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Sample records for viktor voitovich toomas

  1. Viktor Lowenfeld as Mentor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Offers reflections on the experience of having Viktor Lowenfeld as a mentor. Presented at the National Art Education Association (NAEA) Convention in Washington, D.C. in March 1999 as an adapted version of the Lowenfeld Lecture. Includes comments from other people who have memories of Lowenfeld as a mentor. (CMK)

  2. Viktor Ambartsumian: Life and Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2014-09-01

    The booklet is dedicated to the outstanding Armenian astronomer and one of the great scientists of the XX century Viktor Ambartsumian. He has fundamentally contributed in various fields of astronomy and astrophysics, cosmogony, theoretical physics, mathematics, and philosophy. Ambartsumian was a great organizer of science, important political and public figure. He was the Director of BAO in 1946-1988, the President of the Armenian Academy of Sciences in 1947-1993, the President of the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1961-1964 and the President of the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) in 1968-1972.

  3. Viktor Lowenfeld: Pioneer in Art Education Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, John A.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the work of Viktor Lowenfeld in developing creative art experiences for the handicapped, particularly using sculpture with the blind. The bulk of the article consists of excerpts from Lowenfeld's own writings, including a case study of his work with a deaf blind child. (SJL)

  4. Viktor Lowenfeld Speaks on Art and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittain, W. Lambert, Ed.

    This retrospective compilation of speeches and ideas by Viktor Lowenfeld is representative of his work between the years 1946 to 1960 and reveals his concern with the importance of creativity in education. Nine chapters present Lowenfeld's thoughts: (1) "On the Significance of Individual Creative Expression"; (2) "On the Discrepancy Between Our…

  5. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    SciTech Connect

    Reams, C.A.

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  6. The Search for Meaning in the Shadow of Auschwitz: Tadeusz Borowski and Viktor Frankl.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbleton, Susanne; Soleau, Jeffrey K.

    1995-01-01

    Recommends using the work of psychoanalyst and concentration camp survivor, Viktor Frankl, as a counterpoint and complement to the death camp stories of Tadeusz Borowski. Frankl's work on his own and others' experiences provides a context and approach to Borowski's cynical and nihilistic stories. (MJP)

  7. [1400 hours of analysis with Freud: Viktor von Dirsztay. A biographical sketch].

    PubMed

    May, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of mostly unpublished sources, the author reconstructs the life of the Hungarian writer Viktor von Dirsztay (1884?-1935) who was personally acquainted with many expressionist artists and writers, e. g. with Karl Kraus, Oskar Kokoschka, Herwarth Walden, Walter Hasenclever, Hermann Broch and Arthur Schnitzler. This association puts Freud into closer proximity with the cultural avantgarde of his times than previously realized. Between 1910 and 1920 Dirsztay underwent several phases of analysis with Freud; then he was treated by Theodor Reik. The overall length of his analysis with Freud is almost unparalleled. The article discusses whether and in which way Dirsztay's writings might have been influenced by his analyses and how Freud and Reik might have drawn upon their experiences with this patient. It is argued that likely references can be discovered in both authors' theories of masochism. There is an intriguing late remark of Dirsztay's that he was "ruined by analysis". PMID:20503772

  8. The astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor and the Vienna Urania Observatory (The history of the Vienna Urania Observatory from its foundation to its re-opening (1897-1957) / Friedrich Viktor Schembor - a life for astronomy). (German Title: Der Astronom Friedrich Viktor Schembor und die Wiener Urania-Sternwarte (Die Geschichte der Wiener Urania-Sternwarte von ihrer Gründung bis zu ihrer Wiedereröffnung (1897-1957) / Friedrich Viktor Schembor - ein Leben für die Astronomie))

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembor, Friedrich Wilhelm

    The Urania Observatory in Vienna and the life and workings of the Viennese astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor are the topics of this volume. The first part deals with the history of the Urania Observatory and its significance as the oldest popular observatory in Vienna for the education of adults. After a short digression on the development of popular educational activities in the 19th century, the efforts are traced that led to the establishment of the Urania Observatory. The second part deals with the biography of the astronomer Friedrich Viktor Schembor (1898-1942). Already at an early age he committed himself as a volunteer for popular education in astronomy. In his time as director of the Urania Observatory, he was able to guide the “Astronomische Gemeinde” (Astronomical Congregation) to scientifically useful results. Because of a vicious disease, he was given only a short time of scientific work at the Vienna University Observatory.

  9. Moral distress and its interconnection with moral sensitivity and moral resilience: viewed from the philosophy of Viktor E. Frankl.

    PubMed

    Lützén, Kim; Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice

    2013-10-01

    The interconnection between moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral resilience was explored by constructing two hypothetical scenarios based on a recent Swedish newspaper report. In the first scenario, a 77-year-old man, rational and awake, was coded as "do not resuscitate" (DNR) against his daughter's wishes. The patient died in the presence of nurses who were not permitted to resuscitate him. The second scenario concerned a 41-year-old man, who had been in a coma for three weeks. He was also coded as "do not resuscitate" and, when he stopped breathing, was resuscitated by his father. The nurses persuaded the physician on call to resume life support treatment and the patient recovered. These scenarios were analyzed using Viktor Frankl's existential philosophy, resulting in a conceivable theoretical connection between moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral resilience. To substantiate our conclusion, we encourage further empirical research. PMID:23856882

  10. [Theory of cognition and natural philosophy in neurology. The principle of localization in the debate between Viktor von Weizscker, Kurt Goldstein, and Otfrid Foerster in 1930].

    PubMed

    Rimpau, W

    2009-08-01

    Restitution after brain damage was the leading topic in 1930 at the 20th annual meeting of the Society of German Neurologists in Dresden, Germany. One of the "nonanatomic" presentations was held by Viktor von Weizscker about modifications in neurological function. Finally the presentation by Kurt Goldstein about restitution after damage of the brain cortex, strongly supported by Weizscker, was the starting point for controversies on the significance of natural scientific methods in the field of neurology. Goldstein and Weizscker favored the idea that function can be understood only if we consider it in light of the whole organism. However, the president of the Society of German Neurologists, Otfrid Foerster, was mainly influenced by the overall concept of the structure of the peripheral nervous system and - as Weizscker indirectly blamed - came to inadequate conclusions by transferring these concepts to the entire nervous system. In contrast Weizscker and Goldstein suggested analyzing pathological phenomena not only according to classical physiology, i.e. isolated data acquired by the dissecting method of natural science. Weizscker stressed hermeneutic views concerning the mind: body relationship in a phenomenologically oriented medical anthropology. Some years later Foerster linked up with Weizscker's position. Goldstein established the new method, the so-called holistic, organismic approach, which he carried on after emigrating to the U.S.A. in 1935. The Heidelberg School around Weizscker tried during the following years to liberate neurology from the ideology of materialistic reductionism without however reducing it to simple psychology. The doctrine of neurons and principles of saltatory conduction as basic and descriptive instruments in neurology were not to be questioned. In 1941 Weizscker succeeded Foerster as Professor of Neurology at the University of Breslau and Director of the Neurological Research Institute. His literary work "The Circle of Form. Theory of the Unity of Movement and Perception" and Goldstein's "The Organism. A Holistic Approach to Biology derived from Pathological Data in Man" [new edn. by Oliver Sacks, Zone Books, New York, 1995] obtained paradigm values which had their beginnings in Dresden in 1930. "The crisis in biology in the matter of theory of cognition and natural philosophy" was already then obvious and still can be found in present discussion about the relationship between neurosciences and humanities. Weizscker increased his focus on medical anthropology by taking a full professorship of general clinical medicine in 1946 in Heidelberg. It is not without reason that Weizscker is recognized as a founder of psychosomatic medicine. PMID:19165460

  11. Viktor Lowenfeld Speaks on Art and Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittain, W. Lambert, Ed.

    This pamphlet contains an edited collection of Lowenfeld's speeches on art education. Following are the titles of the nine speeches: "On the Significance of Individual Creative Expression,""On the Discrepancy Between Our Scientific and Social Values,""On the Importance of Early Art Expression,""On Fostering Creative Sensitivity,""On Integration in…

  12. [Viktor Borisovich von Gyubbenet--a military physician, a surgeon and a social activist].

    PubMed

    Ishutin, O S

    2015-02-01

    The current article is dedicated to a talented surgeon, an organizer of military health care, an extraordinary personality and a public figure--Doctor of Medicine, a privy councilor Victor Borisovich von Guebbenet. A talent of von Gyubbenea as a doctor-surgeon and an organizer of the surgical help on theater of war was especially brightly shown during two big military conflicts of the beginning of the XX century--the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and the First World War I (1914-1918). In the first case doctor von Gyubbenet, being a surgeon of the 3rd Siberian corps successfully manage the activity of military-medical divisions and establishments of Port Arthur garrison. In the second military conflict Victor Borisovich as a doctor and an organizer headed sanitary part of armies of the Western front and successfully directed a medical support of armies of the front since 1915 and until the end of war. PMID:25920178

  13. SmAll That Jazz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluemel, Dina

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how Viktor Schreckengost's work had been a learning experience for the students of Grant Elementary School. Viktor's most famous work, "Jazz Bowl," was the focus of the author's curriculum. Viktor created this punch bowl for Eleanor Roosevelt in the 1930s. The bowl was so popular that a series of them were produced. The

  14. SmAll That Jazz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluemel, Dina

    2007-01-01

    This article describes how Viktor Schreckengost's work had been a learning experience for the students of Grant Elementary School. Viktor's most famous work, "Jazz Bowl," was the focus of the author's curriculum. Viktor created this punch bowl for Eleanor Roosevelt in the 1930s. The bowl was so popular that a series of them were produced. The…

  15. The Anxiety of Meaninglessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffin, Julian E.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the etiology and consequences of meaninglessness and focuses on the therapeutic approaches of Viktor E. Frankl and J. F. T. Bugental. Concludes that meaninglessness is a significant contemporary problem that needs to be addressed by counselors. (Author/LLL)

  16. Lowenfeld at Hampton (1939-1946): Empowerment, Resistance, Activism, and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Viktor Lowenfeld (1903-1960) has been abundantly documented as having influenced art teaching in the United States. Scarce attention, however, has been given to the significant and remarkable advancements he made to resist structures of institutionalized racism and promote inter-racial cooperation. Lowenfeld was a mentor to several notable African…

  17. Lowenfeld at Hampton (1939-1946): Empowerment, Resistance, Activism, and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Viktor Lowenfeld (1903-1960) has been abundantly documented as having influenced art teaching in the United States. Scarce attention, however, has been given to the significant and remarkable advancements he made to resist structures of institutionalized racism and promote inter-racial cooperation. Lowenfeld was a mentor to several notable African

  18. CNN Newsroom Classroom Guides. September 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner Educational Services, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

    These classroom guides, designed to accompany the daily CNN (Cable News Network) Newsroom broadcasts for the month of September, provide program rundowns, suggestions for class activities and discussion, student handouts, and a list of related news terms. Topics include: the reaction of world markets to Russia's Duma rejection of Viktor

  19. Cosmic Balloons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El Abed, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A team of French high-school students sent a weather balloon into the upper atmosphere to recreate Viktor Hess's historical experiment that demonstrated the existence of ionizing radiation from the sky--later called cosmic radiation. This discovery earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936.

  20. The Importance of Self-Identification in Art, Culture, and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The Lowenfeld Award was established in 1960 by friends and former students of Viktor Lowenfeld (widely acknowledged as the most influential art educator of the 20th century) to honor an NAEA member who has made significant contributions to the field of art education through the years. This article reports on the 2012 recipient, Bernard Young,

  1. The Importance of Self-Identification in Art, Culture, and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    The Lowenfeld Award was established in 1960 by friends and former students of Viktor Lowenfeld (widely acknowledged as the most influential art educator of the 20th century) to honor an NAEA member who has made significant contributions to the field of art education through the years. This article reports on the 2012 recipient, Bernard Young,…

  2. Creative Intelligence, Creative Practice: Lowenfeld Redux

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Volume 1, No. 2, of "Studies in Art Education," appearing in spring 1960, included an article by Viktor Lowenfeld titled "Creative Intelligence." Here, he highlighted his belief in the importance of creative intelligence to human functioning, linking it to creative practice as represented most purely in the artworks of children and untutored

  3. Frankl's Theory and Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missinne, Leo E.; Wilcox, Victoria

    This paper discusses the life, theories, and therapeutic techniques of psychotherapist, Viktor E. Frankl. A brief biography of Frankl is included discussing the relationship of his early experiences as a physician to his theory of personality. Frankl's theory focusing on man's need for meaning and emphasizing the spiritual dimension in each human…

  4. Predictors of Drug/Alcohol Abuse and Sexual Promiscuity of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Jeong Sook; And Others

    This study examined the relationship between the individual's purpose in life, existential anxiety, powerlessness and use of alcohol/drugs and the tendency to be sexually promiscuous. The study is rooted in the work of Viktor E. Frankl, which suggested that a lack of meaning and purpose can cause socially deviant behavior and psychological…

  5. The Meaning of Life among Secondary School Pupils. A Theoretical Framework and Some Initial Results. Research Bulletin 65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemi, Hannele

    This monograph reports on an empirical survey of 394 secondary school students investigating their desire to seek the meaning of their own lives. The theoretical framework upon which the study was based is that of Viktor E. Frankl's hypotheses that a human being wants to seek the meaning in his own life. The questionnaire consisted of tests…

  6. Cosmic balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Abed, Mohamed

    2014-11-01

    A team of French high-school students sent a weather balloon into the upper atmosphere to recreate Viktor Hesss historical experiment that demonstrated the existence of ionizing radiation from the skylater called cosmic radiation. This discovery earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936.

