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Viktor Hamburger, Embryologist  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An online encyclopedia entry about the embryologist, Viktor Hamburger, including a photo and links to other articles about his associates and work. A photo of him in 1933 is linked to this submission.

Adam R Navis (Arizona State University Center for Biology and Society)



Special Issue: Viktor Lowenfeld.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Viktor Lowenfeld's role in fashioning a predominant ideology and teaching method for art education in schools is an indispensable chapter in the history of art education. His contributions are discussed in this special issue. (RM)

Youngblood, Michael S., Ed.



Viktor Lowenfeld as Mentor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers reflections on the experience of having Viktor Lowenfeld as a mentor. Presented at the National Art Education Association (NAEA) Convention in Washington, D.C. in March 1999 as an adapted version of the Lowenfeld Lecture. Includes comments from other people who have memories of Lowenfeld as a mentor. (CMK)

Saunders, Robert J.



Viktor Lowenfeld: Some Misconceptions, Some Insights.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the major components of Viktor Lowenfeld's approach to art education, devoting specific attention to the misconceptions often attributed to his use of developmental stages. Notes that Lowenfeld was not the first individual to describe developmental stages in art learning and promotes a more accurate interpretation of how…

Michael, John A.



Viktor Lowenfeld: Pioneer in Art Education Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the work of Viktor Lowenfeld in developing creative art experiences for the handicapped, particularly using sculpture with the blind. The bulk of the article consists of excerpts from Lowenfeld's own writings, including a case study of his work with a deaf blind child. (SJL)

Michael, John A.



Viktor Lowenfeld Speaks on Art and Creativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This retrospective compilation of speeches and ideas by Viktor Lowenfeld is representative of his work between the years 1946 to 1960 and reveals his concern with the importance of creativity in education. Nine chapters present Lowenfeld's thoughts: (1) "On the Significance of Individual Creative Expression"; (2) "On the Discrepancy Between Our…

Brittain, W. Lambert, Ed.


European Influences on the Theory and Philosophy of Viktor Lowenfeld.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the work of art theorists, art educators, psychologists, and anthropologists who were predecessors or contemporaries of Viktor Lowenfeld influenced Lowenfeld's philosophy and theory of art education. Included are Friedrich Froebel, James Sully, Franz Cizek, Siegfried Levinstein, Max Verworn, Walter Krotzsch, George Luquet, and Karl…

Michael, John A.; Morris, Jerry W.



A view from the top: Russia's minister Viktor N. Mikhailov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minister Viktor N. Mikhailov has logged thousands of miles in his Moscow-Washington, DC orbit since he was appointed head of the Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) of the Russian Federation two years ago. First, Commerce's uranium dumping case. Next, the suspension agreements. And, today, the landmark HEU deal between America and Russia in which he and his ministry are leading



Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov  

SciTech Connect

Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

Reams, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs



The Search for Meaning in the Shadow of Auschwitz: Tadeusz Borowski and Viktor Frankl.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recommends using the work of psychoanalyst and concentration camp survivor, Viktor Frankl, as a counterpoint and complement to the death camp stories of Tadeusz Borowski. Frankl's work on his own and others' experiences provides a context and approach to Borowski's cynical and nihilistic stories. (MJP)

Dumbleton, Susanne; Soleau, Jeffrey K.



Viktor Lowenfeld's Visual-Haptic Continuum and Groups of Wide Geographic Separation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two groups of continuing education students were tested using three of Viktor Lowenfeld's tests of visual-haptic perception. The scores from the three tests were added to yield a score which identified an individual's location on Lowenfeld's visual-haptic continuum. The investigation also uncovered scoring problems with two of the tests which had…

Schlenker, Richard M.


Viktor Lowenfeld's Visual-Haptic Continuum in Grades 9, 10, and 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sixty-nine students in grades 9, 10, and 11 were tested with three of Viktor Lowenfeld's visual-haptic tests in an attempt to ascertain whether students at these levels segregated in a fashion similar to Lowenfeld's sample. Respondents were spread over the visual-haptic continuum as Lowenfeld suggested they should be. However, a large and…

Schlenker, Richard M.


Evolution of Cosmic Objects through their Physical Activity, Proceedings of the Conference dedicated to Viktor Ambartsumian's 100th anniversary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book presents papers of the Proceedings of the conference dedicated to Viktor Ambarstumian's 100 anniversary held in 2008 in Yerevan and Byurakan. It is divided into 5 parts related to the sessions held during the conference: Stars and Nebulae, Pulsars \\/ Neutron Stars, Activity in Galaxies, Cosmology, Light Scattering and Radiative Transfer, and Miscellanea. All these fields reflect extremely

H. A. Harutyunian; A. M. Mickaelian; Y. Terzian



The astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor and the Vienna Urania Observatory (The history of the Vienna Urania Observatory from its foundation to its re-opening (1897-1957) / Friedrich Viktor Schembor - a life for astronomy). (German Title: Der Astronom Friedrich Viktor Schembor und die Wiener Urania-Sternwarte (Die Geschichte der Wiener Urania-Sternwarte von ihrer Gründung bis zu ihrer Wiedereröffnung (1897-1957) / Friedrich Viktor Schembor - ein Leben für die Astronomie))  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Urania Observatory in Vienna and the life and workings of the Viennese astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor are the topics of this volume. The first part deals with the history of the Urania Observatory and its significance as the oldest popular observatory in Vienna for the education of adults. After a short digression on the development of popular educational activities in the 19th century, the efforts are traced that led to the establishment of the Urania Observatory. The second part deals with the biography of the astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor (1898-1942). Already at an early age he committed himself as a volunteer for popular education in astronomy. In his time as director of the Urania Observatory, he was able to guide the “Astronomische Gemeinde” (Astronomical Congregation) to scientifically useful results. Because of a vicious disease, he was given only a short time of scientific work at the Vienna University Observatory.

Schembor, Friedrich Wilhelm


Viktor Lowenfeld Speaks on Art and Creativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet contains an edited collection of Lowenfeld's speeches on art education. Following are the titles of the nine speeches: "On the Significance of Individual Creative Expression,""On the Discrepancy Between Our Scientific and Social Values,""On the Importance of Early Art Expression,""On Fostering Creative Sensitivity,""On Integration in…

Brittain, W. Lambert, Ed.


Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy




SmAll That Jazz  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes how Viktor Schreckengost's work had been a learning experience for the students of Grant Elementary School. Viktor's most famous work, "Jazz Bowl," was the focus of the author's curriculum. Viktor created this punch bowl for Eleanor Roosevelt in the 1930s. The bowl was so popular that a series of them were produced. The…

Bluemel, Dina



The Anxiety of Meaninglessness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the etiology and consequences of meaninglessness and focuses on the therapeutic approaches of Viktor E. Frankl and J. F. T. Bugental. Concludes that meaninglessness is a significant contemporary problem that needs to be addressed by counselors. (Author/LLL)

Ruffin, Julian E.



Meeting the Need for Multiculturalism in the Art Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses postmodernism in the art classroom, the struggles of African American artists, and meaningful approaches for teachers. Presents a sidebar story of a mentor (Viktor Lowenfeld) and a successful black artist (Charles White). (RS)

Stinespring, John A.; Kennedy, Linda C.



The Marine Biological Laboratory Embryology Course  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An article about the history of the Woods Hole MBL Embryology Course, including a link to the PDF of the historic lab notes by the embryologist, Viktor Hamburger when he was an instructor at Woods Hole in 1942.

