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It is well established that substanceabuse and domestic violence are linked with each other for male batterers, and there is evidence of a domestic violence-substanceabuse relationship for victims as well. Substanceabuse and domestic violence services ...
D. L. Spence J. A. Snodgrass J. J. Collins S. C. Wheeless
The study of family violence and violence against women is relatively new, yet we already know that the link between such violence and alcohol and substanceabuse remains one of the strongest findings in the literature. Before 1975, research was based pri...
Objectives: To determine if children of substance- abusing mothers witness more violence than children of non-substance-abusing (control) mothers, and to deter- mine if children who witness violence have more behav- ioral problems and higher stress scores than children who do not witness violence. Design: Cross-sectional research design comparing ex- posure to violence among children of substance- abusing mothers and control
The factors responsible for the association between schizophrenia and violence with or without co-occurring substanceabuse have not been fully elucidated. The present study had two aims: (1) ascertain whether substanceabuse augments the risk for violence in patients with schizophrenia; and, (2) determine whether violence is differentially related to positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. A sample of 133
Murat Erkiran; Havva Özünalan; Cüneyt Evren; Sema Aytaçlar; Levent Kirisci; Ralph Tarter
Substanceabuse programs for homeless women would benefit from knowing the degree of victimization and violence they may encounter in the population they serve. A substanceabuse treatment program for homeless mothers with young children operating over a 2-year period encountered high rates of victimization and violence. Ongoing patterns of victimization and violence in these mothers continued during their time
CAROL S. NORTH; SANNA J. THOMPSON; ELIZABETH M. SMITH; LINDA M. KYBURZ
Many mental health problems among substanceabusing populations are directly linked to high rates of abuse and trauma. There is increasing evidence of associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse to adult substance use and HIV-risk behavior. The relationship of abuse, mental health problems, substanceabuse, and high-risk sexual…
... for drug use or trafficking. The research on domestic violence shows that abusive partners are more likely to ... influence of drugs or alcohol. The relationship between domestic violence and substanceabuse, however, is not fully understood. ...
Given the increased use of marital- and family-based treatments as part of treatment for alcoholism and other drug disorders, providers are increasingly faced with the challenge of addressing intimate partner violence among their patients and their intimate partners. Yet, effective options for clinicians who confront this issue are extremely limited. While the typical response of providers is to refer these cases to some form of batterers' treatment, three fundamental concerns make this strategy problematic: (1) most of the agencies that provide batterers' treatment only accept individuals who are legally mandated to complete their programs; (2) among programs that do accept nonmandated patients, most substance-abusing patients do not accept such referrals or drop out early in the treatment process; and (3) available evidence suggests these programs may not be effective in reducing intimate partner violence. Given these very significant concerns with the current referral approach, coupled with the high incidence of IPV among individuals entering substanceabuse treatment, providers need to develop strategies for addressing IPV that can be incorporated and integrated into their base intervention packages. PMID:16925813
Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (NSCAW II), this article examines the impact of caregiver substanceabuse on children's exposure to violence in the home in a nationally representative sample of families involved with child protective services (CPS). Logistic regression analyses indicate an increased risk of witnessing mild and severe violence in the home for children whose primary caregiver was abusing alcohol or drugs. However, analyses did not find statistically significant relationships between child report of direct victimization in the home by mild or severe violence and caregiver alcohol or drug abuse. PMID:23440502
Hispanics are disproportionately affected by substanceabuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Although the relationship between these conditions has been documented in the literature, few studies have explored the intersection of these health problems and their culture-related risk factors in an integrative manner. The purpose of this study is to explore the experiences that Hispanic heterosexual males in South Florida have with substanceabuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Three focus groups with a total of 25 Hispanic adult men are completed and analyzed using grounded theory. Three core categories emerge from the data. These include la cuna de problemas sociales (the cradle of social problems), ramas de una sola mata (branches from one same tree), and la mancha negra (the black stain). This study suggests that substanceabuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors are linked conditions with common cultural and socioenvironmental risk factors and consequences.
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Ortega, Johis; Vasquez, Elias P.; De Santis, Joseph
This study examined the relationship between criminal violence and type of substanceabuse among 184 current and former residents of an inpatient non-hospital drug and alcohol treatment facility. The criminal justice system functioned as the source of referral into the program for 89% of the subjects studied while only 11% came to treatment…
Hispanics are disproportionately affected by substanceabuse, HIV infection, intimate partner violence, and mental health conditions. To address health disparities among Hispanics and other vulnerable groups, it is necessary to understand the complex interactions between health conditions clustering together (e.g., substanceabuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV) and the social ecology in which these conditions exist. A syndemic orientation, a consideration of clustering epidemics and common individual, relationship, cultural, and socioenvironmental factors linking these conditions, may be helpful in developing comprehensive models that expand our ability to understand and address health disparities. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a Syndemic Model of SubstanceAbuse, Intimate Partner Violence, HIV Infection, and Mental Health among Hispanics, and provide evidence from the research literature to support the central relationships and risk and protective factors (i.e., potential links between conditions) depicted by the model. The development and evaluation of interventions aimed at the prevention of substanceabuse, intimate partner violence, HIV/AIDS, and mental health problems as a syndemic affecting Hispanics is urgently needed. Public health nurses can initiate this endeavor with the guidance of a Syndemic Model. PMID:21736615
González-Guarda, Rosa M; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L; Thomas, Tainayah
Women in the United States are increasingly affected by HIV/AIDS. The SAVA syndemic-synergistic epidemics of substanceabuse, violence, and HIV/AIDS-is highly prevalent among impoverished urban women and potentially associated with poor HIV outcomes. A review of the existing literature found 45 articles that examine SAVA's impact on (1) HIV-associated risk-taking behaviors, (2) mental health, (3) healthcare utilization and medication adherence, and (4) the bidirectional relationship between violence and HIV status. Overall, results confirm the profound impact of violence and victimization and how it is intertwined with poor decision making, increased risk taking and negative health consequences, particularly in the context of substanceabuse. Among current findings, there remain diverse and inconsistent definitions for substanceabuse, violence, mental illness, adherence, and healthcare utilization that confound interpretation of data. Future studies require standardization and operationalization of definitions for these terms. Development and adaptation of evidence-based interventions that incorporate prevention of violence and management of victimization to target this vulnerable group of women and thereby promote better health outcomes are urgently needed. PMID:21668380
Meyer, Jaimie P; Springer, Sandra A; Altice, Frederick L
This study examines the relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms, substanceabuse and intimate partner violence among 602 African American, Hispanic, White, Asian American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander pregnant women who are clients of the Augusta Partnership for Children, Inc., a nonprofit collaborative that works with agencies, organizations, and individuals to improve the lives of children and families in Augusta-Richmond County, Georgia. Descriptive statistics and significant relationships among selected variables using correlation and regression analyses were conducted. Findings are intended to inform strategies for community-based programs better to assist women of diverse ethnicities with addressing depression, substanceabuse, and intimate partner violence during their pregnancies, with the ultimate aim of improving health and mental health outcomes for women and children.
This article outlines the importance of exploring spirituality in working with Punjabi Sikh men who have substanceabuse issues and have committed violence towards their spouse. Seventeen in-depth interviews were conducted with South Asian front-line workers that included police officers, probation officers, counselors, social workers, child protection workers and victim service workers. The audio-taped data were transcribed and analyzed by
Abuse of elders occurs in many forms: physical, sexual, emotional, and financial. In almost 90 percent of the elder abuse and neglect incidents, the perpetrator was a family member. Two-thirds of the perpetrators were adult children or spouses. Studies ha...
This research was conducted to understand paraprofessional home visitors' perceptions of their training in addressing poor mental health, substanceabuse, and domestic violence, and their actions in working with families in addressing these issues. Five focus groups were conducted with a total of 28 paraprofessional home visitors. Three main…
Tandon, S. Darius; Mercer, Constance D.; Saylor, Elizabeth L.; Duggan, Anne K.
Data from the National Household Education Survey (NHES, 1995) were analyzed to compare parents' and students' variation in their perceptions of various variables predicting school violence: incidences of being attacked while in school, availability of substances of abuse (drugs, alcohol, marijuana and cigarettes), and actual use of these…
Researchers exploring the health of Hispanics in South Florida utilizing a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods have identified that substanceabuse, violence, risky sexual behavior, and depression are not only conceptualized as tightly interrelated health and social problems, but also hold together in a measurement model to represent an underlying phenomenon (i.e., the Syndemic Factor). The purpose of this study is to test hypothesized relationships between cultural phenomena and the Syndemic Factor among community-dwelling Hispanic women. Standardized questionnaires assessing Acculturation, Hispanic Stress, Familism, and the Syndemic Factor were administered to a cross-sectional sample of 548 Hispanic women from South Florida. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze relationships. The model explained 61 percent of the variance in the Syndemic Factor. There was a large positive relationship between the Syndemic Factor and Hispanic Stress, and a small inverse relationship between the Syndemic Factor and Familism. Women with high Hispanic Acculturation and low U.S. Acculturation scored lower on the Syndemic Factor than Integrated/Bicultural women. Familism buffered the relationship between Hispanic Stress and the Syndemic Factor. Structural, community, family, and individual prevention strategies that address underlying conditions associated with the Syndemic Factor must be developed and formally evaluated.
Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; McCabe, Brian E.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Cianelli, Rosina; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; Peragallo, Nilda
Purpose of review To review recent research on the relationship between substanceabuse, crime, violence and mental illness, and suggest how this research could aid forensic psychiatrists, psychologists and other mental health professionals in assessing and managing risk, and balancing patient care and public protection. Recent findings Substanceabuse in mentally ill forensic psychiatric patients should be considered an important risk factor for violence and re-offending. Summary Improved treatment for substanceabuse in forensic psychiatric patients and other mentally disordered offenders together with the offer of monitored abstinence as a condition of leave or discharge could be usefully considered as a means of reducing and managing risk. This may improve patient care by addressing mental health needs and increasing opportunity and likelihood of successful re-integration into the community and better life prospects; protect the public by reducing risk of re-offending and offering real time monitoring and potential intervention when risk is heightened; and help forensic psychiatrists strike a balance between patient care and public protection, potentially alleviating some of the difficulty and anxiety that decisions to grant leave or discharge can create.
Liddle and Dakof's (1995) comprehensive review of the status of family-based treatment for drug abuse concluded that this modality offered a "promising, but not definitive" approach to treating drug abuse among adolescents and adults. Less than a decade later, significant progress can be seen in the treatment of drug abuse problems using…
Objective No studies to date have compared parenting behaviors of men with co-occurring intimate partner violence (IPV) and substanceabuse (SA) with community controls. This study was designed to document mediators of differences in parenting behavior of fathers and the emotional-behavioral problems of their children for men with co-occurring SA and IPV. Method The self-reported parenting (negative, positive and co-parenting behaviors) and the child emotional-behavioral problems of 43 fathers with children aged 2 to 6 years with a recent history of SA + IPV were compared to a sample of 43 community control fathers with the same socio-economic and cultural backgrounds. Fathers completed measures on their parenting behavior with a target child, co-parenting behavior with the child’s mother, emotion regulation, romantic attachment, psychiatric symptoms, and the behavior of the target child. Results Men with co-occurring SA + IPV had significantly less positive co-parenting and more negative parenting behaviors than community control fathers. Negative parenting and co-parenting were mediated by the fathers’ avoidant attachment problems. SA + IPV fathers also reported more emotional and behavioral problems in their children. These poor child outcome differences between groups were mediated by the negative parenting behaviors of the fathers. Conclusions These results suggest areas of potential focus in interventions with fathers who have co-occurring SA + IPV issues. Focus on attachment difficulties with his co-parent, which may include affect regulation, coping with emotions, and communication skills training related to co-parenting, may yield significant changes in parenting behaviors and ultimately child functioning.
Stover, Carla Smith; Easton, Caroline; McMahon, Thomas J.
The "Commissioner of Education's Report on Violence, Vandalism and SubstanceAbuse in New Jersey Public Schools", submitted annually to the education committees of the Senate and Assembly, provides the Legislature with data in four broad incident categories: violence, vandalism, weapons, and substanceabuse. This year's report highlights thee-year…
Objective: To examine whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior and substance use. Methods: A cross-sectional national survey was conducted including 9,085 16-19 year old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004. Participants reported frequency of…
Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik
Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children's life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1) patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2) cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed. PMID:24169410
The tendency for women to report both commission and receipt of violence is an understudied phenomenon. In particular, little is known about individual differences as a function of commission vs. receipt of partner violence among pregnant women. Using a sample of 78 cohabiting low-SES pregnant women, the current study examines three violence…
Tzilos, Golfo K.; Grekin, Emily R.; Beatty, Jessica R.; Chase, Sara K.; Ondersma, Steven J.
Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) experience a number of health disparities including high rates of HIV infection from high risk sex, substanceabuse, and intimate partner violence. Although some research is available to document the relationships of these health disparities in the literature, few studies have explored the intersection of these disparities and the factors that influence them. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences that Hispanic MSM residing in South Florida have with high risk sex, substanceabuse, and intimate partner violence. Focus groups were conducted and analyzed using grounded theory methodology until data saturation was reached (n = 20). Two core categories with subcategories emerged from the data: The Roots of Risk (Los raices del riesgo) and The Tangled Branches (Las Ramas Enredadas). The results of the study provided some important clinical implications as well as directions for future research with Hispanic MSM.
De Santis, Joseph P.; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Deleon, Diego A.
Objectives To examine correlates of perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence (IPV) under and not under the influence of a substance, we conducted a study among women in Russia. Methods In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients receiving services at a clinic for sexually transmitted infections in St. Petersburg, Russia. Multinomial logistic regression was used for analysis. Results Of 299 women, 104 (34.8%) and 113 (37.8%) reported a history of IPV perpetration and victimization, respectively. Nearly half (47.1%) of perpetrators and 61.1% of victims reported that the latest IPV event (perpetration and victimization, respectively) was experienced under the influence of a substance. Factors independently associated with IPV victimization under the influence of a substance were alcohol misuse and a higher number of lifetime sex partners, whereas only experience of childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV victimization that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Childhood physical abuse, lower age of first sex, sensation seeking, and alcohol misuse were independently associated with IPV perpetration under the influence of a substance, while only childhood abuse (emotional and physical abuse) was independently associated with IPV perpetration that did not occur under the influence of a substance. Conclusions IPV under and not under the influence of a substance had different correlates (e.g., alcohol misuse and sensation seeking). Despite the strong association between substance use and IPV, experience of childhood abuse is an important predictor of IPV perpetration and victimization in Russia, above and beyond substance use.
Zhan, Weihai; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Abdala, Nadia
The association between alcohol use and domestic violence has been well established by past research, and there is growing evidence that drug use is associated with domestic violence. The clearest evidence is that alcohol is a risk factor for domestic vio...
This annotated bibliography contains abstracts of books, journal articles, and research reports dealing with child abuse, wife abuse, and family violence in general. The 62 citations represent documents published in the United States, Canada, and Great Br...
High rates of co-occurrence between substanceabuse and child neglect have been well documented and especially difficult to treat. As a first step in developing a comprehensive evidence-based treatment for use in this population, the present case examination underscores Family Behavior Therapy (FBT) in the treatment of a mother who evidenced Substance Dependence, child neglect, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Bipolar I Disorder, and domestic violence. Utilizing psychometrically validated self-report inventories and objective urinalysis, treatment was found to result in the cessation of substance use, lower risk of child maltreatment, improved parenting attitudes and practices, and reduced instances of violence in the home. The importance of utilizing validity scales in the assessment of referrals from child welfare settings is discussed, and future directions are reported in light of the results.
Donohue, Brad C.; Romero, Valerie; Herdzik, Karen; Lapota, Holly; Al, Ruwida Abdel; Allen, Daniel N.; Azrin, Nathan H.; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.
Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substanceabuse. (Author)
Substanceabuse represents a major concern to our society. Although no one sector of our populace is immune to the effects of substance use, perhaps nowhere is the risk greater than for adolescents. The various physiological changes, psychosocial stressors and emotional factors confronting adolescents seem to make them particularly susceptible to adverse effects of alcohol and drugs. The purpose of
Adolescent substanceabuse potentially holds a number of negative implications for the health and well-being of the individual, including increased risk for injury and death from interpersonal violence, motor vehicle accidents, and drowning, increased probability of engaging in high risk sexual behaviors; and increased risk for suicidal ideation and behaviors. The aim of this paper is to estimate prevalence of
Asghar Mohammad Poorasl; Rezagholi Vahidi; Ali Fakhari; Fatemeh Rostami; Saeed Dastghiri
Thirty-three focus groups were conducted with pregnant women in substanceabuse treatment and their providers in order to identify factors in women's lives that facilitate and hamper their treatment process and successful program components to address the needs of this high-risk population. The focus groups were conducted as part of a larger evaluation of demonstrations funded by the Health Care
Gender differences in substance use disorders (SUDs) and treatment outcomes for women with SUDs have been a focus of research in the last 15 years. This article reviews gender differences in the epidemiology of SUDs, highlighting the convergence of male/female prevalence ratios of SUDs in the last 20 years. The telescoping course of SUDs, recent research on the role of neuroactive gonadal steroid hormones in craving and relapse, and sex differences in stress reactivity and relapse to substanceabuse are described. The role of co-occurring mood and anxiety, eating, and posttraumatic stress disorders is considered in the epidemiology, natural history, and treatment of women with SUDs. Women's use of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, cannabis, and nicotine are examined in terms of recent epidemiology, biologic and psychosocial effects, and treatment. Although women may be less likely to enter substanceabuse treatment than men over the course of the lifetime, once they enter treatment, gender itself is not a predictor of treatment retention, completion, or outcome. Research on gender-specific treatments for women with SUDs and behavioral couples treatment has yielded promising results for substanceabuse treatment outcomes in women. PMID:20385341
With a national household probability sample of 4,023 telephone-interviewed adolescents ages 12–17, this study provides prevalence, comorbidity, and risk-factor data for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive episode (MDE), and substanceabuse\\/dependence (SA\\/D). Roughly 16% of boys and 19% of girls met criteria for at least 1 diagnosis. Six-month PTSD prevalence was 3.7% for boys and 6.3% for girls, 6-month
Dean G. Kilpatrick; Kenneth J. Ruggiero; Ron Acierno; Benjamin E. Saunders; Heidi S. Resnick; Connie L. Best
This activity, developed by the Lane Community College MAPS GIS Program, asks students to use geographical information systems (GIS) to examine the correlations between crime and substanceabuse. On this site, visitors will find links to the web-based GIS viewer needed to see and manipulate the data (there are links to the viewer on many servers) and to a student version of the activity which has complete instructions and questions for students to answer.
The Commissioner's annual report provides the Legislature with information reported by school districts concerning incidents of serious student misconduct grouped into the following four major reporting categories: violence, vandalism, weapons, and substanceabuse. An analysis of trends yields indications of progress and of ongoing concern, and…
The Commissioner's annual report provides the Legislature with information reported by school districts concerning incidents of serious student misconduct grouped into the following four major reporting categories: violence, vandalism, weapons, and substanceabuse. An analysis of trends yields indications of progress and of ongoing concern, and…
A growing body of literature demonstrates the co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder for females seeking substanceabuse treatment. Nonetheless, relatively few trauma-specific treatments have been implemented or evaluated with this population. In this quasi-experimental study (N = 170), the Trauma Recovery and…
Intimate partner violence (IPV), HIV/AIDS, and substance use are epidemics among low-income urban women that have been described together as the "SAVA syndemic" because of their co-occurring nature. This study examines the synergistic or "syndemic" effect of these three health issues on depression among urban women and evaluates social support as a protective factor that might reduce depressive symptoms associated with the SubstanceAbuse, Violence, and AIDS (SAVA) syndemic. Data from 445 urban women were collected through in-person interviews. All women were over the age of 18, not pregnant, English speaking, and reported having a main partner in the past year. Twenty-five percent had experienced all three factors of the SAVA syndemic (were HIV-positive, had experienced IPV in the past year, and had used cocaine or heroin in their lifetime). HIV-positive status, hard drug use, IPV, and low levels of social support were all individually associated with greater depressive symptoms. When controlling for demographics and other SAVA factors, IPV and hard drug use in the past 30 days remained associated with depressive symptoms, as did low social support. However, social support did not modify the effect of the SAVA factors on depression. Compared to women who experienced no SAVA factors, women who had experienced all three factors were 6.77 times more likely to have depressive symptoms. These findings confirm that IPV is significantly associated with depressive symptoms and that the syndemic impact of IPV, substance use, and HIV could have even more extreme effects on depression outcomes. PMID:23529665
Illangasekare, Samantha; Burke, Jessica; Chander, Geetanjali; Gielen, Andrea
The purpose of this research endeavor is to examine the life situations of gay men where domestic violence was present. The current article expands on previously published works by examining respondents' perceptions of what role alcohol and other drug use plays in causing substance use-related domestic violence. Three different perceptions emerged from the data and are presented here. First, drugs and alcohol use was perceived to be causally related to the domestic violence our respondents endured. Second, our respondents believed substanceabuse resulted from the violence--it was used as a coping mechanism. Finally, many respondents did not believe there was any association between substanceabuse and violence. The need for further in-depth data related to the relationship between drugs, alcohol, and domestic violence is noted. PMID:11345476
The Women, Co-occurring Disorders, and Violence Study (WCDVS) was a large (N = 2729) multisite study of the effectiveness of integrated and trauma-informed services for women with substance use and mental health disorders and a history of interpersonal violence (physical or sexual abuse). Study participants' exposure to lifetime and current traumatic events was assessed at baseline and follow-up via in-person interviews. This article describes the choice of the Life Stressor Checklist-Revised (LSC-R) to assess trauma history to meet the WCDVS's research aims and to respond to consumer input. Quantitative data address the breadth and prevalence of potentially traumatic events in the past and current lives of study participants, the formation and properties of summary measures, and test-retest reliability. Qualitative data address tolerance of the instrument by interviewers and respondents and the generalizability of quantitative findings about trauma prevalence. Finally, recommendations are offered for improvements to the WCDVS version of the LSC-R for use in future research. PMID:15834262
The purpose of this article is to evaluate whether social, geographic, and demographic factors have a relationship to trends in volatile substanceabuse. Two datasets were obtained. Dataset 1 was all patients reported to U.S. poison centers with inhalation abuse of a non-pharmaceutical substance between 2000 and 2005. Dataset 2 was annual data from the U.S. Dept of Labor and U.S. Census Bureau for each of the 50 states for the years 2000 through 2005 for unemployment rate, population density, poverty rate, high school graduation rate and percentage of population with bachelor degree. The two datasets were compared for geographic (by state) and temporal (by year) relationships using U.S. government demographic categories. The U.S. poison centers state that 12,428 patients with volatile substanceabuse have been reported over the 6 year period of 2000-2005, with a mean of 2,071 patients annually. A strong negative trend was found between volatile substanceabuse and population density, with volatile substanceabuse increasing as population density decreased. This trend remained consistent over the 6 years of evaluation. A negative trend was found with percentage of population with a bachelor's degree and volatile substanceabuse. No trend was found when comparing volatile substanceabuse and poverty rate, unemployment rate, or high school graduation rate. Volatile substanceabuse appears to increase as population density decreases, following a previously suggested relationship with a rural setting. Volatile substanceabuse appears to increase as percentage of population with a bachelor's degree decreases. PMID:19340679
This study examined the prevalence of exposure to violence among drug-dependent pregnant women attending a multidisciplinary perinatal substanceabuse treatment program. Participants (N = 715) completed the Violence Exposure Questionnaire within 7 days after their admission to the program. Their rates of lifetime abuse ranged from 72.7% for physical abuse to 71.3% for emotional abuse to 44.5% for sexual abuse.
Martha L. Velez; Ivan D. Montoya; Lauren M. Jansson; Vickie Walters; Dace Svikis; Hendree E. Jones; Howard Chilcoat; Jacquelyn Campbell
A total of 461 male sex offenders were compared on their histories of alcohol and street drug use. The Drug Use Survey, Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), and Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) were examined to provide measures of 1) type and frequency of substance use, 2) mood on alcohol and drugs, and 3) alcoholism and drug abuse. Most sex
The purpose of this article is to evaluate whether social, geographic, and demographic factors have a relationship to trends in volatile substanceabuse. Two datasets were obtained. Dataset 1 was all patients reported to U.S. poison centers with inhalation abuse of a non-pharmaceutical substance between 2000 and 2005. Dataset 2 was annual data from the U.S. Dept of Labor and
Women who abuse drugs and alcohol during pregnancy are an elusive population who often remain unidentified to practitioners and researchers and hence have not been well studied. In trying to understand better the characteristics of women who use drugs during pregnancy, the present article relies extensively on information gathered in studies of women in substanceabuse treatment who, as epidemiologic studies show, may be more severely impaired than other substance-abusing women and, therefore, may not be typical of substance-abusing women identified in the course of obstetric practice. Yet, those pregnant women who are actually identified by medical providers as substance users are often those whose behavior raises concerns with health providers (such as presenting for labor having had no prenatal care) and thus also may represent only a relatively impaired group of substance-abusing women. The most objective picture available of the universe of women who use drugs during pregnancy comes from blinded urine toxicology screens conducted at samples of representative hospitals across states and across the country. The startling finding to emerge from these studies is that common perceptions of substanceabuse as a problem of poor, ethnic minority, and young individuals is inaccurate and that this perception may all too often be acted on by medical providers in a prejudicial manner. These studies show similar rates of substance use during pregnancy by women of different racial, social class, and age categories. Demographic features are only related to type of substance used, with black women and poorer women more likely to use illicit substances, particularly cocaine, and white women and better educated women more likely to use alcohol, the substance whose teratogenic effects have been most clearly documented. Despite the even distribution of substance use across demographic categories, poor women and women of color are far more likely to be reported to health and child welfare authorities for use of substances during pregnancy than are other women, even when their base rates for use of illicit drugs are considered. Data from both epidemiologic studies and samples of women seeking treatment for substanceabuse problems indicate that the lives of substance-abusing women are fraught with difficulties past and present. Substance-abusing women are likely to have been raised by parents who were substanceabusers, particularly alcoholics. Although the intergenerational patterns of substanceabuse may have some genetic basis, there is also ample evidence suggesting problematic relationships in families with a substance-abusing parent that raises concerns about intergenerational transmission of problematic parenting behavior. Perhaps the most startling research finding reported in studies reviewed in this article is the high proportion of substance-abusing women who have experienced early sexual abuse. Although most studies have not had adequate comparison groups of non-substance-abusing women, the fact remains that most studies suggest a third to a half of substanceabusing women experienced some kind of sexual abuse during childhood. Substance-abusing women's lives remain complicated as adults. They are commonly involved with men who are also users of drugs, they are often the victims of domestic violence, and they suffer from a variety of psychiatric disorders. Studies of epidemiologic and treatment populations indicate that the majority of substance-abusing women have one or more types of comorbid mental disorders, with depression being the most common and the most elevated compared with substance-abusing men, but antisocial personality being extremely high compared with samples of non-substance-abusing women. These findings are of great concern given a growing body of research with non-substance-abusing women, suggesting that family violence and maternal psychopathology can have a profound effect on women's parenting and development o PMID:10214543
A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…
Summary \\u000a The fetal consequences of drug abuse during pregnancy remain underestimated. Obstetrical complications of cigarette smoking\\u000a include growth retardation, spontaneous abortion and sudden infant death syndrome; alcohol abuse leads to nutritional deficiencies\\u000a and fetal alcohol syndrome. Heroin and cocaine consumption result in medical, nutritional and social neglect; cocaine and\\u000a amphetamine cause hypertension, abruptio placentae; all three drugs of abuse cause
G. Fischer; M. Bitschnau; A. Peternell; H. Eder; A. Topitz
Adolescent substanceabuse is a major public health concern. It is associated with an increased incidence of various psychiatric disorders like depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorders and the relationship between mental and behavioral disorders and the substance use problems seems…
Dhawan, Anju; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Natasha, M. Phil.