  7. Re-Thinking Lowenfeld.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Jean Morman

    1992-01-01

    Reexamines basic aspects of creativity enumerated by Viktor Lowenfeld and shows how goals of art education have varied with time and social needs. Argues that interdisciplinary approach to learning, which involves seeing connections and realizing that all knowledge is one and whole, is what education is all about. Concludes that such approach was

  8. The Terminal: a tale of virtue.

    PubMed

    Austin, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    The movie, The terminal, is used to illustrate MacIntyre's description of virtue ethics. The terminal is a mythical tale about a traveler, Viktor Navorski, who is stranded by circumstances in a New York airport. Viktor is a person who, without a strict reliance on duty or rules, has developed the disposition to act well despite variation in his circumstances. His character is revealed in contrast to that of three other characters: a cleaner, a flight attendant and the airport manager. Stories like this one may be a good way to open dialogue among clinicians about being virtuous as a practitioner. Such dialogue may make striving to be virtuous an acceptable goal for practitioners and less like an idealistic, pseudo-goal for those aiming for sainthood. PMID:17334170

  9. Dioxin toxicity and chloracne in the Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Sterling, J Barton; Hanke, C William

    2005-01-01

    Dioxin toxicity can lead to severe cutaneous and systemic disease. The poisoning of Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko dramatically illustrates the damage dioxin can inflict. The hallmark of dioxin toxicity is chloracne and should alert the clinician to this diagnosis, which can be confirmed by blood tests. Olestra, a non-absorbable, non-digestible fat substitute is a promising new treatment to lower systemic dioxin levels. PMID:15776770

  10. News and Views: A total solar eclipse over Rapa Nui; ESA's vision; International team wins first Ambartsumian Prize; Thinner thermosphere; ESA funds games; Team finds starspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-10-01

    Francisco Diego recorded spectacular images of the 11 July 2010 total solar eclipse from Rapa Nui (Easter Island), making the most of modern digital technology - much of which originated from astronomical research - in taking and processing the images. The European Space Agency has set out its priorities for the decade starting in 2015, in a report entitled Cosmic Vision. The first Viktor Ambartsumian International Prize, in memory of the distinguished Armenian theorist, goes to the team led by Prof. Michel Mayor of the Observatory of Geneva, for ``their important contribution in the study of relation between planetary systems and their host stars''.

  11. Logotherapy for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Schulenberg, Stefan E; Hutzell, Robert R; Nassif, Carrie; Rogina, Julius M

    2008-12-01

    Logotherapy is based on the meaning-focused existential philosophy of Viktor E. Frankl (1905-1997). Numerous mental health professionals have been inspired by his most popular book, Man's Search for Meaning; however, many are unfamiliar with the depth of Frankl's work. The purpose of this article is to discuss the tenets of logotherapy, including fundamental concepts, applicability and techniques, roles of the therapist, and assessment tools and new research findings. Logotherapy can readily be integrated with techniques that mental health professionals frequently use, and thus it has much to offer mental health professionals regardless of their theoretical orientation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:22122533

  12. [Victor von Hacker (1852-1933)--recollections of the life and works of an important Billroth student].

    PubMed

    Stanger, O

    2000-04-01

    The year of 1999 marks the 75th anniversary of Viktor von Hacker's retirement as chairman of the Department of Surgery at Karl-Franzens University School of Medicine in Graz. He was a favored pupil of Theodor Billroth (1829-1894). When he took his professorship at Graz in 1903, the present hospital, then as now one of the largest in Europe, was still in planning, and he immediately involved himself in all the subsequent developmental stages. Now we are again living through a stage of major reconstruction and expansion within the context of the "LKH 2000" project which also encompasses the surgical department and wards, most of which have generally remained unchanged since Hacker's time. During his 21 years as chairman of the department, Hacker made major contributions in the fields of gastro-intestinal surgery, esophageal surgery and especially esophagoscopy, as well as plastic surgery. Towards the end of his career, 70 years ago, Viktor von Hacker was named an honorary member of the German Society of Surgery. For these reasons, the man and his work should be recalled. PMID:10840623

  13. [The human being from the point of view of animals or, "Who knows whether the breath of men goes upwards?" (Ecclesiastes 3:21)].

    PubMed

    Arendt, D

    1999-05-01

    The question of whether animals have souls has been asked since as early as the Old Testament. Where this is believed to be true, fiction has provided interesting models in literature: The human being as seen by animals has been a popular subject since Apuleius' 'Asinus aureus' and how man appears from the perspective of a donkey or a beetle, that is to say the perspective from below, becomes controversial. Examples may be found in all languages and centuries in Jonathan Swift, Miguel Cervantes, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Ludwig Tieck, Heinrich Heine, Viktor von Scheffel, Franz Kafka and others. Résumé at the end: How does man answer this question or his own self-questioning? PMID:10379104

  14. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: a review of its role in the physiology and pathology of the integument and its relationship to the tryptophan metabolism.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Rowland

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a cytosolic receptor for low molecular weight molecules, of which the most widely recognized ligand is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and the most widely recognized effect, chloracne. Adverse effects of manipulation were most recently and graphically demonstrated by the poisoning of Viktor Yushchenko during the Ukrainian presidential elections of 2004. However, recent research has revealed a receptor with wide-ranging, and at times, paradoxical actions. It was arguably among the first biological receptors to be utilized by dermatologists, dating from the time of topical tar preparations as a therapeutic agent. I provide a review outlining the role AHR plays in the development, cellular oxidation/antioxidation, responses to ultraviolet light, melanogenesis, epidermal barrier function, and immune regulation and its relationship to tryptophan metabolism. Finally, I will review the role of AHR in diseases of the integument. PMID:25733915

  15. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor: A Review of Its Role in the Physiology and Pathology of the Integument and Its Relationship to the Tryptophan Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Noakes, Rowland

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a cytosolic receptor for low molecular weight molecules, of which the most widely recognized ligand is 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and the most widely recognized effect, chloracne. Adverse effects of manipulation were most recently and graphically demonstrated by the poisoning of Viktor Yushchenko during the Ukrainian presidential elections of 2004. However, recent research has revealed a receptor with wide-ranging, and at times, paradoxical actions. It was arguably among the first biological receptors to be utilized by dermatologists, dating from the time of topical tar preparations as a therapeutic agent. I provide a review outlining the role AHR plays in the development, cellular oxidation/antioxidation, responses to ultraviolet light, melanogenesis, epidermal barrier function, and immune regulation and its relationship to tryptophan metabolism. Finally, I will review the role of AHR in diseases of the integument. PMID:25733915

  16. Neuroscience in Nazi Europe Part III: victims of the Third Reich.

    PubMed

    Zeidman, Lawrence A; Kondziella, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    In Part I, neuroscience collaborators with the Nazis were discussed, and in Part II, neuroscience resistors were discussed. In Part III, we discuss the tragedy regarding european neuroscientists who became victims of the Nazi onslaught on non-Aryan doctors. Some of these unfortunate neuroscientists survived Nazi concentration camps, but most were murdered. We discuss the circumstances and environment which stripped these neuroscientists of their profession, then of their personal rights and freedom, and then of their lives. We include a background analysis of anti-Semitism and Nazism in their various countries, then discuss in depth seven exemplary neuroscientist Holocaust victims; including Germans Ludwig Pick, Arthur Simons, and Raphael Weichbrodt, Austrians Alexander Spitzer and Viktor Frankl, and Poles Lucja Frey and Wladyslaw Sterling. by recognizing and remembering these victims of neuroscience, we pay homage and do not allow humanity to forget, lest this dark period in history ever repeat itself. PMID:23230611

  17. The physician leader as logotherapist.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Washburn ER

    1998-07-01

    Today's physicians feel helpless and angry about changing conditions in the medical landscape. This is due, in large part, to our postmodernist world view and the influence of corporations on medical practice. The life and work of existentialist psychiatrist Viktor Frankl is proposed as a role model for physicians to take back control of their profession. Physician leaders are in the best position to bring the teachings and insight of Frankl's logotherapy to rank-and-file physicians in all practice settings, as well as into the board rooms of large medical corporations. This article considers the spiritual and moral troubles of American medicine, Frankl's answer to that affliction, and the implications of logotherapy for physician organizations and leadership. Physician executives are challenged to take up this task.

  18. Ambartsumyan's concept of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachikian, E. Ye.

    2010-01-01

    As Victor Ambartsumyan, himself, noted, the concept of active galactic nuclei occupies a special place among his scientific ideas. It was proposed more than half a century ago and was recognized by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences as revolutionary, on a copernican scale. However, by no means all of its propositions were accepted at once by large parts of the astronomy community. Nevertheless, as the American astrophysicist A. R. Sandage has written, today, not one astronomer would deny the mystery surrounding the nuclei of galaxies or that the first to recognize the rich reward held in this treasury was Viktor Ambartsumian. The purpose of this article is to acquaint the reader with the major stages in the formation and development of the concept of active galactic nuclei and with some of the work on this topic done at the Byurakan and other astrophysical observatories throughout the world.

  19. [Method of existence analytic psychotherapy].

    PubMed

    Längle, A

    1990-01-01

    Introducing questions of individual purpose and meaning into psychotherapy was an important contribution of Viktor Frankl and a necessary supplement to traditional psychotherapy. V. Frankls "Logotherapy" (logos = meaning) however has found its main application in counselling (especially bereavement and grief processes) and prophylactic endeavours (e.g. pedagogics). Suffering from meaninglessness, on the other hand, showed up to be a respectively rare indication for psychotherapeutic interventions in its proper sense. Thus the question was arising how to apply Frankl's valuable meaning-centered concept of man (which he called "Existential Analysis") in a genuine way to other neurosis and to personality disorders, so far "unspecific indications" to Logotherapy. This paper gives an outline and methodological foundation of "Existential Analysis Psychotherapy". A case study finally is illustrating its phenomenological proceeding. PMID:2251867

  20. [On the clinical applications of logotherapy: a review of Victor Emil Frankl inheritance].

    PubMed

    Girmenia, E; Andrissi, L; Tambone, V

    2014-01-01

    The Viktor E. Frankl's thought has found wide application in many areas of the Clinic, not limited to the neuropsychiatric area. If the franklian work is known worldwide for being a theory and a practice within neurotic disorders, we must not forget how logotherapy has been put at the disposal of the sufferer in its broadest sense. Especially in the context of care and care of the chronically and evolutionary ill (cancer, heart disease, degenerative diseases, etc.), the thought and practice logotherapy have made and continue to make a valuable contribution. In this review we will cover in more detail the application of logotherapy in clinical-care, pausing to examine the international literature. PMID:25203351

  1. The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna: A Suborbital Ultra-high Energy Particle Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorham, Peter

    2012-07-01

    We report on recent results, the current status, and future plans for the ANITA long-duration balloon payload. ANITA has completed three Antarctic flights, including the original prototype ANITA-lite, and will fly a third time in late 2013. ANITA has now extended its range of radio-detection capabilities to include geosynchrotron emission from ultra-high energy cosmic rays air showers as well as neutrinos, and has paved the way for potential new suborbital and even space-based instruments to probe the highest energy particles in the universe. A hundred years after Viktor Hess' first balloon flights to measure low-energy cosmic rays, balloon payloads still play a crucial role in cosmic ray measurements, now even at the very highest cosmic ray energies.