Jane Maienschein (Arizona State University Center for Biology and Society)



Russian Federation: Grain and Feed. Russian Government Intends to Support Grain Exports 2008. GAIN Report Number RS8090.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In view of Russia's bumper grain crop and rapidly decreasing domestic grain prices, Russia's First Deputy Prime Minister Viktor Zubkov has approved measures aimed at supporting Russian grain exports in MY 2008. The measures include reducing grain rail tar...

M. E. Smith Y. Vassilieva



78 FR 8218 - Bureau of Political-Military Affairs; Statutory Debarment Under the Arms Export Control Act and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fidel Ignacio Cisneros; November 2, 2012; U.S. District Court, Middle District of Florida; Case No. 6:12-cr-123-Orl-28TBS; April 1970. (5) Victor Dobrogaiev, (aka Viktor Dobrogaiev); July 30, 2012; U.S. District Court,...



A Tragic Optimism: The Existential Vacuum and God in the Poetic Vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Man's Search for Meaning psychiatrist Viktor Frankl diagnoses the malaise of humankind as an ?existential vacuum,? a sense of meaninglessness. He suggests that help for this malaise may be found in creativity, love, and the freedom of moral choice. Whether acknowledged or not, these human gifts are reflections of God, of a higher way--or what Frankl calls ?another dimension,

Barbara A. Heavilin; Charles W. Heavilin


CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. September 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of September, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics include: the reaction of world markets to Russia's Duma rejection of Viktor

Turner Educational Services, Inc., Atlanta, GA.


Enhancing the Teaching and Learning Environment in the USSR. Annual Soviet-American Symposium on Teaching and Learning (2nd, Jacksonville, Florida, October 3-4, 1991). Special Publication Number 65.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication contains papers contributed by Russian educators at a symposium on preparing Soviet youth and adults for the challenges and opportunities of an emerging market economy. The following presentations are included: "Conception of Kazan Community College" (Mirza I. Makhmoutov, Oleg E. Liseitchikov, and Viktor I. Lebedev); "Complex…

Community Colleges for International Development, Inc.


The Meaning of Life among Secondary School Pupils. A Theoretical Framework and Some Initial Results. Research Bulletin 65.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph reports on an empirical survey of 394 secondary school students investigating their desire to seek the meaning of their own lives. The theoretical framework upon which the study was based is that of Viktor E. Frankl's hypotheses that a human being wants to seek the meaning in his own life. The questionnaire consisted of tests…

Niemi, Hannele


The Subject Is Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Viktor Lowenfeld's influence on art education in general. Assesses the impact of popular culture on perceptions of art and art education, arguing that to be of value, art education must surpass contemporary culture and introduce students to the larger storehouse of human history and achievement. (GEA)

Kaufman, Irving



Creative Intelligence and "An Agenda for the 80's."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through a brief review of studies correlating the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking and standard intelligence measures, the author seeks to demonstrate that creativity and intelligence are not synonymous. He espouses Viktor Lowenfeld's concept of "Creative Intelligence" and describes the Future Problem Solving Program as a way to develop this…

Torrance, E. Paul



A Comparison of Multiple and Linear Image Presentations of a Comparative Visual Location Task with Visual and Haptic College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was made to determine whether different methods of visual presentations would affect the retention rate of individuals with two distinct types of perception--visual and haptic. The visual type, according to a study by Viktor Lowenfeld in 1957, is marked by the following characteristics: (1) ability to see wholes, break them into visual…

Ausburn, Floyd B.


Frankl and the Realm of Meaning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the importance that meaning and values have in human life, with special reference to Viktor Frankl's work. Points out some pathological phenomena that result from the frustration of the quest for meaning and describes principles of logotherapy to deal with them. (Author)

Das, Ajit K.



Lowenfeld Teaching Art: A European Theory and American Experience at Hampton Institute.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes European Viktor Lowenfeld's version of the visual-haptic theory. Recounts how Lowenfeld modified the theory while serving as a studio art teacher in a black U.S. college from 1939 to 1946. Compares Lowenfeld's European and U.S. transformations of the theory. (BSR)

Smith, Peter



The Hampton Years: Lowenfeld's Forgotten Legacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines Viktor Lowenfeld's activities as an instructor at the Hampton Institute, Virginia (1939-1946), an essentially Black school in a pre-civil rights movement southern setting. Discusses his theoretical statements and his behaviors in relation to teaching art to Black adults. (GEA)

Smith, Peter



Predictors of Drug/Alcohol Abuse and Sexual Promiscuity of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between the individual's purpose in life, existential anxiety, powerlessness and use of alcohol/drugs and the tendency to be sexually promiscuous. The study is rooted in the work of Viktor E. Frankl, which suggested that a lack of meaning and purpose can cause socially deviant behavior and psychological…

Nam, Jeong Sook; And Others


Lowenfeld in a Viennese Perspective: Formative Influences for the American Art Educator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines Viktor Lowenfeld's Viennese experiences and analyzes the relationship of those experiences to his views and practices as an art educator in the United States. Questions the appropriateness of ideas developed from Austrian social and educational experiences and from Viennese aesthetic notions in the context of art education for U.S.…

Smith, Peter



Re-Thinking Lowenfeld.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reexamines basic aspects of creativity enumerated by Viktor Lowenfeld and shows how goals of art education have varied with time and social needs. Argues that interdisciplinary approach to learning, which involves seeing connections and realizing that all knowledge is one and whole, is what education is all about. Concludes that such approach was…

Unsworth, Jean Morman



A Personal Reflection on Educating for Meaning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major premise of this article is inspired by Viktor Frankl's words: "The truth is that as the struggle for survival has subsided, the question has emerged--survival for what? Ever more people today have the "means" to live, but no "meaning" to live for." Thousands of students who have come through the author's college courses during the last…

Nash, Robert J.



In Search of Lowenfeld's Proof That Coloring Books Are Harmful to Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines studies, especially those of Viktor Lowenfeld, which suggest that coloring books are harmful to the creative expression of children. Proposes an alternative hypothesis that views coloring books as useful teaching tools to help children understand and appreciate art. Calls for further research into the issue. (KM)

King, Irvin L.



Lowenfeld Verbatim.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Refutes commonly held assumptions forced on the art-education public that characterize Viktor Lowenfeld, a historically well-known art educator, as having a laissez-faire approach to art education and a visual-haptic fixation. Asserts Lowenfeld's beliefs were distorted in later publications of his book, "Creative and Mental Growth." (CMK)

London, Peter



Frankl's Theory and Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the life, theories, and therapeutic techniques of psychotherapist, Viktor E. Frankl. A brief biography of Frankl is included discussing the relationship of his early experiences as a physician to his theory of personality. Frankl's theory focusing on man's need for meaning and emphasizing the spiritual dimension in each human…

Missinne, Leo E.; Wilcox, Victoria


The Philosophy of Dissonant Children: Stanley Cavell's Wittgensteinian Philosophical Therapies as an Educational Conversation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education is often understood as a process whereby children come to conform to the norms teachers believe should govern our practices. This picture problematically presumes that educators know in advance what it means for children to go on the way that is expected of them. In this essay Viktor Johansson suggests a revision of education, through…

Johansson, Viktor



Creative Intelligence, Creative Practice: Lowenfeld Redux  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Volume 1, No. 2, of "Studies in Art Education," appearing in spring 1960, included an article by Viktor Lowenfeld titled "Creative Intelligence." Here, he highlighted his belief in the importance of creative intelligence to human functioning, linking it to creative practice as represented most purely in the artworks of children and untutored…

Burton, Judith M.