This paper reviews the literature which examines school policies currently guiding educational practice in the area of student substanceabuse and discusses the relationship between special education and substance-using and substance-abusing students. Reviewed are: (1) definitions of substanceabuse, which vary with the conceptualization of the…
The links between adolescent substanceabuse and adult alcohol and drug misuse and dependence are now well established. The vast majority of adult substance misusers start in their adolescent years. This, and the emotive nature of adolescent substanceabuse generated an increased and justifiable interest in substanceabuse in adolescent populations, that began in the early 1970s. This paper reviews
Brief interventions in substanceabuse refer to a group of cost-effective and time efficient strategies that aim at reduction of substance use and/or harm related to substance use. They are grounded in the scientific principles of harm reduction stage of change, motivational interviewing and feasibility of community-level delivery. This review discusses the characteristics, elements, and techniques of brief interventions for abuse of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. The available evidence for effectiveness of these strategies vis-a-vis no treatment or extended treatment is also reviewed, which clearly supports these interventions to be effective, especially for alcohol abuse but also for others It is argued that India presents a fertile ground for application of these strategies and that Indian research in this area should be a top priority.
The report purpose is to assess substance use/abuse (i.e., alcohol, narcotics, and other drugs) by individuals 17 years of age and younger and to make recommendations, based on this report, for specific services and programmatic needs for this particular ...
Current clinical and socio-political interventions with substanceabusers are based on two suppositions regarding the addict: a cognitive ability to discern harm to oneself, and a corresponding capacity to discipline oneself in recognition of the punitive consequences of behavior. A psychoanalytic understanding of the addict's intrapsychic needs provides clarification of these assumptions: offering a psychodynamic explication of why the addict
This resource provides tools that are relevant to understanding the nature and scope of substanceabuse. The tools are also meant to be helpful in identifying and guiding students who need help and in preventing substanceabuse. The aids are grouped into five sections. Section I provides basic fact sheets on substanceabuse among youth. Section II…
California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health Schools.
Substanceabuse affects American children across all geographic and economic boundaries and has been linked to poor academic performance, truancy, and dropping out. Schools lacking clear alcohol and drug policies are more likely to experience problems with substanceabuse. A districtwide substanceabuse policy makes a public statement that…
Children exposed to parental substanceabuse, mental illness, and violence face profound challenges, including increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems, substanceabuse, and victimization. In this article, we describe the characteristics of a sample of children of women entering treatment. These children had been exposed to domestic…
VanDeMark, Nancy R.; Russell, Lisa A.; O'Keefe, Maura; Finkelstein, Norma; Noether, Chanson D.; Gampel, Joanne C.
Substanceabuse is a complicated disorder and has far reaching consequences. The victims of substanceabuse extend beyond the unfortunate ones suffering from this disorder and often include family and friends. Treatment options for substanceabuse are many; however, positive outcomes are not always guaranteed. Many factors play into the potential for successful treatment. Some of these include the adherence and motivation of the substanceabusing patients as well as patients' surrounding environments and support systems. In this article, we present a clinical case of opioid dependence and discuss various treatment options and modalities. We will discuss different variables that may maximize positive treatment outcomes. Also a review of the current literature regarding substanceabuse treatment, psychotherapy with the drug abuser, and grief therapy should the substanceabusing patient die for the surviving family members will be presented.
Substanceabusers demonstrate high rates of recidivism and deviant behavior despite participation in rehabilitation and community education programs. These findings may, in part, be attributed to the significant cognitive and behavioral skill deficits evident among substanceabuse high-risk groups. Two social competency models of habilitation are proposed as means to increase the abuser's life management skills and coping abilities. \\
Objective: This study, using latent variable methodology, explores simultaneously the relative effects of childhood abuse and early parental substanceabuse on later chronic homelessness, depression, and substanceabuse problems in a sample of homeless women. We also examine whether self-esteem and recent violence can serve as mediators between the childhood predictors and the dysfunctional outcomes.Method: The sample consists of 581
Judith A Stein; Michelle Burden Leslie; Adeline Nyamathi
The literature provides ample evidence of the relationship of substanceabuse to crime. Research over the last 20 years has established a strong correlation between substanceabuse and juvenile delinquency (held, 1998). Currently, there are more than 350,000 juveniles on probation and in continuing care programs in the U.S. who have substance…
Behavioral couples therapy (BCT), a treatment approach for married or cohabiting drug abusers and their partners, attempts to reduce substanceabuse directly and through restructuring the dysfunctional couple interactions that frequently help sustain it. In multiple studies with diverse populations, patients who engage in BCT have consistently reported greater reductions in substance use than have patients who receive only individual counseling. Couples receiving BCT also have reported higher levels of relationship satisfaction and more improvements in other areas of relationship and family functioning, including intimate partner violence and children’s psychosocial adjustment. This review describes the use of BCT in the treatment of substanceabuse, discusses the intervention’s theoretical rationale, and summarizes the supporting literature.
Fals-Stewart, William; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Birchler, Gary R.
This guide introduces concerns and problems resulting from the use and abuse of alcohol and drugs among American Indian youth and addresses intergenerational substanceabuse effects. Alcohol abuse among American Indians and Alaska Natives is the most visible effect of their cultural disruption and disorganization. Alcoholism among Native Americans…
Few systematic studies have examined the characteristics of substanceabuse treatment programs serving adolescents. An expert panel recently identified nine key elements of effective adolescent substanceabuse treatment. We measured the percentage of treatment programs in the United States with at least 10 adolescent clients on a given day that reported these elements using data from the 2003 National Survey
Tami L. Mark; Xue Song; Rita Vandivort; Sarah Duffy; Jutta Butler; Rosanna Coffey; Vernon F. Schabert
AIM: To determine whether neonates born to mothers who are volatile substanceabusers are at risk for an abstinence syndrome. METHODS: A consecutive sample of infants born to volatile substanceabusing mothers was studied over four years, in a university affiliated medical centre with a variable mix of primary, secondary, and tertiary care patients. Infants were clinically scored with the
M. Tenenbein; O. G. Casiro; M. M. Seshia; V. D. Debooy
Academic perspectives are reviewed for consultation in substanceabuse within four general issues: consultation paradigms, research consultation and psychology, sources for consultation, and academic issues. The mental health/crisis intervention model is the most common consultation paradigm. Most consultation research in the substanceabuse area…
The present study investigates the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among a sample of treatment-seeking substanceabusers and examines the relationship between PTSD comorbidity and rates of inpatient substanceabuse treatment. Eightyfour patients (48 male and 36 female) admitted for detoxification at a private hospital were administered self-report measures of lifetime stressor events, PTSD symptomatology, and prior treatment history.
Pamela J. Brown; Patricia R. Recupero; Robert Stout
Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substanceabuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substanceabuse treatment for drug-involved…
Adolescent substanceabuse has been a public health concern for decades, but the scientific knowledge base on the services engaged to treat this problem is comparatively new. This nascent knowledge base is poised to expand exponentially, as researchers and treatment providers struggle to meet a rising demand for evidence-based treatment services. Until recently, research on adolescent substanceabuse consisted primarily
This volume of six lessons provides expert information on a variety of issues in substanceabuse counseling. The lessons, which may be applied toward continuing education credits, are: (1) "Ethics in SubstanceAbuse Rehabilitation" (Robert L. Hewes); (2) "Addressing the Needs of Clients with Traumatic Injury and Alcoholism" (Charles H.…
Current estimates indicate that over 6 million children live with at least one parent who is a substanceabuser or is substance dependent. Children who are exposed to drug and alcohol abuse are at a greater risk of experiencing academic and behavior difficulties. Additionally, several studies have shown that students with emotional and behavioral…
The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substanceabuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substanceabuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. PMID:23384457
Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F
Although legal definitions of animal abuse vary, it is a crime in every State, and many States have enacted laws establishing certain forms of cruelty to animals as felony offenses. The forms of abuse to which animals may be subjected are similar to the f...
Gender differences in the epidemiology, comorbidities, and treatment responses of substanceabuse have been described in adults.\\u000a However, a growing body of data suggests that gender differences also exist in adolescents with substanceabuse. Unfortunately,\\u000a research is still limited in this age group. This article reviews gender differences in the diagnosis, presentation, course\\u000a of illness, and treatment response of substance
Angelica Kloos; Ronald A. Weller; Rebecca Chan; Elizabeth B. Weller
The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…
... might mean for you. IPV, also known as domestic violence, is physical, sexual, or psychological harm by a ... Disease Control and Prevention) Screening for Intimate Partner Violence and Abuse of Elderly and Vulnerable Adults
... it is important to create a safety plan. Domestic violence advocates and teen dating abuse advocates are people ... to find advocates. You can call the National Domestic Violence Hotline at 800-799-SAFE (7233) or TDD ...
Despite enormous advances in the field brought on by psychology's reintegration, modern substanceabuse treatment fails to adequately treat substanceabusers' emotional lives.Objectives: Psychodynamic technique can fill this gap by addressing the emotional discomfort and disconnection that underlies much of substanceabuse.Methods: A new model of substanceabuse treatment integrating psychodynamic technique with recent developments in addiction treatment (harm reduction,
CASAWORKS for Families is the first national demonstration program to provide simultaneously drug and alcohol treatment; literacy, job, parenting, and social skills training; family violence prevention; and health care to help substance-abusing welfare parents recover. Its mission is to help women on welfare with substanceabuse problems achieve…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
Describes and evaluates six common and/or empirically validated school-based substance-abuse programs, including Here's Looking At You, 2000; Developing Understanding of Self and Others (DUSO); Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE); Growing Healthy; QUEST; and Social Decision Making--Social Problem Solving. QUEST had all 11 key program elements;…
There are many issues concerning women of all ages and substanceabuse. Women who abuse alcohol or other drugs are particularly at risk for sexual assault; unprotected sex; unwanted pregnancies; and sexually transmitted diseases. Females between the ages of 12 and 17 surpass males in their use of cigarettes; cocaine; crack; inhalants; and…
This curriculum guide on substanceabuse is intended for teachers of family medicine. Comments, learning objectives, teaching hints, and evaluations of knowledge are provided for each area in all chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the pharmacology of commonly abused drugs including depressants, opioids, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and…
Clients receiving substanceabuse treatment from 35 treatment facilities throughout the United States were surveyed using the SubstanceAbuse and Incest Survey-Revised (SAIS-R). A total of 732 participants responded to the survey; 518 (71%) were males, 204 (28%) were females, and 10 (1%) did not indicate gender. Participants had a mean age of 33.8 years, were predominately Caucasian (61.6%), never
Substanceabuse remains a major concern in pregnancy. The current review summarizes the best available literature on the subject. The findings of most studies are confounded by multiple drug use and environmental and social factors that by themselves are known to adversely affect the pregnancy outcomes of interest. Overall, however, substanceabuse during pregnancy was associated with negative effects on birth weight and head circumference. PMID:23314718
Substanceabuse prevention has grown from a grassroots movement and a topic of marginal academic interest into full-fledged technology. Central to the success of this technology has been the development of evaluation methods for documenting the effectiveness of programs and policies. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in program evaluation for substanceabuse prevention efforts. Included in this review is a
Identification of the early determinants of substanceabuse is a major focus of life course research. In this study, we investigated the child, family, and school-related antecedents of the onset and prevalence of substanceabuse by age 26 for a cohort of 1208 low-income minority children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Data on well-being have been collected prospectively since birth
Drug and substanceabuse remains a major medical problem. Alcohol use, abuse and dependence are highly prevalent conditions. Alcohol related liver disease can present as simple steatosis, steatohepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis. Paracetamol hepatotoxicity secondary to accidental or deliberate overdose is another common problem. While the adverse cardiovascular, neurological, renal and psychiatric consequences of various illicit substanceabuses are widely studied and publicized, less attention has been directed towards possible hepatotoxic effects. Illicit drug abuse can cause a range of liver abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic derangement of liver function tests to fulminant hepatic failure. This article reviews the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, investigations, management and prognostic factors of alcohol related liver disease and paracetamol hepatotoxicity as well as the current knowledge pertaining to hepatotoxicity of the more commonly used illicit substances including cannabis, amphetamine type stimulants, cocaine, khat chewing and complementary and alternate medicine. PMID:24090944
Pateria, Puraskar; de Boer, Bastiaan; MacQuillan, Gerry
This article highlights the problem of substance use and abuse among adolescents and discusses the important role of school leaders in addressing this problem. Drug and alcohol use among adolescents is a significant and serious problem. In fact, an alarmingly high number of students report that they have used drugs or alcohol. Substance use and…
This technical assistance paper is designed to give trainers guidance on teaching the development and use of substance-abuse lessons found in "Street Law: A Course in Practical Law." The paper provides background on the lessons, a rationale for using the lessons, and sample agendas to use in training. "Street Law" contains substanceabuse lessons…
National Inst. for Citizen Education in the Law, Washington, DC.
HEALTH ISSUES: Differences exist in the prevalence and physical health impacts of problem substance use among men and women. These differences are also found in the mental health and trauma events related to substance use, barriers to treatment and harm-reduction services and the impact of substance use on pregnancy and parenting. Data from the 2000–2001 Canadian Community Health Survey and
Parental substance dependence and abuse can have profound effects on children, including child abuse and neglect, injuries and deaths related to motor vehicle accidents, and increased odds that the children will become substance dependent or abusers thems...
This study uses longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to examine the effects of exposure to school violence, community violence, child abuse, and parental intimate partner violence (IPV) on youths' subsequent alcohol and marijuana use. We also examine the cumulative effects of being exposed to violence across these domains. Longitudinal data were obtained from 1,655 adolescents and their primary caregivers participating in the PHDCN. The effects of adolescents' exposure to various forms of violence across different life domains were examined relative to adolescents' frequency of alcohol and marijuana use three years later. Multivariate statistical models were employed to control for a range of child, parent, and family risk factors. Exposure to violence in a one-year period increased the frequency of substance use three years later, though the specific relationships between victimization and use varied for alcohol and marijuana use. Community violence and child abuse, but not school violence or exposure to IPV, were predictive of future marijuana use. None of the independent measures of exposure to violence significantly predicted future alcohol use. Finally, the accumulation of exposure to violence across life domains was detrimental to both future alcohol and marijuana use. The findings support prior research indicating that exposure to multiple forms of violence, across multiple domains of life, negatively impacts adolescent outcomes, including substance use. The findings also suggest that the context in which exposure to violence occurs should be considered in future research, since the more domains in which youth are exposed to violence, the fewer "safe havens" they have available. Finally, a better understanding of the types of violence youth encounter and the contexts in which these experiences occur can help inform intervention efforts aimed at reducing victimization and its negative consequences. PMID:23743232
Wright, Emily M; Fagan, Abigail A; Pinchevsky, Gillian M
We surveyed families of children seen in a sexual abuse evaluation clinic regarding domestic violence in the child's home and physical and sexual abuse during childhood among the mothers. Domestic violence occurred in 54% (216\\/402) of the children's homes; 28% (111\\/392) of mothers reported childhood physical abuse, and 42% (167\\/395) reported sexual abuse. There were no differences in the rates
This book provides an overview of the effects of several abused drugs, including opiates, cannabinoids, alcohol, nicotine, and cocaine, with special emphasis on the actions of these substances at the molecular and cellular levels. The first half deals with genetic effects, including molecular genetics, biochemical genetics, pharmacogenetics, cytogenetics, and genetic toxicity. The second half focuses on perinatal effects and covers: drug abuse during pregnancy; biochemical aspects of marihuana on male reproduction; and long-term behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of perinatal alcohol exposure.
This four-year outcome study examines the results of the VA Contracted Residential SubstanceAbuse Treatment for veterans with substanceabuse problems. Race, marital status, housing status, and exposure to combat in the military characterized the male veteran subjects. Hospitalization rates and arrest rates were tracked for two years prior to and two years post-residential treatment. The authors also examined treatment outcomes for those who completed outpatient substanceabuse treatment after an episode of residential care. This study shows a 30% reduction of hospitalizations and arrests following residential treatment. Those veterans who completed both residential and outpatient treatment had the best outcomes in terms of number of hospitalizations and arrests in a two-year follow-up. PMID:12746090
The SubstanceAbuse and Mental Health Services Administration was established in 1992 and "leads Federal efforts to treat mental illnesses by promoting mental health and by preventing the development or worsening of mental illness when possible". To that end, the agency has created this website to provide information about its ongoing programs, along with offering information for the public who may be curious or concerned about these issues. Practitioners and the public will appreciate the well-organized Publications area which is organized thematically and includes topics such as preventions, disaster, and the elderly. The site also has a complete listing of related activities, such as the youth violence prevention initiative and the Center of Women, Violence and Trauma.
Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7–8 million people in the US with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform prevention and treatment efforts for them. Although available research could inform future research efforts, studies are scattered across disciplines with the last review synthesizing findings written more than five years ago. To consider more recent findings with earlier works, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar were searched and produced 37 peer-reviewed texts across multiple disciplines, 15 from 2006 or later. While the prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use in this population are low, the risk of having a substance-related problem among ID substance users is comparatively high. Gaps in the research and population subgroups that warrant special attention are identified, such as individuals with borderline and mild ID, individuals with co-occurring mental illness, and individuals who are incarcerated. Compared with substanceabusers without ID, ID substanceabusers are less likely to receive substanceabuse treatment or remain in treatment. Research is needed to better gauge the magnitude of substance use problems, identify prevention strategies, and specify treatment components that meet the unique needs of individuals with ID.
Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7-8 million people in the U.S. with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform prevention and treatment efforts for them. Although available research could inform future research efforts, studies are scattered across disciplines with the last review synthesizing findings written more than five years ago. To consider more recent findings with earlier works, PubMed, PsychINFO, and Google Scholar were searched and produced 37 peer-reviewed texts across multiple disciplines, 15 from 2006 or later. While the prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use in this population are low, the risk of having a substance-related problem among ID substance users is comparatively high. Gaps in the research and population subgroups that warrant special attention are identified, such as individuals with borderline and mild ID, individuals with co-occurring mental illness, and individuals who are incarcerated. Compared with substanceabusers without ID, ID substanceabusers are less likely to receive substanceabuse treatment or remain in treatment. Research is needed to better gauge the magnitude of substance use problems, identify prevention strategies, and specify treatment components that meet the unique needs of individuals with ID. PMID:22502840
The prevalence of childhood sexual and physical abuse among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) is disproportionately high. Adults with SMI also engage in high rates of HIV risk behaviors. This study examined the association between childhood abuse and adult victimization, substanceabuse, and lifetime HIV sexual risk in a sample of 152 adults with SMI receiving community mental health services. Structured interviews assessed psychiatric, psychosocial, and behavioral risk factors. Seventy percent reported childhood physical and/or sexual abuse, and 32% reported both types of abuse. Participants with childhood abuse were more likely to report adult victimization and greater HIV risk. A structural equation model found that childhood abuse was directly and indirectly associated with HIV risk through drug abuse and adult vicitimization. Integrated treatment approaches that address interpersonal violence and substanceabuse may be necessary for HIV risk reduction in this population.
Meade, Christina S.; Kershaw, Trace S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.
Students studying addictive diseases must come to understand, among other issues, the interplay between intimate partner violence (IPV) and substanceabuse. Statistics are important, but case examples elucidate for the students what to "listen" for in their meetings with clients. The purpose of this article is to provide several case examples of…
Although the link between substanceabuse and child maltreatment has been relatively well established, there is a general recognition that this is not a simple cause-effect relationship. The current study explored the relationships among substanceabuse, family functioning, and abuse\\/neglect in a sample of incarcerated substanceabusers. Data were gathered on the earlier life experiences of 81 men and women
Investigated the relationship between substanceabuse and child abuse-neglect by analyzing child protective services workers' (N=21) responses to a questionnaire. Found significant demographic differences between substance- and nonsubstance-abuse child abusers, and differences in protective service workers' service plans for substance and…
This qualitative analysis explores the role of substanceabuse in reentry from prison to society. Participants who recidivated (N = 20) in an urban prison system identified substanceabuse as their primary reason for recidivism. Treatment implications are discussed.
Discrepancies exist in research examining substance problems within groups of women arrested for intimate partner violence (IPV). In some studies women IPV arrestees have been found to be at high risk for substance-related problems, whereas in others they are found to be at low risk for substance-related problems. The current study explores these discrepancies then compares a sample of women court ordered to a domestic violence diversion program (n = 78) to a matched sample of men (n = 78) in the same program using police report information, self-report measures, the SubstanceAbuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3, and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III alcohol and drug subscales. Women IPV arrestees had a low occurrence of substance use during the arresting incident, a low incidence of substance-related diagnoses, and fewer substance-related problems than did men IPV arrestees. However, women demonstrated personality structures susceptible to nondiagnosable, hazardous drinking patterns. PMID:18391060
Simmons, Catherine A; Lehmann, Peter; Cobb, Norman
Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant Women and Women of Childbearing Age in Treatment Substance use ... 7.0 Alcohol and Drug Abuse Figure 1. Trends in Substances of Abuse among Pregnant SubstanceAbuse ...
... among personnel who have been exposed to combat. Suicides and Substance Use Suicide rates in the military were traditionally lower than ... the same age range, but in 2004 the suicide rate in the U.S. Army began to climb, ...
A structural equation model incorporating substanceabuse problem severity, psychosocial risk and protection, and treatment variables examined adolescent drug abuse treatment outcome pathways across 6- and 12-month follow-up points. Findings on resiliency factors and an empirical method adapted from previous research were used to select and assign 10 psychosocial factors to either a multiple protective factor index or a risk factor index. Gender, substanceabuse problem severity, treatment modality, treatment length, and aftercare participation were also examined as outcome predictors. The findings suggest that treatment intensity decisions may be better informed by pretreatment psychosocial risk level rather than by substanceabuse problem severity. The present study also suggests that drug-abusing adolescents who receive sufficiently long treatment, participate in aftercare, and possess at least 1 individual or interpersonal protective factor during their recovery process have the best chance to maintain gains made during treatment. PMID:10965643
Latimer, W W; Newcomb, M; Winters, K C; Stinchfield, R D
There is quite a body of work assessing functional brain changes in chronic substanceabuse, much less is known about structural brain abnormalities in this patient population. In this study we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine if structural brain differences exist in patients abusing illicit drugs compared to healthy controls. Sixteen substanceabusers who abused heroin, cocaine and
Thomas E. Schlaepfer; Eric Lancaster; Rebecca Heidbreder; Eric C. Strain; Markus Kosel; Hans-Ulrich Fisch; Godfrey D. Pearlson
The purpose of this dissertation study was to investigate the direct and interactive relationships between depression and conduct problems and substanceabuse treatment outcomes in a national sample of adolescents participating in substanceabuse treatment. This study involved a secondary analysis of data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse's- Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study for Adolescence (DATOS-A), a multi-site,
This article examines the specific experiences of women in prison, focusing on previous (and continuing) physical and mental abuse, the consequent health care requirements of women prisoners, the policy response and the availability of suitable health care in prisons across the EU. It draws from an extensive review of the literature on women prisoners across Europe that was part of an on-going European Project funded by the DAPHNE programme of the European Commission, entitled 'DAPHNE Strong'. It also uses the field research from the project collected via surveys and in-depth interviews with key personnel in organisations that work with women prisoners or ex-prisoners and staff with a strategic overview of activity from the ministries of justice, police, prison service and women's support organisations. There are probably many more women prisoners with a history of domestic abuse than is officially recognised. Many of the women prison population who have experienced violence and abuse mask this by problematic drug or alcohol use as well as self-injury. These are key areas that training for prison staff needs to address. The availability of services for this group of women is inconsistent within and between countries of the EU. The political will to address the situation of women in prison, as distinct from the norms applied to men, is variable and it seems to take the determined efforts of active lobby groups to make inroads into an area of latent inertia. PMID:23642339
The relationship of The Paulhus Deception Scales (PDS; Paulhus, 1998) to the Texas Christian University Drug Screen I (Simpson & Knight, 1998) was investigated in participants screened for a voluntary in-prison substanceabuse treatment program. Mean PDS scores for 35 female and 277 male prison inmates were significantly higher than the inmate norms in the test manual. All three PDS
The lack of agreement on the nature and extent of the problem of prenatal exposure to substances is discussed. Comprehensive coordination of services is called for. The 14 programs in the Los Angeles County Interagency Council on Child Abuse and Neglect (ICAN) are discussed. (GH)
This booklet is designed to be used by teachers in elementary schools with the Public Broadcasting Systems series "Moyers on Addiction: Close to Home." The series explores the science, treatment, prevention, and politics of addiction. This booklet discusses strategies for preventing substanceabuse in elementary school. Also examined are ways to…
This guide is designed to assist people with learning disabilities to recognize their disabilities and the connection between learning disabilities and substanceabuse. It begins by defining learning disabilities and providing a self-test checklist for common signs and symptoms of learning disabilities. Difficulties with organization, memory,…
This document describes the Glendale Unified School District's (California) comprehensive drug, alcohol, and tobacco education program. The program is based on three components: (1) a sequential outcome-based curriculum that provides students with knowledge about substanceabuse and peer-resistant skills; (2) a strong message that the possession,…
This article introduces a combination of approaches based on multicultural interventions and sociopolitical themes that provide interventions for working with Latinos with substanceabuse problems. The purpose of the article is to view multimodal interventions, multicultural approaches, and humanistic counseling from a genetic perspective. It is…
Background: The etiological factors and interrelations of juvenile delinquents, with psy- chiatric morbidity and substanceabuse have been continuously debated. Cloninger's Tridimensional Theory of Temperament has been reported to predict patterns of substanceabuse and comorbidity. In the current study, we aimed to examine the usability of the theory in predicting juvenile delinquen- cy and substanceabuse. Methods: Sixty consecutive
Substanceabuse among American Indian adolescents is a serious problem that frequently continues into adulthood. Therefore, it is important to investigate all potential means of prevention and treatment of substanceabuse that might improve the physical and psychological health it undermines. This paper examines the prevalence of substanceabuse and its potential relationships with physical\\/emotional trauma or loss that occurs
Abuse of alcohol or other substances by schizophrenic patients seriously undermines effective treatment. To document the extent of substanceabuse among schizophrenic patients hospitalized in one Veterans Administration Hospital, medical records of 100 patients were reviewed. The results revealed that 54 patients had recent substanceabuse, with…
Family medicine physicians were surveyed about their knowledge of substanceabuse and wishes for continuing education. Results showed 10% had no substanceabuse training in medical school, 15% had none during residency, and 21% had no continuing education on substanceabuse. Most preferred continuing education programs as part of an annual…
Substanceabuse and trauma co-occur at very high rates among women in clinical settings. However, clinical programs that address both problems are rare, due in part to knowledge deficits and attitudinal barriers in both substanceabuse and mental health treatment settings. We describe core competencies for clinicians who treat women with co-occurring substanceabuse and trauma, and some of the
Jonathan Krejci; Judith Margolin; Marcy Rowland; Catherine Wetzell
Purpose: Addressing substanceabuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substanceabuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substanceabuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…
This article presents findings from a process evaluation of a pilot program to address parental substanceabuse in the child welfare system. By placing substanceabuse counselors in a local child welfare office, the collocation program was designed to facilitate early identification, timely referral to treatment, and improved treatment engagement of substance-abusing parents. Frontline child welfare workers in 6 of
SUDs are common in people with BPD. The reasons for this association are not well understood and may be related to several factors. When present,SUDs in BPD patients seem to be associated with a poor prognosis. The treatment of patients with BPD and an SUD has been the subject of relatively little investigation, but medications that are effective mood stabilizers seem to decrease substance use in some reports. PMID:15826740
Psychiatric comorbidity is defined as the co-occurrence of a psychiatric disorder in a patient with a substance use disorder. Psychiatric disorders in substanceabuse patients can antedate the substance use disorder or be a consequence of the substanceabuse. There is emerging evidence that drug use in adolescence may alter the onset of certain psychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals. Patients
Paula Riggs; Frances Levin; Alan I. Green; Frank Vocci
Part of the larger World Health Organization's (WHO) site this section on the management of substanceabuse has a variety of useful information for students, teachers and those practicing in the field. Some of the most useful are several resources related to terminology and classifications including the WHO lexicon of alcohol and drug terms. The lexicon, developed in 1994, supplies clinicians, researchers and other users with a set of definitions of terms related to tobacco, alcohol and other drugs. Also available is a Facts and Figures section which provides users with basic information about the use and misuse of alcohol and other drugs worldwide. The Activities pages allow users to get a glimpse into the research that WHO is currently undertaking that is related to substanceabuse. Sections on publications, research tools, and other links round out this very useful site.