  2. Miss B Pursues Death and Miss P Life in the Light of V. E. Frankl's Existential Analysis/Logotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ewalds-Kvist, Batrice; Ltzn, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Ms B's in United Kingdom and Ms P's in Finland choices in life when dealing with acute ventilator-assisted tetraplegia were analyzed by means of Viktor E. Frankl's existential analysis/logotherapy. The freedom of will to existential meaning and to worth in one's suffering realizes in the attitudinal change the person chooses or is forced to adopt when subject to severe circumstances. Life becomes existentially meaningful relative to inescapable suffering by the completion of three values: creative, experiential, and attitudinal values. If the search for meaning on these paths is frustrated or obstructed, a person's will to meaning transforms into existential frustration along with an existential vacuum and feelings of despair emerge and harm the person's will to survive. However, a person's frustrated meaning in life, when subject to unavoidable severe conditions, can be averted and redirected by applying the basic tenets in an existential analytic/logotherapeutic approach to the extreme situation. PMID:26625511

  3. Armenian Astronomical Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    A review is given on the Armenian Astronomical Heritage from ancient times to nowadays. Armenian ancient astronomy includes the division of the skies into constellations, rock art, ancient Armenian calendar, ancient observatories (such as Metsamor and Karahunge), records of astronomical events (such as Halley's Comet recorded on Tigranes the Great's coin), ancient names of celestial bodies (planets, stars, constellations), etc. The Medieval Armenian astronomy includes two more calendars, Anania Shirakatsi's scientific heritage, the record of 1054 Supernova, sky maps by Luca Vanandetsi and Mkhitar Sebastatsi, etc. Modern Armenian astronomical heritage first of all consists of the famous Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory founded in 1946 by Viktor Ambartsumian, as well as Yerevan Astronomical Observatory, Armenian Astronomical Society, Armenian Virtual Observatory, Yerevan State University Department of Astrophysics, Astrofizika journal, and brilliant young students who systematically win high positions at International Astronomical Olympiads.

  4. Research on cholinesterases in the Soviet Union and Russia: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Rozengart, Eugene V; Basova, Natalia E; Moralev, Serge N; Lushchekina, Sofya V; Masson, Patrick; Varfolomeev, Sergei D

    2013-03-25

    Research on cholinesterases and effects of their inhibition in the USSR and Russia since 1930-1940s till present is exposed in historical aspects. The first physiological and toxicological effects of cholinesterase inhibition were reported by Alexander Ginetsinsky during World War II, when academic institutions were evacuated from Leningrad to Kazan. The main scientific schools that initiated research on chemistry, enzymology and physiology of cholinesterases and their inhibitors were leaded by Alexandr and Boris Arbuzovs, Victor Rozengart, Viktor Yakovlev, Michael Michelson, Martin Kabachnik, Mikhail Voronkov, Ivan Knunyants, Alexandr Bretskin and others. They investigated the main physiological effects of cholinesterase inhibitors, and analyzed the catalytic mechanisms of cholinesterases and related enzymes. Their contributions are landmarks in the history of cholinesterase research. At the present time revival of research on cholinesterases in different universities and institutes is vivid, in particular at the Moscow State University, research institutes of Russian Academy of Sciences and Kazan Scientific Center. PMID:23485591

  5. Theoretical Modeling for the X-ray Spectroscopy of Iron-bearing MgSiO3 under High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Tsuchiya, T.

    2012-12-01

    The behaviors of iron (Fe) in MgSiO3 perovskite, including valence state, spin state, and chemical environments, at high pressures are of fundamental importance for more detailed understanding the properties of the Earth's lower mantle. The pressure induced spin transition of Fe-bearing MgO and MgSiO3 are detected often by using high-resolution K-edge X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) [1,2,3] and confirmed by theoretical simulations. [4,5] Since the Fe K-edge XES is associated to the 3p orbital, which is far from the valence orbitals (3d and 4s), it provides no information about its coordination environments. However, the Fe L-edge XES and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) can directly present the distribution and intensity of Fe-3d character. To identify both the spin states and the coordination environments of iron-bearing MgSiO3, we systematically investigate the L-edge XAS, XES and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy of Fe2+- and Fe3+-bearing MgSiO3 under high pressure by using the first-principles density functional method combined with the slater-transition method. Our results show that Fe2+ and Fe3+ can be distinguished easily by taking the XPS spectra. The spin transition of Fe2+ and Fe3+ can also be clearly certified by XAS and XES. Interestingly, the broadness of L-edge XES of Fe changes depending on the iron position, meaning that its coordination environment might also be distinguishable by using high-resolution XES measurements. Research supported by the Ehime University G-COE program and KAKENHI. [1] James Badro, Guillaume Fiquet, Franois Guyot, Jean-Pascal Rueff, Viktor V. Struzhkin, Gyrgy Vank, and Giulio Monaco. Science 300, 789 (2003), [2] James Badro, Jean-Pascal Rueff, Gyrgy Vank, Giulio Monaco, Guillaume Fiquet, and Franois Guyot, Science 305, 383 (2004), [3] Jung-Fu Lin, Viktor V. Struzhkin, Steven D. Jacobsen, Michael Y. Hu, Paul Chow, Jennifer Kung, Haozhe Liu, Ho-kwang Mao, and Gussell J. Hemley, Nature 436, 377 (2005). [4] Taku Tsuchiya, Renata M. Wentzcovitch, Cesar R.S. da Silva, and Stefano de Gironcoli, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 198501 (2006). [4] Han Hsu, Peter Blaha, Matteo Cococcioni, and Renata M. Wentzcovitch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 118501 (2011).

  6. Freedom and mystery: an intellectual history of Jaspers' General Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Bormuth, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Kantian idea of freedom was introduced to psychiatry methodologically by Karl Jaspers. It influenced the genesis and design of his doctrine of understanding, General Psychopathology, even more decisively than Nietzsche's topos of resentment did. This article places Jaspers' work in the framework of a history of ideas. It begins by pursuing Nietzsche's perspective in the context of Darwinism, then focuses on the role concealed resentment played for Jaspers' genealogical concept of understanding in the first (1913) edition of General Psychopathology, which is primarily oriented towards Max Weber, before examining the idea of Kantian freedom, which was to become crucial for Jaspers' later work. The antinomy of freedom already shapes the suicidology contained in Jaspers' Philosophy of 1931. The idea gains prominence in the final, philosophically grounded revision of GeneralPsychopathology published in 1941/1942. Jaspers' reception of Kantian idealism leads him to develop a concept of critical understanding that clearly distinguishes itself from speculative understanding, whose hazards Jaspers illustrates on the basis of Viktor von Weizsäcker's theory of medicine. This goes far beyond Kant, embracing Schelling and Hegel philosophically. As it were, Jaspers and von Weizsäcker represent critical and postcritical thought in psychopathology and psychosomatics. The epilogue sums up by placing the inquiry in the context of Jaspers' life and work. PMID:23942461

  7. Higher Order Geometric Effects and Profile Variation in a 3D Gyrokinetic Flux-Tube Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Charlson; Parker, Scott E.

    1998-11-01

    New results from a three-dimensional toroidal gyrokinetic flux tube simulation will be presented. The code utilizes a one dimensional domain decomposition(We thank Viktor Decyk, UCLA and Minh Tran, EPFL for use of the Fortran90 PLIB particle sorting routines.) in the direction along the field line (z=qR ?) and employs proper toroidal periodicity. No spectral decomposition is done in the z-direction. Instead, digital filtering is used in z, with the correct toroidal and poloidal periodicity. We will report the current performance and scaling on the SGI Origin 2000s at ACL, LANL and the T3Es at NERSC, LBNL. Preliminary results show better performance (by a factor of 2-5) than the T3E. Simulation results will show the effects of including higher order geometric corrections to the field-line-following approximation, such as radial temperature and density profile variation and radial variation of the B field, q, and q'. The sensitivity to initial conditions is currently being investigated, and will also be discussed. Finally, we will present detailed comparisons with global (whole plasma volume) simulations.

  8. Meaning in motivation: does your organization need an inner life?

    PubMed

    Morrison, Eileen E; Burke, George C; Greene, Lloyd

    2007-01-01

    Leaders of health care organizations are increasingly interested in ways to attract, retain, and gain commitment from their employees. This interest is created in part because high turnover rates and the lack of commitment negatively affect the provision of care and the bottom line in their organizations. In a quality and cost conscious health care environment, health care managers need to find solutions for these difficult issues; solutions that are effective, efficient and sustainable. What can be done? This article reviews, amplifies, and extends work that has been done in the area of "meaningfulness of work" in the context of employee retention and commitment. It begins with an exploration of the problems caused by lack of employee engagement and commitment including their impact on quality and costs. It then summarizes both the theoretical and applied research in the area of meaning and work. It also introduces the basic principles of Viktor Frankl's logotherapy (Frankl, 1998) as a foundation for encouraging the integration of meaning and work. The seminal work by Pattakos (2004) is used to demonstrate how Frankl's principles can be applied to healthcare work settings. Finally, the article provides suggestions for increasing employee commitment and engagement through identifying meaning and purpose in work. PMID:17557698

  9. A scramble for data on Arctic radioactive dumping

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, E.

    1992-07-31

    On 15 August, a Russian research vessel, the Viktor Buynitskiy, will leave the Norwegian port of Kirkenes packed with surveying equipment and scientists. Its mission will be to check out one of the more alarming environmental stories that have drifted out of the former Soviet Union since its collapse last fall: a claim that the Arctic is being polluted by tons of radioactive waste spilled or dumped by the Soviet military. Since May, US officials have been searching for information to confirm or disprove the reports about Russian radiation. The basic concern, is as follows: Arctic waters - and, potentially, fisheries near Norway and Alaska - are in danger of being contaminated by radioactive isotopes leaking from two major sources. One is the area around Novaya Zemlya, an archipelago where the Soviets conducted bomb tests, scuttled submarines, and disposed of waste canisters. The other is freshwater runoff into the Arctic Ocean - including the Ob and Yenisey Rivers - carrying isotopes from weapons plants, waste ponds, and accident sites in Siberia.

  10. Psychology and the Notion of the Spirit: Implications of Max Scheler's Anthropological Philosophy in Theory of Psychology.

    PubMed

    Lehmann O, Olga V; Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2015-09-01

    After many decades with neglect Max Scheler and his anthropological contributions to the understanding of human existence, have gotten more attention in psychology and other humanities. One factor is the actuality of his main project of revaluating the roles of values in philosophy and science. Yet another is the way individual scholars have applied Scheler's philosophy and terms on different fields and arenas. Viktor Frankl was one of these, and he brought Scheler's philosophical anthropology into psychotherapeutic practice, offering theoretical and empirical arguments for considering the notion of the spirit as an interdependent -yet separate- entity in regards to the psyche and the soma. During this commentary on Allyushin (Integrative Psychology Behaviour, 48, 503-523, 2014), we will discuss some general aspects of Scheler's contribution to phenomenology, but focus specifically on the implication of his notion of the spirit for psychological theory, acknowledging the work that has been done in the field for at least 60years in logotherapy and existential analysis. With this purpose, we will highlight four other notions interrelated with the motivational quality of the notion of the spirit: resentment, axiology of values; self-detachment and self-transcendence. PMID:25630299

  11. "Making strange": a role for the humanities in medical education.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Arno K; Wear, Delese

    2014-07-01

    Stories, film, drama, and art have been used in medical education to enhance empathy, perspective-taking, and openness to "otherness," and to stimulate reflection on self, others, and the world. Yet another, equally important function of the humanities and arts in the education of physicians is that of "making strange"-that is, portraying daily events, habits, practices, and people through literature and the arts in a way that disturbs and disrupts one's assumptions, perspectives, and ways of acting so that one sees the self, others, and the world anew. Tracing the development of this concept from Viktor Shklovsky's "enstrangement" (ostranenie) through Bertolt Brecht's "alienation effect," this essay describes the use of this technique to disrupt the "automaticity of thinking" in order to discover new ways of perceiving and being in the world.Enstrangement may be used in medical education in order to stimulate critical reflection and dialogue on assumptions, biases, and taken-for-granted societal conditions that may hinder the realization of a truly humanistic clinical practice. In addition to its ability to enhance one's critical understanding of medicine, the technique of "making strange" does something else: By disrupting fixed beliefs, this approach may allow a reexamination of patient-physician relationships in terms of human interactions and provide health care professionals an opportunity-an "open space"-to bear witness and engage with other individuals during challenging times. PMID:24751976

  12. A lumped model of venting during thermal runaway in a cylindrical Lithium Cobalt Oxide lithium-ion cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coman, Paul T.; Rayman, Sean; White, Ralph E.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model built for analyzing the intricate thermal behavior of a 18650 LCO (Lithium Cobalt Oxide) battery cell during thermal runaway when venting of the electrolyte and contents of the jelly roll (ejecta) is considered. The model consists of different ODEs (Ordinary Differential Equations) describing reaction rates and electrochemical reactions, as well as the isentropic flow equations for describing electrolyte venting. The results are validated against experimental findings from Golubkov et al. [1] [Andrey W. Golubkov, David Fuchs, Julian Wagner, Helmar Wiltsche, Christoph Stangl, Gisela Fauler, Gernot Voitice Alexander Thaler and Viktor Hacker, RSC Advances, 4:3633-3642, 2014] for two cases - with flow and without flow. The results show that if the isentropic flow equations are not included in the model, the thermal runaway is triggered prematurely at the point where venting should occur. This shows that the heat dissipation due to ejection of electrolyte and jelly roll contents has a significant contribution. When the flow equations are included, the model shows good agreement with the experiment and therefore proving the importance of including venting.