Child-Centered and Discipline-Based Art Education: Metaphors and Meanings (Abridged).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares and contrasts discipline-based art education with Viktor Lowenfeld's creative self-expression approach, using growth, medical, and molding metaphors. Maintains that these two approaches are similar because the views of the child, the teacher's role, and the relationship between them has not changed. (KM)

Jeffers, Carol S.



Searching for Meaning: Visual Culture from an Anthropological Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses the importance of Viktor Lowenfeld's influence on her research, describes visual anthropology, gives examples of her research, and examines the implications of this type of research for teachers. The author regards Lowenfeld's (1952/1939) early work with children in Austria as a form of participant observation…

Stokrocki, Mary



When Theory Collides with Practice: One Day in the Life of a Middle School Counselor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Viktor Frankl stated, "One of the main features of human existence is the capacity to rise above such conditions, to grow beyond them. Man is capable of changing the world for the better if possible and of changing himself for the better if necessary." Effective counselors do this daily, rising above conditions, seizing opportunities to change the…

Holowiak-Urquhart, Chris; Taylor, Elizabeth R.



The Typology and Dialectology of Romani.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Papers on typology and dialects of the Romani language include: "Athematic Morphology in Romani: The Borrowing of a Borrowing Pattern" (Peter Bakker); "Towards a Morphology-Based Typology of Romani" (Viktor Elsik); "The Typology of Case Relations and Case Layer Distribution in Romani" (Yaron Matras); "Object Doubling in Romani and the Balkan…

Matras, Yaron, Ed.; Bakker, Peter, Ed.; Kyuchukov, Hristo, Ed.


The Life and Times of Victor Karlovich Della-Vos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Viktor Karlovich Della-Vos is created as being the director and chief architect of Russian manual training. Born in 1829, Della-Vos received a degree in physical and mathematical sciences from Moscow University in 1853. He began his teaching career in 1854 as a teacher of Russian and eventually began teaching advanced mathematics in 1858. In 1860…

Schenck, John P.; And Others


Beniamin Markarian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The booklet is dedicated to the great Armenian astronomer Beniamin Markarian. Due to his efforts the famous Byurakan surveys have been accomplished and ultraviolet excess galaxies have been discovered, later named after him. The Armenian astronomy is well-known throughout the world as due to Viktor Ambartsumian's, so as to Markarian's works, and Markarian galaxies are being studied by numerous ground-based and space telescopes along the whole range of electromagnetic radiation.

Mickaelian, A. M.



Response of oat cultivars to Fusarium infection with a view to their suitability for food use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oats as a source of antioxidants and complex polysaccharides are currently an important component in human nutrition. Producing\\u000a healthy, safe and high-quality grain for this purpose depends upon growing oat cultivars with improved resistance to diseases\\u000a caused by Fusarium spp. producing mycotoxins. Thirteen cultivars of naked (Ábel, Detvan, Izák and Avenuda) and covered (Zvolen, Auron, Atego,\\u000a Flämingsstern, Kanton, Viktor, Zla?ák,

Svetlana Šliková; Antónia Šrobárová; Valéria Šudyová; Ivana Polišenská; Edita Gregová; Daniel Mihálik



The Knorre astronomers' dynasty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We attempt to throw light upon the poorly known astronomical dynasty of Knorre and describe its contribution to astronomy. The founder of the dynasty, Ernst Christoph Friedrich Knorre (1759-1810), was born in Germany in 1759, and since 1802 he was a Professor of Mathematics at the Tartu University, and observer at its temporary observatory. He determined the first coordinates of Tartu by stellar observations. Karl Friedrich Knorre (1801-1883) was the first director of the Naval Observatory in Nikolaev since the age of 20, provided the Black Sea navy with accurate time and charts, trained mariners in astronomical navigation, and certified navigation equipment. He compiled star maps and catalogues, and determined positions of comets and planets. He also participated in Bessel's project of the Academic Star Charts, and was responsible for Hora 4, published by the Berlin Academy of Sciences. This sheet permitted to discover two minor planets, Astraea and Flora. Viktor Knorre (1840-1919) was born in Nikolaev. In 1862 he left for Berlin to study astronomy. After defending his thesis for a doctor's degree, he went to Pulkovo as an astronomical calculator in 1867. Since 1873 Viktor worked as an observer of the Berlin Observatory Fraunhofer refractor. His main research focussed on minor planets, comets and binary stars. He discovered the minor planets Koronis, Oenone, Hypatia and Penthesilea. Viktor Knorre also worked on improving astronomical instrumentation, e.g. the Knorre / Heele equatorial telescope mounting.

Pinigin, G.



News and Views: A total solar eclipse over Rapa Nui; ESA's vision; International team wins first Ambartsumian Prize; Thinner thermosphere; ESA funds games; Team finds starspots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Francisco Diego recorded spectacular images of the 11 July 2010 total solar eclipse from Rapa Nui (Easter Island), making the most of modern digital technology - much of which originated from astronomical research - in taking and processing the images. The European Space Agency has set out its priorities for the decade starting in 2015, in a report entitled Cosmic Vision. The first Viktor Ambartsumian International Prize, in memory of the distinguished Armenian theorist, goes to the team led by Prof. Michel Mayor of the Observatory of Geneva, for ``their important contribution in the study of relation between planetary systems and their host stars''.



Cosmic ray physics, high energy physics and space sciences, an Indian story with international flavour.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Centenary of discovery of cosmic rays by Viktor Hess a century back provides a unique opportunity to look back and examine the role of this important area of research that led to some of the most fundamental discoveries in science besides giving birth to high energy physics and space sciences. Scientists trained in cosmic rays with their broad and deep understanding of different facets of science, technology and management have played a critical role in the development of science in the post independent India. International collaboration during the past seven decades was an important catalyst in this process. Here we will discuss these issues from a historical perspective.

Menon, Mgk



Research on cholinesterases in the Soviet Union and Russia: a historical perspective.  


Research on cholinesterases and effects of their inhibition in the USSR and Russia since 1930-1940s till present is exposed in historical aspects. The first physiological and toxicological effects of cholinesterase inhibition were reported by Alexander Ginetsinsky during World War II, when academic institutions were evacuated from Leningrad to Kazan. The main scientific schools that initiated research on chemistry, enzymology and physiology of cholinesterases and their inhibitors were leaded by Alexandr and Boris Arbuzovs, Victor Rozengart, Viktor Yakovlev, Michael Michelson, Martin Kabachnik, Mikhail Voronkov, Ivan Knunyants, Alexandr Bretskin and others. They investigated the main physiological effects of cholinesterase inhibitors, and analyzed the catalytic mechanisms of cholinesterases and related enzymes. Their contributions are landmarks in the history of cholinesterase research. At the present time revival of research on cholinesterases in different universities and institutes is vivid, in particular at the Moscow State University, research institutes of Russian Academy of Sciences and Kazan Scientific Center. PMID:23485591

Rozengart, Eugene V; Basova, Natalia E; Moralev, Serge N; Lushchekina, Sofya V; Masson, Patrick; Varfolomeev, Sergei D



Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III: victims of the Third Reich.  


