 1.2, 1.6 and 2.2 µm, MACAO-VLTI was checked by means of a custom-made Infrared Test Camera developed for this purpose by ESO. This intermediate test was required to ensure the proper functioning of MACAO before it is used to feed a corrected beam of light into the VLTI. After only a few nights of testing and optimizing of the various functions and operational parameters, MACAO-VLTI was ready to be used for astronomical observations. The images below were taken under average seeing conditions and illustrate the improvement of the image quality when using MACAO-VLTI . MACAO-VLTI - First Images Here are some of the first images obtained with the test camera at the first MACAO-VLTI system, now installed at the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope. ESO PR Photo 12b/03 ESO PR Photo 12b/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 468 pix - 25k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 938 pix - 291k] ESO PR Photo 12c/03 ESO PR Photo 12c/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 469 pix - 14k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 938 pix - 135k] Captions : PR Photos 12b-c/03 show the first image, obtained by the first MACAO-VLTI system at the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope in the infrared K-band (wavelength 2.2 µm). It displays images of the star HIC 59206 (visual magnitude 10) obtained before (left; Photo 12b/03 ) and after (right; Photo 12c/03 ) the adaptive optics system was switched on. The binary is separated by 0.120 arcsec and the image was taken under medium seeing conditions (0.75 arcsec) seeing. The dramatic improvement in image quality is obvious. ESO PR Photo 12d/03 ESO PR Photo 12d/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 427 pix - 18k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 854 pix - 205k] ESO PR Photo 12e/03 ESO PR Photo 12e/03 [Preview - JPEG: 483 x 400 pix - 17k [Normal - JPEG: 966 x 800 pix - 169k] Captions : PR Photo 12d/03 shows one of the best images obtained with MACAO-VLTI (logarithmic intensity scale). The seeing was 0.8 arcsec at the time of the observations and three diffraction rings can clearly be seen around the star HIC 69495 of visual magnitude 9.9. This pattern is only well visible when the image resolution is very close to the theoretical limit. The exposure of the point-like source lasted 100 seconds through a narrow K-band filter. It has a Strehl ratio (a measure of light concentration) of about 55% and a Full-Width- Half-Maximum (FWHM) of 0.060 arcsec. The 3-D plot ( PRPhoto 12e/03 ) demonstrates the tremendous gain in peak intensity of the AO image (right) in peak intensity as compared to "open-loop" image (the "noise" to the left) obtained without the benefit of AO. ESO PR Photo 12f/03 ESO PR Photo 12f/03 [Preview - JPEG: 494 x 400 pix - 20k [Normal - JPEG: 988 x 800 pix - 204k] Caption : PR Photo 12f/03 demonstrates the correction performance of MACAO-VLTI when using a faint guide star. The observed star ( HIC 74324 (stellar spectral type G0 and visual magnitude 9.4) was artificially dimmed by a neutral optical filter to visual magnitude 16.5. The observation was carried out in 0.55 arcsec seeing and with a rather short atmospheric correlation time of 3 milliseconds at visible wavelengths. The Strehl ratio in the 25-second K-band exposure is about 10% and the FWHM is 0.14 arcseconds. The uncorrected image is shown to the left for comparison. The improvement is again impressive, even for a star as faint as this, indicating that guide stars of this magnitude are feasible during future observations. ESO PR Photo 12g/03 ESO PR Photo 12g/03 [Preview - JPEG: 528 x 400 pix - 48k [Normal - JPEG: 1055 x 800 pix - 542k] Captions : PR Photo 12g/03 shows some of the MACAO-VLTI commissioning team members in the VLT Control Room at the moment of "First Light" during the night between April 18-19, 2003. Sitting: Markus Kasper, Enrico Fedrigo - Standing: Robin Arsenault, Sebastien Tordo, Christophe Dupuy, Toomas Erm, Jason Spyromilio, Rob Donaldson (all from ESO). PR Photos 12b-c/03 show the first image in the infrared K-band (wavelength 2.2 µm) of a star (visual magnitude 10) obtained without and with image corrections by means of adaptive optics. PR Photo 12d/03 displays one of the best images obtained with MACAO-VLTI during the early tests. It shows a Strehl ratio (measure of light concentration) that fulfills the specifications according to which MACAO-VLTI was built. This enormous improvement when using AO techniques is clearly demonstrated in PR Photo 