  13. A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology

    PubMed Central

    HOPWOOD, NICK

    2006-01-01

    Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897–1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel’s design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d’Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel’s complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages—reduced to a few journal pages—helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account. PMID:17183461

  14. The role of air quality in perception of health of the local population.

    PubMed

    Valentić, Damir; Micović, Vladimir; Kolarić, Branko; Brncić, Nada; Ljubotina, Aleksandar

    2010-04-01

    The research aim was to investigate and establish the perception of health among population groups with different number of industrial polluters in their living environment. Namely, the Kostrena living area (3250 inhabitants) is situated near big industrial pollutant producers: INA oil refinery Urinj, thermo power plant Rijeka, shipyard "Viktor Lenac", while in Crikvenica living area such pollutant producers do not exist. In this research 146 subjects from Kostrena participated (74 men and 72 women with age average 40.8, SD 9.2 years), and 157 subjects from Crikvenica area (79 men and 78 women with age average 39.4, SD 10.1 years). The perception of health was measured by the means of SF-36 questionnaire variables. Lung function (FEV1, FVC, FEV25/75, PEF), cardiovascular function (systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure, heart rate were also measured, including body proportion measures by the means of waste and hip circumference and silhouette test, in order to establish the eventual objective physical health parameter difference among examined population groups. Subjects from Kostrena perceived their general health, mental health, and vitality worse than subjects from Crikvenica. Group from Kostrena felt themself more limited in their roles due to emotional problems, perceiving more pain than group from Crikvenica. On the opposite site, social functioning of subjects from Kostrena was better in comparison to Crikvenica group. No signifficant differences between groups were found in physical functioning and in role limitation due to physical problems. In addition, there were no significant differences between groups in objective physical health parameters, such as pulmonary function, arterial blood pressure, pulse, and waist to hip ratio. Subjects using sensoric systems and the mental cognition about harmful environmental factors, perceive their health worse if there are present industrial resources in their environment, even when concentration of the pollutants are within legal ranges. PMID:21305731

  15. Coverage of Russian psychological contributions in American psychology textbooks.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert Garca for reviewing and editing an earlier version of this manuscript. PMID:22047002

  16. Gravothermal Star Clusters - Theory and Computer Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurzem, Rainer

    2010-11-01

    In the George Darwin lecture, delivered to the British Royal Astronomical Society in 1960 by Viktor A. Ambartsumian he wrote on the evolution of stellar systems that it can be described by the "dynamic evolution of a gravitating gas" complemented by "a statistical description of the changes in the physical states of stars". This talk will show how this physical concept has inspired theoretical modeling of star clusters in the following decades up to the present day. The application of principles of thermodynamics shows, as Ambartsumian argued in his 1960 lecture, that there is no stable state of equilibrium of a gravitating star cluster. The trend to local thermodynamic equilibrium is always disturbed by escaping stars (Ambartsumian), as well as by gravothermal and gravogyro instabilities, as it was detected later. Here the state-of-the-art of modeling the evolution of dense stellar systems based on principles of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics (Fokker-Planck approximation) will be reviewed. Recent progress including rotation and internal correlations (primordial binaries) is presented. The models have also very successfully been used to study dense star clusters around massive black holes in galactic nuclei and even (in a few cases) relativistic supermassive dense objects in centres of galaxies (here again briefly touching one of the many research fields of V.A. Ambartsumian). For the modern present time of high-speed supercomputing, where we are tackling direct N-body simulations of star clusters, we will show that such direct modeling supports and proves the concept of the statistical models based on the Fokker-Planck theory, and that both theoretical concepts and direct computer simulations are necessary to support each other and make scientific progress in the study of star cluster evolution.

  17. Up The Down Staircase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurshtein, A. A.

    1993-12-01

    The title of this presentation is taken from a well-known novel to emphasize that a renaissance in Soviet astronomy and space research took place after World War II under conditions of national tragedy. After a decade of political repression and war, the Soviet government had resolved that fundamental science should serve as a foundation for Communism, and this policy stimulated titanic new efforts that were intended to benefit Soviet science. Having been destroyed totally during the war, Pulkovo Observatory was rebuilt on its old foundation according to its original plan. The decision to rebuild Pulkovo can not be justified on scientific grounds, however, because of the proximity of a large city (Leningrad) and generally cloudy weather. Thus the rebuild- ing of Pulkovo in spite of the most difficult living conditions must be seen primarily as a great symbol. The Academy of Sciences of the Armenian Republic also was founded in the aftermath of World War II, and its president, Viktor Ambartsumian, introduced astronomy to Armenia with the construc- tion of Byurakan Observatory. (It is noteworthy that con- currently two leaders of republican academies were astronomers: Evgenii Kharadze, director of the Abastumani Observatory, in Georgia and Ambartsumian in Armenia.) In addition to Byurakan, several other large and well-equipped astronomical institutions were founded after the war--among them the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and the Principal Astronomical Observatory of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences near Kiev. As a natural consequence of this institution-building, the General Assembly of the IAU held its 1958 meeting in Moscow. Indeed, this meeting was the first large international scientific event in the Soviet Union following Stalin's death. At the time of the Assembly the Soviet government declared, as a counterpart to the launch of the first sputnik, its ambitious program to build the largest optical telescope in the world.

  18. Scientific perspectives on music therapy.

    PubMed

    Hillecke, Thomas; Nickel, Anne; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2005-12-01

    What needs to be done on the long road to evidence-based music therapy? First of all, an adequate research strategy is required. For this purpose the general methodology for therapy research should be adopted. Additionally, music therapy needs a variety of methods of allied fields to contribute scientific findings, including mathematics, natural sciences, behavioral and social sciences, as well as the arts. Pluralism seems necessary as well as inevitable. At least two major research problems can be identified, however, that make the path stony: the problem of specificity and the problem of eclecticism. Neuroscientific research in music is giving rise to new ideas, perspectives, and methods; they seem to be promising prospects for a possible contribution to a theoretical and empirical scientific foundation for music therapy. Despite the huge heterogeneity of theoretical approaches in music therapy, an integrative model of working ingredients in music therapy is useful as a starting point for empirical studies in order to question what specifically works in music therapy. For this purpose, a heuristic model, consisting of five music therapy working factors (attention modulation, emotion modulation, cognition modulation, behavior modulation, and communication modulation) has been developed by the Center for Music Therapy Research (Viktor Dulger Institute) in Heidelberg. Evidence shows the effectiveness of music therapy for treating certain diseases, but the question of what it is in music therapy that works remains largely unanswered. The authors conclude with some questions to neuroscientists, which we hope may help elucidate relevant aspects of a possible link between the two disciplines. PMID:16597776

  19. PREFACE: Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolin, A.; Abramov, V.; Fuchs, J.; Paal, E.; Shestopalov, Y.; Silvestrov, S.

    2012-02-01

    This proceedings volume presents results obtained by the participants of the 6th Baltic-Nordic workshop 'Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics (AGMP-6)' held at the Sven Lovn Centre for Marine Sciences in Tjrn, Sweden on October 25-30, 2010. The Baltic-Nordic Network AGMP 'Algebra, Geometry, and Mathematical Physics' http://www.agmp.eu was created in 2005 on the initiative of two Estonian universities and two Swedish universities: Tallinn University of Technology represented by Eugen Paal (coordinator of the network), Tartu University represented by Viktor Abramov, Lund University represented by Sergei Silvestrov, and Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg represented by Alexander Stolin. The goal was to promote international and interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and research groups in the countries of the Baltic-Nordic region in mathematics and mathematical physics, with special emphasis on the important role played by algebra and geometry in modern physics, engineering and technologies. The main activities of the AGMP network consist of a series of regular annual international workshops, conferences and research schools. The AGMP network also constitutes an important educational forum for scientific exchange and dissimilation of research results for PhD students and Postdocs. The network has expanded since its creation, and nowadays its activities extend beyond countries in the Baltic-Nordic region to universities in other European countries and participants from elsewhere in the world. As one of the important research-dissimilation outcomes of its activities, the network has a tradition of producing high-quality research proceedings volumes after network events, publishing them with various international publishers. The PDF also contains the following: List of AGMP workshops and other AGMP activities Main topics discussed at AGMP-6 Review of AGMP-6 proceedings Acknowledgments List of Conference Participants

  20. [Political poisoning with dioxins--a weapon of chemical "disgracefulness"].

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Arseny; Rotman, Eran; Eisenkraft, Arik; Krivoy, Amir; Laish, Ido; Tashma, Zeev; Hoffman, Azik; Yehezkelli, Yoav

    2005-10-01

    The recent attempt to poison Ukrainian President, Viktor Yuschenko with dioxins, raised public concern regarding this toxic chemical. In industrial countries, there is a constitutive exposure of humans to dioxin compounds, which are formed as by-products in manufacturing processes of various chlorinated organic chemicals and in waste incinerators. Dioxins are extremely stable in the environment and have a low turnover rate in the body--sometimes they are detected years after the original exposure. Of the dioxins, the most notoriously famous is the TCDD (2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). Dioxins exhibit high acute toxicity in various animal species. Humans, however, are considered less susceptible and so far there were no reported deaths following acute dioxin poisoning. Nevertheless, numerous adverse health effects are attributed to dioxin exposure. The most prominent is the chloracne--an acute acneiform eruption, usually appearing on facial skin. There is a solid evidence base that some dioxins are carcinogens. Other long-term deleterious effects of dioxin include: immunosuppression, effects on reproduction, impairments in developmental, neurological and cognitive functions in infants, increased risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and various hormonal alterations. The action of dioxins resembles that of hormones, since their toxicity is mostly receptor-mediated. Dioxins manifest their toxicity in extremely low concentrations. Although there are compounds that exhibit their biological activity at even lower dose range (e.g. nerve gases), this potency of dioxins is considered extraordinary, since there is an every-day exposure to dioxins through environmental vectors mostly via the food chain. Until now, there is no antidotal cure for dioxins, but only symptomatic treatment combined with techniques that accelerate its excretion rate from the body. PMID:16281767

  1. A history of normal plates, tables and stages in vertebrate embryology.

    PubMed

    Hopwood, Nick

    2007-01-01

    Developmental biology is today unimaginable without the normal stages that define standard divisions of development. This history of normal stages, and the related normal plates and normal tables, shows how these standards have shaped and been shaped by disciplinary change in vertebrate embryology. The article highlights the Normal Plates of the Development of the Vertebrates edited by the German anatomist Franz Keibel (16 volumes, 1897-1938). These were a major response to problems in the relations between ontogeny and phylogeny that amounted in practical terms to a crisis in staging embryos, not just between, but (for some) also within species. Keibel's design adapted a plate by Wilhelm His and tables by Albert Oppel in order to go beyond the already controversial comparative plates of the Darwinist propagandist Ernst Haeckel. The project responded to local pressures, including intense concern with individual variation, but recruited internationally and mapped an embryological empire. Though theoretically inconclusive, the plates became standard laboratory tools and forged a network within which the Institut International d'Embryologie (today the International Society of Developmental Biologists) was founded in 1911. After World War I, experimentalists, led by Ross Harrison and Viktor Hamburger, and human embryologists, especially George Streeter at the Carnegie Department of Embryology, transformed Keibel's complex, bulky tomes to suit their own contrasting demands. In developmental biology after World War II, normal stages-reduced to a few journal pages-helped domesticate model organisms. Staging systems had emerged from discussions that questioned the very possibility of assigning an embryo to a stage. The historical issues resonate today as developmental biologists work to improve and extend stage series, to make results from different laboratories easier to compare and to take individual variation into account. PMID:17183461

  2. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    SciTech Connect

    CM Johnson

    2000-07-24

    This paper reviews select programs driving the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation's (Minatom) efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the US over the next three to five years. The paper's findings are: (1) Despite numerous cabinet displacements throughout the Yeltsin administration, Yevgeny Adamov was reappointed Minister on four occasions. With Boris Yeltsin's January 1, 2000 resignation, Adamov's long-term position as the head of the Ministry is more tenuous, but he will likely retain his position until at least the March 2000 elections. Acting President Vladimir Putin is unlikely to reorganize his cabinet prior to that date and there are no signs that Putin is dissatisfied with Adamov's leadership of Minatom. (2) Adamov's chief priorities are downsizing Minatom's defense sector, increasing the oversight of subsidiary bodies by the central bureaucracy and consolidating commercial elements of the Ministry within an umbrella organization called Atomprom. (3) Viktor Mikhaylov, Adamov's predecessor and critic of his reform efforts, has been relieved of his duties as First Deputy Minister. While he retains his positions as Chief of the Science Councils and Chief Scientist at Arzamas-16, his influence on Minatom's direction is greatly diminished. Adamov will likely continue his efforts to further marginalize Mikhaylov in the coming year. (4) Securing extra-budgetary sources of income continues to be the major factor guiding Minatom's international business dealings. The Ministry will continue to aggressively promote the sale of nuclear technology abroad, often to countries with questionable nonproliferation commitments. (5) Given the financial difficulties in Russia and Minatom's client states, however, few nuclear development programs will come to fruition for a number of years, if ever. Nevertheless, certain peaceful nuclear cooperation agreements should be carefully monitored--particularly those negotiated with Cuba, Iran, Libya and Syria. (6) Waste management has also risen in importance for Minatom. Opportunities for raising funds by reprocessing, storing and permanently disposing of spent fuel from foreign states are being explored. Although currently prohibited by federal law, the Russian Parliament will likely pass legislation in support of this program.