In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on “non-Aryan” doctors. Some of these unfortunate neuroscientists survived Nazi concentration camps, but most were murdered. We discuss the circumstances and environment which stripped these neuroscientists of their profession, then of their personal rights and freedom, and then of their lives. We include a background analysis of anti-Semitism and Nazism in their various countries, then discuss in depth seven exemplary neuroscientist Holocaust victims; including Germans Ludwig Pick, Arthur Simons, and Raphael Weichbrodt, Austrians Alexander Spitzer and Viktor Frankl, and Poles Lucja Frey and Wladyslaw Sterling. by recognizing and remembering these victims of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself. PMID:23230611

Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel



Mutual Lewis Acid-Base Interactions of Cations and Anions in Ionic Liquids  

PubMed Central

Solute properties are known to be strongly influenced by solvent molecules due to solvation. This is due to mutual interaction as both the properties of the solute and of the solvent strongly depend on each other. The present paper is based on the idea that ionic liquids are cations solvated by anions and anions solvated by cations. To show this (in this system strongly pronounced) interaction the long time established donor–acceptor concept for solvents and ions in solution by Viktor Gutmann is extended to ionic liquids. A number of solvent parameters, such as the Kamlet–Abboud–Taft and the Dimroth–Reichardt ET scale for ionic liquids neglect this mutual influence, which, however, seems to be in fact necessary to get a proper description of ionic liquid properties. It is shown how strong such parameters vary when the influence of the counter ion is taken into account. Furthermore, acceptor and donor numbers for ionic liquids are presented.

Holzweber, Markus; Lungwitz, Ralf; Doerfler, Denise; Spange, Stefan; Koel, Mihkel; Hutter, Herbert; Linert, Wolfgang



Russia, Japan accuse each other of dumping  

SciTech Connect

The outage of Japanese officials over Russian navy dumping of low-level radioactive water in the Sea of Japan has rebounded on them after Russian Atomic Energy Minister Viktor Mikhailov - on a visit to Japan October 27 - told a press conference that Japanese nuclear power plants were discharging 10 times as much radioactivity into the sea. Reporters duly extracted a statement from Tokyo Electric Power Co. (Tepco) that it had released some 3.9 [times] 10[sup 11] becquerels of tritium from its power stations, and the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) said that routine releases from all the country's nuclear power plants totaled some 6200 curies per year (2.29 [times] 10[sup 14] Bq). Both Tepco and MITI stressed that these discharges were well within accepted international norms for low-level discharges from nuclear power plants, and also cited the low radiological risk of tritium.

Not Available



[What else is Evidence-based Medicine?].  


The practice of evidence-based medicine means integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available external clinical evidence. Strange enough, scientific discussion focuses on external evidence from systematic research, but neglects its counterpart, i.e., individual clinical expertise. Apart from a lack of appropriate intellectual tools for approaching the latter, this might be due to the mutual concealment of thought and action, of sensor and motor activity (Viktor von Weizsaecker's principle of the revolving door). Behind this, and incommensurably different from each other, lie the world of physics and the world of biology with an ego animal, that is, the dilemma of the self-conscious subject in a world of objects. When practicing medicine, this dilemma of self-reference is being resolved but only through a holistic approach combining rational and external evidence with biographical, spiritual, emotional and pre-rational elements represented in the physician's individual clinical expertise. PMID:21129698

Hauswaldt, Johannes



Theoretical Modeling for the X-ray Spectroscopy of Iron-bearing MgSiO3 under High Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The behaviors of iron (Fe) in MgSiO3 perovskite, including valence state, spin state, and chemical environments, at high pressures are of fundamental importance for more detailed understanding the properties of the Earth's lower mantle. The pressure induced spin transition of Fe-bearing MgO and MgSiO3 are detected often by using high-resolution K-edge X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) [1,2,3] and confirmed by theoretical simulations. [4,5] Since the Fe K-edge XES is associated to the 3p orbital, which is far from the valence orbitals (3d and 4s), it provides no information about its coordination environments. However, the Fe L-edge XES and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can directly present the distribution and intensity of Fe-3d character. To identify both the spin states and the coordination environments of iron-bearing MgSiO3, we systematically investigate the L-edge XAS, XES and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy of Fe2+- and Fe3+-bearing MgSiO3 under high pressure by using the first-principles density functional method combined with the slater-transition method. Our results show that Fe2+ and Fe3+ can be distinguished easily by taking the XPS spectra. The spin transition of Fe2+ and Fe3+ can also be clearly certified by XAS and XES. Interestingly, the broadness of L-edge XES of Fe changes depending on the iron position, meaning that its coordination environment might also be distinguishable by using high-resolution XES measurements. Research supported by the Ehime University G-COE program and KAKENHI. [1] James Badro, Guillaume Fiquet, FranÇois Guyot, Jean-Pascal Rueff, Viktor V. Struzhkin, György VankÓ, and Giulio Monaco. Science 300, 789 (2003), [2] James Badro, Jean-Pascal Rueff, György VankÓ, Giulio Monaco, Guillaume Fiquet, and FranÇois Guyot, Science 305, 383 (2004), [3] Jung-Fu Lin, Viktor V. Struzhkin, Steven D. Jacobsen, Michael Y. Hu, Paul Chow, Jennifer Kung, Haozhe Liu, Ho-kwang Mao, and Gussell J. Hemley, Nature 436, 377 (2005). [4] Taku Tsuchiya, Renata M. Wentzcovitch, Cesar R.S. da Silva, and Stefano de Gironcoli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 198501 (2006). [4] Han Hsu, Peter Blaha, Matteo Cococcioni, and Renata M. Wentzcovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 118501 (2011).

Wang, X.; Tsuchiya, T.



"Making strange": a role for the humanities in medical education.  


Stories, film, drama, and art have been used in medical education to enhance empathy, perspective-taking, and openness to "otherness," and to stimulate reflection on self, others, and the world. Yet another, equally important function of the humanities and arts in the education of physicians is that of "making strange"-that is, portraying daily events, habits, practices, and people through literature and the arts in a way that disturbs and disrupts one's assumptions, perspectives, and ways of acting so that one sees the self, others, and the world anew. Tracing the development of this concept from Viktor Shklovsky's "enstrangement" (ostranenie) through Bertolt Brecht's "alienation effect," this essay describes the use of this technique to disrupt the "automaticity of thinking" in order to discover new ways of perceiving and being in the world.Enstrangement may be used in medical education in order to stimulate critical reflection and dialogue on assumptions, biases, and taken-for-granted societal conditions that may hinder the realization of a truly humanistic clinical practice. In addition to its ability to enhance one's critical understanding of medicine, the technique of "making strange" does something else: By disrupting fixed beliefs, this approach may allow a reexamination of patient-physician relationships in terms of human interactions and provide health care professionals an opportunity-an "open space"-to bear witness and engage with other individuals during challenging times. PMID:24751976

Kumagai, Arno K; Wear, Delese



Meaning in motivation: does your organization need an inner life?  


Leaders of health care organizations are increasingly interested in ways to attract, retain, and gain commitment from their employees. This interest is created in part because high turnover rates and the lack of commitment negatively affect the provision of care and the bottom line in their organizations. In a quality and cost conscious health care environment, health care managers need to find solutions for these difficult issues; solutions that are effective, efficient and sustainable. What can be done? This article reviews, amplifies, and extends work that has been done in the area of "meaningfulness of work" in the context of employee retention and commitment. It begins with an exploration of the problems caused by lack of employee engagement and commitment including their impact on quality and costs. It then summarizes both the theoretical and applied research in the area of meaning and work. It also introduces the basic principles of Viktor Frankl's logotherapy (Frankl, 1998) as a foundation for encouraging the integration of meaning and work. The seminal work by Pattakos (2004) is used to demonstrate how Frankl's principles can be applied to healthcare work settings. Finally, the article provides suggestions for increasing employee commitment and engagement through identifying meaning and purpose in work. PMID:17557698

Morrison, Eileen E; Burke, George C; Greene, Lloyd



A scramble for data on Arctic radioactive dumping  

SciTech Connect

On 15 August, a Russian research vessel, the Viktor Buynitskiy, will leave the Norwegian port of Kirkenes packed with surveying equipment and scientists. Its mission will be to check out one of the more alarming environmental stories that have drifted out of the former Soviet Union since its collapse last fall: a claim that the Arctic is being polluted by tons of radioactive waste spilled or dumped by the Soviet military. Since May, US officials have been searching for information to confirm or disprove the reports about Russian radiation. The basic concern, is as follows: Arctic waters - and, potentially, fisheries near Norway and Alaska - are in danger of being contaminated by radioactive isotopes leaking from two major sources. One is the area around Novaya Zemlya, an archipelago where the Soviets conducted bomb tests, scuttled submarines, and disposed of waste canisters. The other is freshwater runoff into the Arctic Ocean - including the Ob and Yenisey Rivers - carrying isotopes from weapons plants, waste ponds, and accident sites in Siberia.