12e/03 , with the uncorrected image profile (left) hardly visible when compared to the corrected profile (right). PR Photo 11f/03 demonstrates the correction capabilities of MACAO-VLTI when using a faint guide star. Tests using different spectral types showed that the limiting visual magnitude varies between 16 for early-type B-stars and about 18 for late-type M-stars. Astronomical Objects seen at the Diffraction Limit The following examples of MACAO-VLTI observations of two well-known astronomical objects were obtained in order to provisionally evaluate the research opportunities now opening with MACAO-VLTI. They may well be compared with space-based images. The Galactic Center ESO PR Photo 12h/03 ESO PR Photo 12h/03 [Preview - JPEG: 693 x 400 pix - 46k [Normal - JPEG: 1386 x 800 pix - 403k] Caption : PR Photo 12h/03 shows a 90-second K-band exposure of the central 6 x 13 arcsec 2 around the Galactic Center obtained by MACAO-VLTI under average atmospheric conditions (0.8 arcsec seeing). Although the 14.6 magnitude guide star is located roughly 20 arcsec from the field center - this leading to isoplanatic degradation of image sharpness - the present image is nearly diffraction limited and has a point-source FWHM of about 0.115 arcsec. The center of our own galaxy is located in the Sagittarius constellation at a distance of approximately 30,000 light-years. PR Photo 12h/03 shows a short-exposure infrared view of this region, obtained by MACAO-VLTI during the early test phase. Recent AO observations using the NACO facility at the VLT provide compelling evidence that a supermassive black hole with 2.6 million solar masses is located at the very center, cf. ESO PR 17/02 . This result, based on astrometric observations of a star orbiting the black hole and approaching it to within a distance of only 17 light-hours, would not have been possible without images of diffraction limited resolution. Eta Carinae ESO PR Photo 12i/03 ESO PR Photo 12i/03 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 482 pix - 25k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 963 pix - 313k] Caption : PR Photo 12i/03 displays an infrared narrow K-band image of the massive star Eta Carinae . The image quality is difficult to estimate because the central star saturated the detector, but the clear structure of the diffraction spikes and the size of the smallest features visible in the photo indicate a near-diffraction limited performance. The field measures about 6.5 x 6.5 arcsec 2. Eta Carinae is one of the heaviest stars known, with a mass that probably exceeds 100 solar masses. It is about 4 million times brighter than the Sun, making it one of the most luminous stars known. Such a massive star has a comparatively short lifetime of about 1 million years only and - measured in the cosmic timescale- Eta Carinae must have formed quite recently. This star is highly unstable and prone to violent outbursts. They are caused by the very high radiation pressure at the star's upper layers, which blows significant portions of the matter at the "surface" into space during violent eruptions that may last several years. The last of these outbursts occurred between 1835 and 1855 and peaked in 1843. Despite its comparaticely large distance - some 7,500 to 10,000 light-years - Eta Carinae briefly became the second brightest star in the sky at that time (with an apparent magnitude -1), only surpassed by Sirius. Frosty Leo ESO PR Photo 12j/03 ESO PR Photo 12j/03 [Preview - JPEG: 411 x 400 pix - 22k [Normal - JPEG: 821 x 800 pix - 344k] Caption : PR Photo 12j/03 shows a 5 x 5 arcsec 2 K-band image of the peculiar star known as "Frosty Leo" obtained in 0.7 arcsec seeing. Although the object is comparatively bright (visual magnitude 11), it is a difficult AO target because of its extension of about 3 arcsec at visible wavelengths. The corrected image quality is about FWHM 0.1 arcsec. Frosty Leo is a magnitude 11 (post-AGB) star surrounded by an envelope of gas, dust, and large amounts of ice (hence the name). The associated nebula is of "butterfly" shape (bipolar morphology) and it is one of the best known examples of the brief transitional phase between two late evolutionary stages, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and the subsequent planetary nebulae (PNe). For a three-solar-mass object like this one, this phase is believed to last only a few thousand years, the wink of an eye in the life of the star. Hence, objects like this one are very rare and Frosty Leo is one of the nearest and brightest among them.