  3. The origin of galactic cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasi, Pasquale

    2013-11-01

    One century ago Viktor Hess carried out several balloon flights that led him to conclude that the penetrating radiation responsible for the discharge of electroscopes was of extraterrestrial origin. One century from the discovery of this phenomenon seems to be a good time to stop and think about what we have understood about Cosmic Rays. The aim of this review is to illustrate the ideas that have been and are being explored in order to account for the observable quantities related to cosmic rays and to summarize the numerous new pieces of observation that are becoming available. In fact, despite the possible impression that development in this field is somewhat slow, the rate of new discoveries in the last decade or so has been impressive, and mainly driven by beautiful pieces of observation. At the same time scientists in this field have been able to propose new, fascinating ways to investigate particle acceleration inside the sources, making use of multifrequency observations that range from the radio, to the optical, to X-rays and gamma rays. These ideas can now be confronted with data. I will mostly focus on supernova remnants as the most plausible sources of Galactic cosmic rays, and I will review the main aspects of the modern theory of diffusive particle acceleration at supernova remnant shocks, with special attention for the dynamical reaction of accelerated particles on the shock and the phenomenon of magnetic field amplification at the shock. Cosmic-ray escape from the sources is discussed as a necessary step to determine the spectrum of cosmic rays at the Earth. The discussion of these theoretical ideas will always proceed parallel to an account of the data being collected especially in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy. In the end of this review I will also discuss the phenomenon of cosmic-ray acceleration at shocks propagating in partially ionized media and the implications of this phenomenon in terms of width of the Balmer line emission. This field of research has recently experienced a remarkable growth, in that Hα lines have been found to bear information on the cosmic-ray acceleration efficiency of supernova shocks.

  4. PREFACE: 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium on the Fundamental and Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices and Technologies (RJUS TeraTech - 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karasik, Valeriy; Ryzhii, Viktor; Yurchenko, Stanislav

    2014-03-01

    The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) Bauman Moscow State Technical University Moscow, Russia, 3-6 June, 2013 The 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies' (RJUS TeraTech - 2013) was held in Bauman Moscow State Technical University on 3-6 June 2013 and was devoted to modern problems of terahertz optical technologies. RJUS TeraTech 2013 was organized by Bauman Moscow State Technical University in cooperation with Tohoku University (Sendai, Japan) and University of Buffalo (The State University of New York, USA). The Symposium was supported by Bauman Moscow State Technical University (Moscow, Russia) and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant number 13-08-06100-g). RJUS TeraTech - 2013 became a foundation for sharing and discussing modern and promising achievements in fundamental and applied problems of terahertz optical technologies, devices based on grapheme and grapheme strictures, condensed matter of different nature. Among participants of RJUS TeraTech - 2013, there were more than 100 researchers and students from different countries. This volume contains proceedings of the 2nd Russia-Japan-USA Symposium 'The Fundamental & Applied Problems of Terahertz Devices & Technologies'. Valeriy Karasik, Viktor Ryzhii and Stanislav Yurchenko Bauman Moscow State Technical University Symposium chair Anatoliy A Aleksandrov, Rector of BMSTU Symposium co-chair Valeriy E Karasik, Head of the Research and Educational Center 'PHOTONICS AND INFRARED TECHNOLOGY' (Russia) Invited Speakers Taiichi Otsuji, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Akira Satou, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Michael Shur, Electrical, Computer and System Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, NY, USA Natasha Kirova, University Paris-Sud, France Andrei Sergeev, Department of Electrical Engineering, The University of Buffalo, The State University of New Your, Buffalo, NY, USA Magnus Willander, Linkoping University (LIU), Department of Science and Technology, Linkopings, Sweden Dmitry R Khohlov, Physical Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia Vladimir L Vaks, Institute for Physics of Microstructures of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia

  5. Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashonkina, Lyudmila I.

    2013-05-01

    The JENAM symposium "Physics of Stars" took place on the 5th and 6th July of 2011 in Saint-Petersburg. This symposium had a wide-ranging look at observational and theoretical studies of stars and stellar systems. Several talks were devoted to accurate determination of fundamental stellar parameters, such as star's mass, radius, effective temperature, surface gravity, chemical composition. This is particularly crucial to fully exploit the data from the new generation of large ground-based telescopes and future space missions like the GAIA one. Viktor Orlov reported the measurements of stellar mass for a few multiple systems and also the investigation of their dynamical stability. To improve the determination of parameters of the components in an eclipsing binary system including a Wolf-Rayet star, Eleonora Antokhina and her co-workers updated their synthesis model by accounting for the absorption in the expanding stellar wind. The variable stars are excellent laboratories to study the physical processes either occurring at certain stages of stellar evolution or caused by the interaction of a star with its companion or circumstellar medium. Nikolay Samus reported the discovery of hundreds of new variable stars in their work on digitalization of the Moscow stacks of sky photographs. The exotic star VSX J052807.9+725606, with a very strong asymmetry of maxima, wavelength dependence of amplitude, and the shift of the secondary minimum from the phase 0.5, was discovered by Natalia Virnina. Michael E. Contadakis and his co-workers presented the additional observational evidences for weak transient optical oscillations of the red dwarf AD Leo. Spectral variability of the two massive luminous stars in the M33 galaxy was studied by Olga Maryeva. Alex Dudorov and Sergei Zamozdra and Alexander Grigoriev et al. discussed the theoretical and observational problems of star formation. Galina Dremova presented the numerical algorithm for computing the tidal torque constants for a given close eclipsing binary. Natalia Shakht and her co-workers reported the estimation of the central body mass for several globular clusters with the measured dispersion of stellar radial velocities.

  6. Bewehrte Betonbauteile unter Betriebsbedingungen: Forschungsbericht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eligehausen, Rolf; Kordina, Karl; Schiel, Peter

    2000-09-01

    Vorwort. Teil I: Ribreiten (Gert Knig) 1 Ein mechanisches Modell zur Erhhung der Vorhersagegenauigkeit ber die Ribreiten unter Betriebsbedingungen (Gert Knig und Michael Fischer). 1.1 Einleitung und Zielsetzung. 1.2 Versuchsprogramm. 1.3 Metechnik. 1.4 Belastung und Versuchsdurchfhrung. 1.5 Literatur. 2 Ribreiten und Verformungszunahme vorgespannter Bauteile unter wiederholter Last - und Zwangbeanspruchung (Gert Knig und Michael Fischer). 2.1 Einleitung und Zielsetzung. 2.2 Versuchsprogramm. 2.3 Auswertung. 2.4 Ausblick. 2.5 Literatur. 3 Riverhalten von Beton bei pltzlicher Abkhlung (Viktor Mechtcherine und Harald S. Mller). 3.1 Einleitung. 3.2 Experimentelle Untersuchungen. 3.3 Formulierung eines Stoffgesetzes fr thermisch beanspruchten Beton. 3.4 Ri entwicklung in einer Betonplatte unter Temperaturschock. 3.5 Zusammenfassung. 3.6 Literatur. 4 Stahlfaserbeton unter Betriebsbedingungen bei Dauerbeanspruchung (Bo Soon Kang, Bernd Schntgen und Friedhelm Stangenberg). 4.1 Einleitung. 4.2 Wirkung von Stahlfasern im Beton. 4.3 Versuchsprogramm. 4.4 Untersuchungen zum Verbundverhalten. 4.5 Untersuchungen zum Verhalten unter Biegebeanspruchung. 4.6 Theoretische Untersuchungen. 4.7 Literatur. 5 Experimentelle Untersuchungen an Stahlbeton-Zugkrpern unter wiederholter Belastung zur Ermittlung des versteifenden Einflusses der Mitwirkung des Betons zwischen den Rissen (Petra Seibel und Gerhard Mehlhorn). 5.1 Einleitung. 5.2 Ansatz zur Bestimmung der Mitwirkung des Betons zwischen den Rissen nach Eurocode 2, Model Code 90 und Gnther. 5.3 Experimentelle Untersuchungen. 5.4 Ergebnisse. 5.5 Zusammenfassung. 5.6 Literatur. 6 Ri- und Verformungsverhalten von vorgefertigten Spannbetontrgern unter Betriebsbedingungen bei besonderer Bercksichtigung des Betonalters (Monika Maske, Heinz Meichsner und Lothar Schubert). 6.1 Einleitung. 6.2 Beschreibung der Fertigteiltrger. 6.3 Belastungsversuche. 6.4 Ergebnisse. 6.5 Zusammenfassung. 6.6 Literatur. Teil II: Verbundfragen (Rolf Eligehausen). 1 Ein mechanisches Modell zur Beschreibung des Verbundverhaltens zwischen Stahl und Beton (Gert Knig, Nguyen V. Tue und Wolfgang Kurz). 1.1 Einleitung. 1.2 Beschreibung der Kraftbertragung zwischen Stahl und Beton. 1.3 Vorstellung des Modells. 1.4 Materialgesetze fr die Berechnung der Verformung des Fachwerks. 1.5 Vergleich zwischen Versuch und Modell. 1.6 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick. 1.7 Literatur. 2 Verbund unter nicht ruhender Beanspruchung (Rainer Koch und Gyrgy L. Balzs). 2.1 bersicht ber die durchgefhrten Versuche. 2.2 Versuchkrper und Materialien. 2.3 Versuchseinrichtungen. 2.4 Versuche und Ergebnisse. 2.5 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick. 2.6 Literatur. 3 Trag- und Verformungsverhalten von Stahlbetontragwerken unter Betriebsbelastung (Thomas M. Sippel und Rolf Eligehausen). 3.1 Einleitung. 3.2 Allgemeines. 3.3 Rechenmodell und Materialmodelle. 3.4 Vergleich zwischen Versuchen und Rechnung. 3.5 Parameterstudien. 3.6 Vereinfachtes Rechenmodell. 3.7 Zusammenfassung. 3.8 Literatur. 4 Verbundverhalten von Spanngliedern mit nachtrglichem Verbund unter Betriebsbedingungen (Josef Hegger, Norbert Will und Heiner Cordes). 4.1 Einfhrung. 4.2 Verbundverhalten von Spanngliedern. 4.3 Zeitabhngige Effekte des Verbunds. 4.4 Versuche unter statischer Langzeitbeanspruchung. 4.5 Versuche unter dynamischer Langzeitbeanspruchung. 4.6 Bemessungsvorschlag fr Verbundkennwerte. 4.7 Zusammenfassung. 4.8 Literatur. 5 Spannungsumlagerungen in gemischt bewehrten Querschnitten (Josef Hegger, Heiner Cordes und Matthias Rudlof). 5.1 Problemstellung und Zielsetzung. 5.2 Spannungsumlagerungen bei gemischter Bewehrung. 5.3 Versuche an zentrischen Zugkrpern. 5.4 Versuchsergebnisse. 5.5 Ermittlung und Vergleich von Verbundkennwerten. 5.6 Zusammenfassung. 5.7 Literatur. Teil III: Bauteile (Karl Kordina). 1 Einflu von Lngsbeanspruchungen auf den Neigungswinkel der Schubrisse (Marek Los und Ulrich Quast). 1.1 Einleitung. 1.2 Ungerissener Zustand. 1.3 Gerissener Zustand. 1.4 FEM-Berechnungen. 1.5 Zusammenfassung. 1.6 L

  7. Effect "negative viscosity" as possible mechanism of ozone hole are formed above Antarctica at last quarter of XX century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrey, Nagurny