Marshall, E.



Mutual Lewis acid-base interactions of cations and anions in ionic liquids.  


Solute properties are known to be strongly influenced by solvent molecules due to solvation. This is due to mutual interaction as both the properties of the solute and of the solvent strongly depend on each other. The present paper is based on the idea that ionic liquids are cations solvated by anions and anions solvated by cations. To show this (in this system strongly pronounced) interaction the long time established donor-acceptor concept for solvents and ions in solution by Viktor Gutmann is extended to ionic liquids. A number of solvent parameters, such as the Kamlet-Abboud-Taft and the Dimroth-Reichardt E(T) scale for ionic liquids neglect this mutual influence, which, however, seems to be in fact necessary to get a proper description of ionic liquid properties. It is shown how strong such parameters vary when the influence of the counter ion is taken into account. Furthermore, acceptor and donor numbers for ionic liquids are presented. PMID:23180598

Holzweber, Markus; Lungwitz, Ralf; Doerfler, Denise; Spange, Stefan; Koel, Mihkel; Hutter, Herbert; Linert, Wolfgang



Higher Order Geometric Effects and Profile Variation in a 3D Gyrokinetic Flux-Tube Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New results from a three-dimensional toroidal gyrokinetic flux tube simulation will be presented. The code utilizes a one dimensional domain decomposition(We thank Viktor Decyk, UCLA and Minh Tran, EPFL for use of the Fortran90 PLIB particle sorting routines.) in the direction along the field line (z=qR ?) and employs proper toroidal periodicity. No spectral decomposition is done in the z-direction. Instead, digital filtering is used in z, with the correct toroidal and poloidal periodicity. We will report the current performance and scaling on the SGI Origin 2000s at ACL, LANL and the T3Es at NERSC, LBNL. Preliminary results show better performance (by a factor of 2-5) than the T3E. Simulation results will show the effects of including higher order geometric corrections to the field-line-following approximation, such as radial temperature and density profile variation and radial variation of the B field, q, and q'. The sensitivity to initial conditions is currently being investigated, and will also be discussed. Finally, we will present detailed comparisons with global (whole plasma volume) simulations.

Kim, Charlson; Parker, Scott E.



[The significance of Karl Landsteiner's works for syphilis research].  


On January 7th 1905, more than five months before the detection of T. pallidum, Karl Landsteiner began his work on syphilis research together with notable members of the Viennese School of Medicine, namely Ernest Finger, Rudolf Müller, Viktor Mucha, Otto Pötzl and others. Extensive animal experiments led to the formulation of the Finger-Landsteiner Law and provided the basic facts for the Jadasson-Lewandowsky Law. Attempts of active or passive immunization were unsuccessful and, indeed, were still a failure in 1990 after implementation of the latest tools of modern research, including gene technology. Dark-field microscopy was introduced for the detection of T. pallidum by Landsteiner and Mucha. These authors noted that serum of syphilitic patients inhibited the movements of T. pallidum and, thus, observed the basic principle underlying the T. pallidum immobilization test (= TPI = Nelson-Mayer test). Finally, Landsteiner, Müller and Pötzl discovered that it was not an antibody specific to T. pallidum that reacted in the Wassermann reaction, but "autotoxic" substances, which they called reagines. During the 1970's and 1980's it was discovered that these reagines are autoantibodies directed against parts of the inner envelope of the mitochondria. PMID:2031351

Luger, A



A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology  

PubMed Central

Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897–1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel’s design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d’Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel’s complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages—reduced to a few journal pages—helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account.




Coverage of Russian psychological contributions in American psychology textbooks.  


Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and editing an earlier version of this manuscript. PMID:22047002

Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur



Political and Economic Crisis in Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the tumultuous state of affairs in Russia. The ten resources discussed offer background, news, analysis, and commentary. In recent weeks, political turmoil and economic chaos have severely threatened Russia's stability as an emerging free-market democracy, prompting regional governor and former general Alexander Lebed to say that "the situation in Russia is catastrophic--worse than in 1917." Russia's latest political upheaval began on August 23 when the unpredictable President Boris Yeltsin discharged his prime minister, Sergei Kiriyenko, and reinstalled the previous prime minister, Viktor Chernomyrdin (see the April 7, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences). Chernomyrdin plans to create an "economic dictatorship" in Russia and to print billions of rubles to avoid total economic collapse. Yesterday, in an approval ballot to reinstate Chernomyrdin as prime minister, the Duma rejected his appointment for the second time in two weeks. Analysts predict that next week a subsequent ballot for approval will fail, the Duma will dissolve, and Yeltsin will rule by decree, without a functioning government, until new parliamentary elections are held. Russian political dissension has been induced by the country's severe financial crisis. On September 6, the Russia economy suffered a blow when the European Union decided not to offer money to Russia and spurned a moratorium on debts Russia owes to EU members. Today in another setback, chairman of the central bank, Sergei Dubinin, tendered his resignation. These events, compounded by ruble devaluation, limited tax revenue, and skittish foreign investments, have left the economy in shambles, despite the recent receipt of an enormous loan from the International Monetary Fund (discussed in the July 16, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics).

Osmond, Andrew.



PREFACE: Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics 2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This proceedings volume presents results obtained by the participants of the 6th Baltic-Nordic workshop 'Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics (AGMP-6)' held at the Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Sciences in Tjärnö, Sweden on October 25-30, 2010. The Baltic-Nordic Network AGMP 'Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics' was created in 2005 on the initiative of two Estonian universities and two Swedish universities: Tallinn University of Technology represented by Eugen Paal (coordinator of the network), Tartu University represented by Viktor Abramov, Lund University represented by Sergei Silvestrov, and Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg represented by Alexander Stolin. The goal was to promote international and interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and research groups in the countries of the Baltic-Nordic region in mathematics and mathematical physics, with special emphasis on the important role played by algebra and geometry in modern physics, engineering and technologies. The main activities of the AGMP network consist of a series of regular annual international workshops, conferences and research schools. The AGMP network also constitutes an important educational forum for scientific exchange and dissimilation of research results for PhD students and Postdocs. The network has expanded since its creation, and nowadays its activities extend beyond countries in the Baltic-Nordic region to universities in other European countries and participants from elsewhere in the world. As one of the important research-dissimilation outcomes of its activities, the network has a tradition of producing high-quality research proceedings volumes after network events, publishing them with various international publishers. The PDF also contains the following: List of AGMP workshops and other AGMP activities Main topics discussed at AGMP-6 Review of AGMP-6 proceedings Acknowledgments List of Conference Participants

Stolin, A.; Abramov, V.; Fuchs, J.; Paal, E.; Shestopalov, Y.; Silvestrov, S.