Through a case report, the authors illustrate the volatile substanceabuse (VSA) toxicological investigation difficulties mainly due to evaporation of the compounds from postmortem samples and to the lack of reference data for interpretation. A 17-year-old man, student in a chemistry institute, was found dead with a plastic bag placed over his head. Several chemical substances were found in his belongings. Autopsy findings included serious pulmonary lesions and hemorrhagic digestive ulcerations. A large screening of drugs and toxic compounds and selective analyses for several classes of drugs of abuse were carried out in the autopsy samples. In particular, a headspace (HS), -gas chromatography/-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) technique was used to screen for volatile substances and metabolites in the biological samples and for residues of volatile substances on the surface of the plastic bag and in the chemicals found on the scene. The main analytical finding was the presence of alkanes (heptane, methyl-2-pentane, methyl-3-hexane, methylcyclohexane) in the gastric content. The literature data, VSA practices, long time-delay between death and autopsy, preservation conditions of the biological samples before analysis, and in-lab experiments on evaporation of volatile substances were considered to interpret this result. The present fatality was attributed to VSA with a gasoline-based stain remover like "eau écarlate," associated with a hypoxic recreation practice using a plastic bag. PMID:12877311
This work is the result of a research program developed from a research partnership between the Native Mental Health Research Team of McGill University and the Native Friendship Centre of Montreal, a Native-run urban community-based service organization. The aims of the study were to examine substanceabuse as well as physical and mental health among an urban Aboriginal population. The
There are no gold-standard tests for evaluating a teen suspected of abusingsubstances. Awareness of the high prevalence of substanceabuse in youth, a high index of suspicion, and a firm desire to be a part of the solution are all that is required to address the problem of substanceabuse in youth. In an age of "dotcoms" and societal complexity that fosters an emotionally "disconnected" atmosphere by uniting adolescents only by what they buy, plug into, click on, or blast away, teens need trusted medical homes where caring pediatricians are available to give youth accurate and authoritative facts and care to help them build inner resilience and connect them to the pain and hurt of the people in their lives. Until now, the "three strikes and you're out" maxim has been applied in medical care. This maxim may work for baseball, Clintonomics, and practical office management strategies but is not recommended for addressing the needs of substance using or abusing youth who are prey to advertising strategies. The size of the marketing and advertising budgets of the alcohol and cigarette industries is an indication of the relentless marketing directed toward vulnerable youth. Pediatricians would be doing teens a disservice if they fail to countermand this marketing effect by not using the "rule of seven"--the "seven 'S' screen," seven education attempts, seven different ways over 7 years, and persistence over seven attempts of chemically dependent adolescents to quit. It has been said by Osler that "These are our methods--to carefully observe the phenomena of life in all its stages, to cultivate the reasoning of the faculty so as to be able to know the true from the false. This is our work--to prevent disease, to relieve suffering, to heal the sick," and provide HOPE always. PMID:11993283
Results In patients with schizophrenia, 1054 (13.2%) had at least 1 violent offense compared with 4276 (5.3%) of general population controls (adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-2.2). The risk was mostly confined to patients with substanceabuse comorbidity (of whom 27.6% committed an offense), yielding an increased risk of violent crime among such patients (adjusted OR,
Seena Fazel; Anders Hjern; Martin Grann; Paul Lichtenstein
Childhood abuse is a serious problem that has been linked to harmful alcohol and drug use in non-offender samples. In a sample of 219 criminal offenders, we examined the associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse and three indices of harmful substance use. Results indicate that physical abuse was associated with symptoms of alcohol use disorder and sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of drug use disorder among offenders. Both forms of childhood abuse were associated with substance use consequences, even after taking into account substance type and frequency of use. No gender by childhood abuse interactions were found. Symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety partially mediated relationships between childhood abuse and substance use consequences. Findings underscore the importance of assessing childhood abuse and treating anxiety and depression among offenders who exhibit harmful substance use.
Swogger, Marc T.; Conner, Kenneth R.; Walsh, Zach; Maisto, Stephen A.
Data from 11 substanceabuse treatment programs revealed that street youth in treatment for substanceabuse had larger number of social and drug abuse problems than did non-street youth in treatment; were more likely to be unemployed, on welfare, and to have legal problems; and had more depression, had lower self-esteem, and used more alcohol and…
Studies of the link between parental substanceabuse and child maltreatment suggest that chemical dependence is present in at least half of the families who come to the attention of child welfare authorities for child abuse and neglect. Parental substanceabuse is thought to be a primary factor in greatly increased rates of children entering foster care over the past
Background Inmates on preventive detention are a small and select group sentenced to an indefinite term of imprisonment. Mood disorders\\u000a and substanceabuse are risk factors for inmate violence and recidivism, so the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and substance\\u000a abuse was examined in this cohort using psychometric tests.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Completion of self-report questionnaires was followed by face-to-face clinical interviews with 26 of
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2 (MMPI-2) contains 3 scales, the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale—Revised (MAC–R), the Addiction Potential Scale (APS), and the Addiction Acknowledgement Scale (AAS), that were developed to identify alcohol and drug abusing individuals. The current study was designed to measure the effectiveness of these scales at detecting substanceabuse problems in a community-based mental health sample. MAC–R, APS,
Steven V. Rouse; James N. Butcher; Kathryn B. Miller
The goal of this study was to describe the prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) psychiatric disorders among a sample of American Indian (AI) adolescents in residential substanceabuse treatment. Data on 89 AI adolescents admitted to a tribally operated residential substanceabuse treatment program were collected. Participants reported using a mean of 5.26 substances; 20%
Douglas K. Novins; Alexandra Fickenscher; Spero M. Manson
This study investigated matching client attributes to different aftercare treatments. A naturalistic sample of adults entering substanceabuse treatment was randomized into either Structured Relapse Prevention (RP, n=61) or a 12-Step Facilitation (TSF, n=72) aftercare program. Four patient attributes were matched to treatment: age, gender, substanceabuse profile, and psychological status. Substance use outcomes were assessed 3 and 6 months
Thomas G Brown; Peter Seraganian; Jacques Tremblay; Helen Annis
This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of enhanced case management for substanceabusers with comorbid major depression, which was an integrated approach to care. One hundred and 20 participants admitted to drug treatment who also met Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule criteria for major depression at baseline were randomized to…
Striley, Catherine W.; Nattala, Prasanthi; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Dennis, Michael L.; Cottler, Linda B.
Background Despite the importance of identifying co-occurring psychiatric disorders in substanceabuse treatment programs, there are few appropriate and validated instruments available to substanceabuse treatment staff to conduct brief screen for these conditions. This paper describes the development, implementation and validation of a brief screening instrument for mental health diagnoses and trauma among a diverse sample of Black, Hispanic and White women in substanceabuse treatment. With input from clinicians and consumers, we adapted longer existing validated instruments into a 14 question screen covering demographics, mental health symptoms and physical and sexual violence exposure. All women entering treatment (methadone, residential and out-patient) at five treatment sites were screened at intake (N = 374). Results Eighty nine percent reported a history of interpersonal violence, and 70% reported a history of sexual assault. Eighty-eight percent reported mental health symptoms in the last 30 days. The screening questions administered to 88 female clients were validated against in-depth psychiatric diagnostic assessments by trained mental health clinicians. We estimated measures of predictive validity, including sensitivity, specificity and predictive values positive and negative. Screening items were examined multiple ways to assess utility. The screen is a useful and valid proxy for PTSD but not for other mental illness. Conclusion Substanceabuse treatment programs should incorporate violence exposure questions into clinical use as a matter of policy. More work is needed to develop brief screening tools measures for front-line treatment staff to accurately assess other mental health needs of women entering substanceabuse treatment
Lincoln, Alisa K; Liebschutz, Jane M; Chernoff, Miriam; Nguyen, Dana; Amaro, Hortensia
Objective: To guide quality improvement activities, the study sought to identify effective strategies for influencing and improving\\u000a physician screening and referral of pregnant women for violence and substanceabuse (alcohol, drugs and tobacco). Methods: This qualitative study conducted in Washington State consisted of interviews with eight physicians and focus groups with\\u000a twenty-eight physicians who practice obstetric care. Physicians, selected using
Polly Taylor; Jeanette Zaichkin; Diane Pilkey; Judith Leconte; Bryan K. Johnson; Anne C. Peterson
The monograph is based on the papers and discussion from a technical review on 'Drugs and Violence' held on September 25 and 26, 1989, in Rockville, MD. Contents: Introduction: Exploring the SubstanceAbuse-Violence Connection; Violence as Regulation and ...
There is extensive research that addresses the role of police in responding to domestic violence calls. However, there has been relatively little attention to the factors that impel women to call the police during an incident of abuse. This paper investigates the role of alcohol and drugs in influencing women's utilization of the police for misdemeanor-level incidents of abuse, and
Background: Motor vehicle collisions (MVC) comprise a majority cause of referral to the emergency department (ED). A large proportion of MVC appear to be preventable, if more effective measures against driving after substanceabuse can be implemented. Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of substanceabuse among drivers of MVC, following road traffic accidents (RTA). Materials and Methods: This case-control research was conducted from July to October 2007. One hundred MVC drivers admitted in the ED were included as the case group and 110 hospitalized patients, due to nontraumatic causes were used as controls. History of substancesabused was obtained and urine samples were tested for opium in both groups. Finally the history and laboratory results of the groups were compared using SPSS 18. Results: Of the 100 patients in the case group, 39 (39%) were positive for substanceabuse (100% males). On the other hand, 49 (44.5%) patients in the control group had positive history or laboratory findings of substanceabuse (73.9% male). Opioids were the most common agent abused in both groups. There was no significant difference between two groups regarding the prevalence of substanceabuse (P = 0.92). Conclusions: The prevalence of substanceabuse is high among victims of road traffic injury but in equal proportion to the control group. Health education and counseling is needed to reduce substanceabuse in the general population although it was not significantly related to the cause of RTA.
Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substanceabuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substanceabuse. Once in the system, children of substance-abusing families experience significantly longer stays in foster care
Joseph P. Ryan; Jeanne C. Marsh; Mark F. Testa; Richard Louderman
Congress established the SubstanceAbuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in 1992 to "target effectively substanceabuse and mental health services to the people most in need." SAMHSA also administers a number of block grant programs and data collection activities. On their homepage, visitors can get started by clicking on the "Data" link at the top of the page and reading through the "What We Are Doing" section. Here interested parties will find highlights of recent reports, state-level data on these topics, and a series of mental health statistics reports. The top of their homepage contains additional sections of interest, including "Grants", "Publications", "Data", and "Newsroom". Visitors should also take a look at the "Featured Resource", which is also on the homepage. In addition, many of the site's materials are available in Spanish. Visitors can follow SAMHSA on various social networks including Facebook YouTube, and Twitter, and they can also sign up for their mailing list if they wish to keep up with this valuable organization.
Abstract Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have resulted in thousands of military personnel suffering traumatic brain injury (TBI), including closed-head injuries. Of interest is whether these individuals and other TBI survivors are at increased risk for substance use disorder (SUD). While it has been well established that drug or alcohol intoxication itself increases probability of suffering a TBI in accidents or acts of violence, little is known about whether the brain insult itself increases the likelihood that a previously non-drug-abusing individual would develop SUD. Might TBI survivors be unusually vulnerable to addiction to opiate analgesics compared to other pain patients? Similarly, it is not known if TBI increases the likelihood of relapse among persons with SUD in remission. We highlight challenges in answering these questions, and review neurochemical and behavioral evidence that supports a causal relationship between TBI and SUD. In this review, we conclude that little is known regarding the directionality of TBI increasing drug abuse, and that collaborative research in this area is critically needed.
Child abuse is an important determinant of future violence perpetration and victimization. Past research examining linkages between child abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) has predominantly focused on married individuals and not considered adolescent dating violence. In the present study, data from three waves of the National…
The assessment of the philosophy that guides substanceabuse treatment programs has been a difficult subject to approach by those working in treatment research. Differing treatment philosophies are generally represented by multi-dimensional theoretical constructs that do not easily lend themselves to assessment by quantitative means. In the U.S., substanceabuse treatment programs have been suggested as fitting into a disease
This study was designed to establish and validate a multidimensional empirically based typology of clinically referred adolescent substanceabusers. A total of 141 adolescent substanceabusers, most of whom were male, African-American, and juvenile justice involved, comprised the study sample. Youth and their parents completed comprehensive assessments at intake to treatment, discharge, and at 6 months and 12 months post-discharge
Cynthia Rowe; Howard Liddle; John Caruso; Gayle Dakof
Describes the traditions and philosophy behind successful substanceabuse treatment strategies used by Aboriginal people in Canada. Discusses how substanceabuse treatment strategies which facilitate reconnection to cultural values and traditions enables Aboriginal clients to discover meaning in their lives and promote healing. (Author/GCP)
Medical faculty committed to teaching about substanceabuse face the challenges of teaching about a stigmatized disease. They often work with little support and few colleagues. These clinician educators must find tools to help sustain them in this work. Knowledge of emerging data on effective diagnosis and treatment of substanceabuse in the primary care setting and excellent clinical skills
Purpose: The purposes of this study were 1) to assess the validity of patient self-report in identifying illegal substanceabuse and 2) to identify nutritional deficiencies in substanceabusers presenting for treatment of mandible fractures.Patients and Methods: To address the research purposes, a prospective cohort study was conducted of patients presenting for treatment of mandible fractures. A urine drug screen
Richard C. Manus; Thomas B. Dodson; Edward J. Miller; Vincent J. Perciaccante
Adherence to aftercare therapy in substanceabuse treatment is associated with improved outcomes. Although previous research has established that adherence contracts and orientation to aftercare are an effective method of increasing aftercare attendance, participation levels are often low. We examined whether feedback and prompts are an effective means of further increasing adherence to substanceabuse aftercare group therapy beyond that
The existing literature indicates high comorbidity rates between depressive disorders and substanceabuse disorders. Despite these elevated rates, there is limited empirical work devoted to understanding predictors of depressive symptoms among substanceabusers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of spirituality, believing in God's…
This report contains the recommendations of the Physician Consortium for significantly improving medical education and training to enhance the physician's role in early identification, treatment, and prevention of substanceabuse. In addition, the consortium subcommittees report on their examination of substanceabuse treatment needs of ethnic and…
Describes school-based Student Assistance Programs (SAPs), which are designed to reduce adolescents' substanceabuse. Notes that SAPs, modeled after Employee Assistance Programs in workplace, are identifying, assessing, referring, and managing cases of substance-abusing students. Sees adoption of SAP model as accelerating in response to growing…
Discusses various treatment methods for substanceabuse counseling in community corrections that have survived tests of empirical scrutiny, clinical experience, and practical financial considerations. Methods are offered by community corrections professionals for developing a basic design for outpatient substanceabuse treatment programs.…
This report analyzes data from a 2-year study of connections between substanceabuse and child maltreatment, exposing how child welfare agencies and family court systems handle child custody decisions when parents are substanceabusers. The six chapters are: (1) "Introduction and Executive Summary"; (2) "No Safe Haven for Children" (new and…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This report presents findings of a 3-year analysis conducted on the impact of substanceabuse on state budgets. An advisory panel of public officials, researchers, and financial experts was convened to provide guidance. They conducted an extensive review of articles and publications linking substanceabuse to public spending. Several studies were…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
Studied 617 high school and college students prior to and after substanceabuse instruction to determine relationship between perceptions and demographic characteristics, and to learn whether substanceabuse instruction was related to changes in student's perception of relationships. Findings from Marihuana Perception Inventory showed five factors…
Many adolescent substanceabusers enter treatment because of external pressures and thus lack motivation to change their behavior and engage in treatment. Because an understanding of adolescent motivation may contribute to improved treatment, an investigation of factors that predict motivation was undertaken with youth admitted to an adolescent outpatient substanceabuse treatment program (N = 196). At admission, these subjects
Robert J. Battjes; Michael S. Gordon; Kevin E. O'Grady; Timothy W. Kinlock; Melissa A. Carswell
This paper reviews studies of the link between parental substanceabuse and child maltreatment and then explores standardized methods developed for screening for substanceabuse among various populations and suggests ways of adapting these screening devices for families reported for child maltreatment. Assessment and treatment considerations in…
In 2000, about 10 percent (15,000) of substanceabuse admissions aged 18 or younger were referred by schools. School-referred youth admissions to substanceabuse treatment mostly involved marijuana (56 percent) or alcohol (24 percent) as the primary subst...
This case study examines not only the prevalence of substanceabuse in one rural, Canadian high school, but also how teachers understand teaching and learning in relation to substanceabuse. Over one third of students reported that they had used marijuana (37%) and alcohol (38%) in the last seven days, a rate considerably higher than typical…
The SubstanceAbuse and Mental Health Data Archive (SAMHDA) is an initiative of the Office of Applied Studies, SubstanceAbuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The goal of the archive is to provide re...
The present study compared solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) with a traditional problem-focused treatment for level 1 substanceabusers. Outcome research on the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy is minimal, especially in treating substanceabusers. In the present study, clients were measured before and after treatment to…
Smock, Sara A.; Trepper, Terry S.; Wetchler, Joseph L.; McCollum, Eric E.; Ray, Rose; Pierce, Kent
This publication presents four major research papers on college campus substanceabuse prevention and research with reviews of the papers by practitioners in the substanceabuse prevention field. Following a Preface and Introduction, the first paper is "Theories, Dominant Models, and the Need for Applied Research" by Gerardo M. Gonzalez. It…
Gonzalez, Gerardo M., Ed.; Clement, Vonnie V., Ed.
Selected studies with specific relevance to substanceabuse prevention interventions with Hispanic youth and families were examined to identify prior findings and emerging issues that may guide the design of future substanceabuse prevention intervention research and its implementation with Hispanic populations. The origins of prevention research and role of risk and protective factors are examined, including culturally-specific risk and
Felipe González Castro; Manuel Barrera; Hilda Pantin; Charles Martinez; Maria Felix-Ortiz; Rebeca Rios; Vera A. Lopez; Cristy Lopez
Teen dating violence is a serious public health concern with numerous and long-lasting consequences. Although alcohol and drug use have been associated with dating violence, little is known about the role of specific substances, especially the use of club drugs and the nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Thus, the authors examined the…
The purpose of this article is to discuss how images and historical reviews of substance use and abuse from different time periods can be used to provide a better understanding of the historical background of the discipline. Historical reviews of various substances, as well as approaches to addressing substanceabuse at different time periods, and…
To test the hypothesized role of alcohol consumption as a proximal risk factor for partner violence, a within-subjects analysis compared levels of alcohol consumption in violent versus nonviolent conflict events among substance-abusing women and their male partners. Participants were married or cohabiting women (N = 145) who had recently begun a substanceabuse treatment program and reported both a violent and a nonviolent relationship conflict event with their male partner in the prior 6 months. The average age was 38, and 83% were White. Male partners did not participate in the study. The female participant provided information about the male partner. Women were interviewed regarding a violent conflict event in which physical violence occurred and a nonviolent conflict event in which psychological aggression occurred without physical violence. The interview assessed quantity of alcohol consumed and use of other drugs prior to each conflict. Alcohol consumption was significantly greater prior to violent versus nonviolent conflict events for all measures of women's alcohol consumption examined: any drinking, heavy drinking, number of drinks in the 12 hr preceding the conflict event, and estimated blood alcohol concentration at time of the event. Male partners' alcohol consumption showed similar results. Use of other drugs in women, but not men, was significantly more likely prior to physical conflicts. These within-subject comparisons help to rule out individual difference explanations for the alcohol-violence association and indicate that the quantity of alcohol consumption is an important proximal risk factor for partner violence in substance-abusing women and their male partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24955661
Kaufmann, Vyga G; O'Farrell, Timothy J; Murphy, Christopher M; Murphy, Marie M; Muchowski, Patrice
The influence of intimate partners in the recovery of substanceabuse has been increasingly recognized in the professional literature. Couples-based substanceabuse treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing substanceabuse and increasing healthy couple functioning. Recently, research has begun to investigate enduring cognitive beliefs that may impact substanceabusers and their intimate partners, which could advance our understanding of factors that may impact couple’s functioning. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas and substance use of a sample of adult substanceabusers who have sought residential substanceabuse treatment and their intimate partners (N = 102). Results demonstrated that the early maladaptive schemas of patients and their intimate partners may be interrelated and that patients scored significantly higher than their partners on 13 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Substance use was only associated with a few early maladaptive schemas. These findings highlight the potential importance of assessing early maladaptive schemas in couples where one partner has a substanceabuse problem. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.
Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.
Certain groups with preexisting mental and behavioral health conditions, such as substance use disorders, may be especially vulnerable during and shortly after disasters. Researchers have found that substanceabuse treatment programs and the individuals they serve experienced major disruptions after the September 11, 2001, attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon and after Hurricane Katrina. This column considers legal challenges that may arise when a rapid influx of licensed providers is needed for substanceabuse treatment during disasters and reviews specific legal issues that disasters may raise for opioid treatment programs. Opportunities to mitigate legal challenges and facilitate substanceabuse treatment during disasters are discussed. PMID:22227749
Rutkow, Lainie; Vernick, Jon S; Mojtabai, Ramin; Rodman, Sarah O; Kaufmann, Christopher N
This study provides an analysis of the literature in the area of criminal justice, criminology, and the social sciences with a special focus on the causative factors in drug abuse and violence; and a case history of a city which is familiar with these pro...
This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1½ years. IPV was assessed using the Conflict Tactics
"Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substanceabuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substanceabuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple components are more effective than single treatments on their own. PMID:20799128
Initial interest in the relationship between eating disorders, which occur primarily in women, and substanceabuse, which is much more frequent in men than women, stemmed from the observations of Crisp (1968) who noted that chronic anorexics who developed bulimic behavior often abused alcohol. More recently, cross-sectional studies of women with eating disorders have documented prevalences of alcohol and other substanceabuse in these women that are much higher than those reported in the general female population. Conversely, women with substanceabuse disorders report eating-disordered behavior more often than the general population. This article first presents a definition of eating disorders and then addresses (1) the rate of coprevalence of eating disorders and substanceabuse; (2) the mechanism of the coprevalence of these disorders; (3) the clinical similarities of these disorders; and (4) future directions. PMID:1821283
This report provides the first information on substance dependence, abuse, and treatment obtained from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA). Several important changes to the NHSDA in 1999 and 2000 affected the estimates of drug use, as well as the estimates for dependence, abuse, and needing and receiving treatment. Following…
Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationship of childhood trauma, educational level, and the use of avoidant coping on substanceabuse and psychological distress in a community sample of 285 women. Results indicated that self-reported childhood trauma was significantly related to greater substanceabuse and psychological distress, through educational attainment and avoidant coping strategies. Lower level of education
Meeyoung Min; Kathleen Farkas; Sonia Minnes; Lynn T. Singer
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…
Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.
BACKGROUND: Although residents commonly manage substanceabuse disorders, optimal approaches to teaching these specialized interviewing\\u000a and intervention skills are unknown.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a OBJECTIVE: We developed a SubstanceAbuse Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) to teach addiction medicine competencies using immediate\\u000a feedback. In this study we evaluated OSCE performance, examined associations between performance and self-assessed interest\\u000a and competence in substanceabuse, and assessed
Sharon J. Parish; Megha Ramaswamy; Melissa R. Stein; Elizabeth K. Kachur; Julia H. Arnsten
In this article, meta-analytic techniques are used to examine existing intervention studies (n = 11) to determine their effects on substanceabuse among female samples of intimate partner abuse (IPA) survivors. This research serves as a starting point for greater attention in research and practice to the implementation of evidence-based, integrated services to address co-occurring substanceabuse and IPA victimization
Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…
The current study focuses on the relationships among a trauma history, a substance use history, chronic homelessness, and the mediating role of recent emotional distress in predicting drug treatment participation among adult homeless people. We explored the predictors of participation in substanceabuse treatment because enrolling and retaining clients in substanceabuse treatment programs is always a challenge particularly among homeless people. Participants were 853 homeless adults from Los Angeles, California. Using structural equation models, findings indicated that trauma history, substance use history and chronicity of homelessness were associated, and were significant predictors of greater recent emotional distress. The most notable result was that recent emotional distress predicted less participation in current substanceabuse treatment (both formal and self-help) whereas a substance use history alone predicted significantly more participation in treatment. Implications concerning treatment engagement and difficulties in obtaining appropriate dual-diagnosis services for homeless mentally distressed individuals are discussed. PMID:24238716
Ibabe, Izaskun; Stein, Judith A; Nyamathi, Adeline; Bentler, Peter M
The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…
The relative predictive significance of attention deficit disorder (ADD) and aggressive behavior for consequent substanceabuse was examined in 114 juvenile offenders. ADD, aggressivity, and substanceabuse were assessed according to DSM-III criteria. Results from logistic regression indicate thataggressivity, but not an ADD diagnosis, significantly predicts substanceabuse. There-fore, previously reported associations between ADD and substanceabuse may be confounded
James A. Halikas; Jane Meller; Carolyn Morse; Marvin D. Lyttle
Adolescent substanceabusers demonstrate numerous emotional and behavioral difficulties in conjunction with drug problems. In this study, 236 clinically referred substanceabusing adolescents were grouped on level of self-reported and parent-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms and compared on important variables. Three groups emerged: Externalizers, Exclusive SubstanceAbusers, and Mixed (adolescents with both internalizing and externalizing symptoms). Exclusive SubstanceAbusers showed
This handbook is written to help community coalitions and other groups fighting substanceabuse develop indicators that describe the scope and nature of local substanceabuse problems. These indicators can be powerful tools in efforts to combat substanceabuse. They provide a picture of the local impact of substanceabuse problems and make it…
For more than a decade, the SubstanceAbuse and Mental Health Services Administrations Center for SubstanceAbuse Prevention (CSAP) has supported demonstration programs designed to identify interventions that work with populations at high risk to prevent substanceabuse, delay its onset, and reduce substanceabuse-related behaviors. Research now…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.