    2010-05-01

    One of the possible mechanisms of the ozone hole formation over Antarctica can be a meridional transport of ozone deficit by the mesoscale vortexes generated by perturbations in the stratospheric circumpolar vortex. This transport can occur against the global ozone gradient in the polar stratosphere. An assessment of the value and sign of the macro-turbulent exchange coefficient provides understanding of the intensity and direction of large-scale vortex diffusion in the framework of the equations of heat, moisture and momentum transfer. The local viscosity can be negative at this since the turbulent viscosity, heat conductivity and diffusion coefficients characterize already not the physical properties of fluids and gases but the statistical properties of their turbulent motions. According to the definition of Viktor Starr (1968), "negative viscosity" leads to the impulse transfer against a zonal gradient. So, the small-scale energy passes to zonal energy and in the equations of transfer of the conservative properties of the atmosphere (temperature, humidity, ozone, etc.), the transfer can be against the average zonal gradient. To estimate macro-turbulent exchange coefficients, we shall use a procedure, which is similar by structure to the procedure, which is used for reduction of the non-linear Burger's equation to the linear equation of heat conductivity. Whereas in 1980, one mainly observes the positive values of meridional turbulent exchange coefficient, but to 1988 and especially in 2003, these values within the stratospheric vortex are predominantly negative. The growth of the negative value of the meridional transfer coefficient simultaneously with the increased area and the "depth" of the ozone hole allow us to interpret the development of the ozone hole in terms of the mechanism of "negative" viscosity, responsible for transfer of kinetic energy by smaller-scale vortexes towards large-scale perturbations enhancing thus the intensity of the stratospheric circumpolar vortex. Correspondingly, ozone in this process is transferred against the latitudinal gradient of its distribution, creating the ozone deficit within the stratospheric vortex and its maximum at the periphery. One of the peculiarities of the ozone hole in Antarctica is presence of the maximum ozone value at the periphery of the ozone hole. There is an impression that the ozone maximum and minimum over Antarctica are formed by one mechanism within the circumpolar stratospheric vortex over the South Pole. The mechanism of the "negative viscosity" quite fits in principle this role. Calculations showed that exactly in spring (in September in the South Polar Area) values of meridional turbulent exchange coefficient achieve their maximum negative values. In the process of occurrence of the ozone hole and its development beginning from 1982, the scale of the stratospheric circumpolar vortex in the South Polar Area decreases with a simultaneous increase of the vortex intensity ("depth"). The latter seems to contribute to appearance of the negative viscosity" effect, when ozone is transported from the stratospheric vortex to its external boundary, creating the ozone deficit inside the vortex and its excess at the periphery of the circumpolar vortex. A decrease of the vortex scale can be caused by a combined impact of natural multiyear fluctuations of the general circulation (for example, a 40-year period) and a continuously increasing anthropogenic impact.

  8. Time- and Space-Domain Measurements of the Thermal Conductivity in Diamond Anvil Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. F.

    2011-12-01

    I will give an overview of recent developments of experimental techniques to measure the thermal conductivity in diamond anvil cell (DAC) under conditions of high pressure and high temperature (P-T) which are relevant for the planetary interiors. To measure the lattice contributions to the thermal conductivity, we developed a transient heating technique (THT) in the diamond anvil cell (DAC) [1]. This technique utilizes a periodic front surface temperature variation (measured by the spectroradiometry) of a metallic absorber surrounded by the material of interest and exposed to a pulsed laser radiation (10 nanoseconds pulses). We extract the thermal diffusivity of minerals by fitting the experimental results to the model finite element (FE) calculations. We have recently modified this technique for microseconds laser pulses as this allows avoiding nonequilibrium heat transfer processes. We have measured the thermal conductivity of Ar up to 50 GPa and 2500 K; the results are in agreement with the theoretical calculations [2] in the limit of high temperatures. In collaboration with a group from the University of Illinois we have utilized a time-domain thermoreflectance (TDTR)- ultrafast (femtosecond) laser pump-probe technique for measurement of the lattice thermal conductivity at high P-T conditions. We have measured the thermal conductivity of MgO up to 60 GPa and 300 K and up to 45 GPa at 600 K. The detailed results of this study will be presented in a separate paper at this Meeting. Finally, we have combined static and pulsed laser techniques to determine the thermal conductivity of Fe and its temperature dependence at high pressures up to 70 GPa and 2000 K [3]. A thin plate of Fe was positioned in an Ar medium, laser heated from one side and the temperature is being measured from both sides of the sample radiometrically. The thermal conductivity has been determined by fitting the results of FE calculations to the experimental results. These examples demonstrate that different techniques can be successfully used to determine the thermal conductivity of materials loaded in the DAC. The choice of the technique depends on material properties, sample preparation method, and P-T range needed. I thank D. Allen Dalton, David Cahill, Viktor Struzhkin, Wen-Pin Hsieh, Zuzana Konopkova, Peter Lazor, Javier A. Montoya for critically contributing to this work. I acknowledge support from NSF EAR 0711358 and EAR-1015239, Carnegie Institution of Washington, DOE/ NNSA (CDAC), and EFree, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DESC0001057. 1. P. Beck, A. F. Goncharov, V. V. Struzhkin, B. Militzer, H. K. Mao, R. J. Hemley (2007). Measurement of thermal diffusivity at high pressure using a transient heating technique, Appl Phys. Lett. 91, 181914. 2. K. V. Tretiakov and S. Scandolo (2004). Thermal conductivity of solid argon at high pressure and high temperature: A molecular dynamics study. Journal of Chemical Physics 121, 11177-11182. 3. Z. Konopkova, P. Lazor, A. F. Goncharov, V. V. Struzhkin (2011). Thermal conductivity of hcp iron at high pressure and temperature, High Pressure Research, 31, 228-236.

  9. EDITORIAL HPJ SPECIAL ISSUE INTRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Farfan, E.

    2011-10-01

    Radioecology is the study of the fate and transport and potential effects of radionuclides and associated contaminants in the environment. In short, it is the science that describes the fundamental connection between environmental health and human health risks. As such, radioecology can and has provided the credible, consistent and defensible basis for the successful and cost-effective environmental cleanup and closure of nuclear production and waste sites. In addition, radioecology also provides the technical basis for making timely and reliable decisions on cleanup in the aftermath of nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima. The 1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) accident resulted in catastrophic health, social, and economic consequences in many countries, predominantly, Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The extent of radioactive contamination, levels and forms of contamination, and diversity of the ecosystems affected by the accident did not have any precedent and provided unique opportunities for environmental scientists around the world. Following the natural course of their development, populations of species and their communities found themselves in conditions of chronic radiation exposure that exceeded the natural background by factors of hundreds and thousands. Anything similar would have been extremely difficult if not impossible to recreate in a scientific laboratory. Consequently, since the first few years after the accident, many teams of scientists have visited the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ). The knowledge gained by studying the consequences of this accident has tremendous importance. The concept of an international research and technical center to address the problems involving nuclear and radiological accidents became a reality with the establishment of the International Chernobyl Center (ICC). In May 1995, the US and Ukraine signed a Protocol of Intent on establishment of the ICC, and the government of Ukraine appealed to the international scientific community to support ICC and join its activities (Chernobyl Center 2006). In December 1995, a memorandum of understanding (MOU) on the ChNPP closure was signed by the government of Ukraine, all of the G7 governments, and the European Commission. The ICC foundation was considered critical to ensure the safe decommissioning of the ChNPP reactor units and improvement of the safety of the Chernobyl Containment Shelter. On the 10th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident (26 April 1996), Mr. Viktor Yushchenko, the President of Ukraine, issued a decree to establish the Chernobyl Center for Nuclear Safety, Radioactive Waste and Radioecology (Chernobyl Center). On the same day, a MOU involving the US participation in Chernobyl Center activities was signed by the US and Ukraine (Chernobyl Center 2006). In July 1998, the US and Ukraine signed an agreement to establish the International Radioecology Laboratory (IRL) as part of the Chernobyl Center. The creation of IRL was a logical continuation of previous programs to conduct scientific research in radioecology and provide Ukraine and the rest of the world with the necessary infrastructure and scientific basis to conduct research in radioecology, radiobiology, dosimetry, and environmental protection in the ChEZ (Chernobyl Center 2006). A recent collaborative effort with IRL has been implemented through a project titled 'Long-term impacts from radiation/contamination within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone' (Farfan et al. 2008; Gerdes et al. 2009; Marra et al. 2010). This collaboration had the following objectives: (1) Assess the long-term impacts to the environment from radiation exposure within the ChEZ; (2) Provide information on remediation guidelines and ecological risk assessment within radioactively contaminated territories based on the results of long-term field monitoring, analytical measurements, and numerical modeling of soils and groundwater radioactive contamination; and (3) Recommend the development and testing of effective cleanup technologies to reduce environmental and health risks. Based on this work, a large amount of data are now available for publication, some of which are presented in this Special Issue of the Health Physics Journal.

  10. Vigrishinite, Zn2Ti4 - x Si4O14(OH,H2O,□)8, a new mineral from the Lovozero alkaline complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekov, I. V.; Britvin, S. N.; Zubkova, N. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Bryzgalov, I. A.; Lykova, I. S.; Belakovskiy, D. I.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.

    2013-12-01

    A new mineral vigrishinite, epistolite-group member and first layer titanosilicate with species-defining Zn, was found at Mt. Malyi Punkaruaiv, in the Lovozero alkaline complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It occurs in a hydrothermally altered peralkaline pegmatite and is associated with microcline, ussingite, aegirine, analcime, gmelinite-Na, and chabazite-Ca. Vigrishinite forms rectangular or irregularly shaped lamellae up to 0.05 × 2 × 3 cm flattened on [001]. They are typically slightly split and show blocky character. The mineral is translucent to transparent and pale pink, yellowish-pinkish or colorless. The luster is vitreous. The Mohs' hardness is 2.5-3. Vigrishinite is brittle. Cleavage is {001} perfect. D meas = 3.03(2), D calc = 2.97 g/cm3. The mineral is optically biaxial (-), α = 1.755(5), β = 1.82(1), γ = 1.835(8), 2 V meas = 45(10)°, 2 V calc = 50°. IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition (wt %; average of 9 point analyses, H2O is determined by modified Penfield method) is as follows: 0.98 Na2O, 0.30 K2O, 0.56 CaO, 0.05 SrO, 0.44 BaO, 0.36 MgO, 2.09 MnO, 14.39 ZnO, 2.00 Fe2O3, 0.36 Al2O3, 32.29 SiO2, 29.14 TiO2, 2.08 ZrO2, 7.34 Nb2O5, 0.46 F, 9.1 H2O, -0.19 O=F2, total is 101.75. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of Si + Al = 4 is: H7.42(Zn1.30Na0.23Mn0.22Ca0.07Mg0.07K0.05Ba0.02)Σ1.96(Ti2.68Nb0.41Fe{0.18/3+}Zr0.12)Σ3.39(Si3.95Al0.05)Σ4 20.31F0.18. The simplified formula is: Zn2Ti4- x Si4O14(OH,H2O,□)8 ( x < 1). Vigrishinite is triclinic, space group P , a = 8.743(9), b = 8.698(9), c = 11.581(11)Å, α = 91.54(8)°, β = 98.29(8)°, γ = 105.65(8)°, V = 837.2(1.5) Å3, Z = 2. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder pattern ( d, Å, - I[ hkl]) are: 11.7-67[001], 8.27-50[100], 6.94-43[01, 10], 5.73-54[11, 002], 4.17-65[020, 2, 200], and 2.861-100[30, 22, 004, 11]. The crystal structure model was obtained on a single crystal, R = 0.171. Vigrishinite and murmanite are close in the structure of the TiSiO motif, but strongly differ from each other in part of large cations and H-bearing groups. Vigrishinite is named in honor of Viktor G. Grishin (b. 1953), a Russian amateur mineralogist and mineral collector, to pay tribute to his contribution to the mineralogy of the Lovozero Complex. The type specimen is deposited in the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

