An online encyclopedia entry about the embryologist, Viktor Hamburger, including a photo and links to other articles about his associates and work. A photo of him in 1933 is linked to this submission.
Adam R Navis (Arizona State University Center for Biology and Society)
|Describes the work of Viktor Lowenfeld in developing creative art experiences for the handicapped, particularly using sculpture with the blind. The bulk of the article consists of excerpts from Lowenfeld's own writings, including a case study of his work with a deaf blind child. (SJL)|
Michael, John A.
Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.
Reams, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs
The book presents papers of the Proceedings of the conference dedicated to Viktor Ambarstumian's 100 anniversary held in 2008 in Yerevan and Byurakan. It is divided into 5 parts related to the sessions held during the conference: Stars and Nebulae, Pulsars \\/ Neutron Stars, Activity in Galaxies, Cosmology, Light Scattering and Radiative Transfer, and Miscellanea. All these fields reflect extremely
H. A. Harutyunian; A. M. Mickaelian; Y. Terzian
Two developments have led to the elaboration of a complementarity theory in modern natural science--the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics and Viktor von Weizsäckers introduction of the subject into biology. The revolutionary implications of these developments are discernible in modern literature. The author seeks to show that a paradigm shift in positivistic clinical medicine is necessitated by the history and theory of science. PMID:1488508
Restitution after brain damage was the leading topic in 1930 at the 20th annual meeting of the Society of German Neurologists in Dresden, Germany. One of the "nonanatomic" presentations was held by Viktor von Weizsäcker about modifications in neurological function. Finally the presentation by Kurt Goldstein about restitution after damage of the brain cortex, strongly supported by Weizsäcker, was the starting point for controversies on the significance of natural scientific methods in the field of neurology. Goldstein and Weizsäcker favored the idea that function can be understood only if we consider it in light of the whole organism. However, the president of the Society of German Neurologists, Otfrid Foerster, was mainly influenced by the overall concept of the structure of the peripheral nervous system and - as Weizsäcker indirectly blamed - came to inadequate conclusions by transferring these concepts to the entire nervous system. In contrast Weizsäcker and Goldstein suggested analyzing pathological phenomena not only according to classical physiology, i.e. isolated data acquired by the dissecting method of natural science. Weizsäcker stressed hermeneutic views concerning the mind: body relationship in a phenomenologically oriented medical anthropology. Some years later Foerster linked up with Weizsäcker's position. Goldstein established the new method, the so-called holistic, organismic approach, which he carried on after emigrating to the U.S.A. in 1935. The Heidelberg School around Weizsäcker tried during the following years to liberate neurology from the ideology of materialistic reductionism without however reducing it to simple psychology. The doctrine of neurons and principles of saltatory conduction as basic and descriptive instruments in neurology were not to be questioned. In 1941 Weizsäcker succeeded Foerster as Professor of Neurology at the University of Breslau and Director of the Neurological Research Institute. His literary work "The Circle of Form. Theory of the Unity of Movement and Perception" and Goldstein's "The Organism. A Holistic Approach to Biology derived from Pathological Data in Man" [new edn. by Oliver Sacks, Zone Books, New York, 1995] obtained paradigm values which had their beginnings in Dresden in 1930. "The crisis in biology in the matter of theory of cognition and natural philosophy" was already then obvious and still can be found in present discussion about the relationship between neurosciences and humanities. Weizsäcker increased his focus on medical anthropology by taking a full professorship of general clinical medicine in 1946 in Heidelberg. It is not without reason that Weizsäcker is recognized as a founder of psychosomatic medicine. PMID:19165460
Conspiracy theories in Ukraine draw on inherited Soviet political culture and political technology imported from Russia where such ideas had gained ascendancy under President Vladimir Putin. Eastern Ukrainian and Russian elites believed that the US was behind the 2000 Serbian Bulldozer, 2003 Georgian Rose and 2004 Orange democratic revolutions. The Kuchmagate crisis, impending succession crisis, 2004 presidential elections and Orange
The paper gives a comprehensive overview of our Shopping Guide project, which aims at the development of interactive mobile shopping companion robots for everyday use in challenging operating environments such as home improve- ment stores. It is spanning an arc from the expectations and requirements of store owners and customers, via the challenges of the shopping scenario and the operating
Horst-michael Gross; H. Boehme; Christof Schröter; Steffen Müller; Alexander Koenig; Erik Einhorn; Christian Martin; Matthias Merten; A. Bley
This article describes how Viktor Schreckengost's work had been a learning experience for the students of Grant Elementary School. Viktor's most famous work, "Jazz Bowl," was the focus of the author's curriculum. Viktor created this punch bowl for Eleanor Roosevelt in the 1930s. The bowl was so popular that a series of them were produced. The…
Hungary is a parliamentary democracy with a freely elected legislative assembly. Prime Minister Viktor Orban, the leader of the FIDESZ-Hungarian Civic Party, heads a coalition Government formed after elections in May 1998 by FIDESZ, the Independent Smallh...