Describes a graduate course for teaching therapists about the contributions that have been made to the understanding and treatment of substanceabuse by family researchers, theorists, and clinicians. Delineates course purpose, student selection, instructional methods, and course content. (Author)
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders are inextricably intertwined. Children with ADHD are more likely than peers to develop substance use disorders. Treatment with stimulants may reduce the risk of substance use disorders, but stimulants are a class of medication with significant abuse and diversion potential. The objectives of this clinical report were to present practical strategies for reducing the risk of substance use disorders in patients with ADHD and suggestions for safe stimulant prescribing. PMID:24982106
Studies show that typically less than 10% of alcohol and other drug abusers voluntarily enter treatment for their substanceabuse, and once in treatment, drop out rates are high. One controversial way to get clients into, and to participate in, treatment is the use of legally encouraged or required treatment. Grounded in the parents patriae doctrine of state protection, the
This study examined the relationship between family factors and adolescents substanceabuse by comparing the families of adolescents who do not abuse drugs or alcohol with the families of those who do. The subjects were 89 white adolescent males, with a mean age of 16 years, primarily from the rural areas of a Mid-Atlantic state. The relationship between each of
This document examines what is known about alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) among adolescent females. The first half of the document discusses the following topics: (1) prevalence and patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among female adolescents; (2) correlates and risk of substanceabuse, including age of initiation,…
Males are more likely to use, abuse, and be dependent on alcohol or illicit drugs than females. The 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asked questions of persons aged 12 or older to assess their use of alcohol and illicit drugs, as well as their symptoms of substance dependence or abuse during the past year. NSDUH defines "any…
The purpose of this study was to assess parenting knowledge and beliefs among drug abusing pregnant and recently postpartum women engaged in a comprehensive substanceabuse treatment program. The effects of a parenting skills training program for this population were evaluated. A Parenting Skills Questionnaire was developed and administered to a sample of 73 pregnant and drug-dependent women during their
Martha L. Velez; Lauren M. Jansson; Ivan D. Montoya; Wendy Schweitzer; Archie Golden; Dace Svikis
Limited information is available on adolescent's substanceabuse in Iran. The aims of this study are to estimate incidence rate of substanceabuse among the sample of 10-grade male students in Tabriz City (northwestern region of Iran), and to evaluate the associated factors.Of all grade-10 male students in Tabriz, 1785 (13.7%) were randomly sampled, and were assessed twice. A self-administered
Asghar Mohammadpoorasl; Ali Fakhari; Fatemeh Rostami; Rezagholi Vahidi
The feasibility of providing postdetoxification residential substanceabuse programming (stabilization) in large emergency\\u000a shelters was examined as part of a demonstration project funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Aubse and Alcoholism\\u000a under Section 613 of the Stewart B. McKinney Act (Public Law 100-71). The program completion rates of 773 homeless\\/near-homeless\\u000a substance-abusing individuals assigned to two large shelters (71% and
Dynamics of substanceabuse morbidity in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation during the last 10 years (2002-2012) was analyzed. Results of performed analysis showed decreasing tendency since 2007 in conscripts (0.07% in 2012) and in contract soldiers (0.3% in 2012). Alcoholism prevailed in the structure of substanceabuse in conscripts (0.05%), drug abuses were diagnosed 2,5 times less often (0.02%). In contract soldiers non-alcohol abuses were diagnosed in 0.004% of cases. It is stated that the major aims of substanceabuse prevention are qualitative recruiting of military units (especially in troops maintaining the combat readiness) and departments (subunits) of military education, creating conditions for propaganda for healthy lifestyle, prohibition of drugs and psychopharmaceuticals in military units. For early detection of persons liable to substanceabuse and facts of drug consumption it is necessary to perform a medical examination with the help of special program apparatus complex (such as "Addicts") and take into account clinical signs of addiction. Besides, it is necessary to introduce planned and unexpected medical examinations of servicemen. Algorithm of measures in case of detection of serviceman with alcohol or drug intoxication is given. In conclusion the main organizational principals of substanceabuse prevention in the Armed Forces are given. PMID:24341196
Fisun, A Ia; Shamre?, V K; Marchenko, A A; Sinenchenko, A G; Pastushenkov, A V
Documented empirical evidence indicates that substanceabuse among young people, especially students, is assuming an unprecedented\\u000a upward surge worldwide. Substanceabuse among students is associated with a myriad of negative physical, social and psychological\\u000a consequences, including liver, cranial, and cardiovascular diseases, cancers, vehicular fatalities, mental and behaviour disorders,\\u000a violence, declining grades, increased potential for dropout and high truancy rates, suicides,
Traumatic experiences and their biopsychosocial sequelae present complex challenges in substance use treatment. For women with substance use problems, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), intimate partner violence exposure (IPV), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and overall psychological distress are often co-occurring concerns. To address gaps in knowledge and to strengthen practice regarding these critical issues in substance use treatment, we drew upon cross-sectional and longitudinal data from baseline and 12-month interviews with a random sample of 416 women in methadone treatment to examine relationships between CSA characteristics, particularly the presence of force and involvement of family, IPV, and mental health concerns. Although CSA involving force and family was not associated with IPV as hypothesized, it was associated with increased risk of PTSD and overall psychological distress. The multivariate findings underscore the psychological vulnerabilities associated with CSA involving force and family and suggest that drug use and financial circumstances may be important targets to reduce IPV risk. PMID:22444420
This document presents uniformly collected data for the State of Maine and each of its counties on selected known risk factors for alcohol and drug abuse and the prevalence of substanceabuse-related problems. A "Read Me First" section presents the state's approach to prevention. Information is provided on risk and protective factors, the "Six…
Maine State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Augusta.
The current study investigated the association between substanceabuse\\/dependence, drug of choice, and the personality traits of negative emotionality, positive emotionality, and constraint (disinhibition) as measured by the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. The sample comprises 325 subjects from the Yale Family Study, a family study investigating the relation between substance-use disorders and anxiety disorders and their transmission in families. A total
Kevin P Conway; Joel D Swendsen; Bruce J Rounsaville; Kathleen Ries Merikangas
The majority of youth with substance use disorders (SUDs) manifest one or more co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Consequently, many of these youths are being prescribed with psychotropic medications. As prescribing rates continue to increase for early-onset psychiatric disorders, potential risk for substance of abuse-psychiatric medication…
Kaminer, Yifrah; Goldberg, Pablo; Connor, Daniel F.
If the problem is not new in its nature, it happens frequently considering the increase of potential victims and aggressors. The elderly are special targets regarding to their fragility and life conditions. Abuse and neglect are related to physical, financial and care aspects. Common law aggressions happen on the public thoroughfare and at home. They lead frequently to delirium. In the bosom of the family 20% of old people are victims of physical brutality or moral cruelty. In the institutions their rate is poorly known and usually hidden. All the industrialized countries are preoccupied by this problem since a few years. Numerous speeches, journals and films are dedicated to these problems. The development of a real family politic in the elderly and an improvement of the education program for the personnel and an increase of the number of social care workers in the institutions may lead to a good prevention of abuse an neglect in the elderly. PMID:2271987
Background Inmates on preventive detention are a small and select group sentenced to an indefinite term of imprisonment. Mood disorders and substanceabuse are risk factors for inmate violence and recidivism, so the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and substanceabuse was examined in this cohort using psychometric tests. Methods Completion of self-report questionnaires was followed by face-to-face clinical interviews with 26 of the 56 male inmates on preventive detention in Norway's Ila Prison. Substanceabuse histories and information about the type of psychiatric treatment received were compiled. To assess anxiety and depression, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Clinical Anxiety Scale (CAS), and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) were used. Results Scores on the MADRS revealed that 46.1% of inmates had symptoms of mild depression. The HADS depression subscale showed that 19.2% scored above the cut-off for depression (? = 0.57). The CAS anxiety score was above the cut-off for 30.7% of the subjects, while 34.6% also scored above the cut-off on the HADS anxiety subscale (? = 0.61). Almost 70% of all these inmates, and more than 80% of those convicted of sex crimes, had a history of alcohol and/or drug abuse. Conclusions Mild anxiety and depression was found frequently among inmates on preventive detention. Likewise, the majority of the inmates had a history of alcohol and drug abuse. Mood disorders and substanceabuse may enhance recidivism, so rehabilitation programs should be tailored to address these problems.
Summary The importance of genetic factors in substance addiction has long been established. The rationale for this work is that understanding of the function of addiction genes and delineation of the key molecular pathways of these genes would enhance the development of novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers that could be used in the prevention and management of substanceabuse. Over the past few years, there has been a substantial increase in the number of genetic studies conducted on addiction in China; these studies have primarily focused on heroin, alcohol, and nicotine dependence. Most studies of candidate genes have concentrated on the dopamine, opioid, and serotonin systems. A number of genes associated with substanceabuse in Caucasians are also risk factors in Chinese, but several novel genes and genetic risk factors associated with substanceabuse in Chinese subjects have also been identified. This paper reviews the genetic studies of substanceabuse performed by Chinese researchers. Genotypes and alleles related to addictive behavior in Chinese individuals are discussed and the contributions of Chinese researchers to the international corpus of knowledge about the genetic understanding of substanceabuse are described.
Sun, Yan; Meng, Shiqiu; Li, Jiali; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin
There is a need for improved definitional and conceptual clarity regarding partner abuse and substanceabuse. Womens experiences of both physical violence and psychological abuse from men with whom they have relationships have recently been found predicti...
SUMMARY Substanceabuse prevalence rates for Latinos/as generally mirror those of the general U.S. population; however, a number of indicators of assimilation to U.S. culture as well as sociodemographic variables predict substance use and abuse among this group. Latinos/as have poorer outcomes in substanceabuse treatment programs. Yet there is little empirical evidence that explains the problems these individuals experience in treatment, and there are few studies on the use and effectiveness of mutual help groups among this population. New developments in the conceptualization and measurement of acculturation will lead to a greater understanding of the role of culture in the prevalence and treatment of substance-related problems.
Alvarez, Josefina; Jason, Leonard A.; Olson, Bradley D.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Davis, Margaret I.
Across the nation and for a very long time, campuses and students have been plagued by drug and alcohol abuse. And it seems that many of our efforts to address that abuse, while necessary, have been woefully insufficient to the task. This article describes the nature and significance of the problem, examines current strategies for addressing it,…
Objective: This study was conducted to examine the relationship between substance use patterns among adolescents and their histories of physical and\\/or sexual abuse.Method: The Minnesota Student Survey was administered in 1995 to 122,824 public school students in Grades 6, 9, and 12. Substance user groups were created based on frequency of use and the number of substances used. Use of
Patricia A. Harrison; Jayne A. Fulkerson; Timothy J. Beebe
Objective: Child abuse is a risk factor for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and subsequent Substance Use Disorder (SUD). The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about effective treatments for adolescent abuse-related PTSD, SUD, and the co-occurrence of these conditions. Method: The literature on empirical…
Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Zhitova, Aren C.; Capone, Margery E.
Objectives: The two aims of this study were to: (1) describe the prevalence and characteristics of domestic adult and child physical violence in the homes of children and adolescents evaluated in a specialized sexual abuse clinic and (2) describe parent or caretaker responses to domestic adult and child violence and child sexual abuse, including tendencies to report or seek medical
Every day, battered women and their children enter the judicial system in the United States, seeking an escape from the nightmare of domestic violence and sexual abuse. Often the first occasion for legal intervention comes when an abused spouse seeks emergency safety through a civil protective order. Another common way that family violence enters our nation's courtrooms is through criminal
This article examines behavioral and psychological differences among women who used violence in four types of relationships. Nearly all of the women experienced physical abuse from their male partners. Types were compared on the extent of childhood abuse experienced, use of avoidance coping, anger, motivations for using violence, injuries, psychological symptoms, and alcohol use. Women in the Victim type (the
Intimate partner violence victimization was examined in men (N = 4,459) and women (N = 1,774) entering substance use disorder treatment. Nearly 1 in 2 women and 1 in 10 men reported lifetime victimization by an intimate partner. Entering treatment for alcohol, as compared to drug abuse and history of childhood abuse, were each associated with intimate partner violence victimization. Victimization by an intimate partner was also associated with mental health problems, including depression, anxiety, and attempted suicide. Although victimization was linked to physical health problems, the nature of these problems varied by gender. Women and men with a history of intimate partner victimization present to substance use disorder treatment with a complex array of mental and physical health problems. PMID:20055212
Schneider, Renee; Burnette, Mandi L; Ilgen, Mark A; Timko, Christine
Although child neglect and substanceabuse co-occur in greater than 60% of child protective service cases, intervention outcome studies are deplorably lacking. Therefore, a home-based Family Behavior Therapy is described in the treatment of a woman evidencing child neglect, substance dependence, domestic violence and other co-occurring problems. Treatment included contingency management, self control, stimulus control, communication and child management skills training exercises, and financial management components. Results indicated improvements in child abuse potential, home hazards, domestic violence, and drug use, which were substantiated by objective urinalysis testing, and tours of her home. Validity checks indicated the participant was being truthful in her responses to standardized questionnaires, and assessors were “blind” to study intent. Limitations (i.e., lack of experimental control and follow-up data collection) of this case example are discussed in light of these results.
Describes the urban context and multitribal demographics of the Puyallup Reservation (Washington), and the history of Chief Leschi Schools (pre-K-12)--a multicampus provider of educational and social services to Native youth living on or near the reservation. Discusses problems of substanceabuse and violence; community-, family-, school-, and…
Guilmet, George M.; Whited, David L.; Dorpat, Norm; Pijanowski, Cherlyn
This study investigated matching client attributes to different aftercare treatments. A naturalistic sample of adults entering substanceabuse treatment was randomized into either Structured Relapse Prevention (RP, n=61) or a 12-Step Facilitation (TSF, n=72) aftercare program. Four patient attributes were matched to treatment: age, gender, substanceabuse profile, and psychological status. Substance use outcomes were assessed 3 and 6 months posttreatment. At 6 months, four significant matches were uncovered. Females and individuals with a multiple substanceabuse profile reported better alcohol outcomes with TSF aftercare than their cohorts exposed to RP aftercare. Individuals with high psychological distress at treatment entry were able to maintain longer periods of posttreatment abstinence with TSF aftercare compared to their cohorts exposed to RP. Inversely, RP was found to maintain abstinence significantly longer for individuals reporting low distress compared to those with high distress. Finally, better outcomes were achieved when random assignment to aftercare was consistent with participant preference. Overall, an Alcoholics Anonymous approach to aftercare appears to provide the most favorable substance use outcomes for most groups of substanceabusers. RP may be most suitable for clients whose psychological distress is low, especially where maintenance of abstinence is targeted. Where choice in aftercare program is possible, matching client preference with type of aftercare program can improve outcome. PMID:12188594
Brown, Thomas G; Seraganian, Peter; Tremblay, Jacques; Annis, Helen
Little is known about the needs or characteristics of transgender individuals in substanceabuse treatment settings. Transgender (n=199) and non-transgender (cisgender, n=13,440) individuals were compared on psychosocial factors related to treatment, health risk behaviors, medical and mental health status and utilization, and substance use behaviors within a database that documented individuals entering substanceabuse treatment in San Francisco, CA from 2007 to 2009 using logistic and linear regression analyses (run separately by identified gender). Transgender men (assigned birth sex of female) differed from cisgender men across many psychosocial factors, including having more recent employment, less legal system involvement, greater incidence of living with a substanceabuser, and greater family conflict, while transgender women (assigned birth sex of male) were less likely to have minor children than cisgender women. Transgender women reported greater needle use, and HIV testing rates were greater among transgender women. Transgender men and women reported higher rates of physical health problems, mental health diagnoses, and psychiatric medications, but there were no differences in service utilization. There were no differences in substance use behaviors except that transgender women were more likely to endorse primary methamphetamine use. Transgender individuals evidence unique strengths and challenges that could inform targeted services in substanceabuse treatment. PMID:24561017
Flentje, Annesa; Heck, Nicholas C; Sorensen, James L
Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…
Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.
Objective: The major objective was to determine how and the extent to which SB2669, which requires the identification of substanceabusing delivering women, affected the number of children reported for abuse or neglect in several California counties.Method: A monthly time-series model from April 1988 to December 1995 was constructed. The idea underlying the model was that month-to-month changes in the
Vicky Albert; Dorie Klein; Amanda Noble; Elaine Zahand; Sue Holtby
This study examines the relationship among 4 treatment stages (i.e., engagement, persuasion, active treatment, relapse prevention) and the composition, social support, and structural characteristics of personal networks. The study sample includes 242 women diagnosed with substance dependence who were interviewed within their first month of intensive outpatient treatment. Using EgoNet software, the women reported on their 25 alter personal networks and the characteristics of each alter. With one exception, few differences were found in the network compositions at different stages of substanceabuse treatment. The exception was the network composition of women in the active treatment stage, which included more network members from treatment programs or 12-Step meetings. Although neither the type nor amount of social support differed across treatment stages, reciprocity differed between women in active treatment and those in the engagement stage. Networks of women in active treatment were less connected, as indicated by a higher number of components, whereas networks of women in the persuasion stage had a higher degree of centralization, as indicated by networks dominated by people with the most ties. Overall, we find social network structural variables to relate to the stage of treatment, whereas network composition, type of social support, and sociodemographic variables (with a few exceptions) do not relate to treatment stage. Results suggest that social context, particularly how social contacts are arranged around clients, should be incorporated into treatment programs, regardless of demographic background.
Tracy, Elizabeth M.; Kim, HyunSoo; Brown, Suzanne; Min, Meeyoung O.; Jun, Min Kyoung; McCarty, Christopher
Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, African American men, 18 to 29 years old, completed psychosocial risk assessments that assessed substance use and city stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, indicated that participants reporting high levels of urban stress, relative to low levels of urban stress, were more likely to report a history of marijuana use (AOR?=?5.19, p?=?.05), history of ecstasy and/or GHB use (AOR?=?3.34, p?=?.04), having family/friends expressing strong concerns about their illicit drug use (AOR?=?4.06, p?=?.02), and being unable to remember what happened the night before due to drinking (AOR?=?4.98, p?=?.01). African American men living within the confines of a stressful urban environment are at increased risk for exposure to and utilization of illicit substances. Culturally competent public health interventions for substance use/abuse should address psychological factors, such as stress and neighborhood violence. PMID:22739803
The relationship between movement disorders and substanceabuse which we previously reviewed are updated. We examine these relationships bidirectionally with focus on drugs of abuse which cause movement disorders, as well as primary movement disorders that are associated with use and abuse of alcohol and dopaminergic medications. First, we review the movement disorders that may develop from the acute use or withdrawal of frequent drugs of abuse, including alcohol, cocaine, heroin, amphetamine and methcathinone. We then comment on the interaction between alcoholism and alcohol-responsive movement disorders, such as essential tremor and myoclonus-dystonia. Lastly, we discuss the potential for abuse of antiparkinsonian dopaminergic agents in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD).
Deik, Andres; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Luciano, Marta San
Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multiservice intervention designed to move substanceabusing women on welfare to sobriety and self-sufficiency by addressing their substanceabuse, domestic violence, employment, and basic needs. Design: A field evaluation with repeated measures at 6 and 12 months on an intent-to-treat sample of 529 women conducted in 11 selected sites across the country. There were
A. Thomas Mclellan; Marjorie Gutman; Kevin Lynch; James R. Mckay; Robert Ketterlinus; Jon Morgenstern; Diana Woolis
On the inpatient substanceabuse service of the Philadelphia Veterans Administration Hospital, we found that patients who were admitted to the hospital "unscheduled" had a disproportionately higher incidence of subsequent AMA (against medical advice) discharge, particularly if they were alcoholic. This finding calls into question the cost-effectiveness of hospitalization as an initial treatment strategy for substanceabusers who enter treatment impulsively and points out the need for additional study to determine the most cost-effective treatments for addicts whose primary motivation for treatment may be to obtain relief from precipitating stressors. PMID:8911595
Objectives: To examine patterns of substance use in youths with schizophrenia or other early onset psychotic disorders.Methods: Youths with psychotic disorders (onset before age 18 years) were assessed annually over two years using standardized diagnostic and symptom rating measures, including the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Subjects with psychosis solely due to substance use were excluded. Subjects were between
Gully's 2000 Expectations Test was developed as a tool to use with children ages 4 through 17 to measure social information processing. Prior research suggested it could help identify abused and emotionally traumatized children. Results from regression analyses were used to develop four scales that could be calculated simply. Prior research demonstrated excellent interrater reliability for the variables from the Expectations Test used in the regression analyses. The minimum Cronbach's alpha for any scale is .75. The minimum test-retest reliability is .88. Classification results indicated each scale can provide data to help evaluate children: Sexual Abuse Scale (sensitivity = 81% and specificity = 78%), Physical Abuse Scale (84% and 78%), Exposure to Family Violence Scale (65% and 63%), and Posttraumatic Stress Scale (86% and 54%). However, careful attention needs to be given to the potential limitations of these scales to prevent their misuse. PMID:12934639
Intimate partner violence among gays and lesbians has gained increased attention in recent years. The present study assessed mutual partner violence within a gay, lesbian, bisexual (GLB) community sample to explore how mutual partner violence relates to the use of psychoactive substances. The results suggest that individuals engaging in mutual partner violence are more likely to report the use of
Brian C. Kelly; Hubert Izienicki; David S. Bimbi; Jeffrey T. Parsons
Substanceabuse has long been recognized as a precipitating factor in many domestic violence incidents. The main type of substanceabuse is alcohol usage. Forty-six percent of the offenders reported being dependent on or abusing alcohol, while another 28% were found to be dependent on opiates, cocaine, marijuana, or inhalants. Nearly two-fifths of…
Study determined the change in prevalence of Methylphenidate misuse over the last four years in adolescents (N=240) assessed at an outpatient abuse treatment facility. Results showed a significant increase in Methylphenidate misuse over the last 2.5 years; this increase was greatest in White adolescents. Suggests that treatment with…
Research indicates that those who undergo treatment for alcohol and other drug abuse largely have poor work histories and low employment rates, regardless of their education. Relapse rates for individuals in recovery increase when unemployment remains a constant in their lives. Consequently, providing vocational services during treatment may be a…
Machlan, Bonna; Brostrand, H. L.; Benshoff, John J.
The majority of youth with substance use disorders (SUDs) manifest one or more co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Consequently, many of these youths are being prescribed with psychotropic medications. As prescribing rates continue to increase for early-onset psychiatric disorders, potential risk for substance of abuse–psychiatric medication interactions may be enhanced. Because this type of drug-drug interaction has received little attention in the
Criminal records of 153 animal abusers and 153 control participants were tracked and compared. Animal abusers were more likely to commit property offenses, drug offenses, and public disorder offenses. Thus, results show an association between animal abuse and a variety of antisocial behavior, but not violence alone. Implications of these findings…
Arluke, Arnold; Levin, Jack; Luke, Carter; Ascione, Frank
Despite indications that emotional abuse might be the core factor underlying the negative effects of child maltreatment, it has received little attention, particularly with respect to its impact on interpersonal relationships in adulthood. This study conducted a developmental process analysis of the contribution of childhood emotional abuse to relationship violence in a sample of undergraduates. Results indicated that emotional abuse
Gender is an important variable to consider in substanceabuse treatment research. The proportion of females among substanceabuse treatment clients has increased over the past decade, and female clients currently constitute about one third of the treatme...
The substance-abuse questions of the Navy's Human Resource Management (HRM) survey were analyzed to determine if they are giving commanding officers valid information on substance-abuse problems in their commands. The responses to the questions concerning...
This short report investigates scale effects in family substanceabuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substanceabuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the \\
... 2013-10-01 false Prohibition on abuse of controlled substances. 219.102 Section 219.102 Transportation...Prohibitions Â§ 219.102 Prohibition on abuse of controlled substances. No employee who performs covered...
Group of sexually abusedsubstanceabusers scored higher than non-abused group on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. Alexithymia symptomatology was found to be positively related to the duration of the sexual abuse. Results were interpreted as indicating that the development of symptoms may represent another defense victims employ to insulate…
... to get high (eg, gasoline, paint thinner, and glue) • Use of steroids or other performance- enhancing drugs • ... smoked) • Suffocation from inhaling substances in plastic bags (glue) • Infections from injecting drugs—skin infections and blood- ...
We wished to ascertain abused women's perspectives on mandatory reporting of intimate partner violence. A consecutive sample of 161 abused women accessing the criminal justice system were asked six questions. Most women (81%) thought there should be a law making the nurse or doctor report the abuse, with less than half of the women (45%) reporting they would have been at greater risk for abuse following a mandatory report. Although these 161 abused women support mandatory reporting of partner abuse, it remains unclear if such a law would deter further abuse. Outcome and evaluation studies of mandatory reporting laws are urgently needed. PMID:10718509
Malecha, A T; Lemmey, D; McFarlane, J; Willson, P; Fredland, N; Gist, J; Schultz, P
More than one and one-half million children in the United States experience abuse or neglect. Research has identified parental substanceabuse or dependence as one of the primary risk factors for child abuse. Along with this recognition, there are increased efforts to provide appropriate treatment to maltreating, substance-abusing or dependent parents. Parenting interventions may be required or recommended in conjunction
OBJECTIVE:To determine whether engaging pregnant substanceabusers in an integrated program of prenatal care and substanceabuse treatment would improve neonatal outcomes.STUDY DESIGN:The subjects were women who voluntarily enrolled in Project Link, an intensive outpatient substanceabuse treatment program at Women and Infants Hospital, Providence, RI. A total of 87 women received substanceabuse treatment in conjunction with their prenatal
Patrick J Sweeney; Rachel M Schwartz; Noreen G Mattis; Betty Vohr
Background Prior longitudinal studies have shown high cumulative dating violence exposure rates among U.S adolescents, with 36 percent of males and 44 percent to 88 percent of females experiencing victimization across adolescence/young adulthood. Despite promising information characterizing adolescents’ dating violence experiences longitudinally, prior studies tended to concentrate on physical and sexual types of violence only, and did not report information on the number of times dating violence was experienced across multiple abusive partners. We used a method similar to the timeline follow-back interview to query adolescents about dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19—including dating violence types (physical, sexual, and psychological), frequency, age at first occurrence, and number of abusive partners. Methods A total of 730 subjects were randomly sampled from university registrar records and invited to complete an online survey, which utilized methods similar to the timeline follow-back interview, to retrospectively assess relationship histories and dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19 (eight questions adapted from widely-used surveys covering physical, sexual, and psychological abuse). Then, for each dating violence type, we asked about the number of occurrences, number of abusive partners, and age at first occurrence. Of 341 subjects who completed the survey, we included 297 (64 percent females; 36 percent males) who had a dating partner from age 13 to 19. Results Fully 64.7 percent of females and 61.7 percent of males reported dating violence victimization between age 13 and 19, with most experiencing multiple occurrences. More than one-third of abused females had two or more abusive partners: controlling behavior (35.6 percent); put downs/name calling (37.0); pressured sex (42.9); insults (44.3); slapped/hit (50.0); and threats (62.5). Males also had two or more abusive partners, as follows: controlling behavior (42.1 percent); insults (51.2); put downs (53.3); threats (55.6); and unwanted calls/texts/visits (60.7). Among abused females, 44.7 percent first experienced controlling behavior between age 13 and 15, whereas the majority (62.5 percent) first experienced pressured sex between age 16 and 17. Among males, for most abuse types, 16 percent to 30 percent of victimization began before age 15. Conclusions Our study adds information to a substantial, but still growing, body of literature about dating violence frequency, age of occurrence, and number of abusive partners among adolescents.