  11. EDITORIAL: Message from the Editor Message from the Editor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Paul

    2011-01-01

    As usual, being an even year, the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference took place at Daejeon, Korea. The event was notable not just for the quality of the presentations but also for the spectacular opening ceremony, in the presence of the Prime Minister, Kim Hwang-sik. The Prime Minister affirmed the importance of research into fusion energy research and pledged support for ITER. Such political visibility is good news, of course, but it brings with it the obligation to perform. Fortunately, good performance was much in evidence in the papers presented at the conference, of which a significant proportion contain 'ITER' in the title. Given this importance of ITER and the undertaking by the Nuclear Fusion journal to publish papers associated with Fusion Energy Conference presentations, the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board has decided to adopt a simplified journal scope that encompasses technology papers more naturally. The scope is available from http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/page/Journal%20information but is reproduced here for clarity: Nuclear Fusion publishes articles making significant advances to the field of controlled thermonuclear fusion. The journal scope includes: the production, heating and confinement of high temperature plasmas; the physical properties of such plasmas; the experimental or theoretical methods of exploring or explaining them; fusion reactor physics; reactor concepts; fusion technologies. The key to scope acceptability is now '....significant advances....' rather than any particular area of controlled thermonuclear fusion research. It is hoped that this will make scope decisions easier for the Nuclear Fusion office, the referees and the Editor.The Nuclear Fusion journal has continued to make an important contribution to the research programme and has maintained its position as the leading journal in the field. This is underlined by the fact that Nuclear Fusion has received an impact factor of 4.270, as listed in ISI's 2009 Science Citation Index. The journal depends entirely on its authors and referees and so I would like to thank them all for their work in 2010 and look forward to a continuing, successful collaboration in 2011. Refereeing The Nuclear Fusion editorial office understands how much effort is required of our referees. The Editorial Board decided that an expression of thanks to our most loyal referees is appropriate and so, since January 2005, we have been offering the top ten most active referees over the past year a personal subscription to Nuclear Fusion with electronic access for one year, free of charge. This year, two of the top referees have reviewed four or more manuscripts in the period November 2009 to November 2010 and provided particularly detailed advice to the authors. We have excluded our Board Members, Guest Editors of special editions and those referees who were already listed in the last four years. Guest Editors' work on papers submitted to their special issues is also excluded from consideration. The following people have been selected: Osamu Naito, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Japan Masahiro Kobayashi, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Japan Duccio Testa, Lausanne Federal Polytechnic University, Switzerland Vladimir Pustovitov, Russian Research Centre, Kurchatov Insitute, Russia Christopher Holland, University of California at San Diego, USA Yuri Gribov, ITER International Organisation, Cadarache, France Eriko Jotaki, Kyushu University, Japan Sven Wiesen, Jülich Research Centre, Germany Viktor S. Marchenko, Ukraine National Academy of Sciences, Ukraine Richard Stephens, General Atomics, USA In addition, there is a group of several hundred referees who have helped us in the past year to maintain the high scientific standard of Nuclear Fusion. At the end of this issue we give the full list of all referees for 2010. Our thanks to them! Authors The winner of the 2010 Nuclear Fusion Award was J.E. Rice et al for the paper entitled 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' (2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 1618-24). The prize was awarded at the Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, together with the 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award to Steve Sabbagh. The Board of Editors Roger Weynants retired as a member of the Board of Editors in 2010. On behalf of the Nuclear Fusion office and the Chairman of the Board, Mitsuru Kikuchi, I would like to thank him for his effort in support of the journal; Roger was one of the most active members of the Board and his balanced and competent advice was extremely valuable on many difficult decisions. At the same time we welcome Tony Donne whom I am sure does not need any introduction to the readers of Nuclear Fusion; I am confident he can only further the success of the journal. The Nuclear Fusion office and IOP Publishing Just as the journal depends on the authors and referees, so its success is also due to the tireless and largely unsung efforts of the Nuclear Fusion office in Vienna and IOP Publishing in Bristol. I would like to express my personal thanks to Maria Bergamini-Roedler, Katja Haslinger, Sophy Le Masurier, Yasmin McGlashan, Caroline Wilkinson, Sarah Ryder, Katie Gerrard and Stephanie Kent for the support that they have given to me, the authors and the referees. Season's greetings I would like to wish our readers, authors, referees and Board of Editors season's greetings and thank them for their contributions to Nuclear Fusion in 2010.

  12. Editorial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Popovic, L. C.

    The present issue of SERBIAN ASTRONOMICAL JOURNAL is the last one edited by the two of us. We resigned not because we were tired of our service to the astronomical community but due to the old tradition of the Belgrade Astronomical Observatory that its Director is automatically the Editor-in-Chief of its publications. We therefore gladly give the opportunity to the new Director, in charge since July 1st. 2002, to organize the publishing activity according to his conceptions. One of us (M.S.D.) was appointed Editor on January 1st. 1984 (from No. 135), becoming the Editor-in-Chief in 1987 (from No. 137). The other one (L.C.P.) is the Editor since 1994 (from No. 150). During this period the Bulletin de l'Observatoire Astronomique de Belgrade merged with the Publications of the Department of Astronomy, changing its name into Bulletin Astronomique de Belgrade from No. 145 in 1992, to finally become Serbian Astronomical Journal in 1998, from No. 157. Accordingly, of a "Bulletin" we made a "Journal". For example, in the period 1971-1984 (Nos. 125-134) in Bull. Obs. Astron. Belgrade, practically only the associates of the Belgade Observatory published their papers, save for a few individuals from the Belgrade University. We found within this period the name of one sole foreign astronomer - from the USSR - namely V. A. Fomin, among the authors. In the period 1985-2002 in the Serbian Astronomical Journal published their communications not only astronomers from Yugoslavia but also from Belgium, China, France, Italy, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Spain, Ukraine, USA. Our authors from outside of Yugoslavia are: J. P. Anosova C. Beuyninx Cristina Blaga Paul A. Blaga Veronique Bommier N. M. Bronnikov Alberto Celino Pierre Cugnon D. R. Davis Henry Debehogne Veronique Dehant P. Farinella Alex Gaina R. I. Gumerov R. S. Izmailov V. B. Kapkov F. F. Khalikhevich S. A. Kilioner Tatiana R. Kirian N. G. Litkevich Evencio G. Mediavilla O. Mihai Andrea Milani Vasile Mioc Jose A. Munoz Viktor V. Orlov Paolo Paolicchi Paul Paquet Genadij I. Pinigin Sylvie Sahal-Brechot Dan Selaru N. D. Simonenko Eduardo Simonneau A. Shul'ga Magdalena Stavinschi Cristina Stoica T. I. Suchkova Emil Tatomir Svetlana A. Tolchelnikova-Muri V. I. Turenkov Margarita Yu. Volyanskaya A. Yu. Yacenko Vincento Zappala G. Zhen-Nian We are grateful to these authors for having chosen our journal, thereby conferring on the Serbian Astronomical Journal an international standing. This is also a suitable opportunity to thank the numerous referees who contributed to our Journal being better. During this period the referees officially registered (a number of them, mainly belonging to the editorial boards, remain unregistered) have been (in Brackets is the number of papers they reviewed): Trajko Angelov (11) Jelisaveta Arsenijevic (4) Olga Atanackovic-Vukmanovic (4) Milutin Blagojevic (1) Markyan S. Chubey (1) B. Ciric (2) Miodrag Dacic (2) Milan S. Dimitrijevic (43) Gojko Djurasevic (1) B. Djuric (1) Dragutin Djurovic (5) Stevica Djurovic (3) Petar Grujic (5) Slobodan Jankov (1) Zoran Knezevic (7) Nikola Konjevic (6) Vladimir Krsljanin (2) Aleksandar Kubicela (12) Mike Kuzmanoski (10) Jaroslav Labat (1) Jovan Lazovic (1) Ilija Lukacevic (5) Jovan Malisic (1) Milan Mijatov (1) Jelena Milogradov-Turin (2) Vladeta Milovanovic (6) Ljubisa Mitic (22) Radovan Mrkic (1) Ranko Muzijevic (4) Slobodan Ninkovic (30) Dragomir Olevic (3) Nada Pejovic (1) Georgije Popovic (18) Luka C. Popovic (12) Sofija Sadzakov (28) Jovan Simovljevic (7) Nicholas Spyrou (1) Bozidar Stanic (1) Miroljub Starcevic (1) S. Starcevic (1) Magdalena Stavinschi (1) Dragoljub Stefanovic (1) Dusan Saletic (9) Stevo Segan (1) Branislav Sevarlic (16) Djordje Teleki (10) Istvan Vince (42) Mirjana Vukicevic-Karabin (1) Vincento Zappala (1) Danilo Zulevic (2) In our register, in which M.S.D. began entering the submitted articles from January 1st, 1984, up to now, 455 of them are inscribed. A part of them has been published in Publications of the Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade, only 24 of them having been tur

  13. EDITORIAL: Focus on Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    The study of carbon nanotubes, since their discovery by Iijima in 1991, has become a full research field with significant contributions from all areas of research in solid-state and molecular physics and also from chemistry. This Focus Issue in New Journal of Physics reflects this active research, and presents articles detailing significant advances in the production of carbon nanotubes, the study of their mechanical and vibrational properties, electronic properties and optical transitions, and electrical and transport properties. Fundamental research, both theoretical and experimental, represents part of this progress. The potential applications of nanotubes will rely on the progress made in understanding their fundamental physics and chemistry, as presented here. We believe this Focus Issue will be an excellent guide for both beginners and experts in the research field of carbon nanotubes. It has been a great pleasure to edit the many excellent contributions from Europe, Japan, and the US, as well from a number of other countries, and to witness the remarkable effort put into the manuscripts by the contributors. We thank all the authors and referees involved in the process. In particular, we would like to express our gratitude to Alexander Bradshaw, who invited us put together this Focus Issue, and to Tim Smith and the New Journal of Physics staff for their extremely efficient handling of the manuscripts. Focus on Carbon Nanotubes Contents <;A article="1367-2630/5/1/117">Transport theory of carbon nanotube Y junctions R Egger, B Trauzettel, S Chen and F Siano The tubular conical helix of graphitic boron nitride F F Xu, Y Bando and D Golberg Formation pathways for single-wall carbon nanotube multiterminal junctions Inna Ponomareva, Leonid A Chernozatonskii, Antonis N Andriotis and Madhu Menon Synthesis and manipulation of carbon nanotubes J W Seo, E Couteau, P Umek, K Hernadi, P Marcoux, B Lukic, Cs Mikó, M Milas, R Gaál and L Forró Transitional behaviour in the transformation from active end planes to stable loops caused by annealing M Endo, B J Lee, Y A Kim, Y J Kim, H Muramatsu, T Yanagisawa, T Hayashi, M Terrones and M S Dresselhaus Energetics and electronic structure of C70-peapods and one-dimensional chains of C70 Susumu Okada, Minoru Otani and Atsushi Oshiyama Theoretical characterization of several models of nanoporous carbon F Valencia, A H Romero, E Hernández, M Terrones and H Terrones First-principles molecular dynamics study of the stretching frequencies of hydrogen molecules in carbon nanotubes Gabriel Canto, Pablo Ordejón, Cheng Hansong, Alan C Cooper and Guido P Pez The geometry and the radial breathing mode of carbon nanotubes: beyond the ideal behaviour Jeno Kürti, Viktor Zólyomi, Miklos Kertesz and Sun Guangyu Curved nanostructured materials Humberto Terrones and Mauricio Terrones A one-dimensional Ising model for C70 molecular ordering in C70-peapods Yutaka Maniwa, Hiromichi Kataura, Kazuyuki Matsuda and Yutaka Okabe Nanoengineering of carbon nanotubes for nanotools Yoshikazu Nakayama and Seiji Akita Narrow diameter double-wall carbon nanotubes: synthesis, electron microscopy and inelastic light scattering R R Bacsa, E Flahaut, Ch Laurent, A Peigney, S Aloni, P Puech and W S Bacsa Sensitivity of single multiwalled carbon nanotubes to the environment M Krüger, I Widmer, T Nussbaumer, M Buitelaar and C Schönenberger Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonance Raman scattering A Jorio, M A Pimenta, A G Souza Filho, R Saito, G Dresselhaus and M S Dresselhaus FTIR-luminescence mapping of dispersed single-walled carbon nanotubes Sergei Lebedkin, Katharina Arnold, Frank Hennrich, Ralph Krupke, Burkhard Renker and Manfred M Kappes Structural properties of Haeckelite nanotubes Ph Lambin and L P Biró Structural changes in single-walled carbon nanotubes under non-hydrostatic pressures: x-ray and Raman studies Sukanta Karmakar, Surinder M Sharma, P V Teredesai, D V S Muthu, A Govindaraj, S K Sikka and A K Sood Novel properties of 0.4 nm single-walled carbon nanotubes templated in the channels of AlPO4-5 single crystals Z K Tang, N Wang, X X Zhang, J N Wang, C T Chan and Ping Sheng Lattice dynamics and symmetry of double wall carbon nanotubes M Damnjanovic, E Dobardzic, I Milosevic, T Vukovic and B Nikolic Optical characterization of single-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by catalytic decomposition of alcohol Shigeo Maruyama, Yuhei Miyauchi, Yoichi Murakami and Shohei Chiashi Christian Thomsen, Technische Universität Berlin, Germany Hiromichi Kataura, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan

  14. PREFACE: International Conference on Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies 2013 (FM&NT2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nõmmiste, Ergo; Kirm, Marco; Plank, Toomas

    2013-12-01

    The International Conference Functional Materials and Nanotechnologies (FM&NT - 2013) was held in Tartu, 21-24 April 2013 at the Dorpat Conference Centre. The conference was organised by Institute of Physics, University of Tartu. The FM&NT conference series was started in 2006 by scientists from the Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia. It is an annual conference bringing together researchers from the whole world. The warm and open atmosphere of this scientific conference has turned it into event where people from different fields meet under the common name of functional materials and nanotechnology. It is particularly important for early stage scientists who are looking for new knowledge and contact with people from various fields. Our Latvian colleagues with their success in internationalization made us neighbouring Estonians so envious that we could not withstand proposing that we host the conference in every second year in Estonia. Actually this is in a way the continuation of the idea of the famous Baltic seminars which took place over several decades during the last century. Due to political constraints these seminars were only opened to scientist of the former Eastern European countries, but which were extremely popular and attracted attendees from over the whole Soviet Union. Much fruitful cooperation started from the initial personal contacts of scientists at these seminars held twice per year, once in Latvia and the second time in Estonia. At the last FM&NT 2012 conference, the decision was made that Institute of Physics, University of Tartu would organise the event in Tartu in 2013. Along with traditional topics such as multifunctional materials, nanomaterials, materials for sustainable energy applications and theory, this conference focused on studies using synchrotron radiation and other novel light sources. The number of registered participants from 21 countries was nearly 300. During the three days of the conference 14 invited, 45 oral, and 5 commercial talks were delivered and more than 200 posters were presented. In the framework of conference more than 20 papers were submitted to a topical issue of Physica Scripta. Based on the work presented at the conference, 62 articles are included in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Additional information about FM&NT-2013 is available at its homepage http://fmnt.ut.ee/. The Organizing Committee would like to thank all the speakers, contributors, session chairs, referees and other involved staff for their efforts in making FM&NT-2013 successful. Special thanks for their hard work dealing with the conference papers goes to the Guest Editors: Professor Mikhail Brik, Dr Svetlana Zazubovits, Dr Arvo Kikas, Dr Rainer Pärna. The Organizing Committee hopes that Conference gave participants good insight into recent developments in nanotechnology, sustainable energetics, processing and modelling of multifunctional materials and research done using synchrotron radiation or other novel light sources. We sincerely hope that conference has provided support for the sharing of information and has brought together many young and experienced scientists from different fields, leading to fruitful discussions. We hope that all participants had good and memorable time in Tartu. On the behalf of organising committee Professor Ergo Nõmmiste Dr Marco Kirm Dr Toomas Plank The PDF also contains lists of the committees, the conference photograph and the sponsor's logos.

  15. REPORT FROM THE ORGANIZERS: The 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kes, Peter

    2009-03-01

    The 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) was hosted by the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium of the Leiden Institute of Physics and held in the RAI Convention Center in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-13 August 2008. It was the second time that the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory had the privilege of organizing an LT conference. In 1958, at LT6, 50 years of liquid helium temperatures were commemorated; in 2008 we celebrated the 100th anniversary of the remarkable achievements of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and his collaborators in Leiden. In 1958 there were 323 participants and 145 papers appeared in the proceedings; in 2008 these numbers had increased to 1390 participants and 900 papers, of which eventually 849 were accepted. This large participation required adequate conference and housing facilities. These could not be found in Leiden, but were conveniently available in Amsterdam. The triennial International Low Temperature Conferences are organized under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) through Commission C5 on Low Temperature Physics. It is the most important global meeting that brings together the international scientific community in the broad field of Low Temperature Physics. Because the meeting is held only every third year the 11 plenary and 22 half plenary talks (of 45 or 30 min.) generally provide an overview of important new discoveries over the last few years, whereas the 161 short oral presentations (20 min.) are mainly focused on very recent developments. Since the field is broad, embracing a large section of condensed matter physics, the program is divided into five parallel program lines: A. Quantum Gases, Fluids and Solids B. Superconductivity C. Quantum Phase Transitions and Magnetism D. Electronic Quantum Transport in Condensed Matter E. Cryogenic Techniques and Applications This distinction was used both to group the 1625 accepted abstracts, and the short-oral and poster presentations; the number of oral sessions per program line was made in proportion to the number of accepted abstracts per category (A: 323, B: 526, C: 404, D: 276, and E: 96, about the same distribution as at previous LT conferences, e.g. LT22 in Helsinki). Also the papers appearing in the on-line part of the proceedings are grouped according to this classification. From the 877 submitted papers 826 were accepted, 41 rejected, and 10 were withdrawn. In the 5 poster sessions altogether 1479 posters were presented (A: 311, B: 463, C: 370, D: 249 and E: 86). Two special evening sessions were organized to address (very) recent developments. In the first place there was a romp session about the surprising discovery of high temperature superconductivity in iron-based compounds with 7 rounds of about 5 short presentations concluded with 10 min. discussion each. In a parallel session the concern about the demand for and price of liquid helium was discussed in relation to future trends in cryocoolers which may considerably reduce the need for liquid helium. In an outreach evening session, open to the general public, we had two distinguished speakers: Dr Philppe Lebrun (CERN, Geneva), who talked about the cryotechnology of the Large Hadron Collider at CERN and Professor Allan Griffin (University of Toronto) about the intriguing history of superfluidity. The centenary of liquid helium and the birth of low temperature physics were celebrated at the conference excursion to Leiden on Sunday 10 August 2008. Lack of space forced us to limit the number of participants to 643, but many others went on their own initiative. They could attend 3 historical lectures in the former Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, and visit several museums where special expositions related to '100 years of liquid helium' were arranged. The conference dinner in the center of Amsterdam on Monday evening was attended the by 555 people. Traditionally, at the opening session of the LT conferences time is reserved for prize ceremonies. The recipients of the most important prize in low temperature physics, the Fritz London Memorial Prize 2008, were Yuriy M Bunkov (Institute Neël, Grenoble), Vladimir V Dmitriev, and Igor A Fomin (both Kapitza Institute, Moscow). They got the prize for their discovery and understanding of the 'Phase Coherent Spin Precession and Spin Superfluidity of 3He-B'. The Simon Prize 2008 of The Physical Society went to Yasunobu Nakamura and Jaw-Shen Tsai (NEC Laboratories, Tsukuba) for their 'Pioneering demonstration of quantum coherent behaviour in a macroscopic object and for their subsequent explorations of quantum coherent physics in a series of novel superconducting devices'. The Nicholas Kurti European Science Prize (sponsored by Oxford Instruments) was awarded to Lieven Vandersypen (Delft University of Technology) for his 'Ground-breaking work on the coherent control of nuclear and electron spins, with possible application to quantum information processing'. Finally, the first IUPAP Young Scientist Prizes in Low Temperature Physics went to Kostya Novoselov (University of Manchester) for his 'Contribution in the discovery of graphene and for pioneering studies of its extraordinary properties', to Dai Aoki (Tohuko University, Sendai) for his 'Discovery of novel heavy fermion superconductivity in actinide compounds', and to Viktor Tsepelin (Lancaster University) for 'The development of new experimental techniques and key discoveries in the fields of 3He crystals and quantum turbulence'. All prize recipients got the opportunity to present their work in an invited oral contribution. As is common practice nowadays all announcements, registrations, paper submissions and communications regarding program and practical matters were done electronically, either by email or via internet. Nevertheless, the program book was still printed and handed out to all participants at registration and they received an electronic version on a USB stick as well. The stick also contained all the submitted (but not yet refereed) papers received before 15 July 2008. The final decisions about the scientific program were made in Leiden at a meeting of the program committee members in April 2008. This turned out to be a very efficient and pleasant procedure. The decision to split up the Proceedings in two parts had been taken much earlier in consultation with the Chair of C5 and the IUPAP. In order to optimize impact factors it has become common policy of publishing companies to publish proceedings of big conferences like the LT conference in special on-line journals (open access), such as Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We were pleased with the possibility to publish the most important contributions to the program of LT25 in a special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. The latter will not only appear in print, but will also be available on-line for a period of 1 year from publication. Organizing a conference like LT25 could not have been accomplished without the help of many enthusiastic and dedicated colleagues. I would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them, but above all, to my colleagues of the organizing committee. Peter Kes Chairman LT25

  16. Report from the organizers Report from the organizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kes, Peter

    2009-04-01

    The 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) was hosted by the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium of the Leiden Institute of Physics and held in the RAI Convention Center in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-13 August 2008. It was the second time that the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory had the privilege of organizing an LT conference. In 1958, at LT6, 50 years of liquid helium temperatures were commemorated; in 2008 we celebrated the 100th anniversary of the remarkable achievements of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and his collaborators in Leiden. In 1958 there were 323 participants and 145 papers appeared in the proceedings; in 2008 these numbers increased to 1390 participants and 900 submitted papers, of which eventually 849 were accepted. This large participation required adequate conference and housing facilities. These could not be found in Leiden, but were conveniently available in Amsterdam. The triennial international low temperature conferences are organized under the auspices of the international union of pure and applied physics (IUPAP) through commission C5 on low temperature physics. It is the most important global meeting that brings together the international scientific community in the broad field of low temperature physics. Because the meeting is held only every third year the 11 plenary and 22 half-plenary talks (of 45 or 30 min) generally provide an overview of important new discoveries over the last few years, whereas the 161 short oral presentations (20 min) are mainly focused on very recent and ongoing developments. Since the field is broad, embracing a large section of condensed matter physics, the program is divided into five parallel program lines: A. Quantum gases, fluids and solids. B. Superconductivity. C. Quantum phase transitions and magnetism. D. Electronic quantum transport in condensed matter. E. Cryogenic techniques and applications. This distinction was used both to group the 1625 accepted abstracts, and the short-oral and poster presentations; the number of oral sessions per program line was made in proportion to the number of accepted abstracts per category (A: 323, B: 526, C: 404, D: 276, and E: 96, about the same distribution as at previous LT conferences, e.g. LT22 in Helsinki). Also the papers appearing in the on-line part of the proceedings are grouped according to the same classification. From the 877 submitted papers 826 were accepted, 41 rejected, and 10 were withdrawn. In the five poster sessions altogether 1479 posters were presented (A: 311, B: 463, C: 370, D: 249 and E: 86). Two special evening sessions were organized to address (very) recent developments. In the first place there was a romp session about the surprising discovery of high temperature superconductivity in iron-based compounds with seven rounds of about five short presentations concluded with ten min discussion each. In a parallel session the concern about the demand for and price of liquid helium was discussed in relation to future trends in cryocoolers which may considerably reduce the need for liquid helium. In an outreach evening session, open to the general public, we had two distinguished speakers: Dr Philppe Lebrun (CERN, Geneva, Switzerland), who talked about the cryotechnology of the Large Hadron collider at CERN and Professor Allan Griffin (University of Toronto, Canada) about the intriguing history of superfluidity. The centenary of liquid helium and the birth of low temperature physics were celebrated at the conference excursion to Leiden on 10 August 2008. Lack of space forced us to limit the number of participants to 643, but many others went on their own initiative. They could attend three historical lectures in the former Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, and visit several museums where special expositions related to '100 years of liquid helium' were arranged. The conference dinner in the center of Amsterdam on Monday evening was attended by 555 people. Traditionally, at the opening session of the LT conferences time is reserved for prize ceremonies. The recipients of the most important prize in low temperature physics, the Fritz London Memorial Prize 2008, were Yuriy M Bunkov (Institute Néel, Grenoble), Vladimir V Dmitriev, and Igor A Fomin (both Kapitza Institute, Moscow). They got the prize for their discovery and understanding of the 'phase coherent spin precession and spin superfluidity of 3He-B'. The Simon Prize 2008 of The Physical Society went to Yasunobu Nakamura and Jaw-Shen Tsai (NEC Laboratories, Tsukuba) for their 'pioneering demonstration of quantum coherent behaviour in a macroscopic object and for their subsequent explorations of quantum coherent physics in a series of novel superconducting devices'. The Nicholas Kurti European Science Prize (sponsored by Oxford Instruments) was awarded to Lieven Vandersypen (Delft University of Technology) for his 'ground-breaking work on the coherent control of nuclear and electron spins, with possible application to quantum information processing'. Finally, the first IUPAP Young Scientist Prizes in Low Temperature Physics went to Kostya Novoselov (University of Manchester) for his 'contribution in the discovery of graphene and for pioneering studies of its extraordinary properties', to Dai Aoki (Tohuko University, Sendai) for his 'discovery of novel heavy fermion superconductivity in actinide compounds', and to Viktor Tsepelin (Lancaster University) for 'the development of new experimental techniques and key discoveries in the fields of 3He crystals and quantum turbulence'. All prize recipients got the opportunity to present their work in an invited oral contribution. As is common practice nowadays all announcements, registrations, paper submissions and communications regarding program and practical matters were done electronically, either by email or via the internet. Nevertheless, the program book was still printed and handed out to all participants at registration and they received an electronic version on a USB stick as well. The stick also contained all of the submitted (but not yet refereed) papers received before 15 July 2008. The final decisions about the scientific program were made in Leiden at a meeting of the program committee members in April 2008. This turned out to be a very efficient and pleasant procedure. The decision to split up the proceedings into two parts had been taken much earlier in consultation with the Chair of C5 and the IUPAP. In order to optimize impact factors it has become common policy of publishing companies to publish proceedings of big conferences like the LT conference in special on-line journals (open access), such as Journal of Physics: Conference Series. We were pleased with the possibility to publish the most important contributions to the program of LT25 in a special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. The latter will not only appear in print, but will also be available on-line for a period of one year from publication. Organizing a conference like LT25 could not have been accomplished without the help of many enthusiastic and dedicated colleagues. I like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them, but above all, to my colleagues of the organizing committee.