A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology.  


Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897-1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel's design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d'Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel's complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages-reduced to a few journal pages-helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account. PMID:17183461

Hopwood, Nick




NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JENAM symposium "Physics of Stars" took place on the 5th and 6th July of 2011 in Saint-Petersburg. This symposium had a wide-ranging look at observational and theoretical studies of stars and stellar systems. Several talks were devoted to accurate determination of fundamental stellar parameters, such as star's mass, radius, effective temperature, surface gravity, chemical composition. This is particularly crucial to fully exploit the data from the new generation of large ground-based telescopes and future space missions like the GAIA one. Viktor Orlov reported the measurements of stellar mass for a few multiple systems and also the investigation of their dynamical stability. To improve the determination of parameters of the components in an eclipsing binary system including a Wolf-Rayet star, Eleonora Antokhina and her co-workers updated their synthesis model by accounting for the absorption in the expanding stellar wind. The variable stars are excellent laboratories to study the physical processes either occurring at certain stages of stellar evolution or caused by the interaction of a star with its companion or circumstellar medium. Nikolay Samus reported the discovery of hundreds of new variable stars in their work on digitalization of the Moscow stacks of sky photographs. The exotic star VSX J052807.9+725606, with a very strong asymmetry of maxima, wavelength dependence of amplitude, and the shift of the secondary minimum from the phase 0.5, was discovered by Natalia Virnina. Michael E. Contadakis and his co-workers presented the additional observational evidences for weak transient optical oscillations of the red dwarf AD Leo. Spectral variability of the two massive luminous stars in the M33 galaxy was studied by Olga Maryeva. Alex Dudorov and Sergei Zamozdra and Alexander Grigoriev et al. discussed the theoretical and observational problems of star formation. Galina Dremova presented the numerical algorithm for computing the tidal torque constants for a given close eclipsing binary. Natalia Shakht and her co-workers reported the estimation of the central body mass for several globular clusters with the measured dispersion of stellar radial velocities.

Mashonkina, Lyudmila I.



The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews select programs driving the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation's (Minatom) efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the US over the next three to five years. The paper's findings are: (1) Despite numerous cabinet displacements throughout the Yeltsin administration, Yevgeny Adamov was reappointed Minister on four occasions. With Boris Yeltsin's January 1, 2000 resignation, Adamov's long-term position as the head of the Ministry is more tenuous, but he will likely retain his position until at least the March 2000 elections. Acting President Vladimir Putin is unlikely to reorganize his cabinet prior to that date and there are no signs that Putin is dissatisfied with Adamov's leadership of Minatom. (2) Adamov's chief priorities are downsizing Minatom's defense sector, increasing the oversight of subsidiary bodies by the central bureaucracy and consolidating commercial elements of the Ministry within an umbrella organization called Atomprom. (3) Viktor Mikhaylov, Adamov's predecessor and critic of his reform efforts, has been relieved of his duties as First Deputy Minister. While he retains his positions as Chief of the Science Councils and Chief Scientist at Arzamas-16, his influence on Minatom's direction is greatly diminished. Adamov will likely continue his efforts to further marginalize Mikhaylov in the coming year. (4) Securing extra-budgetary sources of income continues to be the major factor guiding Minatom's international business dealings. The Ministry will continue to aggressively promote the sale of nuclear technology abroad, often to countries with questionable nonproliferation commitments. (5) Given the financial difficulties in Russia and Minatom's client states, however, few nuclear development programs will come to fruition for a number of years, if ever. Nevertheless, certain peaceful nuclear cooperation agreements should be carefully monitored--particularly those negotiated with Cuba, Iran, Libya and Syria. (6) Waste management has also risen in importance for Minatom. Opportunities for raising funds by reprocessing, storing and permanently disposing of spent fuel from foreign states are being explored. Although currently prohibited by federal law, the Russian Parliament will likely pass legislation in support of this program.

CM Johnson



The origin of galactic cosmic rays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One century ago Viktor Hess carried out several balloon flights that led him to conclude that the penetrating radiation responsible for the discharge of electroscopes was of extraterrestrial origin. One century from the discovery of this phenomenon seems to be a good time to stop and think about what we have understood about Cosmic Rays. The aim of this review is to illustrate the ideas that have been and are being explored in order to account for the observable quantities related to cosmic rays and to summarize the numerous new pieces of observation that are becoming available. In fact, despite the possible impression that development in this field is somewhat slow, the rate of new discoveries in the last decade or so has been impressive, and mainly driven by beautiful pieces of observation. At the same time scientists in this field have been able to propose new, fascinating ways to investigate particle acceleration inside the sources, making use of multifrequency observations that range from the radio, to the optical, to X-rays and gamma rays. These ideas can now be confronted with data. I will mostly focus on supernova remnants as the most plausible sources of Galactic cosmic rays, and I will review the main aspects of the modern theory of diffusive particle acceleration at supernova remnant shocks, with special attention for the dynamical reaction of accelerated particles on the shock and the phenomenon of magnetic field amplification at the shock. Cosmic-ray escape from the sources is discussed as a necessary step to determine the spectrum of cosmic rays at the Earth. The discussion of these theoretical ideas will always proceed parallel to an account of the data being collected especially in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. In the end of this review I will also discuss the phenomenon of cosmic-ray acceleration at shocks propagating in partially ionized media and the implications of this phenomenon in terms of width of the Balmer line emission. This field of research has recently experienced a remarkable growth, in that H? lines have been found to bear information on the cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency of supernova shocks.

Blasi, Pasquale



EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As usual, being an even year, the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference took place at Daejeon, Korea. The event was notable not just for the quality of the presentations but also for the spectacular opening ceremony, in the presence of the Prime Minister, Kim Hwang-sik. The Prime Minister affirmed the importance of research into fusion energy research and pledged support for ITER. Such political visibility is good news, of course, but it brings with it the obligation to perform. Fortunately, good performance was much in evidence in the papers presented at the conference, of which a significant proportion contain 'ITER' in the title. Given this importance of ITER and the undertaking by the Nuclear Fusion journal to publish papers associated with Fusion Energy Conference presentations, the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board has decided to adopt a simplified journal scope that encompasses technology papers more naturally. The scope is available from but is reproduced here for clarity: Nuclear Fusion publishes articles making significant advances to the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion. The journal scope includes: the production, heating and confinement of high temperature plasmas; the physical properties of such plasmas; the experimental or theoretical methods of exploring or explaining them; fusion reactor physics; reactor concepts; fusion technologies. The key to scope acceptability is now '....significant advances....' rather than any particular area of controlled thermonuclear fusion research. It is hoped that this will make scope decisions easier for the Nuclear Fusion office, the referees and the Editor.The Nuclear Fusion journal has continued to make an important contribution to the research programme and has maintained its position as the leading journal in the field. This is underlined by the fact that Nuclear Fusion has received an impact factor of 4.270, as listed in ISI's 2009 Science Citation Index. The journal depends entirely on its authors and referees and so I would like to thank them all for their work in 2010 and look forward to a continuing, successful collaboration in 2011. Refereeing The Nuclear Fusion editorial office understands how much effort is required of our referees. The Editorial Board decided that an expression of thanks to our most loyal referees is appropriate and so, since January 2005, we have been offering the top ten most active referees over the past year a personal subscription to Nuclear Fusion with electronic access for one year, free of charge. This year, two of the top referees have reviewed four or more manuscripts in the period November 2009 to November 2010 and provided particularly detailed advice to the authors. We have excluded our Board Members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in the last four years. Guest Editors' work on papers submitted to their special issues is also excluded from consideration. The following people have been selected: Osamu Naito, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Japan Masahiro Kobayashi, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan Duccio Testa, Lausanne Federal Polytechnic University, Switzerland Vladimir Pustovitov, Russian Research Centre, Kurchatov Insitute, Russia Christopher Holland, University of California at San Diego, USA Yuri Gribov, ITER International Organisation, Cadarache, France Eriko Jotaki, Kyushu University, Japan Sven Wiesen, Jülich Research Centre, Germany Viktor S. Marchenko, Ukraine National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine Richard Stephens, General Atomics, USA In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2010. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2010 Nuclear Fusion Award was J.E. Rice et al for the paper entitled 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' (2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 1618-24). The prize was awarde