In January 2005, Viktor Yushchenko became Ukraine's new President after massive demonstrations helped to overturn the former regime's electoral fraud in what has been dubbed the 'Orange Revolution,' after Yushchenko's campaign color. Some hoped Ukraine mi...
In January 2005, Viktor Yushchenko became Ukraine's new President after massive demonstrations helped to overturn the former regime's electoral fraud in what has been dubbed the 'Orange Revolution,' after Yushchenko's campaign color. Some hoped Ukraine mi...
A review of interpretations of "suffering" was presented after an etymological clarification of the term "consolation". The review begins with an examination of concepts of consolation in the early Greek and Roman antiquity continues with late Greek and Roman antiquity, the early and late Middle Ages, the epochs of Humanism and Reformation and the time after Reformation until to the present. Concerning concepts of consolation in the present the conception of the movement "Biblical Therapeutic Pastoral Care", Viktor Frankl's "Logotherapy" and Viktor Emil von Gebsattel's "Anthropologic Psychotherapy" are discussed. Finally, some essential features of general conceptions of consolation are presented. PMID:17333867
Weidmann, Werner; Bühler, Karl-Ernst
|Volume 1, No. 2, of "Studies in Art Education," appearing in spring 1960, included an article by Viktor Lowenfeld titled "Creative Intelligence." Here, he highlighted his belief in the importance of creative intelligence to human functioning, linking it to creative practice as represented most purely in the artworks of children and untutored…
Burton, Judith M.
In this article the author examines the use of the term and concept of evolution in the works of Viktor Shklovskii. Attention is also paid to the role Darwin, Lamarck and questions of evolution played in the work of other Formalists and in the cultural life of the 1910s and 1920s.
This article examines the role of the Committee on State Security (KGB) during the turbulent six-and-a-half years under Mikhail Gorbachev, from March 1985 to December 1991. Contrary to popular impressions, the KGB was never an independent actor in the Soviet system; it acted at the behest of the Communist Party. When Vladimir Kryuchkov replaced Viktor Chebrikov as head of the
|Presents the importance that meaning and values have in human life, with special reference to Viktor Frankl's work. Points out some pathological phenomena that result from the frustration of the quest for meaning and describes principles of logotherapy to deal with them. (Author)|
Das, Ajit K.
|This paper discusses the life, theories, and therapeutic techniques of psychotherapist, Viktor E. Frankl. A brief biography of Frankl is included discussing the relationship of his early experiences as a physician to his theory of personality. Frankl's theory focusing on man's need for meaning and emphasizing the spiritual dimension in each human…
Missinne, Leo E.; Wilcox, Victoria
|The major premise of this article is inspired by Viktor Frankl's words: "The truth is that as the struggle for survival has subsided, the question has emerged--survival for what? Ever more people today have the "means" to live, but no "meaning" to live for." Thousands of students who have come through the author's college courses during the last…
Nash, Robert J.
|This publication contains papers contributed by Russian educators at a symposium on preparing Soviet youth and adults for the challenges and opportunities of an emerging market economy. The following presentations are included: "Conception of Kazan Community College" (Mirza I. Makhmoutov, Oleg E. Liseitchikov, and Viktor I. Lebedev); "Complex…
Community Colleges for International Development, Inc.
We related the effect of the satiety enhancing drug sibutramine (Meridia®, Reductil®) on food intake to Rorschach Comprehensive System (Exner, 1991, 1993) personality factors. A pla- cebo-controlled crossover, within-subjects design (n = 36) was used. Food intake after 2 weeks in the sibutramine and placebo conditions was assessed with a test meal using the VIKTOR (Cabmek, Stockholm, Sweden) setup, a
Kristina Elfhag; Britta Barkeling; Anna Maria Carlsson; Thomas Lindgren; Stephan Rossner
These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of September, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics include: the reaction of world markets to Russia's Duma rejection of Viktor…
Turner Educational Services, Inc., Atlanta, GA.
The movie, The terminal, is used to illustrate MacIntyre's description of virtue ethics. The terminal is a mythical tale about a traveler, Viktor Navorski, who is stranded by circumstances in a New York airport. Viktor is a person who, without a strict reliance on duty or rules, has developed the disposition to act well despite variation in his circumstances. His character is revealed in contrast to that of three other characters: a cleaner, a flight attendant and the airport manager. Stories like this one may be a good way to open dialogue among clinicians about being virtuous as a practitioner. Such dialogue may make striving to be virtuous an acceptable goal for practitioners and less like an idealistic, pseudo-goal for those aiming for sainthood. PMID:17334170
Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy posits that human life has purpose and that human beings are motivated to discover meaning in\\u000a their lives. This paper’s objective is to present a case for incorporating meaning into couples therapy as a way of enhancing\\u000a a clinician’s existing approach. Logotherapy is a potentially useful modality, regardless of the clinician’s theoretical orientation,\\u000a given its collaborative nature
Stefan E. SchulenbergLindsay; Lindsay W. Schnetzer; Michael R. Winters; Robert R. Hutzell
Logotherapy is based on the meaning-focused existential philosophy of Viktor E. Frankl (1905-1997). Numerous mental health professionals have been inspired by his most popular book, Man's Search for Meaning; however, many are unfamiliar with the depth of Frankl's work. The purpose of this article is to discuss the tenets of logotherapy, including fundamental concepts, applicability and techniques, roles of the therapist, and assessment tools and new research findings. Logotherapy can readily be integrated with techniques that mental health professionals frequently use, and thus it has much to offer mental health professionals regardless of their theoretical orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122533
Schulenberg, Stefan E; Hutzell, Robert R; Nassif, Carrie; Rogina, Julius M
Recent research has shown that people who have gone through war experiences in one way or the other tend to manifest reactions classified as post-traumatic stress disorder. Viktor Frankl, the founder of logotherapy, manifested PTSD reactions when he was in a concentration camp. This paper attempts to sketch how he lived through his traumatic experiences by relying on the principle of Will to Meaning as his survival mechanism. Two implications will be outlined derived from this principle for psychotherapies dealing with disaster survivors. PMID:7731412
Chung, M C
Logotherapy, developed by Viktor Frankl, posits that when one lacks meaning in life, boredom can result. Thus, the two constructs should be inversely related. To examine this relationship, 279 students (M = 19.8 yr., SD = 2.6; 179 women, 98 men) from a university in the southern United States were administered the Purpose of Life test and the Boredom Proneness Scale. As expected, a statistically significant negative correlation was found between the scores on the two scales (r = -.71). Directions for research are offered. PMID:18361113
Melton, Amanda M A; Schulenberg, Stefan E
Francisco Diego recorded spectacular images of the 11 July 2010 total solar eclipse from Rapa Nui (Easter Island), making the most of modern digital technology - much of which originated from astronomical research - in taking and processing the images. The European Space Agency has set out its priorities for the decade starting in 2015, in a report entitled Cosmic Vision. The first Viktor Ambartsumian International Prize, in memory of the distinguished Armenian theorist, goes to the team led by Prof. Michel Mayor of the Observatory of Geneva, for ``their important contribution in the study of relation between planetary systems and their host stars''.
Solute properties are known to be strongly influenced by solvent molecules due to solvation. This is due to mutual interaction as both the properties of the solute and of the solvent strongly depend on each other. The present paper is based on the idea that ionic liquids are cations solvated by anions and anions solvated by cations. To show this (in this system strongly pronounced) interaction the long time established donor–acceptor concept for solvents and ions in solution by Viktor Gutmann is extended to ionic liquids. A number of solvent parameters, such as the Kamlet–Abboud–Taft and the Dimroth–Reichardt ET scale for ionic liquids neglect this mutual influence, which, however, seems to be in fact necessary to get a proper description of ionic liquid properties. It is shown how strong such parameters vary when the influence of the counter ion is taken into account. Furthermore, acceptor and donor numbers for ionic liquids are presented.
Holzweber, Markus; Lungwitz, Ralf; Doerfler, Denise; Spange, Stefan; Koel, Mihkel; Hutter, Herbert; Linert, Wolfgang
Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding. PMID:2251867
Building on Viktor Frankl's clinical approach of Logotherapy and the works of subsequent theoreticians, three types of meaning of life were theoretically derived and empirically investigated, Ultimate, Provisional, and Personal meaning. These types were characterized, first, by the amount of agreement of subjects, second, by sources of Life Meaning, which were assessed by content analyses, third, by correlations, and fourth by prediction with ratings of important life concepts from the domains of Well-being, Religiosity, and Prosocial Behavior. 192 German adults, 45 men and 147 women, whose M age was 31.6 yr. (SD = 11.9), participated. Analysis indicated different sources for the Ultimate meaning compared with the other meaning types, which seem to display more similarities with each other. Other important life concepts, such as Belief, Harmony, Happiness, and Human Goodness were related to the investigated types of meaning of life. Some implications for clinical applications, research perspectives, and Positive Psychology are discussed. PMID:17037460
Auhagen, Ann Elisabeth; Holub, Franziska
Today's physicians feel helpless and angry about changing conditions in the medical landscape. This is due, in large part, to our postmodernist world view and the influence of corporations on medical practice. The life and work of existentialist psychiatrist Viktor Frankl is proposed as a role model for physicians to take back control of their profession. Physician leaders are in the best position to bring the teachings and insight of Frankl's logotherapy to rank-and-file physicians in all practice settings, as well as into the board rooms of large medical corporations. This article considers the spiritual and moral troubles of American medicine, Frankl's answer to that affliction, and the implications of logotherapy for physician organizations and leadership. Physician executives are challenged to take up this task. PMID:10186382
Washburn, E R
As Victor Ambartsumyan, himself, noted, the concept of active galactic nuclei occupies a special place among his scientific ideas. It was proposed more than half a century ago and was recognized by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences as revolutionary, on a copernican scale. However, by no means all of its propositions were accepted at once by large parts of the astronomy community. Nevertheless, as the American astrophysicist A. R. Sandage has written, “today, not one astronomer would deny the mystery surrounding the nuclei of galaxies or that the first to recognize the rich reward held in this treasury was Viktor Ambartsumian.” The purpose of this article is to acquaint the reader with the major stages in the formation and development of the concept of active galactic nuclei and with some of the work on this topic done at the Byurakan and other astrophysical observatories throughout the world.
Khachikian, E. Ye.
Viktor Von Weizsäcker's paper "Dreams in so-called endogenic Magersucht (anorexia," first published in the Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift in 1937 (translation in M. Kaufman & M. Heiman . Evolution of psychosomatic concepts: Anorexia nervosa: A paradigm (pp. 181-197), New York: International Universities Press, has been described as a noteworthy and historically important contribution to the recognition of anorexia nervosa as a psychosomatic illness. Von Weizsäcker analyzed the dreams of patients he was treating for "endogenous anorexia" (magersucht). He claimed that in the bulimic phase his patients experienced nightmares dealing with themes of death, but that in the anorectic phases of restricted eating more pleasant dreams dealt with themes of blissful contentment. The authors draw current attention to his work as another early example of the treatment of the theme of death and death symbolism in the literature on eating disorders, and suggest some reappraisal of von Weizsäcker's interpretations of his own material. PMID:8477306
Jackson, C; Beumont, P J; Thornton, C; Lennerts, W
As in many other countries, radio astronomy in the Soviet Union began as an outgrowth of wartime radar research. The early leaders of Soviet radio astronomy, including Simon Braude, Vladimir Kotelnikov, Vladimir Troitskii, and Viktor Vitkevitch, all began their careers during WWII. Although the theoretical contributions of people like Iosef Shklovsky and Vitaly Ginzburg were well known in the West, the early experimental and observational programs received much less attention, partially the result of cold war military secrecy. When they were noticed, the Soviet observations were largely ignored or declared wrong. We will discuss the controversial Soviet contributions to the detection of polarized cosmic radio emission, the development of very long baseline interferometry, the prediction and verification of radio recombination lines, and the first detection of variability in an extragalactic radio source.
Kellermann, Kenneth I.
In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on “non-Aryan” doctors. Some of these unfortunate neuroscientists survived Nazi concentration camps, but most were murdered. We discuss the circumstances and environment which stripped these neuroscientists of their profession, then of their personal rights and freedom, and then of their lives. We include a background analysis of anti-Semitism and Nazism in their various countries, then discuss in depth seven exemplary neuroscientist Holocaust victims; including Germans Ludwig Pick, Arthur Simons, and Raphael Weichbrodt, Austrians Alexander Spitzer and Viktor Frankl, and Poles Lucja Frey and Wladyslaw Sterling. by recognizing and remembering these victims of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself. PMID:23230611
Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel
Personality psychology is increasingly used in various clinical medicine settings to help in decision-making in difficult situations, especially in chronic disease. Patients with chronic renal disease are very dependent on modern medicine, and psychological aspects could help give answers in certain circumstances. Logotherapy and Existence analysis, after Viktor Frankl (Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy), is the theory of the possibilities and conditions for a fulfilled existence and evaluates a different aspect of personality psychology, namely meaning (in life). We used the existence scale questionnaire in this pilot study to investigate the personal abilities self-distancing, self-transcendence, freedom and responsibility in dialysis patients and compared a group of hemodialysis (HD) patients with patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We studied a mixed dialysis cohort (24 HD, 24 CAPD) at two Austrian centers (Innsbruck Medical University Hospital and Wilhelminenspital of the City of Vienna). Overall, results for dialysis patients (n = 48) were very close to those reported for healthy persons; however, CAPD patients scored significantly better than HD patients (p = 0.017) on the subscale self-distancing. This significant difference was also seen in the overall scores (p = 0.045). Our results might indicate that contented CAPD patients have personal abilities that predestine them for this type of treatment. The existence scale might help decide between CAPD and HD treatment alternatives. PMID:17634892
Schwaiger, Johannes P; Kopriva-Altfahrt, Gertrude; Söllner, Wolfgang; König, Paul
Leaders of health care organizations are increasingly interested in ways to attract, retain, and gain commitment from their employees. This interest is created in part because high turnover rates and the lack of commitment negatively affect the provision of care and the bottom line in their organizations. In a quality and cost conscious health care environment, health care managers need to find solutions for these difficult issues; solutions that are effective, efficient and sustainable. What can be done? This article reviews, amplifies, and extends work that has been done in the area of "meaningfulness of work" in the context of employee retention and commitment. It begins with an exploration of the problems caused by lack of employee engagement and commitment including their impact on quality and costs. It then summarizes both the theoretical and applied research in the area of meaning and work. It also introduces the basic principles of Viktor Frankl's logotherapy (Frankl, 1998) as a foundation for encouraging the integration of meaning and work. The seminal work by Pattakos (2004) is used to demonstrate how Frankl's principles can be applied to healthcare work settings. Finally, the article provides suggestions for increasing employee commitment and engagement through identifying meaning and purpose in work. PMID:17557698
Morrison, Eileen E; Burke, George C; Greene, Lloyd
Medical and psychological discourse on end-of-life care has steadily shifted over the years from focusing primarily on symptom control and pain management to incorporating more person-centred approaches to patient care. Such approaches underscore the significance of spirituality and meaning making as important resources for coping with emotional and existential suffering as one nears death. Though existential themes are omnipresent in end-of-life care, little has been written about their foundations or import for palliative care practitioners and patients in need. In this article, we explore the existential foundations of meaning and spirituality in light of terminal illness and palliative care. We discuss existential themes in terms of patients' awareness of death and search for meaning and practitioners' promotion of personal agency and responsibility as patients face life-and-death issues. Viktor Frankl's existential logotherapy is discussed in light of emerging psychotherapeutic interventions. Meaning-centred group therapy is one such novel modality that has successfully integrated themes of meaning and spirituality into end-of-life care. We further explore spiritual and existential themes through this meaning-oriented approach that encourages dying patients to find meaning and purpose in living until their death. PMID:15283531
Breitbart, William; Gibson, Christopher; Poppito, Shannon R; Berg, Amy
New results from a three-dimensional toroidal gyrokinetic flux tube simulation will be presented. The code utilizes a one dimensional domain decomposition(We thank Viktor Decyk, UCLA and Minh Tran, EPFL for use of the Fortran90 PLIB particle sorting routines.) in the direction along the field line (z=qR ?) and employs proper toroidal periodicity. No spectral decomposition is done in the z-direction. Instead, digital filtering is used in z, with the correct toroidal and poloidal periodicity. We will report the current performance and scaling on the SGI Origin 2000s at ACL, LANL and the T3Es at NERSC, LBNL. Preliminary results show better performance (by a factor of 2-5) than the T3E. Simulation results will show the effects of including higher order geometric corrections to the field-line-following approximation, such as radial temperature and density profile variation and radial variation of the B field, q, and q'. The sensitivity to initial conditions is currently being investigated, and will also be discussed. Finally, we will present detailed comparisons with global (whole plasma volume) simulations.
Kim, Charlson; Parker, Scott E.
The paper reflects on a study which explored the role of spirituality in the lives of women during the first year after being diagnosed with breast cancer. The study utilised a qualitative method (hermeneutic phenomenology) designed to provide rich and thick understanding of women's experiences of breast cancer and to explore possible ways in which spirituality may, or may not, be beneficial in enabling coping and enhancing quality of life. The paper draws on the thinking of David Hay and Viktor Frankl to develop a model of spirituality that includes, but is not defined by, religion and that has the possibility to facilitate effective empirical enquiry. It outlines a threefold movement - inwards, outwards and upwards - that emerged from in-depth interviews with women who have breast cancer. This framework captures something of the spiritual movement that women went through on their cancer journeys and offers some pointers and possibilities for better and more person-centred caring approaches that include recognition of the spiritual dimension of women's experiences for the management of those with breast cancer. PMID:21771127
Swinton, J; Bain, V; Ingram, S; Heys, S D
The Kantian idea of freedom was introduced to psychiatry methodologically by Karl Jaspers. It influenced the genesis and design of his doctrine of understanding, General Psychopathology, even more decisively than Nietzsche's topos of resentment did. This article places Jaspers' work in the framework of a history of ideas. It begins by pursuing Nietzsche's perspective in the context of Darwinism, then focuses on the role concealed resentment played for Jaspers' genealogical concept of understanding in the first (1913) edition of General Psychopathology, which is primarily oriented towards Max Weber, before examining the idea of Kantian freedom, which was to become crucial for Jaspers' later work. The antinomy of freedom already shapes the suicidology contained in Jaspers' Philosophy of 1931. The idea gains prominence in the final, philosophically grounded revision of GeneralPsychopathology published in 1941/1942. Jaspers' reception of Kantian idealism leads him to develop a concept of critical understanding that clearly distinguishes itself from speculative understanding, whose hazards Jaspers illustrates on the basis of Viktor von Weizsäcker's theory of medicine. This goes far beyond Kant, embracing Schelling and Hegel philosophically. As it were, Jaspers and von Weizsäcker represent critical and postcritical thought in psychopathology and psychosomatics. The epilogue sums up by placing the inquiry in the context of Jaspers' life and work. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:23942461
Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897–1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel’s design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d’Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel’s complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages—reduced to a few journal pages—helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account.
This paper reviews select programs driving the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation's (Minatom) efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the US over the next three to five years. The paper's findings are: (1) Despite numerous cabinet displacements throughout the Yeltsin administration, Yevgeny Adamov was reappointed Minister on four occasions. With Boris Yeltsin's January 1, 2000 resignation, Adamov's long-term position as the head of the Ministry is more tenuous, but he will likely retain his position until at least the March 2000 elections. Acting President Vladimir Putin is unlikely to reorganize his cabinet prior to that date and there are no signs that Putin is dissatisfied with Adamov's leadership of Minatom. (2) Adamov's chief priorities are downsizing Minatom's defense sector, increasing the oversight of subsidiary bodies by the central bureaucracy and consolidating commercial elements of the Ministry within an umbrella organization called Atomprom. (3) Viktor Mikhaylov, Adamov's predecessor and critic of his reform efforts, has been relieved of his duties as First Deputy Minister. While he retains his positions as Chief of the Science Councils and Chief Scientist at Arzamas-16, his influence on Minatom's direction is greatly diminished. Adamov will likely continue his efforts to further marginalize Mikhaylov in the coming year. (4) Securing extra-budgetary sources of income continues to be the major factor guiding Minatom's international business dealings. The Ministry will continue to aggressively promote the sale of nuclear technology abroad, often to countries with questionable nonproliferation commitments. (5) Given the financial difficulties in Russia and Minatom's client states, however, few nuclear development programs will come to fruition for a number of years, if ever. Nevertheless, certain peaceful nuclear cooperation agreements should be carefully monitored--particularly those negotiated with Cuba, Iran, Libya and Syria. (6) Waste management has also risen in importance for Minatom. Opportunities for raising funds by reprocessing, storing and permanently disposing of spent fuel from foreign states are being explored. Although currently prohibited by federal law, the Russian Parliament will likely pass legislation in support of this program.
On February 9, 2002, Serono Symposia sponsored a workshop at The 3rd World Congress on The Aging Male that was held in Berlin, Germany at the Hotel Inter-Continental. The title of the workshop 'Is aging a disease?', was intended to convey recent interest in the subject of aging as a clinically relevant entity and to discuss causes and approaches to its management. The Workshop was co-chaired by Drs Viktor Büber and Richard F. Walker. Speakers included Drs George R. Merriam, Heinrich M. Schulte, Felice Strollo and Richard F. Walker. Topics were arranged to proceed from a general overview of fundamental aspects of the aging process and their clinical consequences to specific aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of age-related disorders that could be associated with neuroendocrine dysfunction. F. Strollo initiated the series of lectures by reviewing some of the biological theories of aging and suggesting that maladaptive changes within the central nervous and endocrine systems play a major role in contributing to the cascade of events defined as senescence. R. Walker expanded upon this background by differentiating aging and disease. He suggested that while the process of aging is not a disease, it is directly responsible for the development of functional decrements causal of the intrinsic disease, frailty and general morbidity that occur in direct relation to advancing chronological age. From this generalized approach of linking age and disease, G. Merriam discussed a specific example in which age-related decrements in neuroendocrine dysfunction could contribute, at least in part, to senescent changes in body composition and physiological function. Specifically, he provided evidence that the gradual decline in growth hormone (GH) and testosterone secretion during aging is accompanied by anatomical and functional changes resembling pathogenic hormone deficiency. He went on to discuss possible interventions into this process, specifically showing data to support the view that a combination of GH secretagogues and sex hormones may be of value in sustaining health and vitality in the elderly. As an extension of this discussion, H. M. Schulte compared and contrasted age changes in sex hormone secretion between genders, and also stressed that the diagnosis and management of endocrine changes during life has become a serious challenge to those physicians intending to intervene in the aging process. Because the relationship of reduced hormone secretion to disease in the elderly is presently unclear, the Workshop concluded on a note of caution that guidelines for the replacement of endocrine substances as a prophylactic approach to aging have yet to be defined. PMID:12471776
Walker, R F
The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents <;A article="1367-2630/5/1/117">Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau, P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end planes to stable loops caused by annealing M Endo, B J Lee, Y A Kim, Y J Kim, H Muramatsu, T Yanagisawa, T Hayashi, M Terrones and M S Dresselhaus Energetics and electronic structure of C70-peapods and one-dimensional chains of C70 Susumu Okada, Minoru Otani and Atsushi Oshiyama Theoretical characterization of several models of nanoporous carbon F Valencia, A H Romero, E Hernández, M Terrones and H Terrones First-principles molecular dynamics study of the stretching frequencies of hydrogen molecules in carbon nanotubes Gabriel Canto, Pablo Ordejón, Cheng Hansong, Alan C Cooper and Guido P Pez The geometry and the radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes: beyond the ideal behaviour Jeno Kürti, Viktor Zólyomi, Miklos Kertesz and Sun Guangyu Curved nanostructured materials Humberto Terrones and Mauricio Terrones A one-dimensional Ising model for C70 molecular ordering in C70-peapods Yutaka Maniwa, Hiromichi Kataura, Kazuyuki Matsuda and Yutaka Okabe Nanoengineering of carbon nanotubes for nanotools Yoshikazu Nakayama and Seiji Akita Narrow diameter double-wall carbon nanotubes: synthesis, electron microscopy and inelastic light scattering R R Bacsa, E Flahaut, Ch Laurent, A Peigney, S Aloni, P Puech and W S Bacsa Sensitivity of sin
I will give an overview of recent developments of experimental techniques to measure the thermal conductivity in diamond anvil cell (DAC) under conditions of high pressure and high temperature (P-T) which are relevant for the planetary interiors. To measure the lattice contributions to the thermal conductivity, we developed a transient heating technique (THT) in the diamond anvil cell (DAC) . This technique utilizes a periodic front surface temperature variation (measured by the spectroradiometry) of a metallic absorber surrounded by the material of interest and exposed to a pulsed laser radiation (10 nanoseconds pulses). We extract the thermal diffusivity of minerals by fitting the experimental results to the model finite element (FE) calculations. We have recently modified this technique for microseconds laser pulses as this allows avoiding nonequilibrium heat transfer processes. We have measured the thermal conductivity of Ar up to 50 GPa and 2500 K; the results are in agreement with the theoretical calculations  in the limit of high temperatures. In collaboration with a group from the University of Illinois we have utilized a time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR)- ultrafast (femtosecond) laser pump-probe technique for measurement of the lattice thermal conductivity at high P-T conditions. We have measured the thermal conductivity of MgO up to 60 GPa and 300 K and up to 45 GPa at 600 K. The detailed results of this study will be presented in a separate paper at this Meeting. Finally, we have combined static and pulsed laser techniques to determine the thermal conductivity of Fe and its temperature dependence at high pressures up to 70 GPa and 2000 K . A thin plate of Fe was positioned in an Ar medium, laser heated from one side and the temperature is being measured from both sides of the sample radiometrically. The thermal conductivity has been determined by fitting the results of FE calculations to the experimental results. These examples demonstrate that different techniques can be successfully used to determine the thermal conductivity of materials loaded in the DAC. The choice of the technique depends on material properties, sample preparation method, and P-T range needed. I thank D. Allen Dalton, David Cahill, Viktor Struzhkin, Wen-Pin Hsieh, Zuzana Konopkova, Peter Lazor, Javier A. Montoya for critically contributing to this work. I acknowledge support from NSF EAR 0711358 and EAR-1015239, Carnegie Institution of Washington, DOE/ NNSA (CDAC), and EFree, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DESC0001057. 1. P. Beck, A. F. Goncharov, V. V. Struzhkin, B. Militzer, H. K. Mao, R. J. Hemley (2007). Measurement of thermal diffusivity at high pressure using a transient heating technique, Appl Phys. Lett. 91, 181914. 2. K. V. Tretiakov and S. Scandolo (2004). Thermal conductivity of solid argon at high pressure and high temperature: A molecular dynamics study. Journal of Chemical Physics 121, 11177-11182. 3. Z. Konopkova, P. Lazor, A. F. Goncharov, V. V. Struzhkin (2011). Thermal conductivity of hcp iron at high pressure and temperature, High Pressure Research, 31, 228-236.
Goncharov, A. F.