Collaboration with community stakeholders is an often suggested step when integrating cultural variables into psychological treatments for members of ethnic minority groups. However, there is a dearth of literature describing how to accomplish this process within the context of substanceabuse treatment studies. This article describes a qualitative study conducted through a series of focus groups with stakeholders in the
Jason J. Burrow-Sanchez; Charles R. Martinez Jr; Hyman Hops; Megan Wrona
Examined relationships among depression, meaninglessness, suicide ideation, and substanceabuse among 48 high school students and 113 adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Correlational analyses indicated that high school students who viewed themselves negatively, were depressed, or who had found little meaning in their lives were more likely to…
Assortative mating can exert a profound influence on the phenotypic composition of the population since it may result in an increase in the frequency of the genotypes associated with extreme phenotypes. Applied to the risk for a disorder such as substanceabuse, this would mean a possibility for an increase in the risk and severity of the disorder in consecutive
M. M. Vanyukov; M. C. Nealeb; H. B. Moss; R. E. Tarter
The risks of pregnancy, when combined with the risks of substanceabuse, can terrify even the most competent unless the physician develops a rational and organized plan to treat the pregnant patient. If exposure to drugs is recognized early, a team of experienced health professionals can manage treatment appropriately and improve the outcome.
Adolescence is a challenging time for many young persons. Navigating the academic, personal/social, and career planning challenges associated with adolescence indeed is challenging even with excellent school, family, and community support. For those adolescents struggling with substance use and abuse, these challenges become even greater. School…
Administrator recounts experience growing up in alcoholic home, hoping to inspire other school professionals helping young people with substanceabuse problems. Although helping others seems natural for adult children of alcoholics, certain unconsciously held attitudes and behaviors can impede school prevention and recovery programs. Organizations…
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy guidelines for required and elective instructional content concerning substanceabuse for pharmacy students is presented. Recommended required content includes psychosocial aspects of drug use; pharmacology and toxicology; identification, intervention, and treatment of addiction; and legal issues.…
This guide integrates themes of geography with health issues of the 1990s to encourage healthy lifestyles and promote geographic literacy. Designed for use by social studies educators and educators responsible for teaching about substanceabuse and related health issues, this guide includes lessons for kindergarten through 12th grade. After an…
The cognitive abilities of 24 males at an in-patient substanceabuse facility were assessed using the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (Cognistat). Findings suggested that there were significant changes in cognitive functioning during the 21-day in-patient treatment as measured by the Cognistat. Implications for mental health…
Alessi, Hunter; Ballard, Mary; Kirk, Alan; Montalbano, Nicholas
Although the drug abuse has been evidenced in every age of the human life, it seems that its occurrence is crucial during adolescence period with its well-known consequences on the further personality development. Adolescents like to experiment with risky lifestyles without adequate knowledge about their possible harmful effects and consequences. International experiences have represented that early onset of the risky behaviour predisposes young persons for serious problems in social, psychological and physical future lives. It has been noticed that adolescents like to combine different psychoactive substances. Therefore the aim of this study was to present the most important and the most actual substancesabused by young adolescents together with the substance characteristics. This research included 600 adolescents with the same prevalence regarding age, sex and living zone (rural-urban). Our research showed that simultaneous abuse of various harmful psychoactive substances (polydrug abuse) is the most common (tobacco smoking and cannabis consumption in 75% of cases, alcohol consumption and cannabis consumption in 80% of cases). PMID:16209667
Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substanceabuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…
Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian
... February 9, 2012 SubstanceAbuse Treatment Admissions Aged 15 to 17 In Brief Admissions aged 15 to 17 most frequently reported marijuana (71.9 ... one third (32.2 percent) of admissions aged 15 to 17 had been admitted to treatment at ...
Substanceabuse is known to be our nation's number one public health problem. Physicians and other health providers can develop chemical dependency problems that create significant quality assurance and risk man agement dilemmas. Not all of society understands drug dependence to be a treatable medical disease and behav ioral problem. Sometimes impaired providers are ignored or punished rather than treated
Bruce V. Corsino; Dean H. Morrow; Connie J. Wallace
This paper focuses on nine overlapping topics dealing with improving mental health and substanceabuse services for adolescents and their families. Depending on the state of knowledge of each topic, the authors either highlight the importance of the area or offer a specific position statement. It is intended that these statements be reviewed for possible endorsement by the American College
Robert M. Friedman; Barbara J. Burns; Lenore Behar
In 1996 Congress terminated Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits to individuals disabled by substanceabuse. Although most were expected to continue benefits under another disability category, 64% were not reclassified. This article examines data from a longitudinal study of individuals in Los Angeles County affected by the legislation. While poor physical health predicted both continued SSI benefits and receipt of
Katherine E. Watkins; Deborah Podus; Emilia Lombardi
This report focuses on the dramatic increase in and intensity of binge drinking (consuming more than five drinks in one sitting) on American college and university campuses--now considered the number one substanceabuse problem in American college life. Anecdotal evidence indicates that many students drink more, more frequently, and with the…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This review synthesized findings from 17 studies since 1998 regarding evaluation of outpatient treatments for adolescent substanceabuse. These studies represented systematic design advances in adolescent clinical trial science. The research examined 46 different intervention conditions with a total sample of 2,307 adolescents. The sample included 7 individual cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) replications (n = 367), 13 group CBT replications (n = 771), 17
Human service professionals regularly do not recognize the symptoms of substanceabuse in older populations and are unlikely to provide intervention. In this study, human service students (N = 242) were given one of three vignettes in which the main character was an 80-year-old man, an 80-year-old woman, or they were asked to imagine themselves at…
This article provides a review of various types of literature on gender differences among substanceabusers. The authors begin this literature review by summarizing the literature on the differing treatment needs of men and women. The authors continue with a review of the empirically based literature on gender differences in background…
Substanceabuse is a major social problem and concern for counselors. It is the most prevalent mind disorder encompassing some 40% of the diagnoses in the DSM-IV, the number one continuing health problem, and the number one prison problem in the United States. Yet, school, rehabilitation, and mental health counselor education programs do not…
High rates of substanceabuse and recidivism and limited in-prison and postrelease treatment access and transitional planning complicate community reintegration. Moreover, drug-related health and social problems are related to treatment outcomes. In the framework of risk-responsivity theory and structured, integrated reentry models, this article…
The purpose of this study was to determine whether motivational interviewing (MI), compared with an attention control condition (relaxation training [RT]) enhances substanceabuse treatment engagement in incarcerated adolescents. At the start of incarceration, adolescents were randomly assigned to individually administered MI or RT. Subsequently, therapists and adolescents (N = 130) rated degree of adolescent participation in the facility's standard
L. A. R. Stein; Suzanne M. Colby; Nancy P. Barnett; Peter M. Monti; Charles Golembeske; Rebecca Lebeau-Craven; Robert Miranda
Volatile substanceabuse (VSA) is an under-recognized worldwide problem. Data, especially international comparisons, are limited. The 2005 ESPAD report published data on VSA from 35 countries, collected in 2003. Lifetime prevalence of VSA can be as high as 22%, with little difference between boys and girls in most countries. Perceived risk of VSA…
Describes how structured stories can be used as a part of a therapy for rural substanceabusers and discusses how this approach can complement social skills training. Presents an example of a structured story focused on negative thinking and concludes with a discussion of the possibilities of using structured stories and implications for social…
Despite consensus about the value of substanceabuse treatment for delinquent youth, information about its prevalence and availability is inadequate and inconsistent. This article presents findings about treatment and other correctional service provision from a national survey of directors of 141 juvenile institutional and community corrections (CC) facilities. Educational\\/General Educational Development programming and drug and alcohol education were the most
Douglas W. Young; Richard Dembo; Craig E. Henderson
Examines the therapeutic and cultural factors related to effective substance-abuse treatment for Asian-American adolescents. Discusses recommendations for developing effective and culturally competent treatment service for minority populations. Presents three effective and culturally appropriate treatment models: Psychosocial, Community Treatment,…
Previous research has emphasized the importance of minimizing attrition in longitudinal studies. The authors examined the influence of demographic, clinical, and process factors on attrition from a longitudinal study of 286 substanceabusers recruited at a central intake unit. Univariate tests showed that those who completed three, six, and 12 month interviews had higher baseline alcohol and drug use and
Ronald E. Claus; Lisa R. Kindleberger; Mary C. Dugan
Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides an important perspective for understanding the experiences of women living in a culture that sexualizes and objectifies the female body. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between interpersonal sexual objectification experiences and women's substanceabuse in a…
Until recently, few programs were available for children whose mothers are in recovery. A refinement of the gender-specific model of substanceabuse treatment, the “family-focused” approach, has placed increased emphasis on the needs of children and other family members. However, because these programs are relatively new, little is known about the effectiveness of this type of treatment for either the
Judith Fry McComish; Rivka Greenberg; Joel Ager; Lynnette Essenmacher; Linda S. Orgain; William J. Bacik
Substanceabuse treatment in parents of young children is an important element of child welfare services. This study compares the predictive factors of post-treatment drug use in organizational, service and individual characteristics between parents and non-parents, mothers and fathers. The analysis sample is derived from the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation Study (NTIES), a longitudinal study designed to evaluate the implementation
Working within an integrative framework of human resource management (HRM) in context (Jackson & Schuler, 1995), and theorizing from an integrated institutional and resource dependence perspective (Oliver, 1991), this study investigated whether factors in the internal and external organizational environments are associated with the presence of a counseling\\/rehabilitative response by employers to identified employee substanceabuse. Data were collected at
Working within an integrative framework of human resource management (HRM) in context (Jackson & Schuler, 1995), and theorizing from an integrated institutional and resource dependence perspective (Oliver, 1991), this study investigated whether factors in the internal and external organizational environments are associated with the presence of a counseling\\/rehabilitative response by employers to identified employee substanceabuse. Data were collected at
Presents findings from a questionnaire in which inmates were queried regarding their perceptions of a residential substanceabuse treatment program. Findings reveal that inmates enrolled in the first and/or third phase of the treatment tended to be more positive in their perception of program content, therapeutic atmosphere, and quality of…
In October 2002, the Food and Drug Administration approved buprenorphine for use in the treatment of opioid dependence. Successful diffusion, adoption, and implementation of this medication within the treatment field depend in part on substanceabuse counselors. Using questionnaire data obtained from 2,298 counselors in community-based treatment programs in the private and public sectors between June 2002 and July 2004,
Hannah K. Knudsen; Lori J. Ducharme; Paul M. Roman; Tanja Link
Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substanceabuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…
A 12-month outcome study was conducted on 129 patients discharged from a hospital-based substanceabuse treatment program in an effort to identify the progress of patients after treatment, evaluate the treatment program, and improve the program based on the evaluation. Subjects completed two demographic questionnaires and a 12-month post-discharge…
This review synthesized findings from 17 studies since 1998 regarding evaluation of outpatient treatments for adolescent substanceabuse. These studies represented systematic design advances in adolescent clinical trial science. The research examined 46 different intervention conditions with a total sample of 2,307 adolescents. The sample included…
Available evidence suggests that substanceabuse in Hawaii is a substantial problem. The three major objectives of this study were to determine qualitatively Hawaii's human service organizations' perspective regarding (1) the magnitude of the statewide substanceabuse problem, (2) the unmet needs of the state's substanceabuse treatment system, and (3) the features of the problem unique to Hawaii's many
Beth E. Waitzfelder; Charles C. Engel; Fred I. Gilbert
It has been found that > 60% of bipolar I and almost 50% of bipolar II patients have a history of substanceabuse (Regier et al., 1990). While previous studies have examined comorbidity of bipolar disorder and substanceabuse, little has been done to examine the effect of substanceabuse on the course of bipolar disorder. There has also been
Objective. Successful substanceabuse treatment requires many changes in behavior, attitude and skills. Culturally tailored approaches to substanceabuse treatment have shown initial success, but are not yet accepted as best practice models. In order to document programme effectiveness of a new culturally tailored substanceabuse treatment programme on the rural island of Molokai, Hawaii, the authors worked to develop
This study explored the interactive effect of substanceabuse and depression on social competence among 106 adolescent inpatients (57% female, 86% Caucasian). Substanceabuse and depression were conceptualized using dimensional ratings of illness severity based on adolescent interviews, whereas social competence was conceptualized using parent ratings of adolescent behavior. Cross-sectional analyses revealed that substanceabuse and depression had a negative
Several studies suggest a high comorbidity of substanceabuse and schizophrenia, associated with higher frequency of relapse, more positive symptoms and depression, cognitive impairment, poorer outcome and treatment response. A high incidence of substanceabuse is also observed in first-episode patients. Among patients with substanceabuse, the onset precedes the onset of psychosis of several years in most cases. All
MC Mauri; LS Volonteri; A Colasanti; MA Brambilla; L Cerruti
Adolescent substanceabuse is best understood as an adaptive behavior by an individual embedded within a rigid family organization. Substanceabuse helps the individual deal with distress associated with family interactions. It becomes a means for raising estimates of self-appraisal and asserting some control over self and the environment. The family is involved in numerous ways in the substanceabuse
This article discusses the use of play therapy and art therapy treatment techniques for persons in substanceabuse treatment who have a history of incest victimization. While substanceabuse treatment focuses on substanceabuse, neglecting to address issues related to past incest contact may increase the potential for relapse. This population displays unique characteristics that may prevent them from participating
Problem: Greater awareness of the role of parental substanceabuse in child maltreatment makes it imperative that the substanceabuse treatment and child welfare systems coordinate services for these parents. Yet little is known about the characteristics of child-welfare involved parents (primarily mothers) who enter into substanceabuse…
Recent years have brought an increased interest in the treatment needs of pregnant substanceabusers. This article reviews the literature on this subject, providing an overview of what is known about the prevalence of substanceabuse during pregnancy; the factors in women’s lives, especially pregnant women, that lead to substanceabuse and that facilitate and impede treatment success; and the
This nationwide, quantitative study documented licensed counselors' perceived self-efficacy of adequately providing substanceabuse services. Despite their lack of substanceabuse training, counselors were highly confident in their ability to provide quality substanceabuse services. Counselor training implications are discussed. (Contains 3…
Chandler, Nichelle; Balkin, Richard S.; Perepiczka, Michelle
The SubstanceAbuse Mental Health Services Administration has promoted HIV testing and counseling as an evidence-based practice. Nevertheless, adoption of HIV testing in substanceabuse treatment programs has been slow. This article describes the experience of a substanceabuse treatment agency where, following participation in a clinical trial,…
Haynes, L. F.; Korte, J. E.; Holmes, B. E.; Gooden, L.; Matheson, T.; Feaster, D. J.; Leff, J. A.; Wilson, L.; Metsch, L. R.; Schackman, B. R.
To determine whether magnitude of risk in offspring of fathers with substance use disorders differs with respect to liability severity according to presence or absence of the father in the home. Boys age 10–12 having biological substanceabusing fathers living at home were compared to a matched group of boys where the biological substanceabusing fathers were separated from their
Ralph E. Tarter; Katie Schultz; Levent Kirisci; Marija Dunn
Youth engagement in substance use treatment is an important construct for research and practice, but it has been thinly and inconsistently defined in the literature. Most research has measured engagement by initiation, attendance, and retention in treatment. Because youth generally enter substance use treatment as a result of compliance with external requirements, defining engagement in this way might be insufficient. This qualitative participatory research study describes five focus groups with 31 adults working with youth in substance use treatment. Focus groups were designed and conducted by youth researchers in collaboration with university-based partners. We categorized participants' descriptions of engagement into five domains, identified as "CARES": Conduct, Attitudes, Relationships, Empowerment, and Social Context. These domains represent a comprehensive and ecologically-based definition of engagement that situates engagement in the context and trajectory of youth development, has clear implications for assertive clinical practice, and provides a foundation for developing an operationalized measure. PMID:24046184
This study examines the relationship between a history of physical and sexual abuse (PhySexAbuse) and drug and alcohol related consequences. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of data from 359 male and 111 female subjects recruited from an inpatient detoxification unit. The Inventory of Drug Use Consequences (InDUC), measured negative life consequences of substance use. Eighty-one percent of women and 69%
Jane Liebschutz; Jacqueline B. Savetsky; Richard Saitz; Nicholas J. Horton; Christine Lloyd-Travaglini; Jeffrey H. Samet
Reviews research on risk factors for adolescent substance use disorders (SUD) and discusses possible relationships between SUDs and learning disabilities (LD). Individual level factors (genetic, biologic, other familial, and psychiatric) emerge as very important in the risk equation, as well as the interaction between individual risk and environmental conditions. Commonalities between SUD risk and LD include prenatal substance exposure, family history of SUD, conduct disorder, social skills deficits, and academic failure; however, further research is needed to establish whether individuals with LD face a specific risk for SUDs, and if so, what the nature of that risk might be. PMID:15503578
Longer treatment duration has consistently been related to improved substance use outcomes. This study examined how tailored women's programming and organizational characteristics were related to duration in outpatient substanceabuse treatment in women. Data were from two waves of a national outpatient substanceabuse treatment unit survey (n = 571 in 1999/2000, n = 566 in 2005). Analyses were conducted separately for methadone and nonmethadone programs. Negative binomial regressions tested associations between organizational determinants, tailored programming, and women's treatment duration. Of the tailored programming services, childcare was significantly related to longer duration in the nonmethadone programs, but few other organizational factors were. Tailored programming was not associated to treatment duration in methadone programs, but ownership, affiliation, and accreditation were related to longer duration. Study findings suggest evidence for how external relationships related to resources, treatment constraints, and legitimacy may influence women's treatment duration. Methadone programs may be more vulnerable to external influences. PMID:19038526
Longer treatment duration has consistently been related to improved substance use outcomes. This study examined how tailored women's programming and organizational characteristics were related to duration in outpatient substanceabuse treatment in women. Data were from two waves of a national outpatient substanceabuse treatment unit survey (n=571 in 1999/2000, n=566 in 2005). Analyses were conducted separately for methadone and non-methadone programs. Negative binomial regressions tested associations between organizational determinants, tailored programming, and women's treatment duration. Of the tailored programming services, childcare was significantly related to longer duration in the non-methadone programs, but few other organizational factors were. Tailored programming was not associated to treatment duration in methadone programs, but ownership, affiliation, and accreditation were related to longer duration. Study findings suggest evidence for how external relationships related to resources, treatment constraints, and legitimacy may influence women's treatment duration. Methadone programs may be more vulnerable to external influences.
This paper reports on a study designed to explore factors contributing to better outcomes for substanceabusing pregnant and parenting women in residential treatment, and, as a result, contribute to better outcomes for their children. The setting was three live-in units focusing in supporting both abstinence from substances and mother-child relationship. Participants were 18 mother-baby pairs in treatment from perinatal phase to 4 months of child’s age. Pilot results demonstrated more sensitive maternal interaction tended to be associated with higher pre-and postnatal reflective functioning and better child developmental scores at 4 months of child’s age. Reflective functioning (RF) refers to the essential human capacity to understand behavior in light of underlying mental states and intentions. An indicated conclusion is that enhancement of maternal reflective ability seems an important focus in developing the content and effectiveness of interventions for substanceabusing mothers.
This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…
The impact of childhood abuse, both childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical abuse (CPA), is well documented. Both CSA and CPA have been associated with a number of mental health difficulties, including substance dependence. Though the association between abuse and mental health problems is well documented, what has received little attention is the impact that abuse histories may have
Individuals with disabilities are a growing population that confronts multiple disadvantages from social and environmental determinants of health. In particular, the 7-8 million people in the U.S. with an intellectual disability (ID) suffer disproportionately from substance use problems, largely because of a lack of empirical evidence to inform…
The enquiry of suicide is of particular importance. According to WHO statistics suicide in people aged from 15 to 24 years has shown the greatest increase of relative mortality. In the group of suicidal adolescents, depression, behavioural disorders, abuse of different substances and personality deviations are frequent factors in presence. The aim of our investigation was to determine the correlation between psychoactive substanceabuse and the occurrence of suicidal thoughts in adolescents. The specific "Q 2000" test was used to question 600 adolescents, from Tuzla and Sarajevo Cantons, with the same gender and age distribution and rural-urban ambient. The more prevailing suicidal idea occurrence was observed in cannabis abusers (50.0%) and alcohol abusers (36.6%) in comparison to non-abusers regardless gender and/or living ambient (settlement types) (19.5% and 17.6% per each, x2 = 17.184 p = 0.00001). The augmentation in number of suicidal ideas was not observed in tobacco smokers. PMID:14528719
This review focuses on alcohol and substanceabuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substanceabuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substanceabuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substanceabuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes. PMID:24025323
Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M
Alcohol and other drug use among adolescents has been a public health problem for decades. Although some substance use may be developmentally routine, a concerning number of adolescents meet criteria for a substance use disorder and could greatly benefit from a quality treatment experience. However, parents and health care providers want evidence of the efficacy of adolescent-specific treatment programs. This review summarizes four factors surrounding the efficacy of current adolescent treatment programs: 1) adolescent-specific treatment services; 2) the variety of therapeutic modalities; 3) relapse and recovery rates; and 4) the need for evidence-based, quality assessments and research. Current adolescent treatment efforts are summarized, and the recent literature regarding the efficacy of adolescent treatment and recovery rates is discussed.
Background Although acculturation to the United States has been associated with an increase in substance, mood, and anxiety disorders in Latino populations, few studies have examined this concept relative to comorbidity among these syndromes. Methods This study: (1) compares the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among Puerto Ricans with substance use disorders living in San Juan (Puerto Rico) to those who have migrated to New Haven (Connecticut); and (2) examines the association between acculturation-related stress and the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among those who have migrated to New Haven. Results Lifetime levels of nearly all comorbid psychiatric disorders among respondents with substance use disorders (SUD) was generally similar across sites. However, the risk of any co-occurring psychiatric disorder was higher among SUD cases in New Haven who reported high levels of total acculturation stress and family-specific acculturation stress. These findings were generally accounted for by associations between affective disorders and high scores on these indicators of acculturation stress. Conclusions The overall prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity are remarkably similar among Puerto Rican substanceabusers whether they live in San Juan or have migrated to New Haven, thereby demonstrating robustness to differences in geographic location. Nevertheless, the degree of acculturation-related family stress is positively associated with co-occurring substance and psychiatric disorders, particularly affective disorders. Intervention in family strain related to the acculturation process may diminish the development of comorbid mental disorders and assist in implementing successful treatment of substanceabuse.
Conway, Kevin P.; Swendsen, Joel D.; Dierker, Lisa; Canino, Glorisa; Merikangas, Kathleen R.
Objective Negative affect has been consistently linked with substance use/problems in prior research. The present study sought to build upon these findings by exploring how an individual’s characteristic responding to negative affect impacts substanceabuse risk. Trait negative affect was examined in relation to substanceabuse outcomes along with two variables tapping into response to negative affect: Distress Tolerance, an individual’s perceived ability to tolerate negative affect, and Negative Urgency, the tendency to act rashly while experiencing distress. Method Participants were 525 first-year college students (48.1% male, 81.1% Caucasian), who completed self-report measures assessing personality traits and alcohol-related problems, and a structured interview assessing past and current substance use. Relations were tested using Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial regression models, and each of the personality variables was tested in a model on its own, and in a model where all three traits were accounted for. Results Negative Urgency emerged as the best predictor, relating to every one of the substance use outcome variables even when trait negative affect and Distress Tolerance were accounted for. Conclusions These findings suggest that Negative Urgency is an important factor to consider in developing prevention and intervention efforts aimed at reducing substance use and problems.
Kaiser, Alison J.; Milich, Richard; Lynam, Donald R.; Charnigo, Richard J.
All too often, children are victims of violence, crime, and abuse. This victimization may take the form of physical assault, child maltreatment, sexual abuse, or bullying. They may also witness such events in their homes, schools, and communities. Some ch...
Substance use was considered to be primarily a male problem, and many substanceabuse studies are conducted with a predominance of male participants. However, recent substanceabuse research indicates significant gender differences in the substance-related epidemiology, social factors and characteristics, biological responses, progressions to dependence, medical consequences, co-occurring psychiatric disorders, and barriers to treatment entry, retention, and completion. The epidemiology
The aims of the study were to assess the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA),\\u000a and to validate it against external criteria of intimate partner violence. The Spanish version of the ISA was administered\\u000a to 223 non-abused women and 182 victims of intimate partner violence. Internal consistency coefficients oscillated between\\u000a 0.88 and 0.98.
Anna Torres; Purificación Navarro; Lluïsa García-Esteve; Maria Jesús Tarragona; Carlos Ascaso; Zoe Herreras; Estel Gelabert; Maria Luisa Imaz; Alba Roca; Susana Subirà; Rocío Martín-Santos
Mothers with substance use disorders who lack access to child care are often unable to enter or remain in substanceabuse\\u000a treatment. This study examined the availability of child care in outpatient substanceabuse treatment facilities and whether\\u000a or not certain facility characteristics were associated with the availability of child care. Using data from the 2008 National\\u000a Survey of Substance
Jonathan David Brown; Sonya Vartivarian; Cathie E. Alderks
This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n=497) were matched with children without such histories (n=395) and assessed in adulthood (Mage=39.5). Prevalence, number, and variety of four types of IPV (psychological abuse, physical violence, sexual violence, and injury) were measured. Over 80% of both groups - childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and controls - reported some form of IPV victimization during the past year (most commonly psychological abuse) and about 75% of both groups reported perpetration of IPV toward their partner. Controlling for age, sex, and race, overall CAN [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.60, 95% CI [1.03, 2.49
Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Dutton, Mary Ann
Background and Methods: The treatment of substanceabuse is an important health service available in all industrialized countries throughout the world. Cost of treatment and its benefit or economic value is an important policy issue. Reduction in health care cost is one alternative way to measure benefits. This paper reviews a series of studies (all from the US) which address
The Dynamic Assessment and Referral System for SubstanceAbuse (DARSSA) conducts a computerized substanceabuse assessment; prints personalized summary reports that include tailored substanceabuse treatment referral lists; and, for individuals who provide authorization, automatically faxes their contact information to a “best match” substanceabuse treatment provider (dynamic referral). After piloting the program and resolving problems that were noted, we
Edwin D. Boudreaux; Kristyna L. Bedek; Donna Gilles; Brigitte M. Baumann; Steven Hollenberg; Sherrill A. Lord; Grant Grissom
Research on the implementation of smoking cessation counseling within substanceabuse treatment organizations is limited. This study examines associations among counselors’ implementation of therapy sessions dedicated to smoking cessation, organizational factors, and counselor-level variables. A two-level hierarchical linear model including organization- and counselor-level variables was estimated using survey data collected from 1,794 counselors working in 359 treatment organizations. Overall implementation of smoking cessation counseling was low. In the final model, implementation was positively associated with counselors’ knowledge of the Public Health Service’ s clinical practice guideline, perceived managerial support, and belief that smoking cessation had a positive impact on recovery. Private versus public funding and presence of a formal smoking cessation program were organization-level variables which interacted with these counselor-level effects. These results highlight the importance of organizational contexts as well as counselors’ knowledge and attitudes for effective implementation of smoking cessation counseling in substanceabuse treatment organizations.