Thomas, Paul



Bewehrte Betonbauteile unter Betriebsbedingungen: Forschungsbericht  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vorwort. Teil I: Rißbreiten (Gert König) 1 Ein mechanisches Modell zur Erhöhung der Vorhersagegenauigkeit über die Rißbreiten unter Betriebsbedingungen (Gert König und Michael Fischer). 1.1 Einleitung und Zielsetzung. 1.2 Versuchsprogramm. 1.3 Meßtechnik. 1.4 Belastung und Versuchsdurchführung. 1.5 Literatur. 2 Rißbreiten und Verformungszunahme vorgespannter Bauteile unter wiederholter Last - und Zwangbeanspruchung (Gert König und Michael Fischer). 2.1 Einleitung und Zielsetzung. 2.2 Versuchsprogramm. 2.3 Auswertung. 2.4 Ausblick. 2.5 Literatur. 3 Rißverhalten von Beton bei plötzlicher Abkühlung (Viktor Mechtcherine und Harald S. Müller). 3.1 Einleitung. 3.2 Experimentelle Untersuchungen. 3.3 Formulierung eines Stoffgesetzes für thermisch beanspruchten Beton. 3.4 Riß entwicklung in einer Betonplatte unter Temperaturschock. 3.5 Zusammenfassung. 3.6 Literatur. 4 Stahlfaserbeton unter Betriebsbedingungen bei Dauerbeanspruchung (Bo Soon Kang, Bernd Schnütgen und Friedhelm Stangenberg). 4.1 Einleitung. 4.2 Wirkung von Stahlfasern im Beton. 4.3 Versuchsprogramm. 4.4 Untersuchungen zum Verbundverhalten. 4.5 Untersuchungen zum Verhalten unter Biegebeanspruchung. 4.6 Theoretische Untersuchungen. 4.7 Literatur. 5 Experimentelle Untersuchungen an Stahlbeton-Zugkörpern unter wiederholter Belastung zur Ermittlung des versteifenden Einflusses der Mitwirkung des Betons zwischen den Rissen (Petra Seibel und Gerhard Mehlhorn). 5.1 Einleitung. 5.2 Ansatz zur Bestimmung der Mitwirkung des Betons zwischen den Rissen nach Eurocode 2, Model Code 90 und Günther. 5.3 Experimentelle Untersuchungen. 5.4 Ergebnisse. 5.5 Zusammenfassung. 5.6 Literatur. 6 Riß- und Verformungsverhalten von vorgefertigten Spannbetonträgern unter Betriebsbedingungen bei besonderer Berücksichtigung des Betonalters (Monika Maske, Heinz Meichsner und Lothar Schubert). 6.1 Einleitung. 6.2 Beschreibung der Fertigteilträger. 6.3 Belastungsversuche. 6.4 Ergebnisse. 6.5 Zusammenfassung. 6.6 Literatur. Teil II: Verbundfragen (Rolf Eligehausen). 1 Ein mechanisches Modell zur Beschreibung des Verbundverhaltens zwischen Stahl und Beton (Gert König, Nguyen V. Tue und Wolfgang Kurz). 1.1 Einleitung. 1.2 Beschreibung der Kraftübertragung zwischen Stahl und Beton. 1.3 Vorstellung des Modells. 1.4 Materialgesetze für die Berechnung der Verformung des Fachwerks. 1.5 Vergleich zwischen Versuch und Modell. 1.6 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick. 1.7 Literatur. 2 Verbund unter nicht ruhender Beanspruchung (Rainer Koch und György L. Balázs). 2.1 Übersicht über die durchgeführten Versuche. 2.2 Versuchkörper und Materialien. 2.3 Versuchseinrichtungen. 2.4 Versuche und Ergebnisse. 2.5 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick. 2.6 Literatur. 3 Trag- und Verformungsverhalten von Stahlbetontragwerken unter Betriebsbelastung (Thomas M. Sippel und Rolf Eligehausen). 3.1 Einleitung. 3.2 Allgemeines. 3.3 Rechenmodell und Materialmodelle. 3.4 Vergleich zwischen Versuchen und Rechnung. 3.5 Parameterstudien. 3.6 Vereinfachtes Rechenmodell. 3.7 Zusammenfassung. 3.8 Literatur. 4 Verbundverhalten von Spanngliedern mit nachträglichem Verbund unter Betriebsbedingungen (Josef Hegger, Norbert Will und Heiner Cordes). 4.1 Einführung. 4.2 Verbundverhalten von Spanngliedern. 4.3 Zeitabhängige Effekte des Verbunds. 4.4 Versuche unter statischer Langzeitbeanspruchung. 4.5 Versuche unter dynamischer Langzeitbeanspruchung. 4.6 Bemessungsvorschlag für Verbundkennwerte. 4.7 Zusammenfassung. 4.8 Literatur. 5 Spannungsumlagerungen in gemischt bewehrten Querschnitten (Josef Hegger, Heiner Cordes und Matthias Rudlof). 5.1 Problemstellung und Zielsetzung. 5.2 Spannungsumlagerungen bei gemischter Bewehrung. 5.3 Versuche an zentrischen Zugkörpern. 5.4 Versuchsergebnisse. 5.5 Ermittlung und Vergleich von Verbundkennwerten. 5.6 Zusammenfassung. 5.7 Literatur. Teil III: Bauteile (Karl Kordina). 1 Einfluß von Längsbeanspruchungen auf den Neigungswinkel der Schubrisse (Marek Los und Ulrich Quast). 1.1 Einleitung. 1.2 Ungerissener Zustand. 1.3 Gerissener Zustand. 1.4 FEM-Berechnungen. 1.5 Zusammenfassung. 1.6 L