As usual, being an even year, the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference took place at Daejeon, Korea. The event was notable not just for the quality of the presentations but also for the spectacular opening ceremony, in the presence of the Prime Minister, Kim Hwang-sik. The Prime Minister affirmed the importance of research into fusion energy research and pledged support for ITER. Such political visibility is good news, of course, but it brings with it the obligation to perform. Fortunately, good performance was much in evidence in the papers presented at the conference, of which a significant proportion contain 'ITER' in the title. Given this importance of ITER and the undertaking by the Nuclear Fusion journal to publish papers associated with Fusion Energy Conference presentations, the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board has decided to adopt a simplified journal scope that encompasses technology papers more naturally. The scope is available from http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/page/Journal%20information but is reproduced here for clarity: Nuclear Fusion publishes articles making significant advances to the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion. The journal scope includes: the production, heating and confinement of high temperature plasmas; the physical properties of such plasmas; the experimental or theoretical methods of exploring or explaining them; fusion reactor physics; reactor concepts; fusion technologies. The key to scope acceptability is now '....significant advances....' rather than any particular area of controlled thermonuclear fusion research. It is hoped that this will make scope decisions easier for the Nuclear Fusion office, the referees and the Editor.The Nuclear Fusion journal has continued to make an important contribution to the research programme and has maintained its position as the leading journal in the field. This is underlined by the fact that Nuclear Fusion has received an impact factor of 4.270, as listed in ISI's 2009 Science Citation Index. The journal depends entirely on its authors and referees and so I would like to thank them all for their work in 2010 and look forward to a continuing, successful collaboration in 2011. Refereeing The Nuclear Fusion editorial office understands how much effort is required of our referees. The Editorial Board decided that an expression of thanks to our most loyal referees is appropriate and so, since January 2005, we have been offering the top ten most active referees over the past year a personal subscription to Nuclear Fusion with electronic access for one year, free of charge. This year, two of the top referees have reviewed four or more manuscripts in the period November 2009 to November 2010 and provided particularly detailed advice to the authors. We have excluded our Board Members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in the last four years. Guest Editors' work on papers submitted to their special issues is also excluded from consideration. The following people have been selected: Osamu Naito, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Japan Masahiro Kobayashi, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan Duccio Testa, Lausanne Federal Polytechnic University, Switzerland Vladimir Pustovitov, Russian Research Centre, Kurchatov Insitute, Russia Christopher Holland, University of California at San Diego, USA Yuri Gribov, ITER International Organisation, Cadarache, France Eriko Jotaki, Kyushu University, Japan Sven Wiesen, Jülich Research Centre, Germany Viktor S. Marchenko, Ukraine National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine Richard Stephens, General Atomics, USA In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2010. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2010 Nuclear Fusion Award was J.E. Rice et al for the paper entitled 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' (2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 1618-24). The prize was awarde
Radioecology is the study of the fate and transport and potential effects of radionuclides and associated contaminants in the environment. In short, it is the science that describes the fundamental connection between environmental health and human health risks. As such, radioecology can and has provided the credible, consistent and defensible basis for the successful and cost-effective environmental cleanup and closure of nuclear production and waste sites. In addition, radioecology also provides the technical basis for making timely and reliable decisions on cleanup in the aftermath of nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. The 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident resulted in catastrophic health, social, and economic consequences in many countries, predominantly, Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The extent of radioactive contamination, levels and forms of contamination, and diversity of the ecosystems affected by the accident did not have any precedent and provided unique opportunities for environmental scientists around the world. Following the natural course of their development, populations of species and their communities found themselves in conditions of chronic radiation exposure that exceeded the natural background by factors of hundreds and thousands. Anything similar would have been extremely difficult if not impossible to recreate in a scientific laboratory. Consequently, since the first few years after the accident, many teams of scientists have visited the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ). The knowledge gained by studying the consequences of this accident has tremendous importance. The concept of an international research and technical center to address the problems involving nuclear and radiological accidents became a reality with the establishment of the International Chernobyl Center (ICC). In May 1995, the US and Ukraine signed a Protocol of Intent on establishment of the ICC, and the government of Ukraine appealed to the international scientific community to support ICC and join its activities (Chernobyl Center 2006). In December 1995, a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on the ChNPP closure was signed by the government of Ukraine, all of the G7 governments, and the European Commission. The ICC foundation was considered critical to ensure the safe decommissioning of the ChNPP reactor units and improvement of the safety of the Chernobyl Containment Shelter. On the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident (26 April 1996), Mr. Viktor Yushchenko, the President of Ukraine, issued a decree to establish the Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology (Chernobyl Center). On the same day, a MOU involving the US participation in Chernobyl Center activities was signed by the US and Ukraine (Chernobyl Center 2006). In July 1998, the US and Ukraine signed an agreement to establish the International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL) as part of the Chernobyl Center. The creation of IRL was a logical continuation of previous programs to conduct scientific research in radioecology and provide Ukraine and the rest of the world with the necessary infrastructure and scientific basis to conduct research in radioecology, radiobiology, dosimetry, and environmental protection in the ChEZ (Chernobyl Center 2006). A recent collaborative effort with IRL has been implemented through a project titled 'Long-term impacts from radiation/contamination within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone' (Farfan et al. 2008; Gerdes et al. 2009; Marra et al. 2010). This collaboration had the following objectives: (1) Assess the long-term impacts to the environment from radiation exposure within the ChEZ; (2) Provide information on remediation guidelines and ecological risk assessment within radioactively contaminated territories based on the results of long-term field monitoring, analytical measurements, and numerical modeling of soils and groundwater radioactive contamination; and (3) Recommend the development and testing of effective cleanup technologies to reduce environmental and health risks. Based o