Psychotropic substanceabuse and addiction are very prevalent among individuals with major psychiatric disorders world wide. However, this significant association is poorly explained. The dopaminergic circuits have been implemented in addiction as well as in schizophrenia. Recently the important role of glutamatergic neurotransmission has gained attention and current theoretical models of psychosis and substanceabuse support the role of interactions between glutamate and other neurotransmitters in the patho-physiology of both disorders. However, the identification of the underlying genetic risk factors remains challenging and not a single genomic variant has been identified with certainty, possibly due to important limitations of the methods used. Clinical trials with glutamatergic neurotransmission modulators, even though still controversial, support the role of glutamate in psychosis and justify further research.
Twelve-step programs have stressed the importance of spiritual practices for over four decades. The spiritual principles embodied in the twelve-step programs may be key in their success of recovering addicts/alcoholics with an overall recovery rate of 34%. A literature search revealed little available data on spiritual principles and practices and their effects on long-term recovery from substanceabuse. This study compared two groups of recovering addicts, those with one year of recovery and those with less than one year and a history of relapse. Spiritual practices were measured using a five-point Likert scale questionnaire. The results of the study indicated a relationship between spiritual practices and long-term recovery from substanceabuse. PMID:10067489
Participation in syringe exchange programs (SEPs) is associated with many individual and public health benefits, but may have little impact on reducing drug use without concurrent treatment engagement. The present study evaluated rates of drug use, other risk behaviors, and illegal activities in newly registered SEP participants (n = 240) enrolled versus not enrolled in substanceabuse treatment over a 4-month observation window, and examined the effect of days in treatment on these outcomes. After controlling for baseline differences, SEP registrants enrolled in treatment (n = 113) reported less days of opioid and cocaine use, injection drug use, illegal activities, and incarceration than those not enrolled in treatment (n=127). For those enrolled in treatment, days of treatment was strongly correlated with each of these outcomes. These findings provide good evidence for a dose-response effect of treatment in syringe exchangers, and suggest that substanceabuse treatment significantly expands the harm reduction benefits of SEP participation.
Kidorf, Michael; King, Van L.; Pierce, Jessica; Kolodner, Ken; Brooner, Robert K.
The article analyzes the portrayal of the male perpetrator of heterosexual domestic violence in a selection of contemporary Spanish texts (novel, drama, and autobiography) that form part of a clearly discernible cultural response to the issue of intimate partner violence in Spain today. It reads the figure of the abuser in conjunction with a range…
Objective: To assess adolescents' preferences for substanceabuse screening in primary medical care settings.Design\\/Methods: Twelve- to 18-year-old patients (N = 2133) arriving for routine care at a network of primary care sites completed an interview that included demographic items, the CRAFFT screen, and a questionnaire assessing preferences for screening method (paper questionnaire, computer, oral interview by nurse or doctor). A
John R. Knight; Sion K. Harris; Lon Sherritt; Shari Van Hook; Nohelani Lawrence; Traci Brooks; Peggy Carey; Robert Kossack; John Kulig
This family and small community-based study reports the occurrence of alcoholism and co-occurring substanceabuse in Southern Cheyenne Indians living in western Oklahoma. Sociocultural factors complicate operationalization of clinical data into standard (DSM-III-R) psychiatric disorder terminology; understanding sociocultural factors is essential for assessing the high rate of addictive disorders in this group. To obtain reliable and valid clinical diagnoses, data
G. L. Brown; B. J. Albaugh; R. W. Robin; S. G. Goodson; M. Trunzo; D. K. Wynne; D. Goldman
Objective: Counselor detection of co-occurring disorders is critical to ensuring that clients with mental disorders entering substanceabuse treatment receive appropriate care. This study sought to: (1) examine correspondence between client-reported psychiatric symptoms and client and counselor ratings of need for mental health treatment, and (2) explore client- and program-level characteristics associated with client and counselor underrating. Methods: Psychiatric symptoms
Amy A. Mericle; Cherie Martin; Deni Carise; Meghan Love
This article examines the extent to which studies of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and prescription drug abuse among older adults appear in the leading gerontological and substanceabuse journals. The authors reviewed articles published in the 10 social science gerontological journals and the 10 social science substanceabuse journals with the highest 5-year impact factors in PubMed from 2000 to 2010. Articles were selected that presented original research on alcohol, substance, or prescription abuse with older adults aged 50 and older; and were identified through aging and substanceabuse-related Medical Subject Headings and word searches of titles and abstracts (N = 634). Full text of each article was reviewed by the authors, and consensus determined inclusion in the final sample. Of the 19,953 articles published respectively in the top 10 gerontological and substanceabuse journals, 181 articles met the inclusion criteria of reporting findings related to substance use disorders among older adults. Specifically, 0.9% (102 of 11,700) of articles from the top 10 gerontology journals and 1.0% (79 of 8,253) of articles from the top 10 substanceabuse journals met the criteria. Most published articles addressed alcohol misuse/abuse or polysubstance abuse with few articles addressing illicit drug use or the misuse of prescription medications. Less than 1% of articles published in the 10 gerontology journals and the 10 substanceabuse journals with the highest 5-year impact scores addressed substanceabuse in older adults. Practitioners treating health and/or mental health problems are at a disadvantage in accurately identifying and treating these conditions in older adult populations without a proper understanding of the role of comorbid substance use disorders.
Rosen, Daniel; Engel, Rafael J.; Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Engel, Yael; Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; Reynolds, Charles F.
Objective To examine the relationship of organizational characteristics of substanceabuse treatment centers with their use of quality management practices (total quality management [TQM]) and the contribution of TQM use to a center's provision of comprehensive care and to use of evidence-based treatment practices. Data Sources Data were collected from a national sample of over 700 private and public substanceabuse treatment centers in the National Treatment Center Study. Study Design The design was a cross-sectional field study. The key variables were three TQM practices, the provision of comprehensive treatment services, and the implementation of evidence-based treatment practices. Numerous organizational characteristics were controlled. Data Collection The data were obtained through interviews with administrative directors and clinical directors of the treatment centers in 2002–2004. Principal Findings In multivariate models, TQM practices were positively related to provision of comprehensive care and use of evidence-based practices. A limited set of organizational characteristics predicted the use of TQM practices. Conclusions Substanceabuse treatment centers' implementation of TQM processes may be positively related to the quality and cost-effectiveness of care provided.
Background Previous research has indicated that aggressive behaviour and DSM-IV cluster B personality disorders (PD) may be associated with professionals' emotional reactions to clients, and that cluster C PD may be associated with positive emotional reactions. Methods Staff members recruited from workshops completed a self-report inventory of emotional reactions to patients, the Feeling Word Checklist-58, and substanceabusers completed a self-report of DSM-IV personality disorder, the DSM-IV and ICD-10 Personality Disorder Questionnaire. Correlational analysis and multiple regression analysis was used to assess the associations between personality disorders and emotional reations. Results Cluster B disorder features were associated with feeling distance to patients, and cluster C disorder features were associated with feeling helpful towards patients. Cluster A disorders had no significant impact on emotional reactions. Conclusion The findings confirm clinical experiences that personality disorder features in patients with substanceabuse have an impact on staff members reactions to them. These reactions should be considered in supervision of staff, and in treatment models for patients with co-morbid personality disorders and substanceabuse.
Background: The study examined the effect of the early working alliance on outcome in outpatient substanceabuse treatment. Methods: A total of 327 clients and 33 therapists participated in the study. Data were collected in southern and western Finland in outpatient treatment units (N = 7). The dependent variables were percentage of days abstinent…
Knuuttila, Vesa; Kuusisto, Katja; Saarnio, Pekka; Nummi, Tapio
America's substanceabuse epidemic has come to rural America. Adults in small metropolitan and rural areas are just as likely as those in urban America to use and abuse illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. Young teens in small metropolitan and rural areas are more likely to abusesubstances than those in large metro areas. Based on a wide variety…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This manuscript reports on the development and evaluation of a computer-based substanceabuse prevention program for middle school-aged adolescents, called "HeadOn: SubstanceAbuse Prevention for Grades 6-8TM". This self-guided program was designed to deliver effective drug abuse prevention science to youth via computer-based educational…
Marsch, Lisa A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Badger, Gary J.
Substanceabuse, especially among adolescents, has long been an important issue in society. In light of the adverse impact of substanceabuse, scholars, educators, and policy-makers have proposed different approaches to prevent and reduce such abuse. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the two prominent approaches--educational and…
Tze, Virginia M. C.; Li, Johnson C.-H.; Pei, Jacqueline
High on everyone's list as both a contributor and a consequence of childhood substanceabuse is “school failure.” There is much written about some types of disabilities in relation to either drug abuse or school failure—never both. This article focuses on three areas: substanceabuse, school-related difficulties, and childhood disabilities. This effort (the first in a two part series) focuses
Peter W. Dowrick; Carl G. Leukefeld; Robert A. Stodden
Comparison of attitudes of 40 young adult substanceabusers and 40 nonabusers found perceived parental rejection in childhood was higher among abusers than nonabusers and substanceabusers were more impaired in their current psychological adjustment than nonabusers. These two variables and education level produced classification accuracy of 91.2…
A drug is a substance that produces a psychoactive, chemical or medicinal effect on the user. The psychoactive effect of mood-altering drugs is modulated by the user's perception of the risks of drug use, his or her ability to control drug use and the demographic, socioeconomic and cultural context. The ability to control drug use may vary along a continuum from compulsive use at one end to controlled use at the other. The "drug problem" has been socially constructed, and the presence of a moral panic has led to public support for the prohibitionist approach. The legalization approach has severely attacked the dominant prohibitionist approach but has failed to gain much support in society because of its extreme libertarian views. The harm reduction approach, which is based on public health principles, avoids the extremes of value-loaded judgements on drug use and focuses on the reduction of drug-related harm through pragmatic and low-threshold programs. This approach is likely to be important in tackling the drug problem in the 21st century. PMID:10870502
This study used Q methodology to better understand battered women's views about the criminal justice system (CJS). Fifty-eight abused and formerly abused women, representing a broad range of experiences, were involved in the study. Participants sorted 72 statements about domestic violence and the CJS according to how strongly they agreed with each…
Objective: To determine the prevalence of five forms of abuse/neglect during childhood and adolescence in a group of schizophrenic patients with a history of violence. Methods: Twenty-eight patients hospitalized in a highly secured psychiatric unit were included. Abuse and neglect during patients' growth were evaluated with the childhood trauma…
Addiction to substances continues to be a significant public health concern in the United States. The following review of current pharmacological treatments discusses a range of substances: nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, and opioids. The goal is to provide an overview of currently available and new pharmacological treatments for substance use disorders, while also addressing the pharmacothera-peutic challenges remaining. The significant advances in pharmacotherapy have had limited utilization, however. For example, naltrexone for alcoholism is infrequently prescribed, buprenorphine for opiates still has relatively few qualified prescribers, and stimulants have no Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy. These pharmacotherapies are needed, with the rate of even the relatively uncommon abuse of opiates now rising sharply.
This research identified three subgroups of drug-involved men based on severity of self-reported violence perpetration against intimate or nonintimate partners among a sample of 148 men selected from a subsample of participants in the Kentucky National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) AIDS Cooperative Agreement. Men in the No Violence group accounted for approximately 19% of the total respondents, men in the Moderate Violence Severity and Extreme Violence Severity groups comprises 56% and 25% of the sample, respectively. Men in the Extreme Violence Severity group experienced significantly more psychological victimization as children and more frequent physical childhood abuse than did their peers. Men in the Extreme Violence Severity group reported having earlier involvement in the criminal justice system and lawbreaking behavior; they also reported higher frequency of marijuana and crack use. Implications for treatment and future research are presented. PMID:24672994
The objective of this study was to describe the predictors of substance use relapse of American Indian (AI) women up to one year following substanceabuse treatment. Relapse is defined as any use of alcohol or drugs in the past 30 days at the follow-up points. Data were collected from AI women in a 45-day residential substanceabuse treatment…
Substanceabuse is a prominent risk behavior associated with HIV transmission, particularly for men who have sex with men (MSM) and who engage in sex while using substances. This paper argues that substanceabuse treatment has significant value as an HIV-prevention method to the extent that treatment outcome influences sexual risk behaviors for MSM, presumably toward lower risk. We review
This article addresses the relation between services matched to client-identified needs and substanceabuse treatment outcomes for women with children. The study uses data collected for a program evaluation of an enhanced substanceabuse services program for mothers involved with the child welfare system. In-person surveys were conducted with 183 women who were currently attending, or had recently completed substance
BACKGROUND: Substanceabuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substanceabuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an
Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIPs), developed by the Center for SubstanceAbuse Treatment (CSAT), part of the SubstanceAbuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), are best-practice guidelines for the treatment of substance use disorders. CSAT draws on the experience…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005
...in preventing drug and alcohol abuse. As our children's first teachers, parents and guardians can help by talking to their kids about the dangers of substanceabuse. Alongside them, coalitions of teachers, faith-based groups, health care...
The paper analyzes the problem of alcohol and drug abuse among the deaf population focusing on: precipitating factors leading to substanceabuse; barriers to recovery; and descriptions of several treatment centers, programs, and services. (JDD)
Clinician training and supervision are needed to transfer evidence-based practices to community based treatment organizations. Standardized patients (SPs) are used for clinician training and evaluating. However, to be effective for substanceabuse counselors, SPs must realistically portray substanceabuse treatment clients. The current study assessed authenticity of SPs as substanceabuse treatment clients. Twenty-one substanceabuse counselors interviewed SP(s) with differing profiles. Counselors provided quantitative and qualitative ratings of SP authenticity. Counselor responses to the study procedures were analyzed as well. Quantitative results include high authenticity ratings for the SPs but counselors’ subjective responses varied. Counselor’s rated the experience of participating in the study positively and provided constructive comments for future applications of this methodology. Results support future work on SPs as teaching and evaluation tools in substanceabuse counseling. Findings also illustrate the need to refine definitions of authenticity for SPs as substanceabuse clients.
This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substanceabuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substanceabuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substanceabuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substanceabuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substanceabuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493
Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew
Artists create their work in conditions of disequilibrium, states of creative chaos that may appear turbulent but are capable of bringing forth new order. By absorbing information from the environment and discharging it negentropically as new work, artists can be modeled as dissipative systems. A characteristic of chaotic systems is a heightened sensitivity to stimuli, which can generate either positive experiences or negative ones that can lead some artists to substanceabuse and misguided searches for a creative chaos. Alcohol and drug use along with inadequately addressed co-occurring emotional disorders interfere with artists' quest for the nonlinearity of creativity. Instead, metaphorically modeled by a limit cycle of addiction and then a spiral to disorder, the joys of a creative chaos become an elusive chimera for them rather than a fulfilling experience. Untreated mental illness and addiction to substances have shortened the lives of artists such as Vincent Van Gogh, Frida Kahlo, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and Jackson Pollock, all of whom committed suicide. In contrast Edvard Munch and John Callahan, who chose to address their emotional problems and substanceabuse, continued to live and remain creative. Choosing to access previously avoided moments of pain can activate the nonlinear power of self-transformation. PMID:21382261
Victimization is regarded as a significant public health issue, especially among adolescents in urban areas. Although victimization is linked to substance use, the research on victimization among adolescents in treatment is underdeveloped. Given the high rate of victimization among African-American adolescents, further research on the prevalence and correlates of victimization for this population is needed. This knowledge can guide the development of effective treatment and prevention strategies. This study contributed to the research by examining the rate and different types of victimization among a sample of African-American adolescents in an urban substanceabuse treatment program, testing whether victimization is associated with increased levels of psychopathology and high-risk behaviors; and comparing the rates and associations with existing studies of adolescent victimization. It reports on a sample of 259 African-American adolescents receiving substanceabuse treatment in an inner-city program. Fifty-four percent of the subjects reported lifetime victimization. Severity of victimization was associated with depression, generalized anxiety disorder, traumatic stress disorder, and conduct disorder, although the effect sizes were relatively small. Lifetime victimization exhibited a relationship of small to moderate strength with high-risk behaviors (i.e., illegal activity, gang membership, multiple sex partners and unprotected sex). Service implications and recommendations for future research are provided.
For the first time since the year 2000 the number of death due to substanceabuse of illegal drugs has increased in Germany in 2007 (+8 % compared to 2006). Emergency situations due to drug abuse are frequent, particular in big cities. They may be, however, difficult to diagnose and / or treat for an emergency physician on scene because of a lack of diagnostic tools, the local and personal surroundings, and the unknown number and nature of drugs. Many drug intoxications must be considered suicidal. On the other hand, drug intoxications may mask (other) life-threatening conditions. Emergency situations due to withdrawal offer the possibility to motivate patients to take advantage of specialist-guided abstinence programs. PMID:19115183
Kinn, Michael; Holzbach, Rüdiger; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald Bernhard
Testing and counseling, along with community outreach, have been identified as valuable in the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other blood-borne diseases. This article assesses the extent to which outpatient substanceabuse treatment (OSAT) programs provide such services. Longitudinal data for 1988-2000 were analyzed from the National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey (NDATSS). Random-effects regression was used to examine factors associated with the provision of prevention services. HIV testing, which had became more common between 1990 and 1995, continued to proliferate between 1995 and 2000. The proportion of units that provide HIV testing and counseling increased from 66% to 86%. The proportion of units that provide HIV community outreach increased significantly before 1995 but then slightly decreased from 77% to 73% between 1995 and 2000. In conclusion, HIV testing and counseling widely proliferated in OSAT care. However, OSAT units remain less likely to offer HIV community outreach services. PMID:16377451
Pollack, Harold A; D'Aunno, Thomas; Lamar, Barbara
Drug and alcohol abuse by criminal offenders remains at an all time high. Residential substanceabuse and treatment (RSAT) programs were developed to address the drug and alcohol treatment needs of inmates in prisons. Typically, such programs range in length from 6 to 12 months, have an Alcoholics Anonymous and/or Narcotics Anonymous component, and occur in a therapeutic community environment. Some programs also include a cognitive self-change component. Inmate participation in their programming is crucial to the success of a therapeutic community treatment environment, yet there is little research on the perceptions of RSAT inmates regarding their programming. In this research, the authors describe, compare, and contrast the perceptions of inmate clients of two RSAT programs in a rural mountain state. PMID:12491846
Stohr, Mary K; Hemmens, Craig; Shapiro, Brian; Chambers, Brian; Kelley, Laura
This study investigated the relationship between cigarette-smoking status and 12-month alcohol and marijuana treatment outcomes in a sample of 1,779 adolescents from the Drug Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study for Adolescents. Participants were classified into four groups based on change in cigarette-smoking status from intake to the 12-month follow-up: persistent smokers, nonsmokers, quitters, and smoking initiators. Logistic regression was used to predict likelihood of relapse to alcohol, marijuana, and other drugs after controlling for intake levels and demographic/treatment characteristics. Results found persistent smokers and smoking initiators to have significantly greater odds of alcohol and marijuana relapse compared with quitters. Furthermore, persistent smokers and smoking initiators were also found to have distinctively shorter periods to marijuana relapse at follow-up. Implications for the implementation of tobacco cessation treatment in the context of substanceabuse treatment for adolescents are discussed. PMID:19004603
de Dios, Marcel A; Vaughan, Ellen L; Stanton, Cassandra A; Niaura, Raymond
For the first time since the year 2000 the number of death due to substanceabuse of illegal drugs has increased in Germany in 2007 (+8 % compared to 2006). Emergency situations due to drug abuse are frequent, particular in big cities. They may be, however, difficult to diagnose and/or treat for an emergency physician on scene because of a lack of diagnostic tools, the local and personal surroundings, and the unknown number and nature of drugs. Many drug intoxications must be considered suicidal. On the other hand, drug intoxications may mask (other) life-threatening conditions. Emergency situations due to withdrawal offer the possibility to motivate patients to take advantage of specialist-guided abstinence programs. PMID:19016385
Kinn, Michael; Holzbach, Rüdiger; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald Bernhard
The present study examined the utility of several substanceabuse factors in predicting general and violent recidivism. A quantitative meta-analytic review was used to examine five substanceabuse predictor categories. Forty-five studies were selected for inclusion, producing 116 individual effect size estimates. Overall, the meta-analysis generated a weighted mean effect size of .10 between substanceabuse and general recidivism. A
This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature examining the relation between childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substanceabuse. A number of researchers have statistically controlled for conduct disorder (CD) when examining the ADHD—substance-abuse relation. These studies have generally found that the ADHD—substance-abuse relation disappears when the high overlap between ADHD and CD is taken into account.
This paper reviews the literature on women's chemical dependency and its effects on their children. Many risk factors (e.g., a history of traumatic exposure) and consequences (interference with parenting) of substanceabuse are unique for women, giving rise to special treatment needs of substance-abusing women with children. Substance-abusing mothers also experience unique barriers to receiving the services they need to
This article explores relationships among exposure to childhood abuse and traumatic events, adolescent conduct problems and substanceabuse, and adult psychological distress and criminal behaviors in a sample of substance-abusing women offenders (N = 440). Latent variable structural equation models revealed direct relationships between several childhood traumatic events and greater adolescent conduct problems and substanceabuse. Conduct problems predicted more
Christine E. Grella; Judith A. Stein; Lisa Greenwell
Research and treatment for partner abuse and child abuse are relatively distinct enterprises, yet when the theoretical and research literatures related to these two forms of family violence are examined together, the likelihood of meaningful associations is strikingly apparent. Partner abuse and child abuse co-occur more often than one might expect by chance, and in the context of overlapping theories and risk factors, this suggests that a more integrated conceptualization might be fruitful. We summarize and provide a framework for describing the large number of similar predictors of partner and child abuse, identify some potentially interesting dyadic differences, comment on how our research methodologies could address an integrated area of family violence, and suggest some directions for future research and treatment. PMID:11771795
A substantial body of research supports a strong cross-sectional and longitudinal association between substance misuse and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV). This article briefly addresses the theoretical connection between substance use and intimate partner violence and research on the association between substance misuse and IPV. Studies examining the effect of individual and couples-based addiction treatments on IPV are reviewed. The implications of this work and future directions for research are discussed.
Stuart, Gregory L.; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Temple, Jeff R.
Methods to formally classify substance use disorders in the United States began in the early 1950's with the publication of the first 'Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders' (DSM) by the American Psychiatric Association. The evolution of t...
The number of incidents of domestic violence appears to be continually on the increase. Domestic violence and repeated victimisation and offending can even give rise to fatality. Evaluation of the quality of service delivery and understanding of domestic violence by community members and health care workers show poor results with some people still clinging to myths coming from cultural beliefs. The goal of this article is to explore and describe the lived experience of women subjected to domestic violence and abuse; and to make recommendations for nursing practice, nursing education and nursing research to support women who were subjected to domestic violence and abuse, in facilitating their mental health and optimising their ability to terminate the abusive situation. The framework of the Theory for Health Promotion in Nursing (Rand Afrikaans University, 2000) was used. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual research design and in-depth, semi-structured, qualitative research interviews were used. Guba's model of trustworthiness (Poggenpoel, 1998: 348-350) was applied. Guba's model for trustworthiness was used (Poggenpoel, 1998: 348-350) Data analysis was done according to Tesch's method (Poggenpoel, 1998: 343-352). The target population of this study was white women in Middelburg, Mpumalanga Province, that experienced abuse for at least the last year and were still married to or in the process of divorcing the abuser. The researcher used a sample of nine participants of which one was involved in the pilot study. PMID:16509100
This study examined whether witnessed community and parental violence represented risk factors for substance use and delinquency among adolescents, beyond the contribution of direct violence and other risk factors. We also examined the role of violence characteristics. Participants were a national sample of 3,614 adolescents. Structured telephone interviews assessed demographics, trauma history, witnessed violence, delinquency, and substance use. While accounting for trauma history and other risk factors, witnessed community and parental violence were associated with delinquency. Community violence was associated with substance use. Chronic violence, knowing the perpetrator, and violence outside of school were correlated with substance use and delinquency among adolescents who witnessed community violence. These findings highlight the importance of targeting witnessed violence in prevention and intervention efforts.
Zinzow, Heidi M.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; Hanson, Rochelle F.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
Responses from 50 practicing therapeutic recreation specialists indicate that physical activity programs are an important part of substanceabuse treatment. Walking, games, sports, weight training, and aerobics were offered most frequently. Respondents expressed concern about their academic preparation in physical activities and offered suggestions for curricular revision. Recreation or activity therapists responding to this survey indicated that additional coursework would have prepared them more thoroughly to facilitate physical activity programs. Coursework suggested included: physical education, exercise programming, aerobics, aquatics, and physical assessment. Data indicated that over half the respondents received specialized training in physical activities after graduation through continuing education. PMID:8583515
Recent research shows that drug-involved offenders engage in many health-risky behaviors, but relatively little is known about the impact of criminal history on the health of these individuals. In this study, criminal history and health information was collected from 661 male drug-abusing prisoners. Findings showed that having a more extensive criminal history was associated with higher rates of overall physical
Allison Mateyoke-Scrivner; J. Matthew Webster; Matthew L. Hiller; Michele Staton; Carl Leukefeld
Since 2001, the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) has worked to put the results of its trials into the hands of community treatment programs, in large part through its participation in the National Institute on Drug Abuse—SubstanceAbuse and Mental Health Services Administration Blending Initiative and its close involvement with the Center for SubstanceAbuse Treatment's Addiction
Steve Martino; Gregory S. Brigham; Christine Higgins; Steve Gallon; Thomas E. Freese; Lonnetta M. Albright; Eric G. Hulsey; Laurie Krom; Susan A. Storti; Harold Perl; Cathrine D. Nugent; Denise Pintello; Timothy P. Condon
Affiliation with Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and other 12-Step self-help groups is becoming more common at the same time as professional substanceabuse treatment services are becoming less available and of shorter duration. As a result of these two trends, patients' outcomes may be increasingly influenced by the degree to which professional treatment programs help patients take maximum advantage of self-help groups. The present study of 3018 treated veterans examined how the theoretical orientation of a substanceabuse treatment program affects (1) the proportion of its patients that participate in self-help groups, and, (2) the degree of benefit patients derive from participation in self-help groups. Patients treated in 12-Step and eclectic treatment programs had higher rates of subsequent participation in 12-Step self-help groups than did patients treated in cognitive behavioral programs. Furthermore, the theoretical orientation of treatment moderated the outcome of self-help group participation: As the degree of programs' emphasis on 12-Step approaches increased, the positive relationships of 12-Step group participation to better substance use and psychological outcomes became stronger. Hence, it appears that 12-Step oriented treatment programs enhance the effectiveness of 12-Step self-help groups. Findings are discussed in terms of implications for clinical practice and for future evaluations of the combined effects of treatment and self-help groups. PMID:10195833
Humphreys, K; Huebsch, P D; Finney, J W; Moos, R H
This phenomenological qualitative study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by a sample of 29 Mexican immigrant women residing in New York and St. Louis. The findings reveal important insights about culturally specific abuse tactics employed by batterers and the forms of abuse that are experienced as most hurtful to the survivors. Ten different abusive tactics emerged: verbal, economic, physical, sexual, and extended family abuse, social isolation, physical abuse of children, stalking and monitoring, stolen bride, and sex trafficking. Cultural values and expectations appear to be inextricably linked to how the participants characterized the severity of each of the abusive tactics as evidenced by which abusive behaviors the participants found most hurtful. The findings will help service providers have a better understanding of the role cultural context plays in the IPV experiences of Mexican immigrant women. PMID:22978074
Massachusetts was the first public child welfare agency in the country to develop an internal domestic violence program to better identify and serve families where partner abuse and child abuse overlap. This article chronicles the development of the program, from the hiring of battered women's advocates to the implementation of statewide domestic violence protocols for investigators and social workers. Issues
SummarySubstanceabuse is an increasing global socio-medical problem. The present study examines fifteen socio-demographic characteristics of abusers and compares some of the characteristics to randomly selected non-substanceabusers. The results show that substanceabuse is largely a problem of the young/adolescent males (p<0.05). There are significant differences between male and female substanceabuses (p<0.05). Some of them seek treatment four to five years from their initial indulgence. About one third of abusers drop out of school at the secondary level of their education (p<0.05). More than half of the parents of abusers are either divorced, separated or never married (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between the abusers and non-abusers with regards to ethnicity or religious affiliation. Other factors, which are positively related to substanceabuse, are large number of siblings in the family and crime. Surprisingly, most substanceabusers perceive the attitudes of their parents towards them as warm and normal inspite of the emotional and financial stresses they cause to their parents. PMID:17299533
Substanceabuse disorders disproportionately affect minority populations, particularly the American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) population. In 2007, over 1 in 8 American Indians and Alaska Natives aged 12 or older were classified with substance depen...
The White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), at its Third National Leadership Conference on Medical Education in SubstanceAbuse, invited participants to address strategies for advancing physician training in substance use screening and...
This paper describes a community-based substanceabuse prevention program utilizing a cognitive-behavioral curriculum to children and adolescents affected by a substance use disorder in a parent or caretaker.
Several studies suggest a high comorbidity of substanceabuse and schizophrenia, associated with higher frequency of relapse, more positive symptoms and depression, cognitive impairment, poorer outcome and treatment response. A high incidence of substanceabuse is also observed in first-episode patients. Among patients with substanceabuse, the onset precedes the onset of psychosis of several years in most cases. All the patients with a first episode of schizophrenia, at first admission to the Psychiatric Service of Diagnosis and Treatment of Ospedale Maggiore of Milan during the years 1990 to 2004, have been included in our study. The clinical evaluation has been obtained considering the following items of Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS): conceptual disorganization, depressed mood, hostility, hallucinations, unusual content of thought. The results showed that 34.7% of first-episode schizophrenic patients had a lifetime history of substanceabuse. The age of onset of schizophrenia is significantly lower for drug abusers than for patients without any type of abuse and for alcohol abusers (p < 0.005). In multi drug abusers, cannabis resulted the most frequently used (49%), followed by alcohol (13%), and cocaine (4%). Substanceabusers have obtained a significant higher score in "thought disturbance" item (p < 0.005) and in "hostility" item (p < 0.005) compared to non substanceabusers. Non drug abusers showed lower mean scores of "hostility" item compared to cocaine abusers and multi drug abusers (p < 0.005). Our findings seem to indicate that substanceabuse in the early course of illness determines an earlier onset of schizophrenia and increases severity of some psychotic symptoms like "hallucination" and "unusual content of thought". Therefore persons incurring a risk of schizophrenia may be warned of the possible relation between substances and psychosis and have to be counselled against the use of them.
Research on adolescent substanceabuse treatment effectiveness has grown in quantity, as evidenced by several review articles (Deas & Thomas, 2001; Muck, Zempolich, Titus, Fishman, Godley, & Schwebel, 2001; Williams & Chang, 2000). The results have shown substance use dissipates during treatment, but relapse to substance use occurs at high rates following treatment discharge (Catalano, Hawkins, Wells, Miller, & Brewer,
Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest urban population growth rates (around 7% per year) over the past three decades. Dhaka, the capital city, attracts approximately 320,000 migrants from rural areas every year. The city is unable to provide shelter, food, education, healthcare, and employment for its rapidly-expanding population. An estimated 3.4 million people live in the overcrowded slums of Dhaka, and many more live in public spaces lacking the most basic shelter. While a small but growing body of research describes the lives of people who live in urban informal settlements or slums, very little research describes the population with no housing at all. Anecdotally, the homeless population in Dhaka is known to face extortion, erratic unemployment, exposure to violence, and sexual harassment and to engage in high-risk behaviours. However, this has not been systematically documented. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to better understand the challenges in the lives of the homeless population in 11 areas of Dhaka during a 13-month period from June 2007 to June 2008. A modified cluster-sampling method was used for selecting 32 clusters of 14 female and male respondents, for a sample of 896. In addition to sociodemographic details, this paper focuses specifically on violence, drug-abuse, and sexual harassment. The findings showed that physical assaults among the homeless, particularly among women, were a regular phenomenon. Eighty-three percent of female respondents (n=372) were assaulted by their husbands, station masters, and male police officers. They were subjected to lewd gestures, unwelcome advances, and rape. Male respondents reported being physically assaulted while trying to collect food, fighting over space, or while stealing, by police officers, miscreants, or other homeless people. Sixty-nine percent of the male respondents (n=309) used locally-available drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, and two-thirds of injecting drug-users shared needles. The study determined that the homeless are not highly mobile but tend to congregate in clusters night after night. Income-generating activities, targeted education, gender-friendly community police programmes, shelters and crises centres, and greater community involvement are suggested as policy and programmatic interventions to raise the quality of life of this population. In addition, there is a need to reduce high rates of urban migration, a priority for Bangladesh.
Previous research has emphasized the importance of minimizing attrition in longitudinal studies. The authors examined the influence of demographic, clinical, and process factors on attrition from a longitudinal study of 286 substanceabusers recruited at a central intake unit. Univariate tests showed that those who completed three, six, and 12 month interviews had higher baseline alcohol and drug use and were more likely to provide three or more contacts when recruited, to be female, to have been married, and to have previously received substanceabuse or psychiatric treatment. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that complete data participants (those who completed all three ASI interviews) were nearly three times more likely to have previously received psychiatric treatment and twice as likely to have completed an early engagement interview. In addition, they were twice as likely to be female, and nearly twice as likely to be employed, own a residence, have completed high school, and be married. Procedures that may help decrease study attrition are discussed. PMID:12003115
Claus, Ronald E; Kindleberger, Lisa R; Dugan, Mary C
The purpose of this research was to identify characteristics of substanceabusers in a child protective services caseload. The random sample of 443 children was drawn from an urban county from all children with a substantiated abuse case. Files of children were reviewed to derive data. Sixty-eight percent of the children had mothers who abused alcohol or drugs, and 37
The current study examines the effects of three forms of childhood victimization on self-reported delinquency and aggression in adolescent girls. These analyses are based on a longitudinal sample of 141 mother-daughter pairs participating in a study about marital violence and child development. When the children were school aged, mothers and children provided reports describing (a) child exposure to marital violence, (b) escalated physical abuse against the child, and (c) child sexual abuse. Children were followed up into adolescence and re-interviewed. Self-reports of delinquency (violent and nonviolent), running away, and violence against parents were collected. Results indicate that out of the three forms of victimization, child sexual abuse emerged as the strongest predictor of girls' violent and nonviolent criminal behavior. Girls with a history of physical abuse in childhood were most likely to assault their parents. Witnessing marital violence failed to contribute further to delinquency, beyond the adverse association with childhood sexual abuse. Findings highlight a unique avenue for delinquency in girls via childhood sexual exploitation. PMID:12968661
Substanceabuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substanceabuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models.
Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L
Substanceabuse patients lack skills in money management and frequently misuse credit cards and checks. They also often neglect physical exercise and are in poor physical condition. A COTA developed special programs to teach exercise and money management as part of a five week treatment program for substanceabuse patients. Development and implementation of the programs are described. PMID:23944888
The current study was undertaken in light of the pervasiveness of the substanceabuse problem in so many facets of our culture and the comparatively sparse literature on its relationship to ego development. Review of the literature on the extensive bodies of research on ego development and substanceabuse as separate entities, as well as a review of the comparatively
Objective. To examine costs and monetary benefits associated with substanceabuse treatment. Data Sources. Primary and administrative data on client outcomes and agency costs from 43 substanceabuse treatment providers in 13 counties in California during 2000- 2001. Study Design. Using a social planner perspective, the estimated direct cost of treat- mentwascomparedwiththe associatedmonetarybenefits,includingtheclient'scostsof medical care, mental health services, criminal activity,
Susan L. Ettner; David Huang; Elizabeth Evans; Danielle Rose Ash; Mary Hardy; Mickel Jourabchi; Yih-Ing Hser
This article examines a means of detecting a history of childhood sexual experience (CSE) to improve substanceabuse treatment outcomes. The symptom profile of women with a history of CSE is discussed in relation to the difficulties it presents in detection of a history of CSE, especially in women who also have a past or current history of substanceabuse.
Codependency has been found to originate in many different environments, namely the family of origin. The most popularly researched environment is the family of origin that exhibits substanceabuse. However, little research has clearly demonstrated that codependency is most prevalent in children of substanceabusers. Previous research has not examined how codependency is correlated with perceived interparental conflict. This study
Hong Kong is a place with an exceptionally low prevalence rate of youth substanceabuse. Whether the low rate is attributable to the zero-tolerance policy promulgated by the government there is worth investigation. The manner of the investigation involves a contest of theoretical explanations of substanceabuse among young people. For the zero-tolerance policy to claim success, formal regulation of
OBJECTIVE--To examine the effects of volatile substanceabuse on neuropsychological functioning. DESIGN--A sample of index children and matched controls were identified by a two stage procedure. Firstly, over 5000 secondary school pupils completed a screening questionnaire, and, secondly, a sample of those who acknowledged volatile substanceabuse and a matched sample of those who denied the practice were assessed in
Summary Statement of the problem: Drug addiction or substanceabuse is an endemic habit globally. At present there is no data available regarding the temporomandibular joint status, Occlusal and cervical tooth wear and facial pain among substanceabusers from the Saudi Arabia. Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the temporomandibular joint status, occlusal and cervical tooth wear
Khalid Almas; K. Al Wazzan; I. Al Hussaini; K. Y. Al-Ahdal; N. B. Khan
Adolescence is a time of change that can be both exciting and stressful. In this review, we focus on the central role that disturbed sleep and daytime sleepiness occupies in interactions involving substanceabuse and negative health, social, and emotional outcomes. As a means of improving sleep and lowering risk for recidivism of substanceabuse, we developed and implemented a
Most current substanceabuse counselor certification education curricula do not include a systematic introduction to alcohol and substanceabuse research. I believe that such an introduction would enhance counselor cooperation in research to practice efforts that are currently underway. In this paper I give a brief history of alcoholism and…
This report presents a comprehensive analysis of the reasons why girls and young women smoke, drink and use drugs, and what increases or lowers their risk of substanceabuse. It demonstrates that certain key risk factors for substanceabuse are unique to girls and young women and pose a greater threat to them than to boys and young men. This…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
Describes current research on prevalence and patterns of substance use and abuse in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender populations. Examines potential risk and protective factors associated with substanceabuse in these populations and discusses implications for prevention, including prevention research. (Contains 160 references.) (GCP)
Analyzes the issues and standards facing mental health counselors when working with lesbians and gay men who have substanceabuse problems. Explores some of the major factors that contribute to substanceabuse problems in the gay community are explored. Guidelines regarding legal protections for this population are provided. (Contains 64…
Data from 57 clinical supervisors in licensed substanceabuse treatment programs indicate that 28% had completed formal graduate course work in clinical supervision and 33% were professionally licensed or certified. Findings raise concerns about the scope and quality of clinical supervision available to substanceabuse counselors. (Contains 3…
This article documents the experiences of providing housing and supportive services, or ecologically based treatment, to shelter-recruited, substance-abusing homeless women with young children in their care. Among clients, observed experiences related to housing, substanceabuse, and health and mental health care are discussed. Among therapists,…
Slesnick, Natasha; Glassman, Michael; Katafiasz, Heather; Collins, Jennifer C.
In this study, the authors examined the relationship between the clinical orientations of substanceabuse professionals (SAPs) and their clinical decisions. Cluster analysis grouped a sample of 245 SAPs on two clinical orientations that differed in their relative endorsement of traditional versus contemporary substanceabuse counseling processes…
The overlap between personality and neurocognitive measures was examined in a sample of 182 adolescent psychiatric inpatients, half of whom were substanceabusers. Both cognitive tests and observer-rated measures sensitive to impulsivity were specifically related to abuse of multiple substances, and aspects of inattention and depression were…
Harvey, Philip D.; Stokes, John L.; Lord, Joel; Pogge, David L.
Used interview data from a community study to test whether early menarche partially accounts for increased depression, eating pathology, substanceabuse, and comorbid psychopathology among adolescent girls. Found that menarche prior to 11.6 years related to elevated depression and substanceabuse. Findings support assertion that early menarche is…
Stice, Eric; Presnell, Katherine; Bearman, Sarah Kate
The contributions of specific scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A) to the classification of 180 adolescent substanceabusers into groups characterized by aspects of behavioral control were studied. Seven scales made significant contributions to the classification of substanceabusers into three groups, with…
To date, South African research has not examined mental health service provision in substanceabuse treatment facilities, even though these services improve client retention and treatment outcomes. To describe the extent to which substanceabuse treatment facilities in Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provide clients with mental health services…
This article reports on a project to sensitize graduate social work students taking courses in substanceabuse to the needs of older adults. Graduate social work students at a major urban school of social work in the Northeast were recruited and trained to interview older adults with a history of substanceabuse problems regarding their life…
Bial, Martha C.; Gutheil, Irene A.; Hanson, Meredith; White-Ryan, Linda
Using data from the National Longitudinal Study Youth Survey (NLSY), runaway status in early adolescence (ages 14–15) was associated with subsequent (four years later) substanceabuse, alcohol problems, and school dropout status. Three runaway categories were formed—never runaway, runaway once, and runaway two or more times. Overall, the repeat runaways reported engaging in higher levels of substance use and abuse
The purpose of this grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1998) study was to explore the experiences of racially and culturally diverse young mothers whose own mothers abusedsubstances two decades ago when substanceabuse peaked in inner city, urban neighborhoods in the United States and to identify the factors that have influenced how they parent…
Murphy, Anne P.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Cancelli, Anthony A.; Chinitz, Susan P.
The National Center on Addiction and SubstanceAbuses surveys have consistently found that the family is fundamental to keeping children away from tobacco, alcohol and illegal drugs. This 2002 survey keeps the focus on family and seeks to assess the impact of siblings on the likelihood of teen substanceabuse. This year 1,000 teens ages 12 to 17…
Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.
This booklet is intended for use as a resource guide on substanceabuse and co-existing disability areas by researchers, professionals, and people with disabilities. It contains scholarly items as well as a number of immediately functional resources for use by teachers, rehabilitation personnel, and others in their work with substanceabuse…
Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX. National Center for the Dissemination of Disability Research.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether patient education programs were effective at improving knowledge of substanceabuse among dual-diagnosis patients. Adult patients at a general psychiatry hospital were identified for a history of substanceabuse. Of the 51 patients included in the study, 25 were on forensic units, 7 were in a private ward, and 19 were
Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model of persuasive communication, the authors examine the impact of the perceptions of the instructor or source on students' receptivity to a new substanceabuse prevention curriculum. Using survey data from a cohort of students participating in the Adolescent SubstanceAbuse Prevention Study, the authors use…
The devastating impact of substanceabuse on American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) is reviewed with an emphasis on psychological and physical effects. Co-morbidity of substanceabuse, trans-generational trauma, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and depression among AI/ANs is also discussed since each condition may cause, impact, and/or…
This TIP contains information on the best practice guidelines on case management for substanceabuse treatment providers. It serves to educate program coordinators and facilitators about the factors to consider as they decide to modify or implement case management activities. Many substanceabuse clients arrive for treatment with a number of other…
Cook, Paddy; Dogoloff, Mary Lou; Harteker, Linda; Nelson, Anne E.; Paul, Michelle M.; Shuman, Deborah J.; Mjoseth, Marcia; Vitzthum, Virginia; Hayes, Elizabeth; Gilbert, Max; Smith, Cara; Nguyen, Y-Lang
Substanceabuse counselors who address clients' spiritual development may provide more comprehensive counseling. This article presents an integrative supervision model designed to promote the spiritual development of substanceabuse counselors-in-training, reviews the model, and discusses the implications for counselor education.
Using the Internet, people working to fight substanceabuse can gather the information they need to write grant proposals, develop strategies and media campaigns, and contact legislators. The Internet also connects those working on similar issues, enhancing substanceabuse education and prevention efforts. This Monthly Action Kit is a roadmap to…
The SubstanceAbuse and Mental Illness (SAMI) program combines cognitive rehabilitation and dual-diagnosis substanceabuse treatment within a stages of change context. This article describes the development, implementation, and preliminary outcome analysis of the SAMI program in a forensic hospital.
Glassmire, David M.; Welsh, Robert K.; Clevenger, Jeanne K.
The past contributions of psychoanalysis to the theory and treatment of substanceabuse have been meager, relative to its contribution to the study of other mental disorders. Several contemporary psychoanalytic approaches to understanding the pathology, etiology, and treatment of substanceabuse are reviewed. These theories, while an improvement on past efforts, remain flawed because of a failure to adequately conceptualize
"SAMHSA News" is the national newsletter of the SubstanceAbuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Published six times a year (bimonthly) by SAMHSA's Office of Communications, SAMHSA News contains information about the latest substanceabuse and mental health treatment and prevention practices, recent statistics on mental health and…
The purpose of this study was to examine the individual characteristics and mental health factors of dysthymic and nondysthymic substanceabusers. Out of a total of 1,209 medical records reviewed to select cases of dysthymic and nondysthymic substanceabusers attending a community drug treatment program, 183 medical records were selected, 48% of…
Greater treatment retention among pregnant substanceabusers is associated with improved pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, so early identification of clients most at risk for early attrition is essential. Participants were 152 pregnant women enrolled in the initial 7-day residential component of a comprehensive substanceabuse treatment program for pregnant women. Twenty-nine (19%) women left treatment within the first 5 days,
Wendy B Kissin; Dace S Svikis; Paula Moylan; Nancy A Haug; Maxine L Stitzer
After more than a decade of decline in the use of drugs by American high school students, national, state and local data sources seem to indicate that high school student substanceabuse, particularly the use of marijuana and hallucinogens such as LSD, has been increasing for the past two years. Indicators of student substanceabuse can be found…
Wake County Public Schools System, Raleigh, NC. Dept. of Evaluation and Research.
In a survey exploring the reliability and validity of a screening tool, we explored the substanceabuse and mental health issues among 371 elders; 74 were sexual minorities. Analyses by age group indicated that elders 55–64 years had significantly more problems with substanceabuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts compared to those 65 and older. Bisexuals
Most women in substanceabuse treatment have experienced significant losses. This preliminary study examined the effectiveness of a therapy group addressing grief and loss among women enrolled in a gender?specific residential substanceabuse treatment program. The intervention group consisted of 24 grief group participants and the comparison group consisted of 31 nonparticipants. Qualitative analysis revealed a pattern: participants identified traumatic
Judith Fry McComish; Rivka Greenberg; Heather L. Chruscial; Joel Ager; Florice Hines; Scott B. Ransom
Most women in substanceabuse treatment have experienced significant losses. This preliminary study examined the effectiveness of a therapy group addressing grief and loss among women enrolled in a gender-specific residential substanceabuse treatment program. The intervention group consisted of 24 grief group participants and the comparison group consisted of 31 nonparticipants. Qualitative analysis revealed a pattern: participants identified traumatic
Judith Fry McComish; Rivka Greenberg; Jennifer Kent-Bryant; Heather L. Chruscial; Joel Ager; Florice Hines; Scott B. Ransom
Although the literature indicates that there is an association of victimization with substanceabuse, there has been limited research focused on understanding and synthesizing the factors that have been identified as contributing to victimization and substanceabuse and on interventions designed to address these contributing factors. The purposes of this article are to (a) review the literature on factors related
T. K. Logan; Robert Walker; Jennifer Cole; Carl Leukefeld
Regrettably for African Americans, research has rarely addressed issues that affect their health and well-being. This lack of attention manifests itself in the dearth of literature available while doing literature reviews on prevention of comorbid mental illness and substanceabuse (MISA) and substance use and abuse disorders in African Americans. However, there are a few studies on the prevention of
This Special Issue presents findings from a multisite, multiyear national demonstration project funded by the Center for SubstanceAbuse Treatment, in the SubstanceAbuse and Mental Health Services Administration. The project evaluation examined the clinical effectiveness and costs of providing concurrent residential care for infants and\\/or young children while providing comprehensive, gender-specific, culturally appropriate residential treatment for their mothers. This
Using an attachment framework, we examined (1) whether substance-abusing mothers' perceptions of how they were parented were related to the severity of their substanceabuse and psychological maladjustment and (2) whether these two factors mediated the association between mothers' perceptions of how they were parented and their children's placement out of home. There were 108 mothers of 248 children who
Nancy E. Suchman; Thomas J. McMahon; Heping Zhang; Linda C. Mayes; Suniya Luthar
Although outcomes monitoring and the collection of other performance data holds benefits for service managers and policy makers, the extent to which these data are collected by South African substanceabuse service providers is unknown. To describe (i) the extent to which substanceabuse service providers in South Africa monitor and evaluate their…
Substanceabuse and dependence are prevalent conditions. According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), in 2002 an estimated twenty-two million Americans age twelve and older were classified with substance dependence or abuse (9.4 percen...
A school-based substanceabuse prevention program based on the assumptions of the ASCA National Model[R] was designed to change adolescent females' drug-using behaviors. The program was designed to reduce substanceabuse, increase negative attitudes toward drug use, and reduce negative behaviors while increasing positive behaviors, knowledge of…
Froeschle, Janet G.; Smith, Robert L.; Ricard, Richard
This article describes an innovative drug prevention pilot in which developing a substanceabuse video served as a vehicle for teaching youth healthy attitudes and behaviors. Seven 10- to 12-year-old African Americans from a public housing development participated in 10 weekly sessions focusing on video skills and substanceabuse. Based on the principles of capacity building and cognitive dissonance theory,
Richard D. Ager; Reginald Parquet; Sarah Kreutzinger
This study investigated recovering and nonrecovering substanceabuse counselors' beliefs about the etiology and treatment of substanceabuse disorders. Qualitative methods were used to investigate these variables. Analysis of the data revealed several key findings with implications for future research. (Contains 1 table.)
In the United States alone, there are more than 2,000 community coalitions to address local concerns about abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. This article describes an evaluation system used to examine the process, outcome, and impact of coalitions for the prevention of substanceabuse. The evaluation addresses five key questions: (a) Was the community mobilized to address substance
Stephen B. Fawcett; Rhonda K. Lewis; Adrienne Paine-Andrews; Vincent T. Francisco; Kimber P. Richter; Ella L. Williams; Barbara Copple
The document presents Maine's model for providing substanceabuse treatment to the client with mental retardation. Introductory information on retardation and substanceabuse is followed by a discussion of this population's unique problems. Services offered in the Mental Retardation Alcoholism project are reviewed, and contracts and cooperative…
Maine State Dept. of Mental Health and Mental Retardation, Augusta.
Objectives Strong linkages exist between childhood abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) among women in developed countries.\\u000a Few studies examine this pattern in developing nations. This study explores the effect of childhood physical and\\/or psychological\\u000a abuse on the likelihood of IPV among a national sample of Ecuadorian women of reproductive age. Methods Secondary data analysis was conducted on a
Men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate female partner are compared. Various risk factors are examined to compare men's lethal and nonlethal violence against an intimate woman partner. Relative to abusers, men who kill are generally more conventional with respect to childhood backgrounds, education, employment, and criminal careers, are more likely to be possessive and jealous, and are more likely to be separated from their partner at the time of the event. Men who kill are more likely to have used violence against a previous partner, to have sexually assaulted and strangled the victim, and to have used a weapon or instrument. However, they were less likely to have been drunk at the time of the event and/or to have previously used violence against the woman they killed. Overall, the findings do not support the notion of a simple progression from nonlethal to lethal violence and raise some dilemmas for the growing area of risk assessment. PMID:17420514
Dobash, R Emerson; Dobash, Russell P; Cavanagh, Kate; Medina-Ariza, Juanjo
This study investigates whether depression in women who experienced intimate partner violence is associated with having also experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse, psychological abuse by an intimate partner, recent involvement with the abusive partner, and bodily pain. Fifty-seven women who had left a violent relationship with an…
Koopman, Cheryl; Ismailji, Tasneem; Palesh, Oxana; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Narayanan, Amrita; Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holmes, Danielle; McGarvey, Elizabeth L.
To date, little research has documented how teens might misuse technology to harass, control, and abuse their dating partners. This study examined the extent of cyber dating abuse--abuse via technology and new media--in youth relationships and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. A total of 5,647 youth from ten schools in three…
Zweig, Janine M.; Dank, Meredith; Yahner, Jennifer; Lachman, Pamela
This paper argues that substanceabuse interventions in distressed African-American communities must be culturally-tailored and incorporate a framework targeting changes in both individual behavior and the community. The current study employed Concept Mapping in conjunction with Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) principles to involve 100 community members, substance users, and service providers to examine the role of alcohol and other drugs in distressed African-American communities. Findings reveal the way participants understand the role of drugs and alcohol in their community and their perceptions of substanceabuse services. The paper describes a collaborative approach to engage the community in addressing substanceabuse.
Background Inattention to symptoms of mental disorders and substanceabuse in patients with HIV/AIDS and other at-risk groups, may lead to irreversible damages. The purpose of this study was to compare the psychopathological dimensions in substanceabusers with and without HIV/AIDS and healthy matched groups. Methods In a cross-sectional and analytical study, selected samples (by available, consecutive, and objective methods) were 43 HIV-positive substanceabusers, 49 HIV negative substanceabusers under methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) in the counseling clinic of Behavioral Diseases and Addiction Abandonment, and 45 ordinary individuals. All of them were evaluated by matched confounding variables via Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Findings Results indicated a significant difference between these groups in the Global Severity Index (GSI), Positive Symptom Distress Index (PSDI), and Positive Symptom Total (PST) (P < 0.001). Two by two the comparison of the three groups from psychopathological dimensions revealed that substanceabusers with HIV/AIDS persistently suffer more mental problems in all dimensions compared with healthy individuals (P < 0.05). In addition, in comparison with HIV negative substanceabusers, they also suffer more mental problems in other dimensions, including somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, phobia, and psychoticism (P < 0.05). Yet, the difference in paranoid ideation, hostility, and obsessive-compulsive cases was insignificant. Two by two, the comparison between healthy individuals and substanceabusers without HIV/AIDS showed higher levels of depression and psychoticism in substanceabusers (P < 0.05), but no difference in other dimensions. Conclusion Comorbidity of substanceabuse and HIV diagnosis intensify mental disorder symptoms. Moreover, lack of prevention and implementation of appropriate psychological and psychiatric interventions after substanceabuse and HIV lead to extended establishment of mental disorder symptoms.
Trauma exposure and related symptoms interfere with adult adherence to drug treatment. Whether these findings hold true for adolescents is unknown. We examined trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms, and psychosocial functioning among 212 adolescents upon admission to long-term residential drug treatment and examined retention in treatment at 6 months. Seventy-one percent reported lifetime trauma exposure, and 29% of the trauma-exposed met criteria for current PTSD. Trauma-exposed adolescents reported more behavioral problems, with gender differences apparent. We divided the sample into three groups: no trauma exposure (21%), trauma-exposed without PTSD (59%), and trauma-exposed with PTSD (20%). Survival analysis showed that trauma-exposed adolescents without PTSD left treatment sooner than the nonexposed. Need for attention to trauma in substanceabuse treatment programs is discussed. PMID:15141784
Jaycox, Lisa H; Ebener, Patricia; Damesek, Leslie; Becker, Kirsten
BACKGROUND. Little is known about the organization and performance of outpatient substanceabuse treatment (OSAT) centers. We examine several performance measures of OSAT units, including clients treated, services provided, revenue sources, financial performance, and access to care, in relation to ownership of the center. METHODS. Data were drawn from a national random sample of 575 OSAT centers (85.8% response rate) participating in a telephone survey conducted in 1988. Analysis of variance by ownership was conducted on each performance measure, with differences subjected to tests of statistical significance. RESULTS. Descriptive results show that major funding sources differ by ownership. Private for-profit centers generate higher profits, charge higher prices, and achieve higher levels of financial performance than public and not-for-profit centers. Public centers provide better access to care for persons who are unable to pay. CONCLUSIONS. There appear to be substantial and interrelated differences by ownership type in the financing and operation of OSAT units.
When schizophrenia is combined with substance misuse, rates are consistently higher. However research findings on the relationship between violence, self-harm and schizophrenia are inconclusive. This study aimed to examine links between specific psychotic symptoms, substance misuse and violence in people dually diagnosed with schizophrenia and substance misuse. Presence and frequency of violence to self and others were examined in relation to the type and severity of psychotic symptoms and level of substance use over a 24 month period in 327 people with schizophrenia and substance misuse problems. 32.3% had an incident of violence to others during the study period and 28.6% had a self-harm/suicide incident. 39 (11.9%) participants reported command hallucinations (CH) and 157 (48.0%) had threat control override symptoms (TCOS). Presence of TCOS and presence of CH were not associated with violence to others but were both associated with self-harm. Different command hallucination sub-types were associated with different types of violence. Delusional and hallucination severity and distress were mainly associated with self-harm. These findings suggest that specific symptoms are related to different outcomes, particularly in relation to self-harm, and these effects remain even after substance use is controlled for. This has important implications for assessment and treatment of this group. PMID:24268935
OBJECTIVE Substanceabuse intensive outpatient programs (IOPs) are direct services for people with substance use disorders or co-occurring mental and substance use disorders who do not require medical detoxification or 24-hour supervision. IOPs are alternatives to inpatient and residential treatment. They are designed to establish psychosocial supports and facilitate relapse management and coping strategies. This review assessed the evidence base for IOPs. METHODS Authors searched major databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, Published International Literature on Traumatic Stress, ERIC, and CINAHL. They identified 12 individual studies and one review published between 1995 and 2012. They chose from three levels of research evidence (high, moderate, and low) based on benchmarks for the number of studies and quality of their methodology. They also described evidence of service effectiveness. RESULTS Based on the quality of trials, diversity of settings, and consistency of outcomes, the level of evidence for IOPs was rated high. Multiple randomized trials and naturalistic analyses that compared IOPs with inpatient or residential care found comparable outcomes. All studies reported reductions in alcohol and drug use. However, substantial variability in the operationalization of IOPs and outcome measures was apparent. CONCLUSIONS IOPs are an important part of the continuum of care for substance use disorders. They are as effective as inpatient treatment for most individuals. Public and commercial health plans should consider IOP services as a covered health benefit. Standardization of the elements included in IOPs may improve their quality and effectiveness. PMID:24445620
McCarty, Dennis; Braude, Lisa; Lyman, D Russell; Dougherty, Richard H; Daniels, Allen S; Ghose, Sushmita Shoma; Delphin-Rittmon, Miriam E
Community violence is recognized as a major public health problem (WHO, "World Report on Violence and Health," 2002) that Americans increasingly understand has adverse implications beyond inner-cities. However, the majority of research on chronic community violence exposure focuses on ethnic minority, impoverished, and/or crime-ridden communities…
Cooley-Strickland, Michele; Quille, Tanya J.; Griffin, Robert S.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Furr-Holden, Debra
The demographics of the United States are rapidly changing as a result of immigration from Latin America. Predictions indicate that by the year 2050, one of every four persons in the United States will be of Hispanic ethnicity. If health disparities relating to substanceabuse and related mental health conditions among Hispanics are not fully understood and addressed, these will continue grow along with this population. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the relationships among acculturation, depression, self-esteem, and substanceabuse among a community sample of Hispanic men in South Florida (N = 164, 82 heterosexual men and 82 men who have sex with men). Standardized instruments measuring acculturation, depression, self-esteem, and substanceabuse were administered in English or Spanish in a face-to-face interview format. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression were used to illustrate participant characteristics and test relationships among the variables. Despite the fact that the majority of participants were more acculturated to the Hispanic culture than US culture, reported low levels of education and income, were depressed, and used substances, this group of men reported high levels of self-esteem. However, age and depression were the only predictors of substanceabuse. Acculturation and self-esteem were not predictors of substanceabuse. Clinicians need to be aware of the high rates of depression and substanceabuse in this population and screen frequently for signs and symptoms of depression and substanceabuse during health care encounters.
Vasquez, Elias Provencio; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; De Santis, Joseph P.
Concerns about access under managed care have been raised for vulnerable populations such as publicly funded patients with substanceabuse problems. To estimate the effects of the Iowa Managed SubstanceAbuse Care Plan (IMSACP) on substanceabuse service use by publicly funded patients, service use before and after IMSACP was compared; adjustments were made for changes in population sociodemographic and
Susan L. Ettner; Milton Argeriou; Dennis McCarty; Joan Dilonardo; Hui Liu
A large body of literature has shown a high prevalence of personality disorders in substanceabusers. We compared a sample of substanceabusers treated in a prison setting with substanceabusers treated in a non-prison inpatient setting rated with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Base-rate scores indicated a prevalence of 95% of…
A child caregiver developed a substanceabuse intervention and prevention program for preschool children between 2 and 5 years of age who were at risk for substanceabuse. The practicum effort resulted in a preschool substanceabuse curriculum that included information on drugs, offered techniques for enhancing self-esteem, and discussed skills…
The major questions when considering substanceabuse/dependence and personality are how these two constructs are related and how they interact. A review of the prevalence literature since 1986 documenting the co-occurrence of substanceabuse disorders and personality disorders is presented in this study. Sampled are substanceabuse and personality…
Men's violence against women-particularly intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV)-is associated with the transmission of HIV. Men who physically abuse their female intimate partners often also sexually abuse them. Latinas are one of the fastest growing populations in the USA and at high-risk for contracting HIV, though little is known about IPSV against physically abused Latinas, including whether there is an association between nativity of the victim and the likelihood of sexual violence by intimate partners. This study examined the (1) prevalence of recent (past 6 months) IPSV against 555 physically abused, help-seeking Latinas and (2) relationship of nativity to recent IPSV. This study used data collected in 2002–2003 from participants in one major city on the East Coast and one West Coast county, who were involved in the Risk Assessment Validation (RAVE) Study. The RAVE Study assessed the accuracy of four different methods for predicting risk of future intimate partner violence. IPSV was defined as an abusive male partner physically forcing sex (rape) or making the woman have sex without a condom. Recent IPSV was reported by 38 % of the sample. Among those reporting recent IPSV, multiple assaults were common: 30%of women were raped and 51%were made to have unprotected sex six or more times during the past 6 months. IPSV was significantly associated with nativity. Physically abused Latinas who were foreign born had two times greater odds of reporting recent IPSV than physically abused Latinas born in the USA, after controlling for other demographic covariates. Exploratory post hoc analyses examining all pairwise comparisons of IPSV against Latinas born in the USA, Mexico, Central America, South America, and the Caribbean also revealed some significant differences that warrant further study with larger samples. HIV prevention efforts aimed at reducing IPSV in this population are needed. PMID:23959640
This study examines the impact of fear of past abusive partner(s) on posttraumatic stress among 212 community-recruited women currently exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The path analysis model tested explained 60% of the variation in IPV-related posttraumatic stress. Findings revealed that fear of past abusive partner(s) was uniquely associated with the severity of current posttraumatic stress symptoms over and above the impact of current IPV or childhood abuse and neglect. Future research should continue examining women's subjective emotional experience of past and current victimization so as to further inform both clinical practice and intervention planning. PMID:24590514
This study examined the roles played by parental aleohol abuse an4 social support, peer substanceabuse risk and social support, and substanceabuse risk among adolescents in South Korea. Participants were adolescents between the ages of 15 and 22 years (mean, 18), residing in Seoul city and in sur- rounding K5rung-gi Province. Of 259 participants, 41.3% scored 2 or more
We aimed to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) in a representative sample of 8,995 women attending general practice in Spain in 2006-2007. The factor structure analysis shows that the ISA measures four intimate partner violence (IPV) dimensions: emotional, physical, and…
Plazaola-Castano, Juncal; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta; Montero-Pinar, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen
This study examines the prevalence of co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse and neglect (CAN) in a cohort of Chinese parents drawn from a large representative sample in Hong Kong. It also investigates the risk factors for CAN with a special emphasis on the role of IPV. A subsample of 2,363 parents was invited to complete…
Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…
Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung
HIV and violence are two major public health problems increasingly shown to be connected and relevant to international mental health issues and HIV-related services. Qualitative research is important due to the dearth of literature on this association in developing countries, cultural influences on mental health syndromes and presentations, and the sensitive nature of the topic. The study presented in this paper sought to investigate the mental health issues of an HIV-affected population of women and children in Lusaka, Zambia, through a systematic qualitative study. Two qualitative methods resulted in the identification of three major problems for women: domestic violence (DV), depression-like syndrome, and alcohol abuse; and children: defilement, DV, and behavior problems. DV and sexual abuse were found to be closely linked to HIV and alcohol abuse. This study shows the local perspective of the overlap between violence and HIV. Results are discussed in relation to the need for violence and abuse to be addressed as HIV services are implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:16909070
Murray, Laura K; Haworth, Alan; Semrau, Katherine; Singh, Mini; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Sinkala, Moses; Thea, Donald M; Bolton, Paul A
HIV and violence are two major public health problems increasingly shown to be connected and relevant to international mental health issues and HIV-related services. Qualitative research is important due to the dearth of literature on this association in developing countries, cultural influences on mental health syndromes and presentations, and the sensitive nature of the topic. The study presented in this paper sought to investigate the mental health issues of an HIV-affected population of women and children in Lusaka, Zambia, through a systematic qualitative study. Two qualitative methods resulted in the identification of three major problems for women: domestic violence (DV), depression-like syndrome, and alcohol abuse; and children: defilement, DV, and behavior problems. DV and sexual abuse were found to be closely linked to HIV and alcohol abuse. This study shows the local perspective of the overlap between violence and HIV. Results are discussed in relation to the need for violence and abuse to be addressed as HIV services are implemented in sub-Saharan Africa.
Murray, Laura K.; Haworth, Alan; Semrau, Katherine; Singh, Mini; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Sinkala, Moses; Thea, Donald M.; Bolton, Paul A.
Objective To evaluate how a sample of outpatient substanceabuse treatment units respond to organizational and environmental influences by adopting and implementing treatment services for women. Data Sources The National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey from 1995 and 2000, a national survey of outpatient substanceabuse treatment units. Study Design Health services for women are the dependent variables. The predictors include organizational and environmental factors that represent resource dependence and institutional pressures for the treatment unit. Logistic regression and Heckman selection models were used to test hypotheses. Data Collection Program directors and clinical supervisors at each treatment unit were interviewed by telephone in 1995 and 2000. Principal Findings Units that depended on specific funding for women's programs and that depended on government funds were more likely to adopt, but not necessarily implement, women's services. Methadone units and units that train more staff to work with women were more likely to adopt as well as implement women's services. Private not-for-profit units were more likely to adopt some services, while for-profit units were less so. However, in general, neither for-profit nor not-for-profit units significantly implemented services. There was evidence that the odds of adopting services were greater in 2000 than 1995 for two services, but were otherwise stable. Conclusions There is considerable variation in the adoption and implementation of women's services. In addition, not all adopted services were significantly implemented, which could reflect limited organizational resources and/or conflicting expectations. This also suggests that referral mechanisms to these services, and therefore access, may not be adequate. Government funds and specific funds for women's programs are important resources for the provision of these services. Women's services appear more available in methadone units, suggesting that regulation has been influential and that the recent methadone accreditation system should be evaluated. Staff training may be one strategy to encourage implementation of these services. For the most part, the adoption of services for women did not change between 1995 and 2000.
This issue of "The NSDUH Report" examines the number of children living with substance-dependent or substance-abusing parents. It focuses on biological, step-, adoptive, and foster children under 18 years of age who were living with one or both parents at the time of the survey interview. All findings are based on annual averages from the…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2009
To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault were also examined to further identify factors relevant to treatment or prevention approaches. Participants were 255 women and adolescent girls seeking post sexual assault medical services who completed an initial follow-up assessment on average within 3 months post-assault. The majority (72.9%) reported recent substance use prior to assault, approximately 40% reported prior substanceabuse history, and 12.2% reported prior substance treatment history. Prior history of assault was associated with recent drug use and history of drug abuse as well as substance treatment. Among those with prior histories of substanceabuse and assault, assault preceded substanceabuse onset in the majority of cases. Almost all those with prior treatment history reported recent drug or alcohol use. A portion of sexual assault survivors seen for acute medical services may benefit from facilitated referral for substanceabuse treatment in addition to counseling at the time of screening. Assessment and intervention approaches should target alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use and abuse. Substance use and associated impairment may serve as a rape tactic by perpetrators of assault. Substance use at the time of assault does not imply blame on the part of assault victims. Previous findings indicate that rape poses high risk of PTSD particularly among women with prior history of assault. Screening and intervention related to substanceabuse should be done with recognition of the increased vulnerability it may pose with regard to assault and the high risk of PTSD within this population. PMID:23396174
Resnick, Heidi S; Walsh, Kate; Schumacher, Julie A; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Acierno, Ron
To inform intervention approaches, the current study examined prevalence and comorbidity of recent use and history of abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drugs as well as history of substance treatment among a sample of female victims of sexual assault seeking post-assault medical care. Demographic variables and prior history of assault were also examined to further identify factors relevant to treatment or prevention approaches. Participants were 255 women and adolescent girls seeking post sexual assault medical services who completed an initial follow-up assessment on average within 3 months post-assault. The majority (72.9%) reported recent substance use prior to assault, approximately 40% reported prior substanceabuse history, and 12.2% reported prior substance treatment history. Prior history of assault was associated with recent drug use and history of drug abuse as well as substance treatment. Among those with prior histories of substanceabuse and assault, assault preceded substanceabuse onset in the majority of cases. Almost all those with prior treatment history reported recent drug or alcohol use. A portion of sexual assault survivors seen for acute medical services may benefit from facilitated referral for substanceabuse treatment in addition to counseling at the time of screening. Assessment and intervention approaches should target alcohol, marijuana, and other illicit drug use and abuse. Substance use and associated impairment may serve as a rape tactic by perpetrators of assault. Substance use at the time of assault does not imply blame on the part of assault victims. Previous findings indicate that rape poses high risk of PTSD particularly among women with prior history of assault. Screening and intervention related to substanceabuse should be done with recognition of the increased vulnerability it may pose with regard to assault and the high risk of PTSD within this population.
Resnick, Heidi S.; Walsh, Kate; Schumacher, Julie A.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.; Acierno, Ron
To date, research exploring gender differences in the relationship between exposure to community violence and substance use has been limited. This study employs longitudinal data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) to assess the exposure to violence–substance use relationship and explore whether this relationship varies by gender. We find that the two forms of exposure to violence—direct (primary) and indirect (secondary)—independently increase the frequency of subsequent alcohol use, binge drinking, and marijuana use among males and females. One gender difference emerged, as females who had been directly victimized engaged in more frequent binge drinking than males who had been directly victimized. Across both sexes, the effect of each form of violence weakened when other predictors of substance use were included in the models. Future directions for this research are discussed, including policy recommendations to help adolescents cope with victimization experiences.
Pinchevsky, Gillian M.; Wright, Emily M.; Fagan, Abigail A.
Peer violence, peer sexual harassment and abuse, and staff abuse experienced by boys and girls in juvenile correctional facilities are compared with those experienced by peers in schools in the community. Responses of 360 youths in 20 gender-separated correctional facilities in Israel to a questionnaire tapping these forms of mistreatment were compared with those of 7,012 students in a representative sample of Israeli junior high and high schools. Victimization was reported more frequently by those in correctional facilities than by those in schools. However, some of the more prevalent forms of violence and abuse were reported with equal frequency in both settings, and some more frequently in schools. Despite being victimized more frequently, those in the correctional facilities tended to view their victimization as a significantly less serious problem than those in the schools and to rate the staff as doing a better job of dealing with the problem. PMID:18463307
Most literature reflecting studies of schizophrenia and substanceabuse broadly defines schizophrenia and few identify the type of schizophrenia of the subjects and the types of substances they use. There are some studies that produce data on two types of schizophrenia, paranoid and undifferentiated types, and others which examine various specific substances in relation to the broad category of schizophrenia.
The prevention of teen dating violence is a major public health priority. However, the dearth of longitudinal studies makes it difficult to develop programs that effectively target salient risk factors. Using a school-based sample of ethnically diverse adolescents, this longitudinal study examined whether substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) and exposure to parental violence predicted the perpetration of physical dating violence over time. 1,042 9th and 10th grade high schools students were recruited and assessed in the spring of 2010, and 93% of the original sample completed the 1-year follow-up in the spring of 2011. Participants who had begun dating at the initial assessment and who self-identified as African American (n = 263; 32%), Caucasian (n = 272; 33%), or Hispanic (n = 293; 35%) were included in the current analyses (n = 828; 55% female). Slightly more than half of the adolescents who perpetrated dating violence at baseline reported past year dating violence at follow-up, relative to only 11% of adolescents who did not report perpetrating dating violence at baseline. Structural equation modeling revealed that the use of alcohol and hard drugs at baseline predicted the future perpetration of physical dating violence, even after accounting for the effects of baseline dating violence and exposure to interparental violence. Despite differences in the prevalence of key variables between males and females, the longitudinal associations did not vary by gender. With respect to race, exposure to mother-to-father violence predicted the perpetration of dating violence among Caucasian adolescents. Findings from the current study indicate that targeting substance use, and potentially youth from violent households, may be viable approaches to preventing the perpetration of teen dating violence.
Shorey, Ryan C.; Fite, Paula; Stuart, Gregory; Le, Vi Donna
The prevention of teen dating violence is a major public health priority. However, the dearth of longitudinal studies makes it difficult to develop programs that effectively target salient risk factors. Using a school-based sample of ethnically diverse adolescents, this longitudinal study examined whether substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) and exposure to parental violence predicted the perpetration of physical dating violence over time. 1,042 9th and 10th grade high schools students were recruited and assessed in the spring of 2010, and 93 % of the original sample completed the 1-year follow-up in the spring of 2011. Participants who had begun dating at the initial assessment and who self-identified as African American (n = 263; 32 %), Caucasian (n = 272; 33 %), or Hispanic (n = 293; 35 %) were included in the current analyses (n = 828; 55 % female). Slightly more than half of the adolescents who perpetrated dating violence at baseline reported past year dating violence at follow-up, relative to only 11 % of adolescents who did not report perpetrating dating violence at baseline. Structural equation modeling revealed that the use of alcohol and hard drugs at baseline predicted the future perpetration of physical dating violence, even after accounting for the effects of baseline dating violence and exposure to interparental violence. Despite differences in the prevalence of key variables between males and females, the longitudinal associations did not vary by gender. With respect to race, exposure to mother-to-father violence predicted the perpetration of dating violence among Caucasian adolescents. Findings from the current study indicate that targeting substance use, and potentially youth from violent households, may be viable approaches to preventing the perpetration of teen dating violence. PMID:23187699
Temple, Jeff R; Shorey, Ryan C; Fite, Paula; Stuart, Gregory L; Le, Vi Donna
In a survey exploring the reliability and validity of a screening tool, we explored the substanceabuse and mental health issues among 371 elders; 74 were sexual minorities. Analyses by age group indicated that elders 55-64 years had significantly more problems with substanceabuse, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and suicidal thoughts compared to those 65 and older. Bisexuals reported significantly greater problems with depression, anxiety, and suicidality than either heterosexual or lesbian or gay elders. Mental health and substanceabuse treatment utilization was low among all elders with problems. Implications for assessment, access to care, and group-specific services delivery are discussed. PMID:22587357
We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substanceabuse or dependence (n=281). Over 60% of the sample reported a history of CSA and/or CPA. Results indicated significant differences in typography of substanceabuse and dependence symptoms and rates of comorbid lifetime PTSD based on assault history, specific assault incident characteristics, and sex. Clinical implications for substanceabusing youth with maltreatment histories are discussed.
Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.
This study uses criminal justice data to compare women and men arrested for domestic violence on their levels of violence, reported victimization, general criminality, and substanceabuse. Participants were 45 women and 45 men convicted of domestic violence between 1996 and 1998. Results indicate that women were less likely than men to have a history of domestic violence offenses and
There is increasing interest from a social learning perspective in understanding the role of parental factors on adult health behaviors and health outcomes. Our review revealed no studies, to date, that have evaluated the effects of parental substanceabuse on reports of chronic pain and coping in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). We explored the effects of parental substance (alcohol or drug) abuse on reports of the sensory, affective and summary indices of pain in 67 adult patients, mean age 38.9 (13.5), with SCD. We also explored the effects of parental substanceabuse on psychopathology associated with pain and active coping. Twenty-four percent of patients reported that their parent(s) abusedsubstances. Patients whose parent(s) were characterized as substanceabusers reported greater sensory (p=0.02), affective (p=0.01) and summary (VAS; p=0.02) indices of pain as compared to their counterparts, whose parent(s) were not characterized as substanceabusers. Patients did not differ in average age, education or the propensity to respond in a socially acceptable manner. There was a significant trend towards patients who characterized their parents as abusers scoring higher than their counterparts on active coping. We propose a Social Learning Theory to explain the current findings and suggest a need for additional prospective research to simultaneously explore biological (genetic) and social factors that influence the interpretation, experience and reporting of chronic pain in adult patients with chronic disease.
A controversy exists regarding the nature of violence committed by women against their intimate partners. When battered women are violent it is not known if the violence should be labeled "mutual combat," "husband abuse," or "self-defense." Following a review of studies comparing the extent of husbands' and wives' victimization and some conceptual issues regarding self-defense, data are presented from 52 battered women on their motives for using violence against their partners. The most frequent reason for violence reported by the women was for self-defense. Only one woman reported initiating an attack with severe violence in more than half of her violent acts. Only eight percent of the women reported that nonsevere violence was used to initiate an attack more than half of the time. The concepts of "self-defense" and "fighting back" were significantly and positively correlated; that is, many women saw them as being the same. The women's self-reports were not contaminated by social desirability response bias. The results are discussed in the context of the need to collect data on relevant explanatory variables in family violence research and the application of a feminist perspective to reduce bias in such research. PMID:3154140
The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to normal intelligence adolescents with behavioral disorders. Risk factors that increase the chances of developing either simple or more complicated types of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation have been found to be based on individual, family and social levels. On the other hand, the individual characteristics of adolescents (intellectual level, attention capacity, understandable linguistic expression, overall progress until adolescence), the existence of a supportive family environment and the presence of social support and awareness through the creation of special counseling, education and medical services, are the most important protective factors which contribute to the prevention of several forms of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation. For the writing of the literature review, the following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The key words used were: Intellectual Disability, Behavioral disorders, Adolescents, Mental Retardation, Learning disabilities, Developmental Disabilities, Disruptive behaviour disorders, Conduct disorder, SubstanceAbuse, Substance Misuse, Oppositional defiant disorder, Alcohol and illicit drug use, Smoking Use, Young people, Teenagers, Youths. PMID:25035183
This study examined the psychosocial characteristics of individuals at risk for perpetrating both intimate partner violence (IPV risk) and child physical abuse (CPA risk). The sample consisted of 775 female and 592 male Navy recruits. The psychosocial var...
C. J. Thomsen J. L. Crouch J. M. Guimond L. L. Merrill
Objective: Determine the relationship between psychological and physical violence, exerted by fathers and/or mothers, and inter- or extra-familiar sexual violence with risk for consuming tobacco, alcohol and drugs among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out with students in two secondary schools in Mexico City. A total of…
Caballero, Miguel Angel; Ramos, Luciana; Gonzalez, Catalina; Saltijeral, Maria Teresa
...employee assistance professional; or (5) An alcohol and drug abuse counselor certified by the National Association of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Counselors Certification Commission or by the International Certification Reciprocity...
Provides one possible meaning for Native American chemical use by exploring the factors that create its context. Explores the implications that follow for the area of substanceabuse prevention. Outlines the appropriate components of a prevention program. (RC)
The Policy Report of the Physician Consortium on SubstanceAbuse Education contains the recommendations of the Physician Consortium for significantly improving medical education and training to enhance the physician's role in early identification, treatme...
Background Progress in substanceabuse prevention science could be accelerated by more closely aligning studies, methodologies, and intervention program testing with the ontogenetic orientations of its underlying theories and etiology research. This article introduces the Ontogenetic Prevention approach, describes some aspects of what this orientation offers for substanceabuse prevention, and provides an overview of this full special issue. Methods Review of the substanceabuse prevention literature illustrates specific aspects of Ontogenetic Prevention. Conclusions The Ontogenetic Prevention perspective and each of the manuscripts in this special issue provide channels whereby substanceabuse prevention can evolve from a science that relies largely on universal intervention to diversification for meeting the needs of individuals under specific developmental circumstances.
In order to assess the prevalence of mental health and substanceabuse among youth in one state's juvenile justice facilities, a survey was conducted of 40 Tennessee facilities. A total of 1215 youth were being held on the \\
Louise Barnes; Deborah Bennett; Charlotte Bryson; Sita Diehl; Trish Hayes; Craig Anne; Liz Ledbetter; Pam McCain; Linda O'Neal; Patti Orten; Nancy Reed; Adriane Sheffield; Debrah Stafford; Pat Wade
The report describes an exemplary peer prevention substanceabuse program called Operation RedBlock now active on certain railroads. The primary objectives of the program are to stop railroad operating personnel from reporting to work under the influence,...
A substantial number of substanceabusers entering outpatient psychosocial counseling treatment are referred from the criminal justice (CJ) system. This secondary analysis of previously published findings from a large (N=415) multi-site trial of a prize-based abstinence incentive intervention (Petry et al., 2005) examined the influence of CJ referral on usual care outcomes and response to the incentive procedure. CJ referrals (n=138) were more likely than those not CJ referred (n=277) to provide stimulant negative urine samples whether missing samples were counted as positive (50 versus 41%, p=.016) or as missing (96 versus 91%, p<.001). A significant interaction term was found only for percentage of treatment completers (p=.027). However, on that retention variable, and three additional drug use measures, significant incentive effects were confined to participants who entered treatment without referral from the criminal justice system. The study suggests that abstinence incentives should be offered as a first priority to stimulant users entering treatment without criminal justice referral. However, incentives can be considered for use with CJ-referred stimulant users based on the observation that best outcomes were obtained in CJ referrals who also received the abstinence incentive program.
DeFulio, Anthony; Stitzer, Maxine; Roll, John; Petry, Nancy; N