Eligehausen, Rolf; Kordina, Karl; Schießl, Peter



Vigrishinite, Zn2Ti4 - x Si4O14(OH,H2O,?)8, a new mineral from the Lovozero alkaline complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mineral vigrishinite, epistolite-group member and first layer titanosilicate with species-defining Zn, was found at Mt. Malyi Punkaruaiv, in the Lovozero alkaline complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It occurs in a hydrothermally altered peralkaline pegmatite and is associated with microcline, ussingite, aegirine, analcime, gmelinite-Na, and chabazite-Ca. Vigrishinite forms rectangular or irregularly shaped lamellae up to 0.05 × 2 × 3 cm flattened on [001]. They are typically slightly split and show blocky character. The mineral is translucent to transparent and pale pink, yellowish-pinkish or colorless. The luster is vitreous. The Mohs' hardness is 2.5-3. Vigrishinite is brittle. Cleavage is {001} perfect. D meas = 3.03(2), D calc = 2.97 g/cm3. The mineral is optically biaxial (-), ? = 1.755(5), ? = 1.82(1), ? = 1.835(8), 2 V meas = 45(10)°, 2 V calc = 50°. IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition (wt %; average of 9 point analyses, H2O is determined by modified Penfield method) is as follows: 0.98 Na2O, 0.30 K2O, 0.56 CaO, 0.05 SrO, 0.44 BaO, 0.36 MgO, 2.09 MnO, 14.39 ZnO, 2.00 Fe2O3, 0.36 Al2O3, 32.29 SiO2, 29.14 TiO2, 2.08 ZrO2, 7.34 Nb2O5, 0.46 F, 9.1 H2O, -0.19 O=F2, total is 101.75. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of Si + Al = 4 is: H7.42(Zn1.30Na0.23Mn0.22Ca0.07Mg0.07K0.05Ba0.02)?1.96(Ti2.68Nb0.41Fe{0.18/3+}Zr0.12)?3.39(Si3.95Al0.05)?4 20.31F0.18. The simplified formula is: Zn2Ti4- x Si4O14(OH,H2O,?)8 ( x < 1). Vigrishinite is triclinic, space group P , a = 8.743(9), b = 8.698(9), c = 11.581(11)Å, ? = 91.54(8)°, ? = 98.29(8)°, ? = 105.65(8)°, V = 837.2(1.5) Å3, Z = 2. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder pattern ( d, Å, - I[ hkl]) are: 11.7-67[001], 8.27-50[100], 6.94-43[01, 10], 5.73-54[11, 002], 4.17-65[020, 2, 200], and 2.861-100[30, 22, 004, 11]. The crystal structure model was obtained on a single crystal, R = 0.171. Vigrishinite and murmanite are close in the structure of the TiSiO motif, but strongly differ from each other in part of large cations and H-bearing groups. Vigrishinite is named in honor of Viktor G. Grishin (b. 1953), a Russian amateur mineralogist and mineral collector, to pay tribute to his contribution to the mineralogy of the Lovozero Complex. The type specimen is deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

Pekov, I. V.; Britvin, S. N.; Zubkova, N. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Bryzgalov, I. A.; Lykova, I. S.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.



Time- and Space-Domain Measurements of the Thermal Conductivity in Diamond Anvil Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will give an overview of recent developments of experimental techniques to measure the thermal conductivity in diamond anvil cell (DAC) under conditions of high pressure and high temperature (P-T) which are relevant for the planetary interiors. To measure the lattice contributions to the thermal conductivity, we developed a transient heating technique (THT) in the diamond anvil cell (DAC) [1]. This technique utilizes a periodic front surface temperature variation (measured by the spectroradiometry) of a metallic absorber surrounded by the material of interest and exposed to a pulsed laser radiation (10 nanoseconds pulses). We extract the thermal diffusivity of minerals by fitting the experimental results to the model finite element (FE) calculations. We have recently modified this technique for microseconds laser pulses as this allows avoiding nonequilibrium heat transfer processes. We have measured the thermal conductivity of Ar up to 50 GPa and 2500 K; the results are in agreement with the theoretical calculations [2] in the limit of high temperatures. In collaboration with a group from the University of Illinois we have utilized a time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR)- ultrafast (femtosecond) laser pump-probe technique for measurement of the lattice thermal conductivity at high P-T conditions. We have measured the thermal conductivity of MgO up to 60 GPa and 300 K and up to 45 GPa at 600 K. The detailed results of this study will be presented in a separate paper at this Meeting. Finally, we have combined static and pulsed laser techniques to determine the thermal conductivity of Fe and its temperature dependence at high pressures up to 70 GPa and 2000 K [3]. A thin plate of Fe was positioned in an Ar medium, laser heated from one side and the temperature is being measured from both sides of the sample radiometrically. The thermal conductivity has been determined by fitting the results of FE calculations to the experimental results. These examples demonstrate that different techniques can be successfully used to determine the thermal conductivity of materials loaded in the DAC. The choice of the technique depends on material properties, sample preparation method, and P-T range needed. I thank D. Allen Dalton, David Cahill, Viktor Struzhkin, Wen-Pin Hsieh, Zuzana Konopkova, Peter Lazor, Javier A. Montoya for critically contributing to this work. I acknowledge support from NSF EAR 0711358 and EAR-1015239, Carnegie Institution of Washington, DOE/ NNSA (CDAC), and EFree, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DESC0001057. 1. P. Beck, A. F. Goncharov, V. V. Struzhkin, B. Militzer, H. K. Mao, R. J. Hemley (2007). Measurement of thermal diffusivity at high pressure using a transient heating technique, Appl Phys. Lett. 91, 181914. 2. K. V. Tretiakov and S. Scandolo (2004). Thermal conductivity of solid argon at high pressure and high temperature: A molecular dynamics study. Journal of Chemical Physics 121, 11177-11182. 3. Z. Konopkova, P. Lazor, A. F. Goncharov, V. V. Struzhkin (2011). Thermal conductivity of hcp iron at high pressure and temperature, High Pressure Research, 31, 228-236.

Goncharov, A. F.



PREFACE: International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies 2013 (FM&NT2013)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT - 2013) was held in Tartu, 21-24 April 2013 at the Dorpat Conference Centre. The conference was organised by Institute of Physics, University of Tartu. The FM&NT conference series was started in 2006 by scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. It is an annual conference bringing together researchers from the whole world. The warm and open atmosphere of this scientific conference has turned it into event where people from different fields meet under the common name of functional materials and nanotechnology. It is particularly important for early stage scientists who are looking for new knowledge and contact with people from various fields. Our Latvian colleagues with their success in internationalization made us neighbouring Estonians so envious that we could not withstand proposing that we host the conference in every second year in Estonia. Actually this is in a way the continuation of the idea of the famous Baltic seminars which took place over several decades during the last century. Due to political constraints these seminars were only opened to scientist of the former Eastern European countries, but which were extremely popular and attracted attendees from over the whole Soviet Union. Much fruitful cooperation started from the initial personal contacts of scientists at these seminars held twice per year, once in Latvia and the second time in Estonia. At the last FM&NT 2012 conference, the decision was made that Institute of Physics, University of Tartu would organise the event in Tartu in 2013. Along with traditional topics such as multifunctional materials, nanomaterials, materials for sustainable energy applications and theory, this conference focused on studies using synchrotron radiation and other novel light sources. The number of registered participants from 21 countries was nearly 300. During the three days of the conference 14 invited, 45 oral, and 5 commercial talks were delivered and more than 200 posters were presented. In the framework of conference more than 20 papers were submitted to a topical issue of Physica Scripta. Based on the work presented at the conference, 62 articles are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Additional information about FM&NT-2013 is available at its homepage The Organizing Committee would like to thank all the speakers, contributors, session chairs, referees and other involved staff for their efforts in making FM&NT-2013 successful. Special thanks for their hard work dealing with the conference papers goes to the Guest Editors: Professor Mikhail Brik, Dr Svetlana Zazubovits, Dr Arvo Kikas, Dr Rainer Pärna. The Organizing Committee hopes that Conference gave participants good insight into recent developments in nanotechnology, sustainable energetics, processing and modelling of multifunctional materials and research done using synchrotron radiation or other novel light sources. We sincerely hope that conference has provided support for the sharing of information and has brought together many young and experienced scientists from different fields, leading to fruitful discussions. We hope that all participants had good and memorable time in Tartu. On the behalf of organising committee Professor Ergo Nõmmiste Dr Marco Kirm Dr Toomas Plank The PDF also contains lists of the committees, the conference photograph and the sponsor's logos.

Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas